# Analisis Kesilapan Newman Newman’s Error Analisys

HM 2011

pengenalan
• 1.1 Difficulties in Problem Solving • • Look at the following mathematical problems: • There are 5 rows of chairs. If every row has 8 chairs, how many chairs are there altogether? • What number should be added to 25 in order to get a sum of 38? • George has 8 less apples than Ali. If George has 23 apples, how many apples does Ali have?

• These problems are normally called word problems in mathematics. Very often, your students fail to solve this type of problems. You may have wondered why? • The procedure for diagnosing difficulties experienced by students when attempting to solve word problems described in this section will hopefully enlighten you on this.

• According to Anne Newman (1983), when solving a mathematical word problem, students will need to go through five hierarchical stages: • • Reading the problem;(Reading) • Comprehend what is read; (Comprehension) • Carry out a mental transformation from the words of the question to the selection of an appropriate mathematical strategy; (Transformation) • Apply the process skills demanded by the selected strategy; (Process Skills) • Encode the answer in an acceptable written form. (Encoding) •

Transformation 2. Process Skills 1. 3. Comprehension CONCRETE Stories in Real Setting ABSTRACT Mathematical Symbols 4. Encoding . Stages of solving a word problem in Mathematics. Reading 5.Figure 1.

• When a word problem is given to students in the form of realistic settings. students must first read the problem. . Students then need to perform the relevant mathematical skills to find the solution in mathematical symbols.• The diagram in Figure 1 summarizes the above stages. comprehend its meaning and then transform the problem into appropriate mathematical form which is abstract in nature. Finally. the solution needs to be encoded into a suitable form that can be correctly interpreted in realistic settings.

• According to Newman (1983). Many studies had been carried out to investigate these errors. Table 1 shows the results of five such studies . students can make errors in any of these five stages when solving a word problem.

1983) (n = 329 (n = 1851 errors) errors) % % Marinas & Clements (Penang. 1991) (n = 220 errors) % Gan (Miri.Error Type Clarkson Kaushil (Papua et al. 1993) (n = 685 errors) % Reading Comprehension Transformation Process Skills Encoding Carelessness 12 21 23 31 1 12 0 24 35 16 6 18 0 45 26 8 0 21 0 60 8 15 0 16 5 41 26 11 3 14 . New (India. 1990) (n = 382 errors) % Singhatat (Thailand. 1985) Guinea.

errors can also occur because of carelessness or lack of motivation.• According to Newman (1983). When motivation is lacking. . students normally do not bother to pay much attention in answering the questions or may just simply write down any answer. The errors based on these two factors can happen at any stage as shown in Figure 2.

Hierarchy in Newman’s Error Analysis Procedure and types of initial errors.Reading Comprehensio n Transformation Careless mistakes Process skills Motivation Encoding Figure 2. .

Briefly. • Teacher analyses the interview results. . • Teacher marks students’ answers. this diagnostic method involves the following steps: • Students take a test on solving word problems. • Teacher draws up and interprets a diagnostic profile for each at-risk student. • Teacher carries out a diagnostic interview with each at-risk student.Newman’s Error Analysis Procedure • Newman developed a diagnostic method using interview as an instrument to identify the categories of initial errors that happen when solving word problems.

. Remember that the purpose of your interview is NOT to teach your students. but to identify their difficulties. • The interview should be carried out as soon as possible after the word-problem test. do not assist the student in any way. • During the interview. for each incorrectly answered item from the word-problem test. • Make sure the interview is conducted with the minimum of distracting noises and interruptions. the category of initial errors made by a particular at-risk student.The interview • The main purpose of the diagnostic interview is to identify. When carrying out the interview. you need to take note of the following points: • The interview is conducted separately with each at-risk student.

• In order to conduct the diagnostic interview. the interview will be stopped once the first error is identified and the error category is determined. • The five categories of interview questions are described in the following paragraphs. • Then. . you should give a new set of the word-problem test to the at-risk student while you keep the old set for reference. • For a particular test question. starting from the first category (Reading) until the last category (Encoding). you need to go through the five categories of interview questions with the student.

. If you don’t know a word or number leave it out.” • Student who makes mistakes at this stage cannot recognize (pronounce) or read the terms. symbols or words in the question.(a) Category 1: Reading • Instructions/Questions forwarded to the student during interview: • “Please read the question to me. The student cannot read the word market in the question. • Examples of errors at the ‘Reading’ category: • A student is asked to read the question: “There are 238 men and 47 women in the market. What is the total number of people in the market?” • (i) • (ii) The student is hesitant in reading the word total.

How many apples does each girl get?” During the interview. phrases or the general meaning of the given question.(b) Category 2: Comprehension • • • • Instructions/Questions forwarded to the student during interview: “What does this word/sign mean?” “Tell me what the question is asking you to do. if the student can not tell a satisfactory general meaning of the question. then the error is also classified as comprehension error. • • • Examples of errors at the ‘Comprehension’ category: A student is asked to comprehend the question: “12 apples are shared between 3 girls. . if the student is able to say the word shared confidently but he guesses its’ meaning as “take away”.” At this stage. On the other hand. the student may face difficulties in understanding the specific terms. then he faces difficulty in comprehending specific terminology.

(c) Category 3: Transformation • Instructions/ Questions forwarded to the student during interview: • • “Tell or show me how you start finding an answer to this question.” • • At this stage. How many marbles does Ahmad have?” • The student is able to describe correctly during interview: “When we add Ali’s and Ahmad’s marbles. Ali has 3 marbles. • Examples of errors at the ‘Transformation’ category: • • A student is told to interpret the question: “Ali and Ahmad have a total of 9 marbles. error occurs when the student is unable to verbalise or show with pencil and paper how the item can be translated into a mathematical form (symbol. we get 9 marbles” but he wrote the wrong mathematical sentence. . operation. that is: “3 + 9 = ”. or sentence) which will allow a correct answer to be worked out later.

usage of wrong operations.(d) Category 4: Process Skills • Instructions/ Questions forwarded to the student during the interview: • • “Show me how you work out the answer for this question.” • • The student cannot implement the calculation steps correctly when implementing the algorithm although he was successful in writing the mathematical sentence related to the question. Tell me what you are doing as you work.e. . by random guess). Examples of students’ responses considered to be wrong at this stage include answering randomly (i. errors in calculation steps or not answering at all.

Examples of errors at the ‘Process skills’ category: 4 7 6 3 + 2 5 - 1 7 6 1 2 5 4 .

In addition. symbols or words although the student has gone through the ‘Process skills’ stage successfully and is able to verbalise the correct answer.(e) Category 5: Encoding • Instructions/ Questions forwarded to the student during interview: • • “Now write down the answer to the question. • • Examples of errors at the ‘Encoding’ Category: • • The student verbalises “one ringgit fifty-five sen”. but write the answer down as “RM 1. the student is unable to write the answer correctly either in numerals.505”. . incorrectly spelt words and reversals of numerals are also considered as encoding errors.” • • At this stage.

it does not mean that the student will definitely not make other errors after the first error is identified. So. It is important for you to note that each error identified by the Newman’s error analysis procedure is the first error made by the student for a particular question. Newman’s diagnostic interview stopped after identifying the first error made.• The student verbalises “5 kilometres” but write the answer down as “5 KM”. . However.

if the student makes no mistake throughout the five stages and is able to answer the question correctly. then the error is caused by lack of motivation. Some students who are under pressure or are not motivated will just write any answer in the test but can actually manage to get the right answer when they are at ease or not pressurized. • • If the results of the diagnostic interview show that the student’s incorrect answer to the question on the first attempt during the earlier wordproblem testing session was brought about by his or her attitude.1. Some students can be careless due to feelings of anxiety while solving the problem. then the incorrect answer given by the student in the earlier test is caused by a careless mistake.2 Carelessness / Motivation factor • • On the second attempt in answering a question during the diagnostic interview.1. The student may be under pressure and are not motivated. • .

. • Seramai 124 orang daripada 917 kanak-kanak ini dikenalpasti terdiri daripada murid dalam golongan pencapaian rendah daripada setiap kelas telah mendapati membuat sejumlah 3002 kesilapan pada ujian yang awal dan sebanyak 70 % daripada mereka telah melakukan kesilapan yang sama pada sesi temubual .• Newman (1977) dalam kajiannya untuk menyiasat kesilapan yang dilakukan oleh kanak-kanak yang berumur 12 tahun dalam satu ujian 40 item memberi satu ujian bertulis kepada 917 kanak-kanak daripada 31 kelas yang berasingan. Kebanyakkannya kesilapan mereka terdiri daripada jenis bacaan dan kefahaman. • Setengah daripada kesilapan berlaku sebelum murid dapat pergi ke tahap proses.

. di mana melibatkan seramai 92 murid pencapaian rendah dan 92 murid pencapaian sederhana didapati bahawa murid pencapaian rendah telah melakukan lebih banyak kesilapan pada peringkat bacaan dan kefahaman berbanding dengan murid pencapaian sederhana.• Pada kajian Clement (1980).

• Kajian yang dijalankan Marina & Clement kepada murid tingkatan satu menurut Ellerton & Clement (1992) juga menunjukkan bahawa 71% kesilapan berlaku pada tahap Kefahaman dan Transformasi. .

• Kesilapan ini mencadangkan sama ada murid-murid tidak memahami soalan-soalan yang melibatkan masalah berperkataan atau walaupun mereka sudah faham tetapi tidak dapat menentukan operasi-operasi yang sesuai untuk menyelesaikan masalah.Sarawak secara keseluruhan mendapati • 72.1% pelajar menghadapi masalah dalam • kesilapan tahap bacaan (5.1%).7%) • transformasi(26. • Yakni 66.8% adalah pada tahap kefahaman dan transformasi.• Gan (1993) dalam kajiannya menggunakan kaedah serupa kepada pelajar tahun 5 di sebuah sekolah di Miri . • Penyelidik ini menyatakan tidak cukup penekanan diberikan untuk membantu murid dalam kefahaman masalah matematik dan penentuan turutan operasi matematik . • kefahaman (40.3%).

04%) Hampir sama spt kajian Gan. • Masalah bacaan yang ketara ( 39. Miri. Ranau.61%) • • • Tidak memahami soalan berayat (40.Haslan Manja dan Teh Ah Huat (2004) • Berdasarkan Analisis Newmans temubual kepada 251 murid 9 buah sekolah di Tuaran. Pinang. . Ranau . Clement. Kesukaran menjawab soalan tahap tinggi • Masa 30 minit tidak mencukupi bagi kebanyakan pelajarlemah( 15 soalan). Kota Marudu. P.

04 81.75 4.29 1.37 1.29 18. Keseluruhan* Peratusan (%) Peratusan (%) Bacaan Kefahaman 490 520 39.94 1.61 42.Jenis Kesilapan Bil.35 .65 Transformasi Operasi Pengekodan Kecuaian 133 54 24 16 10.

Jenis Kesilapan Keseluruhan* Peratusan Peratusan 490 bacaan 39.35 4.29 .75 18.61 81.04 10.94 1.37 1.94 1.29 1.65 520 kefahaman 133 transformasi 54 operasi 24 pengekodan 16 kecuaian 42.

D. • Setiap murid yang dipilih disuruh mencuba kali kedua soalan yang didapati salah semasa menjalani ujian.1980) • Murid diberi ujian yang terdiri daripada lima belas soalan subjektif yang merupakan masalah perkataan. • Guru memilih beberapa murid daripada kumpulan pencapai rendah (30% bawahan). • Guru memeriksa ujian . . PROSEDUR KAJIAN NEWMAN (CLEMENT.

. didapati murid dapat jawapan yang betul dan setelah mendengar jawapan temubual bagi soal guru berasa yakim bahawa kecuaian telah berlaku. guru akan menemubual murid dengan menggunakan Prosedur Analisis Kesilapan Newman. KEFAHAMAN. • Jika dalam percubaan soalan kali kedua . kesilapan mungkin terdiri daripada samada dari jenis PEMBACAAN. Maka kesilapan ini dikatakan sebagai KECUAIAN. TRANSFORMASI. dengan mengemukakan lima soalan. PROSES atau PENGEKODAN. • Jika tidak.PROSEDUR KAJIAN NEWMAN (CLEMENT.1980) • Murid menyelesai penyelesaiannya. • Guru akan mencatatkan jawapan murid bagi soalan yang dikemukakan .

Beritahu saya apakah jawapan bagi soalan itu. JENIS KESILAPAN Pembacaan Beritahu saya apakah yang dikehendaki oleh Kefahaman soalan.BIL SOALAN TEMUBUAL 1 2 Bacakan soalan itu kepada saya. Tunjukkan jawapan anda. Cuba anda tunjukkan kiraan langkah demi Proses langkah dan memberitahu saya apakah yang anda fikirkan. Beritahu saya apakah kaedah atau cara yang Transformasi kamu akan menggunakan untuk mengira jawapan. Pengekodan 3 4 5 .

29 100.75 4.Contoh analisis dengan Excell Kesilap an 1 2 3 4 5 6 Jumlah Q1 Q 2 32 28 11 7 4 0 82 Q3 Q 4 Q 5 Q6 Q 7 Q 8 Q9 Q1 0 33 44 7 1 2 0 87 Q1 1 33 39 12 0 0 1 85 Q1 2 33 42 9 2 0 0 86 Q1 3 33 37 7 3 1 1 82 Q1 4 32 36 6 3 2 1 80 Q15 Total % 30 23 9 1 4 6 73 34 30 9 9 0 0 82 32 34 30 43 12 7 0 1 9 2 1 0 32 33 10 4 3 1 83 34 32 29 32 6 4 2 4 12 5 1 0 34 36 5 4 3 0 82 32 38 9 2 1 1 83 490 520 133 54 24 16 1237 39.61 42.00 Pera tusa n 81.94 1.3 5 1.04 10.29 82 89 79 82 .6 5 18.37 1.

Tahap Kesilapan Soalan Bacaan Kefahaman Transformasi Operasi Pengekodan Kecuaian 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .

Seorang nelayan mempunyai 1200 ekar ikan yang hendak disimpan dalam bakul ikan.• 4. Setiap bakul ikan hanya boleh diisi dengan 40 ekor ikan sahaja. Kirakan jumlah bakul yang perlu disediakan untuk menyimpan ikan tersebut? .

Pada satu hari 1000 pekerja kilang sedang menunggu bas kilang untuk pulang.• 5. Berapa buah bas yang boleh memuatkan bilangan pekerja kilang yang tinggal? . Sebuah bas kilang hanya boleh mengangkut seramai 45 orang penumpang. Kemudian. selepas lama menunggu 500 orang pekerja menggunakan kenderaan lain untuk pulang.

Bilangan buah durian yang telah gugur daripada 3 batang pokok ialah 143 biji. Berapa biji semuanya yang telah gugur? .6 . 25 biji dan 34 biji.

• 7. 249 buah rumah itu ialah rumah jenis teres setingkat. Hitungkan bilangan rumah jenis yang lain itu? • 8. jika setiap bungkus mengandungi 8 biji gula-gula. berapa biji gulagula yang dibelinya? . Maruf membeli 5 bungkus gula-gula untuk adik-adiknya. Jumlah semua rumah di taman B ialah 485 buah. Abd. dan bakinya rumah jenis yang lain.

Kuih-kuih itu hendak diletakkan dalam 9 buah piring dengan sama banyak.• 9. Berapa keping kuih yang boleh diletakkan dalam tiap-tiap piring? . Dalam sebuah dulang ada 27 keping kuih.

Jika dia membayar dengan RM 250. berapakah wang baki yang diterimanya? .• 10.00 setiap satu. Osman membeli 5 tiket bas untuk perjalanan dari Kota Kinabalu ke Tawau dengan harga RM 45.

Dalam sebuah bekas. . Kirakan jumlah guli putih yang ada dalam bekas itu. Kemudian 14 biji guli merah dan 9 biji guli putih dimasukkan ke dalam bekas tersebut.• 11. terdapat 245 biji guli merah dan 636 biji guli putih.

Bagi kotak kedua pula hanya 11 biji buah epal yang telah rosak. Seorang penjaja membeli 2 kotak buah epal daripada pemborong. Bagi kotak yang pertama. Hitungkan jumlah buah epal yang masih elok. penjaja • tersebut mendapati 431 biji epal adalah elok dan yang selebihnya telah rosak. . Setiap kotak masingmasing mengandungi 460 biji buah epal.• 12.

Kirakan jumlah buku yang ada pada mulanya.• 13. Aziz menjual 271 buah buku pada hari pertama dan 162 buah buku pada hari kedua. . Kini tinggal 74 buah buku di kedainya.

.• 14. kumpulan A dan B masing-masing memperoleh 627 dan 592 markah. Dalam suatu pertandingan kuiz. Kira beza markah antara dua kumpulan tersebut.

Hitung bilangan setem yang diperolehi oleh Zarina. Sebanyak 525 keping setem dibahagikan antara Siew Ling. Marlyn dan Zarina. Siew Ling dan Marlyn masing-masing mendapat 168 keping setem.• 15. .

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