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Digitized by tine Internet Arcliive



funding from















F.R.S., F.S.A.







the ado{)tion of the


as a Lecture


the extensive use which

Book RawHnson and

at Oxford,




scholars have


in tlieir researches.

remains to be added, that wliile the Notes and Preface
Professor Wilson, the former Editor, have been re-

made by

must be myself held responsible

for the errors


whatever they


be, of the present edition.

Hailbybury Collrgk,
Febrvary, 1864








Study of Comparative Philology has of late years been

cultivated in



with remarkable ability

and proportionate success.

of Grimm, Pott, Bopp, and other distinguished Scholars, have given a new


character to

department of literature;

and have sub-











based upon the prevailing analogies of articulate sounds and the

grammatical structure of language.

But although the


that a material advance has





study of Comparative Philology


known, and some of the

have been communi-

cated to the English public through a few works on Classical

or in






yet the

extent of the progress which has been effected,

and the steps by which

has been attained, are impercountry.








Gemian language

yet far from

being extensively pur-

and the


which the German Philologers have

developed, and the


which have




being accessible to those only



who can consult the original from many individuals of education

and learning
are objects


of cultivated

of the

of interest




works, in which the


they would




for, is

conveyed, are necessary to bring within their reach

the materials that have

been accumulated

by German


dustry and



of the history of

of a


Influenced by these cojisiueialiuis. Lord

Fkancis Egerton




induced to propose the

work which

occupies a prominent place in the litera-







— the

Vergleichende Grammatik of Professor


of Berlin.



new and remarkable


of affinities

been systematically and
as his standard



the Sanskrit language. Professor



traced the analogies which associate with



other— the Zend, Greek,

Latin, Gothic,

German, and Sclathought









of his arguments, he


be considered

have estabUshed






the languages

of nations


by the


and the distance of half the globe, by differences

of physical formation




— between








of ancient and

natives of India and the fair-skinned races

modem Europe; — a




years ago, and which has



only within a recent period, during which the

Sanskrit language has been carefully studied, and the principles of alphabetical

and syllabic modulation upon which


grammatical changes are founded, have been appHed to
kijidred forms ot speech


by the Philologers of Germany.


the Vergleichende

Grammatik of Professor Bopp


especially dedicated


comprehensive comparison of lanthe principles of the

guages, and


the ground-work

and connecting bond of the
as likely to


was regarded



terest to the Philologers of this country, and to be one of


the most


acceptable of







therefore selected as the

subject of translation.


execution of the

work was, however, opposed bj two conextent of the original, and the copiousness

— the

of the illustrations derived from the languages of the East,

Sanskrit and the Zend.


complete translation de-

manded more time than was compatible with Lord F.

Egerton's other occupations

and as he professed not a





was reluctant


render himself responsible for the correctness with M'hich
the orientalisms





be represented.






supplies all the

knowledge that



drawn from the



speak for

themselves as intelligiblj as those derived from
In order, however, that the publication
this account,

Gothic and Sclavonic

might not be prevented by any embarrassment on
I offered


services in revising this portion of the


and have hence the
to the

of contributing, however

execution of a task which I consider likely to

give a beneficial impulse to the study of Comparative Philology

Great Britain.




from the extent of the original

work, and the consequent labour and time requisite for

was of a more serious




ever, has

been overcome by the ready co-operation of a


who adds a competent knowledge



eminent acquirements as an Oriental Scholar.

mastered several of the

spoken dialects of Western India,

and made himself acquainted with the sacred language of

Parsees duiing

the period

of his service under


Presidency of Bombay, Lieutenant

East wick devoted

of a furlough, rendered, necessary by failing health,


Germany, where he

acquired the additional
the transla-

qualifications enabling

to take a share in


originally published in Parts. ficient The the it is subjects already treated of are quite suf- for establishment of the principles of the com- parison. In his first plan the author comprised the affinities of Sanskrit. the rendering of which was incompatible with leisure of the Noble Lord with whom the design originated. and not proposed to follow him in his subse- quent investigations. . separate has not yet reached its termination. and its Teutonic descendants. the not unfrequently and obscure style of the original. and affinities of the Cardinal and Ordinal Numerals. Wir^ON. He has accord- ingly translated those portions of the ComparatiYe Gramthe mar. The Vergleicheride Grammatik. but remainder and will be published without delay. Numerals. With German.IT of the PREFACE. The is part of the translation the now offered to the public the stops with the chapter on completed. H. acquaintance with great scrupuloiis- although pretending that it a very slender has been it made with fidelity and care. 1845. comprise the doctrine of euphonic of alphabeticiil comparative the inflexions Substantives and Adjectives. The succeeding Parts contain the comparative the formation and origin of the Pronouns and the Verbs: latter subject is yet unfinished. and that has required no ordinary pains render in English. The the first portions of the present Grammar changes. To these. no8S «o respect to the translation. Zend. He has since extended his researches to the analogies of the Celtic and the Malay-Polynesian with his dialects. but has not yet incorporated the results general Grammar. with difficult and perspicuity. Latin. 11. \^ergleichen(le all tion Grammatlk. Gothic. Oetoler. after the conclusion of the First Part. Greek. a who has borne a share in its execution. he added the Sclavonic. I to may venture to affirm. and who has taken warm and liberal interest in its completion.

". perfect ". 18. spontaneously present themselves to observation in consequence of the extension of our horizon of language.)- . sisters and of the confronting of of the same lingual stock separated for ages. yo. and. " cZas«»c ". tu)igues a In the treatment.* of which it has been demonstrated. may perhaps find less to offend them in tliis work than the avowal of such a general plan might lead them to expect. point alone I shall leave of the roots." with the insertion of a euphonic a ($).THE AUTHOR'S PREFACE. namely the Sanskrit." It is "adorned. but bearing indubitable features of their fUmily connection. signification. In the majority of cases the primary it. yet in such a manner that those who are predeter- mined not to recognise. in its * Samkrita signifies guage. and untouched. compounded of " with. for example. and an inquiry into their physical and mechanical laws. indeed. tical with the primary source of the gramma- forms. that which they maintain to be inexplicable. the secret the origin of the forms which distinguish their grammatical relations. that. I CONTEMPLATE in this work tlje a description of the comparatitle tive organization of the languages enumerated in the features page. in respect to lanis thus adapted to denote the entire family or the elements sam. kritag. "stand" and not "go. why the signifies " go and not " stand why the combina- tion of sounds I stha or sfa signifies this. and race. of our European could not fail new epoch to open upon us in the discovery of another region in the world of language. or the foundation of the nomenclature of the primary root i I shall " not investigate. kritani)^ "made. completed. krita." and krita (nom. as explained. comprehending all of their relationship. One ideas. apart from its to were the language in stages of being and march of develop- ment." follow out as it shall attempt.

VI PREFACE. the Latin. that to we are compelled to consider every language subjected it. even from a dis- tance in part. to us Who could have dreamed a century ago that a language would be brought accompany. The family bond. from new stations of observation. which embraces the Lido-Europcan race of languages. and Sclavonic. stands in the most intimate relation . but. for the first time. sometimes surpass. nay. . to the Greek. Semitic languages are of a more compact they had putting out of sight lexicographical and syntactical features. from the period of their earliest youth. so deeply implicated in the most secret passages of the organization of the language. a firm foundation for the com- prehension of the grammatical connection between the two langiiages called the Classical. so palpable as to be obvious who casts a glance at them. which distinguishes race from others. was already of itself sufficient to designate the parentage of every individual of the family. and to employ the highest powers of grammars. so concealed. strife and be adapted throughout to adjust the perennial between the Greek dialects. the Lithuanian. grammatical science and method in order to recognise and illustrate the original unity of the different The and. The members of tliis race inherited. the Germanic. at starting. it grammatical constitution. in all from the far East. the Greek those perfections which have been of hitlierto considered exclusive property the latter. little to pai-t with. however. in part. which should of form pan the passu. nature. is not indeed less universal. of a quality infinitely more refined. and of necessity have handed down to succeeding ages what they were endowed with (§. The triconthis sonantal fabric of their roots 107. so that it has afforded.). of by enabling us ancient to determine where each oldest forms ? them has preserved the purest and the The to relations of the Indian languages to their European kindred every one : are. on the other hand. a comparison with as also the language itself. extremely meagre in contrivance . as well as of the relation of to these two the German. &c. in most of its bearings.

to bear the loss of much. the methods. and yet by multipUed versions losses.). Griram's masterly German I new Record of Philology and PsedaGrammar was unfortunatelyGerman dialects. associated with is nothmg but itself. copious indeed. with the exception of mere comparative words. and that language is so in its Grammar and so clear in its affinities. endowments of exceeding (§. at least that the relation of the Greek Latin. in contains much which sounds heterogeneous to the Greek. tongue. down to the period of the appear- ance of the Asiatic intermediary. M. it a mixed language. the this treatise a. also. the members are of the to common to the family It is become a fact. Pacht. grossly misunder- and that the is Roman family. almost entirely unobserved. and I could then only of Hickes and Fukla for the old . they were able to retain their local life .PREFACE. stood . unknown make use to me when wrote the English revision. to demonstrate in my as I have endeavoured partly " System of Conjugation. or with what is of its own even now usually regarded as fact. although the acquaintance of philologists with the Gothic dates now from a century and a half. but destitute of principle and critical judgment. is to be found in the second and third number of the second annual issue of Seebode's gogical science. 1816." in the "Annals of Oriental Literature. that had earlier submitted to a rigorous perfect it been and systematic process of compervading relation parison and anatomical investigation. remamed. down our time." London • Frankfort ( 18-20. with the capability 108. suppressions of sounds. alterations. tfi richness. has been. of a system of unlimited comand position and agglutination. which.) by Dr. in a grammatical point of \'iow. though never quite to overlooked. Possessing much. con- and displacements."* The of close relationship between the Classical and Germanic lists languages has. and. because. A translation of my English revision of " Analytical Comparison of the Sanskrit. although the elements from which these forms arose are not foreign to the Greek and other sister languages. the most obvious and palpable. Latin and Teutonic Languages. Greek. scarcely recognisable each other.

to the Greek and Roman.). present the most found rules for the general exposition ol'the race. tracked through necessarily all its have long since been variations. and by this time been understood and recogiiised by every philologer. ^. some words which tlie are worthy of consideration vt) : ** Aa ail too exalted position of the Latin and Greek serves not for questions in (ierinnn (Jrumniar. 1. a fact. however. according to A. We may here borrow." com- pleted in 1814 and published in 1818. as known . The dialect which history demonstrates the oldest and least corrupted must. of the entire Germanic stock. Under that deficiency. Grammar.* For what is more important. we but his deficiency in this respect shews see throughout that he more with was in a condition to use it intelligence. and thus lead us on to the reformation. of the more recoijt modes of speech. than their comparison with our mother tongue in her oldest and most perfect form ? Since the Sanskrit has appeared above our horizon. however. cannot be alleged as a reproach against him that he did not profit by the Asiatic intermediary not then extenitself the sively sensibly. f We need supply a comprehensive view of the close Classical Languages. Schlegel's excellent rein these casee. or can be more earnestly desired by the cultivator of the classical languages. the far more Grammar may. We have to thank him for the suggestion of the law of displacement of consonants. so some words are of simpler and however. more acutely and see Grimm (§. in the end. the requisite corrections. of itself.12. from Grimm's preface to the second edition of his admirable (I.Till PREFACE. and. 133). perfect Indian W. he almost everywhere halts halfway towards the truth. with it. + We refer the reader to the very weighty judgment of W. that element can no longer be excluded from a really profound investigation of any province of language related to it. 8upj)ly to be i)ro- mark. von.. from which Vater gives an extract in his Comparative Tables. where deei»er sound. in his relationship between the Germanic and the meritorious prize treatise "On It the Thracian Tribe of Languages. 87. without the entire subversion of the rules hitherto discovered. considered and fundamentally developed by Vater. also. would unveiled." . Hum- boldt on the indispensable necessity of the Sanskrit for the history and philosophy of language (Indische Bibl. which sometimes escapes the notice of the most approved and circumspect labourers * Rask has been the first to in this department.

theory more tlie would appear be no longer intelli<^ible to disciples of Zoroaster. another to teach one. to describe confine its mechanism and The learner may himself within the naiTowest limits. himself on this head.) of the Zend Vocabulary. which in many to respects reaches beyond.e. 476. organization. edited entii-ely failed in by Anquetil. to demonstrate that the PeHvi ti-ans- lator ( seq. its an improvement on. I believe. the Sanskrit. one thing. has frequently and the grammatical sense of the conveying translates. and organic mutual and he must summon around liim the repi'esentatives of the entire race. order. Zend words which he . and makes attainable. To attempt this appears to me the main requirement of the present period. II.. for this re- markable language. PREFACE. The work abounds with relation of Anquetil's sions is singular mistakes and the distorted French translation to the Zend expresiji usually to be ascribed to the mistakes the Pehlvi the oblique : interpretations of the cases.- many languages is identity recogis nised and explained. we fiud forms . Almost as all by degi-ees. a language. ai-e come take rank nominatives the numbers. The Zend Grammar could only be recovered by unknown and is the process of a severe regidar etymology. IX not fear that that practical and profound research in idrAque lingua. which suffer for is of most im^wrtance to the pliilologer can too real light to prejudice the variety by extension over vanishes when the false also. the much to the little . Zend to original. must pass beyond the confined hmits of one or mfuse two members of a family. and forbear to look beyond the language to be studied : the teacher's glance. in order to life. says expressly (V. and the It is of discrepancy learn excluded. sometimes mistaken. calculated to bring back the to the known. dependency into the mass of the languages spread before him. Fui-ther. its Haoren. pp. too. Rask. i. I 33) that forgotten lore has yet to be rediscovered. who had the opportunity to d- satisfy p. and past centuries have been accumidating materials for the task. on the contraiy. am also able.

" ^vjj. " w." berStebio ^^^j^aj/aJj baratihyo." P. 435): ^c&auCa) ahmdhem. " gistri. " eaque. dadrouneschm. "Zie rnonde . "toi. "»/ frappe . "iZ porte." P. or translated Anquetil makes." ^v>4>AjC3." ^vyyvj. A. dou. " adoratio" A. gdh. in Pehlvi." anhem. setaran. ''dormer abondamment . '^excellent. "Jeminaiiim." P. ''tui. ^CfeV^uU est. guebna hamat A. as far as to the I by abstract nouns. zakedj." A." rK>j<iiM^ Jf^^oi^ " te smote. A. '•'•feminam" P. roman. Burnouf. "the smitten" (cf.PREFACE. of cases produced by the Pelilvi translator as verbal persons." A. ''ferenti- bus?" (unquestionably a plural dative and ablative)." A. " Ai. 502.*. " deux hommes ^ v>} ndirikanahm. "to the given. §. " the smiting." P. A. hatas from Aan). rnaitouned.). "lui. A.akhe. A.varmouschan. '^bon" ahubya. "troisieme. "the carrying" {esckne. zarhounad. " the carrj^ing. annexing the original characters. "I was. " un homme . no * I give the Zend expressions according system of representation explained in ^. which are exhibited in type for the first time in this book. Sansk. "he smites. forms abstract substantives)." jAuCAjlp vah- mdi." or anheus. feraz dcheschne {noinen actionis). dadrouneschne." P. "prcechiro" P. A. "je benis et . "eux.S. A." asas^^^juj^ gdtumcha. guehan (cf. maitouneschiie." P." A>/ovsi( zahthra. '' ''femina" V." A." Myxs3 man. djanounad. ''deux." "he is. ''femeUe '' . ^^fert" P.OA»»At ''•ii" avaesJianm." i^^ tS." P. sevin. and which were lately cut at the order of the Royal Society of Literature by R.vakad. A.* know. "fcs itoiles." A." AJ^^cCxilp vahmemcha.oaj "«." (neut. ^jL." aj7a5> nara.30.231). neaeschj kojunn. " lieu .. also "I am." j^jaj/ajj baraiti. A." P. according to the exemplar of the lithographed M. '' frapper . "il Mi>c^^ "mundi" F." 'HI execute" ^^pm'terf avj^j bis. "jV "moij" m^jq^m A. tou." or " ebpecially given. "two. nSaeschnS. gnit" A." aj^jw^ tdcha. "twice. words exactly according ")7/iwi'.t3AJ« gaUhanaiim^ ''viundorum" P. A. iAjg j/jAuy " two men. P. avaeh. P. ''per genitorem" P." . femeUe " 9"^^50>W itdrahm." P. §. '•'•bonis" (with dual termination. aeti." "P." vahad. '^lemonde. " of the que" P. "tu. nai' Hk hamat rumque" sS. advak." I give the Pehlvi to Anquetil (II. of M. steUaruin. " je fais rieaeich . rouman (cf." k5^. "nos'"). "porter." jax)^axs4A)Oo fra-ddtdi. " trois (ou plusieurs) fcmmes . 'HI engendre" ^7^jj ^^/i^ojj strim. A. p. varman." ^^Xi^Jato." 215). P. ''horum" P."ce." A. A. "prcEcla- P. Gotzig." A. and next these also confounded with each other. A. P. P. A. "locumnars.ii7(3 thiyannij " trium" P. guebna hamat dott. " adorationem Jaclo" A.

as Burnouf rightly remarks. a5^jax3/o«|>a5>ji\?(S^ csnaothrdi-cha. let tlic mation des terns des Verbes y it. It is. " I call upon. its two passages from the work the V. or his Pehlvi predecessor." and V. attempted by him. which I advert. moreover. ddmois drujo) Izet.. their contents are of such a nature that the inflexionless Pehlvi language could follow the Zend original almost verbatim. with the Sanskrit translation of Jzeschne made from the Pehlvi more than three centuries before that of Acquetil. AJc»JA5AJi^AJ^«»AJj3AJuA J'raia'stoyae-cha (see§. Anquetil. La forPersan." however. " in the Pehlvi and Modern Persian. only an epithet of dfntois. no more than Anquetil.'). 321). since this expression is evidently. and content mySfcll' . est astreinte a peu de la regies (/). E. that Neriosengh." as the first person singular of the present. est a peu pres memc que dans le plus trainante cependant. the number of which could with ease greatly increase.J.): " La construction dans la langue Zende. that the Pehlvi Translator of the said Vocabulary has. upamdna. however. the grammatical to power of the members of a sentence would be their position than be gathered rather from from their terminations. S. "similarity. poor in inflexions. very surprising. Asiat. III. without doubt. 164. strict. be very soon answered by M. en cela aiLX autrcs idiomes de T Orient. who has already supplied.." but nothino: else valma vahmen and vahmdi are than the accusative and dative of the base vahma. parce gu'elle est accompagnee de toutes voyelles {. T. 4*23. p." I do not insist on translating the adjective A5CA}(p by " prceclan/s. Burnouf. and of evil genitive omen. and admirably illustrated (Nouv. and that I am certain of this. viz. takes the feminine dahmayds as a plural genitive. The etfais nSaesch. Journ. gives two other evident datives compounded with the particle ajpa cha. by '^placere cupio" '•'•votafacio. strong like Dami p. any grammatical acquaintance with the Zend it language. Xi to remark on the age of the Vocabulary he ascribes to another. and that both regarded rather in the light of an idiom. signifies. that ^auCa)9 vahmdi could be the sible tor a first person of a verb is not to be thought pos- moment.PREFACE. too short to permit of our grounding on them over- bold influences as to the whole . 415. in the interlinear version of the beginning of the V. however. How stands then. and the excellent man. S. nify the excellent pure spell. And Anquetil expressly says (II. so that. semblable. I One *ees then. from the example here adduced. This question will. I abstain from speaking of the dubious expression ddmois ujjamanahe. The one passage (? cf. the pure and the Sansk. while is in which the Pehlvi interpreted tlirough the Persian. in a very interesting extract from Commentary on These pas- sages are. an antiquity of four centuries. I magS.

The necessity. Burnouf in self 81 this newly with having pointed out the poBsibility of another viewoftho C(W- ruction. unwilling to receive as a mere dialect of the Sanskrit.r<iifie8. and which is based on Nyvioscngh. a language we are. . sclf-crvatcd lightb! . Hagen's translation. and to which we are compelled to ascribe an independent existence. Zend Language high honour able " On the age and authenticity of the and the Zend-Avesta. just in the places where the Zend forms are of most interest. which tribes. too. tbi' ijuii. its remained much longer current among the Parsee was therefore an admirable problem which had for solution the bringing to light.-^ by Burnouf. tliis liis —a problem of which the beyond solution indeed has not hitherto been fully obtained. and. lUc eternal. for the Zend .nify the stars. as an cai'lier work (March 1831) on the able labours of E. but The first contribution to the knowledge of language which can be relied on treatise —that of Rask— namely. of interpretation for the felt Zend It must have been much sooner than for the Pehlvi. or the Old Northern with the Gothic. resembling that of the Latin as comj)arcd with the Greek. and obscured by the rubbish of ages doubt will be. in India. the reader to For the rest. different from that whiirh has been very profoundly diaciisn*^ Tho second pftswi. under the very eve of the Sanskrit. indeed.» XII PREFACE. perhaps in too high a degree. deserves as a first attempt. Of three words of different declensions he gives us the singular inflections. and where are some which display that independence of the Sanskrit which Rask claims. d. The Zend has to thank this man (whose premature death natural appearance which of the value of its we it deeply deplore) for the more has dei'ived from his rectification written characters. however." published in 1826. I refer my the also review of Rask's and Bohlen's treatises on the Criticism for Zend in Annual of to Scientific December 1831. a sister languaore. no longer understood. " 1 call upon and maf. and made generally accessible by V. the moon. sij. and those. in question one cannot therefore be ascribed to any very late period. so to say. though with some sensible deficiencies.

to complete. or in places where. e. one character alone given. the leading incidents of dialects of many richly-endowed languages or grand an extinct original stock. Special care has been bestowed tliroughout on the German. Xlll My observations. ojxjned field. and by the view I strict observance of a method w hich brings under one all points mutually dependent and myself. in these pubhcations. discovery of new affinities. and to adjust the particulars in such a manner that the reader may be conducted on a coui'se parallel with that of the known languages. the . and to harass anyone — I have appended to the original characters the pronun- ciation. embraces are treated for own I sakes. sable to one at applying to This care was indispen- who. laid down on is a consistent method. and in a reasonable space. contribute nothing the character of the whole and I have gained thereby more space for the discussion of matters more important. following Grimm's admirable work. all already extend themselves. or the more precise definition of those discovered. As their in this work the languages i. at every step of granmiatic.d progress. parts for and nothing therefore has remained me here. with greater truth. has been in my power to to omit many particulars which . it is the Roman. but further to establish.PREFACE. as I flatter assembling under one group. derived from the original texts Paris. By this process. over of the Zend . and to catch. In order to obviate the difficulty and the labour which attend the introduction of the learner to the Zend and Sanskrit — difficulty sufficient to deter many. as objects at giving and not means of knowledge. and more intimately incorporated with the vital spuit of tlie languaore. aimed it the correction and adjustment that had becouK'! tlie necessai-y in his theory of relations. with the greatest facility towards an acquaintance with the newly-disco- vered sister tongue. edited by Bumouf in Grammar and by Olshausen in Hamburgh. have. This method also perhaps the best for the gradual introduc- tion of the reader to the knowledge of the it original characters. a ph^-siology of them than an it and as aim rather inti'oduction to their practical use. succeeded in mutually explanatory. for is reasons of space.

honi (see 251. the Indian system of vowels. Generally speaking. 148. forms. Greek. and whicli explain by ujcchanical Liws. is productive of positive error." comes "^argentum. 69. of each lecture on the cases. and to disconnect the Latin /$• ts (Jupihus) from the Greek in of Kvkoi^ (KvKot-cri). §.* In certain instances it is extraordi- * The simple maxim laid dovm elsewhere by me. shortened nothing but a. &c. and thereby when 6. dation of the of extraordinary importance for the eluciit German grammar: on principally rests my own my theory of I vowel change. thus. with some modifications of earlier defini- tions . affi- monitory voices of the Asiatic as well as the European It was necessary.) of the theme. it is that of deducing all from the Gothic as the guiding star of the German. for this deriva- absolutely the fiom riijata. " argentcua. and comof lupis pare Grimm L 827. for grammar and construction of words. and example. as usually happens. giba. As of concerns the method followed treating the subject Germanic grammar. p. as without inflection The division gib. 11). "day " (theme DAG A). without change of vowel. such as g6dai. and explaining the latter simultaneously with the older languages and the Lithuanian. sisterhoorl. days tion is {DOG A).XJV PREFACE. and deducible only is from the Sanskrit. in is At the close given of the results . we give." on which more hereafter. useless.. for example. same as is and with few exceptions. so that a portion of the base to is drawn into the inflection. when in Sanskrit rdjata. nominatives x^P'^* 137. as the latter lengthened can only become its ex- explains. which dittirs materially from that of Grimm. the cf. and Latin p. "daily ". also. which every thing naturally depends on the most be put forward capriciously. a tabular view obtained. terra. §. Where 164. . ayadot. by which the division becomes not merely as but injurious. may be de- rived. pure from consonantal and other altering influences. whereas only the abbreviation of the o (from tho old d. Note f. which ought not. that the Gothic 6 tends influence over the whole the long of a.a would lead us to adopt the erroneous notion that it is a is tho termination. §. there no : real termination none should be appended for appearance sake for example. to set aside many i i false appearances of nity its as. accurate distinction of the terminations from the base. to deprive the in the Lithuanian geri of supposed connection with the of Gothic. how from dags.

The second thus begin with comthen parative view of the Germanic declensions. grammatically explained at the close of each chapter. and the main compass of the second division will remain for the verb. A comparison with the Greek and Latin vocalism. narilj difficult in languages not hit XV to now thoroughly understood on the right from true. while with Grimm it has a d^'namic signification. model of my Sanskrit Grammar. although not without pervading rules. the formation and comparison of words it To is my intention to devote a separate work. divisions. explanatory remarks part will necessary. what will remaui to be said on their behalf will claim the less space. is sufficient. with a reference also to the treatise on facilitate sounds intended to prepare and after the my whole Grammar. for the most part. in merely responding to a solitary Indian a {spptinnu for septamaa^ qualuor for c/uUvdr-us TfVffa^-ej. when it it contributes something of in its tliree The juxta-position of main periods with the Gothic. which whole w^ealth of vowels. in they the addition. . from these to the pronoims. partly offshoots of pronominal roots. will find their place. inasmuch as they are inti- mately connected and mutually illustrative. and at latter spends its more consistent than the Greek and Latin. and original prepositions. As the peculiarities of inflection of the latter must have. The High German. which of its may be considered as a completion antecedent In this latter the particles. already been discussed in the doctrine of the xuiiversal formation of the cases. I consider. being. especially in oldest period (from the eighth to the eleventh century). but always remove them from its his path. are given. I and to distinguish apparent terminato conceal these difficul- tions ties have never attempted to from the reader. and partly naked roots of tions. in order to describe their formations of gender and degrees of comparison .PREFACE. momordi f r mamarda). and 1 shall proceed to the adjectives. for the is German more confusing than enlig'htits ening. in my opinion. are Wherever. as the Gothic least generally more original in vocal system. without a steady reference to the Sanskrit. is. conjunctions. I have only mentioned in the general description of forms importance.

). distinguished by acute observations. von Humboldt. used in Sanskrit only as a preposition {ava. "On the Prepositions in certain Languages. as will Editor. BOPP. also. small.— XVi this class of FBEFACE. to signify "out of" . If we take the adverbs of place in their relation to the prepositions find in close connection — and a near relation does exist— we shall the Affinity of the Adverbs of Place to with the subject a remarkable treatise of the minister W. nothing but a retroactive influence the u and the in to be ascribed forms ViVc pliiitet?m {mo). in Zend shape ha-cha (^." Compare. plintyu. in Sanscrit is Next we its sa-cha." t The arrangement thus announced. What we may expect from a work founded on a comprehensive and earnestly looked examination of the foreign. '^isque." AJftJAJfeV which only a pronoun. which were established without these and have since a satisfaction been demonstrated by evidence of facts. as intended. is said of the rise of the m or o out of the and so far to be corrected according to is my later conviction.") find Zend a perfect and declinable pronoun (§. . Gramm. 53. therefore. §. Among them it was tome in the to find a word. be treated in It Is this point of view among in the pronominal adjectives." and tho review of the same. "from. Ferd. Old High German Prepositions. that to the liquids. often used as a preposition itself. G8. 1833.). F. tlie particle mm cha. Berlim. words. the Old for by all friends of German and High German Treasury of Graff'.f likely that a chasm our literature. Benary. by A. " Remark. may be " The gathered from a survey of the amount contributed to knowledge in a specimen of the work. Gottl. C. but happily selected. and their connection with various Prepositions and Conjunctions. de Praepositionibus GrsBcis. in the general signification. treasures of libraries national and on a correction of printed materials.' rules The Zend has many grammatical discoveries.* and wliicli will. *'and.172." loses like the cognate que in absque. Schmidt's excellent tract " Quaest. as well as MS. press. older a is — What in o. in the Berlin Annual (May 1830)." * I refer the reader preliminarily to my two last treatises (Berlin." and " On the Influence of Pro- nouns on the Formation of Words. are to be exempted from the influence of the antecedent consonants. may be shortly up by a work ready for the general philology. has undergone. considerable modification. Diimmler) " On Certain Demonstrative Bases. very prejudicial filled to inquiries of this kind. be seen.

itself generally as a shortening of the syllable ar by supr pression of the rence. those roots to which grammarians assign a terminating substitute for this after labials. 2.] writing belongs more : to the it is grammarians . and shall not further advert to 2. as well as in proZ an union of an with ^ r (t^). original and . and in the conjugation and formation of words. a short vowel at the end of the inflective base must be lengthened. CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. languages. a vowel pecu- the Sanskrit. short and long I secondly. B . and the diphthongs t ^ e and ^ a. u. o. when lengthened. which r. or. Sanskrit writinor distinguishes the long from their cordistinguish the long responding short vowels by particular characters. be distinguished from the union of an r with a long Both vowels appear to me to be of later origin .3 than to the language nunciation. "gjH ur. Ed. r. The to all simple vowels are. by a circumflex. liar to i. according to the laws of the formation of cases.COMPARATIVE GRAMMAR. common r. r almost always ir. We vowels. which spring from and u united with an antecedent first. p. ^ ar. a. for this vowel. a. In the one. The last simple vowel of the Sanskrit [G. unoriginal vowel ^^ ^ ^ ir. slightly differing from these latter in form. The long it (^) is of much In declension stands only for a lengthening of the where. We require no representative it. and r presents rarer occurr. or. and in European is the long r ("^ scarcely to i. in character. Sanskiit possesses two kinds of diphthongs. the three. with "^ r (^). like the con- sonant r with a scarcely-distinguishable texts is usually written ri. distinguish is by and it» long sound by The short r (^) pronounced i.

the element of a diphthong merges into its corresponding semi-vowel. in which jaw di always stands di. w of a following word. point I have since found confirmed in by the Zend su}<port. . with the 6. in order to avoid a hiatus. vowel of the following word. nor ^^^ dadds. but not into $ di and ^ S and ^t du. ai. like the 6. in its my view. be contracted. that the short a contained in merges with the antecedent i a into a long a. but ^5^ dadus. of the Sanskrit ^ and gui do or >juli du for ^ or In of my theory. . less surprise us. comes ^ di and ^ du . That is in F ^ and last ^ o a short. and with w. that where. the place du. au. The opinion I have already expressed on with 7F^ uis [G. gi short into with an ^ i.2 CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. ^ dadd makes neither ^^H(^ daddus. however. In the second kind. i a short a united with a following to the French ai\ and becomes v. "^ u. out of ^ ^ and ^ d pro- ceed the sounds of ^S(X( ay and ^f^ av (with short proceed dy and dvIf. but are both audible. di.] this . a concluding ^t ^ or a. and du for ^. in j» di and ^ du. syllable. for example. p. I infer from this. as the had shortened This should the long a before a dissimilar vowel of an appended inflexion or a suffix entirely disappears. is to For example. but both melt into a third sound. that a conbe- cluding a (short or long) with a following ^ ^ ^"^ 6. of ^ which and 6 it is to be understood. we write di for ^. and. appears the fact. but out ^ t. is to be understood as initial if the long a. and with the u of •I^WW mamditat. also. to the observation on the greater weight of the a in this diphthong. a long a bound up. be understood mama Hat. before combination with the itself. a long d with a following i ^ In becomes ^ waise. 3. from n»r vnn^ becomes becomes du. of the diphthong ^. Ed. di and '^ du according to the rules of combination. a). as in the German words fix baum so that the two elements form indeed one oi-der. d. ^ this. ^ (equivalent with u becomes ^ 6 (equivalent to is the French au)\ so that neither of the united elements heard. which then.

according to certain [G." "I give. "ich gebe. in the terminations of nouns fii'st of the second declension and of the in person plural. i. having locg abaudoued a contrary opinion. further united last element 3. to replace the Sanskrit ^ a 4. juthre-tyi "filium" with trjt p/im-7n ^•s^^^ o. e. or has changed rules.* It is important here to observe. to our German short e- For example. before a concluding g e. In the Latin. b2 . the Gothic. m we always find pvthra-he with compare the accusative ^^<3>a) ." In the Zend the Sanskrit ^ a remains usually aj a. e^ and o. Ed. and that either or u corresponds. that in the oldest Germanic dialect. into ^ e. and 6." giba. p. a. 917.] Thus. /aZfAa. if they existed when the Sanskrit was a livins: languasfe. except in the vocatives.*" "I fold . In Greek the Sanskrit ^a becomes d. besides bases the a.i. 4. and its genitive H5»»Aj7(j>a) putra-sya. 51)4 with whom I entirely concur in this matter. or without presenting any certain rules for the choice on each occasion between these three vowels. p. a. as also some adverbial suffixes. as if g the diphthong A. but the prevailing practice is. in that dialect. so the long WT d is oftener re- * Giioim.] Among o) the simple vowels the old Indian alphabet is deficient in the designation of the (e Greek epsilon and omici*on and whose sounds. yet coald only have evolved themselves. p.als of Oriental Literature. out of the short a. u also is employed. namely. (0 into ^ [Compare $ 688. if the sounds had been forth- coming. i. where an e is substituted. for example. "ich falte. itself. the sounds and charac- ters of the short e and o are also wanting. e.CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. As in the Greek the short Sanskrit a is oftener replaced e by or o than by a short . that in the terminations of nominal Greek o answers to the Indian ^ a. e united its first element a with the its preceding a into and with this. which I maintained in 1819 in the Ani. subsequently to the fixing of its written character. for an alphabet which lends itself to the subtlest gradations of sound would assuredly not have neglected the difference between a. Vol. F 6.

^fjT Smi. and the Indian "nf^ gavi (^locative) from e." Tri-nTotg'. " I go. bovis.* that a. "thou mayest oiBa this . ^^J devd."" ^ or o. Editor. mas. e and o are the substitutes)." ^iSwfit irrJT the dual nation to is tdm answers to rrjv. Bai- f^p) .4 presented by . >. to is calculated to cause embarrassment expreds "% by ri. the Greek substitutes ot (because ^ a." to be found." Latin. answer to these diphthongs e<aTepof . ^T^T dm a 1^ of the genitive plural if always represented by Never. formed by or an ei ^ u or following for the first. levir {nom. In Latin we sometimes find the which. ev or ov. Thus. e From and 6 it dropping of the 5. FoFjTT^ ikataras. for ^ov-6s. ]. r} we except pecu- liarities of dialect. — : . the last. " I know. Latin 5. as is proved by the transition long into the gd-i."" ^ov-q. bovi. t^^ deva-s. as in the aboveUvir." becomes ^^ "brother-in-law. have discovered. becomes ^a:^p (from daf-qp. " one of two. in The usual to write ri for ^ . may happen divri. fem.] or m in the Indian diphthongs [G. however. CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. " I give. " . 6. e. thus. as observed in p. " a bullock or i heifer. accus. I we inquire after the greater or less relative weight of the • vowels of different quality." jft go.. . by is European texts it and the absence of any sign for the vowel sound it seems advisable. ^Tfi? dadhdmi. becomes xrw^ pates. does either or stand for the Indian i diphthongs a long d for : F e or ^ ^. fall. therefore. l3ov-i. TtdrjfMt ^ifiT daddmi. and for elfxi . Ed. cf. original has devr^ but. p. and only in the imperative Twv : on the other hand. no similar trace of the long d I place. /Sot stands f. ^^^ devar-am). or to than by a long alpha : and though in the Doric the long a has maintained itself in places where the becomes termi- ordinary dialect employs an for o) is . may be shortened by the influence of the following conso- nant. the u of which must have passed into and certainly did so at first." ©edj .. " God. and also for a. veda. and in the subjunctive amSmus . and the o in ^o6g. the wi/. arising mentioned word from the mixture of a and i. If from hdmaya-ima. ihmliH kdmayima.

form we ought i. owe their origin to the er weight of the it With the displacement of the accent. Hence we have tubicen. imberbis.CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. in contrast to tubicinis. and are both occasioned by the composition. instead of [G. p. imbirbis : insepidxis. modi- vowel in German (Grimm. tetigi for fetagi. imberbus but inermis. this change of the vowel has nothing to do but the removal of the accent and the weakening of the vowel are nearly related. and must place it in the same class with the e in such forms as abjectus and tubken. imbarbis. Tiot inirmis. abjicio for ahjacio. that the e words like inermis. to important discoveries with respect to the Ger- manic modification of vowels. the i may be considered as lighter than a. imberbis. for o. In Latin. springs from a retrospective power of i. also. As us is the masculine . abjectus. The Latin radical a. 6. as. but the vowel is pressed upon by a following consonant un- attended by a vowel. a double alteration. graver than the corresponding quantity of the vowel this discovery is of the and utmost importance for every Treatise It on special as well as comparative Grammar. and other such forms. for ex- . various but sure appearances. inimicus. abjicio. where occurs. Ed. is subject to when the root is burthened with ante: cedent syllables or words e if it becomes i in open syllables. which in I shall 5 further illustrate my treatise on Forms. in particular.] inarmis. and ineJinis. In connection with this stands the transition of the or f econd declension into the third. and generally takes the place of the latter when a root with an origrinal a would otherwise be burthened with a reduplication of sound. first on the contrary. . for instance. I am compelled by this i view to retract an earlier conjecture. produced by a virtue of assimilation in the termination I from my former theory. leads us. not inemicus. insipidus. that the have in also to relieve myself in tetigi was {. les imberbis. In the Lithuanian we find similar appearances . for example. to say intrmus. 80). Hence. assimilation in the following fication of the after the fashion of the p. that in Sanskrit ^ a and ^ d are t .

the threefold change of vowels has its A and under place in the accusative. in It is weight. we cast a glance at another race of languages. "lord. &c. as having place in the nominative.) the matter of the relative dignity of the vowels. is ample." at the end of compoumis. tutudi. on the contrary. also. . by having place in the genitive.] * syllable. Nor will it retire from a reduplicated syllable in cases i. 2>owas. also. as rotponis. the u has. exists which time and thus in the High German. and one which cannot be separated from the governing word. 1805.'''' Note *).) : In the Gothic. into ponis. p. in many i. whose oldest records are nearly four centuries younger than Ulphilas. Sanskrit Grammar is gives no certain indication of the relative weight of the vowels. will not yield at last to been extin- No .6 CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. given way. The w u with regard to the other original a vowel too decided and full of character to relief of its all. cases. power. 684. 7. Ed. /. is governed by the change itself to i. where a allows itself to be weakened down to a. and in no single case has guished or transmuted. in the plural. the una of nominative with the termination ina of the oblique cases. Thus in Latin we have pupKgi. is re- or e {tetigi. while the declension of the terminating vowel . rathsherr. the u may boast of its pertinacity it remains firm as the i it ter- minating vowel of nominal bases where a and have under- gone suppression. is expressed by tlie Compare. the most dependent case of the Arabic. " councillor. however. the most obstinate of and admits of no exclusion from a terminating cases where a and [G. also. we find in its Arabic the u taking precedence in nobility. shews its be the weakest vowel. allow^ of its being exchanged in this language. fefelli. in admit suppression. in (See also §§ 490. is continually used incases where the grammatical relation a preposition. If. stands between the strong u and the weaker i. for any other letter." p. or become in declension similar to 8. 7. while duced to * in cases of repetition. weakened (See Germ.

and assign its the nasal of the two last lists alphabetical place between them. like a consonant. for example. and take. and. The weakness it i of its expression discernible in the fact that does not. TT r). which we distinguish by is. is called [ Anusicdra. R. 8. of vowels. the sounds 8." from ^ han^ Great confusion. of nouns. passes into fol- lowed by a consonant of the said two with the French lists. " echo and in fact. has its place before semi-vowels (^ y. T it r." a word as ^t%1 rdtrdu. A final ^ is convertible to Anuswara before any consonant (Pan. passes into Anuswara as. no place in the alphabet of the Native Grammarians. nection with the also TT 8 come after. (see Sanskrit Gram- mar. sibilants.* have * The practice is not unauthorized by rule. each of the six nasal I sounds (the proper Anuswara included). impede the euphonic influence of an or w on a following It s. w^ n nasal pronunciation of the n. by Anuswara. however. or list the of vowels. p pendages to. The .] of which are rather to be considered as ap- [G. ^fifT hansi. however. has arisen from the nasal the circumstance that the Indian copyists allow themselves to express the unaltered concluding n m^Bs well as alterations. convertible . signs. or modifications the preceding vowels. a radical t^ . in the all middle of words. are commonly placed two of." first. and in the two-fold change it stands opposed to the u of the nominative." becomes tasydn. 9. h. A concluding ^ m. of a which think is best represented by the nasal n at the end is French syllable.CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. inasmuch as they are considered neither as consonants nor vowels. "in this. In con- of a verbal termination. a thick nasal echo. than as independent sounds. cU /. 101^). Ed. also. but rather as complements to the latter. if such " in the night. n. in the 7 In the oblique eases. " thou killest. and dependent subjunctive of the verb to the u of the at the close of independent indicative. which admits of more freedom than the genitive. Between the vowels and the consonants. 3. Anu- swara. 23 ) and a media «T or J? is . and and we might thence term of consonants. Am\H tasydm.

3. on the other hand. Colebrooke.forexample. that each of the nasal characters.) gives the proper termination m. before sibilants and half vowels where Anu- swara is due as vidwishAin srimad. He. von Schlegel and Frank write n. in the place of m in several grammatical terminations. to remedy this confusion in the simple theory of Anus wara. and in ge: neral the change occurs before the semi-vowels and sibilants. ahan gives rightly A. must of necessity pass into while the direct converse convertible to is m (Preface to the Bhag. infinitive not in tun or tung.] Colebrooke gives n. that we must write abhavan or abhavang/' I was . but he maintains the original m . of Sanskrit My predecessors in the treatment distinction Grammar make no between the real it. which. von Schlegel m instead of a spurious or representative Anu- swara at the end of words. for value of Anuswara. retains the erroneous opinion. the fact. Vol. Carey and Yates by the English combination ng. gives danan. that the Anuswara is a variable nasal. before vowels. (lb. n. The first. [G. p. Ed. the mutation of the constant that of the medial nasal is more variable. even n. ." for for aliam. EdiUi. In practice." dantan or dantang. W.Gita." ddnam.the termination in turn. * a tooth . by a euphonic rule. in general.) final ^ is Anuswara before any consonant except a semi-vowel or a Such are the rules. Wilkins by m. andmakes.the necessary consequence occurs. All substitute it for the concluding jt^ of grammatical terminations : and as they give rules for the transition of the Anuswara into i? or tt . on this important point of grammar. in CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. for f^f?r^T vidwish&n. and before t. p. 24. that the concluding m is nasal. dantam. 8. On the the other hand. "I. may be abbreviated into Anuswara.). for example. the second. my Grammar.— 8 endeavoured. xv. F. nevertheless. the pronunciation of and calls it "a shortening of the nasal consonants at the end of a the concluding q- syllable." \vhich leads to the error. Forster expresses it by the n in the English word plinth." not abhavam. VI[. 9. and the supposititious Anuswara. expressing a Sanskrit inscription in Roman letters (Asiatic Transactions. "a gift.

loj jt^ tained. and not. both in writing and pronunciation. but it may be doubted if the explanation of the text. passes into the proper Anuswara . or that given by Lassen. * This seems intended for an explanation.p. under certain conditions. for the ^ of ITW fain is original. we m^ -ei ci^lri tan ahravit. a division after terminating letters which remain unaffected by the influence of the write letters which follow. The ture of C. Bibl.Lassen (Ind. That Vou Sehlegel also still continues the original m at the end of words as an euphonic alteration of the dead sound of Anuswara appears from his mode of printing Sanskrit text. that the Anuswara be understood. p. but the nasal Anuswara It is exclusively an it ''after" sound. conjec- as Von Sehlegel thinks.or tdmabravit. in which he makes no division between a concluding jt m and while he does the commencing vowel of the following word make a division after ^ n. to whom knowledge of the value of the Sanskrit to we willingly concede a signs of sound. and thereby shews that he admits . Ed. which. for Lassen bas nothing like I have not found an etymological explanation of the term in any grammatical commentary. and the imputa- tion of error removed from the Indian Grammarians. begotten out of Anuswara. however. as in tan. or not even capable of blending. with the accent — appears to me highly improbable. with a following It is vowel. but by that is to be understood the final or closing sound of a final syllable. be correct. representative of either of the other nasals the legitimate when those are absolutely terminal. » the variable nasal. " he said to them. Anuswara may indeed be termed sequens sonus . . Schlegel's nasalis it vwtabilis \you\d indeed bejustified by this view. not as an after sound (Nachlaut). 39). If. as were.CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. and whom we are unwilling censure for de- signating a half sound as mutable. Book is to III. in a language whose termi- it. like a final n or m." we must not also write riWd'^flii^ in»l^ ^^rtlT^ tdm abravit. but as a sound which regulates by that which follows on laut* — as were the term Naddaut. not as an itself echo (NachhaU). but before vowels is necessarily re[G." tdmabravit. Any other nasal is may be used as the initial letter of a syllable. "he said to her.

f?^ him. however. them If it separate. It is true the half sound owes its being to the muta- bility of a concluding m. appears from the ftict that they always write these terminations. being prefixed with most propriety to those letters which. with regard to its and sibilants. it may be regarded as appropriate them merely in as far as neither of the other nasals is so considered. that when they range the declensions of words in the order of their terminating in letters. grammatical terminations. according to the initial relation tothesemi-vowpls to I consonant of the following word. from the root which is ^^ (Laghu- Kaumudi. not being classed n this sense under either of the nasals severally five scries of sounds.] That the Indian Grammarinns. p. am. in the accusative sinofular for example . are treated nasal m.but is not mutable itself. as in the middle. 11. nating sounds are almost always governed by the following words. prasdm. where they give nasal. but not of alteration. Again. and the deadening of n before « into n presents terminal. p. [G. «im &c. expressed in the Lithuanian it . when the turn ir5n»T comes of the " quiet. and not the li consider the letter in m as the original but like '^tt^ mutable hhijdin. since it never has an independent existence of its own at the end of any word: syllable. however. the Pronouns ^^^ idam. and we write it it in the same manner with At the end of words stands for the remainder of an ancient m. have no rightful claim to the comprehended within each respective series Editor.) The deadened nasal. of a radical ^5^ dans. appears with the Sanskrit Anuswara n.. 10. . by particular signs over the vowel which to be identical follows." labial together with lam. and in pronunciation retains their respective sounds. with the labial and not with Anuswara. be objected that this is of no importance. and Mm. 46. as dependent on the caprice of the editor or copyist. and fsfm which they consider the m as primitive. Ed. it is susceptible of expulsion. we can adduce as a decisive proof of the just views of the Indian Grammarians in this respect.10 CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. Anuswara may be termed a subsidiary or supplemental sound.

" shall from the root f^ han. but only appears at the end the of words in r. The aspirates are pronounced. has always fallen into Anuswara. as the Jf text afBrms. p. p. the medials. and their aspirates." therefore as in Sanskrit ^*^inf*T comes laupsihsu. ing. 12. character of an euphonic alteration of ^ s Tliese two letters {s. The second is of the signs before mentioned It is named Visarga. being completed by The nasals belong. and their aspirates . not only the m. but the ^ n. the thin {tenues). agreeably to the final represented by Anuswara. like their * No native scholar would read these as bhaavah or kudha/'i." hansydint. next. kudham. and a seventh by the sibilants ^ h. " I shall I praise . "I praise.] bhaavanu but bhaaxan.* 11. for »TT^ bhagavan. Thus we read »T^^. which is in Chezy's edition of the Sakun- certainly to be pronounced. . A sixth is formed by and the or hard the semi-vowels. r) are very mutable at the end of words. Editor. which signifies abandonment. in this division. the sonant or soft. cF^ Icudhan.). for oSTpT hutham. and form. and are changed into Visarga before a pause or the deadened classes (^§.— CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. at the end of words. five classes." »T lavpsin-u. In the first five ranks of these consonants the single letters are so arranged. 11 a remarkable accordance with the Sanskrit rule of euphony before mentioned. without regard to the following letters tala. From kill. vowels and semi-vowels. Ed. that the first are the surd consonants. to the sonants surd or hard. We write this sign H to distinguish from the true 12. like the . expresses a breath- which and T never primitive. not [G. letters of the guttural and it labial 12. but bha-avam. the sibilants to the Every thin and every medial letter has its corresponding aspirate. In the Prakrit. 70. ^ h The proper consonants are classed in the Sansknt alphabet according to the organs used in their pronunciation. each class its nasal.

and ^ hh. with each other ^ dhar.* is In an etymological point of view important to observe that the aspirates of are easily exchanged hhri. " shell xa/vco.f We write is without the distinctive sign. a nail Kov^rj. It is only necessary to remember that th and ph are the letters t and p with an aspiration. thought necessary to provide them with distinct symbols. of In some Greek words ovvx-o£. 12 CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. as in the w^ords tural.) "to bear. bh. it Sanskrit alphabet are mere modifications of one sound. 13. a as f. Ed. different organs thus. . unsightly. according to the manner in which that is affected by a succeeding modifications prevail equally in most languages. in Latin.{^ " V dhri. as well as ^ei/co. Kovxos. although and that the has not been Editor. p. is only found before gutturals and. Old High German vliuhan13. [G. and includes the gh. r[^ g. and the like. x"-^^> ^'^^^ khan. X{^ T n. T^ph. 6dvu>. respective non-aspirates. d\ b'. -^i^ ih." "to '^jto hold.n Jliehen. V?T dhan. it not like the Greek %. »TT hhar. fumu-s. either at the beginning or i^ ^^^ place . It seems therefore pre- icrable to adhere to the usual mode of expressing the aspirated letters. sinJcen. . so as to prepare for the it following gut- In the middle of words . supplies the place oi J{^m when it the following word begins with a guttural. at the end. for example. The first class is that letters of is A-. is related to ^ han. not / or ^. not like the English th. from "to kill. as its guttural nature easily recognised by the following consonant. and appears and doubt. with a clearly audible h thus. of the gutturals. . In Greek. ." is. A careful examination will perhaps shew that the several letter." end of words. smoke. The find " aspirates of this class are not of frequent use. however." The Gothic thliuhan is the Germa. and not the th and f of the nasals of English alj)habet t tlie Editor. \.— — . " to * The original here adds — " We designate the aspirate by a comma. The nasal of this class pronounced like the German n before gutturals." are perhaps originally identical." we x ^ lih : compare ow^." The use of such mark likely to cause occasional -perplexity is. with sankha. enge. 1. as dh. with nakha.] dhuma-s.? hh.

. with their aspirates and nasal. "speech. gutturals next." flected nominative. f^^^m chhind* The original has g &nd g are ." nom. in the unin- ^t^ v6k in the instrumental vukshu. part. sibilants. Trerra)." *' 13 As regards the sonant aspirates. V. " "'reiTUi a t or d. answers to sc. first. " knee. The second «T^ class is that of the palatals . dig. the English and the German Old High German lihti. TTSHT rdjan^ "king. and includes the sounds ch andy. but the appropriate symbols in English j and its aspirate. the base [G. TeTTupeg. makes.] ^[T^ vdch. "3 chh. Gothic fdvor. With regard to the aspirates of this class. Trecrao)) ^wr chatitr. o"k. the first element of the palatals pachAmi. pancha). rdjata. with quinque. ir»TiT Ttevre. "four. TlfJ'iT^^ vdg-bhis. and It is only to be considered as a softening of found before vowels and weak consonants (semi- Towels and nasals). "five" (nom. thirdly. on account of their mutual as. the depixrf)." (inf. class. Compare ^-^uPh paktum. reaa-apeg. (cf. and before strong consonants. Lithuanian penki. for example. in the place of the letters of this . and locative plurals. heat" (in Greek . Ed. fourthly. generally retires into the it class from which springs. (TreTTTw." with rdj. its place in the 14. v gh of gJiarma. HHTC^^ chatwdras. pass. "voice" . We write it.CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. Thus. tj^ panchan. letters of this class. ^"^ In the cognate lan- guages we have to look for. vox). regis. p.* ^ n.* «K. and at the end of a word. nom. The guttural has kept light. with argentunif apyvpog ^itji jdnu. iteinre. "to shine"). J. pakta). labials. Lithuanian ketturi. tural in the Latin leHs. . with coquo. as beings the last element in the I cook. rex. and." with genu.a. '^ovv. This class is an offshoot from the preceding. accus. in virtue of the changed the u into leicht. according to pronunis ciation. jh. affinity . the chh. with quatuor. the sounds of t. rdjatam^ "silver" (from . ^ ch.s an initial letter in some words. Gothic fmf. has passed into the aspiration of another organ ^ni laghu^ " light/ has laid aside the guti. 14.

Latin g in frage. " to go. in WS and the prachh. . is more Prakrit than Sanskrit. rogo. 9. " the tj^^ first. it may be doubled il" similar modifications of the dental sounds are not discoverable in languages which do not express them by separate syinboh. and is pronounced nearly like nj. as it of this class." to the Greek As to the the terminating letter of a root chh answers. ^ dh. thus. At the beginning of words these letters are seldom found in Sanskrit. " CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS.). in case that a modification oi progo. The nasal distinctive sign. Ed. ^j^ at. " to ask. for is The Indian Grammarians approach the Prakrit nearer than the Sanskrit. the substitution of nearly universal. p. for example. "SfniT answers chhinadmi. of »? m. for example. The t of the Italian tutto is the Sanskrit Z.- ? c?. deviates but slightly from the souud of the guttural n. t. also. but which has class of t developed tinguish itself from the ordinary sounds. . — Editor. The third class is called that of the Unguals or cerebrals. "I or he asked." tj With regard to the nasal. them by a point under the letter." They are pronounced by bending back the tongue against the roof of the mouth. a kind not original." fi5»Tf?I .. 15. as if from the head. In the Prakrit this class has obtained great t. and has frequently supplanted the ordinary We it there find. which * Here. using Anuswara for which we have condemned (^§. '' supremacy. we cleave. ''I cleave. " shadow. for Tr«W prathama.* The its nasal of this class has sometimes overstepped the limits of usual laws : it is found before vowels.] together with its nasal . for h^tt bhavatu.14 was. for which we require no only precedes palatals. 15. to the Latin scindo aKtd. as I suspect. We dis?." >Tt| bhodu. ^^ n. roots they use the same substitution. and embraces a peculiar kind of sounds of [G." German and is latter." to the Gothic h in frah. at the end of words. 7 7 th. also. chhdyd. when at the beginning of The practice. by which a hollow sound is expressed. let be and "q^JT ])adhama. but they are found as terminations to a certain number of roots .

with t." Qeog. ^cKa. which belongs to them." dipa. Lithuau. in the Latin. "door. Thus the imperative ending fv dhi. which also sometimes re^ d. with tha example. "daughter. to ^^nr^ dasan.f^x^ dukitar is fiedv . " honev. ^^ dip. SaKpuixa. common n. never no instance of which we are aware is represented in Greek by 0." dvyarrjp. With regard to the '^r hard aspirate. As also the second consonant has under- gone alteration. t. 16. "to light. "body." Gothic leik.m an etymological respect. "God. ^ Of the aspirates of this organ. The fourth class embraces the dentals. On the other — — at least hand. ^ i miPH sthdsi/dmi. n. [G. is From nearly the beginning of words in the Sanskrit this aspirate excluded. the elf." dvpa diewas. Upon it. "lamp. 17. is / is well known. " thou knewest.). (nom. also." ?. r^I ?'atha. we have to re- mark. Gothic ttalf. an apparently original ^ d often corresponds to the I of cognate European languages. among $dKpv. for example." becomes AajuTro). the ending ." with WW vet-tha. or the sounds to which properly answer with the the common d and W^ t. Ed. yet never 16. dudr. presents V dh does correspond to 6." t/^/x/. together fA. in Greek di . by t. . ^ dSva. becomes f/a<//<dm?. the former in the plural. relation of our Gothic lif. in zwolf. p. The interchange old and other instances.] -grr (^^ duhitri. neut. ^ ^ diha. V in dh. the second in the dual of the present and future. oa-reov cmyo-o) with asthi. "I shall stand". Aa/iTra?. vais-t. is 15 . and dwdra. ^ ^ d. founded the relation of lacnjma to In Sanskrit. and in the Gothic. On this relation also rests. »re madhu. as If. FUtP^ "I place. com- pare the terminations re and tov with tha and ^ra thas. f. not the case with the nasals of the preceding classes at the bejjinniao' of words. I have shewn elsewhere. "carriage". but always like the natural t. that ^ th.CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. rota with 'wfw "bone"." " wine. in for the second person singular of the preterite. and has migrated from the gutturals into the . dwdram). §• 1.

>T bh is also often represented by b in Latin. which I have recognised as compounds. " fruit. in the course of time. The dative and ablative termination plural nasal of this class. [G. and only remark. ww J? bliyas. In the Greek and Latin. requires no further support. in Gothic. becomes bus in Latin. candelabrum. the most usual words in which it occurs are. to several alterations. becomes b in certain compounds which rank as simple words with a derivable of fero suffix. in addition. bh. >T my observation. my notice without The fact." -^tf phena. tRqS pAa?a. ^ and / are the letters which most frequently correspond to this bh belongs. by numberless examples. while the Lithuanian Ukaliadnot yet attracted 18. Ed. assume various forms for various objects.. bloom. " to burst.] With respect to the affinity of A/koj in rjXiKog." taken alone. p. to the ^ w >T bh. t^^. and of the Gothic leiks in hvHeiks. especially in the middle of words. is." I refer the reader the Pronoun and . taihun. in German zehn. the number "ten. <pepoi h bhu. and even the Lithuanian which accom- panics the simple numbers in their compounded forms from eleven to twenty." and the forms which come from the root -ra sonant aspirate >T phull. together with dh. blow. The »T^ labial class comes next. The / brum. " foam. however. a . The at the end of a word. I was first led to that of lif to SeKa . *' to be. and which will be hereafter explained. ^ b. moreover. m. <pv-(a. m. beginning of words." fu-i. its origin Zi^a. manubrium. tfijjh. and only remains fast before a pause. for example. " like to whom?" to lished this to ^dma. brium." fero. namely. Prakrit f^Tf disa.16 labials. that one and the same word may. The hard aspirate ph is among the rarer letters. that by leiks. and as. proved. " to bear. as be?'. . "like. Thus the / of fu appears as b in the forms amabam. from lif was deeply concealed. pub- by Diimmler) analogy of \/<o?. in words like sahiber. CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. &c. my Treatise on its influence (Berlin. as it is. amabo. remained long under result. 17. especially at the bhri. is subject." The most frequent of the aspirates.

into any of the four preceding [G. " to bind. occasional hardening: of the v into a guttural deserves mention here . or ? nasal. 613. which ought to be dio (divs being forbidden. a though text otherwise conspicuous for piotected in its original condition by a pause. belongs to this here designate the sound of the German t^-. excluded from the end of words ^ y . "thee. Ed. p. Schmidt in the Berlin '^ Jahrbuch. followed by a semi." forms nomina§. vic-si I (vixi). M It is. in the Semitic [G. spring from viv and in facio " I recognise the Sanski-it causal >TRTnfH bhdv-oyd-mi. victum.' of a softened y. and Ed. to the occasional hardening of the Digamma into 7 (cf." this letter takes the pronunciation of the English The . I83i. see 94.CHABACTEBS AND SOUNDS. G. As the Latin in English has the sound _. " Heaven.'^ v. h.\ c . for f is fls. 19. Lat juvenis. in Latin. as languages. The voice cannot dwell on v or and these two letters are therefore. Old and Modern Greek. as l^J^ ticdm. weakens itself into the softened nasal sound if nasals. we in editions of find »». written as Anuswara. a sibilant. ^^^^^ yuvan. 19. thus. is practically The connection bc- iween fac-tus andjio in the demonstrated.] its : therefore the word tive. to the root Ti»r yuj. upon this y often passes into 'i^ J . vowel. according to the nature of the following in this and may pass. to and English After consonants. manner. ^vyog.'P^ I.] of the proper Auuswara.'' and that of the verbs in a^u) to the Indian verbs in '??^fH aydmi .x r." make from the root « bhu. " young. but the sound dsch is not to be looked for in the Greek." to the The relation of the Persian ^^^yr ja^'dn. to be. or by tlie following letters. or letters of its 17 itself own class : it otherwise governs letters. 18. when. accuracy. so in Prakrit and in Greek.). Sanskiit place.vowel. The semi-vowels follow next: t( y. &o. p. has also a full right to the name of a mutable however. f^ d'v. not beseeming. C. p. Theme By v we v. We distinguish y by the sound of our German J. exchange of sound rests the relation tt of ^evyvvf^l. or the Englisli y in the word year. Refer back.

Old High German pir-u-mes.vowels. are easily interchanged. according to old a. from of a ^ dyS. may be produced by the influence of the or of the dropped ." in to the Sanskiit ^»fT vant (in the strong case. to the 9^. remains unaltered in places where ^ s be- comes T r. "I fall. as least is concerned. and does not appear alone as an adjective. 46) assumes an adjective lauds. "endowed with wealth. and of the Gothic (see §.). " so much.] root trus. "great.). we are" U^fi? bhav-d-mi). " to fall . find in ^ I often stands for t r* I We ^ v. in Are/au(/v. shriek." mmaluuds. miglit be dispensed with. as far as the Gothic at of the greatest antiquity as a suffix." becomes cdius in Latin.). The semi-vowel also exchanged with the nasals thus. according to §. —Ed.." svalauds. namely. to »?^"RH bhav-d-mas as also that of scrir- -u-mh. as " believe. pirn. X Dh. Menu has uslika for asrika.r aX the is end word many is alterations.g. "tantus. from the r. " quantus." J and of the Cretan rpe "thee" from / is rfe. For instance. "just so §. The semi. and * It is scarcely correct to say " often. much. even in the oldest periods. 18- CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. before vowels and sonant consonants. by reason of their tractable and fluent nature. 119. 87. as also that of triusu. " the other. = the Greek ^\ and t. nasal." as the instances are rare : nor are they restricted to recent works." tjt^ ydvant. p. in the more recent Sanskrit works also. . 20. of the following letter. is Nominal bases subject to s.. v^^ anya-&. on the other hand. 20. ^ r becomes is and. opulens). Ed.. " we make from the p. and interchanges." ^^^rww^ srdv-ayd-mas. is how I much. it is t Grimm (iii. the cognate European languages is for On this interchange founded the relation of the Latin laud(fi)-s-\- suffix lent {e." to hear" [G. often. corresponds the old High German Tiie u of trus. in y do not exist. the re(sing. 116. " to we (§. 16. 109. by favour s . x."" On the cliange between v and r lation of the founded. able with ^ In places where the concluding retained. to the Sanskrit ttod. like V7i«r?T words dhanavant. to the Sanskrit anr dhwum." which." " irn^ tdvant. $.

" alter. the sh is reservnl for the cerebral sibilant. " horse . is pronounced like our sch. although admitted as an euphonic substitute for a conTT s before an initial hard palatal. ^^ swan (nom. in the uninflected nominative. fwz vit. however. Otherwise [G. ISC^S^ aswas). and usually written by the English sh* T( s. " dog ^r?r 5a#cpt. namely. sz. cants. ^^ dris'. with ^S(^ a'swa (nom. Gothic deszimtis. ngr iu-d. "the other. The Gothic . "to speak. szweiita-s. for instance. Editor. Gothic taihun.) 21." eqitus { = ecvits). and thence supplies the place of the third or proper ^ s when a hard "^TJit palatal ^ ch or "^ chh follows .). f ejr dri'-. " holy. f." and f^iii'. Lithuaji. "a man of the third caste.— CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. last class with The embraces the sibilants and h: T([^ s. kvvo^)." ga-lathon. balbus blow. p. fiare.. pro- nounced like sh. to the Sanskrit with reference and has in its stead a sibilant compound kvu)i>. and • More usually s . 50. with a&ru n." answers to the Gothic "called together": (§." f. k." "invited.. goes. 5^ s passes into z i . C 2 ^ . Compare. instead of TT*nT ^xf^ rdmas Ramas X: . Compare decern. thp palatal class. answers not to the Zend aj^^^2>j3 spenia At the end of a word. "mare. . The second sibilant." The Lith. ^s appears to have find k sprung from and in Greek and Latin we and c regu- larly corresponding to the Sanskrit ^ s. aszara. "called. The first sibilant is spoken with a slight aspiIt belongs to ration. \sh. gi s falls back into the sound from which 21. Incnina. or sh in English.] appears to have originated. hunds. 109. im dhma. and ? h. ^PiTTTr 19 antara-s. ^ vad." In its origin." answers to /Saft/Sa/vo). and in the middle before strong consonants. 5I*nT sunas. Lithuan. "to also. 5e/ca. " seeing. cluding usually it ^ i is al- lowed." (§." azaka with ^W{ srlkha " bough. ^ sh. lath-on. Lith. " rdmas charati. sxuo (gen. substi- tutes k in pursuance of the law of change of sound but the Lithuanian stands the nearest to this letter. TTTST charati. for instance." ^ dasa). with gen. In some roots. aszica f. with ^51^ das'in (nom. "tear. Ed." form. izuns).

ti sh is not permitted. end of Sanskrit words. in Greek and Latin. short or long. concluding s remains unaltered. szeszi. After the first-named vowels. but only ^ sh and the TJ |. instead of inftftT tanosi (extendh)." Of the vowels. ^ s passes into ^ sh . for instance. stands for y: Ttfxoaeop 6 MiXy'^crtop — §. and «. 3 th. (est). &c. " the right hand. and W. but with some into z t the number six. for example. such is -^t^ shash. for instance.20 CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. in the decree against Timotheus (Maittaire. . Compare ^f^m dakshina. A word which really be- gins with six" to which the Lith. after . r(^ sh. and in the middle before other strong consonants. or where it has been changed for r does not return into its original form. s never follows. change ^. class. write the roots which. ^7 shat 7 (. subjected to transmutation into (§. and only re- mains unaltered before t and Kjfif We write. are regularly represented by Jcsh. 100. at the sition. "q sh extremely rare: the Indian grammarians. " the son passes over. p. Thus. under certain circumstances. according to certain rules into the place of "^ k. but "which. TTrftf^ tandshi. : ah or K Visarga th. belongs to the lingual It often tt s . 11.? into •a sh. 383-4. u. Lithuanian deszine. is As an initial. becomes. ^ «.* Tiie Sanskrit could not endure * Cf. from the t^ /i first with a. ^^ ^xfif sunus charafi (it). Ed. with dex-ter. At the end of a word. holds a very insecure pois and by certain rules sh. Ilartung. ^e^to^. however. in the uninflected nominative." but Kxfn t^\ tarati [G. The third sibilant is the ordinary s of all languages. are averse from Vs. " as most roots passes into nf k. to which a and d alone are inclined. Tff thus. x. ^ X r. i. answers most nearly.) p everywhere Ttapayivojxevop — Kvfialve' rai rap ccKoap tcov lecov. steps. ^T^T W^ vf^fn sunur hhavati This sensitiveness against a con- cluding can only have arisen in the later period of the language.] sunuh'. a f plural nominative.). while other cognate languages indicate an original ordinary s. p. after its division as in the cognate languages the lET » . 22. but in : 22. sunus tarati. mentioned above.

. meliosem. ^TTffH hardmi. but in the classical period generally sacrifices when between two vowels. arbus. " I. with f^ Iteri. Gothic hairlo. " goose %0es." for aham. " heart. recorded by is Frstus. p. " to transport. are never admitted at the end of words. " yesterday k. " to take." ^^ hansa. is The root tt^ grab. to the r. " heart. o-)(ps with T? vah." aj7a5»/> urvara. r before t. The accusative form arbosem. euphonic reasons. cor." We sometimes. it passes. to the le ters ^ h belongs which. thus. : In Greek we often find in the place of the Sanskrit ? h " snow. (g^TT urvard. for instance. its original existence in the history of the language 127.*" [G. in Sanskrit. " fruitful " land'' in general. into 5^ 7 f ir d. after consonants. and assume that for and not fv dhi.. as hi passes into dhi. hiems. 23. in evinces (see §.] gaudeo •yi)v with . such which the s as plusima. by certain rules. atpeui. and the Persian yiri/tan. it signifies. for instance. arbor. instead of the imperative . and answers thus more nearly German greifen. can hardly doubt. oF or JT g. ^^ hridaya). rime ." " xidmi." xalpoi with ^xqifir hrish. on which account the grammarians accept the original ending. compare ^et/xwi'. Tins expression is not wanting in the Sanskrit. pressed . nor in the middle before strong consonants. according to Wilson. find the spiritus asper substituted for h. Aiwa." and 23." written in the Vedas to the W grabh. genus. a contrast to forms found in Varro and Festus. "tree. asz.). with ^ hrid (n. but rarely. 21 The Latin protects the s usually at the end of it. c. " I take away. ending f^ we generally find hi ff hi. . generis. words . is fis I more startling. if. for genesis. szirdis f. fijerJesum. Ed. In these places A:. related to the word of such frequent occurrence in the Zend-Avesta.) but land. for here r is tlie original form. with ?rTT hyas.CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. The Lithuanian ex- hibits sometimes sz for h for instance." for This letter stands hrid." . of which ^ ^^ the aspiration alone has been supdhi. sometimes in Sanskrit for a mutilation of other aspirated consonants." We also find for h: compare KapSi'a. mnjosibus.

ofit sonants without vowels. for ti. % kdi is which ^ du are written by omission of the ^. and k by cF. CONSONANTS. Z th. and with the sign of rest.Vowels Sibilants and Aspirates. relates ki. or the a. "gt it. Ed. . ^ ri.^ ri. are usually written so that their distinctive sign is connected with the following conso- nant. "^ u. ^ p. p. ho. the signs o. . dh. i» ^ t. for instance. ^ I. "^ ch. . "S '^ gh. ^. ^ v n. 6. the ki. consonant to which '5 M. ^aj d. For . "^ chh. and . cZ/*. "W kh. >. h. • n. t 3BJ n. [G. V a. after. \ I. xr y.. another vowel. ANUSWARA AND VISARGA. but is contained in every consonant which (\) not distinguished by a sign of rest ou or connected with itself. with their respective values. we have . ah'. e. Semi. «f Linguals Dentals Labials Z (. ^ ri. ^ sh. faS c^ . ^ m. tb hri. m ku. j. t » are placed under their consonants ?f as. x^ph. not T!^^ for »r + ^ we ^ + n we have w. absence of the k is thus read ka. "S ^ n. 24. is expressed by of these ^ . The vowel characters given above are . i. 22 CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. For ^ w.3 X r. ^ 'i^ « ^ bh. "^ v. ^rl. d. is hn. ^ s. tk s. m^jli. here only a fulcrum ^ The conhdu. ^ g. "^th. tj. VOWELS. Gutturals Palatals oF /fc. n. ^ h^. % and the first two it is placed before. ^ and ^ dU : *^ and 6 "^ are placed over their consonants as. lit. I. We give here a general view of the Sanscrit characters. ^ as. J. l{ j. and thus have sT maUyn and for is written jqw. found only at the beginning of words and in the middle or : end of a word are supplied in the following manner left is ^a is unexpressed. the second for instance. are expressed by ofi^ f. «if Im. instead of appearing in their entire shapes.

. ^ Another division also appears to us convenient —that of the consonants into strong . occurrence in the development of forms of Sanskrit the one is of which called Guna. CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. with relation to which I refer to 1 flatter §. 1827. 2. I have dealt successfully with an apparent explanation. first five two letters in each of the rows.1 the formation of words. in which the nasals and semi. as also of the is usually produced and governed. all the tenues. Soft are. fact.vowels come under the denomination of weak that of the strong:. as myself. 26. and. also the tln-ee sibilants. . contradiction to my Guna consists : in prefixing short a. 25. but have only expounded the only in that I effects of these vowel alterations . senai-vowels. the other Vriddhi. Berlin Journal. how- ever. according to the order given above. as initial letters of inflections suflBxes.. the medials. with their correspond- ing aspirates the first . of frequent . it is of consequence direct the observation to to two affections of them. the remaining consonants under exercise The weak consonants and vowels and [G. in which. Feb. most conspicuously. the all the nasals. and weak. 23 The Sanskrit letters are divided into hard or surd. on the terminating letters of a root. no influence. while they themselves are compelled to accommodate themselves to a following strong consonant. Surd and in are. My predecessors in grammatical inquiry have given no information as to the essence. and Vriddhi in prefixing a long one in both. in p. the a melts into a diphthong with the primitive vowf I. My views in this particular have since derived remarkable confirmation from the Zend. With regard to the vowels. '25. and it was my critical labours upon Grimm's German Grammar* law by which Guna came upon the trace of the true nature and distinctive qualities of these aflfections. and soft or sonant. p. increase augmentation. with their aspirates. and at the same time of its hitherto undetected existence in the Greek and Germanic. in the Gothic. or virtue . and vowels. 264. Ed.

491. in virtue of Guna. in the strong form of Grimm's 8th and 9th conjugations. 7 it." and its root Regarding Greek ot as Guna of i. Ed. " I know. 746. melt with the ^a of Guna into ^ ^. "I bent. as is the case in the corre- sponding tense of the Sanskrit. These diphthongs. same signification. from the root iw^ vid. and into ^. ufk emi (from a-imi). however. contrast with vifum. ^ ^JT ar. ing Gothic and Greek " know.. for instance. . TTtVlftr bddlidmi. when a radical or u is ^f prolonged " to go. contrast to bmjum." which. in the Sanskrit the root i. " bend. In the Gothic. stands in the same contrast to the i and u of the plural. once thought that I had accounted in a different manner for I the relation existing between biuya. see f). by the Guna modification." by prefixing an e. thus in Greek also we root '^v biidh. '^TR dr. but of which the historical connection with the I Sanskrit modification appears to me not the less certain." so in the Greek* the root ^vy (e<})vyoi'). see §§. We have. the radical vowel.24 CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. the same signification. in the present be- comes ipevyoi. ^ i. p.] ri and '%p become. ^ 6. forms. e [G.b) 741." in we bent. and as to Gana in Old Sclavonic and Lithuanian. ^u. " I go. in virtue of the action of by that of Vriddhi. §. like the correspondemploys the terminations of the root. 27. dissolve again before vowels into ^n? ay and ^r^ av. rises." in we know. of the root >ni^ bhuj. Guna." with the Sanskrit forms of va'ida). namely. according to certain euphonic laws. . ^ veda (from f^f^ vidima. singular plural ^>Tfin? bubhvjima. As in Greek the short Sanskrit a is frequently replaced by / so we find the Guna As here. however. " Compare ^vft»T haug. 2o5. strengthened by a in the singular of the preterite. " compare vait." As the tfxev. 26. in several tenses in the three numbers." in contrast to imaSf " have eifjit in contrast to we go . the Sanskrit Guna I in yet another lately dis- form in the Gothic —a form which have but covered." with the Sanskrit form of the bublidja. "I know. into >Ttv6dc?A (from baudh). preterite with a present signification. .

'** 28.o i are the most usually befriended by this addition.-j* The vowels which admit this addition in the interior. Guna vowel in the more important shape of a 11th. What foreign student could guess or remember that the one is pronounced eet." " 1" and "he eat.3 correspond to my first Sanskrit conjugation (r. t N. in which I am forced to translate the presint and past tenses of essen by the same characters." is occurs. Trarulator. The Zend possesses. to the prevalent influence.o ^ and The two latter . The only case in which. but not at the end of words. which likewise consists and which was first observed by M. Guna a of the special tenses has been while the monosyllabic preterite maintains the . seems to me indisputable that Grimm's 8th and 9th conjugations of the first class [G. 27. an a is placed before each.— CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. Burnouf. just as in the 10th. Guna diphthongs . the short j U 4* d. besides the Sanskrit Guna. hence.. p. ex- • It would be difficult to adduce a better instance of the phonetic deficiencies of our English alphabet than this sentence. weakened so that the to I. which has remained in the preterite singuhir. and even at the end of words wherever the dependent particle xi^ appended to dthre. Jouru." corresponds to the root 155 ita but in the present. tlie other ett ? The preterite "ate" ia obsolete. weakened to i . both as an initial letter. a. in the present so that. ^ o. itself. " to eat . however. " igvi- que" Also where an e stands in two consecutive syllables. T. Asiat. stands in place of the form ^rf^ admi. "homing' ^^(^jm "ignC. It of terminations a retro-active now.''^ M^jOM^CsMi dihraecha. for instance. for instance. " and.Ed. are. according to Grimm's division. 326. 2dly. p. the first. > u. a vowel application peculiar to in Aj a. " I eat. and other tenses. ^7jM^na'(re. and 12th conjugations. 3-27. and fctkes it in all cases where the opportunity cha. it . the radical is. which has remained everywhere where it stands in Sanskrit. a/. from ^ri^H elehhyas. but M^A>M/Ai^ naraScha. E. in the i present tense. for example. III. 25 and I conceived myself bound to ascribe generally. bug.). " hominique. ^'^jajas^ajaj aStn^ibyd. . Hence. ad.

We indeed.^^ not «^AijJA57jA5« gairaibyd.). rs e cepting at the actual end of the word. AjyAJ«f(3J9 . and in the middle before two consonants and if transferred ter- from the end of a word to its middle. a/ ^jw^ iirun6. instead of also find ^^xi^^ ^TW^ftTT abravit (Gramm." lost. 352. the Sanskrit an as T u is a is placed before it. r. p. " strength. mere nasal. in the Sanskrit adjunct tenses. which would be the regular form. . " I glorify." Yet we j^n?^ before yhi. " qnihus" from ^«|^ yebhyas. ^^tWfi^ djas . We mrao n. fM»?> urvun.).'' from ac- (»<^Ajy^7^^ kerenaot. is A5 remains without of when it is produced by the influence say. for aj from which comes tj^ yams. The > u cording to set rules. and not am. cording to the *' fifth class. We say. from the Sanskrit root. mination or word.J ^ . Ajy>7/Aj^ "young." from cs kri. "he made. but |^jj. {anim(E^ not ^)>xi/> uraunu." from ^irtiT abrot." for ^"St»T abrdm.26 CHARACTERS AND SOUND?. for ^rssrstif akrindt. but jj^. 28] yaSibij6. Crit. acas "this" (accus. ^j^j imem. though perha})S erroneously. " glory. from fniiriinn. " light " with 29.m. . 6. Ed. which has been for the verb ^ yw. out of a or jua d. as in the Greek. " I spoke. on the contrary. 'W^-'^ a6z6. as well and in this case at the beginning as before two consonants (§. very frequently abstains from the for instance. Examples of it are. find. but the occasion is far less frequent. they do not acquire the capacity of being wedded to an as a. 4> Where. tif^ yadi). a y^ not j^. r^\xi)^ mrnot he spoke. for . Ed. sometimes." not AsyAJoxfujAJ^ maithwana <^iAiJ/jAjm " montibus.ti^^AM dyfs^. also JCJ^asjC^ yaezi. however. by an adventitious example. a suffix of the first person." fiom TT^iiT taruna. the preceding aj a. ^^^^j/oaj^mj [G.). which would be the form used were. mithwava. the The vowels j i and > w are aj ^ much more question : sparing in their attraction of the it a now in they refuse always at the beginning of words. Compare ^^aj7 rauch. not ^'^^Jm aimem " a pair. gairibyd. 4* The addition of the a d is just as unlimited. also. " if" (cf. replaced by ^ stands in this respect in the same category as a> ^ iuid [G. p. 32.oaj^^jiu dyafsi.

—Editor W. Guna Vriddhi d. . e The simple vowel ^ a. wf^n akshipia (Gram. "31 . "^ d. 7 m. . which give the language an appearance more natural and more it in consonance with the Sanskrit than assumed in the hands of former commentators. Jl di. %i. like d+d.. and remain in the cases of convenient here to give a connected Guna unaltered.. as ar. Primitive Vowels. o. Anquetil's pronunciation having admitted especially in the vowels. ^r?. being severally substituted for the vowel sounds of ri. as also the diphthongs ^ and as by Guna produce the same o. "3! it. ^ du. may be summary of the results produced by Guna and Vriddhi. Guna letters are a. " he spoke. dl. e. dr. like d+ a.. ^idu. 27 with ^^ ruch . Guna Vriddhi 30. Primitive Vowels. ^Kdr* ^4. We now proceed to the exposition of the Zend writing. into melt ^ du. by theon. like the Semitic. ai. We first. . which would by Vriddhi for a + o. and resers'e this one for cases where grammatical laws demand the highest step. ^d'f. «v'hich I form. much that was heterogeneoue. ^T ^TT ar. r.*. into ^TT dr. 'k dU ^6./. Vriddhi." with "5^ ukfa.. the au . leaving out the augment i. left. proceeds from right to and towards the comprehension of which Rask has contributed valuable corrections. "5 w. — ^ W. d. i. after the analogy of Crit. ^ ^ d... makes du are capable of only one higher modification. ai. dr. ^ ^T a. ^ diu . a+d. namely. follow the order of the Sanskrit * According to original Grammars the Vriddhi. ^fi ^TN ar. the vowels ^ i. ^ with the preceding ^t d into ^ di . \ ^ e. the two a and d. in combination with the semi-vowels r and /.. 339. 29. ^ ai. . It unless extraordinary grounds of exception occur. d. makes d. ^idw. liked + 4 makes di. which. ^'^xi^^xi^hxiM saochanfahm (Jucerdium) Aj^. ^ effect ri. In the Vriddhi modification. ^4..).33»i>Aj axxta^ ^IviirilM suchyatdm . ^ — a+i.CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS.

p." stand for the corresponding ^TtfT. and I e in the French consider this g as the shortest vowel. as in apren. This retro-active influence of the jyrcB-sentem." j7aj^au^ dAtare. 30. st^mus (Sanskrit fiT?TT*T tishthhj-am." final worthy also of remark. Compare. and frequently before an intermediate vowelless ^ the older ^a becomes c e. "he" also saw ^^vaj^I^aj^ dademahi (V. " sun. " give. ah. 31. that always before a ^ m. e.] the Zend. 31. yet distindt from it by rule in practice. We often find it inserted between two consonants which form a double consonant in the Sanskrit ." Thus. Hande. but Rask. Eu >c corresponds ctymo- ." g7Aj»fe>> hvare. We find this letter usually in connection with a following > u. redupl. or like the short German a. for in- stance. representatives quetil pronounces as a or limits to a.sent em. The second is g. nasal reminds us of the shortening power of the Latin ter- mination m. the first aj. " between. rjcrav. p." for the Veda form ^^^ This shortest always appended to an originally terminating " creator. which An- or rather three. certainly with truth. " filium'''' with thr putra-m. for the Sanskrit . with the excep[G. The Sanskrit . and generally before a final y n. Ed. We write this c e without the diacritic sign. short is ^ a has two. S. namely. Sanskrit forms WiJIT antar. and write it e. Ed. " heaven. ^g^Caxj) puthre-m. and vowel appears to admit. as. for instance. which Rask pronounces like the short a- of the Danish.2^ CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. J'^^^ anh-en. j7aj^^aj anion. p. by ^. inasmuch as we represent the ro. j^m^7m^j>sa dadaresa or " I (pret. n. f^kmishthima). " giver.] tion of the long au A. for instance. 'the existing one. we e is r. w^i swar.). which Rask teaches us this to pronounce long Danish <b. no vowel but this c before it. "they were. ^^^^^tv hent-em. alphabet in giving the corresponding value of each letter in [G. Anquetil entirely refuses to letter differing but little admit into f e his alphabet a from the like a above discussed. dadmasi. It is ddtar. 102). or as a in cane in English. but c." ^^ dadarso. stem." with ^|f(*f dsan. for instance." with Wim^sant-am. like the Sanskrit ^.

" bosi" is more frequent than ao^m gdos. 33. and tj^JTO pasos. Ed. p. is S. Leute. e. a preceding ^^ y. form. but is sometimes re[G. j i ^ i. which we often ists find ^ o substituted by the neglect of copyaccording to —or by the above-mentioned a terminating Mi * But see §. and to form but one syllable. and never corresponds du. which. > u. however. in Zend. either by the equivalent ^ —for ^ 6. for the Sanscrit ^t^gdus. especially as a terminating letter. ^ in the Zend. >c eu. observe. make 6-s. short u.CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. for instance. 6. which appears to prevail particularly after especially at the end of i. for instance. as are long and i. as in our German words heute. gives to the short the pronunciation ^ u: Anquetil. which in the Sanskrit genitive. only dj is pronounced as short o. "pecus. Mi><^ paseus with eus. by the prefixing of a short a. according to Rask. we have generally the Zend guj do : we yet find. by special characters. or diphthong formed ^a aud "^u. Ke. specially in cases where it arises out of the termination as. Compare. also >au du. rule. is represented by rs. logically to the Sanskrit 29 by ^ 6. The Vriddhi diphthong jjuu di (out of d + i) is always represented by di. the nominal bases in u.] words. j^5>9J3a}5> from pasu. The Sanskrit diphthong i. Short jku.t» ^^ is not always preserved as placed by j^ 6i. and which we. that the Sanskrit . sometimes. by the influence of Guna. and long i are represented. &c. represent by We must here. but often remains as it is. ^ u. According to its pronuncia- tion. by the solution of the s into u. The long a 32. which. >c eu would appear (d) is written to be a diphthong. formed out of a + ?.* This short o frequently holds the etymological place of the Sanskrit to any other Sanskrit vowel. in For the diphthong ^ particular. however. thus. also written h5. as in Sanskrit. 32." And yet the Sanskrit 6 does not universally become eu in Zend. jto>Juj« gdus. . and to the short u (>) that of o. for example. while. Note. before s replaces the Indian 447.

o^t kd. fined with certainty: probably weaker than that of the Q k. p. I can guess.e. J^A}^ kat. which Buruouf has not yet given q. " once. occurs occasionally as the termination of the genitive singular of the u-^ascs for the v. oFT kd. We proceed meanwhile. geive- rally find do. bearing reference to different functions. namely. j^^ixsfjM^ bdzaos. 198). It a special character gw more >JU5 rarely >juu would appear that jam ^ ad.'' with "Sf^ kshatra S. r^^/^^Aifev hakeret. Rask treats as an which we write c. Anuswara and Visarga do not specified in § 61. ''brachii. for which there du. (quis." . . \^ kS. of d For tlie Vriddhi diplithong ^ du (out is + u) we di. an aspirate. precedes especially Compare. Ed. unless we admit the nasal answering to the sound of the Sanskrit Anuswara. foiPiT kirn. Rask selects for it the character q. " king. 30 CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. with I on the other hand. only appears before vowels and » v.. the first. and writes v^was^cS^aj^ He writes. (from ftf^ <3^ sicli). and the j^ 6i which replaces a> ^. The first letter of the Sanskrit guttural class has divided itself into two characters (3^ . (>i which think. Au^ kd. Burnouf considers tuklimalt^. p." j^j^?M^ karo'di. the letter jo. excepting » v. that r. ^ and of which which we represent by k. which latter is fenced in by no strong consonants. quid). sikti " pouring out" (V. however. and in this position [G. du. according to Burnouf. the other. " he made. is so that a termination in ms^ os* unheard of in the Zend. without observing that this letter prefers only to precede consonants. as monosyllables. to the proper consonants. more common AM>eeus. for instance. j^CS^jfeV hidi. c is found before * M^i^ OS. according to Burnoufs just his reason. 34. as exist in Zend. i. should be pronounced as diphthongs. for the present. cR^fiT karoti. TETsFrT and "^kwa: on the with ftif^ other hand. In what manner the pronunciation of this ^ c differs from that of the it is k can indeed hardly be desofter." aj»^ kva. consonants. qucB. which. M/(sxsMi(S^ csathra. 33] always corresponds to the Sanskrit d^ as M k." with sakrit. " where.

think that (^ c stands before r. we find carem and we c . however. some words in which represented by From . (1. however. v excepted. ^c/fev^^o khanhrem. Anquetil ascribes to . because. that o^ k before ^ but this much vowels and before ^ u is only repre<S^ . sented by 5 in Zend . (S^. and our German ch. "ass. " splendour. as we have before remarked. Burnouf renders that Sanskrit by the syllable . in ^n sicapna. generally confers an aspirate upon a preceding consonant. till better advised. Ed. to would be impossible for ? r."" . by reason of the aspiration stroke which he recognises. from "sister" (soror). in respect of their sounds. only admit before is them <^. ajw^iUj^ suasd. namely. and in " sleep. " friend. TS^khara. in particular. question whether a jt may therefore remain kh. have is the better riofht to be referred to certain. p. the root ^vr khan. (nom. "to shine.) accus. the ^ the accusative ^c7m3^ kh of life sakhi. kh is There however." and trt sur. remark. 343) {^ (J 'S" sua becomes qa in Zend." We must. suar. much oftener appears in the shape of m»w . qafna. " his. and the other convey aspiration to the preceding hard gut- letters of simi- tural if ^ kh be not extant in Zend dig. at the same time.CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. also. or c3^ c. and compares it to the Spanish x and the Arabic [G. " heaven. so that. as aspirated. <S^ the value of ^. 34. all consonants. 35." ^ sua W8T {suus). HI remark." find. before other consonants only by which latter we shall. and observes c. sounds yAj^ ?3^ kan in Zend." as related to ^T. continue to render by c. in an isolated position and with a possessive signification. for instance. and ^i^/m^ khareno. I consider this reason. as insufficient and . W^(Tm suasdram{sororern). p. that ^ su- does not universally become and that ^ sua hva." replaced by the accusative. It «srq« sakhdynm a transformed into ^jaucSSajw hacdim. We are inclined to add to these examples. and to both the pronunciation kh while Rask considers the latter alone. that modification of the k found which It expressed by lar agency. for instance.] ^. ^o kh.'' written. khanha. according to Burnouf. " to are.

608). Parsi teacher. "self-given . au'I support our view of its aspiration more on the it fact. We render ^o by kh." for which. under a more regular participial form (see Gramin. may also be here conve- remember that either m or Persian ^ when the latter replaces [G. seems to indicate an intrinsic stronger or milder aspiration. however. it was not applied to replace the without nient to k before letters." not from dC. The Persian Jc». "God. so as to have its name it based in the idea. as Burnouf correctly assumes. is p.khudd is. r (j) accompanies the at the beginning of a 35] word the Sanskrit ^ sw.32 CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. Compare Ijc. at present. so powerfully aspirated in the Arabic to designate a special guttural sound. as has been maintained. is pronounced. As it ^ kh is derived from the Sanskrit cB ^ awa. In Sanskrit existent. we have. or his of. Ed. always understands in the sense "given through God. than on the circumstance that Rnsk has marked it as aspirated. srvabhu. which Anquetil. our word "God" is really related to word comes from the root dhA. in Zend. as appellations of often Brahma and Vishnu. o. however. while Neriosengh properly translates ^ it by yn»tl^ swayandatfa.- khudd. " to 637. It which would produce an aspiration. by the resemblance of sound to \ij^ khudd ." deceived. and cannot have been introduced into writing entirely without object. That. in true Persian words. or that of M»Ai>y hava. like an u. our ch. but its value in Arabic." and also the we find both i^>T more common t5R»»? sn-ayambhit. that in modern Persian corresponds frequently to ^. " self- "created by itself. ^^ m^au^m^ khaddta*. r. * This give.. tion. but its must original ly have had influence on the pronunciation." see place.. probably. actually related to the Zend As^AM^A)^ khaddta. and the choice of this letter. and for the mere employment of the copyist." while in its form has been mutilated of one syllable. ." with swofiatta. This modern Persian . " to §. Crit. It is true that it j v no longer sounded before long vowels. indeed. without aspiraItalian c before a.

" with ^q^ swap ^^y- kh(ic)db. modern Persian. " sister." stantive sves The neuter sub- (Theme svesa) in Sanskrit the neuter ^ : meAus Eigenthum. "ass" its ^x khara). a vowel intrudes between the guttural and the r. suan. " to go. in ^rK «a/rM-5r/«na. p. khudd. " sun. however." the Gothic as a pronominal adverb. or becomes The pronominal syllable ^ siva exhibits it«elf in . in the Gothic. answers to the Sanskrit tt^ gharma : on the other hand. The guttural n." corresponds to the Sanskrit "gw kram. however. sometimes dismissed the aspiration in Zend. " to sleep. Ed. I know of no certain form in which a Germanic g or k corresponds to a Sanskrit sw or a Persian ^ left. sva (so) " and witli an instrumental form. We here only call to mind that the Germanic forms." as swa. Gothic svistar. in the word ji. " heat" (depfjLTj and Wdrme). for instance. in general approximate much more to the Sanskrit than to the modern ^ thus sw." with ^TH sivasri. to the [G. sve {vne) "how. remains unaltered. thus. "property." corresponds to the Sanskrit ghna at the end of compounds. " sleep. some words ^kh corresponds to a Sanskrit k wliich position the Zend loves an aspiration in In . in par- ticular. and that its primal signification has thus been disstill covered through the Zend. either */ (§.] Persian ^ ^ khu = '^ . especially in the older dialects.'' r. khur-shid. the xijoghna in A5ypAj^(3'g7^(? verejt thraghna. with .CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS." with ^^ with ^^TT sudpa . at least aj9j7aj« garema.khar.- khuftan. in Zend ^^xi»^ hvare. we are forced will to doubt. The Sanskrit gh has. Persian. " to buy. To return.'' ^^SiS^ kh{w)dndaru " to sing. and aspirate -^ "q. ^Jo^ khindan." to the Sanskrit ^ aspirated The Persian ^ kh answers to the krt ^^kh." "to step. ^^Jok]^ khirdm-idan. " to sound j" _^^^ {^^J" before the kli{w)dhar. " enemy slayer. are represented by ^ g and ogh." and equivalent root Sanskrit (Sanskiit 36." " heaven. however. 36. I 33 Jtf«.).5iT swar. "victorious." The Zend xi^')(3<^<^ verethraghna properly sjgni- . 20. siv compare (^^kfls. " to proceed with pomp.

" four" (nom. wiiile the Sanskrit ch remains. like the guttural more hereafter. j ( = "»!): the aspirates are wanting. however. The modification of the sounds of peculiar to the is Sanskrit. namely jj. ^RTTt citatwdrd ^»I^ djas'. that. masc. " killer of Viitra. and the oblivion of the old Myths. to be observed. however.^ d (^) Q^ili (v). Aj^Au^ zdta. and the media. and first. " strength." Sansk. Thus. which is not surprising. t. Of the cA ( Sanskrit palatals the Zend has only the tenuis . (^ th ('^). 34 fies. .] nawas. Before 7 in order to gratify the affection of the latter for an aspirate. «|>/AUGxf(jAj^c7(oi/twar^. chuiwdras. It is. wanting in the Zend. §." Sanskiit ^ifir charnti ^^i^xs adjd. peculiar to the Zend. Ed.) Sansk. by rule. and sometimes before ^^ y. in verethra-zart. from daemon Vritra. ^^of^c^tlnvanm signifies "thee. secondly. ples : The following are exam- j^jaj7a5^ charaUi. that its position is r almost limited to one preceding vowels.*' is while the nominative A»»AJ^ tava . irr^jdnu. w." Sansk. " he goes. ^ t (w).i and proves a connection between the Zendish and Indian mythologies. ^irciKM . " fire. the aspirated o th steps in. the sonant J is often replaced by other letters . now only exists in affinities of titles speech. bears name. These are. by «b 38.. (^)." Sansk. rare occurrence in the Sanskrit. as they are of namely ^ =^ ). sli . plur. for instance. together with a of which / (/»). shall discuss the nasals apart in 60. like the word so often used in the same sense /A>(A>7<3^/g(. p. " Killer of Vritra " is one of the most usual Iiidra." nom. 'smT^a^a . for instance. and the genitive and the word 9m^jm dtar. contained in the third row of consonants. We 37. ^t^ dj6. by j 2: for instance." consequence of the obscuration of meanings in Zend. "born. therefore. 37. the dentals. " knee. acAj^au . unaltered in Zend. >y^«)o shenu. rHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. to the ordinary sounds of that letter. of honour of the prince of the lesser gods. We pass. of the race of the Dathis [G. or his slaughter of the who. written ^^^ turn. which. The ^tis which and we Qxf represent by k in this respect.

as in Sanskrit. in the word ^'i^^-'^^'^ tkuesho. that / has merely a feebler pronunciation than ^ f. in the imperative ending (o^ The Zend. with a stroke similar to that which distinguishes our i» from ^. breathing of p. by r». ] "I give". which rarely occurs. its aspirate dh. that the diphthong i written as ^ the last. Ed. is We jo should as well remember ." but dh for__^ d in the middle of woids between two vowels. the last at the rT end of words. and as t. after rejection of the a which preceded wjrnt. o2 . find.] p rived of A>7(jojjAJ9 its retro-active power. the Sanskiit letter. This represents the Sanskrit fM. the ordinary d ^ and q^ according to Rask's just remarK. to assent to the universal validity of this sign of Rask's. for instance.^j^a3^ mazda-dhdia. in Sanskrit." but we have As/Ca^^ manthra. altogether suppressed. __^ is at the end of words. < ("ff ) is re- presented by a special namely. n. sibi- sound. aj^au^ ^. We find. before strong consonants. also and I incline to rejecting the from the end of words. however. Ed. Before consonants. but formerly wrote with a simple is undotted below. from the root ning yAj^ man. in case this ih did not I somewhat partake of a i» is. moreover." «>A}7(3jku kj/wam dihri. because no change possible with ^ or (a. We instance. "garment. because he recognises the sign of aspira- am unable. I it by ih. which prevails at the end of words. however. as.^(li{ j^au^ Ai^ dudhdm'u Sanskiit daddmU p. 35 r. 39. in Prakrit. the t be protected by a preceding consonant. and also in Greek. dtars. favours dntn. with t Burnouf. 39. 11.CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. write t. which we. r. 25. for instance. also. and. diluted to Visarga is. V dh. not as/ojjxjIj vasthra. Rask represents tion. (§. [G. excepting is the succeeding semi-vowel thereby de- [G. vastra.).'* "vest. and and so to say. . " given. however. s (§. for instance. for p. " ab igner &c. think. t . If. At the end of a word." not Aj/p-^^ mantra. 38. " speech.2. and aj^au.) at the begin- and middle of a word. " dthrat. makes. the sounding of th would be more precarious than that of lant t.

We come now p. J(o^^*o yMhit " if. me it p corresponds to the San- 6^. in the Zend In AnquetiPs Vocabulary tfif*? has rejected the aspiration." from the root q)aj^ <ap. " body.) Originally standing for and not proceeding from the to by the influence described In some instances known skrit >T —«/is of very rare occurrence. "day. ahan and ^T q) (Gramm. compare >y«A>^ < /77U. which. of the German and This . in is csupardt (Vendidad Sade. r. which. ). Ed. annot. 333). dlapayeiti.* also a title of Vishnu. in order to follow the order of the Sanskrit alphabet. itself. and in the fern. " he shines" (See Vendidad Sade." i. even in the root. VJ^ pdda. we recognise the Sanskrit wr^ subhadra " very fortunate. in Zend. discuss y in the [O. for the most part. for instance. 9gQ>/»'g^ ^jqJau dphn." San- skrit ^f^ yadi 40.em. by Ormusd. next place. becomes. observable. s. and is transformed into / by the retro-active aspirative power of a following 7 r. or kehrpem. "burning. with the derivative from the same root j^oj/o^^ajqJau^au p. however. letters The labial class this embraces the ^ p. in the accusative." form in the nominative. whence. 33o)." Sansk. find ndfo. xsi^m^ pMha. the preposition ij pra (pro.— 36 " given CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. and the plural mj^mmsS^ i^Mi?M':ij^JM(Si " nights. ajoA fra. ^8^?^85 A-erey." which in Sanskrit is written iidbhi. of which more hereafter. j^^Mi av^^7^^ kerefs . ^ f. Mi and TTjOo) <2)a5 i n . *' we navel.e. and the primitive a(pp6g 6fs. 41. In regard to the power which resides in n of aspirating ap. as the the interchange between n and r same takes place in the Sanskrit between ^f^i ahar. 9 "foot. " water " {aqua." " created " .] to the semi-vowels." with the ablative singular p. csafna. of frequent occurrence in the Zend-Avesta. on the other hand. 228." " very excellent. op. by which we express the sound Italian jy the English consonantal y. and the nasal of q) organ m. accus. « p answers to the Sanskrit tl p. Crit. and must. . ja?^7^^^>»> hufedhris. words and perhaps 5>J^J5 Arerep. 40. plural._i h.

i.M^Mi<. derived from ahura. and the vowels which correspond to into the preceding syllable it. m ^ rJ.t)/A5y nare. unless the first be ^ the retro- active power of aisti. j^jAJ»Aii bavaiti. an adjective.] this power of attraction . " he is". 340. not • Or more immediately from the Sanskrit ordinal in§ turyya or 7[^^^ iurtya. sing."— £rfi7or.^^ for .). Ed. . of the middle verb. "he makes"*. ^ u. and in the middle by the duplication of the u ^^. in the case of a : succeeding is lengthened. With regard it to the influence of ^^ j i does not mix up an y we must observe. j^jau^^aj^ dadhditiy " he gives" j^jr3ii.aj Ai^^7j>iyjM dhuirya. The i. by the attractive power of the letters mentioned. introduce menon. that u. . with the '^ cha suppressed aj7>». . xi^y(2^^ " '^"^" dhya (»r«| madhya) " middle " xs^y^Mi nairyn. "he shines". " they are/"* Several other consonants also resist simply [G. CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. an interesting phenoobserved by Burnouf (1. This semi-vowel. " hominique. semi-vowel is 37 by y^ or written at the beginning of words j^.oAj/Ajy naraecha. j^j^j'^/^^ kerenditi. Frequent occasion for this presents itself in the dat. 73.. have j^^jA»>Aii bava'mli. Examples are . 41. but Aj^. man' . Sansk. nant . sud." J^^^m ^^ttt stu'idhi. we must i. pres. that with a vowel immediately pre- ceding. > u. j i and ^ i. For in- stance. naire." instead of . or t. an j as to which z is placed. is frequent. and the third . " homini. are m a. in its first an j i. German vowel modifi- cation We are obliged to ascribe a similar influence aj ^ also to the diphthong where it stands at the end of a word. thus we have >^i\^M^ dakhyu. c. vowels after which. and which principle is connected with the (§. is neutralized stands for " he is " on the other hand we . for if there be two.pMi dtdpayeiti. pp. also observe. j^^jj " the * studhU from the root >^ja ku (^) aj^^^^j^^o tuirya.t>Z5Asy pers. " fourth.^'' is an exception. 341). from chatur. "praise. as in the Old High German we find w expressed. not j^Mjxs thus . fourth. but only with one separated from it by one conson. p.j^jjaj astit y. H^rfriT bhavanti.

I " designate." he says.' I say. Offsonnd. " land/' " and the or Jtp In the i of the obtain personal terminations j^ mi and j^v hi. Of these terras. shi. Ablaut and Umlaut are those which is. merely the Sanskiit Guna. no influence over the preceding syllable. Jnlaut.o ^* is . 42. thus the bases of nouns in It is The expression of the text "iiufsert umlautenden Einfluss. tlieir use fully justified by the necessity and the practice of a language which possesses a singular and inexhaustible power of progress and adaptation to exigencies. not jwjas^ maihi. chiefly. that the uncouthness of such In our language. nam. Inlaut we believe. 10. nima. througli which that sound becomes more homogeneous with the vowel of the termination. '* extract from our author's excel- work the Vocalismus. jwaj^ mahi. ^^ y sometimes also exerts that disturbing influence on a following a5 a or Mi d. in the course of this work. or of i. totally different ' sound . for Umlaut is a mere affection. Veda termination ^f^ mast . I take ' . same manand in the xi a. ner. or inflective bases. but of the case. and consequently effects their transmutation * into . which distinguished from the influence produced by tlie by the term Ablaut. if not alone are used by our author. is vowel. >i^lojA3^ daikhyu." liardly possible to render into English without circumlocution certain terms wliich the philologers of German}^ have invented and adopted to exfjress the various modifications of the Indo-Germanic vowel . which is equivalent to the insertion of a vowel. 'I took.3^ CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. without any recognised external cause. stands for ^s^ a-aya. could hardly be compensated their use . Ablaut. corresponds to the genitive a-hS. by any advantage them from and we therefore purpose. and Into be derived sound. to retain in their German shape. a change of the root Umlaut by the fact that it is not of the vowel of the termination . in ^^waj not ^wjas aih^. and their distinction from each other. without any recognised external . in general. Whether these terms have in them- selves the virtue of suggesting to a Teutonic ear the particular modification of the vowel to which they are respectively applied if to may be doubted . Umlaut. in the first person plural. The meaning of the two former. may lent best be explained by the following p. as it seems to ns compounds Upsound. such as. and. Auflnut. province" . it makes room for another. of the stems. as in Gothic. while in the Ablaut. disturbance {Triibung) of the primary sound. the student and the teacher they answer the purpose of a memoria is technica. where any of these terms occur in the original.

64. after the suppression of the a.- paySmi. did not origi- nally possess such the contrast between the present and the past seems is upon it.pj^(^ thrishum." Further illustrations of these latter remarks are to be found in the Note 4. we seek for the radical vowel in the present or the preterite. 9aj» vam becromes ^^ uin. " cjuartumr from Aj^jrJ^^ rya. which it diplithongizes it- as in Greek. with the verb. j^jA3i^AJ2)Au^AX5 dldpayiili. and after the same analogy. AJ/o yo. partem^ ^^t^i>^(^M^ llirishva. however. aj^^ ya before 9 m. which. 963. but only receives an increment.Trans. 9^Z)^^ tuinm. there a difference between the Indian ." ])ecause I thus we find ^nJAsjSAJAj^j* frddaem^m. in the present singular becomes rsy^ ye. for instance. 39 of form. is c and v with f. however. and. Guna and Vriddhi inflections present no indication of this sig- nificatory power. power to rest for grammatical purposes. which I think can shew that the Ablaut also is produced by the particular quality and condition of the termination. Compare didpaydmi. Whether. Guna and it Vriddhi and Gernianic Ablaut for the Ablaut has acquired for itself a significatory if. the change is equally one quite different from that of the Indian it is Gana or Vriddhi. becomes ^ t. .. in the genitive. (fjevya.o^^ajq)juj^au 6i6. Xetn-a.o e. ^I rimqfcT dldpayati. p. " fpiartam partem^" from aj»j^j/0 A5»i:^>7c3A5^ chathrushva. from m^^l^H prddesayam. the old Sanskrit ya or TU yd of the fourth and tenth classes. In Sanskrit. with self. and in this respect. with the Sanski-it ^lifiqitlfn WTHT^ltrftr dfdpnyasi. and there are indications that the latter express* d by this change. after its influence has . which Professor B ipp has appended to the above passage of the Vocalismns. transformed a into . merely in the character of diphthongizing modifica- accompany those which do bisrnify grammatical relations. In respect of signification. This appearance to be thus understood. likewise. is chat brush um. that the antecedent semi-vowel. The ^^ y*. tui- according to rule. j9. and ^^Ti. wlule in Sanskrit the root vowel is not in fact changed. j^feyA^^MJ y^-hi. and that increment always one and the same.CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. jwAJi^AjaJjuu^juj dldpayeui. * Cf. is often itself suppressed " I shewed. In the last syllable. passes into its corresponding vowel. instead Jf j^WAj^H) ya-/. according to the rule of §. must be a long aj one. N01& . " lertiam We find. that a positive cliange .i. temal cause . but. therefore. tions. even : as I conjecture.

from appended thence. 129. becomes.) .). also. syllabic To this. Thus the Sanskrit "3^ (from "^and ??.] nants* gives up . that to the originally vowelless r an e dadaresa.t) y between > u. ^9m^m^ ddtare. takes the vo^:>>^ duyS. " vidi. mostly avoided is so. " fire." instead of 7aj^am^ ddtar "Giver"." form 30. tion of In Zend. The genitive termination ^ sya the appears everywhere reduced into j^w hS. for instance. Ed. and w. accus.) (§. transpose AJ? ra . Gram. 63. also. : indeed. 9j/a»>aj/oau dthra- vanem. ajjjjAj^aj^ . where an w h is not introduced according to sonant is §. Hence.) (§. rr. ^ swa its y is sometimes. at the beinto ginning of compounded forms. 34^. imperative ending 43. amount to a law." . interposed between two vowels (Gram. "two. which in the weak cases (§. Crit. ^ u.'''' " vkHf^ or the r is the same manner as is usual in the Sanskrit for Crit. r. according to the rule of the tenth would be formed from f^ dis. in ^|t dadarsa. contracts itself into )>7>(aMi ulhurun or )>?>M<^Mi 28. r.. the union of 7 r with a following con. (Gram. In the middle of a word. "Creator. for instance. Crit. vocalization of the 44. The semi-vowels ^^ y and » V are generally suppressed after preceding conso[G. n but this does not uniformly occur. seems to " I say ^ after the in Zend. j/A5»fev hvare. rnruy^ (^. the interposi. aj»a57^au dthrava. /m»w hvar. / r. this syllable and thus aj^Gam dthra. j^^^^/^9 and the neuter form tv ^ dui.). ." stands instead of liu see § 7-^1. transposed. "priests" (nominative). instance. 311. 310. and a following S. p. "Sun. 271. from the theme /aj»?aj^au dtorvnn. class. into u.40 CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS.) dthaurun. We have already remarked with respect to that at the end of a for word an c e is always appended to it. bruv^. 55. 48.) the avoidance of the union of t r with two followins: consonants. 42. thus. In Sanskrit. for euphony. pertains the fact that poly2kj stems (or uninflected bases) in ar.

^ (Vend. 39.) After other consonants than * By Stlimme. 18.uj^ r/d j". " we. times. that in the Zend the r. the author here evidently means the crude derivative words which serve as Stems or Bases to inflected words. it exists in the modern Persian. »." "given. which I. according to §. and the combination M&^xiars only as a termination. —Editor.. so that » never find accompanies an antecedent 6 M. Olsh." from the root to the Sanskrit nora. rs. only Thus ^»q^sj dadhvdo. to a Sanskrit ^ dh. Ed. while an original (^dh. forma dthravu. tive) . " viam. corresponding appears in conjunction with (sxf. "strong". and The Sanskrit ^ v has three representatives od*. assumes. and in the middle of a word before ^ t . ren- der by w. On the other hand we » much oftener than cjd*after the aspirated medials of this class. nevertheless. "soul" Aj»/>Aj»' haurva. or those in combination with inflectional only followed by ». . kc. ^a3a>(p . see §. urvan. seems to be identical with the Sanski-it ^ qT V<n adhwdnom. of frequent occurrence in theVendidad. . It is worthy of remark. 43-3 dthar* The combinations ^^7 ry. dthravanem. I since here no a precedes the 45. 9. for instance. in the Zend. As»A5^ tava (tui) = 'in tava. (nomina. . that 9 corresponds to the Sanskrit of words t- only at the beginning. and shews itself in words which are not of Semitic origin. stands for_^ c? (5) . ^<^iMi^i^Madhuanem. "ploughed" but jto>7<3Aj^ chaihrus. p. Aj^^^Ailp vairya. which. The two first are so far distin- guished from each other in their use. "having created. is only graphic. " fire" . answers ^fT^ dadivan while the accusative. most frequently occurs after <3th. dthartanam. . Mi^Mi nars. " whole" (?) jio^aj^au atars. »?> urv. are only permitted where a vowel follows. as in Chinese the while. This distinction. thus dthra for dthar. t. is want- ing. t The root corresponds to the Sanskrit dhd. p. va^m. with Burnouf. not dtJiarva. and » only in the middle for instance. /ajOjuu 41 [G." for jtvsAwAj^ chathurs. 637. " the jm»9> fourth". i^^^h^^ tuiryn.CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS."" = ^^^ vaynm. Perhaps the law here obtains that the (^dh. as Rask justly oxf. "of a man" " four aj^j^o^aj^ harsta.

has introduced an j >? into the base. signify "reverence." water. can hardly signify any thing ^»^m else aovS yamd than " ambos f venerans Amschaspanlos'' (non conniventes Sanctos." . in other company. have still another position to mention.." t Biirrioufreadscwi {i. " both.bearer. jUJAs aihi sometimes substituted. is the very common is preposition joj^Oaj. vv. 41.vowel. see Nalus. appears only as \^Al has weakened itself to "^^ioxfici/d.) Anquetil interprets (T. i w much prevails between two is or J y. namely. >? may v. but only qjcT » V . 3."" (?) daiwis. Vendidad (Olsh. neuter dual form of which p. "\vater." jtojaxOAj^ daiwiH however. and I prefer the variation MiJ»^^^^ daivis. in which [G. in which position in tlie [G. where j^^o^jqJjj kji^J^aj ^jmmj^ anieshi speniS. Ed. "a. i also that oxf w only *' can be allowed ? Another is. the base "^W iJjha. i according to §. itself in Another instance in which hh has weakened the Zend into a semi. in the Zend. aquisr as dative and ablative an interesting form which long remained a mystery to me. and. 28. ap. and ^^ p.] oxTm? appears not to be admitted. " It springs from the root q)aj water" in such a manner. 44. " cloud. aiwi. by "tons deux. p. "over") and makesi/usne." for w^^ ab-bhra. Ed. namely. 23)." not only in the AJ»<i>A5 shape Aii> uba. seems me is it dubious. but which I am now in condition to explain. hy6.) ovS.bearing. 45. 472.e. in this respect. Thus we read jtvsjaicO^ » v is not allowed. 88. which elsewhere.''* We r. but also in that of I aova (§. which. that after wj^r suppression of the p. to as derived from dn^a through the suffix j i. before 9 in which connection the softer w is more appro- * Compare.nom. worshipper of Daeva. on the other hand. ^m abhra.42 <3 f/i CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS and Q^dh. and obtained the form (mTio in virtue of its position between for It two J Ts. p.* the Sanskrit termination hhyas. think I recognise in the Vend. be appropriate here to remark that hh appears in the Zend.). «^Aic«OA5 aiivyo. " beggar. 25. Or between i and instance plural .. p.] the semi-vowel ojf iv appears. however. the S. 26. in the enfeebled shape of » We find.''and the Zend A5^c/cjAM<i-iereto. and jcvsjoxOaj^ the nominatives driwis.

I as the English w. 28. for instance. by the influence of the concluding first converted 47. which often occurs. 270. pronouncing the Zend as the English f. is to the pronunciation of the ad* w. from ^T»^ sundwa. Sanski'it The in^ p. with (§. \i imtrya be not derivable from a we miLSt read AJ^^^3d> JJ Theme ^WVjj iutcri. *^. also converts the a of the preceding syllable into u. 13. nicating an aspiration to a preceding consonant (§. that the semi. appears in Olshausen. or Mp9>M^ tauruna (§. as well as a»«>j3^ lispa. murd. already else- where ascribed to the corresponding .) commuand we and find ourselves have ascribed a similar influence to jt^ s and t n. howbeit sparingly exerted in virtue of which. "thing. suicraya.. for which.CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. "all.) .).vowels are fond of . by the influence of this u. priate than the harder is 43 this case » the feminine believe juLj7axr>j3 The only example of r. ad" Rask reverses the powers. has."* with Buruouf. as determ as»7>aj»» haurva. to Burnouf wus the remark on the fact. have not detected in the v and unless the traction similar to that w a power of atwhich belongs to the 5^ y. and ^ [G. 41. compelled to assign the same also to the sutcrafun. pecu- liar to the Zend." I have. hence. the base )Xi»/M^Mi aiarvan. for instance. 129. n.'' in the that yjot? weak cases (see §. however. Then ne often find the instrii- meutal AJi^/ad>JJ suvnrya. 46.) * The accusative ^•^/Qxf>M the variation ^v>}j^> jj su/ranm. which also akin to the Sanskrit ^ v after consonants. in Zend. "young. " sword.] taruna. Ed. 40.^ scribed in §. " priests. "all.'' "riches. and the letters 9 and » 46. I think. after r. after can has contracted itself into y> un. "shining. is derived from the Sanskrit TC% sarwa. itself into >^\l^ v6hu.). A>y>7>^ turiina vasu. Crit. 40. the analogy of 44ft^O sundari. vowel > u a power of attraction." "dagger." is." u.>/>a5^jiu ataurune for K?y>/Aj^juj atarune. however. (Graram. in the dative. it that accords with the Enjjlish iv."' in which we As we recognise the Sanskrit ^suMra.

and t in Zend." Xi^i^j'^<3 thritya. when followed by any consonant not /aj^ sibilant. exposed to this influence."' (accus. m s has spread wider in Zend than that before several consonants." (^oR viika. csaya and comes from the root ^Mi(S^ 49. In connection with the menon. for instance. We have. thus. is written m in the latter. ^Tw^ Jagmushi The has changed is dental medial free from this influence. and we find y often preceded by the unhitya. pronounced in Sanskrit with a gentle aspiration. dam. " beast. on tlie a limitation of this appearance. above rule stands the pheno- >^^(3g/g9 merethyu. "the third'': on the other hand. medial however. for instance. or also. in Aj^^^q^a "the second." Sansk.s7a. in §." pasu. ^^^^wajaccx^ csahyd adduced by Rask. and the word [G. thus. as in the abovementioned instance of jmjhmushi. "two. an h is usually placed. jiw^g^g^ kerefs) ." corresponds to the Sanskrit AJ^^tVAJM^cS^ iwayd. ^. A5yo'j9 vehrka.H.) We come now to the sibilants. Its exact pronunciation as&igns it is scarcely ascertains. we have mntyu.) "to die' body" (nom. adduced. p.(3:^ csi. 3S. 9ji»>^ drujem.44 labial nasal.ia5'/'wiM. other hand. " wolf. able. a that before r. "the mar (w mn. AJ^g7g(p vereka. The guttural is." are common itself to both languages. the feminine participle itself to ^co>>99-^ii. The first.) not Mi(S^>')(^^dhrucs. is less The the / aspirating virtue of the ^^ y r potent than that of and t\ (mT w. In this respect in Sanskrit . " to rule. aspirated for instance. . As^^wAJwio j^tji "through thee. " death." (f^j kshi. for we find A5»^ dva." saia.) The semi-vowel y which only appears be- fore vowels.. CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS by which. "death. Ed. w A . a palatal. ten. ^<^iy}p(^dhrvjem." from the root ^jqJ/w^^ keJirpem. sometimes attracts an tliivahya. for instance as^waj^ mahrka." Mi(S^>9^ drucs. . Anquetil that of the ordinary It in general occurs in those positions in which the Sanskrit in corresponding words has ' its ^r s . irm 48. which we express by s in Sanskrit. *a demon. stands for Aj^iA5. or ^^'^^'^^^ kerepem. 47.] csahya (nom. " hundred.

of bases in ^^ nt o) The semi-vowel » ." vispa. masc. It is further to be remarked. " to purify." (?) with ^F*i skandha . in aj^^^c)j3 spenta. " all. v is regularly hardened into jiua)jj p after ja s hence. juiyjj snd. have originally been szavta-s indicates. as well at the beginning as in latter place. "the stars. ossium" with -^aflJil asihi dental or ordinary s Jf. " shoulder. 51." with ^n snd^ "to bathe. which must use." with ^fw asti. t and pretty universally at the beginning of words before and p. for instance. to do with a dialectical preference for the sound as happens with the German s in the Suabian dialect. ^S^ asica. " horse. " canis^ [G. ition is easy to the and which the Lithuanian From Greek the Zend ajq)j3xj is aspa^ the trans- itttto^. and -jjj — it corresponds to the Sanskrit Compare ^ij^juj^jj stdrd." corresponding to the Sanskrit sud. supplies For the Sanskrit lingual two letters. . according to Rask. only au d. '^." with wifij sfdumi. 48. pronounced like the . the Zend The s.] "«gT spdnem A5a)a3Aj " canem. . that "»4 s J3 occurs also for this pre- at the end of words after an. * It is which he accounts for by the circumstance anj mark. We therefore write that these sh. and the middle of words aj a. j^^ms^m kdomi. TBTfTT sicdnam. "I praise. " holy. ajqJjj^ spd. sibilant ^^ sh. is ordinary and tlierefore like the Sanskrit dental and marks it this while j^ has the sound of "^ = shi « ^ by a stroke of aspiration. j^mm asti. Ed. 45 ^ k. is fV^ visiva. which less obvious in the case of the Indian asua.* Rask observes . "he is. ^ after t." not corresponded to by a Sanskrit t?RT ^rcnnfo. nom." We might infer from this cirs. namely. two letters are often inter- changed in MSS. however." aspa. —in the an y n. in this Translation given sh without Sh denotes the Sanak. The occasion sents itself in the 50." with <HKM^ sfdras. fii-st. ^jyju3a)j3 p. ^'^^jjas " aj^^asjjj skanda^ ahnnm. j^ and j^.CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. cumstance that s J3 was pronounced as a simple yet it may have sh. sing.

On the other hand. "beast. karsta. xsjXi^^xiMi sayana "camp. it from ^o^aj^ barant* word " six. for instance. t. and that the ParsJ copyists have been long better acquainted with the Pehlevi than the Zend. would. appear must otherwise have been changed . but yet only. [G.46 that M5 is CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS." MiAi»Mi<S^ csvas. Mi almost everywhere corresponding to We find. §. since tlie theme of the word does not for nd i. used in the Pehlevi for sh. in the middle of a word. but does not here replace a Sanskrit shash." for c^'g In the word oj s. and the variations appended. qc.e." Mi(S^'>2^ " daemon. that although in etymological respects m5 as well as skrit 1? ctj corresponds to the Sanis . the principal position of Mi 25. sh. " ploughed. sait^. In the s baruns. Ed." Mi/M^^^^ Mars. among ^ c. At the end of words. pasus. San- skrit ^nR sayana 54.] ^ s. namely. ^ s into i^ sh . but the original of Mi s for "^ ^ sh of "^^ sh before strong consonants. after such letters as. also." drucs. change an original other than a and d. t( g." it is true a terminating Mi stands after a. the very usual superlative suffix corresponding to the Sanskrit ^? are aj^j^o^aj^ ishtha. and which requires attention in the cases of other classes of letters. i^ sh. (§. after vowels c and after the consonants and 7 r. the nominative ji\3>J3AjQ> MiJ^J>s<:^ paitis. 50 t t. numeral * I retain here the original in use. however. according to Rule 10 1(*) of my Sanskrit Gram<S^ mar." jj-^^Aii from the theme \i>2^ druj. indeed.) before strong con- sonants and at the end of words a position of much importance in the Zend."'' Mi stands irregularly for which latter was to be anticipated from the (cf. As evidence of the use we may adduce aj^^»j ista (i. Mi s corresponds to the Sanskrit 49. p. "Lord. in the Codex edited by Burnouf. In this respect Mi rethe gutturals among and among the sembles. We recognise. Other examples krishta. from the text edited by Olshausen of a part of the Vendidad. Hence. "bearing. tcrros). the dentals. nasals principally ^ n.) In the fem. "fire.

33. ^ sw to (§ 35.CHAEACTERS AND SOUNDS. semi-vowels. worthv of remark. that the the guttural. sentative of the Sanskrit si! but of the pure and dental 7«.. here in a position (after ^ i) in ^^ which the Sanskrit favours the . " horunh' and ^F^ ei^shu. 52. i*y sh does not unite itself with an antecedent c but for the Sanskiit text. deszine. \>7j.J be looked for in the shape of m i. and the third person connected with j^jA?i^Aj9'i»Aj. in etymological respects.SM^j^ t'lsard. compare aj^^i^aj^ aelaeshanm and a5»j^. >i)<^>iMi(^ kshatrai "king. 51. fev A is never. The •^. 53. for instance.oaj^ajxj ait'thhva. as well by the preceding c as by It is. however. the repre"^ h. is frfya tisras. cshnadma. reject. as we might expect from certainly as not to be ascribed to the original existence of a. however. p." with T^^ manushya. which. taj stands for the Sanskrit ^ sh be- [G. Before vowels." A5^4'-'^yey5^ it. on a double at p.) it is p. for 4'^wjioJ^ tisard stands for «^7av?j^ ihrd. while before and such con[G. "the jj^oaj right hand""). and invariably becomes »».'' becomes oshi. conversion of ?r s into and on this rests the Zend does not. J^9 and prefer the variation given s here prolonged. (§. <S^ Yet . w ksh we find almost everywhere in Olshausen's cs. is form 'i'^-w-H?-}^ tisard. the >o might seem questionable. however.oAj l»iim»l » v . 47 "three*" (Olsh. ^^jTff " deiter^ becomes Ajyji^yAs^ dashina (Lithuan. Ed. stand as §.cy(3^ cshnadmayeiti. "man. "eye. and appears as j^ For instance. the following n. 52.) takes the shape ^c kh. and without variation. dalshina. sonants as cannot unite with a preceding h. *' in his^-^ nuishya. Sanskrit ^ fish in many Zend words abandons sh. That it V^-^'ftO-*^ tisharo. 53. ilant ^ s. seems only to occur at the end of possessive compounds (Bahuvrihi). is we must. and is l? ac- becomes w sh h. 49. however. this letter possibly because n. p. for the Sanskrit form cordinor to §. and ^[f^ akshi. 26). Tlie word of frequent occurrence.." Sanskiit t^ "a man of the war- like or royal caste. The . 50 ] fore vowels and the semi-vowels ^^ y and 9"»'itOA?Aj^. Ed. since ground. with eteshdm. in Zend. csnihra. j^^ hence.

" per- term of frequent occurrence in the Vendidad after the ^j^." ." ahi. w replaces the Sansk. JttJW Compare. " deceased. 29) analogy of m^mj7j §. ^^^J^Jauj^ ^^^Vi^-iJ^iCp and ^^^ew^-w^l^ shdistem. word t{T^ it.v. " to touch. the long a pre§. " his. In many is instances of Sanskrit roots beginning with ^ the corresponding grounded on the change which [G. ^^ swar. ^ we must remember that the Latin siccus indicates a Sansk.48 roots CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. 80." m ^H ^^^^ fnfiff sd. " heaven/' ^ swa. with the . 54. in the word aj^jiv5>»' huska. 28. and taken the shape xil^fM^i haznnra. 62. ^ ^ detected ^T^ spri's. " seven." " to this. shdisiem — ^^^mjjmm shdisHm. for instance. 58. " tongue. for instance— SANSKRIT. sents a difficulty . "they. and replaced hj I ^ h (§." in the f^ siddlia. The word as aj>>^j»' hizva.) Olshausen notifies as variations of ^g^ojjjjuo^o shdisfim. " suii. ^r^oii If. according to shaidh. " dry. "thousand. ^'^^P^asi. Crit r. sdistem. wise in Zend than with <dM ZEND.) Thus I believe I have clearly ascertained the existence of the Sanskrit participle fected. for. susjika. which begin with sp and sph have not yet been by me in the Zend but I am convinced that .] Zend form may be effected on an initial ?r.MjA«j^ shdistem. . the influence of certain prepositions. larly ^ s.). do not remember to have met with an instance of the Sanskrit the combination 9w hr." sapta." A5»»' hva. deserves if mention. sahasra. Sansk." could not begin othersp." s. In all these forms. been use c regu- answers to ^ s. " thou art." 'Sl^ astndi. because the sibilant quality of the j is treated ^ s. hd." which might give occasion for has rejected the sibilant in the last syllable." (p.s by (Gram. give the form (o^as^i) and this.jJiu^^A) ahmdi." from fif^jihwa. ^?j^»w hvare.. Ed. iK'g/g^AJW hakereU jfeVAj "once. A5^Q>A}»» hapta. iristot from (3j7j iritli (see 99. p. f^ shidh would suffix ta.

What Anquetil existe p. . 29. The nominative pronominal base sya (Graram. et la rende favorable. phenomenon " ei. ^f^ojJJAut^ (vol. Ajfevju/^^Ajj^) usazayanha. this pronoun. 279) translates. 26S). converted into vfshya. p.) p. "iut\'^ " iibi "). " taking the form for instance^ find roMi gi (more correctly. the preceding word zemo shdistem? ubi (quid) ^ . p. corresponds to the Sansknt ^#ajd«("i//e. when follows j^. (und iienn ihm. 137).>^n3>*o yezicha hi. vous qui etes la purete mhne. it as I can hardly doubt. perhaps. r. A. ."" " mihi. guu^ ydo) daregha akarsia (text. If.CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS A5^jjjA5ia) shalsta. An w h standing between a or d and a following .c»' Aj^." in the is Zend pronouns we find ajw he."^ and if. Ed. " mei. "k which founded on a lost Sanskrit i d it me. " fjusi'^ (cf. "thou wast born". o. ^j^ shdo (thus I with the variation). Noit zi im z&o shdo yd (text. : ro^ip shS). 37 of Olshausen while on the same page we [G. runs in the original (Olsh. lies '* For not this earth which long unploughed/' 56°).] "and read if to him.o>*o yezi. no exception or e. in the Veda dialect. is under the influence of and we see in Rosen's specimen. neut. 6.. when it follows the particle ^ u. vowel this is usually preceded by a guttural nasal (9 n) appendage seems indispensable I remember.'' if. Juste juge du monde qui par voire puissance. in 49 the nom.bonum?") 55. and we find. shdi&thn. Aj^en^^J^As adarsta). Crit. for . In the following page we find a similar phenomenon. pure! primum hujus terrcE perfectum (. at and least. p. after the analogy of rule lOl" of I have detected a similar for my Grammar. — — in cases wl)ere the following vowel is We of the find. while in the active the personal ending jw hi present admits no nasal . quelle est la premiere chose qui plaise a cette terre {que nous kabitons). at p." "iZ&i"): aso^^m^ "^•C^ gu^lJO £"^ 9-^ J3 '^•*Y/ M^^/M^M. -ja3»^j3aj 9"g4/A5«n?AStt ^m^ms^ Ddtare gaSthananm astvaitinanm ashdum! kva paoirim anhcto "Creator mundorum existentium. and accus.'' w <^. Bumouf. for instance. 63.

or where. is remarkable that where. for lunam. and ^T^n mdsam. " lunam. p. " luna an uninflected nominative. from al) : this ancient termination as appears in Zend. the termination all ds.) consonants (§. the t Burnouf is of a different opinion as to the matter in question." is followed in all similar instances for ^rra dsa "fuit. " we find a)»>^^ donha. and the sibilant thus appears in double form. which in Sanskrit only before sonaii t 25."^ ^f^^S^^ mdonhem . as above observed. 54. and ^a. which in Sanskrit s. the Sanskrit Zend the form s . but everywhere preserves [G. in Zend. s. j^^Mi(^>^ bacsanhi. Ed. always under the shape of 6 On the other hand. The termination as. so that in the two last examples the Sanskrit sibilant is represented by a vowel and a consonant.] its I fusion in the shape of ^ u) . jtt^ " mds. " lunaque. To illustrate this by some examples.* that in Sanskrit the suppression of a terminating s after d had preceded the vocalization of this s into u. " tliou givest. and I consider myself thereby strongly supported in a conjecture enounced before my acquaintance It with Zend. before the above mentioned substantial is changed into together with these into a d> representatives of the its evaporation o is also retained. and contracts the latter together with the preceding a into ^ 6 (compare the French au.— 50 CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. " instance. an ^ » precedes the s w h which springs out of the the enclitic particle jj s. as also in Prakrit and Pali. for in . for example. albeit torpid and evanescent. before sonant letters entirely abandons the in Zend o (for has never allowed the concluding sibilant entirely to expire." not jw^uu anhi. in which o represents the Sanskrit jtt^ mds-cha." jj^ajaocS^avi bacsahi." gives us aj^^^km^ mdoscha. dissolves its Tf into "^ u. " The analogy . rule 78 of the Lalia edition of Sanskrit Grammar. ^nriR • Observations. syllable ds. and earum^^ 9^a5»<^^ donhahm'\.^^ dsdm. receives in for the s belongs to the root ^9 mdo. thou art. s of the aj^ cha. j^vaj ahi. of mdonhem. 56*).

^r^ aham. V^ ^nT sahasra. " <lf Hi vahati. iiJd^Jihivd. " to please. " In mdcngho. " to adore. clothed two forms . he carries. for example. the first the Nouveau Journ.** ^^ hasta. and the d sound sup- 53. 51 < Two z. Ed." jj zi. The Indian g6. itself in as also in Greek. " he strikes. " arboresque. &>. " great. Compare. Sometimes _^ z appears is also in the place of the San- skrit "Sfj. (accus." sprino-s from the Sanskrit root '^jush. pro- nounced dsch. e2 . hanti. ZEND." AjTjmf^AJW haznnra.'^ j^jaj^a>9 vazaitL " bears. '' lunaque. JT^H "tongue. in Zend. " for." aj>>^j»' hizva. 5a) mahaf.' he says." f^ hi." j^^jxif zainti.)- Thus ^My^ ." ^SJ-" ^^-^'^ aj^jjav zasia. Asiatique. speaking of the relation of mdohho to manaitho. 55. SAIfSKRIT. " hand. so that the sibilant portion of this letter.) bos and ferrch has. "I. " thousand. which never corresponds Zend w h." urvdraosh-cha.CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. and of which the former was probably pronounced [G." Thirdly. torn. Etymological ly this letter answers to the ^h for the most part. 342. there place the Sanskrit *."^ S^-w^ mazo (from mazas. like the p. to the Sanskrit "TStyaj yaz. is perhaps this difference. pressed (see §. which is easily accounted for by the relationship between g and j." answers ajj^'^a)^ zaosha.) ace. "to please or gratify. iii. namely. alone represented.] French and may therefore be replaced by that Sanskrit to the letter. withoat noticing the analogies which occur in cases of repetition. mdosh-cha. the Zend z represents also the Sanskrit xr g. (§. that the ngh does not re- for this letter has already become o in consequence of a change of frequent occurrence which we hare lately noticed. 67. 9c»«3ttrjA>9 58. mazanhem. sibilants remain to be mentioned. p. gam.

of inflection.. in Zend. for instance. every organ has not but that here. "^tht you. «)o gdm and is of less frequent use. because for them a knowledge of the is system of the other sounds of all indispensable. for instance. Greek or signification has maintained itself in Zend. that in Zend its particular nasal . " knee. gdus." still We have till to elucidate the nasals. ill thought. Ed. as in >yg«)o zhenu. We must first mention a difference from the Sanskrit. For the sigriification " earth " the Greek z. "I glorify". ^'^^zahm agrees. In this its manner y and ^ are so contrasted. and fiovs and . in . ''^tVi^gdus . in respect 7^1/. ^^^as^ju^ which we have dus-matem. ^j^(3^^eb>^ duzh-uctem. ^g^^AJi^^y^j hushyantcm : .. «>a zh has becomes ^f«Jo_j>>*o yuzhem.] correspond to the Sanskrit nom.] find. Sanskrit '^[V^jdnu.62 CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. *'five". Ed. and that these mainly depend on the circumstance whether n precedes a vowel or a consonant. is jfhr gdus. has preserved the guttural. at the end of words the latter only in the middle of strong consonants. that the first finds place chiefly before whole j and half vowels. also. [G. " so also sometimes. postponed now." (vos). but in has given jk\)>ju5^ way to the labial . yuyam. ^j zdo supposes an Indian form ttw gds. it stands as a terminating letter in some i prefixes. and corresponds to the Sanskrit »i^ j. "ill spoken": on the other hand.ucguj^ gdos. for in the accusative. «b zh has skrit xi arisen out of the San- y. two main distinctions are established." Finally. p. " 60. in respect of n. nounced like the French _/. 56. as closely as possible with ttth 59. which in Zend replaced by The nom. 57. JCO-5Aj^«Jojy "he carries out". many words corresponds to the Latin semi-vowel . the place of the Sanskrit nizhbaraiti. and also [G. p. Sometimes. and derives from it its own developement. we write that as the French j in It is observable. We on the ^^i^^^xi/Ms^^M^hnnkdray^mi. Ai^^Ai(d pancha. sprung from the sound of the English^'. dental ^ s after and u thus. Thus. and was probably proit zh.

t^jt^jnoit. yg^^Aj/Aii xii^jxi "they might bear". "pedmn. and that the mination of the third person plural. the »• h." [G. to the potential. we conjecture to which is always involved with aj a." difference Concerning the difference between y and not recognised in European alphabets it ^ —a is — probable that ." probably from the Sanskrit »ni ^'aj>.jM. ju^Ca'-gi^ mahthra.) " barayen. with a passive signifi(3 //} "regnansi'^ accus. pp. -»». 40. ^"^i^xi^ dadhanm. a part of the middle future of the root yAJ< zaru " to beget. perhaps an equivalent the Indian Anuswara. and before the aspirates and \f\ for instance. M'^^^mmsCS^ csayanSf . " speech. xstnA (nom.] Sans. We find this letter. Still feebler to and more undecided than ^. WH an. 53 man". " not". before a §. Ed. "mouth. anya. AjyAU^Asi^w^ zanhyamdna. which springs from Zend has two characters. as it seems to me.).. first.. CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. "to pray. would appear to have applied itself more easily to every organ of the following letter. e. being always fenced in by strong consonants. 58. ^^^^xi^^Mx^<Si csayantem cation {"qui nascetur. Sanskrit W^^p^^ndaddm ." but. j and jS. which we write an.^ terp. 61. 103. rn^j^nti^pdddndm . is placed as an euphonic addition before the ^ s. provided the a do always appears as a double nasal nasal. 28 yA>9 and . and which seems from its form to have been a fusion of have been the nasal AJ and y. S. precative. before sibilants. for intance. the Sanskrit termination We '^rnr have here to observe that dm is always changed to ^'^aiim in Zend. not pass into 62. must have had a duller and more suppressed sound than the freer y and by reason of this weak and undecided character of its pronunciation." from the root man >ya"»jj»^yan/ViM. which. like the Anuswara.. "I gave. "the other. 56. y^ aniu* For the according to §. before w h. terminating 9 m and y w." Secondly. Other hand.''^ Vend. and . g yjyAj ^ojgja) pddhanahm. to both which * The termination aim from dn belongs subjunctive. and with the nasal inserted.

" Here. also. " water. " I spoke. which is only a nasal precursor of the following w h. What phonetic difference existed between ^ and jS we cannot venture to pronounce." I consider. and. be remarked." ^_)>yA5^ body.) the aj other hand. mullus related to ^t(^ bahula. as a diphthong. du. hswji^a*^*^} yenhS. pron.^^ which often occurs. after i and e. vdri. Anquetil assigns the sound ng. and the Gothic ^/m. answers to the Sanskrit ^ du. but as often without j i. " speak. »»^ mukha. however. In thus. Crit. For instance. lengthens the vowels ^^(. guki^^ anhdo. however.'' in Zend becomes ^7^ mru mradt. sometimes takes the place of At . >x\i ^>jm^m ashdum. least the root j|^6m. on the contrary. as ^oyjSjM ainhdo. and with ^ n. in order to avoid giving the appearance of a </ preceded by a guttural n to this guttural. Greek iroKv^. on the It weakens (see 30.pjj<i<i> and u. in the relative plural nom. genitives. I have done the same in my reviews in th& Journal of Lit. n." from the bases j^jajq) paiti. the 64. tanum.] much otherwise the Latin mare to the Sanskrit mix. ^ comes always follows a and do . is " pure. p. "qui. for which the occasion is rare. mouth. As to the difference in the use of these two letters." related to the Latin bucca and not [G. a preceding vowel. " hujus. . the last element of which not capable of further lengthening • Bumouf also writes the first of these ng.* We write them n.'"' and in the fem. " he as ^^aj7^ mrndm. Anijuetil as we have seen. while Rask compares its j»^ with the Sanskrit palatal s^ n. A concluding ^ m operates in a double §.64 CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. tliis contradiction to rule we find the vocative of frequent occurrence. manner on a to f e « . jS. >yA5^ tanu. that 6. and illustrates sound by that of the Spanish and Portuguese 63. for instance. 59." «>4*xj/9 spoke " " : in a similar manner is the Indian . "the Lord. " the paiti'm. Ed. assigns the same pronunciation to each. The it labial nasal ^ m does not differ from the Sanit skiit jt: must.

according to Grimm.^ Labials: <ip. We give here a complete summary au d of the Zend characters. also the Compounds ew* treating for w'aj ah.vowels j^. and ^ m. is a contraction theme yAj»AJi^A5 ashavan with an irregular conversion of the concluding 65. Latin. */. (the . 60. c e 6i . > tififo. mT w. an (be- w h. 5 e. a. . J i.' CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. semi-vowels. <Si ^do.vowels. fore sibilants. s). is always short. The form in 55 of the question . j^ n (between j or jo i. f» t (before con- sonants and at the end of words). «Jo rA (or like the y n (before vowels. » and ^ h. 9 m. [G. . m^ s. i'). Simple Vowels : aj a. and ao : _i &. ^ h. ^ ch. p. 41.p sh. first initial. "a thousand.w n (before strong consonants). it jo S. and between a and w» A). j n into ^ m. nasals. Palatals : ^g. ^ th (before whole and semi-vowels). Ed. but must here devote a closer consideration to the Germanic. .g. and ^en^ for St. before vowels and i^y).*o. and Lithuanian systems of sounds. ^^ y (the two 7. kh (from . We refrain from specially of the Greek. Remark ^Mi 66. the last medial). J^ jam di. ^u Diphthongs Gutturals : : m. 5 (before vowels and ^jo » c (principally before consonants). French J). t:. p gh. and j n). >am du. Sibilants and h: z. <^ 6.] first initial. M a or ^ do. jj^/ t Dentals : ^ (before vowels and ^^ y). o r (the last only after «/)' 9> »V the last medial). answers • E. . (sih. and at the end -gj of words). Senu. Q^dL ^/ (the latter before vowels. ^ n (between r ).g^ sw. d. The Gothic which. semi. ^ Nasals : m s. Aj/jutr^AJW hazanra.

In the Old High p. we ."" as . with the Gothic blindamma. and neuter nom. but before a terminating appears as A concluding ^a it in the Gothic either remains unaltered. Ed. .). voc. the Old High German or seems plural to prefer « to a. 66. " give. in Old this High German. always been retained in Gothic. In the dative plural wolfu-m stands to vulfa-m in the same relation as above sibun to saptan. preposition German — Gothic Sanskrit ^ sa or w^ sam. 66. nom. in their character of degeneration from a has a. of the first plinta " cacam. We believe ourselves authorized to lay down as a s law. in the genitive of the bases in a vulfi-s. 66. or has undergone suppression liquid. but in radical terminations. sometimes converted pare plinte-mu{mo). or disappears: never becomes 68. ki In (our the Old High German ye) inseparable ija.. has often ." Gothic yiba. by the influence of a following been con- verted into u. ace. in Gothic as well as in Sanskrit. thence sing. that is ^ a in polysyllabic words before a terminating i. syllables. however. The precedence cceco. e. completely to the Sanskrit a and the sounds of the Greek € and o are wanting. Compare. been weakened to also. everywhere weakened into th generally or suppressed i. i. which in Sanskrit (xr y) belongs as the same class as r. Also Germany a semi-vowel to y. without^ &\so plinlu.) to ^a/ compare." I The u I person present. 61. or is weakened to o. Respecting the degenera- tion of the original a sound to u compare also §. for instance. unaltered.66 CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS." with ^rSR saptan. The ancient not. as tlie kipu. w = perhaps According to is the relation of the unorganic e to the Gothic a that of the Gothic i the same as Gothic (§. for instance.] German to the Gothic a either remains [G. or is changed by the influence of a liquid this. plintju. Old High German wolfe-s. taihun. sibun. after the a into m or o com. of a liquid has also." with 67. ascribe to influence of the dropped personal letter m. '* seven. W^"^ vnka-sya. ^^ damn. "ten. "caeca. a fem. (§. as well as in i. has often. .

the Old. as in lichy answering to the Gothic pounds. and where d stands at the termination. In the Old High German the Gothic 6. '/. which everywhere latter. For the Gothic i = ^[\d.. For the Sanskrit ^ d. two short vowels ua. in cases of abbreviation. which has no (§. or divides itself into . S stands ^H dm. d is softened to a. and neuter. S corresponds to the Sanskrit as in the gen.'' end of comveis. mein with the Gothic genitive meina. (§. are contracted into except in the gen. and Modern High German have preserved the old d. 70. 6 either p. the nom. into oOf of which. the is concluding WT 4 shortened to a . is and ci." at the " nos. On stress. for instance. plur. fem. also. for instance. appears mostly as In the ei . mir also with the Gothic mis. according to differences of origin. in wir. 57 have an example in which the Gothic-Sanskrit a has be- come 69. Gothic we can usually. Middle. scarcely worth remarking that i we in writing. Modern High German the long i compare. whence giba. lay "like. together with Grimm. as in the case of the other vowels. for instance.). uo prevails Modern High German the two divided vowels u. [G. plural. i. an originally succeeding consonant has been dropped for . i is substituted. declension of the strong form. long a. and the Old and Middle High Ger- man min. almost always substitutes 6 and this o. sing.). in the Middle while in the High German. Ed.] remains as in the gen. Sometimes. i. pliir. designate the elongation of the and other vowels by the addition of an h. CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS.. and. the long as It is i. Thus. the Gothic. in the Grothic. no we match the dat. Sometimes a short leiks. or uo . 118. gibo-s Generally in the Gothic polysyllabic forms. 62. . 4. sing. falls back into the short in a. in the gen. to be considered as long and also in Old and Middle High German so represented. We. plur. masc. designate its prolongation by a circumflex. Grimm's first fem. and accus. For ^ i and ^ i the Gothic has i as Grimm is has sufficiently shewn.

vide versally pronounced translation. per. ist sind.) in order to §. ^i is usually suppressed is. r. but with the Sanscrit T^y. and the Zend. * The Sanskrit *' ruler " . §. 82. iir< obere:. hari. We % have also to observe of the Gothic. and the European languages have adhered Crit. is mostly a weakening High German. 178. t In the text harja .* We may lay [G.. (Gramm. Annot. expressed in Grimm by e. after 42. unless some rare exceptions have escaped me. We retain this character. //. Ttepi. GOTHIC.] German everywhere. hart-m. in the Gothic. SANSKRIT. and as the j is simply and uni- the German j will be represented by y in this .) pari. LATIN. as it has generally has given in Latip Compare.68 71. Sanskrit would require harya-m. way in it down as a rule. cluding s also. While the original ^ a has undergone many alteraGermanic languages. that. in the old text. ufar. 63. fair. eCTi." probably stands for VM^ pdtri^ to the true original. imfi: upari. shew more exactly the connection . meeting the Germanic half way. and still more in Middle and Modern High German. 1. ^figr asti. where it occurs in the accented syllable. and has produced botli have been able to detect no other alterations in i tions in the e i and w. and the Gothic terminating syllable of as. which. ^rf^ff vnep. Where a concluding i occurs in Gothic and Old High German it is always a mutilation of the German j (or y) toge- ther with the following vowel . (§. 12. " father." is a mutilation of haryaA Thus the uninflected The §. f^il pitri. santi. Ed. that final i p. est. has vocalized Gothic accus. so that j. but it never happens. 72. the Gothic i has often degene67. 68. In Old rated into is €. I and i than that is as often suppressed as o . super. evTi. sion of this vowel. after the suppresitself. Before a con. " exercitum. CHAEACTERS AND SOUNDS. sunt. that i is replaced by a heavier vowel a or «.

] an assimilating power. Thus. koch. satyan. in Old High German. has not prevaded the Old High universally erpi . gaste-s. because the Old High German has already. in cases retained in the German Modern High is where the trace of the original vowel . 74. i.CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. y. In the Middle High German.. As i in (§. Thus the plural gesfe.) not only every a by its retrospective action becomes e. and frequently an converted into e. On the other hand. as. which springs from the older of modification limitations. and o. however. 41. Ed. drate-s. reduced to e the belonging to the class. which has degenerated from or a obtains no such power and we find in the genitive singular of the above words. "grace. also. 332. audi. gruoz. " branch. brennen . and o are modified into le. u. and no into ue. p. &c. we place short or . : German not we find. in the Old i High German. ?. is distinctly Where. or an is introduced into the antecedent syllable so also. drcete^ brilche. and from vell'it. the original vowel a. but generally. and which in Gothic remains unaltered. bruch. with few (Grimm. natyan. nennen. the i. "I the second and third persons vellis. Ende. d. k'dche. aggilus. which 73. " lacrymce" not zaheri. 75. at the 59 beginning of a syllable is distinguished by two dots above. the modification of a. leene. for instance. iiamnyan." from anst. drAt. in the declension of the i masculine i class.). 6 into as. e. Engel. for instance. Goth. This law. has both retained and extended the power and assimilation. brannyan. p. the e . inasmuch as. 64. " hereditas*' znhari. by the attractive force of . we find from ant. without any syllable is preceding a of the power of prevention on the part of either a single or double consonant. fall. The e produced in Old and Middle High is by German. from gasf. sefzen." the plural emti. Grimm Zend retains. the corresponding sounds have obtained [G. Ion. gruese. however. arpl. opposed to the change.'' the plural vallUf esti. either extinguished or scarcely felt netzen. u.

also. pokan^r. w from u." (j^JJ-f).) preserved a radical u in the plur. Koche. connected vrfgrra bhav-itum. from Brand. au from au for instance. the Gothic u shews itself. In Old High German trust. Ed. 60 [G. in the more recent dialects. whence bauen. which becomes vocalized. §. Taube (Gothic dubo). relation. trauen. in the Old and Middle High German (Grimm's 9th conjug. Note. Middle High German bv^en. p. in un- accented syllabes. of long u. for instance." nf^iifH dhrav-itum. which "to dwell. in Middle High German as in Modern all High German . Fliige.. the softening of the old u to e. bent. "sweet. bogen. also. of the but replaced it Compare. form of than in its own. Tone. "^^swddu.'* bugans. Bdume.). and we may lay down rule. trauan. the essential part of which corresponds to the Sansk. 41. Thus have the Verbs pret. so that this unaccented e a.— ."" •^dhrii fast" " to stand —from comes ira dhruva. "to be. ^oug.) the Goth. fast. but the Modern High German substitutes au. "31 w.] CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. thus. (§." it seems to me that puam. from short or long a and in the same from o. which is generally short. "to stand The Middle High German continues the Gothic Old High German u." As out of the Sanskrit T u. 51. 6 . 65." with Old High German pukumSs. " fast." and truen. r. bauan. Crit. The example *' adduced shews. and in which the long u may stand as a compensation for the absence of the w(v). . P/dl. Dunste. the sound of a short ^* has developed itself (§. &c. may it represent as a original vowels u . . " we bend. Brdnde. PfrVe.) —with the Guna is form of which cf. For g-tt. hugum. Among we the few examples cited by Grimm. 26. ofteuer in the 77. that all long and short vowels in the last syllable of poly* Cf. particularize the comparative sutizd. 32. 76. p. "tobe. by o in the passive part." "constant" "certain" (Gramm. i. 447. the Gothic has u. in Zend. "to correspond to the Sanskrit roots w bhu.

f G. p. are either 61 to a worn away or softened down [G. and as in is from ama'imus (§. while the first in its degeneration. e. as standing in an unaccented terminating syllable (varen. -»- z and a + u. the long o of which result of a contraction of a the + u. must have been introduced into the Germanic.] The Middle High and Gothic au . hut. syllabic words. the Gothic has ai and au. and were perhaps pronounced like ^ S and d. however. ***tmMs AMiere these Gothic diphthongs aiand au have maintained themselves unaltered in value. au. 26. OLD HIGH GERMAN." with its equivalent W?ft^ s«nd-s. latter element appears {hovis. which are also monosyllabic. faraitJu varSmis. in writing. GOTHIC. Ed. the Middle High German If. 6. "of a son.j Wt d {a + u). Besides this. again before vowels in the independent shape of v bovem). ^S and ^ o. mute 78. 3. ^JT charema '^TIT (eamus).). under certain conditions. Compare havaima. the almost solitary case of Ms. faraima. 6B. in the eighth century. charHa varH. TTwra tebhyas (his). and in the pro- nominal declension in which the adjective bases in a take part. .) ^ at and German e. Compare.'rman has shortened this e.CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS." cedificemus" with >T^ 6/jav^a. appears as o (§. . 5. the Gothic diphthongs in question were not pronounced like their etymological equivalents ceives. are not ^ merely continuations of these Gothic diphthongs: but the pronunciation assigned first by the Sanskrit to the union of a with « or u.change (§. ikaim all dSm. SAXSKRrr. in common with the Old High German. For the diphthongs ^ e (a+i) and p. they then appear. 79.).kd. whose element a. varet). In like manner. as i and 6* which must be considered as contractions of a as in the Latin amemus. i an Old High German S corresponds to the Sanskrit [G. 67. as opposed to the Gothic ai. in subjunctives. has. sunau-s. (eatis). as Grimm con- such case the High du : in approximate to the Vriddhi.

the semi-vowel r and h. hu-bh6ja."'^ laihv. aiv. 983. (Grimm. SSle (Gothic saivala).'"' snaivs. a double form . m mer (jnehr). 90.) /. jlexvt. and next ou. in the is Old and consonants Middle High German. so the 6 for au.] in the absence of the letter which protects z6h. oppose to the Gothic au. mais.). z. even in cases where one of these had been v or o. As the i for the Gothic ai. this i is partly preserved. s) further. admit the Guna modification of the radical u by the preterite singular. favoured by certain and those which favour the 6 are the more numerous. partly replaced. . in in Middle and Old High German. to as and in a more extended degree. HIGH GERMAN. d. "magis^"' laisyan. 345).62 CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. dropped. Middle and Old High Geror man. "docere. (traxi. Schne {Sclmee). shortened to o. [G. liran. (out of the older letters s). i preserved the diphthong where it stood in radical syllables u. fexi. but pouc. 6. condition above mentioned. namely. next. r under the protection of a following or h {ch). 68. pp. p. ( according to the Sanskrit division. which. gedieh. and subject §. hvin. Old High German traxit) Middle High German zoch Gothic tauh. . " cBvumr "nix. For instance. Sanskrit ^>?^ The Modern High German like the 6. In the Modern High German for instance. Ed. 16. Compare. 94.. High German. as a termination in Middle Grimm. OLD GOTHIC. 5^^ duddha (mulxi. pp. 6 under the §. sn^o. MIDDLE HIGH GEBMAN. exhibits the Gothic diphthong au. Gothic hauy. or where u had vocalized itself into (Grimm. either. 343). mulsi. lieh. but ich 80. the modification of 75. which in the Gothic a. " commodavUf^ mir. 34. together with their nasal . becomes ch ( See The roots. and sibilant (n. m^ Ureru Uch. snS. . p. Sanskrit bouc.) . They consist of the dentals §.

. howis ever. as is proved by the fact that at does not attract the accent towards itself {Timronai not TUTTTo/Liar. apaustaulus. by ^. where occasion occurs. him at ejusdem generis. and au by « or o ( §. however.) = . and these Grimm deduces from therefore ou or au by d (§. fourthly. Ed. although we might support Grimm's view by the fact. i or e." hlaujm. p. with the accent on the last element the accent on the a plicit {ai. by ei. represents both e and ou o . Paulas and in the next place. not every is Gothic ai and au in the cognate dialects represented in like manner. it As concerns counted for. CHARACTBES AND SOUNDS. in Sanskrit. that the difference rather phonetic than etymological. by ai. thirdly. 81. but everywhere. or ( §. The expression of the Greek at and av by . 84.) . We think. is felt important here to observe. and have recognised the original idenity of e and o with his a. From au. ^ never replace his ai and au. but in some cases the Gothic ai is replaced in Old 77.] deficient in equivalents for these non-primitive vowels.) and au one facts a double value of the diphthongs ai ai is replaced . " I baptize. may be ac- inasmuch as the Gothic was [G. or. another with We cannot. au). Galeilain. he would perhaps have used the latter as their substitutes. 69. that. however. Ulfilas. 63 the particulars of which will be explained under the verb or. Could have looked back into the early ages of his language. 85. which Ulfilas have degenerated from the original ^ a. daupya. in As proper names. and prefer assuming an equal cases of the Gothic ai and au. he embraced the ai and probably because these mixed diphthongs passed with as weaker than the long e and It is 6. 83. do replace di and du. as eu. {ai. wt d. that in Greek also as weaker than tj and o. give im- belief to this deduction of the acute author of the German system value in all of sounds. ^. for instance. §. {Paitrus. au). and likewise and av by au as. as • au . (^nd). I run". the ai and au in proper names. his point of sight.) High German by a simple but in the others.

be affected by Guna ( §• 26. 66. tohtar rests on an dauhtar. namely.). dahshind. ^ pam.. tihun. because even if ai was pronounced like ^ S. the Gothic ai and au requires the less justification. nor has the it same foundation in the older might be sufficient to observe upon one feature but require it to . and au or u. the Guna power had produced saihs. Gothic to their Sanskrit equivalents.) "daughter. (^f^duhitrij Guna form §. tihun. " six." distairan. " cattle. faihu. "to tear. "to bear. man sehs. yet still the written character presents these diphthongs as a perceptible fusion of a with a following 82. "star." The relation of the SANSKRIT." ^^ damn. but that. dar-i-tum. &c. that h and r do not content themselves with a pure preceding i.). thus." ^^ bairan.*' taihsvo. "^ shash. Sanskrit earlier Gothic duhtar. taihun. bairan. remained at the earlier The High German has. ^T^Tf^ hhartum. 1. out of arising from h and r which. 1."" Where the . " ten. had been produced. taihun." ?[f^?!n p S 7 hairtd. Thus. ( Anglo-Saxon. afterwards." svaihra " father-in-law. ai for i i. GOTHIC saihs. for Old High Gerstage ." ^^^ 2 is stairnd. i not so to be understood as though an had been placiul to after the old a. hrid (from hard%. swasura. that not every Gothic and au produces the same effect in the younger Sanskrit.64 CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. the forms sihs. of dialect peculiar to the Gothic. "'BTnc "dextera. "six. i by the softening down of the a (§. dialects. i As ai to the other statement.") and t'ehan or tehun. for the ^ffri^ duhitar. however. like ^ 6. and au for u while other dialects exhibit the and u before h and r in the same form as before every other consonant. "heart." ITTO tdrd.) . rest upon an earlier Gothic sihs.

as 27. . itself in the Gothic unaltered.f High German iu has either remained unaltered. Ed. "four. + There yet another ia in Old High German. that which princi- * Ahtau^ashtau is perhaps the only case in which the Gothic au cor- responds to the Sanskrit Vriddhi diphthong ^ au. generates a long i (written as e^. which demands a precedent one with ^1^ ashtdu." (according to Otfrid). 103J very acutely represents as the result of a contraction. and formerly dissyllabic.* 83. changed to ie. arose out of the Godiic fidmrr. In Middle or has been which is as old as the latest Old man. after the extrusion of the de. namely. head of the verb. there tliong in no counterpart diphheld. sometimes both [G. ie In High GerModern High German is the substitution of for the old iu. The Gothic iu has either retained that form in Old §. in such as " I After this analogy _^or.CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS.). Sanskrit is. that is it not weakened the occasion ai. case will be discussed under the hialt. and in the same places the a contained in F ^ (a + i) becomes i. 198. or has altered sometimes one. therefore. au often answers to is ^t d=i{a-iru). as well in the relation of the Sanskrit. Thus have arisen ?o. 70. m p. to which.** The alterations tc which the simple vowels have Gothic to the dialects to been subjected appear again in the simple elements of the diphthongs. " eight. the substitution of ia for which cannot fail to surprise. that which Grimm (p." Gothic liaihald. as in that of the younger Germanic the Gothic. p. regular manner. the 6 pa^ised into its corRspouding short vowel — Grimm. absent for the deis velopment of the diphthong h and r since not the a before i which demands a subsequent addition. Gothic The most important preterites. High German. Thus the a element i of the diphthong ^6 shews itself often in the Gothic. compare ahtau. 65 Ha has preserved to i. 71. There is a greater distance to be passed in Otfrid's theory of iu. in this way. and in certain places in a ( §. eo. but the . as it is found in Notker.] of its constituents. as we know that a simple u never becoms a. which.) . that. with the second element of the diphthong. on is the other hand.

" Usually. and vowel. in cases. giesse with giuta. "to deceive. have ou in the place of am.) fusion with word aft Old High German authorities (Gl. . and the original au (which becomes av before vowels ) is to be sought in the Sanskrit . Compare Besides still with the Gothic biuda. capable of no iu. the Gothic has already acquired an iu in place of this eu. Sanskrit ^^^^ nava-s. bears to the Sanskrit which undergoes a gd. 523. Where the a element of the Sanskrit ^ 6 retains its existence in the Gothic." Old High Ger* man This niwi (indeclinable). "hay. for instance. making au the equi- valent of the Middle High German. neu. this form. 75. Is. Old High German liuti. found iu lugen. where e can be accounted for as the result of a no longer perceptible modification (Grimm. however. triugen. and ^ u in the ^6 of the cognate The oldest as. namely. p. 72. Long u is for equivalent to a transposition of the diphthong. compare Leute with the Gothic lawleis. "people". although." with Goth. however. for. have au for the ou of the later (Grimm. 80. 6." Middle High German liugen. with the Gothic preterite The o of the High German ou has the same the corresponding Gothic a in au. "grass. part of the Old High German authorities. havi. §. Ed. p." Old High German niuni.] 84. the e is only visibly retained. however. is difficult to account it in as far as it is i connected with the Umlaut. Gothic e. ich biete for phonetically it is absorbed by the i. pouc. Middle under the influence Compare Old High German baug. [G. Hrab. of itself is or y in the following syllable. "JtexL' relation to o in /3oGf High German bouc. we also find eu in place of the old iu or older au. in which. Gothic niuneiSf Sanskrit rn^T navan (as theme).). as has been remarked in of certain consonants 6 prevails. Ker. because corresponds to an this in Middle and Old High German answering to an i . Heu. as the Greek 'H a. pally prevails. 99). p. NeunCy "nine. alteration through their power of attraction.66 CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. nivi-s. and a §. "new." trugen. "to lie.

the Gothic has . heisse. drigkan. contracted from ai (§. with our sehen. 67 rf. p. both the must have been sounded." " to sink. briggan. haita. au. Ed. under the conditions specified in this tells in §. g) and Ulfilas. •* tongue" . like Grimm. they also exhibit favour of Grrimm's assumption. " young" gnggs.] Of these. MODERX HIGH GERMAX. tuggd^ yuggs. For . so that in this case it takes the place of r2 . the compound kv the old writing has a special character. that au in the Gothic and oldest High German was pronounced like like our German a+ tars u). willingly combines with and for this combination. diphthong ai the 85. Greek. leihen. render by qv. leikvan. and this diphthong must be only an etymological. ^ 6 (out of letr In this case. skaida. "to drink". and thus examining the gutturals tenuis first. High German softened down to in the cases in which the ^. appear elsewhere. " voco. 73.). "to bring". in Gothic. and not a phonetic equivalent of the Sanskrit ^ ^. scheide. in imitation of the . altliough q does not . in pro- GOTHIC." " to t. however. 78. " to read.. heizu. places the latter as a nasal before gutturals stance.^ MIDDLE HIGH GERMAIT. 80.) skeiduf scheide." with siggvan. and v also combines with g so that qv {=kv) plainly bears the same relation to gv that k bears to gr.CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. nunciation. the original text has a special often character. sing. which we. (1.. In the Gothic a alone is susceptible of alteration. compare saihvan. In = Modern Hi^h German. Let us now consider the consonants. Compare OLD HIGH GERMAN. H also. Indian arrangement. ai. also. compare siyqvun. merely the for in- and the medial {k.). ei. heixe. In respect to h by itself we have to observe that it appears in relations in which the dentals place their tk and the labials their /. " a going" (subst. and thus not the Sanskrit ai. does not occur. preserving the [G. " separo" 86. in the Gothic also. and appears in e.

but in terminations. The High German has for this tenuis. neither in pronunciation nor origin. species has only retained but in writing is distinguished. 525). and before and if not generally before consonants. is t has the preponderance. from s proper. p. in Gothic. 422. f. and nothing but a mere tenuis. in- " It is.* the one. Zend c in contrast to ^ as also of the /» Hn con- trast to (2. which is wanting in the Gothic. Ed. Etymological ly. in Greek and Latin. do not agree with each other. either dialects. though not uni- versally. however. th is. d. 38. the p. and gaf Probably the pronunciation of the Gothic h was we have. both species of the Old and Middle High German t.) (SS This distinction reminds us of the use of it.^ kh. th. the old Gothic th also maintains There are two species of z. and zss." as bauth to biiJum. In this manner is aih related to aigum. according to Grimm (p. By the side of this z in the Old High German." . in Middle High German.) The labials are. " to gebum. corresponded to ch as an aspirate of the k: A: our ch. z fall under the same with their nasal head. positions the same. which. properly aspirated.) The palatals and Unguals are wanting p. CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. this latter written by Isidor and its reduplication tz. For th the Gothic alphabet z {=ts) has a special character. In its existence. the or c stands in the older use of which. is so dis- tinguished. and ch also stands for a double k. while the reduplication of the former he writes In the Modem the High German the second sibilant. together with their nasal n. fills In the High t. that c stands as a terminating letter. 34. as t. zs. b. German the place of the aspiration of the so that the breathing is replaced by the sibiiation. (Grimm. in Gothic. in Middle High German. [G.] in Gothic.) ^ t (§§. in the other. not in 1 all s. and correspond to the Gothic (3. the dentals are. 74. Our Modem High German organic. and to be rejected. s. and in the middle of words before f.

demo all den but not des vater but des fater. however. 75. but the converse does not hold. p. as the Sanskrit 25.] and their use in the MSS. only at the beginning of . Tatian. funve becomes and f. the medials are converted into tenues. supplies this organ. for example. Otfrid. phortoj phenniny in the middle. in such a position. that in the middle before surd consonants it becomes /. in Tatian. at the end of words it is transformed on the same principle by which. its medial vater. namely. 400). in Old High German. in Old precarious. pp. and v as the softer or sonant aspiration. which usually employ/. in general. into /. German and write abandon altogether the initiatory / for it by constantly. 93. 69" The High German all. imrphumes. So far the rule cases is less stringent (observes Grimn'). ph. and therefore employs the latter in cases where the preceding word concludes with one of those Trhich otherwise (§. in true Germanic forms. Ed. has had the mere sound of monumental inscriptions. in that. 135. letters.) with a double aspiration. second.) soften down a tenuis to vnier. funfzic. which is written v. authorities / may stand Many Old High r. the same High German . pp. The aspiration of the p is sometimes. According to Grimm. hence zwehe becomes zvcelfle. in /. no longer any phonetic difference between / and v but in Middle Hiffh German v shews itself in this manner softer than /. but genitive wolves. first. the ph of many words had indisputably the sound of pf. also rendered p/j. yet Notker uses / as the original primarily existing breathing-sound. Kero. 339. that in for y. It is but V preponderates (Grimm. 136).CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS m. and comes nearer to the Sanskrit w bfu In Modern High German we perceive . if Otfrid " In . in Middle At High German. and at the end occasionally. w^rph. funfle. for instance. [G. wolf not wolv. a surd i/=\p!i) (see and a sonant. for instance. but. seem of equal is the beginning of wt)rds / signification. words of foreign origin. does §. such as w'erphan. many cases. limphnn in Otfrid and Tatian. (Grimm.

) the surd aspirate necessary (see Grimm. 398). p i^ has assimilated itself to the following/. schuffen.) therefore capable of reduplication. " contra- p is an euphonic appendage to/. In the middle and at the end we find pf. Middle High German forms view the klopfen. " cuprum" scepheri.] and more harmo- nious emp-finden. for instance. before the labial aspirates. into the labial tenuis. High German Manuscripts the sound of the Indo-Gothic v . which as in Greek possible. inseparable prefix aside its t. converts Hence. kripfen.. but v does not appears. later that letter. neverthevinden. " vapor" krempfen. "interrogate'' "ij^rfir preceded by said for its tenuis prichchhati v^. less. p. (4. Here. for instance. always here" in which case after m. [G. 76. in order Secondly. for/ even though it be the aspirate of p. enp-finden. also. combine with is p. lays or. like p with a clearly perceptible h but the sounds p and h are compounded into a third simple sound lying is between the two. by assimilation. Crit. tropfe. it Standing alone. " Creator. words of the Old High German has become pf (Grimm. which. v. 25. kropf. 88. ph. the same in High German only in Old . p. p. kampf. r. Ed. 6. kapfen In this light I kopf. that is.!li( prichhati. sceferi^ In Middle High German the initial |j/i of foreign (p. 398). in compounds with the to facilitate a union with m. " pugna^ tampf. as seems to me the sounder supposition. is not pronounced like the Sanskrit . Thirdly. first.l. erd. The Sanskrit semi-vowels are represented in Gothic r. p.) the palatal surd aspirate between a short is is and another vowel or semi-vowel and. 132). (Grimm." assume that these words were pronounced kufar. as kaffen. for after the surd p (§. 70 CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. for ent-finden. ^ unites itself with while ph + th would be im- by^' ( = y). we are not to writes ku2)har. as well in the middle as at the end of words : just as in Sanskrit (Gramm. from the root VTS prachh. 326). In the same words we sometimes find ff. in Middle High German. after short vowels the labial aspirates are apt to be preceded by their tenues.

zuelif. In like manner is (§. however. Ed. everywhere before sonants. as an euphonic alteration of but sometimes also (/. " servant. thiuya was Of the Sanskrit sibilants. thius. n. but that thins is a mutilation of thivas (§. before the guttural medial. vowels." the genitive. in the single instance. y or "ashes"." Gothic tvalif.). for instance. in some words thus d ." base sunu. namely. have and have only retained their forms thivis in become for vocalised (see original form before terminations beginning with a vowel. Jifter the v substituted. that this V has not sprung from the u of the nominative. semi. More however. we know. and between liquids also before n) and a vowel. azgd. or n .). the converse occurs. 116. namely. finally. use.] and u. so also in the from the usually. z. p. ihiviy " maid-servant. for which. Germanic. least to Gothic.). /. 71 Middle High agree with most usually represented by is German man. 73. Out in of this. whose nominative. in i.). for instance. 25. so that after the lapse of the a the preceding semi-vowel hiis become a whole like the one. " twelve. Gothic sxiniv-^j "/iliorum. and before consonants.). f at s. howthe ever.CHARACTERS AND (our w) is SOUNTDS. 27. between a vowel and t'." a mutila- tion of the base thivyo accusative. probably 120. As in the Sanskrit and Zend the semi-vowels i responding vowels y and t> often arise out of the cor[G. r. was thivya. which is written and had probably a softer pro- nunciation than s. if. in the accusative. at terminations §. §. and it must while therefore itself be considered as a sonant sibilant (§. the Germanic has only the last. . springs another. with u affected by Guna {iu. the pure dental peculiar. from the history of the word.vowel w in most authorities for in- stance. uu. in the Germanic. This z is most usually found between two s. expressed by u . that y and i-. 77. by vv:j (or y) in both written We Grimm in using^* (or y) After an initial and w for all periods of the High Gertlie is consonant in Old High German.) had become vocalized. (5.

" The High German loves between two vowels over all the softening of » into (see §. and thus an organic difference has arisen between two cases originally distinguished by a similar sufiix. in the preterite. plintS-r. For instance. on the other hand. For instance. MODERN HIGH GERMAN. sing.] its form haitas." forms. It is remarkable. 78." lurumis " we lost. ei and «^. I lose. . I or he lost. indicative. in a grammatical point of s view. thizei "cujus. " to provoke. a remarkable law of displacement."''' instance. " heel. . root lus. blindi-s. yet the s of the nominative singular. hlinde-s. '* before the vowels of the present. the concluding « of the genitive has. the Gothic.72 8 is the surd. and also For example. " to sleep. OLD GOTHIC. hUnd*-s. Grimm." While in these cases the termination takes » under its protection. and before the passive addition passes into z .'' thanzei '* from *' thans " Ao5. p. and. Nominative Genitive 87. for "quos." "vos. the vowel of several roots has changed itself into r before the preterite terminations which . hiinde-r. in respect of con- sonants. it has remained unaltered in the uninflected first and third pers. hence. by a reduplication. dialects^ According to and the other . and does not extend parts of the final s Grammar." fairzna. remained unaltered. commence with a on the other hand. is everywhere softened down to r .^ from this " hujus. but this change has not established itself as « pervading law. tliat a concluding before the enclitic particles a. plinfe-s. The Germanic tongues exhibit.izt. . " I or he slep^ Other examples are. in Old High German." marzyan. which has been first recognised and developed with great ability by this law. CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS.«." vileizuh " visne" from vileis vis" haitaza earlier vocaris" from haitis " vocas" or rather from [G. r. saizUp." Ida. . HIGH GERMAN. where it has not been altogether dropped."vo6is.). from the " comes liusu. The root slip. ." talzyan^ " to teach. down to our time."razn "house. Ed. especially 22.

For the Gothic/. h for k. p for h. German {—ts) replaces an aspirate. as in the Middle and Modern High German for instance. tenues for medials. Middle High German biuge. Modern High German biege. substitute aspirates for the original tenues. z in simple aspiration h. Ed. g instead of in the middle or end of words. and / for p. th for d. t for and k for g. and participating with that dialect in the use of the h. and. Grothic biuga. to the Gothic practice. falls to High German. finally. especially as a first letter (§. illustrating the law of these substitutions. . p. its medials for the Gothic aspirates and Greek Yet the Gothic labial and guttural medial exhibits itself unaltered in most of the Old High German authorities. the Old High German substitutes v. 73 with the exception of the High German. 584. 6. 3. 86. which case or it it sometimes coincides the level of the with the Sanskrit ^ A . d for t. 79. p. the High German adhering. and . in relation to the Greek. B F T D Th K G Ch P B Th T D K G B{V) F P D Z T G Ch K P F . medials for aspirates. with certain limits. k. as regards the beginning of words. We si\e here Grimm's ' table. "fectoi* Old High German biuga and piuka.CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. Greek Gothic Old High German. and substitutes its aspirates for the Gothic tenues and Greek medials rates .). usually gives k. and. g for 5^ The High German bears the same and 6 for/. regular relation to the Gothic as the latter to the Greek. Latin. its tenues for the Gothic medials and Greek aspi- tenues.] and Zend. also to the Sanskrit [G. aspiration of the and either in High The Gothic has no replaces the Greek k by the In the t sounds.

* OLD GREEK. . . taihsvd. base. m EXAMPLES. we give only the bare root. wazar. Ttarrjp. zu^nS. augd. or the case not indicated. p. caput.) . canis. in their crude or simple form of the verb. Sf^iJ duhitri. 80-1 CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. inrep. • pecus. bliuj. zesawa. Svo. R»T tiuam (nom. 7ro5-of. panchan. 6<ppvs. fores. m 4 W^ madhu.74 [G.. ouga. • • • • m^ hhr&tri *| &/i W. ^^ Mc?a. houpit. vats. . ^ep(a. ^f4t\^ TTOvs. 6SovT-a. Ed. piru. • • /rang ere. tvai. mCH GERM. du. thu. ^r^asru. i*ilH^danta-m(acc. fxedv. pr'&ch&n. ^ puma. ^ >9 »T^ bhanj. ft? pifri. GOTHIC. hunths. is-tum. irXeog. PIjp KVUiV. daur. dauhtar. duo. hrikan. cor. t « Parenta. "^^ft upari. . fif^f fulls. aksha. ^TT^^ pdda-s. where the termination is not separated from the (theme) . tres. SANSKRIT. Ace^oAj. rov. hairtd. pedis.). thuntu-s. /am (ace). hanaf. ^^ pa^u. unda. alter. c?m).. herzcu ^<^ hridaya. "Si dentem. KapSia. threis. andar. vol. • bhru. . ^W!n dakshind. brilkdn. folus. faihu. fructus. «K^TTq5 kapdla. m. * The Sanskrit words here stand. tar. ufar. n. \ $aKpVf • lacrima. frater. vihu. haubith. prechan. ubar. • prawa. • Bvydrrip. tohtar. frui. .). erepos. ae|/a. fT^r^ TV. • • m'eto. vSoop. fero. cannabis. zahar. hund. baira. . JyH^swan. thana. pes. TpeTf. vinf. den. pi." . super. Bvpa._! VHiSj oculus. dri. quinquey plenus. iagr m. rn • "ITTT cZwdr. pater. ^aTI^^ trat/as (n. vuoz. LATIN. Zand. dextra. fadrein^ vatar. Wire antara. brdthar. dwau (n. KavvajSts. TTefXTre. pruoder. arUhar. OKO^.

" "^p^ tray as (n. '^ hansOf XV^' Xdes. OLD SAirSKIUT. mikils. jdti* Tevoj. iaihun. Thus. pi. genus.) szakd. The Zend in stands. The Lithuanian has the consonants without its defi- displacement in their old situations. p. genu. Xei^d}. " bhavishydmi. for instance. gans. essential respects. 7$ 651BK. substituting simple tenues for the Sanskrit aspirated tenues. chunu chniu. " ^[^ daddmu "master. lingo. mihil. from ciency in aspirates. decern. not naka-s. ansevt heri. tg^ swasura." TTT^ ratha-s." [G. "W^Jnd. X 88. "nail" (of the foot or finger). m.** vfjm pati-s penki. rafa-Sf "wheel. ntikhas. Ed. left ISkdm. k'estar.* • Fromjattf " to be ." Irregular deviations occur. only. keturi. " four.) pi. zehan. infT! eKupoj. GOTHIC.* ka-s. f^ lih. socer. " five. naga-s. ^R^ dasan. "waggon. magnus. in individual cases. laigd. kuni. UTBOAmAir. as might be expected. Compare." trys. kans. f. in the same rank. "the fourth. gnosco.** >?f«il«llfH ^JTff busu. chatwdras (n." ketwirtas. BcKa. chan. kan. as the Sanskrit. HTGB GERM. H^H mahatt fxeyocKos. ?ni hyas. "husband. " I would be. dumi.CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. Yow.** ^Hl<^ ^nr^ chaturtha-s." I give. svaihra. " bough. "three. gistra. kniu. who. suehur. •yvtj/ui.] pats. ^nWT sdkhd. born. tt^T^ panchan. and medials for the aspirated medials. m. as all answers to the Sanskrit «Tfrfl we have before remarked.'^ ka-s. 82.

quite according to order. . trim- pan. The Sanskrit-Zend expression signifies " water " . the on the other Zend everywhere the letters is named in §. pra (theme)." thwdi. certain consonants convey an aspiration to the letter which precedes them. 83. . "to love.. and Latin. I this coincidence between the Gothic and the Zend aspirates accidental. a river. X Ahva. Compare. unknown to the Gothic where do not exhibit an influence.-\ iftWff^ pnndmu ahva +.) friyd. j\>Qf^(3 SANSKRIT. GOTHIC. (inseparable prep. and the Gothic form developes itself through the transition. j7(3 thri. either Gothic aspirates are met with in the place of Zend Zend tenues. be also used as a datire. Ed. 2t>. " three. which retains the original tenues.'' united with the prep. and. As. t bless. ih and / stand. Gothic tenues in that of Compare. love. ^ U.'^ fi tri. only because. so that. occurs as an uninflected genitive in Rosen's Veda-Specimen^ like the mntilatcd Tw& '' p. 47. I 1. however. because the causes of it are distinct.] m^jm pronounce dfs WI ap [G. ^ twL* T( yra.'' p. SEND. and in the manner and both languages may. according to §. in same words. in the examples given above. on the one side. * substitution. " I '* xi^\ fra. according to rule. in by far the majority of forms which admit of comparison. depart from the ori- ginal tenuis." from the Sanskrit root pri. the Gothic accords no aspirating influence to the letters v and r (trudaf trauan. Gothic aspirates are to be expected in the place of original tenues.:73 CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. this may occasion an accidental coincidence between the Zend and like the Gothic. thir (theme)." j^Awy^o^AU dfrindmi. of j7 to k^ for which the law of substitution requlreo h (see also aqua). ivai). " to thee. Greek. as. of frequent occurrence. . 47. and may. thus. or. according to another appointment of the Ger- manic law of medials. side.

41." j^jas^^ ^joj^axj^ Aii> haraiti. " ten." " from. (hu. " pasu-a.'' faths. as in Greek. " these. to the Gothic medials as. Violations of the law of displacement of sounds. thai." ^^aumTc^as^ chathwdrd (n. GOTHIC. 39. " middling.) fimf. 25." faryifh. "brother.)>Tnrcw 6/irdiarom (ace." j^jajoj ^7ga) peresaiii. ** paitar-em (patreni). [G. " tvai. asjja)^ c/«ia. " full. in the 6." ^^^ *' turn. (ind.) jiai ofci. GOTHIC." taiJ. see : §.) (n. tf/ttr.svd. both persistence in the same original sound." madhya.^fi? abfii.) brukan. " bair'ith. Zend the 6^ Compare. v. (^ h too is sonant. not the surd." j^jas^aj^ foiu-s. to use. " beast. charaiti. SANSKRIT." fadTein." ^^ AJ»^ M c?ra. "he asks. iiowever. perenS (n.) fraihith.'' j^vjj^jajq) pniti-s. "^^ ubhdu du. 84. (§. " 6rclf nr*m (acc. or the substitution of irregular sounds." ms^co^xjQ mnidhya.CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. f^T>TfS bibharti. bindan. by 89." Aj(2iU2> p4c?/ja (§. j^)>j}a53) faihu. AiAJ^Aja) Vy^^ic"^ 9j/a>^x)ja}q) mj pancha. "duxter. four.) correspond. " parents. " bind." ^ »rwi bhuj.) " over. midya. hruthar." two. j^jajq)> upairt. (o^^ajj bandh. p. _i b answers to the Gothic ZBND.^axiJAjaiM-i. m. " to eat. Ed. pi. both. T^ bnndh." ajua) opa- jc^ iL hva$. according to rule.^^ In the Sanskrit and Zend the sonant aspirates. Jidvdr. '* who. he carries. master." aj^jj^aj^ dashina. 7t SSMD." af.1 iaihun." bi (prep. " foot." hat. " right hand. is not found. ac." *" uba. are frequent in the middle and at the end of .) fulls. he wanders. " thou.

Thus." hap^t. retained the original t . part. says habaith. compare first hap^t. however. the t of the old languages has become. either remained primary sound. the t ulbandus.''^ . pass. " quaiuor.) 90.T$ words. in that the Gothic prefers the aspiTlie rates to the mediols at the end of a vt^ord. the last in violation of for habanth. not th but d . see [G. also. Thus. is changed before the s of the nom. Ed. p. (Latin slepa. da^ whence. Nor have the inflexions or grammatical appendages to the everywhere submitted* in law of displacement. contrasted with the t of eAe^avr- of ^TIT chatur. so that the old form recurs again. " he has. " they have. or have.. has become d in the Gothic Jidvdr instead of th but in High German has entirely dis- appeared. faithful to the many instances. substituted irregularly for Tlie d is same phenomenon occurs olpenta. in the Gothic /arfrein. habent: the it. but have. in the cases of the Old High German and the Gothic thus. th. in Old Higli Ger- man. pres. CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. re-introduced by a fresli cor- . 85. the t of the Greek irar^p remains. The p of the Sanskrit root ^^ swap. the t of the part." with habet. in accordance with the law. 87. as well singular as plural. haband. " parentes. in Gothic.. at scribed least. but the Sanskrit root is more faithfully preserved in the Old High German in in-suepyu {sopio. the Gothic. in the part. Burning d as the proper character of the third person in Gothic and viewing the Old High German t as the regular substitute for also {hair-a-du). snpio.'''' th.] §. . Thus the Old High German third person. in the by §. in consequence of the second law for the permutation of sounds.4. in the Old High German vatar. The d lias been retained in the Gothic passive bairith is and the active form derivable from bairid. comes ta ruption.) " sleep. pass. on the contrary. also. into » It but before vowel terminaas- would be better to regard the phenomenon here discussed by . rejected the particular change prehas.86. . the suffix of same is the case with the which is. it. under the influence of the preceding n.." has been preserved in the Gothic the Old and High German sMfu stands in the Gothic category.

into resolve themselves. The ori- shews itself after/. into d\ after the ciple th of the third person before the is increment of the passive softened to d . it is p. so that da". Ed. in Greek (r/f. which designates abstract substantives. 23. "strength. and tlii. alterations chimes in well with the preceding sound.CHABACTBBS AND SOUNDS. wKTos. protect a succeeding original odo. . pres." (from magan): fra-gifl(i)s" betrothment. has preserved both participles : original t happier. liusa): Tnahti()s. among which. for instance. 86. "noi.'aee §. Gothic habands."'' Thus. appears in Gothic in three forms. ahto : •HFR naktam (adverbial is accusative). our ch. the h must be reckoned. a-hofragUjis. " loss. 466." (from gib.). hapSier. perhaps erroneously. Special notice is due to the fact. genitive habandins . on the other hand. in- stead of tha. " is in Goth.'' oktw. and also after s anst{i)s (§. "grace. The Old High tlie German. habaidis.). ginal form ti di. that in the middle of words under the protection of a preceding consonant. nahts. . ^^ ashtdu. Old High Ger- man unnan. the old consonant it often remains without displacement. like the vowels. From these euphonic causes. gaf)." vv^. as 6 has of da* little • Ds 18 an abbreviation = G. gen. affect a d or th after themselves. in [G. in Old High German "night. let- sometimes because." from the root an. which p and b mostly and h for instance. ti. where to be prot. sometimes because ters. rat Sansk. on the other hand. tS. 91. 117. of ^>?^TT abhavata. tions. corresponds to the to Greek to. as -notrjaig. through regard for the preceding have been admitted other than those which the usual practice as to displacement would lead us to expect." with the insertion of an euphonies: fralust{i)s. "eight. ahiau." "noctis" in Gothic Old High German nahL The liquids. and in the Sanskrit it ta. Mute consonants nounced like (§. habaiths. " to be gracious. the feminine sufl&x fir ti in Sanskrit. of ervTrrer-o. which they approach nearest of all consonants.] the Germanic." (from lus. T9 same prin vowel by an anomalous by which the process.

" bas-tan." ddsh-tan. and to assign the lot of this of the preceding letter. . "to bind." [G." gen. of man. "birth. and sing.) forms." ( pres. i. " seed. in the plur. for instance. " to "to cook": on the other hand. On the whole. suffix and other suffixes originally commencing with from the general law of substitution of t sounds. Hence the root bud. di : and after the once chosen. have. the law here discussed accords re- markably with a similar phenomenon in modern Persian. with t : tja-skaff{i)s. hesitate to all Germanic t. gafaurdais: position. gen. remains afterwards in every vowel or before vowels. 27. dd-dan." is gen. gakunthais. mana-sUh. and the nominal base. n. mana-sidai not -skhai. "to bear. after liquids the suffix is usually thi." Am-dan. in the nom. entirely to the controul in the case The Old High German. 87. though d also is tolerated in such a position. "to give." dat. of our suffix originally ti. The acfiis. t. but in the dat." (according to Grimm's well-founded interpretation." bur-dan. therefore. and a favourite letter at the end of words and before consonants. form di finds its place after vowels. mana-seths. however. not seat. do not. to convert d into th. "memory.") forms in the nom. bud-um . either without a gabaurths. dispense with a following vowel. §. or mana-sMs. gaqvumthai.. gaqvumthim. where the original t of grammatical terminations and suffixes is maintained only after mute consonants. but after vowels liquids is and changed into d : hence. plur. bauth. On the other hand." release the I ti. suffix falls where the vowel of the away. " to bid. is more easily than d. biuda." (from skap-an).] gakunths. mana-sM. "to come. Ed. e. " creation. dental.'^ pukh-turiy "to take. because th can. but is able. "gathering" (from far-yan. gabaurthai) gafaurds.. gamundais gaqvumths. p. however. dat. "world.80 affinity CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. mana-se-di. "esteem. gir/f-tun. and accus. in the uninflected condition of the pret. " meeting. " to go "). as in that of other suffixes and terminations t commencing with accords to the original a . d excluded. gamunds. dat. for instance. From the union with m.

they origi- nally terminate an inflective base. in order." hlou/t.) may ieither be retained.CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. not only when protected by and/. especially in respect of initial medials." "guilt. "to burn. "course. 27." " to go. to Sanskrit no instance 93(a). It is how their places were supplied in such situabut medials. with relato notice tion to the most essential laws of sound. not pand IT? " to take. Old High German. than does the Gothic." 92. which Gothic tenu." The law of substitution shews the greatest I perti- nacity at the beginning of words. Thus. ." is. T^^ bandh." kipurt. 88-1 same footing with the Gothic stands on the but which are to the common the Sanskrit. We return now to the Sanskrit. ." and ga-ivd. ney. birth" rar-/. ans-t. Ed. " to bind. in ^ in dah. 25. and tions. "grace. p." "to light. but also after vowels and liquids hj euphonic into d. (§. only if besides to be observec'. or take the place of a tenuis * The Latin prehendo is probably related to the Sanskrit root ^j^ grah^ through the usual mterchange bt'twieii gutlurals and labials. greipa with Guna. " force.s com spond as initial letters. in the relation of the Gothic to the Greek roots which are On the other hand. that. properly.** '' mah-t. however. more extensive prevalence. "seed. / is inserted ." ki-wal-t. —and — after I m an the t is only after changed "jourschvld. nor in the middle before strong consonants. one ad- verted to in our theory of single letters where it was said of several concurrent consonants that they were tolerated neither at the end of words.'^ is also band in Gothic. [G. in some either deficient or disfigured in the Old European languages. " might" sfW. (pres." is grip in the Vedas xr>T grabh. chumfU " arrival. inasas it retains that letter. " to burn. §." " seize. . " protection. scul-t. far 81 much s. teuues . dahI an {Saio}). grah.) im yam. " street ." mun-t. Hence." correspond not krip. for instance.* to tu gd and gagga. and have found it every- where observed and Latin." can detect. alone can terminate a Sanskrit word before sonants. Germanic and the Sanskrit. " I go.

f^^\ from the base f^7 strict it. deprived of the base. and independent of the law of displacement explained in §. tnke the . {viriJis).82 or an aspirate. ^^^dadadas.. terminations. in the uninflected 1st and 3d pers. &c. wort. pret. also. truoc. of As. asti without a nominative sign. Isidor is German different authorities of the language are at variance with respect to the in accordance with insomuch that he converts d at the end into dages." in contrast to gSbum. lad. not vidas. * CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS if these happen to precede sonants select in a As examples. &c. see §.. The guttural and dental . opposed to the nominativts hhdbs. like the Sanskrit. So also as to the verb for instance. "knowing. observance of this law. truogev. but f^vit. 86. the tenuis or is radical. sing. in the genitives tayes. grab. dac. sentence. form. Hence and the accusatives hla/f. "the giver. The Gothic excludes only the labial medials from t. "acquiring wealth. 8". which the nom. the roots irug. 86." ^f^ ^f%TT ." These words are. "skilled in the Veda. for example. ^fw vedavid [G. for instance. Ed.. 3. according to asti harit. and accus. gen. gen. \R^m ^% dhana-lab ^Trl H^f?T harid bhavati. contrary to the custom of the Sanskrit. wip. (§." gen. laubs. but. not wordes. only with a conversion of the sonant V into the surd /. ^ftfr asti .) eif. ^rftcT dhana-lap on the other hand. which indeed tolerates aspirates at the end of words. " he is green. hlaibis. p. luot. gruoben. gen. 89 asti. luoden. Where. we ffo harit. We find. green." ^i^H^d vida-vid. not by tetmes. as in Sansk. ^^w dadat. 94. on the other hand. For instance.h German is very nearly in accordance.. supplies the place of medials at the end of words regularly by tenues. wordes. eides. ^^w dadatas. thiubs. inflexion and the terminating vowel of the i. plur. sing." In Old High vid. aspirates. (jruop. vibes. thiuf. and g into c. iff^ harid also..'' \nT?5>7 dhann- lubfi. wortes. but by gnf. " I gave. aspirate (v excepted) there no alteration of sound occurs in declension or in conjugation. asti vedd-vit. ] With this Sanskrit law the Middle Hi". ^f^ ^tw \R^t^ ^[^^2 asti. but replaces them. forms tac. wort. §. lauf.

as in some degree connected with this phenomenon. "the day. mil kote. medials (</. but after vowels is and the weakest consonants the medial. (Grimm." with aigum. also. Hence. yet only in Notker. ier dag. 13S. from siihhu (pungo) nr-priltu (sfringu).67. "with God." Two consonants are no longer. one is rejected. an euphonic relation between terminating and initial letters of two words which come together." p." hn'iiad-n Compare (§. as this law is not recognised either by the Zend or by any of the European branches of the family. This emasculation. "nominafur" with " I have. in the existing con- dition of the Sanskrit. essential consonant.] 93(^). but exchangeable. G 2 . In a sense also opposed to that of the above-mentioned Sanskrit law. which to the division of the must date from an epoch subsequent language. in individual cases.) bauth. t. pret stah. and has mutilated many forms of antiquity required by theory. the circumstance that roots with double liquids of inflexions) reject the latter of the pair. the 1st and 3d pers. " we have. mm." haitith from the root bud. "he has. and after strong consonants . for instance. offered. liquid turned into a Thus. nn. so with Notker the tenuis ranks stands therefore at the begfinnins: of a sentence. "I am. we find. in Old High German. a preference appeal's for the terminating aspirates. "we offered. 90. " my God. aik. tolerated at the end of a word. "nominal. but the latter of the two is rejected." [G. 130. for the medials as a true initial : . " I or he with budum. 181). has had. rr— in forms which are indeclinable (and before the consonants In the case." but minan 94. pp. ik pin. In the High German we may view. under the influence of a word following in a sentence. 83 d) are tolerated by the Gothic in terminations. a disadvantageous operation on the Grammar. yet even in these. ar-prat. — //. In Middle High German. Ed. in many respects. got.CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS." but ih ne bin.*" but tes tages. of tenninations in double h or for instance. As fit in Sanskrit the tenuis appears as an for the conclusion of a sentence.

With this the Latin s between ab or oh and c. and p. in Old High an-s-f. the last is hoc. Ed. " I fa- voured. W^ava. rejected. is converted. ." on-s-ta or onda. perhaps. in the t W^ abhavam tatra. In this manner the euphonic s steps in between the prepositions sam. interposed. for instance. thou darest. griffes : tz loses the t . bockes. from the operation of the and by this sibilant. ob-solcsco. for ^ ch equivalent to tsh —in the Sanskrit an 9. q. p. gen. ^ which s. for instance. remarkably accords*. The Gothic phenomenon nowhere. schatzes. Ed. ^»T^?J^ they were there. as in Brunst and Gunst." comes. In Sanskrit the interposed euphonic s has extended itself further only among the prefixed prepositions." 2d Note:) 96. but in an-s-ts and allhrun-s-ts 'holocaustum. §. . German. p. {abhavanWith this coincides the cirHigh German. §. which generally enter into most intimate and facile connection with the following root. . and certain words which begin with ejr h." our German Kunst. is inserted . with Voasius. in declensions in ck. g'dnnen. "favour". and s has stood fast. that.ff. To this we * also refer the cosmittere of Festus. hence. instead of commillcre We scarcely think it necessary to defend ourselves for dividing. of an affix. from chan derived chun-s-t. " ardour *' thou favourest.84 CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS." cumstance. 91. (from probably formed from the ann before noticed. tar-s-t." dared. from the root ann.) the euphonic exhibits this find «• still an s inserted after (or-s-fa. an " in certain cases.616. in the root iarr (Cf. irfiT prnti. . Between a t final vr ceeding sound — as is is tT. ab retains even in an isolated posi- when the above-mentioned letters follow.J n and a suepalatals also must be which the reckoned. I r. vftpari. into Anuswara s-tatra). schaz." an-s-t. knowledge. [G. "to favour. rather than with Schneider (p.' In Old High German we preposite ^(e). 95. for in- stance. tlie in which.] tion. euphonic sibilant following t . 92. is from prann " comes prun-s-f. between a radical n and s.. 571) obs-olesco. grif. [G. *' for instance.

I which have found this explanation. in cases which require no special mention. and in the prefixes and to -naKiv. sumpsi^ prompsi. in Greek is also generally a derivative letter. [G. dialect. demptus .ev a final $• thus. In )8 Greek we /x. §. undergoes in all cases. Ed. and Latin. 475). i/j. ^ m. CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. unless an original smitto. Thus. German <t.). ev. " to him. as be-d-u. and precedes these In compounds like an euphonic link. >em thas. and serves to facilitate the union of the labial nasal with a dental." 97. 93] The concluding from ^l. according the terminating 18. with reference to the letter which follows. and with p and p. "arrival. sumptus. for miito. (Doric personal /zej) and the dual i?Tl^ rov answer to the Sanskrit tas. in opposition to the theory. j t. y. find also the interpolav.. aaK€£-Tia\og I reckon the j." tion of . 128. N frequently springs p. nation for connection with letters as In the Greek. shews an incli- and /u. / The Latin p between m and a following or s. 6. excepting from peculiarities of substitution of p for in old inscriptions. \ avdpo^. euphonic which is common places to the Old Latin and Ger- manic. promptus.d(Td\t] — see Buttman. especially after short vowels. /ze/zjQAera/. (Schneider. as belonging to the base of the first common member (§. of the origin of the v from j I im . 80) while the Modern Persian places an euphonic d between the vowel of a prefixed preposition and that of the following word. We have yet to consider a case of the interpolation of an labial.. v. as the The alteration of the v in the article avv. terminations mas. have given elsewhere. S5 is involved in this compound. p. oldk B after in order to facilitate the union of (jxecrrjixfipia. seems analogous to the changes whith. and corresponds to Zend. . v in Sanskrit. the Gothic and Old High German/ between Old High m and t. The Greek affords few specimens of variability at the end of words. for instance. dempsi. Gothic andanum-f-fs. p. tr an euphonic after of a 5 after /z. " acceptance " chum-f-t. this which the Greek from never admits as a termination in analogous forms of the Sanskrit.

its command. as though they entire vi-rses are written together without series of senseless syllables. and is consciousness * the Sanskrit . the more complete the more rational separation. [G.] at the close of the first word shew that vowel has arisen out of a contraction. and interruption. and disturbs the t relation to cognate languages.). in which. in cases where the vowel has a cognate semi-vowel at into this latter. with respect to these. and we find. a hiatus guarded against. that Sanskrit. strength. and ^niH asty ay am. and Latin it is it plays an essential part. As we must depart from ti»e Indian practice. where. is the suppression of the sound at the end of words. §. "est /ur.e. We have now to consider the alterations in the i. and original this language We cannot guide ourselves here by the were only a MSS. 9.* following word participates in 98. An operation. as these exhibit no separation of words. Ed. those of the final letters of the roots and nominal bases before grammatical endings. hoc. by its transition provided the vowel following be unlike. subsequently confirmed by the Prakrit. for We instance. Zend. either by the fusion of the two vowels. in order. in also worthy of notice. its final write "S^ '^. . order directly p. and f^ hin is said for bhis. I write in my most recent text ^i^ '^. better We to might." because the junction of two vowels might too often give find. 94. In respect of the vowels. in Sanskrit. ''est and ^wu For the sake of clearness. by an apostrophe which I employ as a sign of fusion. and not words of indi'pondint place and meaning. and that the it. perhaps." the appearance of two or more words to one.. but not in Zend. middle of words. ^T^'t^JT astidam. which has a pre- judicial effect on many Greek terminations. in like manner. at the meeting of vowel terminations is and com- mencements. or.86 CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. to indicate that the vowel which appears wanting in the in ^ dam in is contained the final still vowel of the preceding word. most in life. the concluding s of the instrumental termination plural ftro bhis has passed into the dull n ( Anuswara.

not Tf^ pad-su. afford a field for the conflict of unsociable is consonants. not p. two contiguous consonants. insomuch as the signification of felt. but ^ifm ^f^ at-ti. if surd (§. require a tenuis. The base iR pad. as they have come down to us. before them. harshness. V gh preceding them kh. but strong consonants. in comparison with the cognate languages. " eat. ftnr bliis. nor m^A : ad-ti. in most eases. or transYet does the Sanskrit. ^ su). TX g. in the locative plural. The Vowels and weak consonants. Ed. V c/A only ^ b. a far greater proportion of the roots connect the personal terminations immediately with the root nations there are bhytim.). never. first or exhibit. TS. of its kindred. have either altogether evaded this conflict of c*onsonants. while on the other hand. "^I^ it g.) of grammatical endings and no in- fluence over preceding consonants. more than any itions too daring. and the occasion frequently presents itself." Vj^ pat-su. 25." cA-si. (Z. . H bh to precede The [G. root ^ ad. a conflict. and also among the case termi- vinr many which begin with consonants (wn»^ To cite instances. . *r^ mahat. permits the radical sense to be or rendered irrecognisable by concessions too great. " great. not ^ ^ Ifh. on the other hand. v TT dh allows only t. " foot. on the other hand. ^f^ ad-dhi. only ^ d. not ^ ." forms. t. 95 ] roots and the nominal bases have to regulate their final letters by this law . (§. suffixes exert 25. tli. avoiding elisions.p/j. " to eat. The Greek and Latin. allow only of ^/r. xr only W </i. since." but not ^S^fis adsi (for s is surd). in the instru- mental plural. 8i placed on the highest point of antiquity. Wffk^ mahad-bliis not K^dftnT mahat-bhis. 99. not it.CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. ^^ ad-tlia. if we except some vowel obliterated. with regard to the of any it. in the forms. every radical portion it is still so strongly for the that wliile of- admits of moderate it changes. which honourably and strenuously maintained. a disposition to surrender or . not ^ Tj gh . Thus. T{^t and yj ih . Wf^ at-tha imperative. p. forms ^fa admU " I eat " . and if sonant a medial. however. the bhyas. V dh eS A:.

ir-cr. but assimilates labials to and con- verts the guttural. instead of passing into are extinguished before a. come within the natural limits recognised by the Sanskrit.] The §. 98. TteTreiT-aat. "neTtei^-p-ai. of the nominative and the dative plural termination in ai and here the same principle holds good as in the case of the verb. Sanskrit principles. k-t. however. and. and ^ (5cr). tt. 96. Greek perf. TeTvx'lJ-oii' (§. precedes it unaltered. with the exception of 'E2 and *IA in Greek. T before a and fjL 5. in part. and before a and r observe the Sanskrit law of sound cited in TT-T. y. we should. TeTpifx-fxat. Ha-re. or The Greek declension affords occasion for the alteration of consonants only through the $ . convey it beyond the limits of afford proper organ. /3. and before t and iriTtei-tyat. or t suffers neither medials nor aspirates before hence reTpnt-aai. joins on personal terminations. pass. since they either abandon it.88 at least CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. its no root. 98. FER. and requires euphonic which. princi- pally because. in Latin. k (^=K-f). FEL. tenuis and aspirate into medials. altogether. from TPIB. The t sounds carry concession too and abandon the Sanskrit. iS-jjLev. diverges from /u the Sanskrit in this. in part. gutturals and labials remain on tiie ancient footing. alterations. instead of TteTreiT-Tai. k-(t[^). its or violently alter i. tetvk- rai. because the surd it . as regards the gutturals . fer-t. vul-tis. These two languages fewer occasions for harsh unions of consonants than the Sanskrit. as ea-ri. are applied to roots ending in <t or 0. The Greek. est. that does not leave the consonant which itself. estis. rerpijS-iJLai. write fiai. TteTieid-jxai. ea-^iev. Ed.. 'x^. The makes an exception.e. p. vul-t. and b aud ph become p. become <r (7re7re/o"-Ta/. d. from TYX. as in Sanskrit. . on TreirXeKfar. [Q.)TeTVTT-fi. termi- nated by a consonant. fer-tis. TeTpnr-Tai. and ES. without the aid of a connecting vowel. or any of them. inasmuch as t. TreTreia-fxai. or original principle. an iiidifFerence to its assistance towards the signiit fication of the word. and in the formation of words: (J Mand become. according to which k. TervK-aai. ecr-Te. For TeTvix-jxai. ireitXey-ixat. overstep them. Tervy-ixai.

vowel of the root less frequent. rectum from reg.] accordance with the Sanskrit law cited §. the d allows itself to be extinguished however. by which. s and t. contrary to the Sanskrit. such as ^•ffWtTT a-tdvt-sit. nov-a'i for TtoT-ai. w. the following as from ced. in accordance with the Sanskrit that as a sonant c 25. and r also afford instances of assimilation in jus-si. for the avoidance Compared \^^th the Sanskrit. We find Tiov-g for ttot-s-. with the word of like signification ^RT^TT {mulai a-vdk-shtt. D ought to become t before s. for 7nit-si. If of the two final consonants of a root the last vanishes before the s of the perfect tense sparsi from mule and mulg. 100. and incompatible with a tenuis. . 97. as dl-vl-si. Instead. so theoretically c/awc?. claut-sit from would accord with the Sanskrit forms. that the sonant guttural passes. and then the form. as in rec-si scripsi. and in accordance with the enfeebled condition. on the other hand. of two terminating consonants of a nominal before consonants of the the last vanishes case terminations. . " he tormented. created. in this respect. Ed. [G. base. as con-cus-si from cut . ges-si. a short or. which s. is d assimilates roots in itself to /. It is also (§. of so. scrib. in compensation. on the mitt. vanish entirely. With which are rarer. other hand. of the Greek. from mit or B. becomes before s and compare vec-sit {vcxit). however. us-si* • A third resource. In Latin the principal occasion for the alteration of consonants presents the t itself before the s of the perfect and of the supine." from H^ hid. assimi- lation usually takes place. scriptum from h. or other verbal substantive or adjective (participles) beginning with t. the sibilant must liere pass for the original form. before {rexi). is that. and it is in 98. the cessi made long. into c^the sonant labial into p. from sparg). pres-si. p. itod-at. this. in which gn^ tish signifies "burn". and the original condition of the language. not mis-si.. which latter naturally and originally must have stood for iroJ-o-. im-si.) t . this accords with the Sanskrit law of sounds.CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. The t 89 sounds.

find. In cases of . them with forms fn(ji. .. as from another root of motion. for fuc-si. after the analogy of cautum. is of ^iifiwfl^ ^^^« akshaip-sam. ar-si Prandi. in their preserving the radical letter in preference to the auxiliary verb. as a hardening The and it is c of fuc-si. 57G.. before vowels. str actum. Vike fodi from J od. principle. are in contrast to and other forms. §§. and this they accord in s with the Sanskrit rule of sound. 8cc. vdvi. instead of ^T^rtcT atdut- The the perfects scidi. be considered remembered. but not endurable in this weak- ened state of the language. is the suppression of the is also . on which Thus. . must. fructus out of fniv-or for fru-or. legi. Ed. 679. fautum con-nic-si. ar-si for ard-i an exception.] from that sed. or moc-si (moxi). ridi from vid. car. to be velopes itself out of t u before vowels (Gram. conjecture forms such as cau-si. uv often der.* sedi the lengthening of a short radical vowel [G.) Possibly a moc-si form might derive prolatter is bability from the adverb mox. that. (§. cavi could never have had such an origin. and class lei/.90 CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. struv.fau-si. 50. for instance. stru. pandi. I believe. of an union. are rendered doubtful by their to short vowel. and verti. t obtain fluv. &c. fidi. "snflw atdut-ta.) Jluxmn. the suppression of is tiie rule. 98.. and thence before consonants Jluc. also. be presupposed. from A cavui. &c. and we sta. ^. To these probably also belong cavi. 19. after the analogy of vic-si. fuiiffdvi. and in their origin first probably belong syllable preterites.. with regard to which Sanskrit also. &c. 647. by which the atdut-sam. for pavi."). is hardly I conceivable . Crit. reduplicated * Cf. suppressed before strong consonants. very natural. &c. in of v. struc-sif {fluxi. like mulsi above mentioned. latter of these is. in the same manner. p. and whole ^. out of flu. at least. cf. we might sfriic. stru-vo. frendi. their for the having 547. for the avoidance of hardness. two letters. which compensated by thus. I these forms are not derivable from seduit vidui. for lee-si^ from from fur/. since the cito is probably derived from mov.v preceded by consonants. Sijlu-vo.

is generally the from Icr/x/. The suflSxes supine may stand. for the representation of which the 101.) possibly because. es-tis. The liquids. &c.CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS.1 favourite combination hence. (eZ/i/ §. deserve special consideration. the s belonged to the root or to the sufor the tus whether the d of f. in regard to the relations of t sound generated by the conflict between and the preceding consonant According to the original t law observed in the Sanskrit. evince special incli- . suppression of an s. but in their place comesum. >t^^ bheltum. m excepted. vec-sum. as in 100.. comesnr. " to cleave. the i of which latter is not original. According to the deget nerated practice of the Greek. of turn. p. We t might question whe- comesum. have jumped at once from estus to between which two an essus probably intervened. perished in respects. of turn. tus. habituated itself to an /. in fix. through such forms as e-sum. owe origin to assimilation. for Jic- tum. employed in the formation of words and beginning with t. assimilated itself Out of essum has arisen esum. c&mes-for. t quassum. an auxiliary verb is abandoned in preference to a letter of the main verb. Of this second gradation we find a rem&c. ed. fic-sum. probably the for where of a pair of consonants the one is removed. Ed. however. no comes-tum. from pdo ther. ought to remain t'. Jlssum. After that the language had. sctdi. a radical unaltered before turn.pupugi. 100. &c. but is hard to suppose that the language should esus. by the first. . Cs (i) is [G. divi-sum. cd-sum. analogous to es-t. : we find. analogous to cessum. ^s-siim. comes-tura. first it . had been changed radicality of into The form com-es it might argue the the s. &c.. correspond to tufudi. quassum.'" from fk^ bhid. "no-at from ttoJ-ct/. tlie 91 [G. a radical d or before t would become s.] lapse of time : in other y?'c//. Ed. s in suffixes properly beginning with a s might its easily insinuate itself into forms where a it did not p. nant in comes-ius. 99. while the to the preceding s. nec-tum.. and d should pass into as. not to speak of tefigi.

can-turn. into s. pen-sum. accommodates itself to f. as ton-sum. 101." L exhibits in the Latin . and in Old and Middle High German z t also) before a superadded into s. ana-baud-t. The Gothic. par-sum. in this respect. of the strong preterit where. for weis-f. We find th. cur-sum. except cen-sum. the auxiliary where it remains unaltered. fai-fals-t (pJicavisti). . fT^ tursh. ana-baus-t {imperasti)." instead of ^IR. generates the same euphonij relations. Hence. forming out of the in the weak preterite. vul-sum^ in contrast to cul-tum n exhibits ten-turn. t alone gives occasion an euphonic conversion of a preceding radical consonant. 92 CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. vis-sa (" knew "). the forms fal-sum. tor-turn : there are also cases in which r. in the 2d pers. t " brother save me. by a conversion us-tum. weak pret. for instance. also. for instance. ^ir^ m^ bhrdtas tdraya mdm. In the for Germanic languages. The other forms in n-sum. pul-sum. in these forms the Germanic on the sam it footing as the Greek. v^n bhar- not >rer»» bhastum. ios-tum* This answers to the Sanskrit obligatory convert . in (^abscidisti).] Gothic maimais-t for maimait-t. hence. bhrdtar : on the other hand. the only in a few fication t in the Old High German In the is retain el signi- verbs. [G. ». terites. have been mulcted of a radical d. s. p. 102. In Old and Middle High German in I " thou knowest. opposed to man-sum. 97." for weiz-t. ier-snm. sing. ver-sum. root vif. and jrq trish from *. mer-sum. as in ges-fum. which spring from these verbs. in the middle of words r remains unaltered before turn.. . d. see §. instead of * The obvious relationship of torreo with Ttpa-ofuu. sion of a concluding r into s before an initial IflTJi as. nation for a succeeding most of all the r ." to bear. for fai-fall h-f. that t converts radical sounds (/. however. for instance. in contrast to par-turn. which associate a present with the form of the preterite. argues the derivation of the latter r from Upon that of Jiro from "grr ««A. Ed. hence.

undisturbed." ki-neiz4a. retained. in the adjunstion of the pret.. dah-ia. * With the exception of the High German passive form. and even remain unaltered t and only when another consonant precedes them extinguished. " luxi. but against this remains unaltered. " cijcurri.) is natural. and d are for instance. of the t having their syllables made long generally through two terminating consonants in the preterite. The Middle High German follows essentially the same principles. "duxi. Latin forms mentioned tum. apply the auxiliary verb directly to the root. CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. in the latter case. for instance.] Before the formative suffixes beginning with both in Gothic and High German. Of double consonants one only h. in Gothic. "afflixi. t Here d. which. " voLvi. of the weaker the root. t*. dul-de. and thus lei-te is opposed to the Old High the other hand." liuh-ta. but not universal.. but /. "arctavi. into s does not occur. corresponds. in respect of assimilation. above described its f to part. guttural and labial tenues and medials are changed into their aspirates." for dacch-ta. The change law b of g into c 98. for instance. as ca-sum. and of cA or cch only other consonantal combinations remain." for linht-ia hul-ta. on may be maintained. however." is for huld-ta. the in §. wanh-ta. " texi." ar-6d-fOf " vastavi. [G. p. anc-te. the transition of z. only a simple radical t gives way before the auxiliary verb." for rann-ta. vah-fvo. z on the contrary remains . such as quas-sum for guas- The Old High German. 93 from viita. resembles. follows the analogy of . " placavi. " toleravi" and consider the d as (§. Ed. clau-sum. how- ever. leit-ta." for an g-te . which. 102. The is Old High Ger- man with those verbs of the first weak conjugation. Thus. and the t of the auxiliary be surrendered — unless we admit a division of a softened t. " vacillavi. to such Latin forms. which from muuz makes not muos-say but case different in also adopts wis-sa. vista. . 101. — as dulde." ualz-tOf . in roots in Id and rd the d German leit-ta. although the tenuis accord with a following t. as ran-ta. from quat-tum. but rrMo-sfi." for uanch-ta .

" from 103. with the nasal excluded as Modern Persian &jLo bastah." sauh-i(i)s. with the The Zend accords." head comes our mast." ga-skrif-t(i)s. but still more with p. " dead. under certain conditions and according to special laws. 94 "watch. or throws itself • Cf. p.ta. 103. " worshipper. .. as th cannot be combined with t." from skap fragif-i{i)s." (s). softened from gab. that. ^i*i idhma. canstf". ." mah-ts. Old High German suJit. from (S^^au bandh. Ed. aj^jj/oaj .. affords few examples of this kind : under Gothic mats. in Gothic. " to eat." aesma. yet only upon a medial. upon the initial consonant of the root. "I feared." §. however. maid. heist. ki-skaft. before the personal character . it in this respect. " betrothment. the Greek. for instance. as for instance. its t . t No other roots in g in this person are to be found in Ulfilua. Wlien in Sanskrit. cha- sibilant racter t of the preterite. initial consonant of and Lithuanian. in that converts sounds into for instance. but also before 9 m m^mj7j " bound. and yet. 104. before other inflections formed with the g undergoes an euphonic transition into h. jj s. "sickness. "leaven. not only before ^ ini. 98. " might. the Sclavonic onward on the §. from vak." of hldtan. related to the and mati/an. "might. the medial g does not universally pass into k or h [G. from suk from mag ." kift. t. CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS. " creature. The as is dentals replace the aspirate th by the the case in Gothic before the pers.^ mag-t. the springs from the t s of hloatreis. dg-t. " food. 6h~ta. "to bite.] ( = ch). 457. " thou t. The formation this of words. Germanic*.. . hevt "to worship": (heitan. back. according to the aspiration it falls of a medial undergoes a necessary suppression. t of we the pret." comes probably from ii." from gib. but generally is retained ana find.'* in from the root o jo ir'tth aj^ jjasj basta. " creation. " thou fearest. from Joo band. 208). " wood. It is a violation of one of the most natural laws of sound." In Gothic." Grimm." mah-t(ji)s. " gift.

77. an original (pd ought to become 77^— on this ground the tendency to aspiration of the root remained unsatisfied by fTdc{>6r]v kc. T«^a<^arat. supply the place of the ter- minating one. Tu). of the two.'». p. and as if the ordy existed out of reference to the 3. Opposed. a combination in cording to it wider thau might also say. hhiil. rayy^. of in deference to the which one only supposed to appear euphonic law \Yhich forbids the admission of two con- secutive aspirated syllables." for ^^ETlfiR doli-sijami. that. there In Sanskrit. by which process t becomes Hence. would only lc<. obtains the spiritus as(e/cTos-. 3G8. letters which admit of no union back on the an aspirate. aud the other forced to 1 his one would be the last [G. 98. 10 ». for instance. dpi^oiJLai.'' for sifivmin^ hudh-syumi knowinor the vedas. 6pvyi-yLa . however. 95 sulfix. III. to this exjdanation is on account of the inconvenience of accumulated aspirates. Bumouf in the Asiatic Journal.." for ^y<[ budhta . dpe-n-auitidpe^lfui). is complete. €Tpv(pt]v. Ta(pil]i dd-n. which seems to me sound. "I shall milk. that since (f)6 (as x^) is so favourite G ree k that it is even substituted for ird and . the collection of \\ hose roots no such instance. e|<«). which. perhaps.] would only shew itself when the latter had been the fact. dpviT-TUi. and /u. e(^/j). Tf6d(f)6a3. the original terminating aspirate necessarily fell back on the radical initiid. present a difficulty. »fii^fjT bhot. t It is usual to explain this appearance by the supposition of two aspiis rations in the root of these forms. "knowing. dpefi-fia. began to assume was legitimate. and in its being thrown 6. tlie itself in language has guarded the original formation of its roots agnliibt the evil. See J. 78. . t. This theory.f per when * "x^ is obliged to merge in the tenuis. dperrryp. are eccentricities of usage. ac- and extended We — §." for ^\| budli . the following si/ for the initial is and final letter of a root. >ft^?Tf*T dhuk-sjiijdmi. T€6d<fi6ai. "milked. Te6p(i(f>6ni. once habituated to the initial aspiration by its frequent ai)plication to its T(6d(j>aTai to be explained. L. initial letter. rpkyjji. We find.^6 while. fd(i(f)0qv. merge in the tenuis. e. ercKprjVf TedafM-jjiai rpv(pO£. however. ddcrcroiv." for first Z^ dnh-tn. ^rq dug-dhn.CHARACTERS AND SOUNDS.* in the necessary 8Ui)prcssion of the aspirate in i some roots which begin with and end with an aspirate before witli a. 6pi^. " "I shall know. Ed. Tpf)(6^. l>art In Greek we find a remarkable relic of the of tlie transposition of the aspirate.^ In tiie spirit of this transposition of the aspirate. and Buttmann. The foi-m. pp. Tpe^o). ^w'ff m/'/- ?S bud-d-'in. and has never admitted an aspirated consonant at oi. (6pi'(j)6qv„ These.

like 106. ticles : all original prepositions." roots. "he. nevertheless. lies more or less concealed. We term them. there all not a single one in a.( 96 . Ed.\i signifies. indeed. not begotten by them. and the verb. Ed. p.g. derive words. and par- we name them Pronominal Roots." "this. because they all express a pronominal idea. conjunctions. to (or any thing more general. conjunctions. end with a : one. for the most part. from verbal roots. ^ du excepted.1 the verbal roots. From the second class spring pronouns.] 105. occur among roots. which is two classes of roots : from the verbs."^ as a pronominal root. "to go. stands in close formal connection with them. but sprung from the same shoot with them. but their declension-theme inflective base) is at the same time their all The Indian Grammarians. consists simply of a. however. e. because from many roots each per- son of the present site personal is formed by simply adding the requi- termination. the final letters of the verbal Accidental external identity takes place between the verbal and pronominal roots. even in a formal respect. and the lanit. although long a. spring nouns (substantives and adjectives) wliich stand in fraternal connection with the verbs. 105. guages which are akin to one. either according to their meaning or root. although the majority of pronominal bases. their form. and according to prevailing custom. because they. 106. are . too. p. are opposed to such a derivation. Verbal Roots . the pronouns included. There are in Sanskrit. [G. No simple pronouns can be carried back. as a verbal root. in the prepositions. OF THE ROOTS. for the sake of distinction. which. The verbal those of the pronouns. and particles. however. Among is [G. and other vowels. and by far the more numerous. not in the relation of descent from them.

as far as we their antiquity. simple sounds. contain either a reduplicate- "to wake." a root in combined in inseparable it were. These require.* express the fundamental * Trans. of Litt. as well as those of a middle decree. as the language was to contain within the limits of one-syllableness the whole body of fundamental ideas. of Berlin for tlie year 1824. is sup- ported by the remarkable concurrence of [G. n . of the Hist. "mi sthd. grown up with the play." (Lat. " to which I derive from oFRR kumara. 126. p 107. as sttmd. " to go. p. became. certified by the agreement of the Latin with the Sanskrit. Class of the R. like ofWIT kumdr. e. both in the beginning and ending of the root." or a preposition which has . as I- have already elsewhere shewn. " a boy. scand-o) the age of the combination of consonants.g. go " by the root i. The simple vowels and consonants were not sufficient: it was requisite to frame roots also where several consonants. 97 and the polysyllabic forms represented by roots the grammarians as syllable. A. in ^. as ^H^vtr ava-dhir. "to which the age of the co-existence of the s and th is supported by the unanimous testimony of of our race of languages. and their one-syllableness may present itself under all possible forms.] nearly all the individuals of the " to Sanskrit family of lan- guages in expressing the idea 107." Except the law of their being monosyllabic.^ is skand. monosyllabic. that in the earliest period of language sufficient to simple vowel express a verbal idea." root. This free state of irrestriction was necessary. all the members So also. Phil.OF THE ROOTS. which. in the she rtest and most extended. as Wf^Jdgri. unity. The nature and still peculiarity of the Sanskrit verbal roots explains itself of the more by comparison with those Semitic languages. &c. Ed. three trace back consonants. the Sanskrit roots are subjected to no further limitation. a is The proposition. " to despise " or thev have sprung: from a noun.

whose origin we must investi- and whose destination is. can be regarded as the root only a shortening of the and just as can it be looked for in kl6l." it A it Semitic root unpronounceable. kdlul. and forms kdtldk. not to the root. kut'da. slain". without the aid of vowels the status conis strudus of the infinitive. an advance made to a special grammatical form. to express the secondary ideas of grammar which the root itself cannot express* gate." before the same addition. which. has grown In the imperative kldl the abbrevia- tion is not external. is dis- tinguished. " By them. if its oldest state is consulted in the languages which have continued most pure. Ed.. little nor kdil. . in decided opposition to those of the Sanskrit family. still. the vowels belong." from "he was and in Hebrew. . and occasioned by the hurry with which a command is usually enunciated. idea by themselves alone. produced by a natural tendency to pass hastily to the word governed by the to it. languages. but to the grammatical motion. "slain. In the Semitic languages. com- presses itself in an opposite manner.. and the [G.] mechanism of the construction of the word. the secondary ideas. contracts itself to kldl {klul- while kotei. and But in the Sanskrit family of then no longer possesses the simple peculiarity of a root raised above all grammar. the root appears as a circumscribed nucleus. kdtM.h they syllable. 98 OF THE ROOTS. subject to mechanical conditions. and which surrounds with foreign syllables. dli the word. " slaying. as it were. but rather dynamic. in giving is vowels. he slew. and depends on the mechanism of the construction of Thus. which itself is almost unalterable. in Hebrew. because. 108. belonging to the chiefly because it is only transitory. katala. p. Neither ktdl. therefore. and may be momentarily compressed into one in this. in Arabic. the combination of the middle radical with the first- or last cannot be recognised as orio^inal and root." in the fem. on account of the addition •dli) ." from is kdtulf "slain. "slaying. infinitive. for example. for this absolute form kdt6l.

log. itself signify plurality. and the Semitic lan- guages the second. the other always by the addition of a word. tion. are denoted those of the person to particles by the addition of which have a meaning for themselves individually. p. 67. of which they also the Sanskrit roots. with one or more consonants.. on account of their construc- possess the most surprising capacity for indicating the secondary ideas of ing of the root. p. at the first grammar by the mere internal mouldmake extensive use. that F. 108. the chief word so as to be no longer distinguishable the Arabic. As the Semitic roots.* while he [G. which are connected with relations. Ed. 48. 99 The vowel. and the tendency to it which suffixes shews itself deeply seated in the language. and sometimes without any consonant whatever. compelled to assume external additions strange. only mechanism. may there be safely assumed that the same may have * In his work on the language and wisdom of the Indiana. or Vriddlii . while grammatical movement. belongs to the fundamental meaning: raised and. and in all but where in a language. of which the one denotes the secondary intentions of internal alteration of the sound of the root meaning by an by inflexion. the symmetry of construction. the retention of i an original (§§. but. 66. "There may. by Guna or to and this lengthening or raising. " arise an appearance of inflexion. its it can be lengthened to the highest degree. H 9. a. opposed to weakening or change to u belongs not to the denoting of grammatical relations.OF THE ROOTS. when the annexed particles are melted down with . so must it appear von Schlegel. more lately.). or other relative ideas of that kind. what is to be in future. are . . allots the Sanskrit and its sisters to to the former race. as the first and most important verbs.] divides languages in general into two chief races. which require to be more to the clearly pointed out. which may by past time." he writes. as in it. as I imagine I can prove. indeed.

a-o>. Orjaoixeda is an external modification of the root combined with it. on the whole. drjaofieda. although in this single point. those which. it by admixture or artificial has adopted another and a higher character. 48) opposes to addition from without. simply because touches it. F. by inflexion. comes J/Jco-fct. If. where the annexation of particles of a foreign nature no longer admits of such clear discrimination: one may at least safely assume that the adornment. in Sanskrit and the lan- guages connected with it. or If. 5w-(ra). in Greek. or (p. occurred in other positions. the personal terminations of verls shew at least as great a similarity to isolated pro- nouns as in Arabic. But when from what are the forms /ixt. 35) the internal modification of the root. von Schlegel remarks : language every root is truly that which the name says. for since the ideas of relation are is denoted by internal alteration. have in that case except the by the elements of the root inflexion at all to shew. So-drjaojJLeda. p.100 OF THE ROOTS. " In the Indian or Grecian P. the Sanskrit and reduplication. F. in their isolated [G.] state. which is supplied itself Greek &c. which not at ? internally altered. and vice verad. that. freer room development. the fulness of which can be . and not rather select. 50. belongs to this chief race. language. Jo or Jw. 5o. also express the corresponding pronominal ideas? By inflexion. How should any language." We must tlie here preliminarily observe. — — scarce it is . in the choice of these syllables avoid. an internal modification of the root is to be understood. von Schlegel understands the internal alteration of the sound of the root. which he (p. Ed. any however. which expresses the pronominal relations of the verbs by syllables annexed either at the beginning or end of the word. with it expresses a whole then the idea of sea and continent may be repre- sented as an internal modification of the sea. only in the quantity of the vowel then. is but palpable external addiall tions to the root. given for indefinitely and like a living germ. 110.

A. points. first for that reason. of stamp of relationship is there between /z/. he gives three les classes. von Schlegel. and the tracing of the origin of which if is the task of scientific grammar. 101 rich. extended. often wondrously howroot. and the [G. but have been added from without. that they do not belong to the root. viz. retains the stamp of adheres to it. to W. how can the capability be deduced of surrounding the (internally unalterable) root indefinitely. be the less certain. moyennant un assiz nombre de syllabes qui. Ed.OF THE ROOTS. and is. one discovers at least so much. n'ont point de significuiiun . he says: "Je pense.] roots to which these significative additions are jfppended ? We therefore recognise in the inflexions of the Sanskrit family of languages no internal involutions of the root. cependant. in the majority of inflexions. which in this still manner proceeds from the simple its relationship. Le merveilkux de ces langues de former une immense variete de mots.. Les langues sans ancurie affixes. and thus reciprocally bears and supports ever. " Observations sur la langue prove/ifales." I find. &c.* gives us to understand. et d'accroisseraent. Orjaofieda. 111. langues qui emploient des langues d inflexions. ever. But even b<? the origin of not a single one of these inflexions could still traced with certainty. qu'il faut assigner le premier rang les aux la' gues a inflexions. On pourroit les appeler langues organiques. who. also. because. tt lea structure grammaticale. by external would not. 14. the inference not established . with reg ird to the so-called Nevertheless. of the principle of the formation addition. feconde. in his work. p. but elements of themselves significative. with foreign syllables externally added ? What kind <ra). si je puis et une vegetation abondante est. et de murquer petit la liaison des idees que ces mots designent. in essential assents the above-mentioned division of lan- guages." p. parce qu'elles renferraent un principe Wvant de m'ex- developpement priiner artifice ainsi. et la litteraturr. itself. in fact. how- for from the capability of expressing ideas of relation by internal alteration of the root. et qu'elles ont seules. grammar. All. at the glance. Of the latter. considerees separement.

par temps. any more than similar state. 112.] regarded. the same. two sister languages. §. the appended grammatical syllables or inflexions have no meaning. " has to the monosyllabic to ATy i The reason for weakening the a of the base in the difl^erent cases of the viz. par genres." has the same relation to TA-m. " I ate. ta. and the grammatical categories. par modes. En modifiant les lettres radicales. W. tres-modifiee et tres-com- plexe. and not turn. . 6. Cette metliode procure I'avantage d enoncer en un seul mot I'id^e principale. three and distinguish them as follows : first. et les pronoms. Ed. first and not mi. i the greater extent of the form of word with If. languages with monosyllabic roots. and secondary relations after the fication. ne signifient rien. comprises Chinese. We (1. prefer. adjectifs. where all is This class hitherto bare root. are the declinable bases of the " and third person and al-Ti. " him. In the Semitic. they are not modifications of the root. les idees On compose des mots de plusieurs racines pour Ensuite on decline les substantifs. on the reasons is there is much ingenuity in the thought of a natural history or classification of languages. . se- parement.) then. par nombres. but foreign additions. Hvec tout son cortege d'id^es accessoires et de relations variables. antum. en employant de memo des desinences et quelquefois des augmens qui. and in Sanskrit ma. les et exprimer complexes. however. to present. they have no meaning. par cas . mais qui determinent avec precision le sens du mot auquel elles sent jointes. at least in so far that they do not. without the capability of composition. souvent deja. on forme de mots derives de diverses especes. and hence without organism. occur isolated in a completely In Arabic. that fG. the division of languages is still made by on which von it Schlegel founded. par nombres. p. von Schlegel classes. is in Sanskrit. et dt's derives des derives." Gothic IT-a. F. et par personncs. et en ajoutant aux racines des syllabes dierivatives. said for "ye". for instance. ii. (comp. pT se. whose characteristic lies in this.102 inflexions. that OF THE ROOTS." he eats. with A. c). without grammar. untenable." that in I eat. is probably. on conjugue les verbes par voix.

sur le genie de la langue chinoise. 113. Thirdly. which are really significative.). and moreover other 1. roots. body and soul (Comp. languages with dissyllabic verbal and three necessary consonants as single vehicles of This class comprehends merely the fundamental meaning. relations. la von na^ Humboldt's talented pamphlet. OF THE ROOTS. We here gladly of languages a great superiority not. which in the beautiful adjustment harmonious whole." .. chief principle formation of words. ( which extend only to the tenses which • We find this view of the Chinese admirably elucidated in ^'JJettre W. of these additions to a finally. comprehended under words and and have maintained themselves in a condition which it renders possible to trace back their forms of to the simplest elements. can only be discovered - 103 from the position of the with mono- roots in the sentence. The class. sur et formes grammaticales en general. 100.* syllabic roots. main point. ingenious selection and application of them.Ed. languages. Abel Remusat. and produces its grammatical forms. To this class belongs all the Sanskrit family of languages. ture des a M. were. the Semitic languages. Secondly. so far as they are not 3. 109 \ ing to The Indian Grammarians divide the properties. not simply by combination. which together represent. §. and the accurate and acute defining of various hereby becomes possible. which of the roots. but in the copiousness of these grammatical additions. find in the use of inflexions as syllables per se devoid of meaning. like the second class. languages which are capable of combination. we do however. in this appears to me to lie in the combination of verbal and pro[G. and obtain this their organism and grammar nearly in of the way alone. which bears the roots accord- appearance of an organized body. and connected with words used isolated in the judicious..] nominal as it roots. p. but by a mere internal modification award to the Sanskrit family over the Semitic.

makes the thing II Sanskrit long vowels admit Guna only wlien they occur at the end of the root.] We shall here give the characteristics of the Sanskrit classes. first from AIII. because the singular.) into ten classes. imper.g.g.t §. e. but in the beginning and middle remain without admixture of tile ^ a. we should have patdti. the present subjunct. from the 6th. present of every In German.. having ^a and as the radical vowel.. e. from WV budh (l. this. Guna ( §. corresponds to the affix ^a . less perspicuous. . "he knows. cl. is (indie. e (before nasals o." tundit). ^ a has no Guna. class. pres. t We give the plural. in the third conjugation. 6\i^-o-^ev. class.) In Greek. that the former raise the vowel of the root by Guna the latter retain it . belong to the while.t no discrimination can 1. be- yond which certain conjugation-signs do not extend. the form of tlie Greek to wanting in Sanskrit) and imperfect correspond them .* and to the part. 26). 26. ^vfiT bddhati. Ae/7r-o-/iev. under the sixth In Latin we recognise. p. $Yr fall (eA/7rov. on account of abbreviation.) As but nearly all If^iT tudati. are reckoned in the first class. the mood corresponds. <pevy-o-fxev. t The accent here distinguishes the Ist cl. (§. 114.. and we reserve the discussion of the origin of this and other conjugational afiixes for the disquisition on the verb. which contains about 130 roots. point of difference between the first The 1000 sixth class of nearly roots (almost the half of the entire number) and the lies in class.g. the special tenses.) The first and sixth class add ^a to the root . (l. 104 1 call OF THE ROOTS.: . take place through this vowel between the classes and 6.) from TTH tud (6. [G. and compare with them those which correspond in the European sister languages. the roots which belong to either.) 6iy-o-ixev. all of which we have re-discovered in the Zend also. " he vexes" (comp. II e. 3. etpvyov). and optat. so do short vowels before double consonants. Ed. while pure. for pdtati did it belong to the 6th. and examples of which are given in the following paragraph. * In Greek. because they have &c..

pi. in Gothic. 2. 8. (See Ann. is with the ^ a of the Guna but I was not then clear regarding the in the present in all roots with rowels capable of for Crit.. of all the primitive (strong) verbs. which first I 105 would raise to the class. called. as in Sanskrit. with the exception some remains time. 2d pers. I bend." from BUG. hence keina ( = ktna. the cognate of the Sanskrit and sixth we .e. Ed. first class. 2." hait-i-s. see 69. expressed th« identical conjecture that the a of forms like haita." from KIN. before some personal terminations. and as in Latin.) : is aggregated into a long i (written ei. that the genitive ped-is has to -noS-og fG.). p. German. Rl^> t We point Book II. hut Sanskrit 1st and 6th classes . huit-a-ts hait-i-th. regard the addition e.) make frequent mention of the Gothic alone as the true startingand light of German Grammar. so. according .— OF THE ROOTS. stand in clear is connection with the Sanskrit first is which here. huilaima. In influence of the liquid. "I am a-m." The diphthongs m.) and as are e ( = ^.). preterite. and lengthened in the §. the Guna is here weakened to i. of Litt. It has either remained is nnaltered in the special tenses. bent. (§. hait-a-nd.* The ^a which added to the root has. 282 and 259. &c.). legimua i as a weakening of the old a (§. in my Review of Grimm's Grammar.) and has the same relation to Xey-o-fjLev. The Sanskrit radical vowel 69. 115. to §. laid of the fourth class (No. 27. as in Sanskrit if and "^ from kiina). since first. only that the a which gives (§. to d. In legu-nt. experienced a threefold destiny. ^ a has. does not belong to the personal termination. §. du.g. pp. an. in Gothic t. from pad-as). has become u (Comp. Sanskrit mr bhuj. whence »TTri bhugnn. hiugo. 66. Guna. liait-a. except in reduplicate roots (i. however. i which. liaitam. The application to the Hi^h Ger- man will hereafter present itself. . 67. hait-i-th. are incapable of any Guna a.). been weakened to i. . §.) * I have already. remained unchanged before others.. " " "I germinate. . 70. hait- The radical vowels i and u keep the Guna addition.] where the Sanskrit has likewise a (^^ a» through the old the leg-a-nti. with a radical §. for the down in its full extent.

] special tenses e." to 7r>T from GRIP. To this class belongs the Kll^^ " to germinate. 117. in the preterite.g. bitum). e. pi. just (2. 87. The corresponding born" (see (jripxim.) : the same relation. has greipa.) F'lT. as-f. as e. too. hence. in the receives Guna by and in the pret. vohs. at." pret. "he wanders. far-i-th. according to forms AT. e." vahsyi-th. pi. " cresco. : Sanskrit root §. "to know." to Their number amounts altogether about 130. it is preserved pure. existing in the Sanskrit ?. " to seize. is treated like an original special tenses it ?. and. in the first ease. The fourth class of Sanskrit roots adds to them the ya. . Ed. The German has preserved one unmistakeable remnant of this diss. 27. pret. pres. " to produce. in the third fate present." in Gothic. weakened but retained in the monosyllabic singu(§. is added to the root in the va}is-t/a(Zer\d [G." " to be 87. 116. and compensation by the weaker which i. " to eat. spring rT^frT nasyati. is apT /«". lar of the preterite: so that here the stronger a 8.) corre- sponds to the weaker the <. at. grahh (Veda form) bait. f*^ bliid. and with the meaning " to but corresponds to the Old High scold. ' crescit. but in the pret. he wandered.] (§. 257). which befalls the a of the root in Gothic a complete extirpation.). syllable ^ and herein agrees with the special tenses qf it the passive. which in Sanskrit (comp. the old a shews itself in the special to f. sing. *' to bite." Sanskrit f^ vid. " he perishes. pret." answers and fdr. graip. cleave"). p..106 thus.)." mentioned above." chachdra tenses . " crescebant. in the sing. Ed. j^^^MOS^y ucs-yann. p." * (beita.' German root BIZ. on the has an " to BIT. i in the same way a. by a (§.g. or. original i. OF THE ROOTS. kain. sing.g. " to "mfn charati to ^r^TT [G. other hand. kin-um. * Occurs only with the prep. ita. §. so. ( = 'STT fl) does to the short The root '5?^ ad.. 14." . which . secondly. in those strong verbs which again lay aside. that. the syllable ya (weakened to yi). p. " to exists bite. and from the roots which belong to chiefly neuter verbs. The is /. keina.^' Vendidad S.

as there is scarce any doabt of its relationship with the 9 a of the ver^' copious first class. FA. Gothic Old High German not iz-m^. as the above mentioned 'I. (e«^i/i). leaves The second class. To the consonants the direct combination with the conso- nants of the termination has become too heavy." more than about exhibits roots. e. partly terminating in consonants.g. e«-/. Hence. third.3 The third class distinguished from tlie second by a syllable of reduplication in the special tenses." from ^5^ rud. 2TA. is I can. ed-i-mus. In the Latin there fall also STA. est. these classes have mainly passed over (as a remnant of it-a-m. In • Fire roots of the second class introdnce in Sanskrit. as in Greek to tfiev. FER and J EL {JUL) have preserved in-quam. 4)A. e. 3^ t. as tlie corresponding root in Latin. to the first class tlie . and German. Lithuan. rXO iyid-di). Ed. II8. cot/. ^JTff corresponding to etfju imas. not ed-mus old construction issra-mi* es-iis). ^fir Smi. ^^ ad belongs. with the accretion of a T. and has maintained itself under this form in Greek also. (3. In this and the third-class. ar) has remained in the San- skrit second class. Gothic and High to the second German class. FLA. /. GH. is the root. to facilitate the conjugation. appears as QUAT. DA. AY. ^f^fT a^/i. &c. and NA. g. and Lithuanian. which must be hereafter explained hence. and 'E2 alone (because of the facility of a/i. which. in Gothic. whence QUA weakened some persons of the ancient construction. weakened to QUIT. however. AQ. int. p. to and also QUI. . no longer believe that the of the Latin third conjag. partly in vowels. with Guna of the vowels capable of Guna . before light terminations. esti. It contains not from \i "to go.* is [G. seventy roots. and seventh classes termination direct to the root . to which the root without any characteristic addition. between the conas Oft^Ol rod-i- sonants of the root and the personal termination.) 107 add the personal The secoud. connected with thb ^ *. the Greek 4>Y almost entirelv ending in vowels. answering to the Sanskrit ^im ad-mas. but iiTthe cognate European languages. an miy t •' I weep. Lithua- nian.OF THE ROOTS.

which The seventh about twenty-four roots. in a it German it is point of view." whence TR^fi? tan-6-mi=Tav-lj-ixt. SeiKvvfxi. " I beget. saihva. that. . f^rrf^T the light personal terminations to the syllable na. must be regarded strong verbs. §. of these two classes is lengthened supplied by before the light terminations by Guna. " adipisei- mur. first class." f^r^fl hhindmas." An example of the eighth class is K^ tan. class. Latin has kept the weaker form of this nasalization. is thus. Kaix/S-av-o-fxev. it adheres so firmly to the root. instead of being shortened * of. like From the Greek come to be here extended before e. inrf^ jajanmi. StBooixi. ©IF. " ad-ip-is-cor. ridrjm yi-yv-o-fj. stinguo. e." The 114 G.e^. has u for its characteristic tion the u. hence findo.) .g. vv and lengthening the v 'snrftfiT . in the is special tenses. " I saw. connected with the affix of the thus. e. introduces. of about thirty roots. excepting all kri. " to extend. I now 80. With the ^ u. with ten roots.) The ninth class adds *tt nd to the root. first class (p. Hence not dropped in the preterite. fxavd-dv-o-iiev. is probably connected [G. where. has nu. SeiKvvjxev. 119. and receives. which. ^^^\^ dadhdmi.g. 6iyy-av-o-fxev. bhinadmi." ^TSIW9 dp-nu-mas.g." (5. which syl- lable.). and. in which the inserted on in the word. p. " we cleave." addi- terminate in : tt n or 7^ n. ^^fi? dndami. and Latin forms like cogno. (4. find-i-mus. but has further added to the root the affix of the Ed. considered roots." sahv. like class . comprehends about twenty roots Lithuanian dudu. in the special tenses. as in Sanskrit dp-n6-mi. however. a nasal into the root.) The fifth class. Ibiqiio. of comp. TT'^'ra tan-u-mas=rav-v-fj. v. consider the v of saihva and similar verbs as purely euphonic. all affix of the Sanskrit first e. which in the corre- sponding Greek appended syllables. and the oir eighth. " to make. 16. like the Latin Jind-i-mus. of the eighth class. however.] the V in some Gothic strong verbs. the as a radical. AAB. v. with the preis nasal has been repeated further fi xed a.108 Sanskrit it OF THE ROOTS. (§. Ed. " I cleave." .* " I see. before heavy terminations.

) The tenth class adds ^ti aya to the root. haband. in (i'«/i/) vdfxev e. the other forma- All causals. In this is easily perceived vrj^Mt relationship with ij. and. and in the latter case so that I have no longer any scruple in y has become i tracing back Grimm's first and third conjugation of the weak form to a common origin. always accomvowel and of a follow this class.] the first a. Greek formations jiev.conjugation at a remote period of antiquity. e. "to crush/" (comp. p. v. ^^. formations like rifx-voonly that they have wandered into the fiev belong to this class. 78.OF THE ROOTS. habam. with Old High hapemea.^f^{ led-nya-ti "he makes to know." class. mordeo) comes n^jirf^ mndndmi. According to all probability. how- ever.g. in several persons. the verbs with the affix 6 also (as Old High German mandn.g. (6. hnpenf. (see ai. " to mention. €. however. but ^ ay extends. Sajivyj/jLi. are originally one. in German." from ysi f^ vid. is Very remarkable. to tions of the root. the affix snu two shapes : ^TT aya at least in in the one [G. to "^ 109 na. for more lately vew would not have become vw from irjfjj. from every root a causal can is be formed by the addition ^sm ay. its which. in the other the . nimas.") belong to this regarding which we will speak further under the verb. but retains its e more firmly than the Gothic a.). which panied by Guna of the middle vowel of the root capable of final Guna. 120." from to hear. and many denominatives. ^TRTTfiT srdv-aya-ti.^^iws mridthe . more modern w. German hapim. that this affix is not limited to tlie special tenses: the final a of ^nj aya is peculiar to all them. "he makes We recognise. " to make to think. and o. is lost.\ and thus weakened lo "q^ ni. with very few exceptions. ^dfiva- As a. Ed. or by Vriddhi of every radical n. from \i (% 6.iddle a belonging to the root. last. indeed. sinks into a simple Compare Gothic haba. but is dis- tinguished from the other classes in this farther important point. ^ mrid. the concurthe Latin rence of the Prakrit with the Old Hi'>h German and . replaces the is heavy ^rt a by the lighter E. The Old High Germtrn gives e as the contraction of a + iy §.

the verb. which have suppressed the '^ixf vowel of the Sanskrit aya. The Indian Grammarians assume for the Sanscrit a root won. p. JTR^fiT mdnayati Wl'^PlTH^ mdnedl man mond -s mdnaydmns mmv^ mdnemha JTTimi manemes movemiis manit monetis W(Wr^ mdnayatha >?T^^'PtT mdnMha mdn^nfi mdnayanti *TT?!lfTT manent monent In regard to those first affix. JTRTUfn mdnaydmi jniT'^ftr ^wf^ mdrtimi ^^m^S mdnesi JT'^f^ var-man^m manes manet moneo mdnayasi . see §.) . 19. it in like manner has Compare Sanskrit JTT^Tnft? m^fn mdnemi* Old High of the 2d conj. fir-MON).: 110 OF THE ROOTS. The conjugation " I is supported by other examples of this as chintemi. weak verbs. *' to honour": more probably.&s. LATIN. that the semi-vowel y has become hardened to g. it however. the radical o (see. together with mdnenti the forms mdnaanti and mdnanti arc also admissible. " I honour. §. also. 6. " I mean. §. " we are"). theref"ore. In Greek. munum belongs. is Tlie root. however. also. . for which this root is supplied. whose connection with WH aya is to be traced thus. in this point.)."' Latin moneo OLD HIGH GERMAN. while the i of memin-i is a weakening of the original a. the cognate verbs to the Sanskrit of the tenth class are to * is. certain. and the preceding a weakened to i. that mdnaydmi mi\\\s dialect can have no other sound but mdnSmi. "to think." Prakrit German. and this substantive itself a derivation from 7nan. and give therefore ya as we will here further recall attention to the forms iyn ijye). the Latin monere. for To this class make to think" (Old High German a of which we explain by the principle of §. [G. In the plural the termination mha is nothing else than the appere." " I think. explained by §." whence avaman. 66.). " to manon). class. 3.] " I despise.. 121. pended verb substantive (Sansk. SANSKRIT. smas." pi. var-manem. which occasionally occur in Old High German and Anglo Saxon. which is contained in varman6m identical with the Gothic MAN {man. think'' (from chintaydmi)." as in Old High German var-MAN (by Otfrid. Ed. mdnaydmi. is only a denominative from mdtia. I am not at present able to adduce this verb from the edited texts . "to despise. pi. " honour" . that contracted the affix ^nt ayatoTie. (comp. G6. nivMemi (from In the third niv6- day ami).

. G. as but. 102. 122. Gothic ga-tu.) . (§. therefore from the third into the second Latin." (see p. G. Zend >^ms^ "a "I place. only with a suppression ot the Sanskrit syllable of reduplication. Bido-nev. which is irregularly inflected. tasthdii. {Siprjfii answers and . be looked for in those in oco.). T[f gd. ecu. Somewhat that pertmns to this snbject I have already pnt together very concisely at the end of my Sanscrit Glossary. t The attached cyphers denote the . corresponds to T-imj-fu (for root and to the Sanskrit wr sfLd. sld-m. [G. to i^njfri JogdmU labials in>^Jk«» grit us \ Old High German ga-m." = »nnfir _/a-^4-mi (p.] "There roots in as has been already remarked 105. Ed. class (see p. introduced. besides the -1th 2d conjugation compared above. the first fessus ." (nom. which shall hereafter be devoted to (1. with suppressed reduplication.). fimfi? tishthdmi. std-s. as an authenticated comparison of that admits of com- parison would easily swell to a book. iwwftf tishthati. no w a. . in like manner. Ed. Grimm jecturts S6S). classes described in ^. p. all requisite. Ed. by syncope from gangu. We shall recur to them when of the mul- speaking of the verb. 117. but roots in ^ d are numerous. 109^ In order to adduce single of the final letters examj^^les tiform construction of the roots. oo) . for tasthdmU tasthdsi. as in da-mus answering to std-f. (rttrryjfju). examine the order only such examples several sister lanis but we will select as are common The to the Sanskrit and guages. . with a more ancient and regular foundation. however. 109». greatest forbearance. flf^ftr tishthasi.— OF THE ROOTS."^ contained in the Latin navi-ga-re perhaps. also. " a street. most verbs of the 1st and also belong to this affinity. Thus also. Tlius.\ " to go. con- go. in fati-gnre. not therefore. rests on the frequent interchange of gutturals and ga-thv6. let us .) this subject* : Roots ending with a vowel are. Ill in Latin. member of which belongs to fafiscor.

" to Thus we " to find. pp. from wash. .'' (Sansk. "I knew. lorawt) in the V. Auyjs snd. " from au^ G. p. properly "chariot as stander. manic we will further remark. 109*. GNA Old High German CHNA (§. p. as in Latin {g)no-vi. . " purified. VT dhd.] from the same root we form. Ed. S." with o for the sign of the nominative." which occurs so often in the s Zend-Avesta. pi.'') whence sndta. ^T snd. J^^Cfe." TNO.112 which will OF THE ROOTS. "to lay. How. fxe-rpov). aj^Wau 9^yAj^ ^'^jM^Mjh naraiim ^-^^j^j aj»^ M^jM<3JM^jf xs»^ As^Aj^ AJ/>WAJ kva isritanahm tanum bardma Ahura mazda kva niddthdma. in root and inflexion. To * I believe I may deduce this form from the 3d : pers. be more closely considered hereafter. also. ubi deponamus'?). whence the preand preterite stuonf. The Latin. " to measure " (cf.). most resembles the Old High its j^AUfen^JfeV German : the Zend.). then. present mUa (§. 123. MAT. hlstdmi* (for sisfdmi." (Sans. in §.87. has connected itself with a /-sound. here only preliminarily remark. however. p. stoth? We obd. whence chnd-ta. frequently )<^^iM<^Mi)MM^^ fra-snddhayen " lavenV da. sent stantu. Ob- serve. 118 nidaifhyiinn. stand. the ^^•e^.oAj(3A5/ rathaesfdo. "in " siccd terra deponant ") [G. Ai^JuuGAu^jy find the imperative depona- ni-dd-thdma. comes from STA the the root STANT. "Quo homlnum Of the Germortuorum corpus feramus. 233. (gnarus) "to be acquainted with. 208.). S. 53. in some roots terminating in inclination to an connect themselves with a <-sound. S.*y>** tlie hiitenti (cf. will for which the Gothic has sfanda.)." annexing the auxiliary verb direct. ^^ jnd. " warrior. we find /-^^^CajAi^j. 183 more on this head under verb. Ed. i. see appears in a genuine Greek dress. i-^^^GjAj^jy ^9fJ : ." "to know. 205 and 206. and forms.05^>»' huski zeme nidaithyann." in Vend. p. deponant " (as Vendidad S. bathe." " I or he stood". that we have served in Zend also. p. mus " (Vend. in Gothic. in Old extended form " I of High German." " to purify. that the root »n md.

"t/j love. . hate" : the Greek <pe^-o-yiai the Sanskrit reduplication oi bibhemi .'" see §. pi. too. " I love" (§." feiyaii/ "to fear. from the above-men- VT dham. T7T uf. "foe" Old High Geranswers to man the viem ov fiem. 124. "flavL" As in Sanskrit. the special form. whence tioned pld-ta. 109» i). and this has as the whole root. hir-yith. the "blood") come here also under consideration. 87. compare fm priya.OF THE ROOTS." Old ^)ilfri (§. German SMIL ift^prf." the alone can be asa^i-ti. "to blow. Ed. ^fidrf uchchhrita. We fjass and have to remark that the root mentioned at in German. from m Jfid: perhaps " the Latin gradior.). " to go. vif hhi. nominal base Vf^ft dhamani. 2S. " I f^irfir bibhi-mi. according to the second class (§. as in ^^rflT sray-a-ti. Perhaps. uiT^ dhmd. ?.. so may the Gothic base BLOTHA (nom." see §. 21. smU " to smile. 20. i\^ he goes. J/-$o-/zey. 12. High Goth. 107. ^ i." alters itself in the special forms to VH dham.). ace. /. "come I believe. so that. In Zend occurs j^jajas §§. Lithuan. . 113 may be- Old Hi^h German CHANN {kanru chan^ "I know. 4>€i$onou. Old High German PLA (§§. Ed. '^rr^rf^Jfindmi. kunnum. hir-yats." with the addition of a t. blijth." as in the case of mat.). " raised. "I fear". [G.). We find G. "we Icns the Gothic root KANN. " dear. as in Sanskrit da-d-mus." being observed.). left common rule. as well as cresco. on to roots in p.66. fv with the prep. the aspirates have remained in the but only m (3 the base itself have become medials. comes "a vein"." is not unknown it in the Gothic imperative hir-i. as the root. chunnum. also. the irregular preterite iddya. that in i here*"." "high". the Guna form of the vowel. cre-vi (see §. " we give." Jiya. du. 41. contrary to prefix.] for da-dd-mos. Latin FLA. ^lA. hence. Old High German SCRIT. "to raise itself". " I went.). " I fya\th\ fiyands." Zend friyo. know. sumed (from sri. for ^TRlfK ^n^-n^-mt. " to step. 47.94. might be here included. "he ei-tu goes'" according to Lithuau.. " to go. Gothic hate"^ {fiyais. compare cre-sco." p. Ffir eii. is to be referred to the roots in I so that an .

Bpeix-o-fiev. however. 5joe/x-e-Te." invested.). S. 63. Old High German VLUZ. and rests probably i on (§. G. the derivation from e and rudis Anquetil introduces a Zend erodi.. but 7r\e(f )a). " to lie. -^ sru.). which appears hence : a with suppression of the digamma the of dpeno. {kKvto^). Ed. " hip. " to be ashamed " Old High HR U. dunis I with srdni. ttAoco is FLU. with FLUT all (§. final with the favourite dental are so which vowels commonly Gothic "hearer. . hliuma). through the Guna /x form. 38). (V. 66.).) with regard to the kl for TsftTEft compare.. '* (§. see . the to derive Greek its Spd-crKo>. with a thinning of the d to (§. 27. a guttural added. but I meet with the causal form "^"^v^ifti j9a3^^a»>jui7ji> Irdvay&mi (^9X\sk.). preterite." "recite" The Old High German. how- ever. as in Latin flac-si from fluv G. "a ship"). drav-a-tha. "to go. exclaimed. "I speak. 20. 115. si.) the present and sing.87. 26.. celebre. a-tiy = Kel-rat." with 98. f." pre-sup- poses the Gothic addition. 7r\o{F)ui supply the place Guna form : in plav-i (of the middle voice). plav-a-tS the future the v having the I Guna (§. TrAeucrco. might pass as a hardening of the ^ v (§.). unorganic dental affix would be to be assumed. if The Greek the old u had again not to b^ so regarded as been corrupted to of the e or o. 3d pers. dm." 'JwfTT drav- "he runs" may furnish." gives the form srdv SCRIR as the root. " to run. hrou. ^ hri. wliich I have not yet found in the ori- ginal text. Latin TtXeu). "ear." Perhaps : erudio. HLIU-MAN (nominative with weakened &r.)." KAY (§§. answers to irt^ plo-shy^ Lithuan." as Guna also. Si-8pa-(TK0i. scrirumh. klausau. have lost the r (serin . . "we have sr&vaydmi). and therefore represent most truly the forms drav-d-mas. " to hear. " " to swim. Of roots in u. 114 OF THE ROOTS." is hear. 21. ^ plu." with irregular Guna in the middle ^ hence sS-tS German p.") Lithuan. p." "to swim. hear. hru-umh. &c. as " to make to be referred to this class is little satisfactory. " to repent " {hriw-u. Ed. flow.).. 20. (p.** "to float" (•^^plava. "5. plaukiu." " to sleep.

" PUms." V. is [G. a SPRAH. «'I speak. 19. Greek &c. Greek $Y. with s sni." to n^ prabhu (excelsus. §. BU will be"). -^ bru. " being In Old High German pirn or bim corresponds 12 the .). however. BY." Zend bu. or ^SPRAHH (sprihhu. The Latin damo. (nom. resembles that of the the loss of the syllable ^ va Latin mAlo from mavolo The Greek is replaced by the lengthening of the a (§. drav. ^\xi)^ mrad-m. ^^ mru {e. ^u. which are both represented ^' as pure. and has. 125.). and prefixing an » bhu. p.).. as suflSx) is (neut. like the 115 kAt-o-o*.] xf^^pavana (with Guna and ana •• the wind. called ttRoS pav-a-ha. see 116. former of two initial consonants pevci. S. (M^^pv^ hunuta. the latter fall Guna and ra as suffix. ace viur). with Vriddhi and aka as The relation of FONA to xi^fTporana . is only another form of this root (of. and dpcfj.). is probably the root of the Greek u/xvoj {vfj. Lithuan.). literally. for scrim. p." sprah. and mo. Moreover. parent of the wind and fire. 39. p. " ^ v (see §.27." " to \pu This root is the verbal "to purify.) is "fire/* which in Sanskrit suffix. " I spoke. screi for screir).). also pect). 63. Pro- ^ bably.). irvp and Old High German with weakened VIURA (§. also. (future bilsu. nom. on the Guna form ^^ftfi? brav-i-mi. 123. the base wpecr/Su has a striking resemblance to before. "to speak." "to extol.OF THB ROOTS. to ^ glorify" from J dm. Ed.g." Zend ." V. axigustwi). >»• /iii\ " to run.{e)vo£\ which I do not like to regard as an irregular derivative from vSui. 18. The 0!d High German •sm brav. "I spoke") appears to have proceeded from by hardening the I akin to the p. &c. pro. so that irpey would irpo ( have to be regarded as a preposition from n §. 69. lost the (cf. " he celebrated. "to be. both to the root. essentially distinguished only by a euphonic 2 (cf. has the same that mare has to ?nft vAri.) the Greek pe(F)oi rests as often happens.*' and the corresponding Gothic FON-d §. ** to flow"). S. Latin FU. " water" relation to y^m^sran (§.) 96. in irpecr-^v-St ttpea^vrriq. KeKhfj-Ko. ^nccfon.

pir-u-t. 124). 257. (§. "dixit. 19.). has become sfyn. S. too." in German VAS. WAG (ki- wahu." "to fly. prachh. To this class belongs. is the corre- spondence in the plural of pir-u-mh. According to to we do not allow the vowel ^n and ^ri belong to the root. Latin " VOC.). Sanskrit roots ending in diphthongs (^ e. "to fall. bhdvesi. as the Sanskrit ^w la 7^05 **to dwell. 19. See p. only a few examples. the Latin ROG {rogo. 1. (m^S^^m adda." comes the substantive bhav-ana "house. Gothic FBAH. PU. The most numerous nant has a medial class of roots ending with a conso- ^ a. "to dweir' (pu-ta.) occasion for comparison. WJH. i^Mi^3(^<^<i peresdmi.> ^*V5(5^> aj7a»>7> fly."" Vend. trees grow"). in which we compare in the order. and the majority of them are probably not original. as they also offer (2. p. from " to be. ^^^^aj^ ^u^^ '>>aj.116 Sanskrit H^riffr OF THE ROOTS. Ed." v/hich. where birds One sees clearly from this . 109^. fraiha for friha {see 82. the analogy of We abstain from adducing examples of little them. S." may The Gothic baua.): be.Mg7g(5) peres. however. pret. and §. in Pra- may sound bhdvemi. "to fly" (Vend. Zend ^xil^ vach Greek En for FEU 14. " I build. So W^^'^' vach. •prichchhdmi. there are no roots in i^ du) follow in their formations.). 126. ki wuogumes). >:jj)hu. Roots terminating with a consonant. Old High German. Zend . " also." Zend " ^ajq) pat. ira mentionem facio" ki-wuoh pi. roots with the same vowel. a. i. roots in ysn d. and proceed §.] We shall give [G.*o /"»>. bauait). ^6. "I dwelt")." as place of being. J^i pat. p. pres ^^sifiT §. 121 G. "I krit. Ed. p. V^AS. y^^AJo) yatfrd vayo paiann urvara ucsyann. to bhav-d-mas. inlerrogo) appears to be abbreviated from FROG. bhdveli (Gothic baua. "sumus. u. bhavdmi: more exact." hhav-a-tha. estis" (see §. Long radical vowels before a final consonant are rare ." like the Latin facio its conjugation answers also to >n^infT bhdvaydmi. make to be.1. in many respects. Sanskrit. bauais. be regarded as the causal of the idea " to (§. ^ di.

pefo. OP THE ROOTS. ^ vad tains proceeds the abbreviated form {vSco.). occurring in the Vedas. fir ni. in ved-ara. ^ I SAT "to blow. KIN. ^ ud." "to breathe.g. "to germinate. Sea- belong to a proBpetes.. " to set oneself ^ down "" i <. **facit": root. "to drive. Ed.) (§. sido. according to §. In Gothic be FATH. 116 G. cura (cf ?r^ kuru." Zend_^Aj^ vaz ayo^. 22.] Trpdy-fxa. " I 'IZ.66. and. TTerofiai. yeioy. in Zend. 127." "to beget. VEH. sedeo.). p. (§. "foe"").. Gothic an. " animus. according the to irf'^^grah. fifth omfir Nardil.'' cf. " to speak. "to breathe. •trtTrra. u5>7f). paro .). im-peto. Kpd-Tos . eSo^. "wind.'' 58. Greek with tt. j^jus^aj^ w^^ Jan. From for. Ed." spiro. carrier. -anti). 116 G. class." Gothic AN'.)." -K2^/y£'c3 kerenuidhi. 50. that. Latin GEN {yiyvofiai. p (§. "fac^^. tm grabh. the e. genus). with the .). Greek. sad " Latin to sink.." Sanskrit gigno.87. and with Kpaivo). to which per87. Ed. Zend yAi^ zan (§. by assimilation pet-na.). zazdmi. avefxag. to be a hardening of the ^ V (§. fK4Z {var-tudzu "maledico"). sita. as in according to the tenth prep. " Latin fo-yo^." as bearer. Old High German FED. follows jjoj'^Ajyg^g^ kerenaoiti (§. Latin for PET. wagon." ^H<Ji anila. Greek 'EA. "faciunt " (from kur-u(§.g. 19. Greek Tg^ and svas. *rilf^ Jajanmi. sit" (p. irpda-eo). "facit. "fct//. . might To the latter corresponds. fCofiai. Old High German karaLatin for c creo. " beget. SED. looked with the vowel weakened. FITH. 14. Treraw. W^ vah.*' ^^"• vad. *' to prepare". ceremonia. 41. of 'S(^[f^ kurvanti. "I expire. kunU ** gender" this WJ^ kar (^A-W'. for cf. irpaK-aoi.'"' wj^'-^^y^^j^ kerenaot. SID. according to the tenth class.). Trerdo/xai. "to take": is original this the form. eBpa. according to tj and the vowel of the base lengthened. 'YA The Old High German gives §." " to carry. 57. e. in 117 Trrrjfn. 87. common root IIET . uan or garauan. with z for d.g. Gothic Greek TEN. §§. penna or. usana. v§eoi. where the guttural appears e." Latin VAD^ contained in vas. class. "feather. vad-is.). To Zend form belongs. [G."" (p.mrn vddaydmi.

whence the part. perhaps also 2KIA. yizi ndit uzvarezydt j/6 narem dgereptem dgeurvaySit^. scind-i-mus=chhindmas 2XIZ." SCID. . "the net. whence PERAH-TAX. terminating in a consonant to be supplied at answers exactly to stands for rjanai. Note* with t. The cognate root in Latin is FLAG. as (middle (San- voice). of * Anqnetil t Cf. 128. isolated. "W-^J^g-l quently occurs.Il8 OF THE ROOTS. » r. 87. nom. so that the v^bh appears before vowels as but : before ^ i as <d p. (p. e. "to shine. Greek language gives [G. indeed. also. pros. 116 G. also. note) : by changing the medials KAEn also seems to belong to " thief. Ed. m. and the ideas. translates. has been already mentioned (§. the Indian ^pr grabh. hliftus. likewise into their te- prehendo 92. p. The h (in the sense of ch) corresponding to the^'. $AEr (§. 58). perah-t. to too. Finally. belong place tlie form is more genuine. 1281. in Greek. nom. " to steal.'*' Zend jg^p herez{^. fw\ 14. accords §." Greek 'H2 a remnant of ^STOT ds-ti el fit second §. "Pure I qutBnam si non dimittit. 109*." p.] 20." this class.. S. jgAii barez." stands quite and appears to me tiie to be related to i. chhid. " spkndens. Ed. 'I.): this "to cleave. The This Zend form prepares the root High German PERAH. " Si celui qui a commit lAguereflS ne reconnoit pas safaute quelle sera sa punition. fiagro. yp7TT0£. &c. . by changing ds. 3. Gothic HLIF. qui hominem captum capit (i. (§.^'' " ^^-^ J^-* berezant.^"' Tothisroot belongs. the a into ^^ ^cr-rat "to sit. y.) a cognate root." yp7^os. orj* vr^^ bhrdj. "fulgidus. 155 A5<^j^ JSPMM nsw JM^ .). aUmr very freway for the Old our Prac^<. p. and hence fjnai for ea-fxi skrit asmi). kd hS asti chitha? tenet).o^jA5i^A}»7>j^Au ashdum . class. and thus points to a Sanskrit short a for the long one. ei est pcena"? In the European sister languages : I believe I recognise this root in three forms the Gothic GRIP nues. a-KiSvrjfxt. berezans. Thus we read in the Vend. l>ui is mortover I'avourcd by the following .

" namely with the prep. thic. also. gained the to meaning "to see. and combined with ga. p. so that to §. VID. gywata "life" Gothic QUIVA." w\^ live. 82. p. in the Latin VID. in the invnit. with Guna BeiKvvfUf Zend MJ^ according to the •* fifth class . the rule this root." are if The is Gothic to the SKAID. ^ hudh. " to know.. 189). jaydmi. "invocor see VIT receives through the prep. as it were. .majaj^oa frada^sayd. "to announce" (ga-feiha. Latin F/F. TO kindred ones." and the conjugation of video Thus. from tviginii." gywenu "I jiv.*" Lithuanian gywa-s. viginti The root. the tenth class." Zend _^^ 'lA Gothic VID. Crit. " sign. nom.. on which rests the Greek ^aw. Latin DJC. as his quivs. the Gothic form should be for SKAIT and f^^ vid.jv6." the seeing is regarded as something. would become. invitum). p. "to relationship certain. dis' . "life. "thou shewest" (Vend. in Zend.'' hence ^^^. from fs^ dwis). S. p. "living. and signifies "to §. 123). the Old High German SKEIZ vid. dico. "alive. 8EEID. Hence. has a stiffened Guna. "bonam vitam hahentes'''' (1." the law for the transposition ga-taihum. separate. Zend has dropped either the vowel or the v of this duis (Sansk. has. erSco. and in " " I to see. summon" ( J^. f^ dis. ai appears to belong According however." and dicis ( diets In Gothic. the j having and « Vide Gram. from J^. c. <^iiAj^^jj>»» hu-jitay6. S. the root. From Ji. for ga-tihum. 328. In Go28. it nom. as appears from QUIV. ga- §. 87. clearing.) meaning "to adore" {inveita. vp»ii. dispersing. eg. 222). requires the signifies form TIH. On the other hand. root. with Guna. to point out. "to shew. Greek AIK. is causal. which makes according to know. xi»ii_Jva.). the separating." (V. Ed. "alive".t)ju»jy niva^dhay^mi. 121 G. in causa ).^i»>»» hu-Jiti. Old High German. OF THE HOOTS. p. T'lZ.oi^AS2. in taikus. according to of letters is violated. in Zend. 87. laid down in §. signify- ing " to know."* According ni. another root. taih.

26. "^ ruch. A root §. " I think": the Greek furnishes an analogous word to s^v. " to burn. according to §. cannot hit'nerto be quoted as a verb it springs. LUH for like LUK. j^JAJ^^AiyM^As^ [G. Ed. AYK Aas^o and AYZ to the former. corresponding to i^ rud it. : the Greek has.). with Guna. replaced the r {dfKpiKuKt]. 20. "to adorn. and presents." lauhatyan. or with weakened spring forms lauhmdniy Guna (§§. "to weep/' may serve as examples. 4. luceo (§. The latter "to honour.). : ^ ^^ from iRV« midh as and it WT rn^dhd. KvKotpuig) vevci. 129.).) 110. is wanting in Gothic. "to think "(?).120 fallen out (§.) We The 27. adjective. according to 80." has to the root q)aj^ tap (§. From and the monosyllabic roots proceed nouns. in Zend. neut. for comparison.] raochay^iti. lukarna." loss is perhaps contained in the Latin or-no.." With regard to the r for gi? ush. by /. has the same relation in Zend. MIT. but the Old High German " to has for quite regularly according to RUZ. stands lukarn (theme. ^^ bhush. in the Latin vivo." liuhath. the Grammarians do not exhibit.) RUD . lighten. jfi^Jiv. with as of the initial letter. "to shine" and ^ Of rud.) . and follows the tenth and class.g. " I amo in relation to zirnnnfk t^ sh* kdmaydmi. has. (§. however. " burning. 2EB. §. (§§. 32.. "light. " to with the original. whence mitd. the former. which. luc-s. 87. p. "splendet!" In Latin correspond LUC." Without Guna. however. Au)^that." rather isolated. . " lightning. e. 28. "understanding. cre/3a). weep" {riuzu." unless should be preferred to assume for these words a root midh. . 14. must assign XevKog Gothic gives also. 40. ruzumh). for comparison. whence." advert to the relation of uro to gev. &c. to the root AYK. and preserving the old smooth letter. sub- stantive by the annexation of syllables. *' lamp." mMh. or THE ROOTS. in both roots. and finds a medium of comparison with roots with u. The Gothic viz. jk\5> tafnu-s. 87. rdz for muz.. is ^^^-^^ radch.. \v^vo^. love. but fBiog also belongs to this root.

should not admit of certain explanation.] persons or things. as the bearers of qualities. Diimmler). supernatural mystic beings to a passive belief in whose undiscoverable nature we are not natural to willing to surrender ourselves. and conditions. as There appears. to which that which the abstract root expresses adheres . for these aflBxes more have their origin in consciousness as to the most obscure and early epoch of language. p. . too. 130. individual cases. in the class of independent words. it significative and. it has been altered while the in Still. by accessory words appended to the root word. ? Language. in the course of time. and that which has that the organism of language connects meaning with what is likewise significative. as were. infuses sense and imparts form to every The object of nouns is to [G. occur in the cor- responding isolated word. Ed. Why should not language denote accessory ideas. which the root expresses in abstrado. or other remains unchanged. But it is not sur- prising that several of the elements of verbal formation. we shall develope in the chapter on the pronouns. in reality. a com- plete* between the most important elements in the formation of words and some pronominal bases which identity are declined even in an isolated state. and hence it is most natural to look for pronouns in the elements used in the formation of words. It is more a suppose that they have or had meaning. regard as not. 121 not. which we should per se. we the may remark appended • the admirable exactitude syllables with which grammatical have maintained treatise them- I direct attention preliminarily to my " On the Influence of Pronouns in the Formation of Words " (Berlin. on which account the ap- does not always keep equal pace with the alterations which. actions. and subse- quently they have themselves lost all whence they have been pended sufl£x taken. . by F.OF THE ROOTS. which possesses both represent sense and body. without examination.

without suffix of derivation or personality. 116. as been it each others eyes since time immemorial. in Sanskrit. leg Qec-s). for from the abbreviation it of these verbal bases. is tubi-cin (een).e. pel-lie (pel-lec-s). although these languages have been removed.g. commencing even with the Gothic. e. on account of the clogging of the preceding part of the word. thus. . are. pac (pac-s). 6. Sanskrit roots which end with short vowels. in stracts as. only that. since that removal. on (oTr-j). As. dialects is precisely the most modern which appear to exhibit the greatest number of (cf. this principle. unaltered form. §. e." In Greek and Latin the pure root . naked roots as nouns. those of which the theme. and every left to its sister dialect has. and are all feminine ab. many words appearance. " fear. earni-Jie (fees)." is as as. according to is a radical a weakened to i or e. e. designate the agent by itself "duty-knowing. from family of languages. w^ (v/tt.g. repre- G. V^f%5 dharma-md* In Latin. According to every root can. vft bht. frequent as in Sanskrit. which has been constantly extending during the lapse of time.) Naked roots seem most generally used at the end of compounds. for instance. the most rare form of the word but it does not always appear as an abstract substantive..122 OF THE ROOTS. in this position. . 111. An example in Greek x^P^'l^ i^^^ '^^"^ from v/TT-Tw)." tj^ yudh. no pure radical words exist. Ed. 131. Except at the end of compounds. few in number. from the perfect accordance selves through thousands of years in an I say. own fate and experience.j). such radical words Sanskrit. " contest. p.] sents the naked root. which are then united in declension with the syllables which denote the relations of case." ir^ mud. although. There are also pure radical words. the use of these compounds §. due (dues). In German. (jiKoy ((pKoK-g). we may remark exists this which between various individuals of the Sanskrit were. is "joy. tion of the base of the have assumed that by reason of the abbreviaword in the singular.

Ed.OF THE ROOTS. Ed. t before the gerundial suffix ya also. way supported throughout with a minating with a vowel. to STI ac" Thus. that these weakly-constructed roots appear to support selves them- on an auxiliary e. latter weakened /T and STIT. " standing by. " by conquering. 13-2. 6.'' are." . ^nfiliT svarga-jU." In Latin I find [G.) KdT. goer with wings "" in this . the cording to {egu-es). p. kind. Thus. " goer on horseback " al-it (al-es). super-stit {-stes)." t The German has several roots terthis letter the (p. §. as above mentioned in 123 G. com-it (com-es). equ-it .] interesting analogies to these formations in from the roots / and STA. supported by the addition of a which so much the more affix appears to be a simple phonetic without signification. " goer with '' . as ftf 123 this ^ ** to conquer. from m fn4 ** to measure. in compounds of t." f^f»Tm vi-jit-yu. " conquering the heaven. g. and hence given to character of radicalism.

in its state when destitute is case-termination and this bare form of the word given also in dictionaries. present every relation general. followed in composition and as it if to vex the Grammarians. sing. or the sign of case is the base. and put their logic to the test. . of the body of language but were guided by the which. however. in separated from their primary form. and ace. The Indian Grammarians. in mited use of compounds. or the As the primary form at the beginning of compounds can reof case. p. rendered necessary at times by the laws of euphony. of compounds —and the art of composition in Sanscrit. it is. in third person thenom. i. of the neuter.] and logical principle usually . CASES. 134. and in those of the then. take up the declinable The Indiau Grammarians its < word in of all primary form. occurs more frequently than any other. at the beginning is. they stand. as it were by an anatomical practical use of the dissection or chemical decomposi. In this we follow their example unless yr and where we give Sanscrit and Zend nouns. Nevertheless. the Sanskrit language does not everyto the strict where remain true [G. Ed.e. places as ^ ^ > the first first member of the compounds in the pronouns of the and second person the ablative plural. instead of the true primary form. the case the unli- most general of cases. it is otherwise specified. . did not arrive at their pri- ^ V mary forms by tion the method of independent analysis. just as necessary as that of conjugation or declension s/requires the pure primary form. ( 124 ) FORMATION OF 112.— . which. The W^^ -S Indian Grammarians. language itself. naturally with reserva- tion of the slight changes of the adjoining limits of sound. as it were.

[G. W. and take the augmented ^Wff i\**t^ asmat^ or awd asmad. p. 825). kimaK kali. comjx)und .FORMATION OF CASES." In another place (p. . of passing " this " (which in like manner has the honour Av'm. and the languages akin to still it. Panini forms from idam. and by ^^f^jftT ^T«li^ idankimdr the Gram- marian teaches that the putative bases in the forms 113. when he says Calc. • which appears peculiarity of the San- He fonns. 135. for the sake of euphony. distinnatural genders. — the eu- neuter. which in reality does not occur. the Indian Grammarians understand how is the pronouns. in spite of this to decline error. and that they are not de6cient in external rules for this purpose. nuch. this point. That. does not extend to the singular." ximr^ yushmat or "ifrom you. and which has. That the him for the interrogative. a matter of course. however. Sanskrit. however. then. ka* is substituted for kim. 125 have applied to the eases furnished to them by yushmadt the language. in its declension. Panini settles the (edit. in order to get the dative cu-i (after cus. kept upon the old footing. The which in this respect have guish. which. Ed. namely. resembles bases in o. or as the primary form. 969) fwH'. " from us. i. matter here with a very laconic rule. e." as the starting-point in the declension. If this strange method were to be followed in Latin. although in both pronominal forms only ^a and ij yu belong to the base. which the Indian Grammarians be a t. can- not escape any one original indeclinable who holds the neuter f^ form of the word.^' the analogy offructui). •* for a base) anrt what ?" a copulative iski. p. in like and the neuter quid manner regarded at as the theme. kint'os.e. here become kimah. from kintf regarded as a base. call besides the two to another Kliva. one would have to say " quidis or " guidi cus.] the formations under discussion substitute for themselves i and H.

with the case-suffix. Ed. FORMATION OF CASES. but by the /selection or modification of the case-syllable/ 80 that. and. which signify "two'* . in the vocative when this is the same as the nominative. or most perfect family of languages.. tuhhyam. Number. express that of the dative in the singular (only in the pronoun of the 2d person. in the most conspicuous cases. on the other hand. number is at once known the first ifv^ bhydm. in The feminine where it in Sanskrit. The Pali has only as it much left of it as the Latin. p. itself . . but gender had to represent inanihas not everywhere confined itself to this life these old limits: the language imparts to what is inanimate. 136.g. its perfect counterpart the accusative . is distinguished. intention it According to its original VI mate nature. 114. distinction marks ^ 't'' ^-^ by broader. and. is found very rarely in the verb. like the neuter. among other relations. "). bhyam. and employs it everyIn the Zend. on the other hand. a remnant of in two words. <^ and is distinguished from it the other this genders in the base or in the termination./ V "^ but distinguishes from the masculine. and more sonant vowels. otherwise approximates so closely to the Sanskrit. not denoting the number. the third in the The dual. both in the its The Sanskrit possesses the dual most noun and in the verb. in course of time is the first to be lost with the weakening of the vitality [G. loves a luxurious fullness form.) impairs the personality of what * is by nature ^^' . not in the but only. 126 skrit. " to thee plural. and bhyas are cognate syllables. the second in the dual. animate. both in the base and of the case-terminations. which it where where use could be expected. b^-^'^'^J^V neuter. prefers the greatest conciseness. (according to the view ^ then taken.] of the view taken by the senses. in the nominative and also. or is more and more straitened in its use. fully. The base. in Sanskrit and its sister by a particular affix languages. and then replaced by the abstract plural expressive of infinite number. more frequently in the noun viz. the e.

state of the language.i the Prakrit it is entirely Of -'^ ^ ^^ivj^^^ P^s'-»» German it. LG. they are no longer recognised and origin. in their signification of space.FORMATION OP CASES. also to time and cause. 137. on the conthe in the it Hebrew is (speaking here of Semitic languages) retained only in the noun.* ^ 115. by . of that which is nearer or ~ of more distant. the Gothic. possesses trary. . in the course of time. and "both". they f I felt to be that which. to one another. p. other a more perfect language. the relations of the persons spoken of. > e. the in 127 wanting. which. replaced. The case. we possess a talented inquiry. and which mainwhile in tains the dual in equal fulness in the verb also the Syriac it has been almost entirely lost in the noun as i well as in the verb. only the eldest dialect. and the finer gradations in the use of the dual. the pronominal —although. . at least for the most hereafter. by their demonstrable imply and are — are replaced. or. languages. with their inherent secon- "^dary idea of room. the natural fonndation. in respects also.] As also sufiBxes in verbs the personal terminations. insensible . while. * Regarding the character. \According part. in the Transactions of the Academy for the year 1827 and some which have been published by Diimmler. that which is on this or that side? i. if we may "^ A - use the expression. in disadvan- tageous contrast with the Arabic. ^ey are. which principally and originally referred only ^ I to space. but merely in the verb. and its diflFusion into the different provinces of language. von Humboldt. is many . tions of nouns. but from space were extended to their origin.terminations express the reciprocal relai. have better been than from those ^ words which express personality. as will be more clearly developed /^Whence could the exponents of the relations which have grown up with the primary words taken. commented on by the isolated pronouns prefixed to the verb so. e. pronouns. supported. § into a whole. in the more sunken. Ed. W. the spiritually dead case-terminations or ex- are. « of space.

. The Grecian masculines 77-f of the first declension in a-j.] on which account the nominative is written. but cola. in regard of quality ing to their origin. must likewise. and preservafaithful. [G. G. also the termination of the Latin noun in ancient times but in the classic period. accordto which. gena. . (of the second declension). genas. i. in the it was commonly changed to u nom. where. lently old Their identity with bases in o in ou. 20. is left in cola. cidos.^^ never feminine. ^ 7 m t. Ed. is the o of the second declen- in \6yo-s): and o was . The u) occur in Sanskrit. 1 1 6. its tion of the nominative sign. at the M. by prepositions. "gj To a. also in corresponds in Zend and Lithuanian. w hich does not at 1. from the want of other analogies. be compared with the Sanskrit masculine short a. not colaa. we describe the formation of cases in the order in which the Sanskrit Grammarians dispose them. and / German. cida. p. where. it appears desirable to give the different final sounds of the nominal bases with which the case-suffixes unite themselves. however. is excelall shewn by the genitive * Cf. p. especially in substantives. wd. however. %i. always masculine or neuter. 138. recent u or e. ^ a. Ed. however. at the end of compounds. in more modern dialects it i it is only sparingly retained : commonly supplanted by a more the corresponding termination sion (e. al- though sometimes retained. three primary vowels (a.128 plained FORMATION OF CASES. end of nominal bases the short a.g. sing. and accus. thus.* with the which has proceeded therefrom. 1294. In Greek. and long. still An old a. they have remained while the o of the second declension has preserved original brevity. it is used in declension similarly to the feminine originally long a. both short . even in the Gothic (in Grimm's first strong declension). and Before in their personal signification by the article. &c. as well as to point out the mode in which the cognate languages are in this respect related to one another.

nUA and TPIB supplies the place for which. howit from the destructive alterations of time. 117. the u of the fourth The long vowels (d. which occurs in the three genders.FORMATION OF CASES. tl) belong. vowels the t is generally weakened to the unorganic The short u also shews itself in Sanskrit in the three genders. Zend the long final it a has generally been shortened in polysyllabic [G. ^ d. in the uninflected . is interchanged with e. from such compounds which the vowel that iias as fJivpoTrui\>]-£. and u in Gothic. hence facile for facili. suit a 129 theme in a or tj . first becomes In Latin. and farther.) to the Sanskrit feminine bases in d. are never found in the In neuter. kv6. nom. in been added to the roots usually stands. Zend M. o of the Sanskrit a in similar compounds To the short /. where. mare for mari." In Greek. in 6 correspond 69. is In Latin the corresponding letter declension.. and the 6 in the uninflected nom." tlie sing. and accus. The Latin. into >.). also. i. p. trt sd. irou^orpl^r]-^. Ed. as in Greek v. 139-3 words .. it is to be looked for in I Grimm's fourth strong declension. as has in Gothic. with the exception of **this. and occur in the masculine very rarely. sometimes transformed . maintained the original length. in Greek. sometimes which the common dialect has sometimes shortened. and In has shortened the old feminine long a but the Lithu- anian has. 113. in which bases (§. nearly as hard as the a of the t declension. before e.'* monosyllabic forms Sanskrit k(\. German ever. is shortened so. "which?** Sanskrit and Zend voc. Greek. to a. which shall make the second. the Doric a approaches most nearly to the Sanskrit feminine preserved. In the same vowel corresponds in the cognate languages. Sanskrit ^rfc vdrU " water. 118.. in Sanskrit. prin- cipally to the feminine (see §. in the nom. where i it distinguishes itself from the a and the s in that it is retained as well before of the nominative as in the uninflected accusative. "she.

\eaiva. Thus. " the " that that shall correspond to the Sanskrit wt sat-t (for asati or asanti). . as derived i from ^^ Indra. to be assumed that the proper primitive in v or vr has been lost. sion .g. the old feminine i is forced back a syllable. The vr. cor- responds . in Sanskrit. In Oepdiratva. corresponds to the Sanskrit -rpid. Ed. ikx-a evr-a. FORMATION OF CASES." fut. shortened by a t. and similar forma- tions. or it is assimilated to the e/cr-a. Moreover. The long thus. eaa-a. ofir-a. » appears. raXaiva. for ovr-a. however. to the Sanskrit "^ tn. cases where the feminine is solely represented by a are essentially limited to feminine derivatives from forms in is where t passes into a i. or that these are formations of a different kind. for example. hence. p. In Doric subsequent and original aur-a. Hr«jui»dl bhav-i-shyanti. and corre- spond to the rather isolated word in Sanskrit drAni. ai/r-a. \r](TTpiS-o^. "sweet". vvr-a. masc. an i is added to the old participial existing. termed.130 119. either a or B. as reKraiva. g. 140. Wf^ e. and substantive derivations. and where affix it has still there a later un- organic tions. 6pyr}<nptcct ^ KYjiTrpiq. In deatva. most frequently mahati (magna) as a characteristic addition in the formation of feminine bases. e. \vKaiva. Tepeiva. ant. in Latin. i In Greek and Latin this feminine long y has become incapable of declenleft traces. the base of the primitive as in the it is nom. while in the Greek yevereipa. The same holds good in Zend. as the wife s^s^TOft/nis of Indra. is. c. hant-i. in part." bu-sent-i. : the preceding v. replaced by v or or the mere lengthening cr : of the pre- ceding vowel. the feminine base ir^ i springs from Tf^ mahat. geniirt-c-is. si^-a. followed This [G. has become the bearer of the case-terminais. the feminine character has been preserved the most suffix strictly in Lithuanian. and and be. pres. AaKaiva. swddw-it from ^^T? swddu. This rj^eia affix in Greek.] analogy is by fieAatva. ao--o*." to which the Latin genUrl-c-s. l{ft{^ janibru "genitress. where. -rpia.

. old feminine and the Gothic. rather seldom the end of primary forms.) only"\ rae. the are most corrupt. as ^ ^ But few monosyllabic primary forms end. can no longer fully decline the affix. and. Latin. " mother-in-law " (socrus). izein. regarding the nominative of which refer to 121 at The long u («) appears. and explains the double a by gemi- nation or assimilation. so-called ei. ndein. leaves. like ddXaaa-a. in my opinion. with diphthongs. too. fieXiaa-a. but in the singular of sub[G. of declining the old The German. "earth.FORMATION OF CASES. The it. correspond the forms §.in the adjective to ya. with ^ di (from d + i. and other adjective bases terminating the cases. is most recent. in . "thing. The feminine formations by a i simple a instead of the original relatively. 2. ^leTuTo-ecraa. and to the 142. in Sanskrit. To this 131 auaHogy belong. not different is distin- from that of the short v while in Sanskrit the long u guished from the short feniinine u in the same from ^ i. the feminine substantives. see §. More commonly. by the frequently employed affix of an w. which J. weak and as i* in Gothic is denoted by so to the Sanskrit feminine participial bases in fern. compares with forms ')(api-e<T(Ta. declension the old bases in i are introduced. pres. which otherwise runs parallel to in the part.) like very correctly. in way Sanskrit. however. however. by a foreign intro- duces it into the 6 declension. with a consonant. not any K 2 at all with -^ i . and is for the most part feminine. ^^^ anti." V. bhrih " eyebrow. 141. To the latter corresponds 6(ppvs.] stantives shortens the syllable yo in the uninflected nominative and vocative to ?. moreover. 328. masc.into the . likewise with is the long the declension of which. t. p. comparative bases in fwt lyast. since i. vf The words most in use are ^y^vadhut " a wife.'* >J hhu. the feminine undistinguished from the masculine through all it has no longer the power 120. Grimm (II. its twin-sister." "^[^ ftimsru. Ed. and herein the Greek not supported by any of the cognate languages. ^a<ri\ia-(ra." "riches'".

participial nominatives. Ke(paKai. ei. and in the formation of primitive and derivative words ejffigies. and the complete equalization with the primary form in . legens. In this is recog- do not believe that Latin bases in e should therefore be looked upon as corresponding to the first place. Ed. The most weighty is es for e. seem to be true lingual patriarchs: for the Sanskrit.R7n suid. and pi. exhibits the absence of the nominative sign in the corresponding feminine bases in I a. irregularly nised the Latin res. never considered as original the aban- donment of the nominative sign. as. ing belong to the A is and E declension and. Ha {planitie-s. es. it is. for. shews greater Greek. antiquity than (to confine the Sanskrit and for example the present instance to the nominative case). — like pauperies. '* daughter. : with the Sanskrit "m yd. which is used Let us now la. and the Greek of the feminine e and a. canities.] sounded as well as . effiyia. Greek. consider the objections which are opposed to the original identity the s in the nom. canitia) and ies. in ever.l3Bi FORMATION OF CASES. ia. the Sanskrit ^ di . canities. however. very remarkable. Gothic. tW rd-s Still I for x^S rdi-s. Ke(paKr]. with the originally long a of the taken (to which T] first is not to be mis- it bears the same relation that the Ionic a). some other points of The Latin. although it has appeared to me as losing very deeply in far-distant ages. are better and . identical for the same purpose. like amans. if sing. a sufhx which is employed for the formation of abstracts tie from adjectives [G. planitia. the nom. like the Zend. the s in the first mus/e (musai). 142. singular. for example. Lithuanian. As regards the identity with the declension be authentic. and forms like species. in the Latin e corre- sponds elsewhere to the Sanskrit ^ ^ (from a + i). pauperia — are clearly one and the same suffix." and similar itself words. p. for does to the Doric many words with the same mean. have. howGrammar. the connection of the e of the fifth declension . never to di secondly. Ionic irj. as musa.

Let dies be written with Greek die-is will little re- and then. there in spite of the rejection of the t ccedes). QUIET. then fifth. by rejecting a consonant or an entire fifth have passed into the that all declension. the more rare. find. to be arrived at through the irregular nominative TTR rd-s. older forms than the Sanskrit and Greek. and better. after rejecting the t. In Lithuanian there are feminine primary forms in e (Ruhig's third declension) which resemble the Greek 7 in the suppression of the singular nominative sign. as a familia-is. common form e£ answers to deae es to familias. Although a few bases of the third desyllable.e. letters Sir. 143. argument against its original identity with the We In will treat hereafter of the s of the v- nominative plural. The connec'^ rdi is. like "K^yoiv. and therein stand on of the same footing with Zend forms. has "^tigd for base. Ed. however. tion between res and the abovementioned Sanskrit re-s in my opinion. must have been bases in e. "being. quired as a clension.-^. any decisive first. could only have come QUII {quies. e-s approach more closely the Latin . but fortunately without success. must have continued in the third declension.e. 133 H^^ tudan^ Tidei^. because they have preserved the nomina- tive s together with the nasal. for genitive s like die-is : [G. i. like J3'^»Ail bavans." I cannot. the fifth could be declined according to for- declension. we will not therefore infer If bases in e have arisen from such an abbreviation. perhaps. must there necessarily have merly been a like otherwise from qidis. p.] we require them be as as little.FOEMATION OF CASES. therefore. in Schneider searches. "terram^ which. in in the retention the nominative sign the fifth declension. and according to this supported on an old d : would be it answers to TTH rd-s as re-bus to TT«i^ rd-bhyas. and as in Greek 7^-v to the Sanskrit jtw adm. a SiKrj-o^. it QUIET i. but in the nominative plural in in e. perhaps. the genitive singular the (deal). Its in the remaining cases.

after which change the semi-vowel j must have become belong to the Sanskrit fr dyu. 19. The Grecian Zevf its sig- nifies." and rft gd the former (a radical feminine. therefore. whence the dative and the locat. The Djovis. A//. V." To dyu answers. by day. 144. most faithfully to the ancient form. t^ gd. "heaven": I form relation to i^ dyd thus.'" are derived appellations of day side. those for the as on the other heaven *' divum. in accordance with its origin primarily. sub divo. e of die-rn. from . however. f^ divd. 123. after rejecting the d (as viginti for Latin Ju of Ju-piter.] rj. " to heaven. of yfj-v. the fx father": better the oblique cases Jov-is. It has several . proceeding by the natural law of sound from M. Jov-em answer ^ to the broader theme ?ft dyd. Tn^ gd-m. C(§. Jt masc. '• heavens . is the Greek Doric yd-v : the Latin final e. corresponds the Latin a. &c.)- and must originally have had a digamma. FORMATION OF CASES.lord or dviginti). In Sanskrit.). as that which keeps dyav-^. a vowel. in Latin. deserves mention.134 122. diphthong into p. also. and latter dyu. are rare in Sanskrit: the " only ones known is to me are ^ dyd. rendered short by the influence of the m : the original language requires die-fn. Let us now consider the second of the abovemen- tioned primary forms in d. Jov-i. and also an adverb. Primary forms in ^d div. in Latin. A/df has the same relation to AiFog. In the accusative the 6 bases change this d. after which the vowel ^ i becomes semi-vowel ^ [G. " to shine. viz. that after dropping the ^ d the following semi-vowel ii y became The oblique cases. Ed. ©f^ dyav-i. moreover. and properly proceeds from f^ dw its word from f^ shine ") by the vocali- zation of the ^ y." and used as a the beginning of compounds. f^ div. sub dio — viz. neuter (a contraction from signifies both " day " and " heaven. furnished by Varro. on the contrary (A/os-. that. To the d thus obtained in ^ri'T dyd-m. which as primary form at f^tfM dicasa. sub dio has to sub divo. div).

. 135 as masculine. for expected. (n comparative in the grammar can word bos. originally become BOf thus. where. 124. 7a follows the lias example of the Indian accusative. the guttural has is For the meaning "ox" the nominative remained in Zend. as. and "earth" as feminine. since the u-half of is BO becomes v. vf^gav-i. §. Ed.. 4. 122 ^^^ WUfH have jaijdmi. irni^ been already gdm {yrfv) stands for g4-m [G. as with the initial it for replacing in digamma. however.>am» gau-s or jt^^m gdo-s. and then m. in the dative. The Zend "earth'* has changed the guttural of the for the meaning word under disguj^ cussion into AAiAu^ z. changed the vowels The Latin has.'' and "cow" forms. or gav-am. ^i^VH-' medials for labials. 01. I know only two wor«ls in Sanskrit which terminate in 1^ du — »^ ndu. according to ral §. as remarked. p.) I am not able to adduce other cases. 7^. but the most common are ** bull. " moon": the former has navigated very far on the ocean of our wide province of . p. 145. + v) (which were — originally of different kinds. The base BOY before vowels must . digammi and there between two vowels has always been dropped is not.FOBMATION OF CASES. discloses itself before vowel inflexions.).] For the meaning "ox" the Greek has preserved the old diphthong — (for. 56*^. bor-i answers to the Sanskrit locat. "ship. Sanski'it locat. ^6 = ay>u may very well be ov) — but has exchanged the guttuG. 4. and the short a resolved into the furm of a short 0. thus. l3oF-i would answer to the hov-i . ^\f^ gnv-u and the Latin dative language the but in the present state of the middle . and gives in the nominative zdo for : zds (§." and T^ny/au. meanings . in the accusative ^-^j zanm (§. divided themselves into two the old guttural. as in Greek. Ed. Only theory and decide here. but have been united into a diphthong) — into a homogeneous mass (cf. the nature of whose contraction. the medium of metre the oldest writings. Both significations have in Zend.). The Greek has preserved for the meaning " earth ''^ With regard to the vowel.

p. from dadd-a. ruo. a sister form in our Nachen. has maintained itself only before consonants and the digamma.u veco. according to $." which originally. according to is a grave vowel. perhaps. n6. The Latin is has given this word a foreign addition.\Y. dedit) for dadd. 19.136 FORMATION OF CASES. (cf. case sign in Old High German . na-to. like that ." gen. peut. BOY. would consequently be a radical word.^ ndv-as\ as /8o-es from ^6F-eg. As by a. consonants. 146. appear to be connected. bathe. more rare or radical gh) we find none at * Thus in German an i has been added to the above-mentioned is ift gd^ which. 6. viation of snau [G. hence chuo. the v of N. pevo). tain origin. 125 and that it therefore proceeds from the root " to ^SJ snd. where the i dues not belong to the case designation. we have here also. 117. may also have meant and " to swim."" t?^ and with which vaw. n. the Greek cannot represent the Sanskrit Vriddhi-diphthong au. " cow. having arrived at a secure etymological haven. according to the analogy of ^ 6 ov. and r appear in Sanskrit most frequently at the end of primary forms all other consonants occur only in radical words. dat. for nau-s. s. We Of consider next the gutturals {k.).] I believe t^ ndu to be an abbreG. in regard to the vowel would stand for n&.. which replaces it. language. while ^ ^ du better than commonly repre- (from short a + u) is sented by ev or Hence tf^^ ndu-s and vav-^ correspond as exactly as possible. p. however. . i/a-ej. navi-bus." gen. together with the chuoi. {dedi. Old nacchin. g. 'w{[^. without. kh. for nau. in Sanskrit. with h sru. daddu §.. however. We pass over to the consonants: of these. which are rare.* As the semi-vowel v easily hardened to a guttural (§. High German naccho. are from vdf-ej (Sansk. suppressed. f. ndv-am. however. Ed.). ed. vrj-e^. and uses navis. and in some nominal bases of uncer. 125. nau-bus. " ship. is lost before vowel inof flexions. but to the here nninflected base.

Still Z d. much think I examples are. " to : hate. ROPAK. VORAC. and ^m yudh. is not T-soimd. LEG. in w^ at t. f. U8. pons. Ed. EDJC. ^. " eating. or proper T-class. TT^ vdch. " ^ Greek "to give. p. and therefore seldom Tf th perhaps only in tt^ path. dd. from ^^^ panfhas. that several of the most frequently it. the two classes of the &c. (sanguis) evil in Zend we have i»>^ dmj. "speech. nom. me to be pro0E (the vowel to this.'^ dh.'' Of t. again recognise in the Latin PONT. which I the . and if opvi is con- [G. voice" (VOC. as the secondary theme of ijf^PT pathin. they are of frequent occurrence. or ex- Greek and Latin nU still The Greek. or occur in words of unknown origin. p. KOPY0 and 'OPN10 appear to perly compounds." The letter tT i is so much the more common. 'On). the first. and y are only radical. ^rnr asrij." with d itself no etymology suppressed. and to contain the roots 0H. in Of the palatals. and according is KOPY0 so in would properly mean what placed on the head". employed end with as that of the part pres. suffixes " strife.).] In Greek. dental. Ed. THf latter only at the "king. ^it5 sarad. as <I>PIK. : 'OPXI0 finds in its the Sanskrit offers for expla- nation ^rftjaran? (according to the pronunciation of Bengal. besides hibits also 5 and 6 at the end of primary forms which are not radical.** which Grammarians explain by a suffix ad.] . [G." " rainy season. occur only in radical words. the end of the nominal bases most in use Latin. c is in . y only radical— DC'C." and contains the root Sanskrit.FORMATION OF CASES. ch and j in Sanskrit occur most frequently rdj. oroni). 137 in Greek and on the contrary. f. autumn.. K. "wood". or lingual (z used at the end of nominal bases. 'ONYX (Sanskrit nakha). Latin both radical and derivative. Mi^^i panthds. Other ^^ ad. as name of an demon.." the " blood '* end of compounds ." at the end of compounds. "way". so more frequently employed. ^J^ ant. 147. being dropped) as their last member " . probably from the Sanskrit root "j? druh. is and therefore the second. in my opinion means nothing but " water giving. $AOr.

an account i8 is given in §. too. . however. like those in iB. in re- gard of the nom. which remains without extraneous addition there only. In Lithuanian the participial suffix ant. In Gothic. which extends beyond the San- but in most of the remaining cases the Lithuanian cannot decline any more consonants. the form stands substantively tion of the otherwise. that is to say. suffix the participial ia. " to run. the § in feminine patronymics in a5 spring.. and Gothic terminate with u (Sans. as ia Mielcke's edition of Ruliig's Grammar. Tliis The is the sound expressed by cz.Zend. . we may . a later addition they not from their masculines. is Probably. i. case terminations. but directly in from the primary word of the masculine. Regarding the later origin of the § in feminine bases in i§. pres. not in Latin. where . sing." in respei-t to the 6: "bird" therefore would derive its name from its its going in the wood while in Sanskrit. refer to deoi. 149] syllable by the influence which ch the t experiences the nasal euphonic of this transformation dental T-class.138 nected therewith. from passage through the air. pasu. which the Sanskrit. it is conducted by the affix an a more current province of declension. FORMATION OF CASES. stand in sisterly. faihu). am for ants. d appears as a more modern the base PECUD.declension. i. f%fJT riha-ga. The more modern German dialects under no circumstances leave the old T-sound without a foreign addition commixed with into the base. cannot unite them with pure always.. with the excep- nominative. it is called. rests exactly upon Zend step. into viz. and. the Latin and skrit. but transports them the more modern to into a vowel. p. may be compared with Sanskrit ones in ^r(i bhaimi. Ed. indeed.. filial my opinion. with a final y-sound are chiefly limited to the t where the old appears changed into : d. ant is added of [G. by a and. (= * fsch^). among other names. patronymics in e. 119. " the daughter of Bhima. affix.g. In connection affix in with them. Goth. primary forms part. Zend. e.

"water. cases adds The Lithuanian same appearance in the nominative. a . we have ^r^ ap (probably from the root ^nr dp. sometimes a including the simple u 126. bases in p.Ed. •a\THn dpas. 58 ). from plebis . vowel belonging to the base and so. cequus. in analogy with a Sanskrif euphonic law (Gramm.FORMATION OF CASES. The Latin adds an a to this old consonantal base. appear in Sanskrit only in naked roots.] German. PLE. snmnus for soptius. too. to explain which it is : not requisite to turn. bundus. with Voss. quinque with Tl^3 panchan). In Greek and Latin. bam. The derivative • bis. on the other hand. all In the like German the San- the words of Grimm's weak declension of the skrit." which is used only in the plural. and thns arises. 150. I bills. however. d<pp6s appears to belong to the transferred from the waves. bes. Primary forms with a as the last final labial. at^vos. b. reject in base. p. with probably radical letters at the end Latin they have suppressed. root another neuter. or the mirror of the sea. the nominative the n and thereby have a presents the vowel termination. but seldom. and here. same oriqin. or of unknown or in origin. to the Greek -nXrjdo^ one must keep to the Latin root explain like bus. for rests on the form ap. the to first and fourth strong declensions. in the singular also.^ . nasal (m) of this organ. however. In isolated use. in the nominative. (f>. member of compounds. as in [G.* also. but in most of the oblique to a base in en sometimes ia. have only the appearance of a base terminating with a consonant. in The Sanskrit has from the same which we recognise the Latin aqtior. are either evidently radical. but is which therefore would not proceed from In Greek. and the masculine and feminine in Latin. r. according to 'he frequent interchange of p with qu (cf. Of this kind is plebs. 139 belongs to those consonants which occur most frequently at the end of nominal bases. proper n." "to comprehend"). according Grimm. Crit. aqua as . to other things of a similar natnre. am-nis and a-efivos. in Zend. "to take in.

amnnti-hus. often changes the B in its middle into F (§. FORMATION OF CASES. like FEE.^ by the addition of an i . however bus. " . as from the root FU. have. AMANTI. for the declension in dc clension. vucihus. it so that §. "a dog" p. more correct to say that the bases VOC. for facilitating the in affix.140 60 {amabam. Ed. " to be. ^hI4. without its i being possible to say that in amanli-um. juveni-s. navon. the facilitate would be necessary to the annexation of the ending. because to they could not unite with in the present state of the Latin language. chntwdr) comes the dative fidvori-m. we ought was to divide voci-bwt. just as at that in most cases 125. in close KYN. 151. it is. been lengthened VOCI. remind us of older bases in n . in that in the geni- tive plural also before urn. a nant. admits of being explained as a con- junctive vowel. On the other hand.»T and ^^^ yuvan. extends its participial bases in ant to anchia (euphonic for antia). amanti-a. young" (abbreviated [G. the of forms like amanfibus. as in Sanskrit TSR tuan. "Without appealing to the cognate languages.. cani-s. forming the genitives canu-m. thus. to it is difficult. " nine.). " seven. in distinguish those bases which truly and origi- nally terminate in a consonant from those which only ap- pear to do so. juven-um. that for the convenience of declension has added an to several numeconso- whose theme originally terminated with Gothic. an i frequently finds its place. it is i has clearly operated i on the consonantal originally. Latin. -bo)." tT^ damn." ^T?R The themes Tnr^ saptan. and introduced an it into dif- ferent places in which impossible could have stood i In the dative and ablative plural. in the strong cases 129. really it Greek kucoi/. the Latin in this point. it said of the Lithuanian. my opinion. &c. -bus is This view of forms like amanti- proved to be the more probable. yun). FID FORI (Sanskrit ^rr^ chatur. AMANT.] (abbreviated ^nr sun)." which. ^. in from §. " ten. The i German resembles rals. abbreviated their theme with n. 18. as before the a of neuters.

152. and theres. 1 16. which forms principally neuters. r in Latin s. fore seldom.g. that * Bases in this sibilant between two ^^ ar in several cases. "splendour. in Old High German. but in contrast with the ^^^ salila. . as / for lis. On T words which are formed by the the occurs very frequently." for vair{a)s. Of semi-vowels v). proceeds pears to be without bases in 2 . niunei-s. More on the ^^ 127. Gothic. " water.) . which forms. p." oA-f appears abbreviated as ^le'^a-^ exactly in the 12S. suflfix especially in to which.FORMATION OF CASES. Ed. and this ^ rt is regarded by the Grammarians as their proper final sound. in w^ tar* cognate languages. pass as masculine nominatives. belongs to bases in a In Greek *AA appears as a [G. ts are found onlv in radical words. have lost the case-sufl&x if $. as in (§. ^^ as. appears frequently as an alteration in the comparative suffix ior (Sanfurther. I have never found in Sanskrit y and ^ Z at the end of bases. they occurred. '^ sK)^ Of the Sanskrit sibilants. at the same time.] consonantal base Sanskrit . 1. dyo and ^ dyu. this. " to sharpen. " strength. as these cases. an abbreviation of ri-s." from fK\ tij. . in Old 141 Hi^h German mould themselves to SIB UNI. r. and in the primaiy form also at the beginning of componnds. NIUNI. on the contrary. /. likewise correspond bases in r. and. as abbre- viated from ru-s. would be sibunei-s." The Greek aphowever. as e. contract the sj'Uable ^r^ ar to "^ri. as. from the following reason. ZEHANI. concludes some very common suffixes used in the formation of words. vahr. before mentioned. The corresponding Gothic nominatives. and ^ V only in the word f^ div. the two as also the ? h. first (^r s. ($.). this point hereafter. as of an original skrit f^iTT lyos) re. le or. "man. ift which contracts itself in several cases to the other hand. Moreover. same manner from fie-^oKo^. taihunei-s. in the second declension." Thra tejas. (y.



vowels, especially in the last syllable,
hence, neuters like

usually rejected

yevos (from


with change of the

e into 6),

form in the genitive

for fxevea-og,



of the nominative,

however, belongs, as
to the base,

have already elsewhere remarkeJ,
In the dative plural, howit

and not to the case designation, as neuters
did not stand

have no


in the nominative.

ever, in the old epic language, the 2, as

between two vowels, maintained



so likewise in compounds, like (rafcej-TraAoy, reXes-

(pSpog, in



would be wrong to assume the annexation
In yrjpas, yrjpa-os, for

of a


the vowel of the base.

yi^paa-os, after restoring the


of the base, the

form of word

answers exactly to the Sanskrit WCj^^jaras, "age," although In Lithuathe Indian form is not neuter, but feminine.
nian, another remarkable

remnant of the Sanskrit


terminating with
perf., in


has been preserved,

in the partic.

the oblique cases of which us corresponds to the



ush (euphonic for

^^ us)

of the weakest cases



Lithuanian, on account of the above-

noticed incapacity for the declension of the consonants, the
old MS is conducted, as in other similar cases,

by the subse-

quent addition of
[G. Ed. p. 163


a or


partly into the


partly into the


and only the nominative and

the vocative, which

same with

belong, in the singular,

to the consonantal declension.

The Sanskrit and Zend have eight
exist in Latin,

cases, viz. be-

sides those

an instrumental and a

These two







the former the instrumental ablative, the latter

the local ablative

in Lithuanian, however, the projier abla"

— which in Sanskrit expresses the relation
With reference
to the



primary form, which
in all words,

in Sanskrit does not remain the



suffixes used in the


formation of words through

the cases,

a division of the cases into strong and
for this language.



The strong

cases are the nominative,


and vocative of the three numbers, with excepall

tion of the accusative plural, which, together with


other cases,
of the



Where a double or
exists, there,

triple formation

primary form

with surprising regu-

cases which

have been

designated as strong

always exhibit the


form of the theme, which, from

a comparison of languages,

proved to be the original

one; while the other cases exhibit a weakened form of

which appears also in the beginning of compounds, and hence is represented by the native Grammarians, according to

122., as


proper primary form.




serve as an example


forms the strong cases
retained by the

with the suffix ant, but in the weak cases and in the be-

ginning of compounds rejects




cognate European languages, as

by Zend
ticiple in


so that


also, for




at is

given as the

suffix of this
tt^ tud,


preference to WnT ant.

The root

" to vex,"

exhibits in the participle mentioned the
as the strong

form 7T^


and original theme



and -^^ tudat as the weak theme

hence the masculine
[G. Ed. p. 164.]







Nom. Voc. j^^ iudan

H<^^H tudaniam





W^cT^ tudatas.


Dual: Nom. Ace. Voc. WS^tudarddu Instr.Dat.Abl.

H^lft^ tudafds.

Gen. Loc.







Nom. Voc.




if«Jrf?r O V TT^fsH tudadhhis.


Dat. Abl.







three formations of the primary form persuffix,

vade the declension of a word or a
tions begin with a vowel, the middle

the weakest form

of the theme there occurs in those weak cases whose termina-

form before those caseThis rule makes

which commence with a consonant.

a division of the cases into strong, weaker or middle, and
weakest, desirable. (See





131. In suffixes used in the formation of words, which in

Sanskrit separate into different forms, the Zend usually carries
the strong form through
pres. retains the nasal in

the cases


for instance, the part,

[G. Ed.



most of the cases, which in Sanskrit proceed from the weakened theme. Words,
of form.

however, are not wanting which follow the theory of the
Sanskrit gradations
" ^ff^ swan,

Thus, the Sanskrit
the weakest cases


hound," which in


tracted to ^tT sun, appears in

Zend likewise

in a double

form, and presents the weak genitive sun-d over against

strong nominative and accusative spd, spdn-em, San"^STT

swd, TiETRH


(§. 50.).


base ap, " water,**

which, in Sanskrit, in the strong cases has a long


not used in the singular, forms in the


the strong


nom. auoam dfs (§. 40.), accus. ^^q>au dpem; on the other hand, ap-6, " of the water," ap-at, " from the water," &c.*
• This word occurs

in the

Codex of the V.
where that



by Burnouf, very
o which

frequently, and mostly with that quantity of



required by the theory


so that


not the case

can only

be imputed to an error

in writing;.



In the plural, where the Zend very frequently makes the

nominative and accusative the same, confusion has, for

reason, crept in

found for

and the weak ^y^^ sund, " canes,^^ and, on the spdno in the nominative

other hand, the strong ^q)au dpo, in the nominative as well
as in the accusative.*

The Greek, in the declension of kvu)v, has limited the [G. Ed. p. 156.] strong form to the nom. and voc. sing. in some cognate words in p, however, in accordance with the



has given the accusative also the strong form, in

which the Gothic agrees with
iraTep, iraTpi,
pe/rj (locat.);


iraT^p, "narepa,


fmn pita,


pitaram, f^fRp'ttar,

and the Gothic

brothar, as nom., accus.,




to broihrs, " of the brother," brdthr, " to

brother," with the Sanskrit
lynrr bhrdlar, dative

bhrdta, \JTKT:r



bhrdtrS, locat. vrf^bhrdtru


ing to the same principle in bases in an, in Gothic, the a in
the genitive and dative sing,




(§. 1-10.)


the nominative, accus., and vocat. retain the original a;

ahma, ahmin-s, ahmin, ahman, ahma, from





As regards




combining the


of the primary forms with case-suffixes beginning with a


we must


draw attention

to a phenouienon,


almost limited to the Sanskrit, and the diaiects which



have, however, found also «^2)aj apo xa the accusative; and


therefore in doubt, whether in this word, owinf; to
AJ a


exchange of



a, the confusion
S. p. 21,

has not originated in nieie graphical overfiud


Thus, V.





nJjJAJ^iJUi j>Jo^y<i>A)xa)A> Cui^JU»(0;M4^X3^

tsanhuisvohistdo ynuzila-

dhatao ashaoms aycke, " aquas puras, optimas, ab Orinuzdo creaias^ viuudas

and «^a)AU


vUpuo apo,


omnet aquas."



hand, in the page following:




JCMjc^ytU A)^jj^/aj»/> imdo npas-iha zenai-eha urardot-tha dyese,

has aquaqiie

terraj<que arboresque celelro'




approximate most nearly to

as Pali and Prakrit, through

which, to avoid a hiatus, and to maintain pure the vowels
of the base and of the termination, a euphonic n is introduced.

This euphonic expedient cannot, in the extent in which


exists in Sanskrit, belong to the original state of the lan-





w^ould not be almost entirely lost in the

cognate European
fore regard


and even in the Zend.



as a peculiarity of the dialect, which, after the

period of the division of languages, became the prevailing

one in India, and has raised
language in that country.
that the

itself to

be the universal written here to remark,

It is necessary

Veda language

did not use the euphonic n so univer-





and together with ;?^

ind, ?[«n ind, ^rfi und, occur also



^JH\ iyd,



The euphonic n
[G. Ed.
p. 167.]

most frequently employed by the neuter
the latter limits

gender, less so by the masculine, and most

rarely by the feminine


use to the plural

genitive termination ^J^ dm, in which place



duced by the Zend


although not as indispensably re-


it is

remarkable, that precisely in this place

in Old

High German, and other Old German

an n

has been retained before the case-suffix

thus in Old



ahd-n-d, " a(juarum,"

from the feminine theme

is fur-

(nom. aha).

Besides the use of the euphonic


ther to be remarked, in Sanskrit and Zend, the attachment of


to the

vowels of the base


26.) in certain cases, to

also the Gothic presents analogies.

134. Bases, of the masculine and feminine genders, end-

ing with a vowel have, in the Sanskrit family of Imguages,
(under the limitation of

137.) s as nominative- suffix,


in Zend, after an a preceding

always melts into




then contracted with the a to

A (§. 2.),

while this in Sanskrit

takes place only befoie sonant letters



are given at



I find the origin of this


in the pronominal base

^ sa,

"he," "this," fem.

^sd; and
the said

a convincing proof of this assertion


fact, that

pronoun does not extend beyond the limits of the nom. masc.
and fem., but

replaced in the nom. neuter, and in the

oblique cases of the masculine, by WT
td regarding:

and feminine in
[G. Ed.

which more hereafter.


The Gothic suppresses a and


p. 158.]]

fore the case-suflRx

except in monosyllabic bases, where
Hvu-s, "

this suppression is impossible.

who ?"

is, "he," are

used, but vuJf-s,


wolf," gasi-s, " stranger," for vul/a-s, gasti-s
§. 87.).

host is,

according to

In masculine substantive

bases in ja

however, the




retained, only




66.); e.g. haryis,



generally the case, the

final syllable is

preceded by a

long syllable, or by
to ei (=t,

more than
e.g. ondeis,

one, the ji [yi) is contracted


"end," ragineis, "counsel,"

for andyis, raginyis.

This contraction extends also to the




in like

manner denoted by




Gothic nominatives in yis correspond the Lithuanian, like
Afpirktoyis, " Saviour," the

of which has likewise arisen

from an elder a.f I deduce this from the majority of the oblique cases, which agree with those of the a bases.



consonant precedes

the final syllable ya,
there the y




more common


changed into the vowel

and the follow:



which had arisen from




"young man,"


yaunikkyis from yaunikkyas.

Hereto correspond in Gothic


bases in ya,*
sutas tava, ^fi-





tuto manuit "JUius

mens" Tlim


tuus" {.


t Throua;h the

influence of the y, in accordance with a

Zend law of
1309 G. Ed.,

(§. 42.).


nom. e.g. of Gothic bases

in ya, see p.

L 2


"the middle" (man),


for midyi-s

from midya-s,



The Zend



of the syllable ya, presents

a remarkable analogy


the Lithuanian and Gothic in contracting the syllable

A5^*0 yo.

before a final 9


regularly to ^


as also





(§. 42.).

The High German




our time, preserved

the old nominative sign in the changed
theless, as early as in the

form of

r; never-

Old High German, in pronouns
however, in this

and adjectives
[G. Ed.
p. 159.]

only, with a vowel termination of the base.

The High German


point, superior to the Gothic in fulness, that in its a bases


which belong

strong adjectives— it has not suppressed

the vowel before the case-sign, but preserved

in the




which, in Old High

the influence of the r

German — as


appears through


long, but only in polysyllabic,

not in monosyllabic


Thus, e.g.




completes the Gothic blinds for blinda-s
is, " he," corresponds i-r

as to the Gotiiic

Middle and

New High German

The Old Northern

has likewise r as the nomina-





everyvvhere where, in Gothic,


In the other dialects the nominative character

entirely lost.

Feminine Sanskrit bases




and, with very

few exceptions, polysyllables in ^ i, together with '^ strt, " wife," like the corresponding forms of the cognate languages, have lost the old nominative sign (with the exception
of the Latin ^ bases, see


and give the pure base



cognate languages do the same, the base having been weak-

ened by the abbreviation of the


In Gothic, 6 be-

comes a





"this," and hwd "which?" remain

unshortened, on account of their being monosyllabic, as in



hd and

^3^^ led


while in polysyllabic forms the

liave used vocalization

and vocalize


express the change of a semi-


iU corresponding vowel.

AU d

even in


In Zend, ^


also is shortened,

the monosyllabic ^V-"

^^"'» " wife,*" see


S. par. 136,



p. 28,

where we read


stri-cha, "feml-

whilst elsewhere the appended aj^ cha preserves

the original length of the vowel.




Zend nomi^''

natives in

;o e

deserve to be mentioned, which seem very

similar to the




as jrsi^^^^ perenS,




in the Vendidad occurs very often in relation to
" earth,"




being able to remember that



another case from


But from the
[G- Ed.
p. 160.]

nora. fCfjM^ kainS, "

maid" (Sanskrit w^m
S. p. 42());

kanyn), which


of frequent occurrence,

find the


kanyanm (V.

this furnishes the


that the jo S in the nominative

generated by the eupho-

In ^^y>^M^ nic influence of the suppressed ^^ y (§. 42.). " " cousin," and aj^^^j^^ tuiry^, a relation in the brdturyi,
fourth degree" (V. S.
p. 3S0),

the ^^ y has remained;




hand, in nJ^AW^^y vyAki.


dropping of a ^^ y must be again assumed.



here refrain from conjecturing that the e also of the Latin
declension, as with very few exceptions

it is


preceded by an
flnence of this


likewise produced from a

by the


so that the Latin here stands in reversed

relation to the Greek,



rejects the

combination with
genders which

and preserves the original a

13S. Bases of the masculine and feminine

terminate with a consonant,
§. 94.,

lose, in

Sanskrit, according to

the nominative signs; and

two consonants termi-

nate the base, then, according to the
these also
is lost.


law, the latter of

Hence, f^ifU

hibkrat, for f^>n?T bibhrat-s,

"the bearer";


tudan, for TT^nW tudant-s

"the vexer";

^T^ vdch, f.), for m^ idk-sh, " speech." The Zend, Greek, and Latin, in preserving the nominative
vdk (from
sign after consonants, stand in an older position than the


Zend jm^jm






>\5«£7^^ Ic'r'ffs, " a demon."

"body""; m5(3^>^ cZrwc-s (from the base druj), The Latin and Greek, where the final consos

nant of the base will not combine with the
native, prefer

of the nomifor

abandoning a portion of the base, as x^P^^
(cf. §. 6.).

yaptT-g, comes for comit-s

The Latin, Lithuanian agree remarkably with the Zend in
[G. Ed.
p. 161.]



this point,

that nt, in combination with


gives the



thus amans, rtdev^, Lith. suknns


spond to the Zend oj^.iiA}»AM7j} srdvayans, "the speaking"



n after a short vowel


in Sanskrit,


favourite combination of sound, although one not prohibited.
It is

expelled from the






of a


XJWT^ and it is rejected in the nominative
short vowel

rdja-pntra, " king's son," for TTST^'nr


a preceding




TT»n rdjdt " king," from TTiR rdjan, m.

«nT ndma,

" name,'' from




v«rt dfiam, m.,

irffT dliani, n.,



dhanin, "rich."

The Zend

in this agrees exactly

v.ith the Sanskrit

but from the dislike to a long a at the
the length-

end, which has been before mentioned, omits

ening of the vowel


e.g. >A»xitii^(i.shava,

"the pure" (man),


yA5»A5ta5-w ashavan,



aj^j^aj^ chashma, " eye," from
follows the Sanskrit in

/w^iajAs^ chashman, n.

The Latin

the suppression of the n in the nominative, in the masculine,








sermon-is, a^tio, action-is;

but nomen, not name or nnmo.







compounds, refrains


rejecting the n, probably in order not to





radical syllable;

thus tubi~cen,Jidi-cen, os-cen (see

§. 6.).


an abbreviation of

hence the retenstands


of the







In Sanskrit the naked roots also follow the prinrejection


of the

of n



" slaying,"

" smiting,"


^ hd,


however, the only root in n which


The German language also rejects a final n of the base in the nominative and in the neuter. comes Thus. from vfiTT dhanin give. atv. so used. in Lithuanian. o As regards and i. in in Sanskrit. . "regem. . hemonis. to (cf." nom. in the weakest cases. 6. sing.).t because the old language had hemo. theme to ^^ The " Latin has extended the base "5SR swan. relation resembles that of Gothic forms like ahmin-is. bases in en and un ( the nominative.. thus. uhmin. 162." X I TT3n«W now prefer The 4^|<|H<I taking the i of homin-is. tpt) dhani. and therefore substituted for the ciple weaker according to the same printhe nom. in the nominative.] 126. this o appears to me a stronger vowel. "stone. Ed. from the bases A KMEN.\ by which. and. suflBxes. young. the opposition in several words is — as homo." rdjdtias. fv-oi . have arisen ^^qi asmd and "sj swd. contracts of obscure origin." SZUN. distinguished from the oblique cases. yp^^ swan. that between short vowels also exists a diflFerence of gravity {§. for homo." but also rajdn-am. to the nom. For the rest it has been already remarked. ov-os. arundin-is —the nominative i. from the primary forms of the same signification. has become Juveni [G. . hom'mis arundo. " hound. ahma. t In bases in yspt an the lengthening extends to all the strong cases^ with the exception of the vocat. u = mo) for e or «. t^R ^ivan " hound.). and were originally one and and therefore may be simultaneously the same word. "rej:. as the weakening of the o of homo. in the accu* Althoagh trary." by an unorganic addition." come the . ^gi its which. wliich preserve the original voweL . hominis cognate one. " reges. met with is 151 sic4. and ace. cani. still it its quantity in the actual condition of the language is arbi- appears to have been originally long. &c.* which compensates for the loss of the n. ^^^ asman. by which.NOMINATIVE SINGULAR. and to imply a similar contrast to the Greek rjv. nominatives akmu. not merely XTSTT rdjd. sun. p. so W?^ yuvan. but mon and min are affixed to signifying the same. between -is. §. s~u as in Sanskrit. It does not follow that homin-is has come from homon-is. ahman. 140.

not dtmn-as^ but «f|^lT ndmn-as. 6. also." and in Gothic MUN-THA. weakened i in the genitive and dative (see cases. staua. and which therefore correspond to the Sansk. my opinion. that is to say. and comes from a lost root ^n"? dh. exist is several words. and original position — an is a always precedes the There are. p. "king." as JT'JT man. nmntfis. and in Greek three languages the same. by the tt and by exchanging the F h for gh. " spirit. nom. in Gothic."t where it is to be remembered that also the root ^H nah. in which an the whole derivative. In in sative also.suffix. however.J N." Zend means also "to speak". /. the n has an n." In Latin ming-o answers to ." as "ruler." There are some masculine formations man . "Judge" aha. whence nom. " cloud. Gothic. "to think." cloud. in these (§. in (s/aw-i/a.). remarkably enough. only bases in an. 163. §. arises the nomiin the nal base Hti mSgha. milh-ma. in " nominis. after rejecting the n. like Sanskrit.68. in case this stands for dh-man. it is weakest cases entirely dropped. the preceding a to in the nominative.* Among masculine bases in an. The Gothic MILH-MAN." Thus J H. by the addition of an a.. '^iw^ dtman. " to think. none in to in and un. "I judge"). STAU-AN. " to bind. ^nTTT dtmd. accusa- e-ff' * In case two consonants do not precede the termination ^r^ an ^TfW»|n dtman-as. as especially in the 132. Ed. ahma. while in Sanskrit. " A»76-y>j^ mahthra. with which perhaps the Sansk.] foreign to the Sanskrit also. "spirit. is The a." as "thinker" {ah-yo. "soul. mouth" $. in Gothic. "I think"). 130.). "speech. o-fxcxi-eo) the meaning is Neuter bases in an. lengthen. is connected. nom. the latter termination [G. ik^ mih." " to speak. in the masculine and neuter old — where alone. TT»n? rdj-an. ." has." suffix appears to have sprung from the Sanskrit root mih. in several places. as. AHMAN. as in whence the nominatives Sanskrit. whence. not ndman-as. 141."^ nom. changed its hintot. t Perhaps identical with the actually -occurring ^STT? dh.152 FORMATION OF CASES.

and in Gothic . 120. In the feminine declension in German I can find no original bases in n. ex- neuter adjective bases in cluding the modern n. as also in Sanskrit there exist in . 163 [G. of neuter bases in an is lengthened in the nominative. 1083. Note. "rich. in Gothic namdn-a. Gothic namn-a also exists.NOMINATIVE SINGULAR. tive. to an abstract. "queen.). accusative. from Wf^sundara m.). connection of bases in ein And ( already." with a strong theme.)^ The a. also.. according to the theory of the Sanskrit weakest cases genitive Hltil^ (§. like ^ttRHi chaturbhis (instr. . whence proceeds the plural . for example.] and vocative. p. which sound the same . m. Most substanhas been pointed out. so that in these cases the Gothic neuter follows the theory of the strong cases (§. ^rTrfr chatwdr-i. at §.. is opposed to the weak cases '^TnSi^ chaturhhyas. and vocative plural in Sanski-it." Gothic fe- minine substantive bases in n exhibit.69. run parallel to one another. and hence »fl'Jlf«T ndmdn-i. " the rich'' (fern. 130. " nominum'" while the Gothic namdn-S has permitted itself to be led astray of the strong cases. and vocat. to which the addition of an n can have been only subsequently made. a close and Lithuanian in z. TT^ rdjni. "the fair" (woman). which the Sanskrit neuter obeys only in the nom. whence thev are derived.) orei: these are genuine feminine vowels. n.). by the example and would be better written namn-^ or namin-i. 129." from TTsPT rdjan . with the Sanskrit in ^ t.§. n. "four. by the addition of the usual feminine character \i as. = ^. before either an o final ( this consonant. * Vide p. a. ndmn-dm. ^ in) tive bases in ein are feminine derivatives from masculinerelation. plural. 164. vfff«Tt dhanini. 142. from "vftnT dhanin. where. no feminines in an or but feminine bases are first formed .. under the same as in Sanskrit that of «»<'0 sundan. accus. However. "beautiful" Gothic substantive bases in ein for the most part raise the adjective. Ed.

rath-yon to the root. "man"). too. where comparison made with old languages connected in their bases. suffix fiT of the same import. vid6v6. nom. see §. as is but here in Latin. Ed. "the without man" (from the prep. the thgon completely answers to the Latin Hon. MANAGEIN. rath- in the Gothic soil. e. 17. managa-td) . nom. Sanskrit feminines in these old Greek in a. TATHI. together with the base MITATHYON exists one signifying the same. It is f^ vi and V[^ dhava. mikilei. DAURON. Thus. widow. a. ri. tives). raihy6." Of the same origin is e. from the adjective haaeMANAGA (nominative masc. whence the strong suffix ydn. " measure. manag-s. answers jihwd.] FORMATION OF CASES. ihi.g. The RATHYON therefore corresponds to the Sanskrit "knowledge. "crowd." from bases MIKILA in 6n. "great. Grimm's strong Substantive bases with the genitive feminine in 6n pre. nom.g." nom. in ACTION. 166. a-i-g (old rig). blindon-s —must be adjec- derived. true that." to the f^\m uic?/iatj(l.). " inundation. and Greek §. . I {mikil-s. mitaths. Ed. and in final languages never lead to bases with a tung6n). the th belongs. the In RATHYON.g. and the Latin vidua. MIKILEIN. hlindo. Gothic ti. Latin in a . managet. p. the and and to the Sanskrit f»T3fT = dschihwd." a relationship with suffix. is at least in respect of only a seeming one for in Gothic the : word is [G. mikila-ta). " nom. mitathyd. tuggo. "ac- count. nn{a)-s has been preserved. to the ^scti- Greek dupa skrit VIDOVON. nom. And in Gothic. nom. part. garunyd. e. the on is a later addition. not from their masculine bases in an. GA-RUN-YON.154 [G. nom. neut." . to a. in fwr vid-yd. p. in suffix MITATHYON. evinced from the connection of ti-on with the Sanskrit ti. n. and have already observed that feminine adjective bases in 6n —as BLINDON." As to feminine they have arisen from feminine bases in d. gen. nom.). . daurd. " greatness.] to be divided thus. but from the primitive feminine bases in 6 (nom. di (see 91. suppose older ones in 6 is and correspond. to { TUGGON (pronounced Latin lingua. 166. of ijd . MInom. RATION.

&c. in fact. in the nomifull oppose to the Gothic the base in : as yuotlihhin.a. never both together. has in more modern made its way in many words from . and. is a remnant of the oldest period or whether the v bases. in when final. refers the rejection of an n of the base in the nominative to a period before the migration of languages. ness on this point. or the v alone. §. cases again into the nominative. this accident. be explained on the general ground. and to tlie position of the original site of the It is human races. which in Gothic. In our New High . evSaiiioj. 143. there- Greek. that languages. evdaifxo. Ed. that the surprising. by which we should be conducted to nominative forms like repe. into the common similar experienced a to the Sanskrit. raXd? It I do not venture to decide with positivehere deserves to be [G. and by the example of their own oblique cases. ei which. 628). which were afterwards separated. after they had loss be lost. Teprj. this was the case ein. but the latter view appears to be the more probable. 167] remarked. p. TaA. that. at a comparatively later period.NOMINATIVE SINGULAR. to relationship. with its sisters and in its v bases. v to do not permit the remembrance of the and oldest path. "glory" (see Grimm.). in the oblique the nominative. Zend. returned. especially sounds.. the n. fore. in is German. in femi- nine bases in in (Gothic 70. So early as the Old High German native. shews no agreement . according to the measure of the preceding vowel. or to the high antiquity of such a loss and in the case before us. are sub- ject to abrasion but the concurrence of so many languages in a loss in one and the same place points . abandons either merely the nomiIt is native sign. p. in this respect. a question whether this of language. dialects always suppressed. If 155 a few members of a great family of languages have suffered a loss in one and the same place. all may be and may all . carried away by which again the stream of analogies in the other consonantal declensions.

. as is done by many masculine n bases. With /xeAa-f this the form Herzens. the ancient form with n suppressed. in Old High German. not want- regains the sign ing in the n bases.156 FORMATION OF CASES. first strong declension. in Greek. the vowel also. therefore. also. are. treated . /xeAa. The base is. as if they be- longed to Grimm's s. from them more than a Brunnen. reprji by an unorganic retrogade step into the stronger declension. pancha?i. in Greek. but rather a greater weakening of the [G. as is ren- dered probable by the cognate languages. that many original n bases of the masculine gender. . in some words. Batfxco. in Middle High German HERZEN. is thousand years Thus. nen for Brunne. the §e\<}it-g. Brunnens. the v of Satfxoov. as Backe or Backen. numbers Sanskrit conclude their base with "3 n. together with the restored n there occurs the nominative. as 5eA^/. used instead of the Old High Ger- man In prunno.* That. for an uninflected Herzen. reprjv in case. the German fusion phenomenon is worthy of notice. but the genitive has in these words also introduced the s of the strong declension. through a con- m its the use of language. as if they originally terminated in na e. brunnin-s. Among neuters the word Herz deserves consideration. Same or Samen . in the singular. the nominatives are. is surp. the renunciation of a i/ of the base is not entirely Several viz. the New German suppresses. e. unknown may be cardinal here shewn by an interesting in example. 168. weak nominative. herze . s assumed or newly-re- stored inflection would be to be compared.] prising. as of and with the n of Brun. in Gothic. HERZAN. in the genitive. as. prunnin. i. Hence the n is makes appearance in the nominative. herza. but in High German was withdrawn since. nominative g. As this is not a transition into the strong declension. and the Gothic hrunna. indeed. Ed. together with the n of Herzen. these old forms have been obtained from still older. and the genitive which.g. Bar for Bare.

which is surprising. however. 157 Bases in ^ ar (^ ri. bhrdta. with the distinction that they have become quite indeclinable. eVi/ea. and retain the old uninfiected nominative through all the cases. e. from JTTffT mdtar. e. but in the other cases the suit- pancha (not panehdnas) rdjdnat ."" . BoT/jp-a. Nom. 144. only that in Latin a final in polysyllabic words. which corresponds tor." damn. Xf^ TI»TT«T^ " quinque reges "." riavan^ "nine. but display always a neuter form." ashtan with aahtau. Sor^p. indeed. the nominative. and this is also supported by bability. rest on the Svca. tor. ^^^ TUTO pancfiasu rdjasu " in quinque regibus." saptan. and. and indeed.) in Sanskrit reject the r in it n. A. Tiop." ^^TR. regular suppression of the n —answer Greek neirre. "ten. 169. r. Sorfjp-eg. of the long a of the agent. "seven.g. dator. ^irfK^ dutdr-as. ^mn r. as a -compensation As to the retention. both in the of the r in the nominative. and vocative sing. duhitar. "eight. ^orrjp-e. N. mm Jtiatd. on tbe other hand. sing. like those in lengthen the pre- ceding vowel "brother. shortens an originally long vowel. ^TrnTH ddtdr-am. and to Latin in in takes place because. dator-em.NOMINATIVE SINGULAR. Ed. for the rejected all I believe. in the nominative^ accusative.f^ nat)a. follows the analogy of the Sanskrit. ^f^ffl duhitn. Ace. and the ^^ dasa —^which inrd. The lengthening of the a serves. this to Greek formations in all Twp. through the strong cases. Compare ORERK." >JT1T^ bhrdtar. used adjectively^ when they are not governed by the gender of their substantive. dual. is the original form of the suffix. and in the length vanchan. dator-es. Voc.1. v. LATIN. and not iTT tar. j[Tf sapta. Nom. "five. . these the length of the suffix being retained in Greek and Latin [G. "mother. ^T?n ddtd. rrjp. frjcR pilar. ." These numerals are. excepting the vocative. " daug^hter." come f^f^^ pita. sing. terminations. through all the cases rrip. p. SAWSKRrr. §. The Zend rejection pi." To the neuter nominatives and accusative of the sinable plural endings gular TRT pancha. "father.g. ^Tnfr ddtdr-au. in pro- words WTT tdr.

^^d^v/U nom. or. frater." belongs to this place : it answers to the Sanskrit distinguishes itself in that the e. soror . Thus mote.'' ^g7A5^jA5C2) M^JM^data. in the of the preceding a of the same places as in tlie Sanrkrit. pruodar. moler-u. answer to abovementioned Jnrn In the genitive singu- tnOtd. . In the genitive plural the base i. moter-es. Ed. as corruptions be- more genuine. dulder-es. but only of femi- nine bases in tive. and longing to the i bases. In Lithua- nian there are some interesting remains. brdthar. is dauhtar in Old High German. is shortened. sff KT duhitd and. think the latter more probable and Lithuanian are three witnesses . As -narrip. nom. p. vatar.** g a5^ja5q) paita. [G. the Besides the words just mentioned. has kept clear of this unorganic hence.158 FORMATION OF CASES." . which drop of the this letter in the nominathe old but in most oblique cases extend er base by the later addition of an the i. for the Sanskrit. noun agent. ^^ divar. swasar. 170. It is \m devd)." dukte " daughter. duktsri-u. dvyaTrjp. a question whether this r in the nominative after a rem- nant of the original language. suppressed. in the plural. er. so in Gothic. dukterles. '^rfn swasd. to mwiyei mdtar-as. lar I regard the form moter-s. fxrjTrjp. ^^/au^au^ ddtdr-em. svidart suesiar. not moteri-u. "father. tohtar. as the elder and moteriis. contrary to the analogy just described. whether actual it being anciently its has not again made way in the condition of the language from the oblique cases I into the nominative. they retain the r in the nominative. thus sessh. base SESSER. ^^ after the analogy of bases in en. Zend. Bai^p (Sanskrit. "giver. but in the nominative from mote and dukte. as always when final. passes into v. . e where the long a. with the exception of the nominative sin- gular.] 145. dukfer-u. The German languages agree that. ^ffflC'H duh'itar-as.'' " Creator ace paitar-em. in their affinity) r bases (to which but a few words belong denoting with the Greek and Latin in this point. " sister. " wife. dukter-s.

Trous-. here $vcrfi.p. for this reason. ^^^ s A remarkable agreement j. rrjp for the spuriousness and TCdp. and contain. made to correspond to the ri-£ of the first declension. however. fi^rip. for the the a in the nominative singular. If. however. in form in Zend and other respects. belong?. durmanas. Masculine and feminine primary forms in ^^ as in Sanskrit lengthen are. ^tt dus [G. prfrtup. (before " mind. for 159 the antiquity of the suppression of the r." from 25. . as in The want of a cognate Sanskrit. ^^^ manas. as also not ^vcruevecr-o^. in that p and ? not combining. on the other hand. &c. Ed. was. what was said at then in the compound ^hH^S 'ON 128 is admitted. that the j of /xevo? belongs to the base. like the Sanskrit ^ durmanas-as. <T(iiTr. unrecognised.. and the form Bvaneveaos In the must bottom of the genitive Bvafxeveos. of ^v<TfM€vfj£ has the appearance of an inflexion. to the base. according to the J §. form t>. a neuter substantive in ^?j as ^ffr^ p. speak at least plainly enough and comparative youth of the nouns of agency in 146. because the genitive. and the exhibit some' Greek words like ira-njp. and durmanas. 94. as as. Svcrfxevrj^. though and the nominative character is. In Greek. and all similar adjectives. SvafievTjg also." " evil-minded. &c. would appear that the form the tt. a 2 belonging to the base lie must be at the recognised. wanting. the last member. Bvajxei'io^. masc. but §. cognate form and similarity of meaning with inr Mr. They most compounded. 6. shewn by the Greek. neut. opposed to to The ^ of y^Hi?T durmands. they have not rather pre- ferred giving up the base-consonant than the case-sign It (as irai^. Latin. thing peculiar and surprising in the consonantal declension.NOMINATIVE SINGULAR.-?. that the p having given place rrjp-oq to the nominative $•.eve^. whence should come. 171] sonant letters — §.? is of later origin. is whence the nom. and /xei'eoy is abbreviated from /xevecr-of. to-r.). — 5T dur) and fern. rr]q. by an error of language. part. in ^^rpw durmanas.

. neuter us corresponds to the Sanskrit ^ra favourable to a final s. ior. short. sign ?. which signifies the same —from ^T^ tiie mds^ "to measnre. either the belongs to the base. §. and in this respect relation to the Latin MENES bears the same MENSI that 1. and invested with a — dull nasal (Anuswara. In isolated. and then the agreement with plete .] jt. . : " moon*" and "month. p. 139. The final syllable ur. 9.") as lupus to "^"JPfl^ vriftas. . Thus the San- skrit comparative suffix is ^tto lyas the last a but one of which is lengthened in the strong cases. 118).160 FORMATION OF CASES. c. the and.) — in Latin. g nominative. The is latter in my opinion. fUtlf^ bhinadmi does iofindo. which stands quite menu (=:menuo). with the s changed in o. ahnu has The relation of this to ITPH mds. Ed. as above (§.^ guruy "heavy.1i|« hence gravius has the same relation to the Sanskrit ganyas (irregular from [G. or the y durmands would be comof the base has been dropped before the cases^-sfHT is. must nevertheless does to be held. and in Sanskrit ^R»rr^ durmands to 5^^»r^ durmanas. because u and prevents its transition into r JTT." deserves here to be mentioned it proceeds from the primary form MENES*. therefore." withont a derivative suffix interposed nasal syllable ne answers to tlic — is remarkable. in regard to the suppression of the final consonant and the transformation of the preceding vowel. masc. in Latin. in like manner without the case-sign. and fem. as graver than and hence gravior forms a similar antithesis 8vcrixeve£. for «T Sanskrit na in roots of the seventh class (see p. as. is shortened by the influence of the In the is . 172. Lithuanian a nominative. into r. to gravius that in Greek Bva-fiev^g 147. only that the s of the nomi- native character in the latter belongs in the former to the base. though us. has same relation to it that. which so frequently happens is and the nominative : both genders without the case-sign the originally long final r. however. for the former supported by the Latin answer to where the forms which the Sanskrit as bases are in the nom.). least probable also.

" ^ffiTT duhitar." [G. " giver ." to. m. the oE ka." jm»^^^ hizrd. AJ^ ka. throughout the whole Sanskrit family of is lan^uasres the nominative identical with the accusative. In neuters.'' "husband. as in the bases. "body. 'EHES.. f. VRjR( hharont. §. ^T«f d^na. but receives." T*l ra." t^gd." «^ ndu.NOMINATIVE SINGULAlL to l61 AKMEN. '*-." " wine." from >tt bhar n. also.) cl. we select only such " speech (§. ^^fl^vdTi. n. eTTo? (§§. n. THT tanu. §. n.). m. " wolf . Ed. p 173. " son. jui^ m. f. "gift cST H ta. Tha is only exception the accusative plnnd of words denoting relationship in ^rr ar ^. " bearing." vihj^Jifibliavishyanti. " who . >»^^ bharat " receiving. m. n." ^r^sunu." final f. "name. "daughter. whxh form this case from the abbreviated theme ia M ." Of the consonantal declension "cow." ^^w vachas.). "this ." . " lup't" from WILKA. "lord. m. nom.?" rjfffpati. " ship." fifd^ Jirtud. and en an unorganic increase : thus the genitive . 128. whether in single i." >JTcTT ddlar. for FEDE^. hl. following examples Sanskrit ^05 vrika. "which." ^IT^ m." m. m. f. 1. " speech. vadhu. n. "tongue f ka." Greek." "who. Zend. Feiro?. f. "tongue. "brother." ttihtt ndman. "bullock. "which?" cases: * Masculines and feminines in the consonantal declension agree in all hence an example of one of the two genders is sufficient. 14. &c. in the weakened form. consonants as occur most frequently. " wolf . which subject is treated of at 152. "soul." M. n. n.?" m^ma datum . who is about to be. We here give a seneral view of the nominative formation. and select for the several terminations and gender of the primary forms.rdtar. 148."" pritUt "love "water ." f. j^^7w^l^ verhka. as wilko. the er of the base again rs-appears. m. a>^ "this. data. "wife. words or in entire classes of words: ^T^ vach. 114. sessu s to SESSER : in the oblique cases." Tr\fn *' .?" f.] ini madhu. n. (>T bhri) ^rnW5T fitmnv. "honey. is menesio. 129. whence MENESIA is the theme wilka-s. both for these cases and for : all others which suit our purpose.

1832). n. hardening of the original The Indian before vowel terminations gav. n. " heaven ." j9jmI^ vairi. that " in terra" &c. or barat. •• "wine. be regarded as nothing else than the jf^ go." Aj^au^I bTdtar. so much ^^'^^j the rather as believe can account for the relationship of A>9?_< " terrce. from Hj (=rfscA). 63. it clear that ^aj^au^I brdtar. m. which only met with after I I that page had been printed. (§. f." from im gam.'"' >j3ajq> "water. as belonging to the same theme. "an evil demon. from u>7a druc-8. 7Tf% gavi. as palatals before j^ s change into (S^ and thus.) " Lord . do not doubt. 7aj^aj^ baraiar also occurs. ^Awt ^^Aj^Aii barant." j. in brjfi^rrjp . 41." in Zend. " speech " " voice ndman * It (also y-w^"^*/ nanman). *' bullock. with a) a interposed." yAj^jJAj f. cri" native of the said base jkV . m. "f weakened form ^aj^ asman. by a double alteration . n. body >^^ madhu.X has been remarked at 123 of the cognate nom." who be ." ^^ gd. in accordance with what has been remarked and p. m. that I have only met with these two cases. I agree with him on this point at present. 174. it can only be J^)(5^AM9 vdc-s. article in the is is found onl> in the other nevertheless represented b}'^ Burnouf. have so divided themselves in the sound whence they have sprung. $. ^^g^ barent. the nomi- as Anquetil everywhere denotes (3^ by kh. ^ z. intentionally. pasu. must be the base word." accus. and renders by ^'parler. and 44. is to say. p. not cZoyA»/| brdiare. ^vnV ssahm. The very common form ^c^ z?m^ which oblique cases. has remained . at §. f cannot quote the nominative of this word but c . 114. . I have scarcely any doubt. writes vdhksck." [G. since 8 the Greek 8r].] cow "*. that. the Zend ^ tw is to v. would consequently have made itself almost unintelligible in the meaning " earth." (dat. Ed. cuj^ zoo." occurs very frequently the nom. also. "name. f. ^xs^jam. AM<Si>A too. n. to the Sanskrit im gavS. " bless- ing " f. . as by sch. " and which J must be assumed as the middle step in which to go." ^^^jxi^i)ip^_^ bushyainii. in e. m. is in liis Vocabulary. drtij." >yAj^ tanu." jm^jmj ^^ch. "earth. by the Advert. that the Greek has retained the T-sound. X is In the theme we drop. the Zend the I sibilant. in a very interesting I Journal des Savans (Aug. will .) 1 J^? < «emi. " bearing .162 J^JAJ^ paiti. '* . to — hardening of the v to m. first by the transition of g to z. secondly. that what Anquetil.o^^^am ^ti. m.g. FORMATION OF CASES. for yrj. " tame animal . the c e required by §.

i isolated pats. lupus.." which?". Goth. m. m. all other forms. " lupusque. m. SUNU. as is the case in Gothic in bases Compare the Zend j^. G1B0. AHMAN. GASTI.. "hand. Lith. f. in Sanskrit AJftJJJAJA^feVc^j also. STt dwara. ^7^ o^ assumes before ^ cha : hence said vehrkascha. futuraque" aj^juj^au^ brdtdeha." [G." SVKANT."mercy." all in the nominative suppressed. "ugly." AJ^^^^jAs^^l^jll '''fraterqus " final hushyuinitcha. "wolf. HANDU. "giver. AWI." (Sansk. ANSTI. FAIHU." Goth. "good. n. and observe it everywhere in the terminations. n. . f." TJ." m. f." Lith. "brother. n. . f. (§. •^i^ avi. EEND. GREEK. 175. "brother . as well here as in (§. "this. "husband. HFA. m. "stone. m. " name BROTHAR. L "daughter. "he. Goth. j And in the appended cha original preserves the otherwise shortened final vowel : its length hence ajcjau»»>j^ jihvdcha." o/f). 163 m. Goth. "daughter. n. "who?" Goth." as in Sanskrit det S vrikascha. "foe." FIYAND. HVO. Lith. SANSKRIT. KA. Lith." 9m(^o>^ dughdhar. m. .] Lith." not requisite to give here examples in Greek select the bases.X kd. THA. "stranger. " son. ka-s." NAMAN." It is : "creator. n. I therefore how- ever. UTBUAN. "the.). * In the comp. " lord of the region. "sheep. '' " linguaque.'* ?m^jm^ ddtar. ka-s.." ^?^Aj(p vachd. "it. the termination as. PATI. p. m. AKMEN. (§. "hand. hva-s.* f."gift" 69. WILKJ. cf. "beast. m. Goth. with in •. n. Ed." (Sanskrit." Lith. m.* GOTHIC. wilka-s." Lith. tpim-poii-a. from liithuanian and Gothic we Goth." f. /.** DAURA. Lith. DAUHTAR. "landlord". n. otw. Goth. D. " spirit . m. GERA... n. f. remains adequately proved. and Latin Lith. "Lord"*. JULFJ." Goth. "gate. DUKTER. M 2 ." Lith. Even without the aj^ at times the original length of the : vowel is found undiminished the principle of abbreviation.). 56". vrika-s. LATIH.. which otherwise becomes 6 o6^." Lith. m. n.X \vko-^. vehrkd. RANKA. vulf^s. retains the same is form which. m.t -turning. DARKU." Goth.>aj<2)^^9 vtg-paiti. m.). Goth. I Before the enclitic particle eha.NOMINATIVE SINGULAR.) "word. m." t These and other bases ending with a consonant are given only in those cases which have remained free from a subsequent vowel addition.

. t^pt. opus. TTOO-Z-y. i-ta. . n madhu. gdu-s... vdk. .. baran-s. m.f ndu-s..* kd. . ferens. bushyainti* m. The character . pecu-s. ttarrjp. dvydrrip.. ..stinu-s. sitis.. . .. gdu-s.. f. hosti-s. gast's. mare.. paiu-s.. . terra. bhavishyant (.... .. m.. is. UTHDAN.. §• 33.. LATIN. ddte-m. .. f. vocs.. socrus.. doTium. . pecu.... .. • • • • ACCUSATIVE SINGULAR. still In to Lithuanian the old m has become more weakened • See the marginal note marked (X) ^^ t^® foregoing page. bhrdtd\ rdXav... (}>epoiv. ndma. data* vachS. Or jiup^^ ^"o*. m..164 SANSKRIT. . • • vav-^f OTT-£.. X<^pa. ... busenti. jihwd... . m.. tanu-s. ansfs.... 149. . hvd. of the accusative is v.. sukah-}\fiyand-i> sermd'.t • • jxedv..g.. GOTHIC. JwjOO-V.. ahma'. . f.* ndma'. . . TO. Zend. eTTOf. ta-t. .. handu'i faihu.... ta-i.. brdta\* akma'.. vdc-s. GREEK. duhUd\ ddtdf vachas.... bos. darku. . mater.. tka-ia. bharan.. madhu. giba.. awis. doTrjp. dauhtar • • • • m. • • • n 1 1 vdri. ta-t. .. sunus. . i-d.f f. n. and Latin in Greek for the sake of euphony...... Sf. ... tanu-s.. daut'. •nopTis.. . prili-s.. ddna-m... is... . kd.. n.. is-tu-d. n» dtmd\ asma.. . f... dughdha*... frater.. pat is. ranka.. . f. m in Sanskrit. ZEND. FORMATION OF CASES. vadhu-s. • Pn ^ ft . gera..... f. . • • . sunus... .. gf. iriTV-s. hizva. !X.' nam6\ brdthar... . m.. nomen. paiti-s. dukte.* dator. pati-s.dv. /3oC-r. dfriti-s vairi. m. t X Irregularly for Tft^ gos. Q. .

not unfrequently ^j. impossible: skrit in San- am. in most cases. p. which must originally have existed." * From the bases ^^3 if ''"f/ *°*^ S. 9CASAU9 nlch'^. termination*: of the Greek av." form. but in pronouns of the 3d person. in Sanskrit. " fear. examples are given in 157. §. <f^Hn uimas (in the Vedas ^^nf^ usmati). vi\ bhi. "we . u the Gothic even. as also in adjeconly in tive sion. give am in place of the mere m. as otherwise the combithus. in Zend and Latin em.] 165 is called Anu- swara. I find besides ^?Ji> 7a druj^m. the m . besides the ce mentioned at $. i.). they are to be thus explained —that the vowel which stands before m is only a means of conjunction for appending the ever. . The German languages have. the dull re-echoing nasal. so early lost the accusative mark in substantives entirely. devoid of inflexion. character. 177. still the masculine: feminine nowhere exhibits an accusative is.'* Old High German plinta-n. " coecum. which in Sanskrit [G. 151. and which we. 150. and like its nominative. not bhi-m and ndu-m. become Thus.30. how- Zend for uses. cJAmp vach^ . Primary forms terminating with a consonant prefix m a short vowel. nation would be. probably in order in this to way and «n ndut "ship. Monosyllabic words in u. the High na instead of the old m The German. occurs also ^m^jaxaa dadimaMy answering to the SanvrSL" and many similar forms ricrit as ^»>a»^ jj3> ns-i-mahi. appears as the accusative in the present condition of the language. in both languages. as like consonantal bases. a simple n hence. Ed.ACCUSATIVE SINGULAE. dadhnahJ. and du. the accusative termination. express by n (§. as the Greek vau-v would polysyllabic. 9Jc>iau9 vdchim : al3o freqaently ^•iii>7A drujim. Gothic hlind-na. and these forms are genuine. 10. in the V. with more correctness. the v lost: is. eg ^M^i^AXiA . for this purpose. bases ending with a vowel which follow their declen- they have hitherto retained the it. Middle and Gothic gives : Modern High German to the case-sign blinde-n. which I scarcely doubt.

leaves the / unchanged Sanskrit — HSpt-s. Ed. It is. Sansk. /3ao-/Ae(F)a. e. so in Latin and Greek. Ed. " water". like spends to the Sanskrit uf^ vdri. fruc-tum. hora-m. of igne-m (Sanskrit ^fj*f »T agni-m). "a bed". however. die-em. The Sanskrit and Zend neuter bases and those akin to them in Greek and Latin. corresponds to the Indian i-m. Greek Li- thuanian i-n. and Gothic. without Sanskrit proved by the history of our entire family of languages.] FORMATION OF CASES. since these give e-a. and introduce into the nominative also this character. as in innumerable cases. and that a precursory vowel was only is added out of other necessary reasons. give a nasal as the sign of the accusative. 178. The Latin em in the accusative third declension is of a double kind: in one case the e belongs to the base. p. "him"). the Sanskrit and Zend. but fnVJ^ bhiy-am. iiSpt. for ev-v. em of consonantal bases the e answers to the Indian it to which 152. in a. Jwjoo-v AH ter. hora-em. Gothic i-na (from ina. i places a final by the cognate e. mare for mari corre- [G. diem. established. and would be adequately and Zend. which supply . which in Latin. Li- thuanian. but in the a. with but few exceptions. from eF-a. as in vrf^ suchis. donu-m. as well as the two natural genders. originally sole accusative termination. and for lupu-m. That the simple nasal suffices to charac- terize the accusative. ^H^ ndv-am. fructu-em. and is hence appro- priated to the accusative as well as to the nominative in the neuter : hence. so that e-m.g. by the Greek. p. remain in the nominative and accusative without any case characre- and give the naked base. t-v. less animated. 179. lead us to expect.] the Greek. and stands. to seek out an older form lupo-em. corresponds in many other cases also. Zend ^jyAj^^AJjj ioyane-m. wrong to regard the Latin em as the true. ^|44«fH^ sayana-m. which is less personal. in Latin. for i. other bases. however. With this agree the Greek themes in ev. for /3a(ri\€v-v. Zend i-m. thus. tN suchl The tlie following are examples of neuter u bases.166 [G.

rjSv. accusative. BaKpv. The is original perceivable from the dat.* Te/3ar. but an is exchange with T. in this respect. in Latin ^ecu. or the Sanskrit ^^ has lost one. as irpo^ from Sanskrit jffji prati f • Compare. Ed. 167 place both of nominative and accusative : in Sanskrit ire madhu. genu. "arm". brachium. final is With regard is to the fact that always long in Latin. but Trpdyfxa) or exchanged ttjoot/.ACCUSATIVE SINGULAR. in Greek fiidv. gen. the length of the originally short u explicable as a compensation for the case sign which has been dropped. fievo^. 19." Vf^Stm hhanjmas." ^tT^ sicddu. which either rejected (jj. pifywfu. which I have already developed in my treatise ** On some Demonstrative Bases. " we break. The length of this u is unorganic. " sweet'" in Zend >»'^^ vdhm " wealth" (Sanskrit ?rB ^^ . '* honey. been already explainthe 129." asm. has §.^ " wine. u-bus. gravior-is 127. in Greek is words ed at case like yevog. corresponds.). and would consequently have an r too much. too. not admissible at the end. as to the essential points.] for a cognate 2. does not seem to is me to be the case sign. " tear." t With thia view. as belonging to the base: the same e with : the Latin in neuters like genus. and their connection with various Pre- and Conj unctions " (Berlin. (see §. and has probably passed into the nominative. evyeve^. vasu). for is ample. corpus.e?u. pp. like gener-is.). '^Tl^Tf capu-sh-as (see §. gravius it is the other form of the r of the oblique cases. 180. and vocative from the oblique cases. vapus. by which. The 2 also of neuter bases in T. [G. there perhaps a reason ex- always at hand for this length: in the ablative. 4—6. oorpor-is. the o of the second declension becomes long. and corpus appears akin to the Sanskrit neuter of the same meaning. ^paxiav^ with m^Tl biihu-s. shortness of the u of the fourth declension pi. frango. by Diimmler). where the length u is to be explained from the sup- pressed case terminations. in Teri/^xJf. what Harttmg has since said on this positions fobject . The 2. with tTTn^q bhanajmi^ "I break. p.

they are devoid of inflexion.Ed. as capac-s felic-Sf very aman{f)s. through the inter- vention of 2.). reiki. §. and hence neuter bases i. With regari to the p ofvdwp. 152.168 In Latin it is FORMATION OF CASES. in consonantal bases. answering to the Sanskrit TTsRH? rdjya-m. neuter). Greek. and in the accusative. The want of neuter i bases suhject in his valuable work on " On the Cases. through the common interchange between "Httot-os should be also in this h and p the : both owe to it tlieir p. as well neuter as mascu- case sign m is wanting. as." . is the perception of the distinction of gender much blunted. can give up the r. but then irregularly substitutes n for W if gen. however. &c. in a stand on the same footing with the all u. 135. In line. in Latin. But the Sanskrit word. Compare. in «? weak e. on the other hand. . Sanskrit 7jc|»ri f( yakrit-as. In Gothic there are no neuter substantives p. compare TJ udra. X(^gfl yakn-as for tpiTtn^ yakanas. ' as {jnar-os does its t fjnapT-os." in W^ sani-udroy "sea. contrary to the principle followed skrit. by suppression of (cf. the a in the nominative and accusative singular gain in these cases the semblance of base i bases. The Sanskrit. comes. to be regarded as inconsistent with the spirit of the language. in and accusative. the [G. with regard to the form of this case. 181. e. appears to attribute a different origin to the p of these forms.g. "rich" (Sanskrit TTW rdjya. To TJoinT yukrit " liver " (likewise neuter). 153. from the likewise liEIKYA.. the Gothic substantives. where nlso the p of ^irap and vScop explained as coming from T. and Gothic. cases. and consonantal the nominative bases of the cognate languages in that. as soler(t)s. by the Sanis Zend. which has the same meaning. substantive bases in ya. " water." is p. the feminine no longer distinguished from the masculine. that most adjective bases ending with a consonant retain the nominative sign s of the two natural it genders in the neuter.g. in the case mentioned.] in i. this gender extend also to if it belonged to the base. In general. daur{a) with ^TR**^ dwdram. corresponds hoxh jecur and ^irap.

It is a question whether the m. Adjective bases in u. devoid of in- and dide therefore remarkably signifies also " magna" and answers. terminate in the nominative in as giesme^ "song. gera-n.* yaunikkis. as far as they e. or for the lost is y or i has been preserved only in the genitive plural. in this pronouns. nian. "good. and was not joined to the • The e of neuter forms like dide. is " beast. however. Zend. the feminine substantives in Ruhig's third declension. ro^y>^iu2i brdturye. also. as nine. without case sign. i. and Greek. that in the cognate Sanskrit.ACCUSATIVE SINGULAR. which flexion ." corresponds as nominative and accusa- tive neuter to the masculine nominative darku-s. was originally limited simply to the a bases.t3 to the Zend nominatives explained )c/cq) perene. Ed. "youngling" — I ex- plain through the euphonic influence of the suppressed y. "ugly. [G.e. the discovery of the true nature of these difficult . 182. "great.] 154." As no masculine forms in is correspond to them. This analogy. where the latter relate to case.* which are provided with the sign of the case. so the nominatire and accusative neuter in such words identical with the nominative feminine. 137. according to §. as (it is the sign of the nominative and accusative neuter ex- cluded from the vocative in Sanskrit and 2^nd). In this sense are to be regarded. 135. clension has preserved only the single FAIHU. is likewise. where tfiesmy-u to be taken like rank-ti from the final vowel of the bases is suppressed before the termina- has been melted down with it. darku.." from the base DIDYA — nom. and only in pronouns and adjectives.didi-s for didya-Sy as §. p. 137. the corresponding termination in the neuter Of neuter u roots the substantive deis not very common. maac. by the adjective forms bases in a also and thus gera.(j. e. have their nominative and accusative singular in pc- cordance with the cognate languages. very . followed in Lithua." In Lithuanian the neuter in substantives has left traces entirely lost." corresponds as nominative and accusative to the masculine gera-s. as femiat ^. As also the ia feminine originally long a is changed into e by the same influence. accusative is darku-n. . words becomes more rankdy tion. in 169 German is the less surprisino^.

because they are by far the most numerous." combines with ^^ ^ dam (^^ idam. I mean the interfaf ki. . a. the oldest period as. for vdri we had ori- ginally vdri-m. madhu-m ? felt I should . and m bases also so that. indeed. has allowed the old inflexion to pass less into oblivion. substitutes [G. on account of frequent use. p. in Sanskrit. have produced a ki-t. Pronominal bases in a in Sanskrit give t. and in German has continued to our time several of the progeny of . Old High German pi-m Sans. vr^JT^ bhavd-mi. also. for the most part. for 'em awu. in 155. 183. as characteristic of the 1st person in bi-n. although and indeed this form occurs in the pronominal declension. not wish to deny the original existence of such forms the a bases alone have the nominative and accusative neuter relation or of personality? It is for why should the necessity of not leaving without a sign of that the more probable a bases adhered only the more firmly to the termination once assumed. as all primary forms of pronouns terminate in vowels. and could thus present a stronger opposition structive influence of time to the de- of their analogies. in like in by means of the greater force the same way as the verb subits manner. base is not wanting. "that" adas . as the nominative and accusative neuter. for instance. " this"). "what"? from the base I which may is perhaps. in Sanskrit. one example of an i m as the nomina- tive and accusative sign of an it stands quite isolated . in the enclitic ki-t Otherwise i or u-bases of weakened from fojnr pronouns in the nomina- (man). and.] tive accusative neuter do not occur. In Sanskrit. Concerning the original procedure of consonantal bases in the nominative and accusative neuters no explanation is afibrded by the pronominal declension. Ed. the nasal. stantive. for madhu. rogative form f^ ki-m. which everywhere remains longest true to the traditions of bygone ages.170 i FORMATION OF CASES. The in . and which f^TiT chit. which contained in the Latin qui-d. the inflexion of Zend /. recog- nise again. and \h " this.

and therefore the double (Buttmann. modern period. man dialects. From this difference. declension consists. so here ta for simple liarities of the t . the stands in the same relation to the of which.(§. merely in the absence of all inflexion. z instead of the (§. t. d instead The Greek must abandon all T sounds at the end of : words the difference of the pronominal from the common however. as in the masculine accusative." as t. The pronominal base I (later E) German. m of ysn^ amu-m. in the nominative masculine and s feminine singular the form asdu. of the accusative also is. like other pecu- pronominal declension. as in the other Gere.) t than the double ' o. little as ta in the nominative masculine and feminine stitutes for the but the Sanskrit sub- base amu. in the most follows in bases. of pronominal origin and it is remarkable that the compound pronouns that. 128.ACCUSATIVE SINGULAR. Perhaps we have a remnant of a neuter-inflexion t in so that otti." i-ma. Ed." " this. s. and a convincing proof of the correctness of is this." Tn sd* p. " he.] (§. as in Latin. "this. the analogy of the old a and the Latin gives. THA. p." (Greek TO. 1 as the neuter case-sign. I doubt not. &c. this ex- planation that fnt ta-t "it" "this. 171 na for m or n. we ought to divide ot-t/ . The m ."" and other oblique among . amu-shya. in this form. and transfers these. of t. " caecum. that TO perceived was originally sounded tot or toS. hlinda-ta.).'''' midya-ta^ " medium. " illum. same contrast with iR sa. in the " she. it is and the testimony of the cognate languages. " he.g.).) in ope(T-<Ti. Goth. 184. would no more have a mere metrical foundation. as in the accusative masculine.^ cases." and a-mu. 85. in regard to the base. 87. Grothic gives. as. We find the origin of the neuter case-sign in the pronommal base K ta. therefore. also to the adjective a bases. therefore.** stands. 156.). " occur just as . as in the old ablative. the nominative s of masculine and feminine nouns 34. does to [G. " illius. for a tov would have remained unaltered. in this respect. in the older period.*' The High German Gothic t gives.

original identity of neuters in v ever. however. Gramm. in respect to the transposition of sound ever. do not believe. in regard to its vowel.). Ed. a. howthe apot seems to me a descent from the older as. a greater antiquity is more animated genders . "him. " " this"" this. because the case-sign. stand for an older 2. the Sanskrit and Zend. " the. that the * The d of d-d^ is i which is here incorporated in the base to the TA the preposition corresponding Sansk.) into a-da-g^ Grit. t . to the Latin d (id.g. p.). the sign of the masculine feminiiife nominative to the tive. final 2 has in many parts of Grammar become v).178 FORMATION OF CASES." as the nominative and accusative singular. p of the cognate ^R and in Zend the d of 9^__^* d-dem. a neuter J appears.) (nom. in Greek. H?? inflexion «. mentioned above. but not imo. Hartung founds on this.] 157. in tion to JT (f. e. H-m " what?" has (§• 87. accus. and. to ka-s " who "? The Gothic : termination anwers.) but to regard the syllable da as weakened from ta.. " that " (nom." pronouns. " t See my treatise " On the Origin of the Cases in tlie Trans. in Zend used <»a$9j imat. and in the dual tov. however. the acute conjecture of an in t. and r. as in Zend ^^AAU d-de-m. Greek to.). which occurs only in the accusative. as Tov for yj^ thas. to explain .54. a5^ ta. and proved to belong to the neuter m." is clearly only a weakening of the ^ of iT ta. b of ab has proceeded from the diro.).'f [G. and 9^ im (from ^»^ iyam). to be possessed by the Sanskrit and am to inclined to divide the form ^^ ados. Observe Greek the pronominal base MI." (n. p. fxtv for fits tas. the case-terminations. 185. What is wanting in the Greek. (m) with those We cannot. when Addend. m of the accusative and neuter nominais Moreover. agree with 1. corresponds a Lithuanian I tai. " this" (m.. viz. &c. than probably the v sounds can boast. accus. it as a corruption of a-da-t (cf. is m. "him. istud) this Latin d. but ^rsM aim (from ^^ ayam). on account of the origin which we ascribe to tliis as little surprising in the nominative of the neuter as in the accusative of the besides. through (»ni mas). the 299. To the Sanskrit ia-f. how- him in this. which. . We shall recur to this treating of the . has the same rela- ma ta (in the compounded base «lf^ ^ i-ma) that fsm neut. Zend ta-t. in the pamphlet before mentioned. of the As T in Greek easily becomes 2 (but a Berlin Academy for the year 1826.

dana-m. or. any way connected with the neuter : t. in several cases. which is no longer conscious of any like gender or case and hence. it A charge which is incurred is by the Sanskrit in the nominative. Crit. 137. which would be the same as the masculine. "of these two"." which. manner the corruption spreads) in the V 386. has. at §. that. Gramm. kd-m.). combining with This masculine pronouns of the third person. 186 The words mentioned SANSKRIT. perhaps only from neces- dropped the t or and which already. With regard to the lost casetermination. daur. form in the accusative ZEND. 25. "he. * Cf. 148.ACCUSATIVE SINGULAR. manner. /demonstrative in the Greek and to the ^ it. hwa-na. 544. TTWTSW tasmdit. Su>po-v. are in the highest degree interesting for Sanskrit and comparative Grammar. Ed.. wilhi-n. eKeivoa-i). "to this" (m ). f. trf^lT iamit. CREEK. * Examples in his Veda Specimen. it may be observed. p. n. 270. lupu-m. hva-na. which is. f. though short. hizva-nm. . with the interrogative: A3J3A5^ kas^ and jjjaj^ kasi. LATIN. in Vedas —a petrified . in general." net (na+it). ro. "if. tn-i. . ere I was ac- quainted with the Veda-dialect. m. ka-nin. the feminines are less constant in handing down the old inflexions.. Addend. used enclitically in the neuter. The Zend combines in the same way a) « or J » frequently. ^ I it. p. is consequently the sister form of the Latin id and Gothic eK€tvo(ri.* which. gibn. are given -xoipa-v. n. ddte-m. is-tu-d. Cf. UTHDAN. in the Greek sity. ^ to him" . to r. SHW I jiT asmdit. ^T^ sa'it. [G. terrain. i-ta. 24. m. irrika-m. Xvko-v. vu/f. t One would expect hv6-na. since gives kd for fcd-s* {§. by Rosen as. of the cognate languages I should rather turn to a relationship with the {ovroa-t. "who"? occur Perhaps only one of the two modes of writing is correct. hvdA pp. is Vt3 d. incurred by the Gothic (for in this accusative also. represented as a consis- tent part of the conjunctions %tt chit (from cha and ^ + if).. ranka-n. ta-t. jihwd-m. with abbreviation of the base. gera. ta-t. ka-m. 5. donu-m. vehrke-my ke-m. tha-ta. "him" ir^fut /a^onV. . ka-tif GOTHIC.

TTopTi-v.. the added i is a becomes. . tanii-m. f. "the turning" (f ). sunu. i. ^n..174 SINSKRIT. u is scarcely heard. BApyA t See J.. the feminine. c.). like hari from the base (§. Note) or sukanczian. ." Mielcke gives the accusatives svkansuktiseh. The it accusative sukanti-h. as 1. Thus.). hostem. 121?.. i. and it was originally pronounced so as to be fully audible. if.^4-m. • • m. . dfrtti-m. * The feminine participial bases in t. from the theme YAUNIKVA. answers to the Zend accusatives.sunu-m. 119. vadhH-m. with is a short masculine a. (see. LATIHr UTBnAN. into the oblique cases of the masculine. And even e... ansf.. gast\ i-na.o /JA5^ kain& for kainyS {§. ••*• dwin. must not therefore. in Lithuanian participial and to be here invested bases. i')(Bv-v. ^ f. from sukanti. pati-m. sunu-n. . oir-a.t ndv-anif bov-em . in this the t case... 42.. or may become. ^. Ttirv-Vj handu. i-ia.-\ ^ov-v. "the having turned" and czeh suksentif " the about to turn. ga-nm.). and the declension then follows RANKA exactly. 137.). and auksenczeh or suk' 4)...h{ishyainti-mi . madhu. 136. and hence {§. * n f. pp. • pasu-m.. has an original posihave made its way. sukusi. 42. . therefore to be regarded in the same light as yaunikki-h. pdti-n. . i-d.. fiidv. through the euphonic influence of the and in analogy with the Zend and the Latin fifth declension ($.).. FORMATION OF CASES. pecu. pecu-m... according to it before o. f. sencziah. 138. i$pt. " the turning" (masc). . . vdri. where the t. m f. faihu. e: in the latter case the suppressed. .. J^ m. ZEKD. •••• •••• mare. 3. •••• pnti-m. as well as in those there enumerated.. ttoan-v. vairi. to the old i is further added a more modem a . vdch-em. • • • n. madfiu. this vowel appears to From grammar shews.f... darku. only that in some cases. like 9j7j^«) tuirim for tuiryem and to the Gothic. o. . . siti-m. m.e. voc-em. f. socru-m. bhavishyantim. (f.. Ruhig (by Mielcke. remain free from foreign commixture only in the nominative and vocative singular in all other cases. p. mentioned at $... .. GOTHIO. paiti-nif GREEK. vdch-am. tanu-m. vav-v. be the less regarded as etymologically present.a8 Sanskrit tion. stands for sukanfyi-h from sukantya-h.

GOTHIC. dafor-emy opus. on account of its discrepancy from the San- gkrit and the many other forms with final aj a. e. DATIVE SINGULAR. m. uUevato. p. " proprio'''' V.). 175 UTBCAN. vachas. -narep-a.56»». 188. dntdr-um. m. one with a preceding aj a of the base so that in this case the primary form and the instrumental are completely similar. t Cf. matr-em. $aiixov-a. Rem. " through this" (m. p." AJiio<|>A}<A» azadsha. "voluntarily.INSTRUMENTAL. ferent-em.). asman-emt ndma. vachd* INSTRUMENTAL. 638. r. is denoted in Sanskrit by wi d opinion. ^?/um As a d-dem." which springs from this pronoun. dughdhar-em. Crit. Jiyand." up to. dauhtar." (m. ^-^i^ d-daiim. §." (V." "this. 46. 156. fratr-em. e-TTOJ. m. barent-em.^^'\ The long d appears ai in the instrumental only in monosyllabic bases in a.g. Ed. ahmaru TaXav. The Zend d appears still more decidedly in its pronominal nature in the compound mentioned at §. Note X)i even where this termination has been melted into . 35. Note *. " to. and this in my [G. " involuntarily. and appears only as a prefix. a fi a. S p. M^'^'^'^^J^JM^ paiti-berefa. duhitar-am. bhrdtar-am. This interesting instmmental fonn was not known by Rask when he published his work on the Zend. .] lengthening of the pronominal base the preposition and identical with " ^n d. n. added to bases ending with short vowels in the masc ^ * See§. thus Jcha is au^jo khd. "him. and It was not easy to discover it. ''actionem often occur.) Mf<3^xi6i^Mi skyadthna. 12. SoTrjp-a.). juu d generally appears abbreviated (see p. Gramm. m." " towards. from the base xi^ In Sanskrit a euphonic ^ n (Sanskrit siva. namS. bharant-am. The instrumental inflexion is. DATIVE. Ajjaj^As^ zadsha. sermon-em. ^epovT-a.) fern. 6vyaTep-a. dtmdn-am. ajjaj ** ana. ndma. ddtdr-em. S. 158. nomen. case-sign. n. f. brdtar-em. brothar. 163.

masc. as before Feminines never admit a euphonic n. viz. ^ (see mTxjm vnka.) regards as instrumental s. f^. ^ this clog as "^WH vriki-n-a. ond fem.." and common dialect forms instru«T mentals without the interposition of n. but ^f^^T^ agniJnf«TT n-d. TT^m sakhy-d. twayd. . The Vedas." but genitives of a do not take a euphonic n. " arm. The Zend 6. final and neut. however. madhu-n-d. which Grimm from the demonstrative (pp. twa. pra. and it is shortened to 'H a. orig'nal has ''Stammen gen. is. As e in Gothic. however.^ prabdhav-d. . correspond very to remarkably the the Zend instrumental. WH«TT sunu-n-d. passes i into J? i. from p. as ^rrnn from ^rJT swapna. changed into shortened. ^})*i swajpni-n-a further remains of formations without the euphonic swapnay-d for §. loc. d. THA base and the interrogative HVA. however. 189.. so the forms and base 798. "great. it and the d of the caseappears to me. " friend. hence. is blended with it. as of the base vdri-n-d." from the analogies the jtSjn common through me.) . "mtfj paty-d. m. 790. but some other vowel terminations.] m^ bdhu. finds " u in The Veda-form WSfVl swapnayd.* a suffix is ^ a. "sleep" 133. from prabdhu. just like re^ presents ^sn d. §." the And from Jjfif pati. that is to say. 7^xn vru-y-d for T^wr 43. according to thi. " thi'ough thee. as kha. from ^^ uru.). jkM^c khd from also svi as^jo We must. by the influence of J^ 6. hvi. genders.Editor. 69. place in the class of genuine Zend instrumental forms. follows in this the analogy of the Sanskrit. dialect in irm mat/d." with the preposition [G. as in several other cases. from exhibit &c." with a euphonical y(%. the a of which in this case. . "Lord. uru-n-a. m." and bases ma and m. passes into ^^ sakhi. as in the 4. which : have been correctly preserved * The nouns in besides sv^ from SVA is also.^Tn jihway-d (horn jihwi + d). IT^Ti^ H^"^. Ed. n. nor do feminine nouns ending in short vowels use such an augment in the instrumental : here is no doubt some typographic error. 159.176 FORMATION OF CASE^.

the colouring The Gothic : according to its form. same time the formation it is German In a bases in Gothic. sva has A»yAj become is. " ulli.> from J EHRKA. as A>^^kv^(. J As the dative in German very frequently expresses the termination also instrumental relation. as polysyllabic words in Zend.). which have preserved their due and answer to the monosyllabic iustrumentals th^ v^ svS. Ed. and is of the dative identical with the Sanskrit-Zend instrumental character. and an explanation of these forms. Rem. DATIVE SINGULAR." for ainamm^ • Grimm's conjertures rtgarding the forms sva and svi (III. sva. Moreover. and the so. Gothic and in Old High tlie 160. whicli are expressed by "as" and " so" are genuine instrumentals. 158. The German identified da»." and "so" as '•ihrough Uiis means. just as ana in Zend its according to §." is.] The Anglo-Saxon form for sve is sid. identical 1 with the theme. means both "as" and " so. without is tlie intervention of the Sanskrit and Zend.. " so. however. not distinguished from theme.* The meaning of svS is "as'' (o)S^). 43." &c." and ainummS-hun. is according to . the dat. it may be proper here to of the describe at the dative. 356." it is certain that among the eight cases of the Sanskrit language there is be adapted in the relative and deironstrative to express J none which would "as" and " so. liowever. "cuique. I^tin bus." to be everypi. sve. in which manner or way. mis. *' t If as " is regarded as ** through which means. which has arisen in High German from sva or sv^. §. 190. at the impossible. p. there are some other lengtli. shortened in only. in respect of its base. the n of which appri aches as closely to the Sansk. 3„ where with the Sanskrit dative and so.INSTRUMENTAL. and from velirka ULFA comes vidfa. bhyas. too. only the abbreviation of tlirough as a is the short equivalent both of § and of d this its abbreviation.) appear to me untenable . Litlu mu*. which have been already explained. Lith. viz. 35. 177 akin to jim^o khd from kha (§. remarkable datives. The case relatious.t [G. identical with theme. sing. in which of the Zend auj^ khd is most truly preserved. hvamme-hf hvar- ynmmS-h. as in Zend. as the instrumental teriiiination 6/it'. N . in this way. More regarding this pronouns.

" dust. and the read- ing is correct." do not contain any dative gibai to inflexion. on the other hand. The accusative ^a^erfl-w. 40S. the AiarfG^Ai^ zanfhiva from zantu.* reject this vowel before the case- sign . because substantives. so early as in the Gothic. paradoxical as it gibai. for fiyand-a. ahmin." proceeds. extended by a.] Guna or A»»Aj^. after suppressing the its has again returned to The form sunav-a would answer and u. ahmin-a.). p. Ed. which . the base vowel 161. p. i' so that. the nature. 1. S. then pansnu. in Gothic. to the Veda form n^T^m pra-bdhav-d. as is particle has preserved the original length of the if the case in Zend in all instrumentals. too. " and. is made by lengthening Gothic sunau. which if Anquetil translates by "par cette poussiere". 57." "killing.\ to All femi- nines. br6thr-a. + The Old High German iormfcUere as do the gemtive /atere-St and the accusative Jatera-n. Bases would answer to the ending with a consonant have in Ger- man. the dative character: hence. ^?/ar?c/. in regard of the suppressed ter( mination compensation for which ). from a theme FATERA. and the base-vowel will Guna: hence sunau. In Old High German a few other substantives and proper names follow the analogy of FATEJiA. 66. may appear to assert that the Gothic huic. lost. Bases in i hurt (§.u3j not at pleasure." we c. they are com- bined with AJc>J cha. brdlhr (§. 469. J|'«fIl«IT pra- -bdhav-d (§. 191. must be pronounced have lost the dative sign. "the slaying. " izai." {for fatera). have lost the accusa- tive sign.). hence gast'-a for gastii-a: is on the other hand.'''' "dona" and thizai. bdzav-a. is remark- able. 229.) ." find. assume [G. "hrachio^^ as analogous to p. Thus we find in the Vend. "ei. with J i > In Zend. "patri.1*78 FORMATION OF CASES. form pansnu. together with the final vowel of the base. the bases which terminate both in the instrumental and before most of the other vowel terminations. nounced originally su-nav-a termination. p. while we formerly believed the at of be connected with the Sanskrit feminine dative Here the appended termination. however. . From ^yjj'^a) >jm^q> paiisnu. in the have been prooriginal vowel u bases the termination receives the suppressed. 132.

handau." from WORTA. the we could the except from most urgent necessity. hveitai. and neuter not.* regarding which more under the pronouns. e. " with a guest.INSTRUMENTAL. The Gothic has for it the dative himmaalso. But as we have recognised in the masdative the Indo-Zend instrumental. per the We cannot. we refer oar The Old High German Prrpuei- N 2 . 794)." from C UA TA ." p. Sanskrit relation. does not exist." from KASTL in sociative It is here to remark. pp. " with good. " manui^ from handav-a* Analogous with sunaUf handau. diu. " tions." has the i bases same relation to its theme ANSTI that 162. and changing the semi-vowel to a vowel in the same manner as. neut. for. Old High German the forms the spond to the Gothic instrumentals differ as to hvS.. sunau from sunav-a. that the instrumental se. 192. hviu. Tlie form hiuy from a demonstrative base HI. 111). above. betake ourselves to the Sanskrit dative for explanation of Gothic feminine dative. " with a word. may iwitay-d. in a and although it is only sparingly used.e. are also the dative feminine and. important mit kastu. "daga. 181. mit wortu. [G. "graticE. This however. Ed. e. by suppressing the ter- mination. character culine 179 $ di. " aM. &c. DATIVE SINGULAR. p. very frequently expresses. substantive and adjective bases masc. although the meaning is here properly locative. I. mit cuatu. p.'' be deduced from the instrumental iyrim from WI swM. we have already remarked. for this reason look upon this w case as generically different from the common is dative.g. has been preserved in compound hiutu for hiu-tagu. In handau has to HANDU. 110. and principally after the preposition mit (see Graff. which. With reference to tlieir likewise of instrumental origin use with various prepositions readers to Graff's excellent treatise. " on this day.g. This termination u has maintained itself also in i. necessity. but authorities we the shall say mode of writing them.. however. anstai. correthS. "albaer from HVEITO from HFEITJ.] or as the fem." " to-day" (see Grimm.

mental in which is long. GOTHU. and thus. SANSKRIT.g. in probability. form. in the dative. we rather regard the u* as a corruption u. in the instrumental and in the Gothic. in ii ^^^dSvdis. sve. u c&nnot be deduced from the Gothic forms tM. e. In Lithuanian the a bases form their instruii. very surprisingly to over. gibai. vrikS-n-n. thirdly. and in which the final vowel of the base has been melted down. it is ^^ in his . pati-mi. paithy-a. vulfa."" am»a)^ da^vd. 137. tiBI) .. LITH-'ANIAN.t)Aj^ daevdis. Ed. according to do not doubt that in both 163. 193. owe the retention of their long vowel to their being monosyllabic (cf. 77.g. gast'-a. vahrka. weo. &c.g. the vowel of the base nation. as also in the plural diewais answers AV5JAM». it ap- pears. That diewu this is it. to which the plural instrumental termi- nation mis has the same relation (voJBIS. ZEND. raiika manu" from RANKA. "similar to whom"). paty-d.] (although one of very ancient date) of just as in the neuter plural of pronouns and adjectives a u corresponds to the short a of the Gothic and the older cognate languages. derivation from a short a for. jihway-d. p. Contrary to Grimm's opinion. akin to Zend Aj». bis to bi I b. m. . hueo-lih. f. numbers the m in has arisen from §. In all other bases mi stands as the termination.c Ai^ dci^va. : and meaning [G. with wiu. wio-lih. feminine a bases. in genitive. and. like the short a. also. all because these. appears to me the less doubtful. cannot wi/kii. as.. without a cir- cumflex (other instrumentals of the kind do not occur secondly. has tlu^ arisen from a long a.180 FORMATION OF CASES. Latin. works). the instrumental u pass as .. wio. as. long. quails " (properly. exchanged for o (§. in the pronominal forms diu. §.) hence. first. to Lithuanian the plural corresponds the Sanskrit ^T d. in §• 63. m. *' melted down with that of the termiis but its quality not changed . is in Lithuanian. " deo. also.). The bases given 148. the length of this hvP. hizvay-a. for e. also. even not to notice its I let. according to Notker. e. the More- many In other parts of grammar. ranka.

.. dtman-d. ddfr-d. f. originally belongs to the S. .. .. bhrdfr-n. in German. "Horn who have not bad offspring. DATIVE SINGULAR. gav-n. • . . . which. "this".. and occurs in Zend also with a dative signification. P s v i ii-i m. duhitr-d. as (§.. vdch-d.. In Sanskrit and Zend.. that the common a bases. ahmin.) it and regarding which to S by the is to be observed. handau. f.. 1 awi-mi. ^ is the sign of the dative. p. LITHUANIAN. . GOTHIC.. • . in Sanskrit in many i cases extend this vowel admixture of its an (§... f. m. .. dauhtr. dfrithy-a. vachas-d. is itself only an extension of the base of the cases of this ^ a.. . n. a-smdt. sunau. Vend. asman-a. be most intimately con160. vacanh-a. f- 181 ZEND. SANSKRIT. m.. vdch-a. demonstrative base i whence the nom. a-smin.. 9^^<3>q) S. de- sequently would..* * E. . brdthr-a. ... sunu-mi. tanv-a. ... . barent-a..) nected with the case. ^npT ayam (from it + am). busJiyainty-a.. . bhavishyanty-d. . which. . both the dative and instrumental relation.. ". sunu-n-d.... fiyaiid. n.. &c. avstai. from which arise most pronoun {n-smdi. ndv-d. liowever. I have scarce any doubt. 164..g.... tanw-d. as appears. pasv-a.. ." gives a splendid daughter to those The liihographcd Codex. . gav-d. m.. ndman-a.. which... 45: ^^JM^QM^ JH341J^JJUuyAV)^^Ai «^9\^aj»' v^^JMM*i6^ Haomo afizdnditibis dadhditi csaito-puthrim. also. ndmn-d. f. vadhw-d... f..).. .. 2. notes. f.INSTRUMENTAL. • .. however. . ... m.. . The dative sign conwas explained. namin.. . gives the form azizdndUibis as three words.. prity-d.. bharat-d. dughdlier-a^ ddthr-n. . brdthr. . in origin.. m..

no doubt I anti- of the correctness of the length of the a. from the base hizvd. have at for their termi- however. has arisen from to^^m by re- jecting the semi-vowel. preserved the Sanskrit form most truly. AU.g. u.o^^j*axj dfntS* or j^^j^au which sometimes occur. e. bis. without exception in this case. the occurs. p. in combination with the particle as^ cha. p. 31. those in and dz prolong in Sanskrit the dative termination final ^ ^ to ^ with the jihway-di d of the base an i is blended . form A>g e^ is almost the one that ri<^'^<^y>^ kharetei. beaucoup d'enfans brillans. hhareti.] FORMATION OF CASES.>au^^aj»jj«« hizvay-di.28. but .g.5i. g e (§. as long vowels in the penulti- mate.182 [G. like the Sanskrit. "in order to eat. of the ploughing. and exhibit.0A) a^bis also occurs in the sense of to them. donnez a femme. ^ i and 7 u renot before the In Zend. as^aj A5^^A5. qui n'a pas encore engendre.). Without sole however. after which the preceding as a has become dfrile. 195.'* * Cf. S." hereafter . in this Codex. "and on account cha. and is Probably also csaSto la to be read for Anquetil translates : " O Ilom. This form. We will return to this passage that. Forms like . in polysyllabic bases. as ^R^ sunav-S from sunu. however.). e. but broader ^ di. that in the pronoun of the 2d person the bhi affix «ii» bhyam (from the plural. " to thee/' stands in evident bhis relationship to the instrumental fk^ in The feminine u> bases in d. i + am) in ttwjh tu-hhyam. p. at the and we will here further remark same page of the '* Vend. qnite common. I doubt not. both of cipate a variety aztzanaitibis or csaito. hizvdy-di is not used. nation : the other hand. 198). and. J(AJ azi zdnditi his. the form m^jgxs^^m at/-aS-cha (see §. 286 Note f." " in order to plough" (Vend. i. and are most corrupted. zd and ndi . [G. S. On ceive the Guna augment before ^ ^.. femi- nine a and i-bases. may Such separations in the middle of a I entertain AW^ J^ iJMJMSf word are. ." from i^<^M)A ay-i. at will also. We have here further to remark. Ed. the instr. 196. are so frequently shortened.e«^2wj fcarsfayaecAa. Ed. Bases in j i have.] from karste. hence faT3^^ from jivdi~di. p.

first not separated from both —as have attempted to shew * ^^^«jus dfrite is undoubtedly incorrect : however. . " c&rpori. A nation (§. which arose after the division of languages is from a f ^ formed. after vowel must return to its which the preceding semivowel nature. but (and occurs in pronouns of the two if in fact. c e is ofl«n found erroneously for jc em other forma alec. e. "pure".t3^j>yAj^ ianu-y-i. "great. quite regularly.43) 165. Hence may have Zendian by suppressing the the jjuuj7»'j(p vehrkdi. cannot admit any superfluity in its termiand for this reason gives up its radi.g. 2.g. Bases in i ( but from ^ with ^ a add to the case-sign i also an ^ a = a +1) and a is formed ^m aya .'^ . ter- mination.3 a before the termination ^ ^ in in the locative case also. mentioned in the preceding secitself which introduces between the base and the this. . not only in the singular. in this case. which elsewhere appended to the dative ^ ^ since cipal w sma. the ^ smdi and thus. 183 on errors in writing. and that this is a later appearance in Sanskrit. also. how- ever. the a of the base. Aya. The Sanskrit forms is . Ed." form without Guna also is euphonic ^^ y found interposed between the base and the termiis the more common. DATIVE SINGULAR. abstains is from ^ a. the dative oR^ hasmdi. final a. that the Zend has never added an a for to the dative e. whom" answers to the Zend im^^ addino- The Sanskrit. " to knhmdi.g. p. It might. tion.INSTRUMENTAL.[G. be assumed. di (§. from the particle w ? sma. first I persons) in the plural also.). cal pronoun.c»Aj»'9uU9 van-hav-e from >w^lfvatihu. 166. already encumbered with the preceding prin- nation. e.* Bases in u may take Guna The . or not as A3»<JAj7 rol/jv-^ from >^xi) rata. The particle w sma. and this. 197. arisen. gives thus ^cH'T vrikdyn. and forms sm-in for smen. ." "lord. rest e. which added to pro- nouns of the 3d person.

also. ing it rests on a more modern the We cannot. dative singular. hma has been we" (a/i/xey). appearance. Pali amhdkam. — cf. 34. as I have already elsewhere shewn. the s. —and thence with allow as though it had becases." 813.g. e. to be derived frora the accusative una. 67. . Zend ^^^au^ ahmdkem. and yet in . in h. come a property and connect it of the base. sma. as far as possible." In that the Gothic has left the sibilant unaltered. for unsi-s (from wnsa-i). 53.'" to accusative termination. rifj-iov. which. In Zend. sunu-ns Grimmt it. it stands on an older footing than the Pali and Prakrit . at its first modifications and corruptions. the plural of the two besides. " nobis. 813. has been changed to hma. where izvis {i-zvis) stands in the accusative.184 in FORMATION OF CASES. by the change facile of m into n. " nos. first and also in Prakrit and persons. u-nsi-s. and u-nsa (weakened from u-nsi) as the compound base. From the PrakiitPali mha we arrive at the Gothic nsa in u-nsa-ra. therefore.'''' in their declension uns. for s. 198. " unsara appears Cf. To this is op- posed. to enter into some other new case-terminations. vulfa-ns. preserves a parallel sound I. [G. more combination with the followstage.* ** nobis.. Pali. any longer assume p. according to r. pursue it is all we its will therefore here. ». therefore. in fact As particle recurs also in the cognate European languages. with izwis.] the ns of uns.'''' " wos. Sanskrit my Grammar — gives this to the pronominal declenit sion the appearance of greater peculiarity than possesses." " stands. and on the other hand. has become and " by transposition altered ^TfTojrH of the two consonants. and this has s as the case-suffix. the 2d person. rjuQiv. as be common we have formerly done in unison with gasti-ns. And we t * The a being changed into I. according to §. Ed. and partly there. solves several enigmas of declension. essentials the two persons are identical nos. the syllable to mha . as to the aloo the dative unsu. Prakrit ^srT% amM.

in Gothic a discrepancy has arisen between the that the two persons." is limited to the nominative. March 1831. veis. Zend. Crit. on the very 168. The first has been already zvi and in a weakened form — occurs in the pronoun the 1st of the 2d person. gka. of Lit. believe least I can point out the . 86. 'S a with the particle FT sma. the particle sma has been still further corrupted in the German dialects. by the expulsion of the sibilant. the syllable all ^ yu. syllable s into z (§. of yuyam. particle W sma in Gothic at the second under four forms namely.INSTRUMENTAL. in Gothic. as also in Greek and Litimanian.) on the not surprising change of the secondly. p. common change of m and v (§. DATIVE SINGDLAB. and discussed . person the ^ r of ^Tlf[^ vayam. hence. but the oblique cases combine a base This a. (§. or simi- larly modified. any longer regard the « of unsa-ra. for in Sanskrit. has become u . also. since they both exhibit the interposed particle under discussion. mma.) 1st the oblique cases. 66. as nm. Ed. 1D9. either in its original form." although the i of can be nothing goes through else than the vocalized y of yu9. "we. for ans-ara 167. &c . also. &f. "ye. Prakrit). where has nsa {mi) and while in the cognate Asiatic languages (Sanskrit. " nostr'C &c. in the place . in doubly transformed. unsn-ra.). As in Zend. 63. as the vocalized v of izvarat "vestriT &e. zva. ** your'' . p. 376. first. the Sanskrit possessive ^ swa shews diffe- itself* in very different forms in juxta-position with so I rent letters. 185 cannot." while in the (§. 5.] parallel in the plural. The Old High German i-wa-r has nearly the same relation to the Gothic i-zva-ra that the Homeric genitive roio has • See Ann. then. the two pronouns run quite [G. in the pronoun of the 2d person. "we. through the influence of the following liquid. zvn. sma has in them been The form zva from sma rests.43. Pali. From the Gothic downwards.).

both in the plural and in the dual* ^ and the Gothic i zva-ra. that the u of euer has nothing * So much the more remari<able dialect is the u. in. formerly entertained that erroneous A repeated examination. Old High German i-wa-r &c. it would be incorrect to divide iw-ar. but i-zvi-s. Anglo-Saxon has become o.g. I. but not the corrupted remainder of a far-extended intermediate pro- noun. &c. yushmdkam are connected. which is still retained in the In North Friesian (Grimm. for i-wa-r. is rejected in the oblique cases. without intervention of the Gothic. yu-shma-hhyam. If merely dis- the two historical extremes of the forms here under cussion — the Sanskrit and New German forms — be con- trasted with one another. the i-iva-r. 200. that one portion of it has been preserved even to our e-u-ch time (e-ue-r from : i-zva-ra. and Pali. yu-shmd-n. yu-s : thus it would be regarded as is settled. Prakrit. yu-mus. where. which in more complete than the Gothic. base. Saxon. yu-wa-r. like the Lithuain respect to the preservation of the shew themselves. . form. 81-1). which is older than the Homeric Compare. with the Sanskrit yu-shmd-kam. eo-ve-r. the assertion must appear very paradoxical.] German. .. the u of the base yu yu). and carry the w. Ed. iw-ih. The Old nian. e. leave me thoroughly convinced. i-nqri-s. too. yu-nk. yu-nkcr. as in Gothic so also in the oldest form of the High [G. and with the Liyu-sii. however. and. that the Gothic interme- diate syllable zva has not been lost in High German. and the enlarged views since then obtained through the Zend. that the tv or u belongs to the base. through all the iu-we-r. indeed. p. distinguishes itself advantageously from the Gothic i-ijqva-ra. ropard to the base. that euer and ^^HI^iH. oblique cases: "vestri^ &c. from Old High German (^^ i-ivi-h) on the other hand.186 FORMATION OF CASES. in such wise. stand for yu-zva-ra. p. and Anglo-Saxon. i-u. Old High German thuanian i-wi-h. to the Sanskrit kt^ tasya. and opinion.

which has become doufely corrupted. are. Ed. (TtpCtiv. igqva-ra. It u-nA'e-r. Slavonic. Gothic. 86. is two plural numbers it and it is only the particle sma combined with the Anglo-Saxon. p. DATIVE SINGULAR.) for while the other dialects leave the guttural the same form in both persons: Old High Ger- man. 201. But from a more close analysis of the forms in the two plural numalso identical bers. i-r.] the Prakrit-Pali form »5 mhat and between u-nsa-ra and u-gha-ra {=u-nka-ra) an intervening u-nha-ra or u-mha-ra must be assumed. that here g before k only represents the 1. for the case-terminations.INSTRUMENTAL. and the difference between the lie two plural numbers appears to vZi'iv. nasal answering to k (86. but belong. with the u of tf yu^ but finds its origin in the m of the syllable w sma. . different kinds. i. the two plural numbers are distinguished originally only by These.* unsa-ra. qv The second person k. and plural in the oblique first The distinction of the dual cases of the two the persons is not organic in German . izva-ra. to one and the same original form t\^o and that therefore these little pronouns have preserved the old dual just as as * It must not be overlooked. and from the light afforded us by the cognate Asiatic it languages. would consequently first appear proved that the dual and plural of the two persons are not organically or originally different. in the appears that the proper base . the other in The former comes nearest to [G. vficiv. At least I do not think that the old s beis came k at one spring. in Gothic. i-ncha-r . however. u-ncha-r. in 187 common 169. in the base ugka-ra. u-nce-r. gives. in our pronouns same. ^fidv. in {=kv §. and then the one form has become fixed in the dual. as distortions and mutilations of . but that the latter h. of an earlier which has remained in the Prakrit and as in the singular nominative the k of ik has been develo{>ed from the h of ^p? aham. a hardened form Pali. Old i-nce-r.).

ha. that the datives singular. I have since found remarkably confirmed by the Grammar of the is Old Prussian published by Vater.. is substantive and adjective de- The fourth form which I in which w sma appears in Gothic I that first remarked.. according to the is Zend principle tasma (for tasmd). in respect to the termination 6?$-. 202. according to the Zend for though in this The difference between the forms thS. v-a-fxe-es. and that the latter express the datives tha-mma. 137.g. that thamma. in this. mma are. 170. language which nearly connected with the Lithuanian all and Gothic. from vixeig. i-sma. since here have smu in the dative.* although the particle sma in Sanskrit has not made 158. the case relation by the affixed particle. vowel of the particle but have contracted /xe-ef to 171. since then. §. and which have brought forward already in the "Annals of Oriental Literature" (p.159. hvS. since they have not Cfxe. " through him.ei£. "to Compare. principle.g. a remnant of the appended pronoun sma similar [G. from tha- sma. oi-a-fxe-es.188 FORMATION OF CASES. "to the other": ka-smu with the whom?" We have also shewn in ipr Greek. &c. used . vfxei^.ve arisen. v-fxfi-eg. for thamm4. have not preserved the original length of the termination (cf. instrumentals. hvamma. have the same relation that the Old High are German de-mu has to the Gothic tha-mma. and e. the former in the main base secondly. on account of their being polysyllabic. like thamma. and which rests on assimilation. 160. Ed.). explained at §. to which the common forms rjiJ.. hva-mma. all the other pronouns and clensions. 16). — say. hvammS. the p. its way into these cases.] since we deduced ^olic forms a-/i/x-e?.) ." not tasm^na. consists first in this. a pronouns of the third person e. only that rjfMeig. or. more perfect than the ^olic forms. ^ * tSna. Gothic Gothic hva-mma. to the Gothic. as follows from by origin. imma. What I have there said. (§. anfar-smu with the anthara-mma. The Gothic datives in §. by assimilation. lost the /xeTj.

These forms. and more than once the ablative »X'A«»»^»A> ava-nL-dt for ava-hmy-di.).). in the feminine. the feminine forms ihi-zds. a-hmij-a. This opinion was the more to be relied on. also. by the annexation of new case-terminations. as we can sufficiently prove. and ablative ta-smy-As. rff^m^ ta-sy-dm. so that the forms mentioned appear to have proceeded from the masculine and neuter genitive tasya. 171. has not everywhere so fully preserved the feminine hmi. and the same is the case with the feminine pronoun smi in all similar compounds. but in the genitive. p. W sma should. "this" we have found the instrumental of the same sound the demonstrative base aj AjyAj ana not anahma. But in Sanskrit the feminine form wt smi has : been preserved only in such a mutilated condition. or wt on the latter is based the Zend form ^Q hmi. and for ^fev^AJ dative ainh-do. e. to use the expression.)."" * The Zend. mentioned 57ni at §. often occurs. as in the instr. In the feminine. "hujus.)> "%««/' for which the a-'""y-ao. form either tRT smd. t. from the masculine and neuter (n. From ta-smi must come the dative fa-smy-di. the ap})ended pronoun really occurs in tlie instrumental and while . DATIVE SINGULAR. the gen. Ed. and has therein rejected not only the m but also the The feminine it ^W-^ also a-n^'-ao($. this ease iu the base ta could only be aj^. . 1S9 language hma has entered miO the instruuienUil mascuiine and neuter. base increased by the appended pronoun. in i is. from the fem.g.INSTRUMKNTAL. that in Gothic. From another demonstrative base we find jMiiy^»Ai ava-nh-ai. a reflec tion of the lost ^^ ilie y (§. dative. base xijM una.o tahma or ju)^^ tahmd (from ta-hma-a). 5Ga. -203] The Sixuski it appended pronoun L^. from a occurs rather often the feminine instrumental as^^^ ahmy-a. by rejecting the m. ava-hmy-dt. have become abbreviated to tt^ ta-sy-ait «l*fl!H^ fa-sy-ds. 172. ^^ ahmi. and the locative ta-smy-dm. and ablative has gone even farther than the Sanskrit in tlie demolition of this word.* that before my acquaintance with the Zend I could not recognise it. 41. " this'"" (m. too.

like gibai in §. blindi-zd-s. according to the analogy of the substantives t : hence blindai-z6-s. for instance. a}»aj^ tava.). is without case character. however. blindi-zai. Rem. 173. and have the same as base. has become Therefore. base Gothic give the feminine SMO = WT smd. "cwcot"''' from BLINDA. "huic^ might be deduced from the masculine genitive 6s by the addition of the terminations and ai . thi-z6-s. last line but seven. as BLIND 0. and Sanskrit forms. 356.] minine pronominal forms in hmy-a in the instrumental and locative —in the latter for hmy-anm —the then. however. and as. by the tion (nom. that they do not weaken i. on account of §.. * Cf. 161. blindai. p. too. FORMATION OF CASES. §. thi- have nothing in common but the demonstrative theme i (§. The masculine and neuter appended in pronoun sma must. in Lithuanian. 204. the final a of the base before the appended pronoun to but extend it to at. With the masculine and neuter genitive this. as tS-bhj/ag. nom. thizds. n. THA. xsjxs^ mana. pi. therefore. 601. loss of the m. a to ai. p. zai. and form the feminine dative from the not simple theme. and the dative thi-zai. SMO. in this point. &c. blinda. feminine.19b thi-zai. and must be vided into thi-z6-s. m." for ta-bht/as. as experienced by the Sanskrit in the . hlinda-ta). between two vowels (according to 86. Gothic bases in a (Grimm's strong ad- which follow the pronominal declension. and jectives) the weakening of its a to adjective 6&. di- above-mentioned forms in Sanskrit cannot be regarded otherwise than as abbreviations oUa-smy-di. Ed. ta sdm. differ from it. thi-z6-s * has only s as case-sign. thizai. " tSshdm. thi-zai. 3. this. has become SO but the s. its posiz. HW tava. . + With respect to the extension of the iis. blind's. compare the gen. 5.). the whole of the oblique cases singular of the 1st and 2d person stand in close connection with the Sanskrit- Zend genitives in? mama. will is far more The Gothic forms be regarded as abbreviated. After discovering the Zend fe[G. "eorum.. as this suited to the nature of the thing.

and JwfiFR in me. 1*74."" " as the suflBx of the instrumental is Of nos" similar origin i-zvis. " in with assimilation. in the 1st person. 17& . with im tume (from tumn-i) mama-srn-i or HHdH mama-mmi." appears to me in no other way intelligible for in our Indo-European family of s languages there exists no or dative. " to himself. Prakrit. which could be declined all through all cases. in " and IT^ tai. therefore. 205. For and there is no more favourite and facile combination in our . Ed. also. son irives the form inrfw tuma-svi "HTfwr -i. class of languages' than of a pronoun with a pronoun is what is omitted by one dialect in this respect often afterwards supplied by another more modern dialect. ma-him'-i. and that the middle syllable has dropped a preceding s. but belongs to a syllable. therefore. because this s is neither the dative nor accusative character. " the s in the plural u-nsis. in first German s in the singular of the two persons. tumammi." am inclined. in the locative. and in the 2d perthee. instead of the Sanskrit i^fil Ucay-i." together with the simple h^ mai and h^ ma'L* Ought not. 173. a remnant of the pronominal syllable sma to be looked for? " to The and the Gothic mi-St "to me. and hence deduce. tu-masm'i. * See Essai iur le Pali. is In u-nsi-s. respect. follows the analogy of the Zend The ." " vos "". " nobis. but is here deprived of the Sanslq-it ?it case-sign. p. by £." that they doubly contain the pronominal syllable sma. i-zvis." thus.INSTRUMENTAL. in this which we cannot quote as occurring. once as the base. DATIVE SINGULAR.] thuu-hni-i. above-mentioned Prakrit thee. to affirm of the forms. Burnoof and Laasen.'' or. also. and its appearance in two otherwise differently denoted cases cannot therefore be surprising. and probably into the first person too: jCAjjxjCa' we find repeatedly. "in me. "in and ma-masm'i. 191 The Zeml introduces our pronominal syllable sma in the form of hmu also into the second. co6w. I and next as the apparent case-suSix." sis. pp. . thee. [G. sma doubly con- tained.

" us. in the singular. vcot'v. &c. identical. so that mis is altered to mi-h. gerdm). and." "you": on the other hand. with s dropped. forms ." * We have a remnant of a more perfect form of the particle 9T smn in the locative interrogative form ka-mme. according to the analogy of ponH. in the genitive dual. in the dative. as above. of the pronouns of the 3d per- son and adjectives . Anglo-Saxon me-c. from by the hardening of an intervening h and thence to mi-k ." u-nsi-h. refer to this the m.) Prakrit first. . the. s. the dative cusative of the two In Old first persons are. and in the locative ta-mb. but has disappeared Old High German and Anglo-Saxon : Old Saxon mi. as also in the plural. (jera-mui. High German. td-mui. good form. namely. as in the middle of the above-mentioned 174.f^^ ka-smin. " where "? Sansk. is easily seen that mui and me have sprung from ma. mu-mtJ. si-k {me. 175. iu u-gka-ra. 176. di-r in the dative singular the old s of the svllable in the sma has become r Saxon .] thu-k." the-c. Anglo-Saxon me. . te." di-h. tin.. The pronominal base TJ. in their origin. w-s/-c. which the latter in some cases have in common with the substantive declension." "us. indeed. " of the two lords. yu-mH. se). gera-mh and if -mui and -me are compared it with the corresponding cases of the substantive a bases. The k in the Gothic accusatives mi-k. however. " you". FORMATION OF CASES." "thee. in the Old mi-r. and thereand ac- fore. eo-vi-c. in the genitive dual of the two we cannot. p. particle High German and Anglo-Saxon our Old High Gi^rman mi-h " me." " . In Lithuanian w sma appears in the same form (§. secondly.192 [G. Ed. i-M'i-//. in the dative and locative sing. '3|. *' ap- pears in the accusative singular and plural in the same form : thee. " to the (shortened /am. 206. and the first persons : adjective base GERA. may be deduced. " me. as ma and . " to thee. first The pronouns of the two persons form.

f. form in the dative sASSKRrr. DATIVE SINGULAR. 178. which.. this Lithuanian dative character appears connected with S. hizvay-ui. and Lithuanian. indeed. vrikaya. vehrkdi. t The form XfjQpatyS is. 177. irregular. uUku-i.INSTRUMENTAL.o^^(3Jaj3> paithy4-cha. paife-ifX (yrife-S. bushyainty-ah pasv-S. m. S. excepting the neuters ending with a full vowel and pronouns. bhavishyanty-di. mentioned 160. **in whom. while. ranka-i. Zend. f. Lithuanian substantives 193 have i for [G. 47. 473.. for • The form dwiui. at §. m. explained at 148." I find in V. Although we must refuse i a place in the locative to the dative still of the Greek and Latin. Ed.. A5aj. a final a before passes into u . in the a bases corresponds exactly with the Sanskrit and Zend. which has grown out of a + 1. ZEND. with dwiei appears to admit of being explained as arising from the commixture of the final vowel of the a bases. to the shall declension of which we return hereafter. also a real locative. 193 G. Ed." which. Sanskrit. S.) the form pait/iya. LITHUANIAN. and hence deduce for the instrumental (p. p. would be eC^ kasmi (from kasma-i). Compare the Gothic hvamma. sunu-L Dl. f. besides the dative. paty-iA pritay-^. according to }. 162. pdch-ei. . " friend. the Indo-Zend so that only the last element of this diph- thong. sunav-^. has been left. but this i i bases have ei*. the instrumental aj^^A5J5a5W« hacaya with Guna. with respect to its want of Guna. au'i-p?. The nominal §. . also paitya might be expected.2C)7... ** to whom?* hvasma. hence willcu-i.. p. jihuay-ui. For the Lithuanian has. after the analogy of the aj»avaui bdzava. p.] the dative character. and should be Tufy patayL X In combination with asm cha we find in V.. according to the common declension. bases. From JCS^AJW haci.

m. m. . • . in the dative is the more rare form. n. S." Cf. is in the instr. for instance. in the compound aocto- -ndman. ten thousand eyed. e. t The c^in 1o1<^(^q>a dughdhSr6. I In Zend. and frequently). f. aj^c^o^o >4 placed there merely to avoid the harsh combination of three I deduce these forms from the plural genitive 9^'^?<2^?23 dughdher-ahm. duhitr-e. and so in the instru§. for in all probability it compound as the negation. ddlr-e. I p. • 1 — 9 s l>0 f. that the insertion of a euphonic ^^ y between w and ^ is not everywhere necessary. because I have found this form frequently. gav-i. instead of for this reason. dughdher-e. . where. Anquetil II.X bhrdtr-e. UTHUAXIAN. ndv'i.. hharat-^. consider the initial a in this nic n . but examples of its retention. mental ffl^ ndmnd. Respecting t^T^ ndmne. and dughdhera. 1 f m. however.£ it. vdch-e. see §. also tanve ho considered £. c/Aj»A5A}i ^/^fxi^ •l^iAJ^ctJA}^ Jiazanro-ghaoshahe bahiare-chashmand. 43. viz. on eared. f. §. i4> o. however.. cannot. • • vadhw-di.cife>'AJtty<|»A3p Similar compounds precede. peculiar to the feminine. without euphomeans "having untold (countless) names. Cf. vachas-^. f. ndmain-S. vdch-i. SANSKRIT.194 FORMATION OF CASES. gav-e. and. aj a is rejected in the weakest cases.g. and then the t » V becomes > « or 41. ndmn-e. tamiv-4. asmain-S. n.* • . f. for rflHHI ndmand. which." . consonants. m. see similar words. Regarding the addition of the j in ^mum^msi ndtnainS. in this and have not met with the rejection of the a in the weakest cases {§. and tanave it is may be regarded as equally correct. ZEND. f. for vfPT^ ndmane. whence the genitive aocto-ndmano (Vend. tanu-y-6.\ vachanh-^.. m. 140. the other hand. * I give AJ^^>yAJ^ tanuyi with enphonic j-.. barent-S. 82.). necessary to observe. for ^vji/co^Q X >A dughdhr-ahm. hrdthr-i. 4. diman-i. and. 130.^ ddthr-S. "of the thousand In words in van.

more correctly. would therefore be to be assumed. regarding the origin of which there can no longer any uncertainty. 311 02 . than does the Latin. and unfounded nature of this assump- tion ( j^. and accusative.* 180. 210. We mean the declension in w. has remained only in bases in before rians. since then the justness of But my opinion regarding the Sanskrit ablative has been still Zend stands more emphatically confirmed by the Zend language. t. in the neuter nominative. is ablative character. Ed. of which As regards bases in a. 156. tom. under the verb.] for its character. hereafter. 179. to represent It ^[\K at as the ablative termination. see receiving the function of a personal termination. as we are conducted at once to the demonstrative base /a. twat) that either at with short a. Burnouft has been the first home the ablative character to a lost it in Sanskrit. and which we shall subsequently. Ed.ABLATIVE SINGULAR. ^ a. that in ^cniT vriMt the a of the base has been melted down with the a of the termination. on the ground that in old Latin also a simple d appears as the suffix of the ablative. that in * I have drawn attention already. it . [G. E. as soon as the influence of pronouns on the formation of cases has been recognised. t Nouveau Journal Asiatique 1829. This view supported in the Latin edition of my Grammar. p. which already. 195 ABLATIVE. however. because the in a closer and more evident connection with the Sanskrit III. to bring M. which is lengthened a circumstance that induced the Indian Gramma- who have been followed by the English. in the first (German) edition of my Sanskrit Grammar. and 264.) and I have deduced from the ablatives of the pronouns of the two first persons {mat. This ablative character. has assumed the nature of a case-sign. a simple I must be regarded as the ablative termination. 209. p.J class of words in can be the true Zend which had and whence and not it satisfactorily inferred that a simple dt. t. The Ablative be in Sanskrit has 7^ t [G. which in Sanskrit alone have preserved the ablative. to the arbitrary . we have to observe. or.

211.196 . For this we also find e. however."" occurs the ahlatiye (^j>\7m^ garoit in the Yescht-Sade. 64. 170. according is to §. and of which the Vend. and confirmed by the genitive is remarked by M. it is supported by . affords gnrois. The nominal base j7jAs^gaM. which. for.. Examples of masculine bases are perhaps r^j\?^M5>^M7M^ f^A'H^^ rajoit zaratusirdit. spoke. is a masculine : longs to the three genders.g. [G. S. first. ablativell Bases in u have qeXxi ao-tt in the and in no class of words. tlie article quoted at p 173. Crit.] the adjective base zarafustri. for common. would agree with genitives in Zend-Avesta. although otherwise jjjaj/ raji. writes ffuerScd can be nothing else than the ablative oo^«^j/a»(0 garoit. S. ^^ by 6e.'''' in a passage of the Vendidad. with the exception of * See Gramin. and thus t»M^7wclf i Zend also the short vowel is lengthened. for Anquetil generally expresses M by gu. which recurs frequently. FORMATION OF CASES. Rem. 41. dropped again before /»>e eut . 33. " benedict ione. owing to the slight difference of these letters. 156. " mountain.* explained elsewhere. frequent proof in the genitive ji\5J»^^a5q> patois. "ho is. treated in Zend as if gari t which precedes the r was produced by the final as remarked by M. and (x> by d. Burnouf in ji\5j\|>!a>|Vj 1. which. Burnouf. and the i. p. the right reading . however. as far as offers I it is hitherto edited." occurs very frequently q^^Xi/^ mraot . t What Anquetil Til. this termination. however. p. Ed. as we can satisfactorily prove.-j. tK>>c^ipxi^ mainycut from maingu. wliich with respect to the genitive. That. however. Thus. 4. was the original form. which I have not elsewhere met with. beFrom j7ja}^ gairi. c. p. by adding e-s. pritS-t (§. " instftutione zaratvstrica " (V.). Guna The to the final vowel. ^'oirTff vehrkd-t answers to in the ablative like TiffTT^ : vrikd-t ' Bases in j have di-t whence may be inferred ir^ffiT in Sanskrit ablatives pate-f. r»<^A>/^ niraot. nevertheless : but few examples of such ablative forms in «>j^ Si-t owe the first perception of them to the word <»j<^^^5^ju> dfrifdit. the former. AJ is by e. ad r.g. must also be extended to the ablative in oit t-lie + . is adduced through final j i of the base. II Interchanges of «> o and ^ 6 are particularly e. 86). add. and the i.

and vanhaot ** the form intended: 245 occurs r^i^AJWjuU anhaot. " igne^^ . r^j^/^Mi>^\i/j<i^2aratustr6i-t. and the c is the p. the ablative form r»tijA5 ao-t actually occurs for at p. i)6>Ais>2^ druj-at. although number but five or six. on the other hand. while from the ablatives r»jij^jJ^AUa/rifoi-/.M sadchant-dt for rwAj^^As^'^Ajj} sad" lucente.] sonants are just as ablative «» t little able to annex the without the intervention of another is to letter. qo^xsw^^Mj ddonhaot. Vendidad chanl-at r»Au^^A5^'^Aj. ao. in a passage explained elsewhere* anhad-t. pas6-t must be deduced. tanadt "corpore. the Guna form. : according to <J>aj 28. according to Owing d. is ^Isfift abrot. at as their termination."" Bases ending with con[G. 21. juj r»Ajjj^^» " loco''^ vicus. p." from anhu. 102 (asojasw TOAJtyjuUiAJ^ f^WAjpfeyanilp heuAa vanheao-t mananh-at. t^Andj^ ap-at."^ Bases in u sometimes follow the by the Sanskrit form abrav-tt p. a is an error in orthography. in other TJ^ftTT respects. 123) : thirdly. . <^aj ao §. Moreover. another aj is placed. S. and they have which occur. 33S.). S. /wAjyAsw^^y '. (cf.ABLATIVE SINGULAR. in the Vend. > jjajq) paku formed in the ablative ncniJAJ jjajc) paiaot. mundo. 640. that in a. the ablative of "from pure e preceding vanhu . 212. the Sanskrit ^ 6 in Zend. e. mraom a (V. used. to the facile interchange of the m a with i»aj at. thus. ao represents u. hence $.. Gramm. " dcemone''^ §. answers to the is. *'crea- i»«i>Aj»'3LU from ddonhu. numerous examples of . ndonhan-at vis-af. Crit. spirit ") occurs vanheaot. "oculo^^. §. as the accusative annex m without an intermediate letter. t^Mtxii^tip^^^ chashman-at. then. before which. bat by ^ 6. the ablative use e.fA^^/xi^ garoi-t.g. <»au at is sometimes erroneously written for S. of which iione. p. in accordance with 32 and 28. 2.g. this would conduct us to a Sanskrit tl^rrr pasu t ." is very frequent. and from the analogy. does the ablative 197 these words are in more frequently occur. for it which the irregular form ^id^lif Ist pers. . "naso^"'. If. ann. never represented by *aj \' . (»^Ai^M^ from >yAj^ tanu. and secondly. with the genitive. Ed. " aqud'^ rAxs/<3xu aihr-at. " mundor from >yyyj anhu .

just as in the genitive. is an example of the intensive form Gramm. p. r^xu^^/ogTAil ^7og7A5i bare- [G. §. denoted by the actual ablative. Although. Gramm. 482). and the ablative relation is also. for the most part. they exhibit also an 6 (from although more ianaot. as. e. then. (cf. both the simple form and that with Guna are possible. still the genitive not un- frequently occurs in the place of the ablative. rarely. probably according I to another Codex.g. " corpore Thus. see p. before terminations beginning with a vowel. t . <»au^^a5^^a5__^ »»jiu^^aj/aj»7> urvaray-dt) " arbore. " prcsdara. t Vendidad Sade.198 FORMATION OF CASES. in i. jc\5J^yj>JA5^^A5^Au9 Thus we <>>A>J3.^^ from ^x^/xs»7> urvard. comes the ablative zanthw-dt 2. with sub- stantives in the ablative. . and even adjectives in the genitive in construction read.f barethry-dt. Rem.* Feminine bases in am d and ^ i have «»au 6.6 occur . besides as.). 479.1 in the ablative. all also. its mother. however." * Burnouf writes tanavat. for the above-mentioned i»^aj/aj^ p. in having as the ablative ter- mination instead of a mere a simple s. ^ occurs also tanv-at (Vend. and perhaps also those /»jku dt ." This sentence (cf. Rem. 363. tears a child from also important as ^. 640.] thfC. as an analogous form to the feminine genitive termination Wnr guj do. thus.''^ from axj^aj^^ dahmd . p. Crit. S.^9 Vend S." §. r»A>>*o q6iM^yj»xi A)^A5^ httcha avanhdlX visat yat mdzdayasnois. tanv-6 and tanav. may share this feminine termination " begetting. A5^A>^ a four-footed animal. 213. and in general. 436 : <^/(O^AJi>^^7A>G)(r<3AJ^ «|>y W J9 m(3xsj^ <»A«i^7Gg7A}i /»A«^^/JAJ^J/A5^«bjy Yatha vehrko chathware-jangro nishdaredairydt harWiryat hacha puthrSm. both hold both forms to be correct. in the Zend dahmay-at. Crit. from zantu. 56^. the ablative all has been sufficiently shewn to belong to declensions in Zend. 9g7(J>Q) p. Regarding this form. "As a wolf. the rather as in the genitive. (»aj at consonantal declension. 172. Ed.). divides incorrectly nishdarS dairy at. " genitrice.'''' from The feminine bases also in u. whence. \ The Codex.). " ex hac terrd quidem mazdaijasnicd.

" lupo^ have a simple also T sound to denote the ablative. In classical form appears to be contained in the appended pronoun met. two and memorials of the language. name in of a paragogic d Bases ending: with a consoas nant use ed as ablative suflBx. the accusative they like pr(B- have em instead of a simple sent-ed dictator-ed. old Latin and Oscan forms similar like es-tod. and are therefore with a double designation of person — correspond remarkably to Veda forms with which we . and in those rostrata. sign d through able all The Oscan Bantia. that.ABLATIVE SINGULAR.'" but in the latter probably only an error in the use of the language as 3d (cf.g. and answers to the it Sanskrit ablative matt "from me. 36. es-tud — for es-to. forms answer to the Zend mochard-al dtkr-at igne). toula-d prcpsenti-d." But is possible. which may be transferred from the 1st person to the others also. takes the ablative declensions. "^ifimmtjiva-tdt. that on the Columna the S. and that the empty could be held satisfactory. 181. {Jucente m : hence. in the 3d person of the imperative.^ may be pre- liminarily observed. inalfo-d tnari-d. it is surprising that the ablative force of tliis be overlooked. all ablatives end with d. . like cjaroi-t. also. while navale-d* prceda-d. " corpore. that met may have t. p. Latinity a kind of petrified ablative 182.] mallu-d. de Bacchanalibus. e. as appears from the remarkp. vivat'''' and "vive. Miiller'a Etruscans. and in Sanski'it ^ctth vrikd-t. g. Efird 199 in re- The Old Roman corresponds with the Zend to the debisrnation of the ablative."^ (xsj^'^jom . C. vivifo and 2d person). above-mentioned Zend forms r^^xifM^ tanad-t. cum preivatu-d. It Ed 2U. " monte^^ &c. the senatu-d. which alternates between e and t See O. * The e here belongs to the base. hitherto acquainted only which sense signifies is both " from Panini e. which are the most important so that letter could inscriptions that remain. inscription of dolu-d [G.

" of which o. 1. inter. as has it bination of this syllable. the accusative the same with the ablative the latter view is confirmed by the accusative use of ted and med in Plautus.] whence it may is be assumed that inter can that. explained in smat. The Bacch." however.* sed. from mesmor^ would be of the kind used in Sanskrit. . p. so that m-^. would have the same relation to the Sanskrit " he touched. relations. unites itself persons. too. adverbs in may be looked upon as sister forms of the Sanskrit ablative." and this is the true. tive In this manner the confines of the abla- and instrumental touch one another. long to the appended pronoun &c. 215. §. is . and. and may its stand for sinef. which are otherwise foreign coj In Greek. though must be regarded as a pronoun of the 3d person.) and tasmdt. from bases in o. (for 165. and so be§.. de of the reflexive as and sed occurs twice in the fact. it corresponding with ablative to which stands in the same relation that to ^^ smri —from smar. . of which since that on account any thing is done is regarded as the place whence an action proceeds. 1. to ^ been shewn. or also old languages. 158. in the be used in construction with the ablative. original destination of this to which towns.200 dropped an FORMATION OF CASES. and in some words denotes to the ablative. and TnPTTff ^ t6na (§. is. governed by [G. in p. with pronouns of the three persons. C." still In adverbial use the ablative spreads further. initial s. would require itself no excuse. 294. then. * The reduplication in me-mor. conjunction certainly nothing but the ablative S. 1 183. an evident pronoun. the ablative Sanskrit. m sma. may both express " on account of which. the Latin remained the relation trans- constant " in the names of From in whence." for The comsma. 384.g. ferred to the causal relation also. t Cf. the Gothic ablatives in adduced in §. pasparsa. Ed. e. In Sanskrit the ablative expresses distance from a place. Rem. —"to all memor mesmor) does remember. the relation " whence case. hereafter.

Kara. advert to the Attic genitives in oj for oj .. and the preponderating analogy of adverbs (rco^pdv-o)j. tions into comparison with the cognate languages and it is not to be believed that the Greek has created for this ad- verbial relation an entirely peculiar form. o/xw-j. S)8f. e. Ed. We will therefore observe. preserve their into j. &c. ovroi-^. quo modo. t In compounds. perpetuo. but then the ablative adverbial termination would be identical with that of the genitive : this. ^HTIT d-t. may be compared with Zend feminine ablatives harethry-dt. in the uninflected lost cases. " ocuh ". together with ouroj-r. ^ 652 p. oj for ot might be expected as the termination. and adverbs from remark. Crit. ofMco-s may be akin to the Sanskrit 5Hlfl "from the similar. 216. that. from being entirely by or changing We deduce. [G. that in prepositions — e^o). we have it seen neuter bases in final letter t. . with reference to the irre- gular length of this adverbial termination. therefore. It is here desirable to Sanskrit. In bases ending with a consonant. avco. that in 'A(f>po8iTr] the first member . as ^SM^frnT adhastdt. any more than the other case-terminations can be shewn to be peculiar to the Greek alone. p. tb-j.] adverbs like 6/io>-5. cb-r &c. ovroi-r. into f was requisite. (Gram." qt^cTTTT purastdt. like rAMi^^7<^^^^ We must also. "(from) before. Thus.ABLATIVE SINGULAR. also.f * As." &. 201 ^^rfir from bases in a.g. remains of ablative forms may exist with the original T sound retained. "(from) beneath. in accordance with Zend ablatives like qaMjxi^tpj^^ chashman-at.). from 6fiS>-T. BiSuio-t has to dadd-t i samd-t. In if Greek. The relation in adverbs in a)-f is same as that of Latin ablative forms like hoc modo. may have introduced forms like which. the ablative termination occurs in adverbs from prepositions. with respect to their termination.279. raro. and this is the only way of bringing these forma. S(f)v<o." both in termination and in base. in ovToj.c. from o bases. the transition of the T sounds indeed they were not to be entirely suppressed * §. and in 152.

only that in Latin the two fifth. and as the division a<j)po-8iTri satisfied admits of no satisfactory explanation. also. so that. 217.. here also the s of the ablative rest may in most declensions j on an exchange with an older t (cf. and in neuter verbs the otherwise passive participial suffix ta has usually a past active meaning. '' 93\) . The Sanskrit termias. p." for abkrd-t must become abhrdd before in d(j)pob-iTr]. and in another. 'STiJTf^iTT ahhrdditd would mean "the female who proceeded itd (J. p.). Vend. dtman-at . from a cloud.] 184. n corruption ofJihwdy-dt. tive where they have an ablais meaning. first first with the as well as the two persons of the pronouns.jihwdy-ds would be. ^ * passes into if t (Gramm.. have lost their old termination. Consequently the identity between the genitive and ablative. so it will be most natural to vogue refer the existing iorms Jihwdy-ds.. which more or less in according to the variety of dialects particularly as it is known. viz. Ed. 177. as the it. [G. in one sense. that. prit^-s. in in their history most declensions. according to certain laws. . 184 G." The only difficulty here is the short vowel of ob for As re- gards the Sanskrit. at times. compound might mean. from toS. She who who sprang. foam. one may rest with a(^pob-inj. Note) and. 100. with s. together with * have arisen. ed. suno-t. and. may also its Zend also uses. Crit. bJiavishyanty-at. in that of linguee. p.g. and arose. In Sanscrit. form with an ablative meaning {e. and the two cases would vary . to the exchange of t . together . e. that of lingua. vice versa. &c. In no case do the different members declen- of the Sanskrit family of languages agree so fully as in the genitive singular sions. this Of this usage tr?.g. independent and original . THE GENITIVE.202 FORMATION OF CASES. the retention of the original must have been change into the prevailing inclination. therefore. as the Zend gives us every reason to expect Sanskrit ablatives like Jihwdi/-dt. as is member has a genuine ablative meaning . would be only external. the genitive S. At the time when Sanskrit and Zend were sepat rated from one another. nations of the genitive are the three are ^ s. might be a remnant. §.). common to "m sj/a. and have re- placed it by that of the first old locative. prltS-t. ^w and ^^ ds: the three genders.

" and rl in neuters in ^ di. In the i bases in Gothic. am has to m. by the assumption of an euphonic declension in most cases. and ^ and ^ a. e. . assimilate to the consonantal . answers more to the other sister languages. and. t which. answer. viz. 127. Before the genitive sign i Ji s the [G. i-)(dv-o£ with §. after all feminines: in consonantal bases (§§. (§. in the 185.] vowels ^ and g' u take Guna . see §. " vocis. 94. 2. 125."' ndv-as. at has to t. The High German from the earliest period. dropped the genitive sign in the other genders also. more correctly. Gothic. as for has in Greek.* 203 and hence has the same relation to s that. words followed the Greek or consonantal s and the vowel dropped before * Besides was compensated u. or.). p. to Sanskrit genitives of consonantal bases. rdy-as. in the accusative. In the u bases (fourth declension) the lengthening of the u class of may replace the Guna. " gratia. the vowels and v and diphthongs terminating in i-)(dev-^. share All u bases.) the sign of the genitive is wanting in The form which the Sanskrit genitive termination it consonants assumes. also the Lithuanian and Gothic. n. / were of necessity og. Respecting Lithuanian genitives of has. this principle. 186." answers i to irtri^ pritS-s.''^ The Latin. it occurs only in monosyllabic bases in $ t. Ed. 185. as tj^s pad-as. as s.). in the form passed over also to v. but is without Guna : so hosti-s is like the Gothic genitive gasti-s. like iroJ-of. Zend ablative. are unheard of. in Lithuanian and : augment. which would be in accordance but iropri-o^. and in a more this limited degree. 'gi ^ au . principally confined to the consonantal bases. prefix an a to their final vowel hence the Lithuanian sunau-8 and Gothic sunau-s correspond to the Sanskrit sunos is (Jilii) from sunaus (§. for example.GENITIVE SINGULAR.g. "rei. " navis . and the Zend. 218. ^^ WP^re vdch-as. on the other hand. " pedis. ^nr^ Guna bases restricted to the feminines thus anstai-s. for by this. 193. and genitives like iropTci-g.

.] is better derived from the Sanskrit ^« i. sinape-yos. ^o6s for ^oFos. as mainyeu-Sy of the spirit. 66. Otherwise the termination is of consonantal bases [G. 177). because the old Sanskrit a in other places in Latin has been weakened to as frequently happens in Gothic 187. " Zend also. a consonant y wanting. The « is certainly a very e. add as »»'3aJ^ ^ 6 (from as. 67. in is important to remark. (§. and that aa-rtos." from mainyu.). gives the genitive senaiu-os in Grecian garb. In Greek.. " lupi^ IT^ ta-sya.). in aareos would not be a corrupted v of tlie base.''^ &c. or ^»m»'^a)^ danJiav-6. in Sanskrit. the u bases. Bases in ^ a. vaos for vaFos. heterogeneous vowel to the v. p. and occurs is also in Old High German 72.* 188. and the corruption of the in the middle of a word. g. Ed. of which only amu ends with a vov/el other than a. like all other digammas latter to in the actual condition of the language. * It might be assumed that as /Sao-tX/os clearly stands for ^asCKifos. " hujvs. as ^»xi^^^ danhav-6. manner G.204 lengthening the FORMATION OF CASES. "^T^vrika-sya. may."" from >^^ju^ danhu. de Bacch. The e. and pronouns of the third person.^Faj amu-shya. should be compared with the Zend genitives with Guna. would be a greater violation of the old relations of sound than the rejection of a v sound between two vowels. therefore. as than from the Greek og. also. C.). but the Guna vowel foreign to the base. hence. inj^3> j^^yjAj^ stead of annexing a simple s in the genitive. therefore. but the v of the base. it that. p. Ed. u. according to the original law of sound. p. but cannot have been originally and therefore the question miglit be mooted whether also TToXfcosy (Tivdnfos may not stand for pole-yos. With regard to the senaiu-os just mentioned. The S. danhv-6. S. deficient. suppressed. for danheu-s " loci. e. after cf. of ? The corruption (^"i. must become F before vowels. so also aareos would stand for aarfFos. have. to e is less surprising. 219. as also for the ablative (Vend.). the 212. (§§. is. which. more rarely with a genuine genitive meaning. the more full genitive sign ^ sya . This kind of genitive occurs very frequently as a substitute for the locative. 124. of consonantal bases.

whence can bipni be derived. believe that the oio. 220. e. e-jus. As bases in m a correspond to the Greet and as a in Greek at the furthest extremity of words is between two vowels generally dislodged. where a 2 the necessary and original existence of which no one : can doubt eBiSoao. p. cu-jus. 211. <j in roio. as for eAe- of eXiyov. In the (r." 189. and the ancient position of the 2 in the second person. bases in o. junglmus) . pointed out a remnant of the genitive termination W sya. and only lo to the . of the old a before the final u (cf. as the corresponding Greek feminines nowhere exhibit an aio or rjio? * Hartung's Cases. "lupi.'"' ioT tuirya-hS. just as the Indian tt^ ta-sya for also. Ed. Alvecao) belongs likewise to this place. case-sign. a-io. As regards. hence tou from to-o.] from lupai rest on the same principle and if lupi proceeds from \vKoio. g. which has remained. Ed. (§. The Latin has transposed our is ^ sya to -jus. precisely in places where it might be most expected. which s to so frequent. in another Greek and Latin we have already. common and the language the /. The Homeric form ao (Bopeao. jus. the is Greek Grammar supplies us with another lost. I do not enter- tain the smallest doubt that the old epic genitive termination in to is an abbreviation of the first o crio ta-sya.* of which the alone has p. [G. •• 205 [G. has been dropped after the o of the termination. of the second / declension an abbreviation of . "lupu-s. p. with the change. testify for Si§oiao instead of yecro instead BiSoio. and stands for and this for a-<Tto (§. In 42 ) : hence. iHiiis for illli &c. been retained liipcp for it is clear that lupi and . 21. g. hujus.) In Zend this termination hS." (§. W^STt vrika-s. I cannot. and.^' ^>3H9 yunjmns. in roio = it^ the base.GENITIVE SINGULAR.). " quarti. has been contracted with that of the base to ov . hence. 116. To-ato instead of toTo. illius. jww'aj^ Vj9 ^vi^^^h^^ tuiryMii. is however. in fact. belongs to and that e. however. place. the loss of the o^o. 221 . .] appears in the form of vehrkah^.

resemble the i bases. bases have." [G. and denote the case by o. 222. has been suppressed. the Lithuanian has the sylla- ble as in the nominative unaltered. corresponds to the Sanskrit left vpm nabhas. only the ought to be similar. — which. The conso- nantal. gen. " of .67. which in Lithuanian. daga-s. that like corlike places. 19 L The Gothic has no more than the Lithuanian full pre- served a remnant of the more genitive termination sya.206 FORMATION OF CASES. if ruptions do not always find entrance in they this have not raised themselves to a pervading law. agreement with the Gothic. answering to the Gothic dagis. although more rarely p. may induce the remark. in which vowel. in Gothic. The older sister dialects lead us to conjecture that originally lately an i. an a. answering to the Sanskrit as . and nebo. become in Old weakened with to i . (§. ahmins. thus. according to a contraction similar to that in the Zend In old Sclavonic. and the Gothic a bases. as in the nominative of the a bases {vuJf-s for vulfas). however.). and an unorganic difference has found its way into the two cEises.] . In Lithuanian the genitives of the a bases differ re- markably from those of the other declensions. the final vowel of the base milka-s. tive base hvi-s the In manner. o occurs.Jiyand-as. and forms. It is is contained .). thus. The Zend exhibits in the r roots an g. (o) wilko. at the same time. nehese. more brdthr-as. in because a before final s this case. also.. Jiyand-s. That. 190.hr6thrs (§. but in the genitive i weakening to has taken place. has. likewise a simple s for case-sign. " of the day. but in the genitive has contracted it to o. Mi^^j nars. e. as also Saxon the corresponding declension exhibits as together e-s. Ed. hence. as more worthy powerful nominative has preserved the older more powerful form. 56''^. according to §. 132. in Gothic. thus vulfi-s for vnlfa-s . preceded this s — ahmin-as. " lupi" for probable that this o has arisen from as. the old a has remained in the interroga- HVA in the nominative (hvas). so that here.

according to they would have lost the genitive sign. which cannot be gleaned from the Sanskrit alone. Feminines in Sanskrit have a fuller genitive ter- mination in bases ending with a vowel. \\ here arguments are not found in the Sanskrit itself. and. if that the preceding u can be a transposition of the final letter of the r. 130. and by reason of the >n'iTT bhrdtur. hence.^ have always in 'WPR^ ds . however. kroshtar or "^{W kroshtri^ see $. the Visarga. 113. and this apparently for ars. short-ending bases in ^i and T u may use at will either ift^TT prite-s. on account of 11. or in the cognate languagis. —which cannot be quoted—and the probability that the correji."1 and.).). so that the [G. 207 the man. in ( the genitives under discussion. Zend.) (Gramm. in 1.). is. stands for r. genitive sign Laghu-Kaumudi. ^Sira vadhw-ds. s (see §. sounded do .) t Only the few monosyllabic words make an exception. 35).. according to 56^. both retained in the form of p. §. viz. Crit. sponding Sanskrit forms are properly hhrdtur. elsewhere occurring euphonic interchange of * and similar forms. and instead of ian6-s. The long This §. through the influence of the liquids . 55. the Visarga. by transposing the r. 94. The same is the case with the numeral advorb ^HT on' chatur. 223. vowels ^^ d. and would therefore stand for -w*.GENITIVE SINGULAB. (^. may evidently stand as well for s as for r . duhitur. for this cannot be and yet changed into « (of.%i. ^rHluiiqru bhavishyanty-ds." for 'v»\ <t|rlll chaturs ' for which the Zend.. §. in HTTTJ hhrdtuK. and of its facile combi- nation with s* 192. Ed. is "^fe kroshtu (from the theme fhj^i. 44. "Wi u. termination ^rm ds. . in fact. In bases in j i and > u I have not mei ms/m:^ p >4 * Hence dughdhar-8 I deduce the genitives avj/aj^au^ brdtar-s. so in such doubtful cases it of no consequence to which side the Indian Grammarians incline.. As. 5us^^aj>>^j»' hizvay-do. r. . " four times. probably on account of the nature of the r bordering on that of a vowel. as for simple p. also Tftwra prity-as." not nar-6. B'ffw simple ^ s or ^ro^ ds'. g^Mii^^JAJ^^t^^J hushyainty-do. And it is impossible. fHd^liTIU jihwuy-ds. Rem. Colebrook. "in^ra tanw-ds. gives jiv>/v:ajc>j c^aiAn« The Indian Gram- marians also. which either confirm or refute their statements. base ("^W ^"!T ). occur. hence. assume the absence of the p.

however. Ed. they are exactly what might be expected to belong to a language that has s for the genitive character. gus»yAj^ tanv-do. not limited to the feminine. the Gothic. stands opposed to It cannot be sup- posed that these genitives are borrowed from the Greek. is. also. 224. The cognate European languages exhibit no stronger termination in the feminine than ever. leaving nothing but a itself of few remains. blindai§. terras. Compare Respecting and base-abbreviated nominative and accusative zd-s. 193. opposed to (rcfyvpa. a perfect transmission of the Sanskrit ^l^R da so that forms like n-oXe-wj is answer to jfltQI^ prity as. also. 172. with this termination ji\5>P/A5^ taneii-s. with the original length of the base escas. it is Although the Greek ms bases are feminine.] a-s. and the pivponderating number of t . bases. weakened the nominative and accusative [G. in the masculine and neuter. esca. Movctyi^. I find no ^^^w^oAam d/rithy-do. ^»M)Ai^ tanav-6. while the masculines do not strengthen gibd-s with the uninflected at all. and anstai-s with gasti-s. as has been shewn above. how- shews a disposition to greater fulness in the feminine genitive. nevertheless excluded from the neuter (norfof ). . and that the language availed helps. perhaps. see giba. which no doubt extended originally to all a bases. in genitive rank-ds for ranka-s. &c. ixovaav* In Latin. p. together with jtcj^^^o^Au dfritdi-a. gradually disappeared. lose more and more its The Lithuanian. as thi-zo-s. inasmuch as the d bases preserve to this vowel in conbut the tradistinction i the nominative and accusative. in its feminine first declen- sion preserves the original vowel length in words which have (T<pvpdu^. The Greek. this form.rC8 FORMATION OF CASES. escd-m. * The Attic termination as . That. cr(j)vpa-v. is in accordance with the other usual fate of languages of their old heredi- which continually ditary possessions. attach Guna to it this vowel. the pronominal and adjective genitives. or ^»)Xi^ tanv-d.

by (Gramm. Ed. whence.SKNITIVE SINGULAR. 120. iu the genitive. also. i and the ^ of aw'ih be looked upon is Guna of the (§. an t is suppressed before the e note*). resembles the Grothic. note*). in this case returns back to the §. Ruhig. part.3 vocative. and. 55. reIt is and in some other o.). however. TTK ta-t. places the feminine 209 cases. This me the most correct. the bases Visoy are contained. similar to those which were explained view appears to cially as in the in the note. for the bases. 174. in tya. §. generated by its influence (p. it be com- pared with as 't(tk\ pTites. like awih. 174 (cf. leaves out the and gives ugnes. also. p. the division awi-h might be made . which would answer to the SanIf. p. then the reading awih for aivis objectionable. GIESMYA (see p. and the of which is t replaced in the oblique cases likewise. that in Ui. skrit genitives like irhTPET prity-As. 169. which occurs 134. also. most and the few masand may have followed the analogy of the prevailing gender. espe- fG. frequently i. §. so that UTiT ^ sya that stands in the ?r same relation to WR R tya-m and tya-t sa does to WT ta-m. the nominative was derived viz. language in same pronoun. are to be regarded. through the assimilative force of the from aui-&s (ef. I 194. therefore. in his Glossary. " of the fire. the thing designated personified. a by a long or short i doubtful how the As they calines genitives of are. from is for i-h or ySs.. As regards the origin of the form through which. note). 174. with the vowel suppressed and united p . in some cases. 268. all feminine bases in yd have. It is evident. and might be assumed that the i bases have. it Therefore the division awiS-s might also be made. §. feminine. ex- perienced an extension of the base. awiS answers to giesme for giesmye. indeed. might be derived.g. 226.. ^ aya."" for ugniSa but in other cases. p. e. is in the genitive. for giesmy^. Crit. as in the neuter. this r. as yiesmi-s.). with tlie the secondary notion of the relation of space. a only in the Vedas (cf. is V And there a pronoun for the fuller termination also.).) . ^ sya. 26. or giesmie.

gpu-s. TTiTU-Oy. Note § :.. LITHUAN. the older A5 a for c e. S. t See §.. dtman-as. . LATIN. is™OS e f. n. ^^' P-f.... tanv-6. . hvi- jihwdy-ds. . cu-jns.% vdch-as. <p€povT-o£. . \vKo-io. dfntdi'S. f. nomin-is. f. ahn nan ndman-dfX ToAai/-of. 193. GOTH vulfi- m. I See p. ka-sya... and can be abundantly quoted... m.. 87... ^atfiov-og.\ sermon-is.). ^o{f)-6£.. ." V. taneu-s.. va(F)-of.210 FORMATION OF CASES. in the other cases. pasv-d.l barent-6. And «^^A5Aii barato also I may occur. however.^ gast paty-us. . 148. vr'ika-sya. feretit-is. 'Xjcipu-g... vdch-d. and likewise.. . ndv-as. siti-s.. pati-s. . usual epithet of agriculture which is of constant recurrence as the (aj^^/^ojjjajIj vaistrya) c e never occurs. hharat-as.. ..go-s. and passim. OTT-Of. han tanw-da. GREEK. bov'is. asman-6.. priU-s. Note %. ..ds. m. <j)V<Te-U)£.. p. . rankS-s. m. sunaH s. vehrka-M. Wjiya m... bhavishyavty. * The meanings will be fonnd in §. . is For «f C°^^?^^ barento. m. hushyainiy-do siind-s.. according to the analogy of yyAt^c/c b^reaato. VOC-is. ndmn-as.. as in M'^i^^'yMA^ fsuyahs (nom. patdi-s. terras. paseu-s. ka-M. hizvay-do. .. vadhw-ds. . ti with the relative base ya. ZEND. p. f. .. iyOv-og. <|j^^AJ^ii baranto. 254. as in all other cases. '^ spkndentis. dkmen-s. .* Here follows a general vie^ of the genitive formation SANSKRIT.. In some participles. kd. . t anai pnty-ds. gibo . hosti-s.. ItOffl-O^.302. the more common also form. Vide §. . f. ... sunt . The is reten- tion of the nasal in the genitive. possible.. socru-s. wifko. . ... tan6-s.. 163.. ..

7r) airrrj X'^A'tt'' 5 . This case has. **crealoris.'' ftff^ nisu "in the night. avr"^ »7Mep<?i pvktL So in Sanskrit. dauhtrs.. D I now refer the Latin dative to the Sanskrit dative. p. SAHSXBIT. ddtur. dughdhar-s. j^ fjiotf 6i stands for jo i so that in this the Zend oiiKoti approaches very closely to the Greek datives like and aot. brdtar^Sj* varp-og. 197. MapadCdvi. bases in which language possesses a proper this case in a correspond in a remark- able manner with the Sanskrit and Zend. it. locative. the locative ^ i passes into (§. after the analogy of ddthr-6. AwSwi'/.] the dative. cases admit of being more abundantly qnoted in Zend than the with which.^ ddtar-s. + The gen.) .). matr-is. and in Greek and Latin [| has received the function of [G. 363. § p. nevertheless. eiTe{a)-os.1 THE LOCATIVE. yet has not suffered signification to be lost aypu>. duhituT.. . In Lithuanian. " Ya9na. GRE££. "in the day. oiKoi. To the forms mentioned answers j^^^^aj^ maidhydi. its locative hence. 2. LATIH." p. C<^mi divasS. vachas-ast datOT-is. With )f ^a S of the base preceding exactly as in (§. "in the middle. dugter-s. dvyarp-og.LOCATIVE SINGULAR." (Bumouf. Rask appears to have been nnacquainted at the time of publishing his treatise.§ i for its cha- racter.. rather than to the locative. . 2a\a/im. also. locative. 163. - 195. see p. »8 . Ed. 211 UTHOAJf- zsso. 194. 33. 227. Note). Note J. or been replaced by the extinction of the base vowel. 1227 G. Note t." 196. bhratur. rrj ^^^' transferred to time. vachanh-6. Ed. as he does not give it in any or Few his three paradigms. oper-is. GOTmi& brothr-s. It since they con- * wonld be better to read brdthr-6. in Sanskrit and Zend.. Zend but here. Note t). in which / has not yet become subscribed. ^oTrjp-cg. of dughdar is probably dughder-6 (aee X Seep. One must be careful not to regard this and similar ' phenomena as shewing a more intimate connexion between Greek and Zend. fratr-is.

ploy genitive terminations with a locative signification shall we be ds. employs the genitive termination ^ 6 (from >R^ is a genitive meaning. 228. Vj$\ paty-du. for i. tlie ^ du has proceeded from ^to ds (f^fafuiraia (§. 39. 337. as. To the Lithuanian ye answers also. finally. into y. moreover. . j^^iom ^jMjM»^MJ<y <»®a»jC1^ ^»^^ a^tahmi anhvd yat astvainti. for the most part. circumstance that in the Vedas the genitive occurs dakshindyds. i Masculine bases in and u.'' from DIETFA. Ed." agree most 198. viz. and. from nabhas. and that. The bases which terminate with other vowels employ. from W^ in a sort of Attic or produced genitive termination. or a5»»' hva. «Tni*^ nnman. If we consider the vocalization of the s to u." and imen-i. is. more com- mon thus we read. without exception. in the dual. " in dexterdr with a locative meaning for <r«jl[jmi H dakshindydm. S. a circumstance which must not be overlooked. p. in Lithuanian. in the Vend. by adding an appears. p. perhaps. feminine bases also." the i has euphonic change to "^ y: hence. hence. a with the old locative to e . dietvk. before which ^*i and 7w are dropped. answers to dht jj^»A)A5^ da^. in all probability. but in pati. "lord.^12 tract this FORMATION OF CASKS. instead of the locative the Zend usually as). "in the name. however.] shva. have a different locative termination in Sanskrit. which has occasioned the change of the old locative i in Zend. while. "friend. in old Sclavonic. much disposed to recognise in this ^ dv. 56^. Panini VIL i 1. also. shewn in §.. a. and. i. the plural locative termination su. only an unor- ganic echo. in the form of a5»i:^ [G. " in God.H^^ sakhy-du. 206. the form Mi>9 eu-s . optionally. masculines in and u likewise em. "in Heaven. strictly with the Sanskrit «f>?Tff ijvffTt nahhas-i and »n'rf«T ndman-i. which a])pears pure nowhere any more. v:fi( ^ du. which several declensions have the original pure so that nehes-i." remained in its and ^f^ sakJii. 199. a locative termination ye. ^ without any accent upon the This e e.) . ye as the locative termination. in Zend. "in . the fact that. In u bases.) .

Iff^ tanto-i. first member in On the other hand.g. Through the formal agreement of the corresponding Latin and Sanskrit termination. p. 234. and the two locative terminations are distinguished only by the quantity of the of the diphthong.] i three genders admitted in the locative the termination (Trfr^ sunic-i. we find the feminine base locative >. hoc 213 mundo quidem existenie. 2." very often the genuine .). 200. p. M. 229. Note. Corinthi. S. in which mei tui. and which I have already corroborated elsewhere by the genitives of the two first persons. recognise a replacing of the genitive by the locative. though they have a locative. not in the third or in the plural (ruri ruris). S. and from the circumstance that the genitive occurs with a locative meaning only in the two not first declensions {Rornce. §. a view.^^ In pronouns.a5^ tanu. Vend. or »nrf»T madhu-n-i). Prof. *rfs^ madhw-i. and as we have seen the locative replaced by the genitive. in the di-s. that. 172. so must we. " body. Vend." twayi (from tiv^-i). the genitive sometimes occurs with a locative meaning. jw-m^v ^^^^Om ainM vis^."'' This Zend termination 6 (from a + u) has the same relation to the Sanskrit du that a short a has to a long a. ^iMi^xit j^ MM^jMAs^^M^^Au(^ fKiJ^y^ ahmi namdneyat mdzdayasndis. the correctness of which do not doubt. (cf. originally the u bases of the p. the usual genitive thus. perhaps. Or ought. the feminine form ^tvj/jAj ainhdo.X in me. in Sanskrit also. Rosen was first first induced to characterize declensions as borrowed [ the Latin genitive of the two from the old locative . in the locative. which Anquetil renders by " dans le pays des mazde'iesnans. a double ' j^ i inflexion to be assumed as the sign of both a genitive and . " in hac terra quidem mazdayasnica. Bases in j termination i employ." or " place. also. " in this way. Ed. agree most surprisingly with Hftj mayi (from m^-i.LOCATIVE SINQULAE. form j» /aj^ tanv-i and we do not doubt [G. e. From compelled to Zend and Sanskrit we have already been acknowledge a connexion between the genitive the and locative." §. 46. in Latin. humi).

like their substitutes the pass easily from one relation of space to another. meina. necessarily became substi- tuted for the genitive also. me inadmissible. and lupvA. which corresponds to the Greek I for would not therefore derive the common genitive (-uces sucb — older form suai— \&. for this reason. then. a relation (p. because in all other parts of Grammar has in —numerous Roman as the forms with a final s otherwise are — this letter defied all the assaults of time. to use the expression. toC. As the cases. see Struve. tn^^tH ndma'-bhyas. fwi. tui.^ FORMATION OF CASES. The question not here that of an occasional suppression of the * in old poets. after the first declension had lost its as. Ed.] the vowel of the base alone.] different origin? And where. and from with the * dropped. Should Romts (from Romai\ Corinthi. and. 161.) from inscriptions in Orelli (twotiti-us. the highest lowest. it no terrce for terras (ace. is no no amce for amas. suce-s. pi. which belongs o). would the origin of the locative has been *rfi| genitive Romce be found. ^W^ tava. theina ? prepositions. as . 231. but with H»l mama. and appears everywhere where the : cognate languages lead us to expect lupi for lupos. that noniiiui-bu8 has to vrika-s. 230. Ed. corresponding to the Greek oi — and of which examples still remain handed down altered : to us (as populoi Romanoi) — has become doubly left.). according to its origin a locative. &c. given by Hartung ia Latin. p. in their different meaning be also of a locative dative ? be on [G. 7. either p. hence nomin-us has the same to «n^H ndnin-as.* In the second declension the form o-i. The genitives in us. that generally us fiivourite termination for ^R^ as . nothing appears to become the me more probable. be compared. then the dative. one occasion genitives and on another locatives.). and the [G. Goth. or only that of the termination.) appear to be different modes of wiiting tj-s one and the same form. has been in the dative. first and the form has fixed itself latter in the * The assumption that a ae {a-l) appears to rejected s lies at the base of the genitives in ». &c. before a consonant in the following. and p. Castor-us. not with iwayi. to/. r^ftl Should mei. to the dative locative. fiov. word The genitives in e-« and as occurring in inscriptions {pro- vincie-s. than that. as that of the ? found already mayi. I am not surprised at. to "^MM .

nation occurs with a locative meaning versd. is most usually expressed by the genitive. hence. and is wanting in Zend also in those of the third. have.LOCATIVB SINGULAR. the feminines in short 192. for part. 232." |^ i . a final « has frequently become a nasal. nine bases in long ^ and ^ for wm dm. and to TTWW however. is Romani stands for Romonoi. the league between the dative and this truly dative termi(ibi. dm is a corruption of the feminine genitive §. in like manner. the locative while vice very frequently supplies the place of the dative. also. fvnjT\ bhiy-dm or bhiy-i. it i signifying the place or time of continuance. however. in of the appended i in the locative. ^iw at dm. . where. 202. p.) i . in Sanskrit. plural. admit also the firftl common fear. however. iasrnin. Feminine bases ending with long simple vowels . "in whom?" which seems to me to be of later origin. as it were an n €<l>€\Kv<mK6v. which latter.. from ma-bhyam. hence. soon as i is found as the root of a demonstrative all which. and the ^ a ^ hence.) wfWT This n. in Sanskrit. like the true form of other pronominal roots. ^tl^ which is therefore similar to the nom. in which. applied to denote the causal relation. pronouns of the two first answers to tu-bhyam. is easily discovered as . pronoun w . a peculiar locative termination viz. has escaped the Indian Grammarians. "in him". " in this.] * Perhaps the termination termination ds (cf. locative ma-hyam. genitive. 165. Ed. csfw?^ Arasm'jn. But the dative persons mihi tibi not universally represented in Latin by a locative ter. j^ ahmi. had been once concluded. so that the proper dative the most 201. i and u may will participate (cf. while the monosyllabic femiu. as in Greek. §." As to the origin of the. " in from wt bhi* In Zend this termi- [G. instead of Pronouns of the 3d person have. does not extend to the two first persons. is. ^a{mH(| g dakshindyds for dakghindyam\ where it should be observed that in Prakrit. sma is elided (see §. in Sanskrit. mination for in the »r?nT as. 198. ubi).

§. m. dm has become abbreviated to a (of.i. f.). e7re(<r)-/. W •o ra. 196. .. duhitar-i. are used instead of Mirdtri. diffused than in Sanskrit. /3o{F)-i.§ m. ddtnr-i. madhu-n-i. "in which" from yahmi 172. f.gav-i. m. bushyai'nty-<i. pecu-i..216 natioij FORMATION OF CASES.f. socru-i. The rejection of the its § Or tanw-dm. 'X^i^-'» irtTv-i. jxedv-t.. Jihwdy-dm. §. s{in-du.. &c. asmain-t. ..J^>*0 (cf. although from the tanwdm may have in S03. n. the Sanskrit tan&u. f. is clearly more genuine than earliest period. vachas-i. sermon-i. paty-du. also. ddtar-i. we can abundantly enough Note t). The form ianwi existed. n.t . bharat-T. bhrdfar-i. (Regarding dvghdher-i. vrike* t. ndmain-i. in Zend. ferent-i. 8ai[iov-i.^ f. We here give a general view of the locative. to be less This termination appears. Ttarp-i. barent-i. a preceding the r in the theme seems to me more probable than retention. awi-ye. and it of the cases akin to Greek and Latin (see §. ndv-i. . m. ddthr-i9\\ SoTrjp-t... ierra-U hos(-i.. tanw'i. see p. Kvko). 194.. bhavtshyanty' dm. datdr-i. yahmy-a. w ndmn-i. nomin-i. sunu-ye. vd(F)-t'. J Or prity-dm. ranko~ye. duhitar-i. however. TTopTi-'i. sW-i. 148. The i of the termination is guaranteed by the other consonantal declension. wilke.). '^ f. That in Sanskrit is bhratar-i.) : m. < . fratr-i. prlt'-du. which in this case exemplify. n. <t>epovT-t. vadhw-dm.214. <an'-4tt. oper-i.. gav-i. vehrki* hizvay-a. . bov-i. * See II §. contrary to . pdti-ye. 198. XWP9» "nocri-'i. matr-z. 4i^)»ii hence.. m. dtman-i. m. vacanh'i. Ai.. . t See §. f. lup-^. and not to be applicable i to feminines in j and > u. brdthr-i?\\ raXav-i. dughdher-i ? dvyarp-i.

bratar-i. the consonantal it any letter following it. an oversight: the Greek may therefore. but optionally retain it . which the a. in nian it is weakened to e. or reject so that with ndmn-i also ndman-i pitr-i. art. Ed. lupe. With $. in the present participle we have quently found the form of the nominative in the sense of the vocative. 205. case terminations forms have the same relation to "^ vrika that have to xr^ pancha o. however. unchanged in Lithuaalso. and mono234. cases. however. 204. be better compared with the dative jntr-L . neuters. in Sanskrit and Zend. under the protection of the final terminations. has either no case-sign nominative : or is identical with the the former the principle. is used. .. " fear P as k!-^. which. The vocative the in the Sanskrit family of languages at is is all. that these too. thus. with respect to the rejection and lengthening of the baaes in locative. and the form irarp-L given at 132. with respect to the shortening of the base. has assumed the form of In 2^nd. which apw. bases. appears as the letter of the base. bases remains. . 217 VOCATIVE. Guna : . the latter limited in Sanskrit to : practical corruption. Wt^ bhi-s [G. when they have s in the nominative. to locative belongs. which in other respects the As. exists is no bhrdtr-i. must avoid seeing quinque. however. : We these xeiTe. 130. in A^kc.] syllahic bases terminating in a vowel hence. in the strictly foUow the suppression of the a in the weakest conditionally prescribed in §. 140. bases in ^TT ar a. and the Greek and Latin the uninflected vocative of the corresponding declension.VOCATIVE SINGULAR. A final a of the nominal p. Bases in i and u have. prefer a short e to o or u. (^ ri). have also the pure vowel on the other hand. to the theory of the weakest cases (§.). pears in \vKO£ as e without in lupus as and the old a. retain in the fre- vocative also. it have a very great agreement with do not is must here be further remarked. in Sanskrit.

{l polysyllabic feminines in i and shorten this final vowel while a (§. is a certain emphasis in the address.). have lost their final vowel in the vocative. clearly aims . Note). becomes ^ The language. their The Lithuanian i bases in the vocative extend theme in the same manner as in the genitive (§. sunau. so that. analogous with zwdke-i. run parallel to the u bases. with the daur*. in Gothic. at one and the by opposite ways and this end. from ANSTI." out On the other hand. " spirit. j^jA5c^ ^iAU^Asy A5. both by producing and final shortening the sarae end. resembling i : the Gothic feminine bases in Ulfilas in the vocative do not occur in as. they. there is no vocative of this class of words. and indeed frequently ^^jajq) pai'i. or not.>-W> usihista namdno-paiti. just as in the accusative and nominative hence vulf. 193. t It follows from ei this. while only the Sanskrit and Zend again ihtroduce * The Zend can at will attach Guna to a final > «.JA}^ mainyu as the vocative of >i^yJXJ9 mainyu. 193. giesmye.. might be expected as an analogous form to handau. "lord" So Vend S. the vocative anstai. which has passed over from the nominative to the vocative. [G. giesmye'i. final 58n d. from a + u. gietme-if . and this for zwdkie-i. to zwdke.218 FORMATION OF CASES. in i. by the commixture of an i. is For dvoi-ei. §. in other respects. lord of the place I" The j t between assist the preposition and the verb serves as (cf. To the Guna form Sanskrit ^ 6.) I have incordivision rectly assumed as the termination in the dative.lf Masculine bases. 466. 150. dwie-i . and awie answers for zwdkie. and from that {§. and we find both \^^JJxs^ mainyd and >^^/. only vowel. p. in fact.] however. however. properly. 2. 177. we have found a final j » only. giesme (Ruhig's third declension). like the masculine and neuter a bases. 235.eW->»'. to the juncture of the words §.). with- Guna. correspond remarkably the Gothic and . p.* as sunau. the should be made thus. a conjunctive vowel. gast\ In bases in n the Gothic shares of Latin the suppression the final consonant.^^ Ar\8e. Lithuanian ?nft sun6. Ed.

and hence Gothic to the retain blind's. vocative ava.VOCATIVE SINGULAR. and employs place the nominative universally. 112. p. yj/) are very favourite combina- tions. the nominative sign. Moreover.) . except in the mascu- line §. ' blind In Old Northern. nor. to which the alphabet also has paid homage by partiStill is cular letters to represent them. that particularly such things as are not usually addressed. with respect old path. in its uninflected state. roKav opirat posed to ToKaq. or that abbreviation of it euphony or eflPeminacy rendered for traiS opposed to ttu?^. the [G. prefer. substantives also follow this sign. and has that sound which might be expected from a theme dvaKT. p. conveniently. requisite hence. Ed. as w ttoCj !" * The Latin has followed in its still farther the road of corruption in the vocative which was prepared by the Greek. to which. In guttural and labial bases the language has not got free of the nominative sign in the vocative. even tlie k.] remarkable. this fact also may have co-operated towards the Greek more easily it freeing itself in the vocative from the bare primary form. because kj and ttj (^. The substantive bases mentioned in 148. together with ava|. Adjectives in have departed of from the German. vocative. because ap- pears at the beginning of compounds much more rarely than in Sanskrit. 236. neither kt. 180). * To this circumstance may also the re-introduction of the case-sign in the neuter be owing. in the vocative. irregular use of the nominative preserved a tolerable number of its The Greek has vocatives pure from which the laws of . second declension. 219 into the vocative the nasal which had been dropped in the nominative. the case-sign !'^ the nominative. " For the rest it is easy to imagine (says Buttmann. (See J. and in some classes of words uses the bare base. while the Sanskrit employs the bare base. form. y^apiev for )(aplevr opposed to yapiet£. when they happen to be addressed. to retain the form of the nominative. could be left.

because it is based on a more precise intention than the indefinite • See §. ••... prefers the broadest terminations.Wjoa.. ddtar e. dfman. sermo. XESJ}. .. 44. dator. n. feren-s^ sukan-s. vachas. ranka. f. OQ^Sf •. vdc-S? baran-Sf OTT-f. ddta.220 SANSKRIT. daur\ giba? gasC. FORMATION OF CASES. tandf pasu. both in the cases mentioned and in the others. m. donu-m. m. sund. m. vadhu.* dvyaTep. i^pt. 67rof. asman. 56^. L nu n.f. frater mote.. GREEK.«• •••• •—I Qm. . Saifiov... brdtare* Ta\av. f. jihw^. socru-s. tanu. nomen. in Sanskrit. ••. ddna. 128.* vachd. iraTep. NOMINATIVE. vrika. Bori^p. ndman. VOCATIVE.. vdyt. . vairi. ahmd. sunaH. wilke. bhavishyanti. t See $. vehrka. n.. Ttoyi. vav. Jiyand. n. siti-s. and feminine... LATIN UTHUAN. BS>po-Vf 5(. madhu. n. »idu-s.•• •. termination The dual. voc-s.. f. b^shyainti. . ACCUSATIVE. dughdhare. sunau. f. ndman. • m • i pecu. tnadhuy fiidv. dkm&'. \vK€. ds by vocalization of the and and is therefore only a stronger form of the plural as. line These three eases have. brothar. pecu-s.ydu-». . handau. hizvSf paitif dfritif m. (pipav. nam6'. iriTV..mater. the termination wj ^ittt which probably s (cf. duhitar. bharan.. terra. in the mascudu.). bhrdtar. lupe. vulf. tx6v. §§. ddtar. hosti-s. opus.t dauhtar. mare. g ? ej ""^ f. DUAL. m. OOTHIC. 206. gdu-s. f. prifA vdrit itopri. arose from 198. L m. pats.

plura].}^jJAj^>y^«)o d schenubyaschit. 137. and in the Vend. therefore. however. While the Prakrit and Pali have lost [G. while the example herein given by the Sanskrit has been raised to a general principle by the Zend. in i the neuter. 203. Anqnetil II. ^ and gives an emphatic proof that the and. may be ascribed to the disuse of the dual. as might have been expected Sanskrit. " the two Haurvats and Amertats. Ed.NOMINATIVE. an occasional one which §. Add. 175. but here. and uses if dos-cha. ds. S. 212.) . of it not en- tirely lost. t Cf. p. which. stronger emphasis.. p.] the dual. the Zend has retained instead of it it . as asruni with ^TSTT!! asruni. 56^. in his Voca[G. The two Genii. 221 and needs. the plural often occurs. Compare. AXJ p. and the possibility of replacing . with the also. tdi Thus we read in the •i\>^ S. uba^ hurvdos-cha ameretat-dos-cho. which Anquetil writes Khordad and Amerdad." the dual is used with a plural termination. however. in the sibilant before the particle as^ cha. also with the termination hya this ($. a»^. "and as far as the knees. the long ^ff^ITTt t of the dual short of the plural. the dual termination ^ du. Sanskrit dual termination "# du is nothing else than a cor- ruption of ^rr?^ ds. the fact from the consideZend has even actually retained. 239] • Cf. so that S. 207. appears in grammar only once or twice (see 198. still.). not do-cha. and many examples can be quoted in the The Sanskrit termination du occurs in the corresponding places in Zend in the form of gui do. and not a corruption of wni Vend. 238. according to §. This principle be- comes almost irrefragable matter of ration that the dual. ACCUSATIVE. appear very frequently in the dual. Ed. and where they occur with plural terminations.u^^a)^^/^^a) A5^j3^»/>tt» »WAU> Anquetil. 225. Crit. in were the original form. in fact. Gramm."t What p. and more lively personification. to r. i».* termination ^ra d». VOCATIVE DUAL. stands at the same time for the Sanskrit V. In the verb it is is still more rare .

and Jfjj nard. I 208. however. A5yij(^AJ»AA5»«Aa«/'wa/Aya. must l)e read either haurvatdoscha. which was to be . In the Veda dialect. however. for hurvdoscha. 456). $. c.' 222 bulary (p. but only remark. else than ^^^As^j^jjuny ndirikay-do. aj^«>aj^^!''^9a5 arrieretatbya. 91. however. and >^AUi bdzu forms. . nation ^>AV) dus for j[)C\M dos 33.) . FORMATION OF CASES. the termination d. evidently The form ^^^aj^j^jamj more genuiMe than ^^j7jAuy ndirikd] (§. 211. . " arms. or Jiaurvatatdoscha. p. Com- pare 1. in bdzavd. p. the latter for g^ §." which can be derived both from nar replacing the dual in all cases by the plural. haurvatdt-6 and arneret-as-cha as accusative. but incorrectly ^6 ior \) 6. not dwell any longer here. and mean apparently.). and with the fullest and perhaps sole correct reading of the theme. to this number.).'' from asvin. §. AJi^i Ajr»A5^ J/g^-'^ ameretata bya is a palpable error. «^>>^amj bdzvd or 4»>A5^Ajii in the edited parts of the Zend-Avesta. toi Immortality. occurs frequently abbreviated to so that the last element of the diphthong viated is suppressed. 240. p. read.).] men. (see ^. and uhaS. examples are wanting of bdzvdo. ^jfTfftn form occur in Rosen's " Specimen " " asvin-d. or haurvatdtdokcha. that hnurvatdt is very frequently abbreviated to haurvat^ and the d of amereldt is often found on this point shortened. " Entireness" and therefore.). have no doubt. JM^j7jjMf ndirikd. expected referring to the arms the nominative Still. 213." without >^j^ bdzu. I. From bdzvdo. Thus we VVe will. The two twin *' genii are feminine. ^ du . plural. according to the Sanskrit principle from a feminine base must have been formed ndirikd. as. whence. A5oij«M>AU^A}^AJ»/^AJ»' JioSrvatataus-vhavf ii\\ the termi(cf. of the so-called Amscluispants not as neuter. c. 104. however. the former for ^ ti (§. and renders by "deux femmesr can be nothing from the base ndirikaydo is. 38. in the passage before us. 33. regarding the genuineness of which. are likewise feminine (cf. Several examples of this abbre- as. the two Aswins. p. " two [G. but as feminine. writes naereke'ido." The forms preceding them. 28. Ed. Undoubtedly. ubhi We must also regard the dual form mentioned at 46. Rask cites the form ^>>^auj remarking that it is a dual it : clearly belongs.

I * Thus. 241. to very frequently stands for WT d. 137. 204. the transition is as this vowel. and the short a* which frequently stands for easy to the Greek in Zend. also. "the two Haurvats and Amertats". to r." Cf. we owe Note % here to the protecting particle aj^ chxi (see p. p. in the Heaven of Ormuzd p. . Aj^Auy>5)^Ai aspind-cha 313. Al- §.). S. ACCUSATIVE. according to "sni nard. (§. and we rejoice more copiously than the fuller to see. but which more probably comes In Zend the abbreviated termination from du is fact. as above. 136. 50.. AiAjy Xi>>^ dm nara.^ We read. referring to is the dual aspind. however it (if the read- ing be correct). still we must avoid regarding: KvKOi as the analogous form to g-ciT vrikdf or juuA^fevclp vehrkd (see §.) : can. Crit. in the vrika. as furnishes a new part. the dual lost: was near being the verb being. vi>m»Mj^ yavano yaz {muidhe). The Sanskrit «f^^T asvind however. p. and also Zend m7asj nar-a. and from nara. twin pair called Indian. in the received condition of the Zend. worthy of remark.] nominative) connected with the Veda and L e. give nothing but aspind or aspina the former 175. " two men. and frequently. 4. Zend dual termination spoken of. Ed. in termination also. proof that. XvKe stood for •^ so here. From the Veda termination it e. Gramm. G. the . in Vend.NOMINATIVE. VOCATIVE DUAL. and. in Zend. end of words. h3(oJaj9jaj. namely. p. is a favourite representative of the old a and. Add. (ytnri) 223 from nar. " Asvinosque juvenes veneramur. at the . 209. likewise employed. ju^^wgl? vehrkoy vocative (§.). That however.^^ which Anquetil renders by "jefais Jzeschne a texcellens toujours {subsistant"). avdpa (with euphonic 5) corresponds to the above-mentioned Veda though. 23. and celebrated for their youthful beauty. has proceeded from a. Ed.). 211. The plural yavan-d (from yavanas). the Lithuanian dual bases in a (in the it of masculine is [G. for the most found in the plural when referring to nouns in the dual form. Vendidad Sade. Ai^Mi^^?<^^xi a}^A}»^>ajw haurvata amcretata. d.

ku = kd. for _^JJ^J erezu.224 have the Sanskrit. " two sons. and that falls belongs to the form ^s^ vrikdu. answers to w^ avi. thus wilku^ opposed to wilku. Masculine and feminine bases in and u suppress. lengthen the final vowel of the base in flected form ." : we frequently find the dual ^A^yjAj^ mainyu [G.'" (from hdzu) men- advantageously distinguished from these abbreviated forms." we meet with the shortened form is ><f7j erezu. wanting in Zend and even the one most in use. I will give."" with " dusu. du. and. 162. in its i and « bases. the dual case termination ^ comunin- pensation. " spirit. xfif\ pati. wilku. i^sunu.). ^TcRT vrikd. 318. p. tioned in §. "arms. " I give. in which itarrip. 211. ^^rfi? or dudu. rests on the hence. daddmi.] on the other hand. in some other an old d (see §. much more inclined this view of the matter the last tvilku than to the assumption that the u of wilku portion of the Sanskrit diphthong ^ du.). however. From >i^yjAj^ mainyu. " two fingers. dumi. 210." to ^^sunu. and the accent on the 205. Ed. The Lithuanian. therefore. The ^>>^a^ 207.." with <^ <4< rH ddsydml compare. from ^fVr pati. in its in Sanskrit. The also. : the Veda at form least. i may be compared Ttarep opposed to and §. On this principle rests . p. >5f^J A5>>^ {fva erezu. above-mentioned Sanskrit principle of the suppression of the termination and lengthening of the final vowel : awl. thus. FORMATION OF CASES. S. and mnu. from ^sj^rm. In the vocative the Lithu- anian employs a shorter preceding syllable respect : u. the Zend as jM^?vi>^(^ and the Li- thuanian identical in to principle we is are. equally the representative of and the Lithuanian m or S (uo) is. vehrkd. is hdzv-do. less doubt. " two sheep" (fem. We hold. curtailed is form is not. 242. from 'wf^ am. because in the other declensions the Li- thuanian dual also agrees in this case most strictly with the places. i [ And the mono- syllabic pronominal bases also in a sound in the dual u thus tu = Tn td. which identical with the theme (Vend.

" . 213. hence. with this ^ t passes into ^ (§. because in the its bases terminate with a. only external. remove the o) of Xvkoj from a Grecian it and banish completely to India." from fiTd^Jihwd. But the coin- cidence of the feminine form f^jihit^. it may be allowed to seek its origin. then the dual too would be \vKa. in t the dual a of the lost. we frequently find ks^jajjj answering to the Sanskidt duyS hazanr^ " two thousand. Zend I can quote the neuter dual only in the a bases snit4 (§. but in the short o of the base.) % ^r^ distin- ^^^ dw^ sahasri.). iTT^Trt tah-n-it two palates. hence. as the first declension has a long a in the dual. this letter is it. 43. ACCUSATIVE." ^ saM . "two hundred. be regarded as merely the it lengthening of the o of \vko for must be assumed. and for (§. TT first declension an subscribed has been to the Sanskrit and thus rd for ra would correspond tS (from td+i or i)? and the ca Be that as it is it has always the quality a. and ^<*^ vrlka-s had become Ay/ca-y." is. not the plural they have not as but short of the base i ^ (^). and not Kvku}. ^\57jx»jAs»' for example. but the Sanskrit appears to have extended the neuter t mentioned above also to the feminine a bases. the Sanskrit a bases had preserved the short a in Greek. Ed. If it be Greek dual of the two first declensions. although sented by common dialect Or may T]. 212. and the two forms Q . "two tongues. have happened. in the Sanskrit dual. as in A final ^ a ^ " sate. 41. 2. still the dual comprehended in the that if of Kvkco may . p. «? du. for the termi- nation of the cases under discussion.NOMINATIVE. may. -^J-S." from ^nr^sot^-t: [G. a'so the 225 not desired entirely to soil. not in the long a of ^"oRT vrikd. with the neuter ^^ ddne. because base.] In as. Neuters have. VOCATIVE DUAL.). as the Zend instructs us. other vowels interpose a euphonic n. " two gifts. but i. very frequently repre- perhaps. that. The Greek has renounced a termination guishing the neuter from the two natural genders.

just as (p. Hd^vWPQ>J) As^jJAJtajg^J^ amhhes-cha "and two Amshaspants" (" non-conniventesque sancamisha and Nalus V. and §. ^^Jtvs^^At "^/J3XJ^ |^»«AJ amesi ipente. that Hn^jihivi arisen or been corrupted from f^f^^ jihwny-du* in such a manner. however. that firmation of in A) ^.) would have only an apparent In Zend. after dropping the fJM do. accompanied the real case termination. indeed. and have such a relation to one another.) is lost. that in ddn^. 206. as it appears. in quite different ways. Vend." cf. from ddna + i. be again ndirikay-do. i. side it. spent^. 207. so that. The dualjihw^. Notef). 121 * Cf. my even this abbreviated form where the appended particle aj^ cha stands beas above. and 121 G. that to say.] is. the preceding semi-vowel has returned to its vowel nature. . . the dual genitive and locative r<Hd^'4')f1 jihway-6a. like the Gothic singular dative gibai 161. L c. 58.). §. p. an extension of the base which originally likewise occurs . " du (from as. however. remarkable. but in tion a^jihwi the masculine-feminine terminabut can. 2.226 meet FORMATION OY CASES. and p. (^. anieretat-dos-cha. c^^gQ>j} ^. that after the termination has been dropped. ^jfiro and see §. the prevalent one but it is [G. the preceding ay must have been contracted to ^. in fact. Ed. although. and a fair and powerful conassertion. is actually con- tained. S.'|* The form s»rv> Ss is to be deduced from the full form M^^^AA ay-dos . 25. and.t5. 88. ofjvS yuh-nfi Cf.e. 50. and. has become a diphthong with the a of the base (see cf. 26. a dual term i nation." so we find. t The MS.). and see 51. through an error." I believe. has here A)^>)^»c^»c9'^ amesescha^ but c frequently ocean in the place of p. has preserved the ease sign s. the abbrevialTid feminine dual form in (§. jo S termination. 244. p. Ai^^^^A5^^/^^As "the two Amertats. tos. the usual one of neuters. restored from the Zend form ^^ixs^j7jMSf is two has women. ed. therefore.

S. $. . Crit. 148. 245. V^^»9. " to be able. and indeed. 214.).). and I theme ends with a long. (Vend. ACCUSATIVE." for It is ^ro^ vdrdhydu.] forms in answer the Lithuanian in as ranUt. ^ITT^ dMM^ vdrdhi updnahdu. horn. 225. 99.) . " boar-leather shoes. and then display the naked base thus. only one example of which can be quoted. tevishi applied to p. in left The Lithuanian forms the accusative e. according to the analogy of the singular. in the scholia to Panini. ^fR Smi has arisen from the Sanskrit We may support the <amrn aydmU by rejecting the d.* To the Sanskrit-Zend feminine dual I . 603. VOCATIVE DUAL." The e e for a) e is explamed by the is influ- ence of the » p. bases in the Veda dialect the feminine i may lose the dual termination du.. accusative. derivation of fiT% jihwS also.) in Prakrit. not a short accusative from the frequently-occurring plural •h5^CU^»?^ tevishis [G. from which whether ^ i or j t is its final YOweL «« . is replaced by plural terminations. The Latin has preserved only in duo and amho a remnant of the dual corresponding to the Greek. Ed. Here follows a general view of the nominative. pp.NOMINATIVE. Ttijwi thatski (Gramm. feminine dual substantives infer that {e. however." it mar signify " powerful. And ^^J^iyM^> am to learn utayuUi also an adjective feminine dual. It is perhaps a participle of the rednplicated prct. p.o Vend. from the root »xs^ tav. 102). that even this Veda form. by this circumstance. i. wHkuh. and vocative dual (see §. according to the analt^' of the Sanskrit Fftr^TT tinivas. RANKA ment is so that of the diphthong ^ ^ only the last eledual. z. but I unable to quote examples of the other cases of this word. frequently. by a ringing nasal.g. Ed. strong. in the oblique cases. contradistinction to the cognate languages. very remarkable.g. can be referred to the Zend language. S. We its find. fem. 227 G. which. that from ftn^ Jihivay-du.

V.) : this resembles. " I glorify the two Amshaspants (non ventesque sanctos) the good rulers. I deduce this.. frequently short than long. '-rm. KVKU). . paiti ? . perhaps.. ace. hoipiji. we should alwaj s understand the Genii Haurvat (Khordad) and Amertai . • • • . GREEK. is S. -S^•o path pnti.. pants. which indeed might also be feminine plural forms. and sometimes also the accusative plural. on the contrary. also.. pdfi. 14. N. p. 80). vehrkd* ddt^. N. •=>• ddnS. " the two most holy is _^^^/->aj9 au^^. Cf. awu N. wllku. which its is vtry uncertain and shaken in use? whether under the name Amshaspants. P' vrikdu. ranH. . : e g. dfrM . juj yy icCAi HSOJAS^^AU <|j»'^^HM^>»' JkM/(3A5Jivi(J^>»« JkXJ^^CQ>jto amesha speatd coimi- liucsathrd huddonho dyesS. the appear a would be much more a. while. • • * While consonantal bases occur in the dual both with a long and a short a. have everywhere a long and only in the vocative a short a (Vend. together with the feminine form noticed at are found also as masculine . contrary to the practice otherwise adopted of shortening a final a. 31.). who created good.. hhvS. pp.. vehrkdo. in the same Wc find also. meaning as the so frequent shew themselves only as masculine duals.. the a bases.).. wilkii. $.oj/c<j)J3 spenistd mainyii. vrikd. i'lL-i jihwS.). 67. §. from the so-called Amshaa§. . is only the representative of the dual... 20. TTOCTi-e. LI-i-HUANlAir. • n. to a certain degree.. &c. (p." final If amesha spentd short. That the epithet huddonho dual nature of the in the plural cannot incur doubt. t8pi-e. spirits through which the dual form in d of bases in a likewise con- firmed in the most unequivocal manner.. du>i. the use of adjective genitives referring to a substantive in the ablative. 180. but. p. ? Ttopri-e. from the Amshasp 20P. V. which.. the original long vowi 1. Xwpd. or at Uast and hucsathrd were plural forms. vdri-n-i. Whether generally only two Amshaspants are to be assumed? whetlicr the genitive plural (ameshananm spentananm). The answer to the query.pati. the forms anieshdo spentdo (Vend. • • • • Mzvay-do. (cf. We find. which was mentioned in §. ZEND. 313. V. if I mistake not... 207. N. Vend. S. dual. S. anaong other words. FORMATION OF CASES.. exhibit in the nom. 30. amesha spentd. ranku 'S. for the most part. these repeatedly recurring expressions. Note f.228 SANSKRIT. frequently.

. testify the impassable duality of If they are identical with the celestial physicians. f. and natural objects of great indefinite number.). ndv-du. 803) the expressions HTrRf^TrT^ niatara-pitardu and Vedas.. ACCUSATiVB. &c. with the word vispa would then these Genii. that they are usually found together.. together. "the two most holy vispa. . m. these two twin-genii are in §. vadhw-du.. vdch-do. UTHUANIAS. we should here hav« an analogy to the conjectured signification of haun\it-a and ameretat-a. 129.NOMINATIVE. SAXSKRIT." and "two first member of the compound can here viated dual pitard. 208. and are. to the identical with the Indian Aswinen. f.. tanu. 229 mrili." For the scarcely be aught but the abbre- matard. m. VOCATIVE DUAL.. often have the " all. have the dual termination for this reason alone. still although each is in the dual. according to the principle of the Sanskrit copulative compounds. they probably mean "two mothers two fathers. Vend. fathers two mothers.. f. and whether these two Genii. GREEK. and if this is the case.. .. it would be important to word shew whether " all Amshagpants" are never mentioned. V. named •}^-i»?^ au4<aj9 ^^iJ-i*i9 spenistd spirits." As Genii. mainyu mazdd tevisht. In Panini we find ftl ri (p. literally. the Indian Aswinen. sunu. gav-du* f. f. 80 and 422. the last rowel but one (see $. together. the Genii Haurvat and Amertat. ixdv-e. N. in fine. nedv-e. f." but. and the utter incompatibility of the Amsh.144. strong. S.. sunn. tanH.14 1 ri O pitara-mdtard marked as pecuhar to the They signify " the parents. . are. sunu. pp. m.. 1.) '<^'"> &om ^ du . the great. those in ^^ an. pa»d. Amertat. which were referred to Zend-Avesta ? The aU these queries lies beyond the aim of this book. * Bases in ^ o form the strong cases {§. vdch-du. We will here only JU5(e«jjica)jj notice that. ." before them. then "Entireness" and " Immortality* would be no unsuitable names for them. va(f>e. and nouns of the agent in jfX lengthen in those cases.. n'trv-e. where they are praised. blmvhhyanty-^Ufhushyainti. .. madhil-Ti-i. two? reply whether. with the exception of the vocative singular.

(§.. ddtdr-a. Ed.V. ddtdr-du.. p. ZEND. These three cases have in the Sanskrit and Zend dual a common It is termination. abbreviated to bya. e7re(o-)-e.. asman-a. . which. denotes the dative singular and plural. Latin * The Veda duals in a are as yet only cited in bases in a. ^epovT-e. 249] to be very ancient. m..* vdch-a. Borfjp-e. vachas-i. » dkraen• • • ^n. 8aifJiov-e. Connected with the same the termination wnr bhyam. navel. 5 barant-a. DATIVE. p.. This abbreviation appears.. thongs ** . Tidmn-t.).) . Aj^jli which in Zend has been is. FORMATION OF CASES. brdtar-do..230 SANSKRIT. termination from in Sanskrit «n»T bhydm. bhrdfar-du.. dtmdn-du.j[ . in other parts of grammar. » • • • bhrdtar-d brdtar-Oy • • • • • t m. as also the circumstance that. . while in Greek the genitive has its joined itself to the dative. 215. 1. dvyarep-e ddtdr-ao. . . as locative for tfl^ nubhuUy from tflfW ndbhi. duhitar-d. GREEK. OTT-e.. but in the singular of the first person has to become abbreviated agrees ^R hyam [G. bharant-duy bharant-d.. • • • INSTRUMENTAL. ffTHT ndbhd. Trarep-e.g. however. duhitar-du. . . UTHUANUJI. asman-do. however.. . n. first.. 23. and or t^) iJ.. » dughdhar-a. in the pronoun of the two first persons.. dtmdn-d. • • • . N.. . .. and borrowed it.." t Sec the marginal note marked (*). • ( • • • • • • • • • ddtdr-d. • • • • > vdch-(i. in the Vedas d is occasionally found for au..'\ dughdhar-do.. barant-doy -Qin. rdKav-e. • • • . ABLATIVE. the Zend leads us to expect their extension to the other consonantal declensions. and other diph- e.. n. as the. 229.

however. Grimm. sunu-m. while other words we find simply ms as the sign of the dative— toi/^a-ms. is does to WWR In the second place.INSTRUMENTAL. suppressing The Lithe y. * On •' the facile transition of v into m (cf. Ed. 114) rests also. This termination which in 2iend *v^^ bis. the connexion of the termination Xf^mi/uvdm. this . p. it initial labial. p. 63. to H^m ma-hyam. [G. and with the usual change of as into tw.)* : appears improper to regard this dual termination . otlierwise than that of the cognate plural case and I have with no doubt of the identity of the explanation. adjectives have I.): this more complete form pronoun of the two yu-mus..] mination f>ni as sign of the instruis mental plural. the verbal tliird Whether the case the same with dual person 'ifra tdm shall be discussed hereafter. 828. says of the Lithuanian that only the pronouns and ms in the dative plural.'"' first persons. &c. which we two. yu-m's. thuanian has mus for bus in the dative plural (§. in 63. before vowels dr^ stiffened into in the pronouns spoken of has in this form has remained even before consonants. 17. I. and is ^yicfiq dvdm. According to this German plural dative corresponds to the Lithuanian dual dative. however. remained only in the "nobis. 56^). ABLATIVB DUAL. DATIVB. 250. in all has. as This m is. to me. tlie m of wilka-vh "kuKoiv. (/asti-m. in pronounced in Zend byd Latin bta. where the identity of the Lithuanian-German inflection m with the b (bh of the older languages) was first shewn. or the plural named instead of the dual for Ruhig gives /xwKzms. that of wilka-ms (for uilka-mus). "ye two. therefore. t Cf. When.f 216. however." with the common termination du. at but the least. plural." akims^ '"'oculis. has only the wi/ka-m. where mu-muSf " vobis" are used as well as mu-m''s. . 231 and mi-hi corresponds tu-bhyam. which expresses the dative and ablative (§." dm. not the a nasal form final letter (§." &oe. \vkois. the substantives is simply m. b. of bhyi\m. «rt bliyas. remarkably with as ti-bi it . A third form related to «n^ bhydm is the dual terbh'is. Grimm. I doabt not. "domiio*. vulfa-m.e. In the dual dative the Lithuanian m of the Sanskrit termination «rnT bhydm. is perhaps a mistake.

corrupted to f^ hih. with the exchange of the (§. that the Sanskrit instrumental termination bhis has been.] their is locative and instrumental use — plained by the fact. we it may offer the conjecture that has arisen from <pt^. that the common The dative also has assumed the sign of these relations. medial for the nasal of this organ mis is the property of the instrumental alone. <pt bis. that the Greek (f)i. labial while in Lithuanian. and what there said may be introduced here If <f)tv. by Prof. <pts would correspond to the Sanskrit bhis and Latin Perhaps. 217. have belonged to the singular. p. Ed." It through the eye. dvprjcpt. in that the former may . there originally existed a difference between find used indifferently for the singular and ^tv (which we and the plural). the latter to the plural and they may have had mi has " same relation to one another that. which corresponds to the Sanskrit mas and Latin mus| . so that puii-mis answers to Tlfrrfiro pati-bhis. Bopp. p. vo-bis). termination is <pi. Essay X Observe. also. where bis supplies the place of the bus which proceeds from wni t Trans. also. its cog- nate languages. a\j^__ij^jaiq) paiti-bis. vobh. through the (pi : has escaped notice that the terminations ^tv belong principally to the dative avro^t.232 (also Miji bis). 63. to mis in akimi. FORMATION OF CASES. in nobis. eyes. and that. (ptv. bhi/as.* mental. strict genitive use of the ter. . in Prakrit. has in Latin fixed itself in the dative and which must together supply the place of the instru- ablative. I have already elsewhere affirmed.)." and akimis. following the analogy of the change of neg into fiev in the 1st person plural. mination positions. Comparison of Sanskrit with III. 81. in Latin. and not be assumed to be the elder of the two forms. Berlin Academy. 0/1/. in Lithuanian. ^i. is to be referred to this place. (3tr)(piv and ex- [G.t also. may perhaps be altogether denied for if pre- which are elsewhere used in construction with the * In the Ist and 2d pronoun (no-Ms. bi has to bis in tibi and " vobis . 1826. 251.

Ed.] of the old Grammarians. 205) has rightly objected on this head. daKpvotpiv : in Sanskrit. 218. the form <piv. which are used in construction with the genitive. of signification. prepositions. used The same is the case with oaae Sa~ In 'l\i6(pi /cAt/ra rerj^ea it is not requisite to make 'lAid^i governed by Ilium. foreign. for it I can be aptly rendered ossibus. be is rendered by ^^ftn? asrubhis is the relation entirely instrumental. cjn. 233 we all are not com- on this account. or representative of the genitive. nor does it appear in the train of prepositions. 205). occur also with the case in pelled. know no passages besides where a genitive To the meaning could be given to forms in (pi and (piv. ing to its origin does not suit it. DATIVE. has received the sign of the would. though less suitably. 252. mentioned in §. XII. p. we refer the reader to what Buttmami i (p. and as to the impropriety of the subscribed before this termination in the dative singular of the first declension. that may stand also in the / nominative and vocative. The suffix dev also. which elsewhere occur with the accusative. (ptv.INSTRUMENTAL. with the single exception of e? evvY]<piv in Hesiod (cf. <pi. according to the sense. Kpv6<piv repcravTo. would. ABLATIVE DUAL. but it may be regarded af^' as locative ''to And in Od. be better used with an ablative or a locative. The neuters in 2. 45. if these cases were particularly represented in genuine ablative is Greek. {iroKi/g 5' 6(TTe6<piv 6)g dvdpdiv itvdofjievcav) there is no necessity to look upon by 6aTe6(piv as the genitive.. genitive. where the the common In dialect. As to the opinion ^/. 12S. lost ablative.'''' re'iyea. which occur in comlMnation with cpi. more usually. ocrae daKpvocpiv TrifnrAavTo. and is not changed because the verb mentioned with the genitive. in the genitive termination. ^tv. is and accordlikewise. incorrectly consi- dered to represent latter. accusative. expressing separation from a place. are nearly the only ones from bases ending with a consonant. Buttmann. to regard the latter as the genitive In general. (ptv. [G. p. in forms like cr^ea-^ .

nate languages. it This example without the necessity for however. base. p. assumed by me. KorvXT}§6v-o-(f>tv —after the analogy of com- pound words like Kw-o-dapaiq^. FORMATION OF CASES.234 op€<r-<f>i. which for is easily derived from vrikdbhis by rejecting the [G. . ^ di is. . for in compounds. in an older point of view. . bebefore vowel cause the 2 dropped is terminations was not recognised as the property of the base. by SuKpv — is §aKpv6(f>tv while vav-^iv. o. it assumes an auxifollowed. loirWT'T^ vrikdhhydm for ^oif«rr»? vrikabhydm. =d + i. like ^^^ to it ndu-stha. a final further to be remarked. resembles exactly the Sanskrit base tf)f>?^ ndubhis . it ^ a is lengthened It hence. ab- breviated this form to ^^ 2. however. which have before expressed."" ^wr^ Secondly. that this lengthening extended to the cognate plural termina- tion fvnr bhis . " * Trans. Ed. its cog- Essay III. according 1 to §. and KOTYAHAON . ^p^\i^^^ yusJimdbhis stand which forms asmdn.* In the first place. lupos. that before . the NAY keeps free from the conjunctive vowel on which account vavaradixov may be compared with Sanskrit com- pounds 219. hardly admits of any doubt. vrikdis.. and that hence. " standing (being) in the ship. the opinion Comparison of Sanskrit with p. I can now support by new arguments. hence ^rwrfir^ asmdbhis. from "^ vriJsa also vrikd-bhia would be found. This opinion. 79. '^*M}^ the same relation to the ^ojrrfW^^ vrikd-bhis. 253. also. smd-bhis. the pronouns of the two really persons form from their appended pronoun in w sma. which have been misunderstood." But return to the Sanskrit dual termination is wnn bhydm. by Prof. which did not then occur to me first in dis- cussing this question. sonants. (TTrjdea-^tv. 1/ Of (}>iv the other con- the only one. The common dialect has. Bopp. Berlin Academy. that the accusatives yushmdn. 1826. do to ^wnt^ vrikdn.] bh'. the only v which occurs in combination with and since N does not combine with liary vowel o $ so readily as 2.

which occurs frehand. or through analogy to [G. be disputed. ^^rf*?TT asvebhis. Journ.) may here be considered. in its substantive a. on one side.^* common dialect the pronominal form ^ftra S-bhis "per this answers to Veda form. In the hos. DATIVE. as^%«nT^ vrikihhyas hence. On the other Zend pronominal instrumental dis mentioned by Bnmouf (Nonv. t I do not regard the Veda 7f||^ nadt/dis. The connection of the baae^ di with aj^o ta cannot.* as that could never lead to ibhis.] the dative e-bhyas. for which an extension of the base nadi to nadya is to be assumed. 264. that. on this account. but as a very common instrumental. 310. ^ a springs the form ^fim S-bhis. has been formed. its owe comd of origin to the re-active influence of the 220. . the accusative of which ^j^ dim. which I 235 arrived at theoretically has. "per equos^ from ^^ asia. however. the S of which may. been so far practically established final by the Veda dialect. no necessity hence on an Perhaps.INSTRUMENTAL. or. $. which must properly be de- rived from the pronominal base ^ a. as it is itself already a diphthong. after rejecting the bh. dis." often foimd with unlengthened. and »*!>-i^^ dibis. ABLATIVE DUAL. from nadi-\-i» would be formed nadis). and though Veda dialect. since then. attaches itself to the former form. "him. in like manner. Asiat. from a ^a not d-bhis but ^bhig. as an abbreviation of nadi-bhis (for after rejecting the bh. H y. Ed. Though. ^Qflftnr yushmdbhis. cannot be combined with a following into a diphthong. menced by the Veda and changed into ^ i the • From i. from the pronoun on the other the side. which generally plays the chief part in the declension of ^^idam. contrary to 64. not dis. the quently in the Jzeshne. dbhis might force of the i become either through the assimilative of bhis. arises for supposing the abbreviated ais to be based S-bhis. p.-\ The Prakrit has fully followed out the path dialect. according to the analogy of the dative and ablative. i but ai/is. for =a+i. from ^ttT asma and xro yushma proceed and adjective bases in still the forms ViMlf^T^ asmdbhh. ibhis would come. into a triphthong. is is probably an abbreviation of jj^rjjjfl dibis or from a base i di. for ff^fW^ nadi-bhis. in it. III. then.

and 21 often." and n Zend ^^tm. ^f^ e-hin. in Rosen.ijiijn3Aj»fe>' hvaiibya = ^sn^TP^ ^^[^imtf^swdbhydm pddd" manibus. M^r^xi^MXi^ zaka^ibya (^wt^TTh) in this case. in the locative plural. ^n%^ amhisu. Ed. differs from the Sanskrit in the same way as the Zend and Prakrit do before the terminait tion finr bhis. employs. terminate the instrumental plural with uf^ e-hin •FW^fi^ ArMswrne-Am. the forms in Trfim S-bhis. which does.>^a5(o^q> A}. in the Vendidad.236 FORMATION OF CASES. " floribus. 255. ex- tremely 221. had arisen. §§. 28. §. by 6i (§. yushmdsu. as well pronouns as substantives and . 'ToRfH^ trrikabhis. according to pddhaeibya. in Sanskrit. from ^iftro dbhis. also. S. 41. "to sacrifice." and thus to the (horn kusuma. 15 dis is the i»f»?'H ebhis : 14. adjectives.g. also. together with that in pp. Before the dual termination xsi^ bya the Zend. by the change of d into S.). " siiis pedibus. 42. thus. as also. TT»^f^ tumM-hint Moreover. that of asmdsu. asmd-hhis.*' for 5TI?T li/am (see.) answers Veda oiw^f>?H kusumi-bhis. a5A^s. Before. 305 this form the I lost nasal be restorec*. and by contracting the X[mi/dm ishta said. In Zend the abbreviated form it only one that occurs. ^ for d: but from vehrki-bya. however.] its a bases. This form exists also in the oldest hymns of the Vedas. WTf^ tumMsu. namely. Thus. all other a bases. as when. and it be assumed (of tv is which have no doubt) that the Greek dual termination an abbreviation of the Sanskrit like w/xoi-iV are to bhydm* then the Homeric forms be compared with the AjiiiJ^> ubdi-bya * By is rejecting the labial.^^ bhydm. dis must have proceeded by means of rejection and contraction from that most early form. ^ranff arkdis. in p. But If in ^ ^ is supplied p. [G.^'' comes vehrkaeibya. as in "4%13 vrikdis from to iv. M^Js^\Li> ubdibya. hence ^I»^l^ amM-hin. Tif^ yajndis.) ). . in Prakrit. from yaj. 33. p. indeed. *^haa. for yashta. yushmd-bhis. the diphthong e. f^ hin . " ambobus"'' (Vend.

. before 0<v (KOTvXt]dov-6-(pti').vt must and the conjunctive the whole third vowel. thus. here a different from that which. in all probability a ^ . In order to present to our tv. Y. and have to the vowels i shewn the way [G. the first / would to it lengthens. its appearance between consonants and the 3atfj. the other to the termination. . has extended answers declension. therefore. from Bouiiov-o-cfiiv* <piv We should have. which the eoiTesponding Sanskrit termination hhydm leads us to expect ^amov-o-tv. 256. in <pi^. * The conjunctive vowel o. which . The third tion first declension. in ge- neral. from Ttvp-o-lv on the other hand. from thence. same manner 21S. not have been necessary for the conjunctive vowel o to make termination. ABLATIVE DUAL. above mentioned the base. 237 fall where. which has been already elsewhere compared with the Sanskrit '^nT vant. from those terminating in a consonant into it which might dispense with v) . §.ov-iv as could very easily be uttered . therefore. therefore have been originally pronounced Fevr. 217. in general. by its forms like Baifiov-on. we endeaas. that otv : and not iv is the true termina- the latter. \oyo-iv). and : thus Tix'p-o-€is to irvpoiv. we explain the o before in the \iz. iv In the third. thereas. DATIVE. which has made have those I its way from the bases which necessarily it. §. however. Ed. in the third declension the conso- nantal bases have given the tone. e.] and u. which the bases. as a conjunctive vowel. (yiov<ra-tv.. is declensions.INSTRUMENTAL. at the end of words. i. rvpo-tis to TVpOUf {TVpO-w). however. It might. (into the bases in and as. p. might give rise to the conjecture. shewn to be so from the two attached to the final where tv and not oiv is vowel of the base fore. but the o of Satfxoioiv comes evidently from a time when the tv was still preceded by the consonant. before the dual termination has an origin exactly similar to that of the possessive snffix evr. voured to explain from (<}>)tv finr bhis: the nasal in the dual its stands quite regularly for predecessor m. digamma made requisite or desirable before consonantal itself to and which. therefore. has remained also after the digamma has been dropped.

238 view in still FORMATION OF CASES. 42.. Ed. then. contrast the termination bi or hi (for bhi) therefore. the dual termination be explained as a conalso. the origin traction of bhydm. tv. however. we shall have found. more this respect.* Max. 77). that the former has retained the beginning and the latter the end. opposed to the «nT^ bhyas of other words. a form which the Latin and Greek have shared in such a manner. e/jC-iv. which is borrowed from the locative. 267. Tu. the Latin also. bhyam.) . . iv 222. and has also its its abbreviated form ?nT hyam. but occurs nowhere else . of the dative plural termination which appears to have been pronouns of one gender as <t0'-/v. in the singular tv also of 200. this bhynm. we arrive at iv quite than from the dual termination bhyam wjir As. • In the i both coincide. the distinction is of the plural dative of the pronouns of one gender ancient. presents in (§. and to the common i. and the Sanskrit has in very them wnr bhyam as termi- nation ('ST^viin asma-hhyam. in the pronouns referred to. changed in it this number in the were by accident (f/fi-^v. The Greek. or (cf. as. v^x-lv. endeavoured nect the tei-mination tv con- here treated of with the Sanskrit in a diflferent way. §.^^ '^^{v^^ yushma-bhyam. by designating it as the sister form of the pronominal locative ter- mination . The occasional accu- A short time since. we can. a^'-tv. place in the singular dative of the pronouns of one gender. §. however. t-i'v. or. more clearly how forms quite similar take root the language as corruptions of preceding dissimilar first forms. p. in one case from in the other If from eTvirrovT. moreover.). has maintained a genuine dative termination. Schmidt. in his excellent treatise "Comto mentatio de Pronomine Graeco et Latino" (p. From more so. together with a^i-at). let the form ervnTov be considered as the per- son singular and third person plural eTVTTTOfjL. as easily. is guided or correctly. in misled by the Sanskrit. see nothing else than an abbreviation of «ni bhyam. according to 215.) "nobis. all "vobis''''). (G. re-'iv.

that is precisely the pronouns of one gender in the Sanskrit. ovpavo-di c?/ii Related to the suffix fv is V dha. vi-v. viz. which has been retained in i-ha. wm bhy-am. 223. " cf. satives.). is to be regarded as a sister form to the Latin fi-hi. * In Prakrit the termination f^ hih. and the demonstrative ^ a the theme so that this preposition. common dialect only in the abbreviation ha. fin? As to the origin of the case-suffixes [G.). as irf^ ta-hih. and not assume. p. WTR bhy-dm. the . fxi-v." and in the preposition sa-hOf "with". for the formation of locative adverbs. in respect to its termination. "there.' first. unites also with other pronominal bases. exclusive of the length of the Greek tf. u-bi . 217. 201.* just as another preposition. we must ^aft? their connection with the preposition abhi. like o-di^ aAAo-0/. diflFen lay less stress on the nee of quantity than on this. and the exchange of its v with that of the accusative thereby caused. ^rfv adhi. si-hi." "apud^^). which. Greek the locatives. In this view similar forms would be con- trasted." finds a. Still I may pass as compensation for the a. 239 eative use of this termination. and fV? wm bhy-as. begin with wy bhy (from bhi). 16." i|f\| A:a-Ain. . DATIVE. in like manner. which is connected with "where?'* (cf. is found in several pro- mination ^TT in (§. in "here. but I which exhibit in tlie attach still more weight f»^ bhi what has been said above in support of my opinion. we have in /xiV and vlv real accu- and should therefore divide them (p. Ed. mination.] bhi-s. ter- However.). §.INSTRUMENTAL. the pronominal analogous forms in the (§. also. i-bi. according to my it explanation. 258. locative not in to but the common i ($. which notice." " against. with Buttmann this a connection between form and the dative -7 v. "at.201). and in the Zend. is to be ex- plained from its original signification being no longer felt. which has been dropped. which springs from base " over." (whenc-e ^»TcrB^ abhi-tas. in Theocritus. in abhi itself bhi is clearly. ABLATIVE DUAL. 296). On the other hand. to. but in the Veda dialect exhibits the original form and more extended diflFiision. " to- wards.

The following a general view of the dual termination under discussion. should spring from 6 +A is not entirely And. (Sanskrit fir^ dwis). 269. way r. ^ much." In the Greek.. TH sma has become T^mha.M»a» ava-dha. the following semi. Rem. "the second. for iT^ tas. and the Latin bis. . opposed to dev. "here.). but it is more difficult to aficj)!). &c.* Th I refore dha. to be derived from the demonstrative I ase k ta . 224. in the for 2d person plural of the middle is[ dhwS and 8^ dhoam ^ tw^. will serve as 251. in Prakrit still (§. that after the s has been dropped. trace the origin of th 6f hhi of ^H ahhi used for (Greek suspect that an initial consonant has been [G.240 FORMATION OF CASES. from evdev. is to be explained the relation of mnJ^ hhuyos. so fv{ hhi may be identical with the pronominal base (r(pei£. as. ^ swa or f^ swi —whence the Greek his.] dropped." to Crit. and in Zend is jho^^j his. 166. &c. hi. in some other formations. " " more. nominal bases with a locative signification e." the a being rejected (Gramm. in Greek this for (T(piv is found also yj/lv. a>(2. m^^^j>>^ dvitya (Sanskrit fffdln dwitiya). .). <T(piv." is clearly an abbreviation of fs^rfw dwinsati. in Sanskrit. efxedev. Sanskrit As in Greek. j^ twam. p. and so indeed. are also. that w bh unknown and in . just as in the Zend m5^_j xi^^^JA bitya. Tlie changed sibilant might also be recognised tion of the >T in the aspira- hh. g. in ^TUTT a-dhas. "beneath": in which formations t. and Lithuanian: — Amon^ others. also. (rtfitv. bahu. dlii. (ptv is and as in f^^K vinsati "twenty. V dh stands as a permutation of and occurs in this way. compare da of ev^a. (which comes closer to the case before us).vowel has been strengthened or hardened. Zend. <piv. Greek. Ed. and. "twice. from \RT dhas.. in Sanskrit." used for MS^y>^ dvit." A5i^^^ bitya.

60. however. in Greek. m. the last brvant its theme: in the latter case it would be a last participial form. contrary to §. those in letter. Bases in 7 r interpose c e. so that the ablative singular of a theme a / this \ would seem >2 r»AJ»^ brvat I bru (Sansk.'\ (pepovr-o-iv. " light. Jihicd-bhydm.>^te^nl>A)/ raoch-e-byo. fiaiito-ai. is however.INSTBUMENTAL. as often as S. 321 and 322. and would but one also sin- demonstrate. asma-bya. also. OTT-O-Tv. according to §. the ^ / of ^m nt is rejected. Ttcxyi-o-iVf f. The form 9>>^<^ (§. paii-nu tanu-bhydm. p. BaiiJ. dtma'-bhydm. AJii^ /c^cTcj berezen'-bya. V. • I deduce this form principally from the base in the terminations cjiJjaj/ raoch." i which often occurs interposes beginning with b. tanu-bya. that instead of the consonant of may be rejected. because in this solitary word the case termination appears unreduced this The MS. probably for bravat byahm. 241 UTBCAKLUI. and always ce as conjunctive vowel — jiv. in Sanskrit . paiti-bya. 61. " tplendentibuSf" brvat-byaiiniy with ** t. or in. p. iriTv-o-iv. vehrkoi-bya. tcilka-m.ov-O'iv. aR£EE. thus. word occurs. m. noAJ»/AJj it 5>n4^ that bhru). that any thing but ^as>>^ brvat or ^^aj»^ nt.. r»AJ>>Zs supercilHs" also deserves notice. We find. barvat byahm. . hizvd-bya. a. twice ^WJ^ is iK>M>>2i brvat byahm . m. vdg-bhydm. when a vowel precedes that the termination direct (AJ^^rvAJ^OJUi^c/c^-w amereidtat: bya.). always divides the termination from the base (Vend.) on the other hajid. and Zend. and thus a / \ bru would still be the theme ? t i\r. paii-bhydm. 269. DATIVE. vdch-€-bya* bar an -bya. conjoin ^ /. f . vrikd-bhydm. bharad-bhydm. <y. y ranko-m.^_i cckj«A5/ raocA-tf-W*. is rejected before case terminations b<>ginning thus. S. have not found word in any other case : it is not likely.). p. 38. S. 9. ABLATIVE DUAL. {vehrkaSi-bya. pp. with a consonant and in Gothic dhma'-m. 63. £ f. Or are we to regard brcat byahm as a form of that gular kind that unites with the termination of the ablative singular that of the dual. jic^PpiSA}»^ vi-voch-e-bis (Vend.

. which too personal for the neuter. fii{^T^^^jihway-6s TTf^tlT taniv-()S. as in the cognate languages. in the singular and dual. •narep-o-iVy hxe{a)~o^iv.). GREEK. p. and superlative. with regard to masculine-feminine termination or personal designa- tion. t'. 261.242 lAKSUUT. . m«ftw pafy-6s.).. two cases. VOCATIVE. awy-u both dual and plural genitive.eir The three numbers. ZEND. therefore. ^^PRt^ vachas-ds. vach6-hhydm. vachd-hj/a. NOMINATIVE. is wanting that gender. I de- consider this as to be an extended form of so that in this extension the singular nominative sign s. like positive. Ed.9. In Zend 599 as has. §. LOCATIVE. likewise in : Lithuanian.. In Zend is this termination seems to have disappeared. ^^ all as for the termination of the nominative plural. as well as in the plural. FORMATION OF CASES. * VT ar before to^r» case terminations beginning with consonants is short- ened ($. . in Sanskrit. in Sanskrit. 36 . and the highest degree belongs to the dual. 226.] 225. where. with which. ^^t^ vdch-Ss.^ . comparative. Masculines and feminines have. examples: ^eRTft^^ vrikay-6s. the vocative is identical in clensions. PLURAL.127. are related to one another. have tlie common termination the singular which may be connected with genitive termination. bhrdtri-bhydm* bhrdtar-e-bya. of the case-suffix lies is a symbolical allusion to plurality: and the in . according to §. MTBrANIAN. as it were. The following are (cf. These ^fft^ 6s. [G. and to be replaced by the plural.. GENITIVE. Yn. 158. n. >JT^\Ta^ bhrdtr-6s.

from IVLFAas 69. as in general the ter- mination asm to is Gothic polysyllabic forms has everywhere been or s (cf. in Sanskr. ^ a of the base to d thus. of an which. the Greek exhibits appeuded particles cha and under the restriction of §. in Zend.. is contracted for suniv-as. 191. f^t^m Jihuds. and and similar forms. hence. The a melted [G. i. but elsewhere. find themselves suffici- ently personified in this case through themselves alone « I . too. that the Gothic gibos. corresponds to the Gothic vulfos. as in the singular 6 for 6s .] .) : hence. 227. matr- correspond with one another. however. <i4illl from vrika (§. the it in a refuse. §§. or as (contracted with the base vowel to 6=^6) for case designation. 22S. down with a preceding vrikas. Thus the words ^ffirnr duhitar-as. from simple its s GIBO. dvyarep-e^. and all is with this the case terminations are then in jT te. there good ground to assume contained. ahman-as. tion. of the termination is dukter-es.t as in Gothic. from what has has been just said. t As tliat ^ a is lengthened in first many other cases to is ^ e. is said for sas. be shewn with certainty. + as. The masculine pronominal bases Zend. with the termination as to d*. VOCATIVE PLURAL become chit . p. both with vowel and consonantal bases. the s alone of the old as is left. is used ro & or ^ di. with the vowel of the base. for which. the Lithuanian has es in bases in r s. conjoined. extend the base by the addition to §. p. 228. 243 6 or jjai as before the e^. as purely words of personality. 26-2. no case designation at that the pronouns. 2. ille and in Greek while in Latin. Ed. It cannot. ahman-s.NOMINATIVE. R 2 CriU . the Gothic has preserved the full ter- mination.). And WF d. 2J dughdhar-as'cha. and Gothic. full nominative designawith and in place of i. weakened 135. . sunyu-s. In this concretion only.'\ according the a of the base forms ^ * Vide §. 797. the Latin es* with anorganic length of quantity through the influence of the s but elsewhere simple aj^j3A)/a)2^P -es. with is-te also ipse and are robbed of the nominative sigiu foct that This opinion is remarkably confirmed by the ^sn^ ami (Grimm. for jihivd-ag. in Sanskrit. however. 1078.

in Sanskrit jihwds from jihwd-as. Ed. " this. thus. this (ej. Zend w^^ to the td. thus. although in origin identical with the . t^. 271. according to Anquetil's inaccurate tiuuslation. give also therefore. (Doric for ol). ^ t^. that to 244. the termination as also might attach itself. ypipat. Gothic thai. although.) occurs with a plural signivdch-do. have.244 hence. §. fixed narrower restrictions than the The Lithuanian has Greek and Latin on it the misuse of the pronominal inflexion under discussion. ^^jud^ zxu^^fxi? Crit. for that the adjective a bases." to be the naked theme. first (§. ! Honour. as of the first it declen- sion. rot i. To this corresponds. terrce \vKOt. p. has preserved the old termination hence. In Zend. but all other bases of the second. in Greek and Latin. c. lupi. In Zend. es). considered as a contraction of vispay-as-cha leads to the conjecture. 56'. and similar uninflected forms. . but not rankai. ds. terra-es. guu^o tdo (§. wilkai=\vKot. 207. S. "voces. for KvKo-es. which practically replaces the termination as has not reo mained §. " illorum. it therefore.). terrai). \J. indeed. stands probably as accusative. In Greek and Latin.) shews itself clearly through most of the oblique cases. " Hits. in consonantal bases the dual termination goj do also (from ^rw . taken example from hence. p. its (from The Latin fifth declension. but rankos. however. 263. in the accusative plural and thus the abovementioned vispes-cha 1. want of inflexion that in : gives. 49). it might be regarded as the nominative.'''' fication thus. 229. ''omnesque" (cf.** answering feminine form irra tds. in Greek. for lupo-es. res from re-es. no violation of the old law. ai for ds {blindai " caeci ") is. as they in general follow the pronominal declension. as.).). the pronominal form in e occurs. to speak more correctly. a.)." ami-sham. 116. 121. frequently. The form which occurs in the Zend-Avesta ascj^coJaj^^ vi'spes-cha. lupi (from lupoi). yj^pa-e^. as ami-byas.] FORMATION OF CASES. for the most part. in the masculine pronominal bases in {='^ . or. §. (V. H^H tay-as. to the Gothic this respect has not overstepped by one hair the old Sanskrit-Zend limits. Sanskrit ^ [G.

). as that.g. in Sanskrit patay-as. 27. the termination as has been a second time appended to the termination. p. ** 245 luces^ which forms cannot be regarded. Ed. I have directed my attention towards it. "sons. a short a for their termination| to . '|»»jjas2) pasv-d. . y. Guna. Asiat. telligible from sunau-s. THT^H sunaw-as.). ANSTI . as ^'Wjgoj^^w^i. hence. &c. ^HTOTT dsas (§. or paitay-6. 56. setting out with the San- we are tempted to assume that the true termination in these forms has . Neuters have. p. perhaps the remains of the natural genders. §. according to $. to belong to the German.] pean languages. 309. (for suniu-s.. 310) given the plural neuter form. gastei-s.) a becomes y . it very diflBcult to come to a firm conclnsion regarding although.). The form ^tv^^ donhd "lupi. 231. form which would be uninhence. p. sunw-as. e. from the first. Ii bases the i Guna t is down with The that of the base to long (written ei. and " lupos^ rests on that in the Vedas. "songs of praise. as regular plurals of bases in d I for I believe [G. Simple as this point I have nevertheless found it. in my opinion. 105. * t The i. as in the cognate Euro[G. Bumouf has already (Nouv.). VOCATIVE PLURAL. Joom. perhaps. after full as. 41. U^HlflH stomdsas.'''' in a bases. from GASTI. 230." theory. 2jend employs Guna or not at pleasure hence ^^^^ojajq) paity-6. which had become concrete with the base. sunyu-s." for u'Ihih stdmds. Ed. III. also has preserved this (§.* Bases in i and u have.* vehrkaonhS. before u.'' is . which. or pasav-6. for paty-as. ansfei-s. s. to be so regarded.] can guarantee that there exists no such base as Au^au(p vdchd and juu^waj/ raochd.NOMINATIVE. remains in spite of the I a preceding the is. and instituted comlike parisons with the Gothic and Greek. raoch-do. which belongs is the the which too per- • This fonn is. (cf. because. for greater emphasis. 265. 264. but which only occurs in the nominative. which has been t without the Guna shewn melted 70. from ^ffW stoma. Guna hence tnnra The Gothic . is blended with the base. in Zend. '' But from forms it hu-matOy bene-cogitata" "hucta" " bene-dicta. cannot be perceived what the neuter plural termination properly skrit. but in its weakened form i which.

) iata or thrayo (masc. We must blame however. sonal for the dead [G. without regard to the gender of the singular. and a disorder which has very much impeded the inquiry into this subject. make every noun numerous mashya. "three nights. e. however.246 FORMATION OF CASES. aj^joaj ascha). here is I am nevertheless aj convinced that this plural mashya. in the accusative. "verba . has been dropped. e. neuter in the class of a bases an inclination which goes so lost the far. prone. chathwdro (masc. {§. The replacing. in of the the received condition its loss language.] Tliis a remains.). " four nights": in Vend.g. is. then. however. likewise. hence. infinite number it is clear that gender and personality are far in The personality of the individual is lost in the abstract . speechless gender. " which have had no beginning". or not. 266. "human being. " homines . mashya-cha). Ed. also. elands tdnara yd. M^^Mxs(c/c AJ^Ajy berezant-a. 237. that the have hereby entirely masculine nominative." In general the numbers " three " and *'four " appear to have lost the neuter . S.' are examples \ A5yA5»Ajja3As ashavan-a. "three hundred". Zend for its evitation of gender in the plural. . as (Zend : ^ 6. bring the adjectives or pronouns refer. with the substantives to which they and that in this respect it exhibits a downright confusion of gender. however. either compensated We must therefore direct our attention to bases with a different termination than a. " splendentia. The examination of this subject is.'^ m^xuI^ vdch-a. that into concord it does not. in The masculine and generally likewise following the same " case.g." I divide thus war-a although . p. is " ossaJ'"' no- minal bases in a the termination the vowel of the base : melted down with the d so produced has. all lights Thus. in this point. thrayo cunfn-a. feminine have. . p.) sata *<four hundred. mucli embarrassed. in all places." chathwdro csafn-a. and inanimate plurality and so far we can but praise the it. contraiy to natural expectation. . vispa anaghra-raochdo (not raoch-a). 66''. The pura In ." nar-a. mashya (withcAa. and vowel. on the other hiind." in the plural nominative. and but sparingly exhibit the masculine accusative." aj^^^^aj ast-a. tisaro (fem. as in not an abbreviation of mashydn from mashyds o or a« <i no other part of Zend Grammar form belongs culine stands for ^rw ds: I am persuaded that this to the neuter. When.) sata. or mashya.** ihosa persons who . is in that the Zend. according to a by lengthening the final has been dropped. to plural . of the plural mas- by neuters rests upon a deep internal feeling of the language for in the plural the back ground. especially to such as terminate with a con- sonant.

*'A<Bc" but daura. " peccataT from agha. Participial forms. however. Gothic namon-a or namn-a. intrans. In we find an accusative agha aiwUhitdr-a. for to. 144. this form proves less (though it be incorrect) that the neuter ashiivan-a should be derived from the imorganic extremely rare ashavana. 69. " quae. acI cusative. and is the sufi&x used in the formation of the word it which in the strong cases tdr .. that where there are more forma of the theme than one.). find frequently vdch-a S. much less frequently than nar . stand [G." From (also. like the Sanskrit (see Gnunm. elsewhere. -cgitdra. E<L . erroneously as it Vend. jujp from . and remains only in monosyllabic bases and before annexed particles. than from the genuine and most common aghavan. VOCATIVE 1 LDEAL. whence also. forms the nominative.). A5^jj^/a)»^ M^C^^vy aj^A}^>»» vdehu humata hucta hvareJta. The Gothic and Zend... HVAa. extends unorganically to ashavana. 185. . has extended the old S. been again shortened. 42). "and those persons. bene-dicta. MiJ^ yd. like the Pali and Old High Gerparticipial man.. that aiici is a preposition (p. bene-peracta. "to be mined "). tar is much certain. f^ kshi." occurs very often the neuter plural : 'shvana-a as. and means So literally is " the destroying" (cf. in variance from the Sanskrit. therefore. " verba bene-cogitata. the masculine nar-6 ta&-cha.^ is used (for thd. in the weak cases ashaun or cushaon.). Greek T-uXay-a. and from this example follows. 927. be said of the Gothic that the a of the base has been dropped before that of the termialthough the form might also belong to a theme but riara. that the Zend. §. 247 principle often quoted. which also occurs. c). Crit. from THJa hvo. . theme by a vowel addition." Anquetil renders both expressions together by "fa but probably aitei-sitdra stands for corruption du cceur" (II. cannot. r. p. 34. refrain from ad- ducing other examples for the remarkable and not to have been expected proposition. I too. p. as also from asha- van-a. itself too.3 very remarkably upon one and the same footing "hcEc. as. "word. for assuming that the Zend." From JA>»AJX3)A5 ashavan. in Zend. the Zend."'^ opposed to ajoaj agha. although »-ery rarely.g. and vocative plural from the stronger theme." we vach-a). the theme ashavan sometimes. ajciWiu^ "speech. " pure." appears." DAURA.NOMMATIVE. in this respect. the theme cocA. 1 19. It- "qiuB. e. for thd. {§. p. forms its plural neuters according to the principle of the I. 267. "peecata corruTnpaitia (i). in nt are verj' common in the neuter plural and have never found any ground the Vend.atin nomm-a.

there- peretu may bo conjoined with the preposition d. 6." so tliat and peretha miglit mean " without a bridge " . because the base-vowel first.] e. has become offspring shortened. le p. may even pass for a more weighty ending. be weakened the fate of long vowels especially at the end of words. " hills."* is stands for andperethw-a. and th&t peretu would. terminated its a. in Zend. from the time when the second declension. therefore. stood as the plural neuter. 313.248 nation. be said of the Greek ra Siopa and the Latin dona. w. could not be dropped. gaiiis That which Anquetil (IL renders by "une action qui empiche de passer peche contre nature. o. suppress their final vowel before the termination. and has ancient quality only in the plural neuter. negative an have been . date.). the it is actions which . for divides thus. for it FORMATION OF CASES. 268. come. e. however. 6).. and then the prefixed. in Greek. agha andperetha skyaothna i. 46 and gairi (see p. but with the various reading andperetha. A>AijAs<5)jAJ»4'Ajy 119). o or maintained its 204. " without. naro-vaipaya. however. and here evident that andperetha actually "bridge.. iotta perethwa or peretava. p. S. This a is an old inheritance of the oldest bases with e (§." runs in the original (p.). done. 196. 48. which following OlshauI have no ground assuming that in Zend there exists a preposition and. 268. fore.". that the a entirely belongs to the termination. and u may be suppressed and replaced by lengthening the base-vowel: thus we read from in the Vend. than if ^mpo or Biope. to use the expression. Bases in i and u may. in contrast with its u. has grown out of a+d. that I suppose. in the singular instrumental. Msj^Mj<3^xi^^^ A>w<^7gQ)AMyA5 asoai yd. Notef): (fem. which unites base and termination. and termination have been.. and peretha. It cannot. in Latin.) le pont. " the sins which stop the bridge. dono. [G. which This a. from the concrete. for peretu means • Burnouf8 MS. This a has since then beor e. Ed. sen (p. pp. 232. : The this old is length of quantity might. aj7as^ gara." j^jaj^ on the other hand. and the a.

while Anquetil faultily gives (magiciens). from >^v^l}vdhu. and in AnVocabulary is (p. "of the sorceries". 341. in A»»A550AM^ ydtava (Vend. p. 269. but is elsewhere replaced by ka this base. " "VVnat are the words which are thrice said in the prayers (songs) 1" to The masculine forms no difficulty. 231. A5»WJU56jUJ^ •'C°^3^ A'-C^ Xi^Xil^ ^^A)A5 AJi^^ M^^/^Mi juoj/o kya aeti vacha yoi henti gdthdhva thris dmruta (erroneously thris dmruta). It has the epithet us-astar-a ("up-starred?") in opposition to ^^wgty (?) ^j^As^oo-wjiOAy [G. S. occasion So also V. it base yfitit. agha yntava literally by "the " of sorcery quetil's (An quetil. "peccata. according the meaning of the derivative to his custom.p. "la magie tres mauvaise"). VOCATIVE PLURAL. "to the ill-starred Indies. aSte and y6i can here. magic" (according mo gicien). in which the suppressed termination in is a u base replaced by lengthening the final vowel. r»AJ^ ka-t. p. "the seven Indies (Anq. therefore. viz. 122. and * V." (cf. >spJ>>^JC^ 7). which means. S. p.S. and in the same page in Olshausen occurs a derivative of ydtu in the accusative singular. either pure or with Guna : the latter form I recognise .NOMINATIVE." An is example. vShu.. "goods. Ed.] daus-astarem hendum. p. 120 in Olshausen. p. and. in The interrogative base ki quis. in is Zend. which can only be the plural accusative of for it ydtiu stands with ajoai agha. sins render. ^^wiijlp the very frequently occurring 233. with hapta hendu. xi^^^ kya before . is at An example of a neuter plural form without Guna AJ2>^^g»» hendva " V. p. " the Indies'^. Bat a final 249 u may also be retained. the of our regular plural genitive therefore. the use of . 11. wliich Sanskrit forms only the singular nominative-accusative (neuter) foFT ki-m. takes this oblique case for a nominative." "gifted with I ^^^^c^>^^uJ^ydtuTnentemt "the magito Anqnetil. quid). 85. forms in Zend the plural neuter aj^^^ ky-a*'. 467) 9^»oju>^ ydthvaiim. 270). cian. according Note at §. " what ": which very limited. whence. S. in the form of a semi- vowel.

perhaps as the weakening of a former a the final vowel of the base is length(§.] i. in accordance with the abovementioned hendva and ydtav-a. r. as also ^'iR purii. 6. " three. As i in Gothic." are very im- portant for the neuter cases under discussion. fnm bhiy-d.9na. e.''^ multa. in which the base is not suppressed before it the termination a (above. under certain conditions.] hence ^^Tf?T c?dn4-n-i. but can only be explained as an abbreviation of the d-ni.* ^\^^ The bases which terminate with a single con. The Sanskrit a. wliich likewise occurs in the Vedas. that. but into >Tt thus. changed into f^ysn vlswd. pp. in place of the Zend.European neuter an ^ p. in Sanskrit. THUI. 10). gives. and some other letters. since we still i require of the examples which can be relied upon.) .). from vairi. in which they form thriy-a {fhriya hunda. Ed. . * According to a euphonic law (Gram. 133. gara for gairy-a). according to the principle of the Sanskrit forms. '^ omnia" from viswa.250 this FORMATION OF CASES. t In the Vedas."isused for tr^fT!l/>«ri/m( Rosen's Spec. is. sonant — t^ n and T r being excepted —prefix to it a nasal. the ni in a bases is frequently found suppressed . an TT ^ r. n following " which are the lords"?). for as the Sanskrit nowhere uses a neuter tcrminationa. neuter substantive and adjec- bases in are wanting. form is the more important. after Crit.g. ened." ">wfl. viipd-cha : but perhaps only exter- nal . were in tive use. f^fv^viswd can- not well be deduced from v'lspa+a. 84''. of which the i monosyllabic its sound has not passed into iy. from bhl 234. " three hundred ") and iy-a. and between is it and the case termination a euphonic n placed (§. the base numeral base /. simple semi-vowel. although may with reason be conjec- tured. forms also like vairy-a or vairay-a.) madhu-n-i. mr\fm vdri-n-i. 9." and the pronominal " he. before the masculine <^»aj^aj7 ratavo («|)»aj50aj/ aj^^A kya ratavo. [G. In this way the Sanskrit is connected this coincidence is with the Zend vispa. 270.

Note* and and whence.. in the Latin plural quce kS. X This form belongs not to the base gular. without a case termination. as. LITHtJAN. GOTHIC. [G.) nominative plural is.-{- vulfos. LATIN. tie-m. rankos. m.. form TIA ^^ corresponds to the Veda JH tya. thai. The original but .212. and nearly all the other cases TA j (=(1 to tn). while the base shya^ see $. Diiramler). however. tie-vis. and of hie. and in the plural nominative. and it and the neuter accusative SANSKRIT. I would refer prelimi- my §. 193. 2. and age is thereby rendered doubtful . the antiquity of this dual termination supported by the Zend. the Latin. has introduced a termination originally dual into the plural* . however. n. however. 65. and h(e-c which stand in Latin very isolated quce is. p. mentioned in sya (-OJ §. data. treatise " On the Influence of Pronouns in the formation of Words" t See (l)y F. in the dative dual and plural. tS. in the sin- TIA. is . VOCATIVE PLURAL.. Into relation with this might be brought the neuter i/iaic) still inflexion of quce {quai) .. a as true as possible of the Sanskrit dual ^ We give here a general viewj of the formation of of the vocative. not to ia. tos. ZEND.] we cannot avoid recognising remnant 235. and n the preceding vowel is lengthened hence I ^^rftl vachdn-si. p.t KVKOI. in the verb also. tS. * The termination yH tha or "ff tis answers to ^n? thas. while it tolerably distant from the Sanskrit Wjf^ kd-n-i. hizvdo. tie has been developed (cf. . Ed. m. 271.NOMINATIVE. w'dkai. daura. mm^fi ndmdn-i.) is fully declined in Lithuanian in the form of SZIE. ddnd-n-U jihwds. terrae. likewise without inflexion. ta-s. moreover. X^joa/. 174. rot. f. 229. p. lup'-l. through the influence of the i. is Since. vrikds. and after s 251 . Greek With respect to the otherwise remarkable is declension of gut. whence. identical with the plural nominative. Slop a. is nearly identical with the neuter dual % ke from ka+i (§. which narily to akin to it. The §..). yibos. duna. whence. Greek rov from re. the plural form kdni stands on the its other side isolated. tie. GREEK. velirkdonhd. 194. is-Ci.

t See X 163. FORMATION OF CASES. viz. LATIN. madhu-n-i. paity-6. sunu-s.. as quod a singular neuter (cf. 263. while geri tie). and stands for gerie but this latter for gerie-i yaunikkie-i. iy-a- n Pf. pasv-o. gerie-ms for gera-ms.f. LITHUAN. L. and nom.231.. Note t." quia is cliarly shewn to be an accusative the In the meaning meaning " because " is less apt for tliis case. socru-s. pi. tanav-as.*o V^y "«««>" which. du." au. To this kg-a.) * Seep. On the other hand. ki-a. gavah-cha. GOTHIC th6s. but in the singular ^twd we must be content to see the idea " because " expressed by an accusative. f. among other meanings. . quo. ids. the termination. p. § We might expect gav-o. quiane). tes. m. dfrity-6* var'-a. patay-as. : "good. S. prttay-aSf vdri-n-i. madhv-a.\ TTopri-es." but we read jte>C(0 geus in the Vend. ncntere combination with the pronominal to M^ td. to . GREEK.'*illa." forms several cases from gerl appears to stand in GERIE. 1078.gdv-as. pecu-a. '"'' Max. 9.252 SANSKRIT. dat.^ ^o(0-ef.. p. rat. ido. : \h&l. vadhw-as.l bhavishyanty-as. cannot surprise us. 34). *? f.i dwy-s. Note. Greeeo et Latino" p. as I scarce doubt.* hos€-es. Without the support of singular had been pre- quod we might conjecture that an instrumental served in quia^ after the analogy cf xs^^^JM'i paity-a. its geU'S. mari-a. is that the i oibom (cf. handy II. tanv-6. bov-es. mess*-es. void of termination. a plural neuter. lupl) but the difference be(for hono-i) belongs to tween the two languages (analogous with is this. is szie. dat. corresponds surprisingly the it is Latin gui-a is (quiaiiam. in ** bovesque. fiedv-a. anstei-s. most complete agreement with the Latin nominaj tives of the corresponding declension (bont. Schmidt " De pron. sunav-as.. from if..». f. pi. eu ky-a. according $. for gerai. f. gastei-s.* TTlTV-eS. forpaiti. sunyu-s. is-tae. ZEND. hushyainty-u* m n. m." a genuine accusative signification in Sanskrit grammar. and would be better expressed by an instrumental or an ablative. . signifies " whither..f From the pronominal declension the form ie (from ia) has found way into the declension of the adjective also so that the base GERA. pecurs. n. geri gerie-m for This ffera-m.

ndman-a. in the accusative plural masculine. dlmdn-as. p 127. which. SANSKRIT. pi.. naTtpas. e.. asman-6... vdch-6. bhrdtar-as.. sunu-ns.f . too. ZEND. -narep-eg. 236. . matr-es. gasti-ns.f . NOMINATIVE.. 94. 163. &c. has given up the latter of the two con- * See p.. however.. fiyand- m.. .. 517.. II.. and can therefore be contrasted no further with the cognate languages. fratr-es. Remark... Note J t See Note t I in preceding page. and lengthen the final vowel of the base hence.. tdva-na. bharanf-as.. . BROTHAR becomes S.. §aifxov-e^.f .... voc€s.. an abbreviation of tire in the ns.. ddtdr-6* vachanh-a...g.f oper-Ot 9 vachdns-i. m.. must be regarded as accusative of "adoration").. according to §. Or AJWjj^Aj^ vachenha. ^TTtiT patin. GOTHIC..— . "from him who II brings. • • • ahman namun. brdtar-6* Toc\av-a. Thus we read Vend. ferent-es. ndv-as. since the Sanskrit. f. in favour of Grimm's acute conjecture. duhitar-as. vucli-as.. ddtdr-as. .. according to the analogy oisunyu-s.. '"J<*1^ vrikdn. . . that the Sanskrit n is. f. ns..* va(f )-e?.J ndmdn-i.f dugter-es.. «h»t sunun. I think.|| which has remained en- Gothic vulfa-ns. GREEK. LATIN. m. hr." " from him offering. . dughdhar-(j* duyarep-eg. .. barent 6* (pepovr-e^. e'ne{(x)-a. The cognate dialects speak. rwmenha^ {y{ff^ namas. The Gothic r bases annex in the plural a «. oit-eq. BROTHRU. We might imagine this n to be related to the m of the singular ac- cusative.. VOCATIVE PLURAL. • . mmo and as governed by aj7(^7g_j berethra. . sing. 253 UTHUAN.f tn.% dator-es." The Old Prussian. imperative) has clearly proceeded from ^Tfir ami.. as in the verb the termination Wlf»T dni (1st pers. — but has been divided in the other sister languages.. $ &c. . n. see §. sermon-es. nomin-a.. The bases which end with a short vowel annex ^ n in Sanskrit. f.. Rcepectmg the Veda termination from n». ^oTrjp-e^. whence brothryu-s. exhibits in the ace. THE ACCUSATIVE...

Note •). in all probability. -flEolic rv-^ais. monstrous form. however. I an n (see $. not from ovon (\tov<ri not 8aifu>vai)y .254 sonants. for that ovri can become ovo-i is proved by the circumstance that the very usual transition of latter has actually arisen from it. vidwdhs-am. 263) is correct in explaining in this sense the t in iEolic accusative forms like vofiois. bases in all parts similar to the bases which terminate with a consonant. and from the singular expected. and has FORMATION OF CASES. ix^v-as. Kvko-v£ has the same relation to hvKov^ that rvTrrovcri has to tutttovo"*. p. which never existed in Greek. &c. expect a / itocrt-v^.287. as the we could Greek makes the and t. Ed. p.] while the Greek sibilant. in the uninflected nominative vidwdn. anti.. as also in Sanskrit. nt'. as to that of the enti. since o-vri corresponds to the ri (Dor. gender by the a first preceding the we cannot. rdfiaig. by the T into 2. as neither has the Gothic in the corresponding declension an ns.). and the not rare vocalization of the 7ir us has arisen from nt "Rut if in the dative plural. noiKiKais. the final vowel of the base* [G. first the plural nothing else than vri can be it is But to arrive at ovai from ovri not requisite to invent so strange a form as ovrai . of which more hereafter. however. f^irf^ vidwdns. 275. indeed. N to Y. I believe that they have followed the analogy of the massufficiently distinguish their from which they i . the feminine accusatives like fieydXais. thence infer. however. in Sanskrit. p. ov-<rt has arisen from oi^-ori. from [G. Ed. whole base. : to a consonant preceding. while the tvhtovti before us answers to all the requirements of Greek Grammar. 172. Rask in Vater's Tables of Compaa truly It cannot be said that rvTrrovai proceeded from rCtTTovTo-i. t As the V also passes into t (ridfls for ridevs. This as for ns may be compared with whence the accnsative fc^'gitT Thus r«(3lHH {*' vrikdri for vrikahs. which. 62). culines. As regards. c p. sapiens"). quoted by him. \vKovs has preserved the but has permitted the v to volatilize to v.f In fact. to\s OTparryyois. not. in compensa. and cf. Hartung (1. that also the and specially feminine declension had originally accusatives in vs. have as for a termi- hence "q^ padas = iroSa^ and even in the most vigorous period of the language ns could not have attached itself nation . 274.] Ti^TrTovT/.J For -nocrt-a^. p. lengthened. i-)(dv-v^. fxiXais for Tvi^rav{T)s^ fiikavs). tion for this. as. nor does the Sanskrit exhibit rison. as it appears. in Sansk Zend Goth. (cf.

Ed. to those also where v might be added {-neneldaTai.). for else : hence would have arisen. This comparison with the 3d person plural apthe pears to me more in point. 129. to the [G. aro. in my opinion. and thus contrast itself more submissively with the imperious nominative (§. like "^^Wt vrikahs. for irenavvTai." vmT( bhuvas. while the other only irregularly itself. has the same object that it has in the 3d person plural . the Ionic arat. even if it were so. 276. Vfbhu. a 255 form which has extended from the places where the vocalization of the v was necessary. rerpd(jtaTai . never have had ns. \vKovg. . irenavaTat. then. f^t^T striy-ag. as also the circum- stance that in the actual condition of the Sanskrit language the accusative plural shews. and wherefore no to be required for the v. &c. There is scarce a doubt that this form originally extended to polysyllabic bases also for besides . KeKKtvTai). is The of in- an admixture which to the is least of all and conies nearest mere lengthening an already existing vowel. allusion to plurality by extending (nasalizing) the syllable preceding the sign of personality. ^^eminas.ACCUSATIVE PLURAL. viz. ^THI^ patins. and occasionally shews * Monosyllabic bases only have preserved the a as the case sign in the singular nominative (§. for vrai. Feminine bases with a final vowel follow in Sanbut with the supthey skrit the analogy of consonantal bases. also. which has acquired the force of a general law." from "Bfi stri. we must still be satisfied. pression of the too.). 238. in general. jto. a simple n we must remember that the abandonment of the n before case terminations beginning with a consonant is a very old and therefore pre-Greek pheno- menon. KeK\idrai. p. may perhaps. the Greek. hence. which compensation is is not to be accounted for in the Greek. for languages its : two kinds of euphonic alteration in all the one. makes a similar appearance under form on each similar occasion. ''terras. a* thus s for as or ns . which has been dropped.] as in the masculine. 237. the n in the presupposed forms. the Zend also partly evinces this {§. troduction of a nasal foreign. as. 137. an inclination to weaken itself. if the sation for a lost V remains unfulfilled in several tliere are But demand for compenplaces of grammar.) .

it feminine t6s (eas. where they are not replaced ^^eni^-w^ mazistan. Feminines with a short it final vowel lengthen it. follows in its i and u bases the hence. for fiyand-as. u. as. which. The consonant bases hence. p. "pontes.* "Aos. Av^yjAStt gnirt-s. of grammar which is annexed by masculines in and neuters has) is Moreover. Ed.). only The Greek certainly presents.) <^»JiA5Q) . as in the nomi- 227. VSdic forms in dh. 277. [G. in the accusative. i. a pure dowry from the ancestral house i and when the like i-ns. As^jj^eyj^-'^ ame sham -cha. 238. 6 bases. a»(cf. §. ample of the Indian. The sibilant is retained before the p. The Zend. pasv-6 {pasv-al-cha. . Note). S. p. FORMATION OF CASES." often occurs. -H3j>Jg7^ erezu-s. feminine and u bases in Gothic. to compensate.). in the nominative. ^9-^ ima». . with Guna. however. like the Greek.61. (§. pasav-6. able than n. Masculine bases in a5 a. the Gothic also. 133. and these forms can be copiously quoted as. and i-es. corresponding to the Sanskrit. Jiyand-s.'''' Mi^Aj^^tafnil-s.^^^Jajq) analogy of the consonantal terminations paity-d (paity-as-cha. or. lost the a. 65. "monies''^ (Vendidad S. for is the suppression of the a. occur at times also the forms is. ahman-as. " non- * Cf.) . through forms in Cy. have. but have native (§. in this re7s. "rectos. but appears that th6s = ITW . mos" (Vend. 313. by forms assimilate themselves to the masculines. " urentesr Mi^^<^/^<^ peretu-s. too. u-ns. stand at the same time. "^. prity-as.266 feminine gender. spect. 231." 239.] particle aj^ cha.). ^'maxi- by the neuter (§. for u-ej. a casual coincidence.). as. the Sanskrit feminines in other parts cast off the n. gives no ns. this may be regarded follow the ex- as a disguise of gender. or a deviation caused by the example of the masculines. In feminine bases in ti-s. are not restricted to the feminine. paitay-o. as appears. the well-sounding Ionic a is more suit- In general. thus Tfhrtw pntt-s formed from and thto^ tanu-s from tanw-as. ahman-s.

in Zend. 8 . with . manthrans-cha. than this AYjj^y>7>AjUAj athauraccusatives j«v>c/Ajy nareua." Sthr-eus. Ed. indeed.). p. " fire. may be regarded as derived from a participial nominative. appear as M^ s. 65. I But how is the termination eus to be explained ? nns. Towel. in which no ground exists for the assumption of particle AJrtj an original sibilant. aj^j3^/(3"^(. as in after which. S. in the V. in the nominative singular. too. " presbyterosque''^ (V. ACCUSATIVE PLURAL. after > a» a and ^ ah. 278.oa5 aSsmahs-cha. according to the analogy of if this 95. 31. " sermonesque^'t aj^j3^9j3. which. not but jtcAj^Au dtars. "lignaque". by changing the n into a vowel. in however unless. and unans-cha are the therefore. We actually find. we are the perverted feeling of the language. must. '* agricolasquey* The form to a}cijjjv>j^>7»jC3aj a^^au- run-ans-clia. is remarkable. in order to supply a fresh proof that ns is the original designation of masculine plural accusatives of themes terminating with a The superlative aj9c^j3-^^aj7(3C^9 verethrazahitema (of which hereafter) cases. 257 conniventesque'" . p. a euphonic « after have been nowhere met with by me. o&>. through forms of this kind. Other which might suggest occasion to assume. S. then the above examples are the more important.] §. 311. forms. 228. aj^jjvm^^^IjojjauI? vdstryans-cha. however. also could auxiliary vowel that. an unavoidable to suppose it and this form would accordingly shew that consonantal bases assume the inflexion ns. quote the 9. according to : K6^^'ov£\ the a5 a has be- come c e the sibilant. • But I formerly thought I could. is jj i.. after u.'''' Av>^7(jojj streus. introduction of a euphonic * in Zend. in that atar distinguishes itself which it is to be remarked from other words in r in this point also.. " homines. 207. as there is no reason elsewhere assume a theme athauruna. >/. j. ^§. has been introduced by the preponderating analogy of the a bases. introduction cannot be proved by cases. believe in no other way but from «u^ [G. but we have found. More important. not Mi>c7<3AU ^76au it athr-o. which occur very frequently while from ^aj^juj aiar.^' " stellas. preserved merely by the cha (cf. that A3C0AU (da. p. «»^g/ ner-ans in the sense of a dative.

"da quidem hominibus. identical with the Sanskrit ^rT«^ : the masculine plural accusative mines. and take. peculiarly is still the property of the neuter. . ^^ as which In the more frequently used in Zend than in Sanskrit. it except through the medium of the Sanskrit and Zend. I cannot therefore think that it admits of any doubt. 4»Aa>i*i)A5 a«7>»»aj am^as^ -M^^ify i»M^jJM^ ddidt at nerans mazdd ahurd ashaond. 258 FORMATION OF CASES. or enha form anha 235. which is is restricted to the designation animate creatures. Ed. could not its have been conjectured that our " termination. applied to beings. in respect to New its Persian hd. evidently connected the lengthened thus. and with this ha hd in the is . magnv Ahure ! 240.] Many New PerNew German words . &c. " mortales^ "homines. belongs to a living being in the old language. 128. then. ^^^li/o dn in marddn.). As. related to the the High fVorter'''' is.*^* ^J\ 241. " lights. appellations of inanimate objects.) plural. these Zend neuters (§§. in the history of we cannot mis- our family of languages. the more inconvenient consonantal declension into that of the vowels. and often. too. the termination dn. 56*." U New Persian answers to Zend AJ»'3uu^i*Aj7 raochanha. repeatedly i changed into and into (later e). Ubjjj roz-hd. As a in Sanskrit occurs the most often of all letters as the termination of masculine bases. 279. " days. German s has. the disposia language to introduce. is A in the formation of words is which (§. by an tion in the sunken state of unorganic addition. that the New Persian plural of termination an.. the inanimate neuter will be fitted to give us information re- garding that to New the Persian plural termination which is appended suffix. from o earliest period. " hoanimate »T^T»T martydn. however. p. answers to If." sian words have been compared with [G.''^ thus. I have no * Thus in Spanish the whole plaral has the termination of the Latin accusative. r. correctly but.

TroprT-f.. var-a." chalpir...* 242.. td-o. dona. mari-a. UTHDAJC. lupd-s. [G. .. . prili-s. ansti-ns.. this hereafter. pp.. * This ir. Ed.\ . 7ro<T/-af. most of the original consonantal terminations in Cf.. . dwy-s. kya. tds. Grimm.. sunu-n. 622 and 631).. is ^. G. pasv-6. but also used in the sense of " blow on the hinder part of the body " . tcilku-s. . p. Ed.1[ hosf-es.\ dfrity-d. . rd-£. lATTN.. pecu-s.s.. the nom..ACCUSATIVE PLURAL... Here : follows a general view of the accusative for- mation SANSKRIT..X fiedv-a.Ed. .. from is peso-tanu. e...... gibd-s.. 280.. ranka-s. Note. jihwd-s. sunii-s. handu-ns * . be asa. aeons. is treated in declension as if the theme originally terminated in a. .. vulfa-ns.. pecu-a.. ZEND.. • madhH-n-i. "houses. G. thd-s. 168. • • .. hizvd-o. .] dfrili-s. ddta. . ttlTV-^.). .. compared with the dative husiru-m (from husira-m. iTopTt-a^. tanu-s. GOTHIC vrika-n..g. and would thus.. bhiy-os. gasti-ns. 148 High German have received nnorganic vowel additions. and in this manner it occurs in the loth Fargard of the Vend. bhuv-as. Hence. doubt the ir 259 er —Middle is and New High German the Sanskrit —which suffix makes its appearance in the plural in identical with many Old High Gerneuter man neuters.). which signifies the hind part of the body (\199. because in general. . GREEK. iy-a.. t- More regarding t See p. ... madhv-a.. tanu-s. • • socru-s. Note X This form is further confirmed by aj» /As^t^jsca) peso-tanva. ddnd-Tt-i. terras. .. 175. . bushyainii-s. ta-s... : as^aso* <»A>fe>»^JA» AJ»yAJ^<|>jJCa) J^vW JAJ»A5i AJWAJ fj^^/M»Mi)^^M^^yjc<unhat{ainhdt?) s 2 hacha . bhavishyanti. pp. ^m as. however. "calves^' (cf.. appears an abbreviation.] . daiira. is-ta-s... .\ sunu-ns... hiisir Bu the relation of our ir to the Sanskrit a« not thereby disturbed. tSpi-a.... in Sanskrit. vdri-n-i. and 191.. husir. vehrka-n. mess-€s... patt-v. KVKO-V^f Suipay Xwp<i-?.. paify-d.

the relation in this word distorted. men- tioned at §. bov-es. t See ^. ddthr-eus? vachanh-a.^ ddtri-n. pp. n.^ dughdher-eus? dvyarep-as.).215 — 224. vadfiH-s. The formation of this case. <})epovr-as.ov-as.. f. vdch-d. f. 232. S.. nomin-ai fratr-es.X voc-es. matr-es. Celui qui cette action sera coupable commet du tana/our). rests strengthened Sanskrit form gdu . . 127. 318 :i and 362.^ ndman-a.. ferent-es. In the noai- natiye.'\ barent-6. 129. 281. namdTHi m.. hharat-as. Ed. m. e7re(o-)-a. . brdthr-eus? raAav-a..1f oTT-a?. m. iMO. [G. 243. duyter-es. $aifj. The on the Zend M3>AUO g&us (also jtv)^» gdos). . BoT^p-a^. fiyand-% dtman-as. and in the accusative A^>eM geut. . THE INSTRUMENTAL. . which jft often occurs.. gdu-8. and what is connected with it is has been already explained in §§. p. ndv-as. In regard to the annperetha.. therefore sufficient to give here a comparison of the forms which correspond to one another in the cognate languages. twice). . 260 8AKSKBIT. we should expect AU>JkU» gdua.). . p. dator-es. f. . t m. bhrdtri-n.] it. va(f)-aj'. t See § See Note J. Note %. . 47. . so that in respect of the strong and is weak cases (§.. $. ... yds* f. n. 163. vdch-as. asman-d. hacha skyaothnd-vareza atha bavaintipeso-tanva. • Irregularly from a theme iff 9^ (V 122. Tiarep-ag. m. Note and $. " hacprofacti-peractione turn sunt verbera posteriori corpori inflicta " (Anquetil. not perethu (Vend.. rather than vice verad. .129.^ sermon-es.)» for the is theme of the concluding substantive >rae7cQ) peretu. FORMATION OF CASES. ahman-% ndmdn-i. it is further to be noticed that the 6 th can only bo occasioned by a <wJ to that has been dropped (§. duhitns. for instance. . vachdns-it oper-a. for 7l^^^gav-as.

GOTH. hizvd-bis.. as evinced by ambo-bus. In the first declension a-bus has been retained with tolerable • Vide t See $. Hartung. the language arrived at i-bus. amici-bus.. 66b. . cf.... vriki-bhis. sunu-bhis.. . vowel of the base. pasu-biSj . ndma-bis. From o-bus (by lightening the final a. in been left the first. GREEK. ahma -m.f vach6-bis.. §. m. gibd-m. m..160. p. ABLATIVE.f o%e<r-^/v.. vach6-bhis. asma-bis. 215.. ZESl>.] n. vu^a-m. SANSKBTT. 282. m.. ranko-viis.INSTRUMENTAL PLURAL. vau-^zv. Note: and 128. second... dfriti-bis.. of which hereafter).. f. awi-mis. {parvi-bus. . the from an original as occurs beginning of compounds {multi-plex for multu-plex or multo-plet. vo-bls wilka-is. jihiL'd-bhis. namn-am. in dtw-bus. of fin^ character m (for b see §.t [G. p. DAT. speci-s (for speci-bus from specu-bus).). sunu-m.. ansii-m. . hence deducible that the dative plural.. these two cases in Mention has already been made of the suffix of Only the s of the Latin bus has §. dii-bus. .. . nau-bhis. also.. trikd-is. in its singular dative. . pnti-bhis.. Lupi-s stands for lupo-bus. §§. . in must rather be regarded as an abbreviation hhyas . THE DATIVE. of lupi-s. by which a summary view of the subject 261 may be assisted. o. bhh vqTJ than as belonging to the dative-ablative termination although it approaches equally near to the two old terminations... UTHUAN.. ... 6e6-<piv. dtma'-bhis. . and (according to Nonius) for the < occasionally. tehrkd-is. f. u. Ed. in the fourth declension. 244. terri-s.. 215. 261). UlTIK. . must be allotted to the base.. ndfna-bhis. As its the German. n. 6. iunu-mis.).* is identical with it is the Sanskrit-Zend instrumental.

paiti-by6} dfriti-byd. The Greek wv bears the same relation to the original form of the termination that 4. 241. And in the dual p. w'dka-7n{u)s* jihwd-bhyas... .. 61. 245. thus terri-s from terri-bus. I liftve selected the mascul'ne base PECU. m.. awi-m{u)s. and think. brdtar-e-byd. m.224. hizvd-byd. Tanko-m{u)s. for terra-buSi as . The genitive plural in Sanskrit. pecu-bus. pati-bhyas. which. is frequency.. vag-bhyas. m. according to §.). f. . The Latin has. has^the termination ^t*^ dm. sermon-i-bm. it on account of its connection with all >Ji)a)q> in a have car- through the cases.. e^l^oiv does to va<*<^IH adaddm (§§. lupi-s. bharad-bhyaSf baren-by6. in the Zend anm. sunu-bhyas.. vehrka^i-byd.% ferent-i-bus. .).. by an anorganic increment. Rem.. m.] Compare. f.t voc-i-bus. . hosti-bus.5 26!^ FORMATION OF CASES. lengthened. m. but a-bus has to compensate for 283 weakened the a of the base to T.21 t The mascaline i bases pass in the plural. THE GENITIVE. f. the bu which has been dropped. as usual^ « See $. priti-bhyas. m. 10. in substantives and adjectives. that I may here also give the original u-btts for the corrnption i-bu». which occarQ only pahu. 1. 35. therefore. vdch-e-byo.. has been mdlo from mdvolo.. and I few ried cases. Note*. p. $ See $.bhavishyantt-bhyaSfbushyainti-byd. ZEND. bbrdtri-bhyoa.. sunu-m{u)s. messi-bus. . . and dative singular. LITHUANIAN. vrike-bhyas. SANSKRIT... m. [G. asmd-byd. &tma-bhyas... p. . fratr-i-bus. yet the language has scarcely made the spring from a-bus at once to is.. into a different declension. LATIN. pasu-byd. Ed. also. terri-s. but the middle step i-bus wanting.. PATJ had I to be given up (Mielcke.

a euphonic n between the termination and if the base. the d. it is The same is the case with the i of the neuter bequeathed by the deceased feminine theme FE' » RE ATI. On the other hand. preserved the labial final 263 original form. 246. in all bases in a and au 6. the final vowel of which. but . we shall recur to the feminine character and then treat also of the i for e in the singular ablative of the common dialect. and.. . has short a. with the exception. §. 174. and thereby an unorganie difference has ^ been introduced between the feminine genitive . nasal in its by its influence has shortened the preceding vowel hence. Ed. the u of which supplies the place of a [G. To the latter corin respond very remarkably the genitives (which occur Old High German. and may have passed over from the femi- nine to the other genders.] lupum = ^e^ vrikam^ Kvko-v.GENITIVE PLURAL. p. as in In Gothic. we i the reader to §. and Anglo-Saxon.) : thns the i oi/erenti-um reminds us of the Sanskrit feminine HCffl bharanti. according to the analogy of the Lithuanian (p. jihva-n-anm. 126. termi- nation and that of the masculine-neuter since the fuller 6 has remained only to the feminine 6 and n bases.g. vice verscL. refer um §. 284. 119. dropped The German. form ferenti-a . annex an Here it is to be observed that those consonantal bases. 9"»»y-w»»'jj>^. In adjectires the feminine character its eflFect. 126. shews itself under two forms. in places where i-um might have been expected. : hence. theless proceed before btu to tives In the chapter upon the adjec» . necessary and partly arbitrary. 157. however. is lengthened. of monosyllables. for instance. ^"^/Aj^^tyg^ vehrka-n-anm. voc-i-bus) as a conjnno we must now tive vowel. like the e e in the Zend vdch-e-byo. ped-um {=pad-dm). like the Lithuanian. Old Saxon. Bases ending with a vowel. since the Zend / partakes of it. partly place. in Sanskrit. in the • Regarding the termination i*um respecting in consonantal bases. which admit neither i^a nor i-um^ must neveri. mentioned in may have had Note * §. contrary to the opinion preferred in regard the before but {e. although in a more limited degree as . short. This interposition appears to be pristine. which has been left.* the final nasal.

in Sanskrit. "ha- Here the a. thi-ze (§.. be recognised as very ancient for the Gothic. 6-ti-6. Bases in > u admit both of the annexing >^a}q> -pasu the termination direct and of the insertion of the euphonic n but I find from the masculine the other hand. Anglo-Saxon y We find the bases in short and long i.] polysyllabic. the adblindai-zS.) : THA. and the this s connected with the genitive singular would be If this is the case. veKv^ according to With Guna 9>^»a>j3aj^ hitherto only u-n-anm. clension. termination in substantives and adjectives must . which follow the pronominal de. p.). Ed. only with euphonic n i on the other hand the monosyllabic direct. 264 FORMATION OF CASES. ai-zd blinda-zS). like i (§. the 6 of the base 66.thry-anmoTthray-anTn.''''frovnthri. hence. Old Prussian son. sdm. appears weakened to jective a on the other hand. I only pasv-anm : on have found from feminine bases like >yAj^ tanu.'" hence §. 5. in siei-son. THO. iRTf Pronouns of the third person have. nam. or keeping pure.). dm formerly universal and this form of the . if : [G. (§.. may be the original and so that case-suffix. " cnecorum " (for and d bases. "body. pasav-anm would serve as a prototype for the Gothic suniv-S with Guna weakened sdm* for ^T^^ 248. 27.) = te-shdm (for tS- 21. which in the the old plural nominative restricts itself so rigorously to limits (§.) "horum". 86. e. according to rum.'' >j3A5y §. 228. in the genitive also. the abbreviation of still the chief person. 285. kep6-n-6. "rwyJ . Old Saxon gpbd-n-d."trium. and answers exactly to the Sanskrit ^th'^ te-shdm * Cf. no wider scope. have ai-z^. thi-zo — td-sdm. 21.g. iims. dm would properly be only the termination of the termination.). gives to the sibilant. corresponding class of words) in e-n-a. Old High German aife-n-a.vay-onm. 247. "corpse" (cf. either attaching bases annex the termination it Guna to the final vowel. in Zend. "aviumr from vi.

amphorum. as many other places. airrf-ap. and do not perhaps stand for bovo-rum. at least. especially in the old languages. \vKav would be to be derived from but tS>v from roaav rdav from rcuratv. vrikd-n-dm. The transplanting of the rum termination into the declensions mentioned was the easier.). even in the pro- noun . \^. ^apdav from x. vulf-i. p. §. nucerum (Hartimg.'^pa-v-wv t Old High German. LATIK. of which termination only the r has remained to us. 246. &c. which is originally iden- with the latter (§). dyopeav) point. which evince that the language was not always equally favourable to the bringing back the termination rum {deum. jihwd-n-dm. —are to be regarded . We give here a general view of the formation of the genitive^: SANSKRIT. regerum. first. however. the base go may gava. agricolum. e-av {e. in Zend. belongs rum for sum (§. however. High German. as correct. in Old r. : The Latin rum and this is not Sanskrit ^TTT sdm lead us to expect the Greek a-av met with. Forms. thi-zi. with e as conjunctive vowel. 121 and 137. whether universally a skrit 2 (cf. d'e-ro for thi-ze and thi-z6.). therefore. as in fidCa* from uftCova.22.— GENITIVE PLURAL. vehrka-n-anm. or. only in pronouns a first S. [G. Ed. dyopd-a/'. 2G5 The High German has in changed the old sibilant to hence. like the property of the plural nominative 228. GREEK. found its way or returned from the pronominal declension into the entire second. {§.g. however. ZEND. tae-shaiim. rank'-H. &c. has. (from fat-sdm) from the base TT to. 128. Joverum^ lapiderum. LTTHTTAS'. in like manner. \vKo-v-(i)v. istarum.* 249. . remain. The forms in a-av. avrd-av. however. tical and fifth declension.] To the Latin. f-H. istorum.) boverum. to a consonant that has been dropped.). see §. GOTHIC. r-atVy lupo-rumt wilk'-u. in this respect.). the forms furnished by Varro and Chans.te-shdm. the termination rum appears also to have attempted if. as the San- and Zend lead us to expect.). stands in the strongest opposition to the Latin. . but in other words of the and second declension an According to this. socium.f • This rum. terra-rum. kep6-n-6. KvK-tav. 286. p. hence. It is a question. to fix itself in coiisonantal bases. On the other hand. 255. drachmum. so that the Greek. yoapa-uiv. extend itself to as also. as aH pronorau in the genitive plural belong to the second and first declension. N has been dropped. isto-rum. hizva-n-anm.

). Crit. . in this word the readings dughdhar : and dugdar are interchanged in various passages is the former. d-onhanm.. . §''• f. also. I . dfnti-n-anm.. e-n.6v-uiv. for the Sanskrit fri^iiji tisri-rt-dm (Gramm.'nuiiie to the cognate and are more nearly allied therefore European languages than the corresponding ones in Sanskrit.}^ tisr-ahm " trium.. asman-anm. ^ v^>^9uU^. istd-rum. has shortened ar to ^ ri.^ .tray-d-ndm. .. ^^^^AiciSu^ASsU iaochantanm.266 SANSKRIT. The compound .0A) ai-tanhahm not aitdonhahm. awi-Ut ansf-e. m. GREEK. QOTHIC tki-z6.. Ed.. bov-um... . 56^. pnh-n~am.X Ttarep-oiv. tdonhahm would be expected. which. m. t Or. and has then treated it according to the analogy of vowels. voc'um. suniL-n-am.. 208. G. bhrdfp^n'dmi brdthr-anm. barent-anm. ^epovT-cov ferenti-urrif 8atfj. handiv-L gav-anm. L. t td-sd7n. n'' ^3 rpi-cdv. 256. however. in this case..). . In general. thriy-S. f. dthr ahm from and 9 v^i/AW. and corresponds to tho Sanskrit ^TPBT^T d-sdm ** harum" " earum " I ('' . fratr-um. ra-coj/. t^6v-(i>v. bharat-dm. 9vnj^^aj7a5j barantahm. ZEND. •nopri-Uiv. From /Mt " fire. 6tt-Q)v. :'* p..) . nd-vdm. .n. as in the Vendidad Sade. pasv-anm. LATIN. sun-u. ianu-n-dm. socru-um. (polysyllabic) pronominal which am unable to quote. LITUUAN.. Q«".. vdch'dm. Note f) 2. FORMATION OF CASES. as might be expected from ^HI^I'T etd-sdm. 131. " lucentium frequently saochentahm.* Ihray-anm. . tanu-n-anm. from axj^ td.. gav-dniy irtTv-cov. ahman4. the more common. messi'um. n. 472. sermon-um akmfn-4. tri-u." nor frequently occurs nar-aiim^ with retention of the base being monosyllabic : on account of tho dtar. we : find the form dughdher-ahm dtujder-anm (p. m. suniv-S. «. tri'um. however." fem. also This and the following genitives from bases in ar are clearly raoro p. bases shorten the last syllable but one hence.. (cf. • This word often occurs. pecu-um. r.. m... From /AJ(2^o >4 dughdhar. i8o(f)<3^ va{F)-S>v. the Codex has. vdch-anm. on the other hand. . p. Jiyand-i f. dtmon-dm. \ on the other hand.

" idea of part. for which. in Zend. found >j^ shu (§. 288. A5»et3 shva. in Latin. LOCATIVE. is then identical with the reflective-possessive base ^ sua. 42. that of a by a lately-added especially as in Zend no other case does a similar aftergrowth admit of being: established. has to su-bi (which might be conjecti-hi has to Sanskrit "rrwn? iu-bhynm.\ • Therefore. At»Hij7(3 thrishvaj " in tribui" is " the third part. the Greek dative-locative termination to the Sanskrit ai {(riv) has ^ su. 260) from Apoll. the locative identical with a»>cj^j/(JO trishva. is. according: to §. 53. tured from su-i).). (§. also. therefore. but of the highest antiquity has penetrated farther in an influence which . as T^ far ukta is said for vakta (see also §. 250. ^ su. appears to me more fluence suitable. in Zend. me is to be the original form of the termination. shu and hu) however.). to accord to the common . Ed. since the pronoun in the latter compound denotes the t Regarding the termination iv of the pronoun of the 1st and 2d person see §.* or that The same iu-bi. quoted by Hartung (p.1 t| in Sanskrit. declension an into the upon the transformation of the form of inflexion peculiar a<i>iai for a<piy. I cannot infer that T]fuv w is an abbreviation of It o-iv if it were so.. while from ^ su. which leads This appears to to a Sanskrit Wswa. From the ^olic form dfifitaiv..: THE LOCATIVE PLURAL. 267 The character of the plural locative is [G. relation which. of which more hereafter. the v also in would not adhere so firmly. and then change the semi-vowel into a vowel. therefore. of the Indian abbreviation of the is it termination extension of more probable than a.). The supposition. has been formed >o» hiu The more usual forni for shu and hu (for which. pronouns without gender. 52. which subject to be changed into is shu 21. for nothing Sanskrit than that the syllables more common ti in ^ ua and ya should free themselves from their vowel. 222. aj»»' hva. occur is. p. But it if ^ sioa si-bi is the original form of the termi- nation.

). dang use. it be analogous to that of the bases which can be referred to in copious instances. : Here follows a general view and Lithuanian plural locatives. with the original and more powerful a. vriM-shu. 461. •^f. of the Sanskrit. K 7. formed by curtailing ot-o-t.^ KvKoi-a-t. The bases i . . u> t. from made by rejecting the semi-vowel. assumed above which 253. Zend.219. ^m. . FORMATION OF CASES.) to be the original form. value or sub- scribed. jihwd-su. vav-<ri. ais (ot-f. wUku-se. in Greek has also passed over to the bases in a-. as in (§. "xidpai-a-t. softened into e. . in the masculine.... oi-s). vehrka&shva.. with the Greek datives m. +1 is formed ^ 4 which the Greek corresponds t hence. nau-shu. many to other cases. either preserving its full . 1.).). KvKoi-ai = ^V^ vrihS-shu. 289] 251. t otily I have no authority for the locative of the Zend bases in w. . 'OXv/jLTTiaat. 2. f. (p. p. Ed..— 268 [G. pnti-shu. is here apparent connection with the Sanskrit cur($. and Hartung. (g- sunu-shu. Like the Gothic.. while in Sanskrit the 'B a remains pure hence. lydv-ai. is tailed instrumental ^«<iw which had before required but can consideration. jihwd-su. * The common lost. fvid^ best 116. as TLXaraida-iv. . with which the locatives of agree. m. ranko-sa. 7. and so brought into agreement of sound with the third declenthrough ending its uon. JS f. termination ois.. pasu-shvQy go-shu. dwi-sa. ai-tri. the Lithuanian has an unorganic difference between the terminations which mark the case in the masculine and feminine in the genitive plural: the first has the sound of se. Hence the r}-. names of towns §. in ^ a add to that vowel.. an ot but from a . it is 267. (Bov-ai. OXvjjLiriaa-i. p. dfriti-shva. 'kdrjvrja-i (Buttmann.* 252... and the latter of sa. which. f. because the Greek dative also used as the instrumental. hizvd-hva... has The ending sa is plainly from the swa. "noprt-cri.

. which occurs very frequently in various forms. asma-hva* . The same applies to the dative apvdai.. 'YIEY). Rem. from yAJjaj) Xiy^wxi^MA ddmahva." It is possihle to pronounce these forms aught but derivatives OJAJ ai (<^ 6. the more prevailing co-theme of rONY. is REN appears to be a transposition of iVer. in the Vend. 600. t The a in this . from which came vldai. §." The a of dpvaa-i 281. atma-su. form is not. it is It ismore difficult to give any accurate account of the aofviaa-i for the r of vUa-i. as is generally supposed. since the pTjv. Gramni. SANSKRIT. 499. ^5^ ahas (from which ^sr^ aho and together with . uahaji. "I will see. 66'>. iraripts. vach6-hva. " day. besides its three themes YIAT. • Thus. and p. idk-shu. and removed from place. by preserving the original vowel. ra. : therefore etymologically identical with that ofavSpaai (comp.." forms some cases from in ^a ^fiy^ ahobhis. agrees with the Sanskrit base fitccr better than iraripa. (pepov-au m.. Kiiliner's §. 'YI. AnquetU translates ira- the former by " au lever du soleil.) .) : thus narpacn (compare rtrpacj-i) for Trarapai (compare rea-crapai). f. &c. complete Greek Grammar.34b. from im^j^ daman. we find the analogous plural locatives AJ»»"^Z><> uzirohva. but rests on a transposition as thpaKov for ebapKov. $. n. &c. and in Sanskrit '^^\{\\drdkshydmi. AJ»»'AJja)> u^ahva. The whole ( tjnri). bhrdtri-shu. where ^S^iT ahan. dppT]v. theme of dpvos has. and the interchange of ajQ>Ajjiv5(S^ csapar with ^<dxiM&^ csapo is a similar case to that in Sanskrit." and the latter by " a /a nuit. ott-ct/ ZEXD. p. n. which. vachas-su. p. word must have had. a conjunctive vowel. vdc-sva? brdfar-e-shva ? . spring from a theme in ?m ar. as yovaai from latter agrees rONAT. Sanskrit T^X nar "a man. X In the Vendidad Sade..) from themes in Most of the cases of the latter word.). UTHDAH. 499. a fourth.X irarpa-aiA ejreo'-<r/." for ^T^fir </arA-. apTjv.LOCATIVE PLURAL. Sade. and Aj»»'^5)A5Ji«d!^ csapohva. rejected a vowel between the p and which again appears its in the dative plural in the form of an a. m. 2.. 260 GREEK. which with ^fmjdnu.<A^amj (Sansk. or this either the older and stronger form ('YIO." for dpijv properly means " male sheep. as appears from the cognate word v. bharat-su.

accu- and vocative are identical. Ed. itdvrecat. •noX'ieacri. fn^veat). jected (dmKTecr/i/. as hush. asnahmcha {=W^[^ nights. with which the nominative. yvvaiKe(T(Tt. for veKV-crt." which are the plural themes. arises hu- dative. "of days and In Sanskrit. A»/^AJAV}(3^ csafna csapan.. " trium " (Vend." which. &c. FORMATION OF CASES. the form ^li^ahna. relative to A/for Q>p) — found in conS. from the unorganically in- creased themes logy of 'EIIE2. "dierum " (§. NEKYE2. Ed. to have passed completely over to "night. for this case. by a similar mutation. •with the theme •^'^^ exists another. /ajq)ajaoCS^ which the genitive ^^mxsM^CS^ csqfnanm — analogous with is ^^T*7 ahndm. — From the bases m ES. from as). 163. p. ^r^X ohar.snfananmcha (read csafnanmcha). I. in the for that case. but equal in meaning. 241.) plural increase to the base by (from is and thin. is an exwhich." ahndncha). The Zfnd." " immediately. in Zend. tension of the original theme by eg in its origin. in which. chalpirum." chalpir "calves. employed . 246). as. from /ajq)ajj«A5CJ^ it appears. " soon. "houses. by the addition of the ending as. with the abovementioned ir (§. 40. p. with the a privative. isnotout^tr^pped by the Sanskylt. for we read. whence we find the locativf ^ j\MMi<^ csafne. veKveaat. §. and others. of this latter word has pi. self be or the doubling of a 2 by itThis. 291 . derivative. c. in this respect also. and in the adverbial therefore. however. in Greek.] *• Remark. this form other bases terminating appears to have imparted [G. wliich might also be taken for the dative of ^ajq>A5ao<J$ csapatiy . The anomaly of the namely Sanskrit "day" appears. it is dative ^STCTIJ ahndya. produces. according to the anaFrom the doubled 2 one may then be re•noKiecri. occurs only in compounds (as n^x^ pdrvdhna. not necessary to deduce from the root ? as hnu. sative.270 G. however. sirum. has arisen out of ^f^ii ahan. in Old High German forms.sapan. KYNE2. Kvvea-a-i. nection with the feminine numeral ^vjJ/MJJ^o tisranm. p. veKv-vai. also a theme in n. and from which. "the early part of the day"). its by the suffix ^ n.] itself to differently. c. for example. 202." as <. whose night-nomenclature.. which. to which The dative eaai ( = ^rw as-su) properly belongs. is identical to be adopted .

for the developement of the forms in only that he with- draws from the neuter bases described in §.. and have only the base tion. especially in the plural. it is preceded (V. the first §. by be- assimilation. p." in the sense of a locative demonstrative.). : which occurs c. 231. is adopted ecrat by Thiersch. the second." Aif^xiMi^ Ai»Xif if nava csafna. common may be remarked we with one another. where K3y«AJjted3 aj^<3J ^V»/JJ-w Compare. "six nights. if we cannot assume another theme csapara. same sound and csafna. as has been before observed. by a supposition. one class. To the theme xiAxy*M^ csafna. in yovvacT-cri. In SeTraa-at shall leave undecided whether the 2 be primitive. KEPAT. BEAE is made the theme : and he divides and. csafiia..>pt also the broader ending. 129. . since. the 2 which belongs to them. might also be assigned. 128. §^. I forms like o-)(e(Ji^i into v)^e-ad>i instead of o-)(^e(r-(pt. derives a^e-utri lieve I from o^e-(T<pi . 128. most important particulars. $. "nine nights.). itself to it An assimila- from yovvaT-ai. and.. 163. 149. probably means "in this day. ithra. and or whether it yrjpa^." " in ithra. ami. ." with the locative adverb aj/oj " here. entirely different case. 330. has arisen out of t. the reading be admit that feminine consonantal roots in the ablative ad. "half"). 'OXE2 in however. proved to be erroneous.LOCATIVE PLURAL. correct. in 271 §.' ajAajac^ j^5A)»jto^ csvas csafna. however. in several places elsewhere >s^xiMi6^ ^^^m/(^ thrayo " three nights. while. the forms oxeo-4>t and oy&jcri rest on (§. If. but we must. the plural of the 1. frequently-occarring ablative MM3?xs(ij&Mi^ csapardt. theme (comp. as have proved. 331. c. not so that the first letter has assimilated the reverse.) by the tmequivocal adjective ^^Kixsinahne {horn xi^j^xitnaema. S. as EEAE2. and so belono^ to AEIIAS AEDAT with TEPAT. as neuter. also. dt (or at.. csapan. aj^oJ ithra." here csafna be not (as in 0. this night. Note J it was considered to be) rather to be taken for the plural of fXidjiiMi^ csapan. the Zend uses the gander of For the the substantive with great laxity. csa/ne.suffixes 218. but that locative 1.

272 however. in Prakrit. Kiihner says ej (character c. itself. while eTrecroj... so adapts <Tiv.) and Kiihner (1. namely. iv (character of the dative singular). that. in the ? dative. and connected with the its nominative singular through 2 : a union of the plural is. not to be imagined. in forms like eVeao-/.] . 255. arrive. at their identity of It form with the natural sexes further deserves to be remarked. the locative ending ^ su frequently assumes an Anuswara. production of the Greek plural datives. cases. p. for in the feeling of the speaker could pre- itself. ecn{v). plural eireaa. present itself as pertaining to that which marked eirea-ai the case sent it'is. Ed.). nominative suffix with the singular dative to me. and go to the other languages in their they have. for <Tl. only as what e-necr-cTi. terial points following Greg. §. 35. were used in declension. for su. the assumption of 8. Hartung in the most marelative to the (1. theieey fore. but of the nominative plural. not to e<T<Ti men- tion unorganic forms like Kvvea-at. as &c. to which e? in the nominative quite foreign. not even to can therewith not be denied that Homer himself. Cor. is But from what has been here adopted (p. during that period of the language." however. these forms. according as We pass over here from the Sanskrit. all FORMATION OF CASES. eitea-i. R. and sun. Mo\. all we allow only o-i it is or mv to be the and that precedes it referred to the true or an- organic increase of the base. in the particular . c. did the entire [G. and different not eTreoj. most truly preserved their original form and where one or other of them has departed entirely from the original . 260. 293. may serve to facilitate the general survey of the examples are adduced most important classes of words in their connected declension. If it were so. ff.) The plural) character of the dative plural is of the and i or I. 254. is how could neuter nouns. After laying it down the laws of the formation of a if single case. order. think not the character of nuni* ber. by the form ^ to the Greek. in case-suffix. §.

Lithuanian wilka-s. Lithuanian Instr. be assumed. in tciZfraa. Gothic vulf-s* Accusative. Zend with cha. vehrkns-cha. 87). Dative. 8IXGULAK. Ed. c p. In Latin the same thing takes place with regard for Tenuis. exclude it from the com- parison. they v is introduced into the therefore.] "SLko-v. (see §. LATIN IN U. Zend vehrke-m. as the Greek \vKo-s : it may. Greek Xvko-^. vrika-s. however. rests is. whose ramphlet. Sanskrit u'ilkuL Zend vehrkdi. to the supply of the guttural by the corresponding this u. * The meaning in its first origin. labial . nian wilka-n. 18. Greek KvKo-{d)i6\. The Gothic vulfs shews. I While are. Reimnitz. in all these languages. or by an unorganic increase to the base has entered the province of another declension. 122 passim) the same views concerning T the . separated by t M. in Liv. wilku. Gothic vuJfi-s. Latin lup-d(d) Genitive. Zend vehrka-hS. there. Gothic vulf. Sanskrit vrikd-t. 181. but lupus is is further altered through the loss of the initial letter F. "The System of Greek Declension" (Potsdam. Instrumental. the equally conamon interchange of gutturals and labials. in Greek. Sanski*it vehrk-d. vrika-m. Zend vehrka. Lithua- p. and foUows the rule for the alteration of letters (Asp. Sanskrit vrika-sya. Sanskrit vrike-n-a. Greek Latin lupu-m. [G. vrikdya. moreover. Zend vehrkd-t. Gothic Dat. wilkas with vrikas I. 294. O. that and k are united.FORMATION OF CASES. unfolds (1. on the very usual interchange of the semi-vowels r and through the whole of the European sister and this latter goes languages.). 273 principle of formation. had not been seen by me before I complet* d the preceding Part of this book. GREEK IN O. Sanskrit. vul/a. Latin lupus. see §. and so is the theme The connection of the Lithaan. the same. middle of the word in being vocalized into thuanian.31). in the we place in question. MASCULIXE BASES IN Nominative. Lithuanian wilko. a. Lithuanian Ablative.

let reference be mad< to the Latin cujus. Auko-/v.). the Greek oto and its connection with the Sanskrit a-sya which §. probably contherefore remarkable nected with the genitive ending in the text and is with reference to the preservation of the «. in this respect.). Zend vehrk^ Greek Dat. \vK<fi {oiKoi Gen. " man. Voc A ccusative. PLURAL. Dat. DUAL. Sanskrit vrikds. Zend vehrka. ivilka. ZendvehrkaH-bya. Greek Dat.274 Locative. Ed. and with regard to §." With reference to the Zend. amu-shya. §. Latin lupe. Lithuanian 195.] {maidhydi. brought forward in 189. hipi. lustr." as a derivative from Mann. Latin. " iUins. see 231. §. Zend Greek vehrkd. Vedic vrikd. vrikay-Ss. With regard to the origin of from the genitive. vulfn-mt. wil/tai. Lith. Sanskritvrikd-bhydm. br}ii6cnos . Dat wilka-m Rem. Sanskrit vrik^ (from vrika^-i). however. Voc. .). Gen. the Greek. that the Greek adj is. Latin lupo-s. Greek \vKe. from the root AHMO. FOIIMATION OF CASES.) Latin ivilke. Sanskrit vrikdu. Here I have only further to observe. 296. p. as in ^W^iT §. Sansk. [G. Greek Xvko-vs (from \vKo-vg. Loc. Note J. already stated the Demonstrative and the Oripin of Hist. §. Lithuanian wilki. urn like f{i\vi and the identity of the Sanskrit suffix of words manushya. Voc. Gothic vulf. Gothic vulfos. withI out being aware of his concurrence. 196. wilku. 1. my views in my pamphlet " On Case" (in the Transactions of the Academy of Science of Berlin for the year 1826. lup'-h Vocative. see 228. Lithu- anian wilkus. and Lithuanian forms XvVoi. I have. Goth. Nona. with the genixq shya for tive ending • ^ sya. Srjfwcrios. Lithuanian (see §. Class of the p. a. Ace. Nom. which is lost in drjuoio. Nom.Abl. Zend vehrka-n.* Sanskrit vrikd-n.). Zend vehrkay-d (see Lithuanian wilku. 100. Sanskrit vrika. Phil. in the suffix by which . 236. Gen. Xvku). have. 215. it is formed.

FORMATION OF CASES. 248.). hes at the «nT bhyam. again with the corruption of s \o v. as above in \vko-vs therefore one must here probnt as noance vrikdis. I prefer. Sanskrit vrike-bhyas. to consider (^t) as from one of the multifarious terminations of the Sanskrit plural belonging to all declensiona . Greek \vK-oiv. passim). p. Latin lupo-rum * I take the liberty. j(j( tas. p. that might be formed from the t ending «IJ? bhyam Tftv. I here willingly agree (})iv with M. Sanskrit vriki-blds. and in the 2d and 3d person tov. July 1833.) by the contraction of jjya into (as in &c. Sanskrit vrikd-n-am.f Gotliic Dat.). Veda Zend vehrkd-h. Instr. Instrumental. {§. 51. 296. in Sanskrit. f^ Mh. but only trisyllables. Gothic wulf-S. vehrkaei-byd. T 2 . uulfa-m Dat.. Greek ^i and vzrnr bhydm. which bottom of the case-forms fira bhis. 215).). 215. and in Lithuanian wilkais. c/xtV. and more than a conjecture here. tou from ^m thas. 222. as in the 1st person plural /xev from ^ej. Beij/xtv. 244. Latin lupi-s (amici-bus (§. and the Latin bis in nobis. t (})iv I have remarked at as a conjecture.). narj. however. therefore. in comparing 6(6 <^t» This only is certain. Zend [G. vobis . Ag. Ed. the and (Piv is also to be associated. deve-hin (from dSva. Ann. that with the syllable fi? bhi. Lithuanian wilka-is. Lithuanian niUc-u.(Berl. Prakrit §. Abl." see Greek (§.). 275 vrikd-is* (from vrikd-Ohis).). dissyllaWes. §. deo-iptv. Zend vehrka-n-anm.] §. the dual termination VITPT and the changing this number of restricted plurality to that of <^iv unlimited plurality. (§. m order to separate the base and the termination. 220. The third possible supposition would be the derivation from the usual dative-ablative plural termination VITO bhyas. to . 215. 215. Lithuanian wilka-m(u)s Genitive. as their common root (see §. 222. The fourth possible bhyam case would be the derivation from {§.). also. from fV^ bhis or «I^ bhyas. and the thence-derived Prakrit I will not advance with dev^-hin. not as ^ 217. "God. divide the diphthongs. that the ending in the plural is perhaps identical with the Sanskrit fjTO bhis.

Zend ddta. The rest as the masculine. eclaircissements. 297. be twice found in V. DEAL." . as I had searched for it alone in vain.] PLURAL. LATIN U. Zend ddte-m. Ace. Commentary on the Ya9na. p. Lithuanian gera. 312. Bumouf p. [G.276 Locative* FORMATION OF CASES. et M. KvKot-at. Gothic daura. Vedic ddnd. and could supply all the other dual endings in tolesupplies this (Yasna. diopo-v. a review of this Part in the Journal des Savons. Gothic daur. which I imagined to be lost in the Zend. ddlS.Voc. GREEK o. Sanskrit tin dona. cxxii. which refers particularly to the Zend . and on both occasions are rendered by Anquetil. Latin donu-mt Greek Vocative. Nom. then the First Part of the First Volume of a lastly. LaGreek ^wpa. IN a. SINGULAR.Voc. Asiatique. Nom. Notes rable copiousness. Sanskrit vriM-shu. Zend The rest as the masculine. '' a disquisition in the Nouveau Journal Sur les mots Zends et Sanscrits Vahista et Vasichta. anian wUkuse. Gothic daur\ The rest as the masculine. which must lay before my readers. Sanskrit ddni (from ddna-j-i). ^»»'9uu ubdyd anhvd which are to p. — by Bumouf since the appearance of the First Part I of this book.* First a dual case. viz. "Remark ceived blished The Zend system of declension has resome valuable additions from the treatises pub1. Ed. Acc. whose • First. LitLii- NEUTER BASES Nona. Zend vehrkaS-shva. O. Sanskrit ddna-m. Acc. et sur quelques super latifs en Zend. the genitive-locative.) by the expressions ^i^'^jy S. Greek Dat. ddnd-n-i. Sanskrit ddnOf Zend data.

298. translation is 2T7 in this place particularly confused. 354. Burnouf (V. that "i^i^Aj^jjAi^ I I jjukJCtjAj ash6i can as be a nominative as . much §. — In the instrumental singular M. according to that authority. because. zaslayd a singular accusative literal and : I believe am not wrong in the following " translation "How can give the (Daemon) Drudj into the hands of the pure (into the power) ? "Remark 2. We await the elucidawill give of which Neriosingh's Sanskrit translation passage . ." ill from [G. with d for to a. for the present. passim). 98. S. p. probably. that Vi. " in the hands. the according Burnoufs acute 6." the This translation might lead us astray so easily. have been so fortunate as to find another example for the hitherto missing dual case. more also according to might tion this be the singular genitive. conjecture. corresponds with the Sanskrit 3"»fift?i ubhayos {amhorum. It main sur Daroudj?" little appears. Burnouf admits the termination ana in bases in a (Ya<. how- ever. which frequently occurs with a locative content ourselves with the inferences deduced by Buruouf. wliich has perhaps not yet been examined by M. no letter question precedes ( a — I mean the form <^^^aj^j3av zastayo as^jjai^ zasta. not .FORMATION OF CASES. with n introduced. in nmbobus). p. 187.iY ^y^» actually occurs exercising the force of assimilation in the is to say. but. that 4'»»'>»' anhvo. by '* dyanm zaltayo. p. I am the more inclined to assent to first 6 Burnoufs opinion regarding the origin of the as I of ^i^^-l* uboyd.) : jau^daj au<3A5^ "©i^Aj^jjAj^ 9"8*J»^ ^fiL>2^kathd ashdi drujem 192) translates le which Auquetil vielfrai-je le (p. * The Codex has fauhily jjujooaj asdi and ^ 9ii>>^ drryjem. through influence of the preceding and with the loss of the con- cluding s. ^ii7_i> ubSyd.Ed. = Sanskrit Iwstayds). for the sake of euphony.] a passage of the Jztschne. " dans ce monde. in which ^^^aj ayd.* Comment moi -pur.

mazana. in the person plural. and had struck like my attention before. from vrih. the words t yakrit. among other forms. my and from which in in like if I manner. according to the analogy of the Sanskrit He rests this. &c. according to the analogy of )m^m<^m^ haresman.'**' which is the only word that brings to my mind somewhat of vazna yazdn^. 100 note. in my opinion. as in n. adopt ana in the instrumental form —M. and may stitute yakan. in more remote /xei/ a:i ilogy. with which these themes undoubted bases in originally terminate. only these forms.] is interchanged with a nasal. further." whose instrumental AjyAi^jJAJAJ^ ^ Aj/As^jag^Aii baresmana. Besides M. mingerer by a suffix n^ man. has formed this. the Greek. in passages ^O/Au^As^ •'^Vi^'^ AjyA)^ kana with . some words. bases in a may be assigned as the origin of be divided maza-na. so that the letter s.2*78 FORMATION OF CASES. "mus "). would have had not differed from I I deduced instrumentals in a-n-a Burnouf the etymology of the same. Ed. But now we prefer dividing them mazan-a. from /xef (^fX mas. Burnouf cites also the interrogative instrumental as)m^ kana. igpr«li^ or as. analogous with quently. just ""Ifl^^ as. Aj^Aswjtulp vanhana. p. on that of ajjaj^jjaiaj^ maesmana. on the other hand. I derive from the root ft^ mih. and p. If. and they can in as far as such to forms have been already proved to belong a.). mjm^m^ still. "to grow. in Sanskrit. which in their theme adopt a suffix think terminate in mm as (<^. which make its remember to have seen only in the instrumental. ^l^ sub- iakrit change their xioF^ for n in the weak sakan first ] cases. attention. "with what. in which we we cannot agree with him as long as we cannot supply any cases which must indubitably belong to a theme in a. Burnouf maesmana. " conviction. occurs very freappears. AiyAJ^^AJAW srayana. Burnouf quotes. 299. to ma in the word maesmana.. Sanskrit ^^ as). theme terminate Sanskrit and " this word. w^ina (§. 158. [G. " urinal" a word which had often attracted I. M.

which hesitate to acknowledge. in words (§. of interrogative not directly meaning. at present standing alone in the Zend. have dispensed with a similar insertion In another place {Journal des Savans\ M. p.. in the Vedas or in the Zend. because the pronominal bases are to unite with one another. " who- Under these circumstances I cannot yet admit of in any instrumentals i in a-n-a. " with purity. with which the inif strumental must agree in sound. ever. if KeTi'oy is also appears connected with this looked upon as a theme. which we have noticed. na occurs also in other abstracts nA.). S. with the Indian grammarians." from the masculine theme Ajjajjy asha . But if instrumental forms of to be pro- this kind.FORMATION OF CASKS. especially as also the bases and u (in which the Sanskrit in the masculine and neu- ter likewise introduces a euphonic n) in the Zend. an instrumental form.*^. however. For the the Greek kana. kakchana. analogous to the Vedic form mentioned ^THH swapnayii. as has also occurred in the Sanskrit rest. form tn and therefore ^M^l sivapnnyd . ajjaj^ ana and it ^«r Sna in but a few eases.) have prone I not. would be 158. 481. are not duced in other undoubted instances as in stantives. nothing the case of adjectives in construction with masculine or neuter sub- prevents the assumption. if one derives this. from a theme ^w swapna. for kcivo^. 160. and there would be accordingly I aj^^aji^aj ashaya. Burnouf deduces ihe frequently-occurring instrumental Juu^^AjjajAj ashayd. what offering this shall I sacrifice?" ' 279 I (V. if from this base the instrumental only had been evolved or ^Stj preserved. and because I believed miglit assume that the same pronoun which is contained in ^nr ana and F«T ^na forms also the last element of asjasj kana. although in it §. ventured to draw a grammatical deduction from form. is still plainly connected with «hHj«1 the old interrogative base (comp. that the form "^Tffl T^nn\ swapnayd belongs to a feminine theme especially as the suffix in the feminine t? swapnd.

JM^^\a khyd . a form nearer although corrupt to the Sanskrit sya. feminine au/O'^^ manthrd. more some its chapters of the Jzeschne to satisfy one perfectly of signification. also. who. would have is us to it. nouf in his Ya9na (Notes. concealed from appearance of an instrumental form. for example. Neriosingh translates this passage word for word. for «|»^^»7>0. with the accurate translation singh. be explained according p. I according to the proofs given by Burnouf. and agrees with to rule.ct —approaches so very near to the so precisely according a. which. in the substantive. viz. as the theme Zend in general. Such a passage given. may I to the analogy of rioimi trishI [G. with a masculine base As/uvi^ manthra. as it which we here annex. in of Nerio- the passages hitherto edited. only that he renders kasnd. by Burp. the termination hyd However. " with thirst. Ed.»A$Q> grammar: M^)^3Xi^ MiJMXi^ AU^^WASjajAS AU^AJo) AUQxfCaW ^cyAM»(2A3 MAM^ Aj^^c/^jJ M^cj^ kosud znnthwd paid ashahyd paourvyo kasnd kheng strencha ddt adhvdnem." In every case think may deduce the Zend aj^^asj^xs ashaya from a feminine AUtaJA5 ashd. also. in still rather comparison sufficiently with frequent the in form hS. as far as the unorganic lengthening of the that a single passage. also. follows led the original word by word. cxxxix. .). which. was very representative much obscured through its usual me under k^w M. a *' " a speech/' occurs. moreover. is interesting in other respects. passes readily from one sex to the other and. " which man?" (here properly not more .] nayd. —For the genitive termination j^w M there Burnouf has most rare is also as satisfactorily proved. but in passages where AnquetiFs translation was little too adapted to bring to light the genitive nature of the same. the Sanskrit — for it which is sometimes found. 3. although with a different aim.— 280 FORMATION OF CASES. 300. sya. Remark exists. had remarked words with the ending am^^»> ht/d. and was. au^^w hyd. besides.

i. without a conjunctive vowel and without the euphonious suppression of the r[ n. " viam ipsis quis dedit?")." for the idea of 2Si in Tid. puri) " Quis {qualis vir) creatione pater est puritatis (or primus? quis {qualis vir) soli stellisque dedit viam ?" The Zend expression AucuTcaWf zanthud. We from the Zend. from ipT jan. as this case often enters the depart- ment of tlie instrumental. than "who. is plainly the instrumental of which would correspond to the theme of a Sanskrit jantum. however.) not crt tjt W but simply. which. 191 G. besides. as follows Hi^'^^JT : cB^ »nT?rt f<Tin JJIWW TT^PT W. is repeatedly to be found lengthened. '^primum. ^^^ HKcBT^TTW «f^ kS jananeli pita punyasya prathaman* (t^R^ *<(^<JjNKrfj. that it is identical with the Sanskrit instrumental gerund. in another place. viz. 253. 351. . Zend form. p. ed. where. This form is. and is also capable of expressing is * Perhaps the adverb MVIH prathaman. zarithd. + Vide as to Ajarf"(3vj»^ zanthwd. 158.sage is that. however. must be considered as an ablative.FORMATION OF CASES. 301." a cormption for Vmw. I xiifS'<^'^ii_^janthwa is to be read for zanfhwn). Ed.e. prathamaJi. 1244 6. by cFt kd. is which. and is to be expected from the sense. as the latter is infinitive. and to which have. p. to the length of the concluding a of the With regard. do not attach any particular import- ance to . because in the chapter from which this pasa.). The Sanskiit Wff^l jananSfi. with which Nerio- singh translates the Zend instrumental case. "STtTK I feminine.e. znnthudt (Gramm." which answers to the original. ^S^^ '^ kila sadvydpd- [G. " boni originem quis fecH?^) kali sur«Ft yasya tdrakdndncha daddu padavim (fts^ W\h^ ^H\T^ kila ^ for mdrgan teshdn kd daddu. man by is lost the general signification of the whole. erroneously >^. Ed. Crit.. 118.] ratvan kas chakri. taken originally short. preserved contrary to the prevailing rule (see and 160. re- markable on this account. which is §§. referred the ablative rwAuoxSO^ p. in the lithographed codex. p. would sound l{:^j^ jantwd.uja3< given -WJ^^W zantu . p. translate i. "primus.

Burnouf. 302 ] sic. XIL 89. lay no great stress on this circumstance. like the V[jpi^ punyasya. but does not contradict my apprehension of Axxafo"^ zanthwd : he makes the genitive Au^^WAjjaj"'^ ashahyd pass for the nominative. au^^wajj^aj ashahyd could I will.).s : 282 FORMATION OF CASES." " Quel est le His translation is premier pere pur^ qui a engendre ? qui a donne * In other places (V. Anquetil's traditionary inter- pretation sounds. also. 187. 385) Anquctil renders (p. or <^»a5^^a5^ zantavd (see §. jananM as a and refers tnnj^ punyasya to according to this interpretation justly takes objection to the tn?!^ punyasya. Burnoufs further but expect from him rather injkuoxi^vv^ formation of value in other respects. genitive. and perhaps have been translated " father with purity. "Quel est le presoleil mier pere de la creation pure? qui a montreleur route an vt aux astres. au^^wajcuaj ashahyd might. the termination for. very strange. as concerns the Zend. in the presumption that it was right. but in no case is auoxTcs-^j zanthwd." I look with anxiety for explanation of this passage. Ed. than to find that he has succeeded in making the forms Wf(^» jananefi and zanthwd pass for genitives. in this place. 137) the won? . therefore. therefore. however. perhaps. Nal. 'S(^fi\ janani. that »nrf^Jawani feminine. if^^'JananM would not correspond with AwoxTOvij zanthwd. pass as the epithet of auoxTo-^ zanthwd. have next as follows bein taken for an instrumental. p. "^cxfCaW zanthwd. for the genitive of >^^aj^ zantu could only be J^^>c^^Av zanteus. could Zend >^^MXi^ zantu. S. His translation runs. M. which does not agree with the gender of [G.). in Zend. which cannot possibly be a genitive. but he confirms. Add to this. who looks upon "W^^l it. since in it the genders of the substantive are constantly changing. M. or. and does not. axj^^^- throw any light on the meaning of hyd . and no more pass as the epithet of ^rf^: JananSK than. Considered as a genitive. the reading expressly by the addition of a p. also. however. the preposition "through" (for example.

S. slren-cha . without regard to the organ of the following read. indeed. here to be remarked. de lui is 283 The must be it meme les astres qui ne sont pas a deux faceg?** sun here quite left out of the question .5 dregvato. and consider it as the epithet of aj^^c7^jj so that it would correspond as accusative plural It is to the Sanskrit . dusskyadfhnevg. very is much obscured in this passage. that in some chapters instead of the Jzeschne. howdoubt of their accusative nature : ever. in the initial letter." which is often said of the stars. to unite CUM <^h more conveniently with the following ms^cs. . 391. with reference to the form of 50^?!^ kheny. So we dushdaas V. [G. as of self- created lights). refer to the plural 4'^-^»^cZ. the a the prefix is.FORMATION OF CASES. ui^^WAJtaj-w AU^Axd paid ashahyd rightly by ph-e de la purete: his translation is. p. " created of itself. m^ and. has two words . mjttJc/(3Ajjiv»^ avm?>4 dusa csathreng aa however. ^^c7c3Ajjkv?(S^A5^y>^ dushacsathreng* ^^cy6«^A}^wo.M3>^ ineng. ^^^A)a}^«Jo>^ these Anquetil. however. Ed. only with the help of Neriosingh's Sanskrit We can but regret that the in other respects highly valuable of elaborate exactitude leaves Burnoufs will excellent Commentary to us no hope that he come very soon the elucidation I of this and other passages. that. renders expressions le singular nominatives. can be explained translation. p. indeed. attache a la mauvaise loi".^T'^ swdn. and I have no the whole passage. but they. " ce roi mechanic qui fait mal. clearly only a conjunctive vowel. ng is repeatedly found of a simple nasal. But to return to our ^)^?t^ kheng. like many others in the Jzeschne. and it acknowledged. regarding which am most curious.] 4'»'3uu^A}»tb>^ '|»»'9ui'yA3^l*y>^ dushmarmnhd. we might identify. 303. The lithographed MS. as far as relates to etymology. together with dushvachanho. little calculated to throw light on the connection of the passage referred to. this expression with the reflective pronoun aj^jo kha (as in kha-ddta.

for ^^^« khem. according to my opinion.. This false reading appears. even in its acceptation for the sun. §. ^<^jMi»(Oj^ fail Sanskrit 5H£gT«TH adhwdnam cannot to (comp. is the accusative. see and not I it g/AJQ)A5Jcv5(5^ At all events take ^n^9^ kheng to be the accusative. from this. as jo kh is used very frequently for »»> hv (see expect to find §. and upon this is founded Anquetil's. 44." with ?M^MMi(S^ vsnpar csripare. for which."). §. as skrit. nevertheless. explained in §. as these liquids are easily interchanged. which easily seen to be an error. but the sibilant has been removed (comp. 9^/Au»^Aj advdnhn. is there retained. we have stead of this.). " heaven. designedly. to be an ancient one. a of -io>p7ipJ3 krevs.). " night. cially as. stdranm. indeed. in the (I write it thus. interpretation.. or rather his Parsi teacher's. 239. 35. commonly. §. ^c7^jj stren might easily cha. In the Zend expression. here vocalized to u. aliar. 3( 4. genitive which more frequently occurs in the form ^'^7jm^m Although. espe- other places also. that of fM^xsMiCS^ csapan. Ed. and widely diffused. in 239. the accusative of a base aj^ aj^^p^ijojj stren-cha. and not. if. but in the lithographed is MS. may not also be entirely lost conjectured that the base /a5»»» hvar its r. with ^r^^ Zend. I be formed by contraction and combination with a5^ secondary form so tliat nevertheless prefer acknowledging in aj^^c7ijoj3 strencha. p. which has been adhvdnem. the be observed in- given. aw^ dd is found in construc- tion with the accusative of the person.] . and and may this suppose that the letter is m^ ng has arisen out of out of r. as one translation. which is strangely at variance with Neriosingh's exposition [G. also. 4 5. may have and that it may be ^^c^^ kheng kita. " qui ne stmt pus a deux faces^ so that aj a is . j7a5»»' hvare is found (the Sanskrit t^TT^ swar.). n. the nasal. ^ kh makes no difficulty in this expression. shewn in San- by the connection of ^Tf^ ahan." " day.) . and. the might expect from the Sanskrit plural.284 the FORMATION OF CASES. but we might here j^w^o khare.

Zend hizvoy-do. S. 213. Sansk. taken for the 285 as the well-known privative particle. g. 305." and probably connected with the Greek x^po? »8 aspirates are easily interchanged (Bnttmann. Greek ^a>pa-v. " (yvi^). by reason of the long vowel of root.). 1. ^'. Lith. Latin terram. and 2. Voc. Lithuanian Gothic giba. Sanskrit dhar^.t Greek Dat Gen.) hence. Greek %<3pa. Greek Lithuanian ranku-s. Latin Genitive. in the instr. The root is V dhri (\n: dhar^ §. (§. by the power of the (V. 16.). ranko-m [G. dhard.). 118. Accusative. Zend hizvS (?). Latin terras. and the last portion finds in the Sanskrit its ^TtTTanana. since cognate case terminations: that an t d. Gothic Locative." " carry .). also assimilative is not introduced into the theme . rdnki. Gothic Instr. Lithuanian rankn. AccVoc.). FEMININE BASES IN Nominative. 2 1 5. Ed. dhardy-di. is Dat. although it does not signify earth.'* corresponding syllable.* GOTHIC 6 (§. That the a is not shortened. Zend hizva. giba. Sanskrit dharS. 197. its also. Lith. ranka-n. e. d." whence. Zend hizvd-bya.FORMATION OF CASES. Sanskrit dhardy-dm 202. Dative. p. 308. Latin terra. Sanskrit rankn.). (§. Lith. Goth. I still have I can prove by other 1. Zend hizve (§. AO^_iAuy?^ gendbis from au/?^ gend " woman . Sansk. Dat 161.Abl. Rem.).). dhard-m. Lithuanian ranka. ^oypa-^. Zend hizvay-a^ Lithuanian ranko-ye Vocative. termination p. ferra(d). Instrumental. Greek xwpa. ranka-i. "countenance. Zend hizca-nm. Gen. gibd-s. 2^nd hizvay-di. Gothic giba DUAL. Zend hizvay-dt. "to hold. Ablative. rank}. pi. (§. Nom.] Means " earth. Nom. yibai (§. Sanskrit dhard-bhydm.). Latin terra. approaches nearer Greek x<^pa (§• 4. t Without being able to quote this case in Zend bases in no doubt of the genuineness of the above form. ^^wpa-zv. Lithuanian Dat. (?). aj»^ dva number two. Instr. Zend hizvay-a. VTU dhdrd^ the which. Sanskrit dhardy-ns. 1. Sanskrit dharay-d. Loc Sanskrit dharay-os.

Instrumental. Ablative. Latin turn-{d). 218. Sanskrit jjriti.^«G FORMATION OF CASES. Zend CG.). Zend dfriti-s.* §.)— and ^Tfhr agnt-n. Sanskrit prit-du. dfrite-e. G. but as. Sanskrit pnti-s. in is the contraction of a and y . Latin Accusative. Latin turri-m. " master. Sanskrit j}r%-d. 164. . Lithuanian aivi-s. Zend DUAL. Nom. Ed. and more properly used to represent the latter than another vowel. anstai-s. Sanskrit pritay-i (or prity-di. Ed. it is now my opinion that the e e in v^c^^joax) dfrUe& does not represent the At a of the original form K3^^A5^^d«A5 afntay^. plural and from sakhi. " fire. 196. in the accus. Gothic ans€. see p. It may be sufficient to give here the cases of a Sanskrit mascnline in which differ from the feminine paradigma from agni.] dfriti{?). Zend Greek tropri-o^. Sanskrit priti-m. Gothic dfritSi-s. Zend dfritdi-t. (or with the feminine termi- nation only prtty-dm). awl. Greek -nopn-v. t Differing from what is stated in 164. Grenitive. from r^iTtllfH chnUais ydmi. p. Voc. ansiai (without case suffix.." comes jsa^y-o. turri-s. Zend dfrithy-a. Lithuanian dwi-n.. c e is here a weaker form of S^=X!." comes the : instrumental singular agni-n-d — whilst from §. s§e Dat Zend §. dfriti. Note t. for instance. With regard to the Lithuaman. (pvae-cog. Gothic ansf-s. Gothic Instr." sakhy-d (see 168. did. 306. jaa^i. Lithuanian Nom. $. Dative. FEMININE BASES IN SINGULAR. Sanskrit prit^. Sanskrit priU-s (or only with the feminine termination prity-ds).Voc.Acc.). Vocative. Locative. Greek iropTt-s. 161. * 5 i. p. Zend afriti-m. ?/ Nominative. Greek Troprt. "friend. Lat turri-s. the Prakrit f^Tjffil chinUmi.

Gothic Dat. Latin Greek Tropri-oiv. Locative. Zend dfnti-s. DUAL. Lithuanian dwi-sa.FORMATION OF CASES. Sanskrit prtti-s. lustr. The rest like the PLURAL. ri-bus. Nom. Sanskrit pritay-as. (§. Greek tdpi. Sanskrit mare.] vdr-a. Latin The rest like the masculine. Rem. Ed. turri-um. 215. i. 276. Nom. Zend [G. Greek tdpi-a. 307. Sanskrit priti-shu.). masculine. Zend dfnthy-6 (?) (see p. Lithuanian awi-Ut Gothic ansi-^. as to turre-s and suuiJar forms*.n . Nom. Lithuanian Dat. Zend dfriti-n-anm. Abl. 1078 G. Dat. 2ff7 dfntt-bya. 215. (from THUI. Zend vairi. Latin tur- Lithuanian ain-m{u)s (§. ed. Sanskrit priti-hhyas. Dat. Acc. Gothic " three "). Zend d/riti-shva (or dfritiiropTt-a-t. Latin mari-a. Latin Gothic anstei-s. Zend dfriti-byo. Genitive. turr-es. NEUTEB BASES IN SINGULAR. * Vide p.i. ansti-m (§. iropTt-o-iv. Voc. ghu). Gothic ansti-ns. Loc. Greek Dat. Instr. Zend Greek Gen. Sanskrit thriy-a vdri. FLUBAL. Lithuanian dwy-s. Zend dfriihy-6 (with cha "and" dfrithy-as-cha). Voc. Sanskrit priti-bhydm. The rest like the masculine. Accusative.). Voc. atti-m Gen. Greek -nopri-^. p.Voc. 1. Lithuanian dmy-s. Abl. Sanskrit vdri-n-i. Sanskrit priti-bhis.). . Sanskrit priti-n-dm. vdri. Greek Troprz-ej. Instrumental. Dat. Zend dfnti-bis. 215. Acc. Lithuanian awi-mis. Acc. Sanskrit jmty-ds.). Nom.

Sanskrit sAnu-m. Sanskrit sdnu-bhis. Nom. Sanskrit sun-du. Zend sunu. Abl. Lithuanian sunu-s. sunu. Zend pasv-d (see p. sunav-i. Latin pecu-{d).288 FORMATION OF CASES. Greek Locative.] Sanskrit sUnv-ds. Dat. Greek ^orpv-eg. fSoTpv-g. Instr. MASCULINE BASES IN U. Instrumental. Greek ^oTpv-o-iv. Greek ^orpv. Greek Accusative. Latin pecu-s. (Borpv-og. Sanskrit sunu-i. DUAL. Voc. Gothic Instrumental. Sanskrit silnu-n-d (Veda prabdhav-d. Loc. from sunau-s. sunu-hhydm. Lithuanian Ablative. cha. 276.) Nom. Rem. Nominative. Sanskrit suno-s (from sunau-s).Voc. sunu-s. SINGULAR. Latin pecd-s. p. Zend paseu-s or pasv-d (from pasv-as). Lithuanian sunau-s. sunau. 158. . Sanskrit pas(L. 1.Acc.). Zend palad-t. from prabdhu. Zend pasu. Greek sunu. 230. swm-m (§. Dative. Zend pasv-S. pasv-d (with pasvas-cha).215. Instr. ^orpv-v. Gothic Dat. Ed. Sanskrit s4nav-as. Latin pecu-m. Lithuanian sunu-mis. Gothic sunu-s. [G. Gothic Dat. Zend pasu-m.). Vocative Gothic sunau. Zend pah-a. Sanskrit sunu. sunyu-s (for suniu-s. Lithuanian sunu-n. Sanskrit sunu-s. Lithuanian sunau. 215. Zend pecu-s.) Gen. Lithuanian Nom. §. Voc. Lithuanian Zend pasu-s. Zend palu-bis. Zend pasu-bya. Genitive. Gothic sunau-s. Latin Gothic §. Instr. Lithuanian sunu-m (§.). Sanskrit sund (from sunau). 308.

Latin pecu-um. ndry-di nary-ds. FEMININE BASES IN Sanskrit.FORMATION OF CASES. Instr. PLDRAL. nary-d. Nom. The rest like the masculine." ndiri. bhiy-as or bhiy-ds. Greek ^0Tpv-u)v. NEUTEB BASES IN SINGULAR. Accus. bases in u in Remark. Nom. 305 G. ndiry-a. Zend madhu. declension from the masculine. hhiy-am. Voc. ndiri. Lithuanian sunu-se. prifi — Feminine from Sanskrit differ in p. Dat. bhi-s.Voc. Acc. Greek Dat. " woman. fioTpv-cri.' "fear. Genitive. 309. vdiry-di. Sanskrit sunu-shit. AbL Gen.Voc. Ed. Acc. ndiry-dt. bhi-s. ndiry-do. ndry-dm. The rest like the masculine. Latin pecu. Sanskrit madhu. bhiy-d. ndiri-m. Ed. Latin pecu-a. Li- thuanian sun-u. "woman. Gothic suniv-S. Loc. i. p. bhiy-i or bhiy-dm. u . ndiry-a. iinri. Nom. U. Acc. Gothic faihu.Voc. Zend madhv-a. rest like the masculine. ndry-ds. bhiy-S.] Zend. SaDskrit The madhu-n-i.. irtfif differs ^fxtf agni m. exactly as. or bhiy-di. Locative. Greek fiidv-a. DDAI.' nari-m. Zend pasu-shva (or pasu-s/iu). Nora. f. 289 Sanskrit sunu^n-6m Zend pasv-anm. Greek /zt'^f. bhiy-as or bhiy-ds. Sanskrit madhu-n-i. [G.

V. which belong to the feminine (see $. Ki-e^. as concerns k'i believe. will be observed. ndiry-6 9 N. ndri-bhydm. this coincidence as accidental. however. ndiri-bis. with Kiihner 287. are f. bhiy-i. Abl.213. Ab. ndirt-s. ndry-Ss. stri-m. I however. added at will to tiie monosyllabic femi- m. Loc. ndiri-shva or -shu.). bhiy-dm. ndiri-n-anm. side of the declension of monosyllabic feminine bases peculiar to which the feminine alone. Loc. that the 7 of was not the original concluding radical letter of the word. . Sanskrit. (§. ndry-ds. Acc. ndiri{se(i §.290 FORMATION OF CASKS. fcf J. Ki-idv. ndri-bkis. appears so startling. PLURAL. I Ki-crt. Ki-e^. bhiy-dm. bhiy-as. bhiy-6s. the longer case-terminations. Gen. A.Voc. together with bhiy^. I would rather.) N I. Loc. Instr. bhiy-as. nevertheless.). bln-hhis. nines in Further. leave the question as to this consonant undecided. V. are historically connected. like the other monosyllabic words in i. ki-'i. Acc. " ndn-n-dm. 227. p 3101 and a remarkable similarity of inflexion bhi-s. that can only occur in languages which were originally really one: and undoubtedly the terminations. p. 164. Plural : Nom. also bhi^di. for example. ndri-bhyoji. Dat. Dat. t Or. Kt-ag. Ed. ndiri-bya. Remark. . bhruvS. bhi-shu. bhiy-du. ndry-du. whose common sound As far.* bhi-shu. however. with the termination am. k7-6^. ndiri-byd. K~i-g. ndiry-do. ttriy-am. the terminations placed the Greek [G. D. bhty-as. Accus. but. — By the in t. bhiy-as. bhi-bhyas. bhiy-as. an accidental coin- cidence of that nature. D. but that a consonant has fallen out after the i. bhruvdi. bhiy-as. consider. Gen. as Nom. bhi-bhydm. Voc.^ k1 -v. Loc. xf-f. ndri-s. the theme. ndn-shu. than assume * Or bhi-n-dm. may reject may be Gen. Zend. bhi-s.

except in compounds m.. to establish a theme Klf. vadhw-d.). V. Acc." see Gramm. and its full 129. §§. Dat. ficyav." P[^T\ mahdn^ which would correspond to the Greek FEMININE BASES IN aUGVULR.) likewise attests a is." which would lead us to expect in the Greek <c7toj. digamma. from A/foj. f. u. FORMATION OF CASES. And besides this. a proof similar to that which really must be brought attaches to AtFt from its being that which of itself is found in inscriptions. Greek. We will therefore seek elucidation regarding the Greek .. "heaven" (§. kIv. /xeyaAoi I do not consider it re- quisite to assume a theme MEFAT. which approxi- mates closely to the (cf-f. as appears to me. raJAil-s. alone sufficient proof. 6(ppu-v. as in the Sanskrit vH bhi. be also the real final letter of the base. 311. the cognate Sanskrit word f^ div. ku. W^ (§. to which Ktg. A/F/. bhruv-d. -d/). although the Sanskrit it . "eye-brow. Ed. in ?r^ kita. All ground for supposing a I theme KIF however. /Lieyuv.. (for example iWiH \ gfita-bhi m. to the • to be presupposed /zeyoAoj. " void of fear. only that the long t in the Sanskrit. u 2 ." 6Aru-». be analogous to still. Accus. '<v\z\ kita-s. and that the nominative was origifor if K/of.. Nom.. ladhw-di^ bhruv-am..." oxftpC-s- vadhu-m. " great. bhruv-^ (or . Satukrit. f. 122. concludes only the feminine themes. as well in form as in meaning namely.] v[^Rt mahant. for the long could. " insect " " worm. kI^ it in another way." 169. Nom. through a like masculine base.) is and original form [G.. mahaf. been received.Crit. w^anting. kItov. bear the same relation as i^eyas. 70.. Instr. through the Sanskrit and we find this. masc.** might support but ir^TT mahat is a participial form. "wife. Nom. p. A/05^. in the form in which they have . 1 aTc«j«jl " water-drinking. A//. that 291 nally Kifi Kir is the true theme. and like the long v in 6(f>pvq. .







bhruv-as (or -ds).
bhruv-as (or
bhruv-i (or








I.D. Ab. vadhu-hhydm.





G. L.



N. V.







D. Abl. vadhu-bhyas,





(or bhril-n-dm).


Remark.— The
[G. Ed.





and '0$PY*



§. 121.),

proof that the length of the v
it is


organic (comp.


not necessary, therefore, to

suppose a theme


(comp. Kiihner

289.) so as to

consider 6<ppv£ as coming from 6(ppvFq, and the long f as a

compensation for the rejected
before the terminations
at a time


as perhaps fiiKag from


That, however, F originally stood

— for

example, o^pvFoq—

now commencing with a vowel, though


the language had not a Grecian form


by the Sanskrit bhruv-as

by which, at the same time,
is justified,

the shortening of the u in this case

for the Sanskrit



o in ocftpvs is based

on the peculiar disposition of the Greek
in another place,


prefix a vowel to words wliich originally

commenced with a consonant,
and by whicli,
nakha-s^ fflH



have already drawn attention

among other

things, the relation of ovu$, ovoua, to



changes, that
is to


say in polysyllables, as well u as


vowel terminations, into a simple r; but in monosyllables,
in order to

avoid commencing with two consonants, or to

gain a polysyllabic form, the semi-vowel has


sponding short vowel placed before


and thus




uv (vi), as well from u as from

u, as,

under a similar


^ from





hence the two opposite forms,


vadhw-as (not



bhruv-as (not bhriv-as), " the eyebrows

as above, bhiy-as
In the dative

(not bhy-as), opposed to nary-as (ndriyas).
plural the short v of o^pu-<ri for 6<ppv-(Ti


be attributed to

the effeminate habit of regularly shortening the v before vowel


BASES IN du (^),*
SINGULAR. Sanskrit.











[G. Ed.

p. 313.

Nora. Ace. Voc. nav-du.
Instr. Dat. Abl.



















grounds, with Kiihuer,

c. §.

283.) to suppose that the base of the nominatives



give only the cases retained in the Greek.




in avs, evs, ov^, originally terminated in F, so that in the

case before us
for even


would be requisite to suppose a theme


the vocalization of F to

in order to facilitate the

junction with a consonant following, did not surprise us

(forms like vaFg,


could never occur)



on the other

hand, the transition of the sound v into
semi-vowel, in order to
regular, and








required in the Sanskrit according to the

from the

rules of euphony.


will not therefore differ


grammarians, by the assumption of a

theme tTR ndv
of the Indian

for «^ nAu,

and tt^ gav for






there were adequate reasons for

the practice

grammarians would not


us from


down n^ gav and »n^ ndv

in the Sanskrit as the true

themes, which maintained themselves in this form only
before vowel





allowed the v to pass into a

according to the analogy

of the anomalous fr^ div, " heaven "

whence, for example,

the instrumental plural irf*TO dyu-bhis for f5^f>?TB




phonetically impossible


The Latin

(Gramm. Crit. cannot compel us to lay down a
and Greek, for the Latin base

theme ndv

for the Sanskrit

has extended

by an unorganic

as swan, " dog," length-

ened to cani

and therefore

exhibits in its declension

[G. Ed.


but universally


















• See Locative.







* vdch-as.









vdc-s ?


N. Ace.






. • • •


D. Abl.



D. G.

G. L.




N. V.










D. Abl.



• • •


vdc-shva ?




Remark L


leave the terminations in

[G, Ed. p. 315.]

the Zend which

commence with

6 unnoticed, since, contrary










like j^ojjc^'i'jo^ raochebis,

no longer as a conj^jj_ic^'i>A5/

junctive vowel

and therefore no longer attribute the said

form to a theme ^^aj7

but assume that

and similar forms, have proceeded from bases in
§. .56^.)

4^0 (from as

so that


look upon the c


as a corruption

of the



to the


<^y>je^<»A5/ raochehyd I place as

anterior a lost form ^iA^^^ijAj? raoch6-by6.% In a similar
* Like the Genitive. t With cfia, "and," vdchas'-cha. X See p. 230, Note *.


M. Bumouf, who has induced me, by

his excellent pamphlet, cited at

276, on the Vahista (in the separate impression, p. 10, and following), to



fonner views, leaves,


18 note, the question




whether forms


maxeblg, jkA5^_jc>Aj9


[G. Ed. p.^316.]
p. 40.),

I lind,


the Prakrit



by Lenz.

^^^ff achkarmn

^W^fiachharohin (Sanskrit ap«a-



if this


like ji\y^_19^vbA3:?raoc/}e6ii-,

is genuine, then tlie ^ e, in forois appears to stand for ;vi^, as generally


interchanges between ^ e and

jo S

occur, although in

the case before us the ^ e is very constantly written, and AJ ^ has not yet been pointed out in its place. If it is further

considered that

^5 ke for \^ k6, person in the plural also

we often find " who ?" and


ye for ^^C^ yd, "which," the


pronoun of the 2d
and, finally, in

ve for \l^ v6;

the pronoun of the 1st person cy ne for ^y nd then we see the change of the ^ 6 with c e is sufficiently ascertained, although

appears to be restricted to the end of

words of a monosyllabic form
writing the

and in these the practice of
before termi-

^ is the prevailing one, while

•H3^_J9N-W9 vachebts, Mi^_je\svfM7 raochebts,have so arisen from the bases

iWaj^ mazo,

&c., that the






suppressed, and c e then

introduced as conjunctive vowel ; or whether, before the 6 (from as) only,
the 3 has been rejected, and the preceding a with an epenthetic


with an


In the former case


should not have been entirely wrong,

from the analogy of raoch-e-b'iS)


deduce forms





however, the


view as the right one, only that I prefer


the 6 from the pre-supposed original form, mano-bis, raocho-bis, be changed
in its


force into



rather than reduce




elements, and
for the deri-




of the said elements (a) with a conjoined


vation of manebis from mandibts from manabis, for manasbis, would extend
to the Sanskrit form

Hq ^fn ^

manobhis, which originally

may have been
in his

manarbhis {manas-bhis was never possible).



believe that in the

Zend the form

etns really

preceded the form

M. Bumouf,

review in the Journal des Savans (in the separate impression, pp. 30, 31),
calls attention

to a



vdghzhhjo, for which



found, in the Vend. Sade, pp. 69 and 70,



once 4'<^?<)°9-'^9 vnghzhebyo, and once «f.iJLi«'o^9J^9 vaghezhhjd, which,


been pointed

beginning with b as yet no 6 has



so that b appears to be as repugnant to a preceding 6
6, if

as favourable to a following

the conjecture of Burnouf,

mentioned at


297, G. Ed.,




this point

was not yet clearly informed,

w-hen, at §§. 224.


242., [

inconsiderately imagined

could deduce vacho-bya, vacho-bis,
Instead of this should be



vachd (from vachas).

read aj^^c^ju^ vache-bya, .»\5^_ic^a59 vache-bis
this, in the locative singular,

and besides

jwM^xil^ vachahi for jw^ul/^ju^



since the nasal to be prefixed to the


away when

the vowel which follows the h

which has been already indicated in the paragraph
[G. Ed.
p. 317.]

quoted, but since then fully proved by Burnouf.

Besides, there really occurs, also, in one passage (where,

unfortunately, the lithographed


is faulty,




which, with the conjunctive vowel c e (see




in diflFerent

ways, plainly represent one and the same word, and have proceeded from

vdghzhbyo, which


never occurs.

Although these

forms, which had struck


likewise, clearly belong to a
otir vdch^ I

theme which

means "discourse," and

connected with



with Burnouf, derive

from vdch


so that the nominative of this,

MS<^Mii^ vacs, raised to a secondary theme, would be contained therein.


dare not, without further authority, attribute to the Zend such a

malformation, although



superlatives in

as^?^ iema from
But Anquetil,

the masculine nominative, instead of from the theme.
his Glossary, gives

a form vakhsenghe, "parole


which we ought

probably to read KSWaLA^j^V^AJlp vucsanhe (as dative),
K3W3uUJ>\5<3I^AU9 vdcsaiiM.

not with long a
to a



form would belong


"^-HJ^^AUlp idcso {vdcsas)\ from which, in the dat. abl.


vdghzhbyo {vaghczhbyo, &c.) might proceed
as with J»w^_i9 <As9 mazehis, Jk«^_j9yAJ9


<|>i^jiv<3^AU9 vdcslyo ;

maneKs, occur






for the jio s

of i^ms^auIj vdcso must, aa

Burnouf ha^ shewn,

in contact

with b become



impossible for



to use) the

locative jtvAs^As^ vachain


that is to say, in the Vend. S.

p. 173,

where, for jiw^AJWAjyAj^
to be read Au^jwAsyAj^




manahichd vachahichd. In a Grammar, the lost acquaintance with which is again to be restored, oversights
of this kind
will, I


be excused in the
to the





for example,

Rask gives


paiti the genitive

paitdis, while,

according to


p. 196,


patois is to

be written,



paitdis was, in its time, instructive

in the main, and




that the Sanskrit genitive
ois in



corresponds to the form
in his

the Zend.


Rask has incorporated

scheme of declensions

the ablative paitdit (for patdit), this was indeed a



but also a new advantage for the Zend



and brought

to light a

Grammar in its new and important fact,



believe I was



to discover;

bases in

form their ablative



which the

proofs in the Zend-Avesta, as


as I have of


neither numerous nor easily found.





M. Burnouf,



appears to me, speaks too unfa-

vourably of such theoretic formations.
believe I


As far as I am may assert that my communications Zend Grammar are founded on careful reflec-

could not, however, perfectly conclude







very ready to complete and adjust

For in this book M. Burnouf. Zend Grammar, one must carefully distinguish the disquisitions given in the text from the

them through those



general comparison added at the end of each rule regarding

In the former


give only those Zend forms which

have seen, and

thence deduce theoretic laws

in the

latter I seek

of the

the deductions from the inquiries

pursued in the text evident in one select example.




majority of the forms

given in the


and can produce abundant examples

of them.


have marked some as questionable, and shewn

the limits of the probability of others, in notes




error has crept into the
believed to be correct,







it will


pleasure to be able

hereafter supplementarily to correct

The form


vachanhi was, however, only in a measure a theoretic formation



should not have ventured to

[G. Ed.

p. 318.]


it if I

had not observed,

in other

words of the sanip



in other bases terminating with a consonant,

the locative, which has entirely escaped Rask.




might consider the

o of ottoiv instead

of a conjunctive

vowel, as



above (see

221.), as

a property of the base,


an unorganic

extension of

or, in

other words, regard
the second

as a trans-

from the third
otv of



a decladual

ration which

must then naturally extend

itself to the


the whole third declension

{Ttoalo-iv, (3o-

Tpvo-iv, ^aiiJLovo-tv like \vko-iv),

to all cases in the


tion of words

and arrangement of the same, where we have forms like neTuroa^, would

represented an o foreign to the proper base as conjunctive

According to



<f}v<j-io\oyta, l3oTpv6ei£, jSorpvoBcopog,

under the preto

supposition of the bases

us to


divided into fxeTuro-ei^, and would lead

expect the


fxe\iTo-v, &c.,

which are not to be found.


statement here given has this in

favour, that similar

cases occur also in cognate dialects, since in general that

declension which
prone, in certain


the most in vogue and most used,


cases, to




the other

declensions, which annex to their original base the final
letters of the

bases of the declension


in use.


origin of


from 'ono, of


from 4>EPONTO,
of the

was as


were the



which came

to its full

developement in the Pali

since in





Sanskrit, the bases which end with consonants are declined

in the old

way only
in the singular, but in the plural are

so corrupted, that, with the exception of the nominative

and the vocative of similar sound, and the genitive, which


same time

supplies the place of the dative, they

have extended the old base by an unorganic a (= Greek o), and have thus partly brought it from the Greek third
declension into the



and in




most of the cases may, together with the

old form,



recent forms, which have originated in the

char, " to


In this manner, for example, the root


go," forms

participle present partly

from the original base
§. 129.),

^Tyi( charant, or its corruption ^ttt charat (see


from the augmented theme
[G. Ed.
p. 319.]

^Rfi{ charanta,

and in part also






charanta, as follows (see Clough's Pali

Grammar, Colombo

1824, p. 25, and

compare Burnouf's and Lassen's Essay,


et seq.):








Dat. like the Genitive,



or charanta-mhd,4



* The

final rf



as in the Prakrit {§. 10.), transmuted

into the

Anuswara, which
t It

here express, as in the Sanskrit, by



be divided thus, charanta-m, and

deduced from


Transposed, and with h for s (comp.

§. 166.).

These forms are
which, in

derived from the medial pronoun
the Pali also, has forced

sma mentioned

in $.166.,


into the usual declension.





have been expected,

as generally happens at the end of a word,




according to appearance, identical with the instrumental,

"he went.. eharat-d. like the Instrumental. by suppression of the concluding nasal (comp. the former from gtmavant. one would have expected.. p. .) : like ap-ai (in the suppressed t is replaced by the lengthen- ing of the preceding vowel. (or charantehi. in reality. as I believe. is from the original theme '* as.] Nom. also charantd.. * If this form really belongs to a theme and haa sprung from the original form charari.\ or charanta^mhi. .. ." from achardt in nt.. (pepovTtav from but is. ending with a consonant had followed the declension-confusing example of the Pali. .). p.. the vir- tuons". like the Genitive. [G. and in the plural indeed. it (Clongh. " If the charantd. from <f>epoiv a genitive (pepovrov. charatri.. for instance. charanfd. ^or charanta-smin. p. gunavantd used with gunavantd. for example. {charath \ ? Voc or chara* pixnuL. 301 CHARANT. Ace. charantSbhi... §.. corrupted from charat-ai^ analogous with Zend forma 180.... charanti-su. . as in acharcL. Ed. . Dat Abl. Instr. Bumouf and Lassen. charant^. 89) .. charat-am. CHARANTA. in chard this deficiency is replaced by lengthening the vowel. Gen Loc. { charantdyf charant^. charanta-ssa. Voc. the latter firom gunavantd. Gen . t According to the usual declension ending with a consonant one would expect with charantd charant . 320. Loc. Greek in its bases dative (f)epovru>.FORMATION OF CASES. \ CHARAT.. 106.

Y). ^epovr-o^. 1 prefer this view of the matter now to that laid down thus 221. would be clearly explained as deiived from *EPONTO but even when standing isolated. Y. see Locat. (fyepovroiv may com- be justly referred to a theme OEPONTO. ipkpoav. barent-6.. baran-s. N. Ed. "foe. by analogy with which I {orvafiuand-is. the genitive nasyandig of iVinayanrf (" preserver. Gothic. (Jyepodv.. set down fiyand-s as a mutilation offiyand-is with a ivom. p. owing to the very valuable made by Massmann to our Gothic authorities.* bharant-am. and other dative-genitive forms of the third declension.) conjectured Since this. I imagined. but In this from 4>EP0NT0. p. (pepovToi. Ins. that must..\ barent-i. see Loc. G. however.. bharan. . with cha. Jiyand~h..191. bharat-as. [G. barent-em.<j)ipovT-i. p. 1017. which before was not proved to exist in ND bases. ^. which been lost in Pali. . as the first mencement of a corruption which was Pali . the o belongs neither to the original theme. that in <l>ep6vrotv.. . lias manner the form (pepovroiv in the dual. V. bharat'i. D. see Dat. fiyand-s. D.] siNGuiAR. t See p. feron-s.. bharat'^. of Both views. additions Grimm has (I. in this case. ferent-i. Sanskrit. "preserving") has come to light (see his Glossary. fiyand.). brdthr-s. feren-t. fiyand. * Feind. Greek. 153). nor to the true case-suffix." as " hater. ..^ ferenf-is. (pepoi'T-a{i'). 138. barent-a. further pursued in the and at §. Note X I § . according to the analogy of other bases terminating consonant [ahmin-s." see § 125. Ac. p.. friyondis or friyonds from firiyonds. . barentas-cka ("ferentisqtie'^).fiynnd. and opinion all much my may be looked on as proved. D. ferent-em. concur so far. . bararv-n. which lies at the root of all the other cases.302 FORMATION OF CASES. fiyand.. barant-at. bhnrat-d. ipepovroic. 321. 210. 210. ferent-e(d) Ab. bharan.. see Gen. Latin... 4>EPONT. barent-^. (pepovrov^. L.

*vhich I ** The Gothic would have used also ending in nd.. nnd p. (pepovT-a^. Abl. in the strong cases is 29. baran-bya. 210 Note is j. nu^L. bharad-bhis. Zend. fiyand-eXX [G. s.). 299. Ab. N. . owing to an oversight. baranUdoy or baranta. except the falst. See p. Jiyand-s. t- as the instrumental (>. conjecture a transition into the a declension (comp. PLURAl.' II See p. ** .. bharant-du. how- ever. §§ <pep6vT-a)v. bharat-os. 230. fiyand-s. V. Ac. 303 Zend. 210 Notef. baran-by6. ^Mi}o>s»^z/Adregva^ (^. Note $. omitted in p. R 1. p. bharai-as. 323. 5. 210. D. <}>epovT-e. 44. ferent-i-ous . Instr. sister dialects. p. 47. t Or harenbya. $. Ed.) [G. Grimm (T. 322. bharad-bhydm. X 241 Xote *. " amicos " (" amantes "). • See p.% ferent-es. Loc. p 354 . S. p. baraeshva (or shu. 299 Rem. be correctly deduced from the other bases ending with a consonant. 243.X Gen. as Vend. Sangfcrit.^ . IiOtin. Rem.] Gothic.% barent-6. bharat-dm^ Loc. thus. barent-6. 1017. ^'ferentesque.. hkarant-a* 1.. Note* See 2. perhaps. .. N.. bharat-su. This form. 1 (read ^jaj . 260.) dregvant on the supposition that the reading correct. D.). (pepovr-e^. 2.). bharad-bhyas. *^'") for 250. and agrees with/rtyoTi//* generally with the declenaon of a root terminating with a con- sonant.fifirenti-um. su. by suppressing the nt. and p.. <j>€pov-(Ti. does not occur in roots f\ Or barant-ahm. dregvat- from dregvat. which. but may.FORMATION OF CASES. See $. JJ 3ee p.\ . is found at 5. 266 Note This case certainly cannot be proved in bases in nJ. Matth.. barent-anm. 241 Note *.3 Gen. and from the elder §§ I See §. $ Barentai-chcL. p... or -«Afi. dative..\\ ferent-es.. bharant-as. % See Comp. 276.Ed. p.^ barat-6? (p. ^epovro-iv. 52...). Matth. Voc. Greek. baran-bis. Sanskrit.. Vedic. Greek.. Ace. 243.

Oat. Sanskrit. ^c^ajq) patrem (j}athrem?). Gothic N. Balfxov-e. sermo 1)U \L. ahma. Greek. Latin. asman-6? PLURAL. asma'-hva. Cfreek..). Loc. N. dtma-su. R I.. Sade. ^aiii6vo-ivA Gen.. p. asman-o* Loc. see Loc. Instr.Ab dlma Loc. 'iraTe.. . p. asman-o. ahma. D. asman-a asmain-e. asma-hyo. Ace.299. dtman-as. {datjJLovo-cpiv). asman-at. '. ahmin. asma -bis. dtmdn-du. dtman-i.129. D.. sermmi-um. Zend.sermon-i.p-a{v).. see Loc. asma-bya. 6imd . Gen. . to the theory of the strong cases . asman-do. Baiju-ov-av.!}. 5 Also 9c7<3axj2i brdthrcm might be expected. dtma-hhyam. . ahman.s. iar patarem. dtman-as. Latin. Instr.% fratr~em. Sai/jutyv. Note t. 324 j Sanskrit.. br^har. ahma-m\ ahmanS. Zend. SINGU LAR. dfmdn-am. Zend. contrary (^. brdta. ahman. bhrdfar-am. SINGULAR. N. N. sermon-i-bus. or asmxin-a. D. * Ahnaiius-cha. dtman-dm. I "St 5a//uov-a(v).2.. 132. Ab. Ac. diman. 357. I.) Ace." t Seep. sermon-e^d) scrmon-is. Batfiov-e£. nsman. . /rater. Latin. asman-dm.. Gothic. I G. brdtar-em.241. asman-6. Zend. (§. Trari^p. as Vend. see Dative. see Gen. dtman-d. t Seep. dtman-6s. -hhyas. D. dtmdn-a. Abl. aermon-es.). V.. asmain-i D. Ac.) Gen. sermon-es. Greek. sermo\ sermon-em. 304 FORMATION OF CASES. ^aiuov. Bai/xov-o^f Saifxov-i. asma. G. Gothic. dtma-hhh.. brdthar. a&man-em. dtman-S. Sanskrit. bhrdtd. dtmdn-as. Voe. Sai^xo-iTi.. 132.' coelique. (p. Sanskrit.. 276. ahmAin-s. Ed. Veda. I. Greek. Voc. ahmin-s (§. Rem.

D. Voc. brdthr-a. 216. Note. see Loc.. Inst. N. according to ** Perhaps the analogy oidthr-6. bratar-e-bya.X •narep.239. 305 SUiGCr^AIL Sanskrit.^ Sanskrit. Voc. Note. D. brdtar-e-byo.. Loc bhrdtr-6s. IT 127. . Zend. brdtar-do or brdiar-a. Latin. also brdthr-6. Genitive. Ab. bhrdtar-i. Nom. Note See is §. Zend. frater. §. see Gen.-f D. bhrdiri-bhyas. iraTep-a . 211. Instr. Inst brothr (see §. 44. brdtare. V. frair-€s. Greek.. Ab. n See p. Note a»^J3AjZm^au/| hrdtarai-cha^ '"fratresque. 266. 253.^^ • fratr-um. brdthr-s{see Trarp-i. Note t. p. . 132. brdthr-6Q) PLURAL. bhrdtar-d. bhrdtri-shu. G." from dtar. fratr-is. See ^. bhrdtri-n. "iynes. In. brdtar-6. brdthr-anm. bkrdtr-S. II which here wanting. fratr-e{d).frair-i. brothar. fratr-es.^ brdthr-i. Ved. brdthr-d. brdthr-i. J.. 13 D. p. [G. bhrdtar-as. vaTepo-i Gen. hrdthras-cha {"fratresque "). L. iraTep-e* brdlhr-em?** brdtar-€-bis.^ bhrdiri-hhis. 1. bhrdiar. DDAL. Accus. p. see Loc.. brdihr-at." See $. Ed. Sanskrit. • • • • iraTep-u • * • itaTpd-c * Vide t See §. L H. bhrd^r-d. 325 Dat Abl. § r'or the Gothic.. \\ Latin. Ace. Zend. irarep-e.FORMATION OF CASES. bhrdtri-bhydm. Locative. see p. bhrdtur. fratr-i-bus. bhrdtar-du. Greek. Gothic. Greek. 194. bhrdtri-n-dm.

3 1 6. manas-i. /xei/e((r)-/. • • • «. in his review (in the separate impression. and many MSS. V.)D. see Loc. through cha^ a preceding au a is the particle A}p>> preserved in its original length. as yet not applied any closer reckoning: surprise it I have. ed . would.' FORMATION OF CASES. that. where. the computation might perhaps turn out in favour of the short a given above. but still in departure a. however. p. genus. Dat. . ending is generally long. manas. various readings attached to so that. opens a : rich field to inquiries and it is important grammatical observations it for although very full of errors. manas-e.] mananh-S. gener-is. Burnouf remarks. . manah-i. gener-e{d). . Zend. fievos. into account : was not willing to bring moreover.. originally short. G. in like manner. N. Abl. taken together. and which. Greek. manas-as. and turns recur so frequently. . I was not Wft entirely destitute of MSS. appear to be lengthI ened at the termination. Gen." " mentemque. me if. • iMtin. manas-d.. • Manas-cha. they can in a measure supply the place of a comparison of other For the first rest I had at my command the edition of Olshausen of the three chapters and part of the fourth of the Vondid&d. the cases could not be included." t M. therefore. A.{see p. that in this class of words the instrumental I. words which which 1 would then gladly is restore. 1 mand. of great importance in deciding I many grammatical and orthographical questions. SINGPLAR. expressions. see Loc. the from tlie fate of other polysyllabic words ending with a shortened advantage in this particular case should incline to the side of those retain the long vowel. Loc. After deducting these two classes from forms in anha. gener-i.* mananh-a. rt. • mananh-aU mananh-6 {mananhas-cho0. in passages had remarked forms enough of this kind with a long also but where many a's. on more exact calculation. although that even a single lithographed believe I may assert MS. passages. Sanskrit. fxeve{a)-o^. No one will deny that the collation of MSS. 1 1 ). however. see Gen. nstr. is nevertheless shews no systematic opposition to what correct . with the it. through these means. "mensque.

. Nom. Ed. see Loc.. 327. Abl. The rest like the simple word. gener-a. gener-um. 297 G. Latin. The N. Note. Acciis. mand-hva. gener-i-bus.). N. AJW^g^ jy nemenha it should be Ai^^^^i nemanha. durmanas-as. mand-hhydm. mananh-u{?) D. as was observed at p. from an oversight that I.. mane-byo. Dat.. Voc. nutne-bya {p. 253.* G.(r/ieve((r)-ef. V. /uei'e((r)-a)v. FEMINIirE. mano-hhis. » . durmanas. p. Ab. mananh-anm.1 Sanskrit. (jievecT-ipiv. Accus. /iei'e(o-)-e. DUAL i \ d^hmananh-a (?) SvfffjLevexo)-^. and may also be • considered the instrumental singular sage.) N. dushmando (§.). Instr. fieve{(T)-a. (as-cha). manns-t I. durmanas-am. Sanskrit. mano-bhyas.e6. mananh-a. durmands. V. dushmananh-d dushmananh-o (as-cha).-[ mane-hts. read in the Vendidad Sade. 316 G. p. 2^€nd. Greek.FOBMATION OF CASES. t See p. Ac. fxevea-tn. Svirfiev€{<T)-a£. |G. Note *. 127. Genitive. Ac. Ed. 245. SraGULAB. manas-su. Greek. It was. 2.. manas-am. durmanos-da. . V.l rest like the simple word. 5t. . m both editions three times with a short a. 56^). PLURAL. 307 326] Zend.. Ac. MASCUUNS AND Zend. 230. mandiis-i. ^vfffievrjg (§. durmanas-as. p. {p.. [G. . rest like the simple word. * See p. Cfreek. dushmananh-em. The N. Sanskrit. . Voc. • . the instrumental See p. manas-6s. Locative. 299.. ed . I X 2 . dnrmanas-d. Rem. Note §. 146.. however. then we should have in this pasin AttiV juu arJia which recurs three times. /neve((r)o-/v. Veda.) 5t»(r/iei'e(cr)-a(v). L..D G.

as Xeyov. differing from the ruling principle 139. and that the like 2 in forms like to the TeTu0o? has come from and in manner belongs first theme. The rest like the simple word." wishes to look to the upon the 2 in the masculine Teru^coj as belonging base. 99. retains the long vowel . agrees with this view. Zend. in n which. 54. who.] which the final letter of the base is suppressed §. as. Ac V. "great" (from the theme properly a participle present from ^^ mah. M. and has thence imparted itself. 328. my treatise " On some Demonstrative Bases. however. G. in which I cannot agree with him. before [G. Only in this panthds the lengthening of the a can be less re- garded as a compensation for the rejected n than in the Greek. Nom. NEUTER. run parallel in the nominative to the Greek fxeKdg thus.). accusative panthnn-am. H?T*^ mahdn. p. and replaced by lengthening the preceding vowel example. for The Sanskrit has a few bases (see §.)." from panthan. and arising out of t . 8v<T[xeve^. 152. on account of the incompatible association of rcr (comp. 146. to those cases which otherwise stood upon an equal footing with the nominative. &c.) his pamphlet mengiven in tioned at p.. ed. with the exception of the vocative but perhaps the lengthening of the a has originally taken place only in the nominative. the is 2 Remark. " the way. consider the final letters of Tert/^of as marks of the nominative. — not the nominative character r. because it extends also to the other . when the reason of this prolongation was no longer perceived. belongs to the base.). as I. Thus one says mnliant. evyeve^. . . §. pimthds. Greek. 129. with the vowel of the concluding syllable lengthened.). according to the view generally taken. full cases (^. " durmanas. " to grow").308 FORMATION OF CASES SINGULAR. in /txeAa? for fxeKavg. Reimnitz. Ed. 294. Sanskrit. It was remarked in §. that in forms like fxevog. in (p. dushmand (a-cha). (comp. The Sanskrit word. according to the analogy of the Greek form. and .

in /neA/roe/f and others) and mant (in the weak cases vaf. It is therefore our following remarks. stated portion of this general. dhanavant-as. the suffix ^fff vant lerit has maintained the Latin in the form (as opulents).t 255. mat). nevertheless. 329. also in the other strong cases 309 {mahdntam " magnum" mahdntas "mogni. which are formed by the suffix vant (Greek evr for Fevr. . to exhibit the connection of the Old Sclavonic sounds with those of the elder languages. as is same relation to dhanavat.] Before we enter upon the province of Sclavonic Grammar. p. with the Greek participle present stand the Sanskrit possessive adjectives. that is to say the a only. as has been itself in if the remarked in another place. we must. of which they are either the true trans- * 1 f. Keyovre^. while the usual participles present leave the a short In most exact accordance. and accordmgly devotes to the supplementary section which foUows. Xeyovra. by passing over the middle t It malo to mavolo. however. [G. in the nominative singular ^' so. ."' mtihantmt. in the Grammar. commencing with the formation of cases in had not occurred to him : to direct his attention at an earlier period to the Sclavonic tongues having subsequently considered the subject. for example. dives"* {from dhana. had its representative in the Latin which stands sj-Uable. without the interchange of y with i. he found sufficient reason to include them in the same femily of languages.— FORMATION OF CASES. we of sounds. as \eyioVf Keyovra. that it by Professor Bopp. it would not I be surprising weak form ^ir in the vat. its principles of declension Editor. in all the strong cases. bring into notice those parts which are indispensable to the understanding of the principal object. Ed. but with the weakening of the a to divit.dhanaxxint-du. with the exception of the vo- cative . " fxeyaXui"). These lengthen. all must endeavour it to explain requisite its system specify and although of the is not to the minutiae subject. in the preface to the second published Grammar. dhanavdn. OLD SCLAVONIC DECLENSION. "riches"). dhanavant-am.

also. and. in the d. is abbreviated to o {vdovo vowel. as. Ed. grammar. Even I if." And rabo. Moi/o-o-^/A)/?. also." more than but a o and hence a . vodo-pad. so. it. !). d would o. "1 ride in a carriage. "O slave. or o In which are always short: very rarely remains the interior of the bases. forms in a answer to in like to e. an exactly similar fate to that which has befallen in the Greek.. "ferry." vodo- poi. the feminine bases in ^n d (comp. a is in the Old Sclavonic a short vowel. so that. as is as far as their value . Koyo^ is is brod. which >. more or less vitiated. related to AIyco. shewn as the long so that in this the Old Sclavonic stands in a reversed itself to relation to the Gothic. the vocative \6ye is. " widow. or corruptions therefore.] and similar compounds. e and o are interchanged as in Greek . in which. so weight than in the Old Sclavonic. o)." to "I wade through" voz. in the Old Sclavonic. which. [G. Sclavonic sounds. nevertheless regard ." for voda- . The o has more "a slave. concerned. weakened to o . a history of the is natural. p. and as." to vezu. in the vocative. " water-drinker. 330. in case of abbreviation.) only the teaching of native grammarians. it is most frequently supplied by it e a. for We give the first time. " waterfall. we have nothing new Sanskrit '^r to bring forward and in this respect follow (a. is related to the theme AOFO. just as in the Greek to Moucro-Tpa^jjf. that (e. rab. have shortened the feminine a or in respect to o. in which a has us as the short of a. bred'O. "carriage. missions. and the difference of the quantity removed." with fcf tm vidhavd). therefore.310 FORMATION OF CASES.) —^ and ^ i both appear in the Old Sclavonic as is i. however. for example." to nominative e. rate. Old Sclavonic. corresponds most frequently to a Sanskrit for instance. of the first as above o manner As final a is member of a compound. in the Greek. vdova. become exactly as in the Old Sclavonic a becomes i (6. at least I . d. — The Old a has so far experienced. in the it Sclavonic. for instance.

form tre. g.783." be spoken of. ^ftl v^dmi." sut. infin.). in the forms (c). p^te-shestvye." So. vowels. according according to monosyllabically . vyes-t Sclavonic vyemy (abbreviated . however. in composition in the iri) appears frequently treputye. u Crreek rw We express. and short in the French oui. Regarding the nasahzed AAA-^Tb. CATb sunty. 666. Gretsch p.e. like the I. by-id answers to « this manner. which we retain. " fritium. 5). that which Do- browsky. appears the Greek corruption to e (e).d and "I know. #^ f^ ioTvyed-ti. long «. (by ReiflF to It is pronounced in Russian. " strife. however. "they give. The vyed in the Sclavonic appear frequently in the Old Sclashort 1^ i." g. the Old know" to the Guna form of from vyedmy. The iis also very frequently plural dadyaU "they *suppressed. in the both become i/. as in Polish. remain the same than labials like a dull thick c)." J^ is is^ santl Where it. e. give." should be V. as vonic also in the m and the Old High German bases in i (§. vidyeti. " see. silz .) so that v. p.-7 u and ^ fi have. has either been retained unaltered. the 3d person sut." Sanskrit dadati.). that is to say. Sanskrit 65o«7rop/a from P^T/ (§. see §. "they are.C. for instance. on the " virtue " ^vith sila.f In correctly. and it sounds after consonants other (" i m positions of this letter (Reiff. In point of fact. This aU does not." with the root other hand. and. Old Sclavonic. spoken very t where it is original it Heym. to which. dadahty.IN do THE OLD SCLAVONIC.i/.. supplies the place of the old short or as II. e for i. "they are. 1." assimilates itself. boi. or become b y . i preceding it forms a diphthong with a vowel marked in the old writing with a e. in union with a very short i (Heyra. 72. i sourd et etouffe"). which are retamed most (infin. the three (f? and the numeral shew. orthography.260. the yery or duU i by y. . as. "I live.. . as two different roots. in several cases.). by Dobrowsky's incorrect * The suppression here noticed of final i refers to i in Old Sclavomc has final the however. corrected to writes dadjat.g. 311 or shorter I is anywhere not find that a longer compared with Let ^hivH. also. nearly like u. Remark. short mark.fNTf^ jivdmi to vid.

myshy. more rare than those where y corresponds to the long "m u'. nomina- The instances of y for u are. in the grammar. in many cases.312 FORMATION OF CASES 6Aw. Ed. changed to an I think that to following the without the interven- tion of another letter. chetyri. even if this force is not everywhere exerted. which.— -Unorganic y. far in separated from one another. of y in this sense and with bases in ya the a of the base is also really retained {volya."inother-m-]a. "voluntates"). the old u declension has. reaa-ape^." to ^rr sunu . the personal termination my person plural). has for the most part o6a. as no account could be given . High German p. o may : also. become (a. Zend . to be the Umlauts and that some of J y's must be declared that is to say.] become o . as in tive masculine 'srstkh chatudras. as soon as so much has been re- . also.)."tobe. But so as the V exerts the force of an Umlaut on an o suce." 331. similar to the "W declension. is not uncommon mus. " vidua "). snushd . participate in those forms which belong only to the genuine u declension perceived that whence it is easily the genius of the language could not o. e. but only in substantives. snocha. y as representative of original vowels other than 7 u or like gs m. on the other side. the Latin .w." answers to to ^>n ubhd (Vedic form)." svekry. the force of a reactive Umlaut must be ascribed.^\o'V3^vasru. (§. (1st that is to say. and thus. Hence. indeed. has arisen from a and. with ^ttc ckatur (in the theme). by which that vowel an i is o. has arisen from the more ancient mas ^en d) still and if the bases in a (for the y here is so have y in the nominative plural (vdovy. nevertheless.). but phonetically identical. ^ the Old [G.wi> vbd. " mouse." to >rq musha : syn. "xgrm "daughter-in-law. according to . " son. for the short u. i. 70. much the less to be looked upon as a case termination. "both. everywhere distinguish further the two kinds of their history. (c?). for example. ceeding it.

yd).. comes from the word theme. blag and he appears to look upon the y it as having arisen from the i of the sufivx. compound word a. and are thus sister forms to the Greek. ymi. the instance. its reflection. it or u. me subject to no manner svyatyi of doubt. heavenly ". either measure of the If. the final vowel of the simple ylch. and not to acknowledge in adjective root. 502. This has. I say. may trust that I have obtained an accurate knowledge of the organization of the Old Sclavonic grammar on any point. t In the oldest MSS. the preceding o may be changed at i y * Dobr. in its euphonic operation. for ym. Old Sclavonic adjectives. fbll forms . Thus. blagyi as the confluence of ii. according to Dobr. that the afilx in the nominative singular of definite adjectives consists not in t/7 as a mutilation of yo from ya (n ya). 332]. like Ar AGO. considers simple or ii as the definitive but in considering. svyaty-ch.\ At times. proof of svyaty-m. yimi occur in the plural." from older svyatylm. p. then will it be no longer said wit. in is i " holy. p. and in the feminine of ya from yd (tit [G. adjunct . the svyato. as he there does. This also appears to if. through the pronominal will into syllable t.. — so soon. 493. and thereby the for former existence. Dobrowsky to the (p. andof the Sanskrit. " sanctorum. p. left its still in a degree. for novo). according the primitive.IN cognised bases all THE OLD SCLAVONIC. svyatye^h (for svyato-ch). that 313 thtir in the end either in o or yo (changed by the Umlaut " white. 'AFIO. 318) that the definite adjectives are derived from the primitives y7 or it* (indefinite) by annexing." from said corresponds to the indefinite forms svyato-m. " f^divya." to ye)." its acknowledged through the ini a euphonic product from fluence of the which it is added to it. also himself. " per sanctum. novus. as"^ sueta. the y cases. the more yim. svyatyi-ch. in some which has been dropped. as the abbreviation of the base in the masculine nominative has been recognised (nov.'''' and " in Sanctis. that for example. but in i is on this. Ed. ych. final letter of I however.

yi for through ya. for example. is . "(juis?" (Dobr. also. the of the base y " of which appears as i in the nomi- native plural masculine. "per o e. in which is most correctly preserved " which language *ya signifies " he him"). has given influence. is assimilation. mylm. which li. "per quos? with koim. * Written from GJESMfA Note).). j^. kyim. "song. kylm. however."'' meum" not myl.).'" In order. The all possessive to the de- pronouns allow no euphonic reaction at monstrative i. and not hereafter to be compelled to repeat what is already settled. "in vis. . "per quem?" kylch. The nominative y an assimilating i/a (§. a simple the defining element. for the first i I i have not the is also. sini. not into The primitive is adjective is sounded in the nomina- tive which deprived of all inflection and of the last vowel siny. 135. "he" (for is yas). all pronounced in the nominative. form of the adjective bases in yo." sini-i. "the blue. [G. in the Lithuanian. As to the definite Dobrowsky forms slightest through the addition of doubt that here. which forms the last member . 169. This passage furnishes a good reason for writing the Germanic > by as haa been done throughout this translation. as the case with bases in The yes. of them. is to be divided. feminine." (p.— 314 or not : FORMATION OF CASES thus the interrogative exhibits the forms kyi. sinu sin-ii. Ed. The ja in the text.] "hand. "to him." and giesme. " ccerulei." sinii. at coerulei. 333. here fully to explain the nature and origin of the definite declension. "quibus?'* koimi. and they always retain their radical molm. quorum?" koi. kdich. "in quihm. p. 500 and 3^3. the all iya-m. clearly the vocalization of the y of the but into primitive base so that therefore. but the genitive and the other cases. mot." ya-me. " mens. it may be stated that its pro- nominal defining addition relative is identical with the Sanskrit base t( ya. just as iu the definite pronoun. kylmi. are easily perceived through the declension of ranka. g.

ya-sche. In the nominaSclavonic pro- tive singular masculine. could not imagine how one could create the definitive adjective forms svyaiy-T.IN THE OLD SCLAVONIC. shortened to i " eorum. makes one expect yo in the Old Sclavonic. manner. ya which. xl. but become. in : like i-ch. " quam". svyafu-yu. dative ye-mu. before him." " in iig. "it. namely.). loc. on no account be plac-ed together with the Latin-Gothic is." I . t/e-m." which must. '* terminations beginning with a consonant.) so that svyatyi w^onld belong to the indefito the Sclavonic defi- on the other hand.f for this suffix supplies the place of the article of other languages and the Lithuanian language uses the same pronoun * Hence in the genitive ye-go. Old Sclavonic has. t What Grimm (by Wuk." " him.). Now as i means " he. svyato-e (for svyatoye). not isolated." "quod. differently from Dobrowsky (p. 493). and. svyat. in accusative. this declaration has me . concede to him that the i of »vyati/i has §. t-mi "per eos" &c. would be nite forms. contrary to Grammarians. any thing . svyato. and ye-sche "she. ye-m. have done." for per turn" and its. svyata-ya. 140. yu-sche. to do with the a oiblinda. therefore. all 315 the masculine bases ending with a vowel. from which. union with the particle which has preserved to it the old relative meaning: i-sche means as well ''qui" as "quern". be removed from the indefinite into the . svyato-e. however. least of all can for the above reasons. but in sche. according to (n. " he. because he everywhere seeks the base in the nominative. However. this noun occurs in all the three genders. by the addition of the pronoun here under discussion . "the blind " (from blindan. accusative svyaty-T. from the base i. svyata. and perhaps other grammarians pronominal . the e of which Dobrowsky wrongly itself before all ascribes to flexion. suppressed this vowel in the nominative and and since the vowel has dropped from the Sanskrit-Lithuanian base tj ya.) remarks against I. nite declension." and ye. hence. the base ye has not fully maintained in i-m. "qu(E". in their opposition to the indefinites svyat{p). must be formed ye* the y must be — — changed into a vowel . according to(a. 7. not convinced p.*" ya.

in the Old Sclavonic. this. is austiie.) first conjugation. only the <r «. its certain. but the writing points to an older and different pronunciation. is may at times be pronounced short. in similar forms so weakening the ^ S." be compared sveta . also termed.3IG for the as it is FORMATION OF CASES same object. equally in tlie emphatic.'' with imperative. phina . in be. dered. i. and that au is its intensitive Guna . svyet " light. in the Sclavonic. + u) is reprefirst sented in the Old Sclavonic by u (a) so that the * Although this vowel at least. vyemy. and in others be recognised in the y for o mentioned above. is still to (e. a particular legitimacy to (c). cannot be deduced that this short u perhaps 'gr corresponds to the Sanskrit or and Greek ti. and without the loss brought about by time. and certainly tive that. however. according to it origin and its definition. and those of the know. —The Sanskrit diphthong ^ 6 (from a . usta (written vsta) " ora " corresponds to the Sanskrit '?ft¥ osh ha. on the contrary. ^ I —The Sanskrit diphthong u that after have found always ren. Ed. . only that answers to the Sanskrit the former is ^ : 6. still this much. In Bohemian appears in two forms. it is : long. that say. also. the grammar wth ye corresponding to ^ e are the dual case forms of the feminine and neuter.) it has utterly disappeared. u retained in the in au corre- sponds to the Sanskrit is and the u which stands alone from is to Bohemian a weakening of the au is left : so that. that. with ^ Let pyena. Hence. by ye. however. as also u. and also to the Sclavonic exact. in accordance with the Sanskrit potential of the (y. the semi-vowel y has made its appearance. to be ascribed.] [G. definite declension of the adjective so. but in some p. to compensate for would " this. but. it the u is pronounced short. e. as au and u the former is pro- nounced in ou. or. the concluding element u alone etymologically. in its place : which the a was accurately preserved whence. 334. . " I The most important "cases in ^f^ vidmi. according this union. " by word phonetically more . while. a«. in most cases the pronoun only is provided with the inflexions of case. (a)." with ^ foam. the Bohemian v. through all cases. "the lip" more complete. both the adjec- which precedes and the pronoun which concludes are declined. to which.

according to pronunciation. for an base. in conjunction with lar it. mostly become be- short 0. and. had remained syny. manner. exhibit." the form syn. Remark made between oy must here. most genuine form. according and & uh. 319. "sons" sunav-as). rauka. and sto-shyumi appears as the future of in like so in the Old Sclavonic.). Ed. " from a son" (Sanskrit (a'timi is ^^ sunav-e. 335. " to be "") : but if a class of nouns. in the Greek two hetero- geneous vowels. Sanskrit f^ hahsu. p. but if it from in (c). 26. he A distinction u. andA2Mtoth8 hausa to ^. too. long vowel. from simu). would sound the from which synov is the ji Guna intensitive. was to have been expected. in the Sanskrit. in this form. this ov must neither be consi- dered. in the Sclavonic.). in many oblique cases. is to be found uusta (Dobr. 123. augment added to the nor can it be deduced from forms like si/novi.] vowels into ov.. the syllable ov before vowel-endings. in the nominative-accustitive. 783. (§. As. according to (a). to it. is is when it is added to or weak remainder that syv. p.): ruA« corresponds Lithnanian ranAa. that syn. ov of which has arisen from of through the influence mouth". of u : a representative clear. we must also (so consider the first element in the diph- thong u we write the a) to be o. . which in the nominative-accusative terminate in a consonant or in yerr (see k. the Indian short a has. witli Dobrowsky. §. . when u is resolved before [G. before a vowel (ijf^ gavi gi u. " goose " for which.). irynov-e. v. y (cy) is interchanged with u so that bu in bu-du. 4. q." its final vowel. 317 itself to element of the Indian diphthong has assimilated the second. ? u. rise 6 through Guna stu. its " filium. Bohm.IN THE OLD SCLAVONIC. while the Indian ^ 6 becomes av go). "I shall be. "filiu\. Lehrg. and even for vsta to the . . "hand". an abbreviation of synu and that therefore the yerr." must pass as the Guna form of by (in byfi. = ^ofly from to ift Now as. have united tliemselves in a similar measure. as. tt presents a simi(ov). and it comes visible. according to p. (compare ^o{f)6£ from By.

with Dobrowsky 323). "filiorum" be suniv-S (§. this But though staviti occurs as the causal of form may still have arisen in the perverted feeling of the language as an irregularly analogous word to In order. " kingly. " *' ^ o or ^ av by the Sclavonic 'Wt? dshtha. 29. very remarkable also. g. then. Adamov. "seasonable. the latter for . we "to mouth. 329). suppressed. e. ev.) compared the Gothic As. therefore. buditi. because according to usually corresponds to w «! : hence. ] ZAREV-0). 247. (§. in the nomi- native. we must (322. house ". u. ev (theme ovo. assume a suffix ov or we must is look upon the o alone. but has remained with in the genitive plural also. awake" —a whose primitive bdyeti has entirely * ])obrowsky supports himself in these cases by calling ov a prefix (p. bhdvayitum. binov-at. . the representa- tion of the Indian find ust. domov-it from "debtor" from byn dom (DOMY). which. p. "season": so. "to be. yovo. more to establish." from Adam not.* Derivative substantives " and adjectives in ov. to v^ savya. (a. in the Old Sclavonic bases in this its vowel appears before certain derivative suffixes in Guna form .). {ADAMY ZARYY). from the root (infinitive).) thej y becomes av. SHUYO). evo. drtava. see n. after the ending has been dropped. vowels of the derivative that. . Let synov. "descendant of Pandu". by a few other examples. (BYNY). from WiJ rHu. sia. the substantive of the u before the it bases in u adopt the Guna form suffix. in the Sanskrit.'' Old Sclavonic. so is y. as by. as the derivative suffix {ADAMOV-0. "lip".) 318 of the FORMATION OF CASES vowel following it. but zarev for zaryev. Ed.).] baviti in the Sanskrit m^^H baviti. Through Cfld Sclavonic the Vriddhi increase o." correspond to sh'&'i sinister'''' (theme causal." comes the causal [G." from zar (theme For these formations. 336. correspond to the Sanskrit in ^r^ ava as VJJ^ pdndav-a (nominative ^TH^ in as). "Adamite.

" with ftrvWTR vidhavdm." Lithuanian ranka .). a " a gander. "away. IN lost " to THE OLD SCLAVONIC. also the vowel of the root —to and T^vftTrHT awake/' from j^ budh. ^^rftnra v^sayifum. cases. second and third conjugation. the nasals* easily resolve themselves into so the second element of the diphthong u sometimes also supplies the place of a nasal in the cognate languages Tuka. 319 bodhayitum. gusy." C£ 5. 361.^m panthds. exactly in such a place where one had to expect a nasal. and. which are . "I bake. Sanskrit M." ^ hansa." u. f^ vis. which governed according but at the end." supplies the place of am of the first conjugation." Thus guhiti is the causal oi gyh-nu (1. as * czytam. in preserved the old nasal in golamb. that in Polish. probably through a corruption of sound. Remark.e. in the 1st person singular and 3d person plural. "to go in.). sfuditi of styd-nu (Dobr.) — As e.g. indeed. also.) . to the organ of the following letter.'' from (fi. gosling. P. id^ Latin pons. "a hand." gansie. " I read.^^ is to be derived from vdovrt-m for vdnva-m (see is so that the a which weakened to an o is contracted u. the corresponding feminine declension marks the of the base with the i\ final vowel same sign which. " a Therefore a. while vyesiti is the causal of visyeii (see e). in pieke." and many similar in Hereby the u in the accusative for the of bases a (from ^ d). 360.g. puty. remarkably explained vdinu most part feminine." gansior.. i. " The Polish has a dove. is compare vdovu from vdova. widow. with the nasal mark of the case to This view is further supported by the consideration. and thus. as. expresses a nasal. " a goose. goluby. " viduam. This nasalizing mark recurs also in the Polish verb. " to know. '* in the Sanskrit.783. is said to have an equal value with a ringing h. the so marked the e. . is in the middle of word. in Bandtke's e. to cause to enter." " columba ." "a dove.

The Polish has. according to the consaid. nes-e-m — it must be assumed that the conjunctive vowel u. 337. before its confluence with the . as in Greek ov arises by the contraction e into o through the transition of relation is and o into v. but the former only to which. is essentially different from that which stands alone . " we carry. which. " they are. the form it nesent expected. like the Bohemian. " he carries " [G. When therefore. in "). is retained. supplies the place of a nasal function thus. Ed. where. " ye carry (comp. u in and. an o corresponds to the e (e) of nes e-shi. and marks this with the diacritical sign mentioned above.— " . m. " thou carriest. has passed into o of e and o. in many conjugations. retained the old conjunctive vowel a in the 3d person plural. like the Sclavonic. but in place of occurs vesut in sur- prising accord with the Greek \eyovai for \eyovai from KeyovTt." nes-e-t. 320 FORMATION OF CASES has. " vehitis the u answers to the n of ^f ftar vahanti. . p.] for nesu is for nes-o-u for nes-o-m from e. in the Old Sclavonic. which has arisen out of m. as well as for the most part in the singular. answers to the Old Sclavonic diphthong u the latter portion of the il. however.^' and the u which. The Old Sclavonic jugations. permitted the n to dissolve into a u . in the first. in the 1st person. santi. therefore. corresponding to nes-e-m. " vehunt (wpz-e-me. \e7-e-Te). wezau. and in the first part of the diphthong the conjunctive vowel. relinquished the character of the 3d person in the plural. in Bohemian. excepting some anoall malous remains of an older formation. the old and more powerful a (^). never stands alone. that in the second part of this diph- thong (o + u) the personal character m. in the middle of a word. for the latter (»). is united with an o." corresponds to the Sanskrit ?rf^ Sclavonic sut The Bohemian has also. " vehunt. but everywhere retains. but. u. at least never occurs as but as y (c). it what has been admits of no doubt." is nes-e-te. " vehimus" wez-e-te. The same " to be found in the Old Sclavonic in the 3d person plural.

). '^Deus tonans" from the root per. and thus hudil. and all feminiues. it is vonic. the latter portion of the u (») has occasionally been hardened into a nasal.— THE OLD SCLAVONIC. "I will be. (h. 289.). (i. Finally. howerer. zieluyu.] Sclavonic. p. and hence y has been sabstituted for J in all that follows. {PERUNO). in the Sclavonic. through said. so in the Old [G. p. as it ap^jears. " widow" (Dobr. "through the widow. This yer. " runner (BYEGUNO). to the Sanskrit participles of the middle voice. the vocalization of the m or n. denotes a tone In the original ^*CT". hesitate.". i. 321 then.)— There are in the Sclavonic alphabet two marks." from ziel. but by Gretsch semivowels I mean the so-called soft yer* and the hard yerr. thus. prononnced." answers to f^M^^yi vidha- — In certain cases an old vay-d. p. as answering to . in the correspond to the Sanskrit in ^(T^]f^dydmi. " to shake ". chirdydmi." "I kiss. "a sound. nic. sound." f^i^l^^lfH "I from f^ chira." and soft ogon^. The former is represented by Gretsch as half U and by . vdovoy-u. as I sabddydmi." from l^T^ sabdn. Ed. as H^(r^ yunjdna. in uyu (1st per. Y . therefore. ** byegun. " pres." is in Polish bendp (written bedp)." to i^^ tway-d. which by some are called liUertE aphona. 5) and thus respec- "sympathy." are. in to the yer compared with the pronunciation of travail and cicoyne. Editor. 372. has been shewn with remark- able that conversely. "healthy": vdovuyu from vdova. also. in the instrumental of pronouns without gender. what has been TN If. perun." from tht^ yuj. in ana. "uniting. from BYEG "to run" (Dobr. words in iln {UNO) answer. "I greet. schal^. and toboy-u. p.). the tones •mouilles' of French (compare Kopitar. Reiff (A 7). (ZIELO). "fire. DenoOld Sclavo^|c^iMi"ftT minatives also.) d (m) unorganically supplies the place of the Sclavonic H. whicli is of such frequent occurrence in the Sclasufficient clearness. "through thee. "long": thus. yer . 338. his translator.p.

" regis^ e. 322 which of a is FORMATION OF CASES rather to be called a y than an ^ i* . i Etymologically the yer corresponds either to a the cognate languages. ogony.g. " he e<TTt. and that for this reason called the hard yerr. oblique cases as a distinct proper y." . appears.'"' On the consonant its which precedes ders its ycr has an influence which ren- pronunciation more y. as in yesty. We require. and without echo. too. |>. therefore. suppressed in the nominative and accusative masculine. in the feminine sinya. is the residue. however. final of is '' (^rfta" asti. from which a theme of siny. " coeruleiis. sonant preceding Hence we mark it it y. whose vowel. for the i a. more correctly in my opinion. to vowel has dropped . and write the above words schaly. seen. Ed. 5) tells us that they are it pronounced before is sharp. Old Sclavonic ogvy. because sound its is somewhat broken by the which throws back sound. in its extension to a. Conso- it have a stronger and free pronunciation 339. which end with in the uniuflected it nominative and accusative singular. and it may be said that in schal^ and ogon 2/ one hears quite as much with a as can be heard of this semi-vowel after a conit. or in the nominative and accusative singular of masculine substantives and adjectives. perhaps remaining vowel part of it nants preceding [G.) y. it this "rex. it is : comit is pared to the French silent e and the Hebrew schva to " therefore. equivalent nothing ". from znry. " regi" occurs in several in zarya. In the words. zaryu. and not on account its of own pronunciation. in the * In the Carniolan dialect this sound has mostly disappeared. y ( t{^i/).] and Kopitar it (p. as. n. Lithuanian est'i). "bones" ('^fvn asthi). kony. while the neuter sine for sinye has rejected the (k.. " horse. kosty. —The hard yerr is represented by Gretsch as a semi but by ReifF. mild. but where it has remained it is also written by a j/ ." concludes neither with cally nor with final y." " regem. to use the expression. still and one cannot perceive of what vowel the small. but with yo (euphoni- w.).

783. in the Sclavonic alphabet. o. e). ej. NEBES. only not conjectures (in p. which. Greek uv Latin um. "per servum. more generally throwing its back after sound as y. (Sorpv-e^. properly correspond to the Roman. e (e) from ^w as.— IN THE OLD SCLAVONIC.). always an Etymonor. Grimm his valuable u. o). is. the base plural. not a single be pointed final consonant occurs which some termination. has not been dropped. e. and Roman logically. in the truly-pre- served elder dialects of the Indo-European family. have utterly disappeared in Sclavonic polysyllables. . Russian the replaced is clearly. . character. that in extent of least the all structure the of the Sclavonic of its no. however. sch. which. (for which may stand — is very fre- quently dropped at the end of words 7 and although the is seldom entirely formed. xxxrv) a Rather. i. stand as the foundation of the word. Remark. g. (»T»T?rR nabhasdm. this yerr always represents a sup- mute vowel. i. as however." forms. nevertheless the vowel suppressed in the m by of rabo-m.) —As like ?r*T^T? sunav-as." and yerr. nebes.) — I* believe I may assert. in ^W dm (ve^e(o-)a)v). through the cognate languages can out as beginning with a vowel. but the vanished termination " cceloe. in the genitive likewise Sanskrit. no substitute it * 323 mark. Preface to Wuk's Servian Gramra. as in of Zend by (§. in the nominative plural. Thus. $. by in German sch ( = ^) ¥ 2 sh as Sanskrit * Cf. "caelum. an (/. w. far as regards the writing of those which. . each of the three short fundamental vowels a (as represented also y. at iu conditions and verb. we express the sound our of the French j {zivvtie. 65. as we gather from the whole Lithuanian. by 0. and synov-e answers to consonants forms (m. Gothic The real final consonants. that in the Carniolan sh). rum"). in after language. for this Dobrowsky pressed also on its at the end of words.

the . for he considers the ch and ste. to it = is important to to call attention the relation of this letter sibilants. dosha or dachii. also. not perceived the rref ragable connection between the ch of dach and the s of daste. daste. hence. " whence it (^ 2) has proceeded. nasalised vowels (see §. In regard to etymology. by means to of which snocho. as still this syllable. 397) t and hence he nowhere informs us that ch before this subject passes into s. 324 and also ' FORMATION OF CASES in as. with the exception of ye. K t The vowels mentioned here. corresponds in the Sanskrit ^(m Ch also. &c. For * Dobrowsky has. 783. Ed. as i it appears to me. we will further reitself in mark that the ch under discussion maintains H. Sanskrit. . "daughter-in-law. 3d person plural before but before a appears as sh hence." llATb).) — I'For the gives the Greek semi. 39. ya is never written by two would. declension into s and conjugation before [G. . Remark) . however. pp. More on when we come to the verb. p." (n. preceded by y. as personal terminations (pp. and hence pyaty.vowel y (xi^ y) the Cyrillian alphabet in the cases for which the /. itself however may be written.. Finally. 340. "ye two" and "they two gave.). and use z for the sound of our German z { = is): for 5^ we write ch." snushd. express the that is y with the following vowel letters. 41). which. be wrong it to assume a ye. t we gave. vowel ya. " gave. and in some cases I into sh (Dobr.] certain vowels. the fsch by ch: for tlie sound of the Greek ^ { ds) we retain (. 264. in preterites like dach." dachom. for this reason." the ch returns to the ending beginning with a follows it. excepting inventor of the character has provided letters by particular set together according to their value. It to say. and "fe ye. are. " they gave. however. 41. at the same time. in the cases where a personal s s. passes (Dobr. must be pronounced /ja«<^ (in the original cliaracter "five. 383. always unites in two sounds."* As vowels exercise a multifarious influence in the trans- formation of gutturals preceding them. "ye the gave" dasta.

in it —as in the abbreviated nominative sary — so the r nowhere stated zaryem. disappeared. my 1 opinion. 325 yil is Cyril has provided and expressed in by an to o in conjunction with But y often appears " I Sclavonic as a the dialectic addition before vowels foreign cognate languages. p. "physician. is. In like manner." with the corresponding Sanskrit forms. as far as —under '^consoiue liquidce. but receives this quality through a following yer (a y without a vowel)." yam {for yadmy). and has not.IN THE OLD SCLAVONIC. according to mj" opinion. ^. iii. (y)." pyaty. 174. the into consonants in these forms have no concern whatever in transforming e. after itself it Zend and Lithuanian. which follows in accordance with similar forms which 137. find ." yedin. however. "prince. 1/ And as in this form the is the fuU semi-vowel." vrachy. not entirely without a vowel sound. have retained a more flowing while he calls the consonants without yer " con- soruB solidce" (comp. panchan. observed in the Zend and Lithuanian Note*).yn^em. An (§. certain other consonants had the j)ower of changing xn o follow- ing I tbem into e. was not liquid. zaryem must originally have stood. he nowhere expressly says softer pronunciation 1 —which. kr. by a simple an sign. beit come liquid after fhe dropping of the semi-vowel at least. According to this." and knya(y. sufficient clearness re- that after y and liquid that.) changed into e." desyalyj "ten. "&ve. But as these words in the instme for o form zarem. according to . "king. II. Dobrowsky ascribes the consonant . brachem. am. 05771^ admi. changed into e tlirough and the influence of a y preceding it. damn. c. " one. Dobrowsky understands know. in Dobrowsky's second masculine declen- sion. one would believe besides y. /. and has its behind only its and thereby the proof of former existence. so that by nature and of itself alone liquid." those no consonant is which. and (. &c.* garding this form. and jrer therefore not the expression of the without a vowel which softens the consonant preceding also. Thus. ch. in accordance with the the y. consonants is Dobrowsky does not express himself with when he says (cap." are raental liquid. "1 eat. the consonants r. to the influence of a liquid while. but for zarem. vowel following left it. we have p. in zary. has assimilated a has often effect. adi (primus). 267) . inconsequence of a following i/er and . Compare yesmy.

however.] After becoming acquainted with the true base. which has been termed "augment" by Dobrowsky. changed the following o into not again become * o. as iu . as they have for the most part been rubbed off in the singular nominative.* which vowel has disappeared in the nominative and and other consonants. 341. but only those which may traced through the history of the language. notwithstanding. the ease. knya^evi. that the former have at/ for the but one of their theme. hbom^ adorn. does Dialectically the older a has. vowel of the theme in this to For the practical use of the language. in many points. in the letter The difference last two classes of words is only this. lebedem. be assumed as inflexion which all might. has e. in certain cases. are differently pronounced from what they are in pirom. usually is represented as such. We must now. vo^om. which. or were an addition equally foreign to the base and to the termination. It is not. Ed. to the neuter a nominative termination but perhaps the advantage of having preserved. in the Old Sclavonic as well as in Greek. declension. maiutaiued itself. of all tain the final letter of the kinds of base which occur. p. Ed.] FORMATION OF CASES 256. and keep simply within the limits of the Sclavonic language. where they again present themselves in the oblique cases. of Dobrowsky's first masc. golubem. in prefinal ference to the masculine. [G. by the power of assimilation. to p. 342. 460). the case ter- minations assume. in forms like stated that the r zarem. which e. and which. for thousands of years.326 [G. first in order to be able compare the true case-suflBxes of the Old Sclavonic with endeavour to ascer- those of the cognate languages. 257. whence it has appeared as if these letters. here our object to consider those syllables as supplying the place of grambe so matical relations which present themselves to the feeling of the speaker as such. have subsisted as Grammatical forms. an entirely different shape (p. after the y has been dropped. To the masculine and neuter bases in ^ a corre- spond. either belonged to the case termination. bases in o. from what Dobrowsky has represented with whom we cannot concede or e.

"prince. and hence. an analogy to Latin adjectives like 258.1 of the masculine and neuter. and Gothic nouns in (for a. " caeruleum" miti-s. whence ye masculine . the and Old Greek. "a maid": that is to ^T a). as. so 327 singular: the corresponding a has disap(as peared in Gothic. correspond to the Indian in ya. nov. " novum" but commo« theme [G. (n. But I recognise in adjectives like that just menwith- and in similarly-constituted substantives. therefore." ** young man. corresponds a feminine raba. which in the in e. a-m. out the euphonic form mentioned at 255. The clearest proof that the class of nouns under discussion corresponds to the Indian.'' more. 0-1'. but then not to be considered as the neuter as the vovo." posiz-ma "the two domestics. . new- town ")." Persian pisar "aaa. in the nominative in the neuter e retaining — according to the suppression of the final vowel of the base. 343. is afforded by their feminine bases in a " servant.TN accusative THE OLD SCLAVONIC. in which as yet no difference of sex is pointed out." form rab (for rabo)." bases of such a nature §. must have terminated in yo. tioned. " novus" " appears in many compounds is novo {novo-grad. m in the three num- "through the domestic. These bases. much as one might be led astray by outward appearance to seek in the adjectives. u-m. all Old Sclavonic primitive adjectives. correspond to the Sanskrit in as. mite. ac-cording naked theme is required as . (yer).). except in the neuter "cosium. Ed. it "cacus"}: has also maintained itself frequently in the beginning of compounds to the oldest in the Gothic principle. d. a. Lithuanian. i. Greek rj{a). and in the neuter as " cceruleus." This word appears to be identical with xj^ putra^ " son. as posla-m. nominative masculine end in y sjht/. p. before all inflections beginning with bers. o-s". as." in contrast with blind'-s^ Gothic blinda-ta. where. "the sea. Latin us." syne. those with an indefinite declension." and to owe its meaning to familiar address." " boy. y in this case — and ?i the vowel and dropping the y. the Greek and Latin in the Camiolan. e. as knya^y. so that to the say.

* are. 282). iu (dyio-^. Such as originally end in . shue a.328 to. stands sinya. 171. belong to the base of the 2. 344. correspond thus (compare Dobrowsky. as in SHUY0=W3j and the vowel following. vyetii. urn). of the form and the neuter w. the is in the nominative. in the uninflected nominative. the end of a word. The corresponding feminine form i is iva. the bases in ia (ie) (§. Ed. ^fnm savyd. the y of which has arisen from iye. and Sanskrit feminine bases in in yd Greek la. p.] When an y i or other vowel precedes the last y but one masculine of the base. " cceruleus. To the Sanskrit ^^TH savya-s. word . savya. Note*).) unregarded. more. which is . shuya. FORMATION OF CASES . p. Sanskrit ^^^ hridaya-m. serdze (nominative and accusative the neuter). ace. which likewise The feminines. prceliu-m) that is to say. I I leave the euphonic law contained in $. afford a practical proof of the jus- tice of this theory. and accusative '^ changed into the vowel as. aa the theme of serdze (" heart. from case is i. "caerulea" to siny. as in the nominative properly identical with the thimc. and this perhaps to the most rare. nom. after last dropping the y but one. nepos ex soTore* (Dobrowsky. '^ cob ruleum" [G. in the Lithuanian." the e of which therefore differs widely from * "Where I fix the theme. both the semi-vowel Those in which. V^**^ savya-m {sinister. although ch cannot stand vdfc. of four kinds according to their origin. and give SERDZJO is i. but passes into k. — 1. The Old : Sclavonic masculine and neuter bases in yo. which is to be supposed the original. " heart. To this class belongs MORYO. e. Latin this form. 285). aociu-s. again. change into the declension in 193. in many and cases. the earliest period of the language. p. ayio-v. shui. for the Sclavonic bases in ya correspond to the ia). (n." is corresponds to neuter. which an unorganic o i. as and sine. has been added as. the Sanskrit vdch is laid down as the theme." nom. although the latter no other than the theme without inflection. p.).^* opposed to the masculine termination y and neuter e. with their feminines in ya. as in iit modified according to that euphonic law.e. 259. " the sea.255.

" is in the Sclavonic Cfto (infinitive Cnati). correspond to the Thus fnouns Sanskrit in of agency in TARYO in ryjp.) to the reap. corresponds to the Latin e of. Neuter bases in z. 345. entirely wanting in the Sclavonic.). hence the nominatives blago-dyetely." ** from the root saJvatixr. Note I 647. jnje. 295). irr tar (cT tri. and.] Among (theme the masculines of this class of words cheny. and ^latary (Dobrowsky.p. "shepherd. place there exist among bases in yo the words in which the y as well as the following vowel is an unorganic addition. THE OLD SCLAVONIC. "benejicus" pye-tely. to WURMI /and ifrfff {{JATYO). Old High German. However. "a cock. [G. 879. " messor. with y for a. The Latin word must. "gener" the Sanskrit jdtU feminine. Latin in idr. answers to the Sanskrit oTpiT and the Latin iyaty FERMI. pas-iyry. p. however. far. in also simple ary for iary). o. + But see p. which again makes appearance in the genispoken tive morya. as titrus the Latin." Of / this kind. So gu<iy (GUSYO) ^ hansa.^" from aH^/on.^' " genus. "famiUa. corrupted 329 ." schntely. in the strong cases ttk tar. also. "to be bom. g. Ed. the of which is clearly an interchange with r forms itself to so that this suflSx also con- the Sanskiit ur. in order to be classed with the Sclavonic.^^ "to sing. (§.292. it Dobrowsky (pp. is that where the unorganic y corresponds to In the fourth precedes a according to the euphonic disposition (n. 255.). schi-tary.*' The third kind of bases in yo final §. mentioned in the Indian 255. and * ( frequently answers to the Sanskrit ai j. 5. Are without an unorganic augment. " goose " (§." spas-i-tely. 293) and allows them simply ely as sufiBx (as has been the custom to derive also. it is certain the . for example ^jna^ "to know. As these words stand in analogy with the infinitive in in so far that their suffix b<^gins with a like consonant. 20. derives them from the and infinitive. are the nouns of agency in TELYO.). "a worm" krimi CHER}1[0).IN the mare in Latin. dative moryu. tor from the supine. be pronounced in the nominative mariu-m. ft*. and to the Greek hence tlie nomi- natives my-tary. from mari its so that the Sclavonic y.

263. "a master" (comp. similar termination that to say. FORMATION OF CASES To the Sanskrit feminine bases in ^t d correspond been already remarked.266. num.330 260. PtJTI.). and. 116. lauthn. in Old Sclavonic. "a person. PATJ axid Gothic theme GOSPODI. the Sclavonic agrees with the Sanskrit in the formation of feminine abthe suffixes TOR. . however. and vrachy.] as has [G. which are then declined entirely as feminines.). according au of which. follows GOSTL ^ e To the Sanskrit feminine bases in of a is numerous Old Sclavonic bases (Dobrowsky. agree and. coelicola . nom." KNYA^YO. that they end their theme with (§. "guest. Lithuan |Ji. from various reasons.&c. 346. represents as anomalous. according pati. Among the bases in there are. decl. on which we i will not here dwell further." the represented by w (y). no neuters. TELYO.) . 469. gosfy. fern. Old Sclavonic in a. To p. — form most of their cases from a base augmented by " stone " (Sanskrit KAMEN. this class of words. as it passes into several kinds of m its declension. also. p. and not derivatives from other words. i. not at from another syllable of formation so com- They form primitive words from the roots themselves. t TURU and the first Sclavonic TARfO. bases origi- from VRACHYY." from " medicus. nom. is extended to KAMENI correspond and then 261. {/. iv. foreign to it. for very reason. however. ^:^H^ asman). and only a very small number of masculines — as in Lithuanian— as which Dobrowsky." Gothic to LA UDI. belong also some masculines.). used to borrow their mencing. (»i. lyudy-e. Ed.255. "prince. is to$. particularly proper names. (§. though they were only irregulars of his second declension masculine this : they are. * Thus." from GOSTl* (Gothic GJSTI.). Latin HOSTI) agrees with knyniy. . pi. as in Latin nauta. "people. Tjfjf FADI) is in fact irregular. in reality. but only the former with yoy and in part with yy.has gained a prefixed y. and LJUDI. The masculine i nally ending with n — there are but a few of them . "away" (Sanskrit nftpf pathin). in the nominative classes It is and accusative singular that these three of words.

pamyaty. indeed. feminine. " I remember. theme extends and also itself by an unexten- organic others by a before is these sions of the base the o of the syllable ov e. "per this it ecclesias. p." also appears form all its cases from a theme BROFJ." " meaning. as overstep their original base by an unorganic addition . o is suppressed before vowel termina- In i. by the addition of is with a Guna of the gi u. t The example given by Dobrowsky. " a church. case could have no other sound than whether come from ZERKOV or from ZERKVI. and hence they must not. 355) imputes. in Greek. not brov-e.] memini). changed a Sanskrit final ^ u to ot? and from this form several cases. "memory. is But Dobrowsky's third feminine declension {zerkovy." The dative locative zerkvi is doubtful. p. 115). by Guna. Brovy. as from a base ending with a consonant— e. Sanskrit u Tam "a line" (as extended). be looked upon as of the of masculines terminating simi- same base with the majority larly in the nominative and accusative singular. for yatrvach Reiff. in the nominative and accusative. i. in my opinion wrongly. instead of supposing that the radical n Sanskrit. " to think "* (compare [G. .. " a church ") : of a mixed nature in this we recognise some words which have. the n of pomyami. zerkviy-u. eccleaiis." nevertheless does not apply to monosyllables. in analogy with the tati-s. genitive singular and nominative plural— but so that the tions. p. on any account.y. nor to those polysyllables in which precede the syllable oo ticable (comp. for 'hOhW tanti-s. zerkory. an eitension of the Sanskrit )j bhru. by two consonants and krvuch would be equally imprac163). Gretsch to . " ecclesia" " ecdesiarum" zerkva-m.-e. ?erAu. rdais from TAN.** g. suppressedt zerkvii. is snppressed before t. 347. . as krovy. " per ecclesiam" zerkvi. as THE OLD SCLAVONIC. "flesh")." nom. These words weaken. " eyebrow. "blood" (Sanskrit Jgsikravya^ neuter. but in no case MAN. IN stracts in Tl. to derivation. their i to yer. " ecclesiis" zerkva-ch. • Dobrowsky (p." from JHf man. from the root " spirit. Ed. The nominative plural hence brovi (Dobrowsky. in Sanskrit irfw mati (for rwan/i). "in zerkva-mi. and as. as zerkvi. 331 PA-MYA-Tl." and some similar bases. some in cases the .

have. in the Old Sclavonic. c. much into one another and that. which. final They. has no real existence. But should it be wished to call them bases in they would not be distinguished from the order of words. remaining cases 255.). nevertheless. p. in the nominative. 225.* With this simim. bear this name with more right. or without Guna. these . bases in still. might be understood. 258. As in the o bases which have arisen from ^ a. as it and in the latter form appears also in the beginning of compound words as a naked theme. run very in the Sclavonic declension dialects. y. (etymologically =^ 6). with Hj^lt swasru-s. under the u. . it conformation of theme of the old bases in a and not surprising that two kinds of bases. like the bases in o. vi.. in the more modern two declensions. 255. 348.] thus svekry agrees c. y is the most legitimate. shews /. yj for although their final letter never occurs as y. if it be the most rare. not the Old Sclavonic » but the Sanskrit T « or the Latin u of the fourth declension. The term u bases would be appropriate only so far as here. have represented as purely euphonic. which we. that anciently for syn.) o suppressed hence zerkovy or 262. . it is Hence more probable. "filius" "^lium" (§. §. which in their origin are widely different. Among bases in u (Greek of the cognate lan- guages only masculines have maintained themselves in the Old Sclavonic. 263. strictly separate.}. suppress their vowel in the nominative and accusative. representative of the Sanskrit o. itself either with Guna o changed to ov or u (§. at will. others have. (c). ovy or zerkvi. which. a y preceding introduces a difference of declension. by means of which their Guna form is articulated ev (for yev) instead in * We term this class of words. but in the this letter (§. Ed. according to § 257. c). 255. which were originally so have fallen almost entirely into one. the same phenomenon makes its appearance also in the y bases. i.. according to ^. and with [G. even 3" u.). stood syno rather than syny lar is 255.332 FORMATION OF CASES of this class Some words " sucrus" (§.

In the dative is plural and instrumental singular the ful : form zare-m doubtit in this and other words. in the cases without Guna the yy bases are just be distinguished in their inflection from the yo bases. Ed. "kings. we must place knya(y. as final of the base is pronounced e for ye from yo and hence. and in doing ground the division on the this de- is natural. as i. Dobrowsky 's second declension in the first. originally belong to y the a declension. the only proof which could bring them imder the head of the y bases is the vocative sing. On the other hand. words inflected "a king" (nominative). 350. opposes of SYNY. Latin OGNYY.* If. (theme RABO). p.] * Without Guna. by an unorganic addition. . vrachy. although they have borrowed this case from the declension. " son. but it is certain bases have migrated into this declension for instance." zarit." from " ZARI . 260. rei. mains uncertain whether the more contracted theme or the more extended in yy." of Dobrowsky's to first masculine declension must be transferred the second declension as mutilated y forms.^'' "of kings. of obscure origin. from agni.). p.\ [G. dative ognev-i. vide the Old Sclavonic masculines bases in sire. Of the paradigma here given by Dobrowsky." and dom. mruviyu that they. hospitum" from GOSTI. end like those in yo. " fire" (noni. that several old i in is the older. " a servant" : prince" (nominative) of side syn. with Dobrowsky. p. —into two declensions. rabo-m In the beginning of compound words. true y declension. the words of rab. " a house. 282). Lithuanian UGNI. 333 349. — " witli the exception of the §. THE OLD SCLAVONIC. 255. we di[G. "ho- and gostii. native and genitive plural from bases in i . n.: IX of ov. ogvy. the yy bases + As regards words inflected like mravii.) little to ." adheres most strictly to the §.). however. ev to the like zary. as gosty-e. agrees with the Sanskrit mfnj It IGNI. to final letters of the bases. also.] however. in the instrumental singular. clearly form the nomihence zary e. Ed. 255. as. the ($. syno-m (from the theme SYNY) from also.?. and. according to oi. with e for ye. spites. '* medicus. (. is proved by their feminine in iya and neuters in iye or ye (Dobrowsky. and by the on the other band.

" (for may : optionally form several cases from .). the masculine o bases (the indefinites) of the y declension have admitted no irregular trespassings any more than the pronouns. §. in oiw^ karman neut. and vocative. the old and more powerful a. however. of and imen." we of may this also class have rabov of words and find in the nominative plural also ov-e." from the base syo) answers to the Latin se-men. ow. under the limitation of §.^^ The bases in as. 264. divides itself so much the more distinctly from the base ending with a The bases in en correspond to the Sanskrit consonant. in the uninflected nominative. in which. and have preserved. them have an m before the termination en. "a a theme servant.g. Bases ending in a consonant are.. e. "a name. 260. which answers to the Sanskrit »r^ man c. the case sufSx. on the at (yaf). In the Old Sclavonic. " deed " and to the Latin men . form an exception as a also. other hand. accusative. MAB Y rabu) and for rab. — — STEMEN mutilation (nominative syemya.). and T/hich are important for the system of declension. there are neuter bases in en. in answer to the Sanskrit neuter bases as nebes. that is to say. in ^snr an. " servorum. which has taken several cases regularly from the old u declension. n. 255. . too. the two masculine declensions here spoken of have been transfused almost entirely into one.334 FORMATION OF CASES more modern (leserves here to be further remarked. g. " seed. full so that men is to be considered as the formative suffix of the word. and with the suppression of n of the base All of (see 139. entirely foreign to the masculine: es. ov. case termination. from the point of view of in the more recent dialects.. rab (theme HABO)." is a es tTfni ndman. but with the euphonic prefix of a y (see §. we according to the adjective analogy of synov-e. " nomen. because commencing with a vowel. On the other hand. that in the dialects of the Sclavonic stock. the genitive plural of the Polish and Carniolan.

As in this abbre%-iation of es to o the neuter es bases in the cases mentioned become similar to the bases. 265. and tion that inflec- which — it is then.). 351. were originallv domiciled in es. 144. if the original o bases at times admit an es in the oblique cases. it is then —on account of the influence of these shews in the oblique cases as in itself deficient. accusative.). or h\ya (compare the Lithuanian in 144. and vocative. but i. com- pare the o of nebo with the Sanskrit-Zendian arisen out of a which has + u. the bases in On the other hand. p. /.IN THE OLD SCLAVONIC. (/.): in the nomi- native singular. not surprising. not m^ mahai magnum'^) and capvt. 241. and afterwards strengthen 255. we say. in accordance with the Sanskrit and Lithuanian. adjective o bases. which induces the conjecture. they relinquish the cons (according to (§. is cases. p. the declension of the former springs [G.). Of the class of words in r mentioned in §. particularly when we consider the ori- ginal great extension of these neuter bases terminating in » (compare words. §. they suppress the r. 235. These are. »^nimi^lR^ and denote the . and follow ac^fia. 352. therefore.). In the nominative." Sanskrit cluding the e to nabhas. " mother. there no admixture of It is in the thoroughly legitimate clear. §. however. two feminine words have remained in the Old Sclavonic which derive most of their cases from the genuine r bases." and dshchi. also 255.] "heaven. es Dobrowsky proves from (" §. in the latter only occurs the increase of the base by ya (in the nominative accusative and dative plural) . that the bases in ynt* in the uninflected cases must lay aside the t. Ed. fT»TO 335 [G. and because the nominative principally gives the tone in the declension. in others increase the original base also by an unorganic §. Ed.1 * They are all derivatives from names ol young of the animal mentioned. mati. "daughter". any longer o. We cannot. that many that now is declined as o bases. a.

The instru- mental has. in the feminine. hence voM. in several classes of words. *In cases. to the Lithuanian a condition ciise in origin for the two cases. t For m. order e. Hence. g. Mb my. with If the case-sign suppressed.). signs n and m. tj'tfrnn iy." and matres partly from MATERI.783». but into iv. " joy")» for Masculines and neuters have their instrumental ending. which present in the diphthong u a contraction of the vocalized o. IS 5. assume for Hence I am now common 177. the now pass over to the formation of lost nominative and accusative have the casea.). (see 255. in fact.g. according I to Dobrowsky. not into simple y. "bones. but it is to be remarked of the feminine bases in i that they change this vowel before the termination <i. the Old Sclavonic. an abbreviation of the Lithuanian mi. $. 255. from KOSTI. nasal with the final vowel of the base shortened to §." 266. with synov-i. and " nomini". h. . and is il. " regi" with * Cf. which. to e. " aquam" from vodo-u." hrachev-i. than with the Sanskrit. FORMATION OF CASES MATER.263. in corresponding class of words.. "Jilio. I have no v\w prify-d.). p. " matris. with the exception of the bases in (a). we should read disposed. g. see §. and comes there- ore from 267. from SYNY becomes "Jilio*'' BRACHfY (^. hence.330 partly from (/xdrep-es-). as also. also. hence. synH. a common ending with i the locative. the preceding ov Ed." (§. changes all the final i before the vowel endings into let kosfiy-u.). "medicor Guna. and zaryd. the Old Sanskrit imen-if "in nomine. (for d. and. The dative has.] and ev (from yov) becomes y^ . contrary to §.J f G. in the singular. bi (§. 353." be compared with the Pali for the Sanskrit 77it pitiy-d (from piti. and this is. synov-i. doubt. mater-e. maferVi "matrem. although in their received is they are externally separated from one another. so that in this closely with respect the Old Sclavonic agrees the more the Pali. 215.). and the pronouns which have no gender preserved the genuine Sanskrit inflection.

In coeruleo. which. and in the locative domye. uninflected sinyu." masc. the class of the old tali into ^ «." is clearly form mu in to-mu. the y bases appear. more o bases. the y bases. While the been shewn above.e. which has extended itself in the cognate European languages so much. 354. sinev-i. slovu. SMO. RABA 255. "mari": not blagov-i. 268.* culine The pronouns of the 3d person mas- and neuter — with exception of the reflexive —have in the dative. as has RABO. As. " to from the Sanskrit appended pronoun V{ sma (§. from SUNU comes sunu-ye. [G. but prefer. form *' in u. p. rarely rabov-L The o bases of the adjectives. in the Old Sclavonic. the uninflected H. e. from mti.] and answers to the Lithuanian wUke from WILKA (§. Ed. the abbreviated form hence rahu. (<=). in like manner. IN THE OLD SCLAVONIC. and dropping the this. RABO vrike from §. 337 ti. would necessarily give the base s. have borrowed their dative from the y declension. hence. but the ye of rabye clearly from the Sanskrit ^ ^ of ^ according to from ^ vrika. i. but for the most part correspond to Sanskrit bases in ^ a. neut. however. neut. to have intruded on the o class for synye answers (§." "to" and "in the house ": but in the dative is also found domov-i. in the locative. to rabye. from RABO. "verbo" moryu. however. after as rabu from • would come the dative o bases. so may also the Old Sclavonic synye require * Masculine names of inanimate things all follow the declension of dom (theme DOMY). in the mascu- and neuter. hence domu. and of these line there are. a. from is. in Lithuanian. according to their origin. 255. slovov-l. &c.) .). Z . only have alone the and those of neuter substan* tives blayii. masculine in names of inanimate itself also things this uninflected form u extends to the genitive and locative. of the Latin fourth declension. for the this. "bono" masc. and under such different forms. 165. morev-i.:. "of the house. although very few among them.g. 197).

through e. from mati or f^milf bhiy-dm from for ko8ty-u. as nothing bases. must. have in the locative ye for a-ve. brachi. as. however. is. it might appear doubtful e. in the genitive. "in the house.): hence imen-e.) . "of the name. except in the in- more natural to consider the forms puti. VRACHJY. of the genitive the which but the in the cognate languages.266. 255.'^ from VODA. In bases masculine and i. it is of the base. drop the s. from aivi-Sy " a sheep. y. the i. that the f minine form rankoye in the Lithuanian. mori. p. whether the with which they end in the dative and locative way. answers to the Lithuanian ranko-ye (for ranka-ye) from ranka* in i. though not through any they have just the same sound. ( ). as the feminine a bases. termiuations as." * It must be allowed that here occurs the very weighty objection. §.). from bhi (comp. and VOLYO. 202. so might also awiye into awiy-e. (to which belongs an inflection). and otherwise i never entirely give up the strumental plural. which in the Zend the enphonic influence of the Lithuanian. according to [G. and vodye in the Sclavonic. os. also. represents nothing else than the v of the masculine bases the neuter 269. " in aqua. kostly-u^ KOSTI). hence vod-ye. uninflected. and locative of those but one. is already short. which have y as the knya^i. therefore." We may else also look upon the i in the dative last letter . pufi. in $. are joined to bases ending with a consonant. after dropping m the preceding vowel. 202. become As the bases in i in the down to a few exceptions. are feminine.— 338 FORMATION OF CASES : to be divided into syn-ye and this is rendered the more pro- bable. jihwdy-dm might stand in connection with the Sanskrit ^rnTPT cydm in fuS^TTTT^T the m. g. e in all the bases ending with a consonant 260." kosti.] vowel appears as (§§. would. . In MORYC. feminine. 264. Ed. (/. " in the " in the bone " : — is to be ascribed to theme or to the inflection i. 365. as the Zend {). of than the vocalization of this y voli. kosti. so that." be divided and compared with ml]J^ maty-dm. and feminine KNYAi:YO. just like domu.).

" Now. The substantive and adjective (indefinite) o bases.1 of. but for it. in the oblique singular cases. the sibilants are easily interchanged with gutturals (see §." men-ey " tui. nrfrpo^. but not with s. in compensation for the lost termi- [G.). in my opinion the derivation of g from y (ti y) is to be preferred to that from s. even in this supposition.*" seb-e. (a. Ed. = fl^ ta-sya This comparison might alone be is sufficient in place of all proof. 255. the termination go remains connected with ^ sya and to.). and " hiijus. SEB are their themes. is Now. they have retained the old a of the base. finally. Tliis conjec- ture cannot entirely be put aside but in any case. 188. then preserved exactly as much as the . p. but. because. in disadvantageous comparison with the pronouns which hold fast the old form. Greek Greek of the lo. ed.) . ndmn-as." to *TH^ra nabhas-as. As. muier-e to matr-is. We recognise the fuller Sanskrit genitive ending ^ sya in easily the pronominal genitive termination go. The pronominal forms " mei^ teb-e. answers to hihh« " of the heaven. although . 270. 19. one might conjecture the the g of go to be a corruption of the Sanskrit s and lost. g is elsewhere exchanged only with ^ and sch (Dobr. 356. 339 nebes-e. MEN. and go answers to to the As. let the high degree of improbability be considered. and in the Prakrit to "^ j (§. however. that the Sclavonic should have formed an entirely foreign to all new genitive termination. as to-go (§. 235. if termination go the Old Sclavonic has taken for a hardening from y (xf y). "servi" the y bases nova (= Sanskrit nava-syn) "vovi. 121 G. nation. however. m. TEB. also follow this analogy "sui. in Sclavonic. nomin-is . over and above. ve^e((r)-oy. 41).). in the Old Sclavonic. semi-vowel of ^ sya. have lost the genitive termination go. termination sya to-go. to be remarked the adopted hardening of the semi-vowel y to g (comp. the g of the the cognate languages. instead according to §. p.: IN THE OLD SCLAVONIC. weakening it z 2 to o .). hence raba. which had been . p." the Greek also to-7o.

of the (A). according to 255. §. mentioned in §. as well as to §. ascribe that y. to an Indian ^ d." is identical with On the other hand. in the lies shortening of the Sclavonic termination only in the drop- ping of the sibilant before y. from "new").). element. according to 255. according to 255. for the final s must. o is weakened to e (e) and a to 255 357. this. same give import. (a. " this " (at same time the theme).). Greek ve(f)e VODA.). from VOLYA. must disappear." (n.).). teaches that the a here is only a Guna 271. sunau-s. "voluntatis" with unaltered base. is In the vocative. forms to-ya in the genitive." knyashe* for ( before e becomes sh. the Sanskrit pronominal declension the for if to. the case-suffix. comes vodo for volyo: but from VOLYA. penultimate change that a the y but voJya. "prince. 204. . as in the word rT^trra tasyds. and answers . §. The irregularity. 255. those a . 269. Ed. is : identical with the Latin nove. suffix (§. the feminine pronominal a have preserved a remarkable agreement with . therefore. however. but foreign to the proper base. as. way. and the Sanskrit sun6-s (from stinau-s). bases in hence volya.): . in the Greek. which. does not obtain a v precedes the n the theme. "aqua" from VODA. p. as well as that in the nominative plural. Sanskrit to the nava. for "water. to «. in the genitive end in the comparison of the form syna. [G.). the euphonic influence of the which originally ends the if form (see §. according 255. "filil" with the Lithuanian and Gothic sunau-s. to?o.] a. just as the preceding o points to a short ^ a. d. vole and so from KNYA^YO. 172. hence nove (from tT^ NOVO. " voluntatis. 972. (6. in The feminine bases which have into in a. us. I genitive hence vody. with the exception of y.340 FORMATION OF CASES a. but the a of the Sclavonic ya directs to §. and in the to-go. from ir^ t'l-sya. which in the cognate languages without any case /"§. I do not doubt of the identity of the ending ya with the Sanskrit syds (§. for fo-(s)yo.

f. 470). 255. in which it number is lost in the noun: exceeds." "per duos. f. obye (§. OLD SCLAVONIC. is The usual form of substantive o-bases before this ending . m. 2 1 5. may : be compared with ye-ma. Lithuanian sunau. 205. LD. is.) necessary away the s Zend certainly approaches the Old Sclavonic in voluntarily. as ^oKV^^ vrikebhya^ occurs in the Old Sclavonic only in drye-ma. that with an unchanged o. and Guna. the Lithuanian in the it more true Sanskrit retention of the terminations. vrachu " medice /" from knya^e. SANSKRIT. the commonly omit hence syne. according to §. which precedes the termination ma. Acc V. N. n. L D. as sto-ma. {/. Ab./. ubhd-bhydm. . 255. " a hundred " final a of feminine substantives also remains imchanged. San- from sunau. y bases without .) and the Ztnd . hence vrachifu— more commonly. vbhay-6s. to e the other hand. as dyeva-ma. and is richer than the the Greek by one and Zend is case. oboy-iut * The ye. in the same. which precedes the terminathe tion Uy dearly corresponds to the Sanskrit OT ay (see §. m. ub^ uboi-bya. =Gothic sunau. — VRACHYY y for their penultimate letter weaken their final vowel." and and the some pronouns. o6i/e-»/ia (§. The oy. from sto. the Old Sclavonic surpasses this the Gothic. oba.IN THB OLD SCLAVONIC. "a girl. L. f. synu (Dobr. On with y suppressed. however. uboyd. the Sanskrit S in plural forms. DUAL. skrit »und p. G. The agreement with be mistaken : not to let the comparison be made. in analogy with §.)J n. ubd." t The form casting u.n. 225.). SDID.). and (Z. 255. from DTE FA. uhhd (ambo Vedic). 273. ubhS. " duobus.). " oh son !" more rarely like the o bases. m. By preserving a dual. 341 Bases in yy change their y by Guna to u (§. for the Sanskrit : ending 6g. n.

" The in the dual case under discussion. "a girl"." given by Dois browsky.255." from STEt.. STO. and thus occurs. Ed. their vowel of the theme appears to be suppressed. "two names. The genitives and locatives of the two first persons older on rest. 359. 210. and. opposes ye to the it entirely as a case-suffix before no longer recognises the origin of this ye. dvii. this principle." from xjfir pati from AWI. Ed. that. however. ubhay-du. only retaining the final a is — nayu. The Old Indian ^ regards Sclavonic. only to bases in a (for Sanskrit §. and in <oy-M= Sanskrit tay-os. with dooyu.). f. but ste^^i. and the feminine ubM is an abbreviation of (§. exactly as in Sanskrit. " two from di/eva. in union with is ac- the i. §. and vocalize the y of the theme hence dyevye. vdyu.).] aim. often dropped. the termination ye extends." m. as in the Zend. 225. p. also.ed in §. and not a theoretic for- In feminines...). the vowel of the theme rejected before the termination m. girls. neuter bases ending in a consonant if make ye termination. as dlani from DLANI (nominative singular Zend 6y or ay (see p. d. as pati. 358." [G. as st'-u (Sanskrit shatuy-os) from dyev-H. both genders. together from DJEVA. and therefore without a case termination 2 1 2. f. may be identical is with the Sclavonic u . p. the i in the Sclavonic not lengthened. the imenye. 212. from the theme ubha. in this termination the s . 513. but in such a last letter manner. feminine bases in i. but that occurs only in rfvo!/-M= Sanskrit dway-os. only is according to 255. n. sirs. a." "in " of these two. and which the final Therefore. "two sheep.YA. answer to the Sanskrit and Lithuanian forms mentioned at §§. n." also. according to §. also rest two" m. 255. mation. also. "of two. 211.. "two steps. . For the however. "two h. comes. still Although the Lithuanian generally the u mentioi. The Sanskrit vbM. 342 ( FORMATION OF CASES p. S. 277). "a hundred. which runs parallel to the Sanskrit in (/. actually occurs. the syncopated form does not drop the final s.). as neuter. that those with y as the but one in the theme reject the termination ye.] G. cording to case-sufEx §.

and. p. the masculine y bases do not follow this principle." for ^^iTTTO compare $a/'/io»'-ej. in feminine and neuter Doons. kostv. §. omits sons. "verba" from SLOVO—as §. p." with Greek forms like acofxar-a. 343 dlany). " vola manus. " the and telyat-a. and Latin. 21. but before this reject the o of the base rabo-i hence rab'-U " servants. nebes-a. 231.IN THE OLD SCLAVONIC. regarding the relation of the a of the termination to the o of the theme. a universal gynov-e. 261. 360. and therefore in the former . but suppress the final vowel before the case-suffix a. Greek. and Greek forms like The bases in o take. ^capa from AQPO —answers to Vedic forms like tand. exception of the Sanskrit with nevertheless. \vKo-t). slova."' «^«<«^ the 235. Feminines. Ed. kamen-e. " voluntates. the same as the nominative. cognate dialects. GOSTI). * : according (§. " woods. In the plural." with ve^€((r)-a let imen-a. "two sons^" from SYNY.^ On the other hand. have lost the no- minative ending hence volya. ed. with the exception of the §. and the same thing obtains which. (§.. The accusative plural is." for (comp. has been said of Gothic. and [G. asthi. 22S. with the Latin nomin-a and Gothic namon-a .) . 267 G. /•) hence " the sunav-as compare asmdn-as fiorpx^eg. "names. neuter) comes the like the and the plural theme. As regards the bases ending in a consonant." is the same as the theme and the nominative singular. class of words in ov mentioned at . rule of sounds." be compared . to . i bases in as their termination (see . " calves. as in Latin lup-i for lupo-L like the i Neuters have a for their ending. hence syn-a. "bones" (Sanskrit nominative singular 275.). PLURAL. 274. the masculine nominative termina- tion e (e) for the most part answers to the Greek ef. with the for a . as in Lithuanian do the corresponding a..] from KOSTI. "guests" (theme iioai-e^. heavens. gosty-e. "the stones. for the Gothic gastei-s." from tana .

271. §. becomes and a similar metaplasm occurs in the Lithuanian. increased by a. and indeed. Ed. through the of the consonant of the inflection which has been dropped (a) of the (corap. as at least I cannot believe that this I y is to be looked upon as the case-suffix influence pronounce it to be the euphonic alteration of the o of the base. 361. §. 279.). §. hence vrachya. occur. ^"5*! sunu-n. it is to be considered -that these. and formed from an augmented theme SYNOVO. The view here given the more incontrovertible. also. preserving the old a sound. animate creatures. also. (/. but. vowel hence wilku-s.). RABO. to §. form this owy in the to accusative plural. and thus synovy. exactly as gosti for the in the few masculine Bases in o. 255. like doschdevy. according to the analogy of raby. lowing the euphonic 276."''' like knyntyn. without y preceding. formed from a theme SYNOVO.). which. prove that the Sclavonic form is unorganic. as well as the Gothic and Sanskrit 8unu-ns. synovo-m. give ya. Bases in yy in this case follow bases in yo (from yo. p. the final corresponding class of words often changes the base into u . like rahy. a). very Lithuanian form. for the Lithuanian ms (from mus.). sunu-ms. also. is (r?.). as in the dative. before the signs of case m and ch. of But if the Old Sclavonic bases in y. " filios" answers the Lithuanian svnu-s (from SUNU).255. rule. 255.): as in Lithuanian. change and this o into y. in the cases mentioned as also in the locative (see §. . "filiis^^ is clearly (compare robo-m). analogous with synovy. in fact. FORMATION OF CASES inflection. 270. §.] 215. to a . corresponding to the suffix Lithuanian This dative according all m. hence Gothic gnsti-ns.344 mostly without bases in i . LG. pass over into the i declension. " lupos. as in the genitive singular (see §. "medicos. extends itself over classes of words. " principes": but fol- forms. as e: a final ?." answering to the Gothic vulfa-ns and Sanskrit vrikd-n. and appears to be attached by a conjunctive vowel e to bases terminating with a consonant . "servos".

tion mi. " coelorum.). Rem. nants . (/. like the i accusatives of similar sound. it. ed. "ossium. " bones. and Zend This ter- mination mi for is. 461) represents ov. in masculine and neuter nouns 477) the most part lost (comp." from KOSTI. 2. Dobr. however." from IMEN .). y. the loss of the final vowel and the y of neuters is to terminating in a consonant. from 'afw bhis. bis. subject to the loss required by to the Lithuanian mis. ease has entirely disappeared.). . an255." §. "names. en. VRACHJY.). 255. imen." from 1 ODA. i in feminines. " The instrumentals synovy. "Jiliorum. disappeared. from I koste-m. vrachi. nebes. the of kvya^i. "aquarum. [G. (§. according to §. slavy. p. Sanskrit bhis. is 277. is the vocali- zation after of the y of the bases KYNJ^YO." f^^rai vidhavd. nebes. sub finem. "nominum. sufl&x of this a. similarly to the o of the Greek dual forms like Saifiovoiv 278. 345 §." from NEBES. . vdova-mi with f^VTrftra vidhavd a widow. as plural genitive terminations but in reality the o. 473 and is and preserved principally. pp. are. Dobrowsky (p. Ed. vod. . (/. il. eomp. has. syn. 362. uninflected 275.).. IN THE OLD SCLAVONIC." from The n and tion s of imen. " bone ''. Less general the instrumental ending m/. suppressed before the termina^f^erftnr asthi-bhis. yat." ivom SYNY. as well as in a few masculine i bases : a final of the base is.'' explained by a transition into the o declension. 318 G. like imeny "per nomina. while bases in double that vowel hence rab. kostil. hence imene-m. (p. 126. with the exception of a few monosyllabic forms. 125. and indeed without exception.* much greater extent (§. imene-ch. swering. koste-ch. has also carried i away those final vowels with . however. and be is there- fore analogous to raby. and es. and in bases in and y. Let kost'-mi be compared with asthi. from raby.] RABO. as in Sclavonic we have only a second generation of final conso- while the former. MENI from IMEN. would. "servorum. ev." as from KOSTI. without the former protec- of a following termination have been dropped.

f. "in principibus. Sanskrit servis. §. For bases in i. also. Dobr. VODA. also. m. " the kinds of theme of the existing in Old Sclavonic. m. " a name. at 255. m.) recognised as identical with the Indian at : ^ su. to bring we give all here. " a calf."* In bases: i^/^^O. For an easier survey of the results obtained for the Old Sclavonic case-formation. and hence. that o represents an original short a. in §. p. f. and has been already. nlnes in ya. n. 363. this involves some apparent variations . i If in bases in yo. n. FORMATION OF CASES The termination all of the locative plural is ch throughout §. hence ^fm vriki-shu." GOSTI. hence ovcha for ovchya. exactly as the corresponding rnbyc-ch. m. a . "a guest. dative. Before kh. however. for the Sanskrit swa. §. "a physician. m. [G.l "will. before this ye. "a mother." final a remains unchanged hence vdova-ch. Ed.11." VRJCHfY. "a sea" (Dobr. in order under one point of view another easy. "water. 280." not knyal^yy-ch from KNY^KT^' A " in viduis." KOSTI." NEBES. with the observation.)." f. (m. and in femi- precedes the semi-vowel. from lizyo come (nom. however. lize) the genitive. 475 . and this therefore." TEL YAT. with the A5i^ Greek compare. "in lupis^ their analogy "in Bases in yo — and those yy follow — suppress. n." KAMEN. a." IMEN. "a word. Uzyu." DO MY. "a prince." SLOVO. .. "a house. their preceding y. the Zend kha. n. to their final letters. before the preceding after sibilants . an and nominative accusative plural lizay lizu. 35. n.] " a stone. p. m. a servant. * The above examples are arranged according hence precedes the a for Sanskrit d ($. see 276. o passes into ye. m. and All bases in t have a y also." MATER." MORYO. answers to the Sanskrit vidhavd-su.).346 279." SYNY. classes of words. as in similar hence knyat^ye-ch.vowel is. readily suppressed p. for lixya. 476. however^ cases. " heaven. 255. n." VOLYA. m. this semi.^'' ^ a into answers to in ^ i (see §.255. "a son. "a bone. and to render their comparison with one the complete declension KNYA^YO.). and consonants. e.

In some cases which we notes. ue. to With respect to all which cannot be proved specimens. vanatioDS in the decleusion. in Dobr." see $. is rendered impossible. 478 \Vith r^. p. 347 word to those forms of the following table in which a part of the is not separated from the inflection. base and termination have. by which a division the dual. thereby shewing itself be the case-sufifix. 474. but we recognise no inflection at all.ard to zary^ " a king. the words here given as we 273. however. been contracted into one letter. 263 }. 271.). f. 468 . n. through the alteration of the final letter. word. . j and iuhenye. rest. belong to refer to §. no we see therein only the bare base of the . p. which require no particolar explanation here (see. either complete or abbreviated or also a modifica- tion of the base. p. m.IN THE OLD SCLAVONIC. occasioned by the termination which has been dropped present in the (compare §. mrai'tJ. ladi^a.

telya. kosty. &c.^ kosti. imen-i^ mater-i. more.« vodu.285. f. which as iu '" prefer. 259 p... '« 266. m. VODA. 273. THKME. 3 64. deriving from the original theme. vody^^ rod''ye. " See '* § 265. 260. .* GOSTI.^^ kostiy-u. See $. • . .'^ ro6'. 275. vr ache -my. DATIVE. raba. Note. I might be derived the and locative kamen-i. n. 347. INSTR. gosti. .» kumy'. kamene-m. matt. See p. §. voda. p. m. nebo. knyaCya.). ^f^rjSfl. knya^e-my.p. rahU.^ knyaCy\ slovo. the i clearly belongs to the theme. Dobr. telyat-i. 268.^* IMEN. 8* and in the vocative.268.i2 TELTAT. however.'^ synu. vodoy-u^^ voley-u.^ kvsti. .''^ slova. voH.266. . 147. nebes-i.271.* AFiVF. telya.^^ knyaii. • dom\ .^ kosti. See §. p.^ voli. . domu.263. ^ knyaCy\ slovo. n..^^ LOC.270. gosty. The cases wanting come from KAMENI also.^^ mori. ^ ' Comp. syn'. imen-i. 305. p. MATER. Sanskritjihway-d. L'lth. n. p. . syn.. GEN. See pp.264. SLOVO. m Or syne. . and comp.. slovo-my.^^ gosii. *^ 18 *" '^ Comp. syno-my^'' syna. kosti. ." vrachy'. f. Note. 288. 2 « See ^-i^. slovye. m. RABO. 304. 133. f. ^ See §. p. ^ More commonly vracha. 13 See ^. 5 * Comp. dome vrachyi . - aa See $..^^ moryti. nebes-e. rabye. Ed. p. vrachev-i. 276.1 MOM. • . 306. nebes-i. * « Comp. 269. and whence. rabo-my. &c. Comp. vrachu.n}^ nebo.348 [G. The i may also be ascribed to the mark of case. See ). Comp. ACCUS. vrachi. hsty.^^ MORfO. goste-my. vlya. knyaCyu. domov-i. vod'-ye. vrachya. kamen-i.* rOLfA. p. Comp.^ more.^ volyu}^ gosty."' imya. kamen-e. '2 Comp. n. p. but in the genitive of the same sound.. 267. . nebese-my.287. imya.^* mxiter-e<^ .* KOSTJ. (see $. 337.) whence^ dative just also.' KNfACTO. imene-my. m. aunu-rm. slovu. 268.^^ morya. ' Cora p. .^ synov-i. pali-mi. See §. 2' See $.^ kamen-i.^ damn. .. VEACHYY. imen-e. m/ dom'. m. and the dropping of the final letter of the base may be assamed .^ telyat-c. telyat-i. . volya. f. FORMATION OF CASES. NEBES. mater-i. gosti. kamene-my. kamene-ch ($.^^ tynye..^ DO MY.'^* . more-my. telyate-my.286. SINGULAR. domo-my.m 8 vrachy KAMEN. '9 See Or rabovi.3 raV. Comp. and §. §. 266.

vrachev-e. vody. slovo-m. nebes-a. raby. « See §. synovye-ch. imene-m. « ' see $. vrachev. telyaty. kiiya^e-ch slovye-ch. nebesye-ch. domy. telval-a. knya^e-m. slova. fre- One would expect nebese-ch . voda-m. \G.* rab'. synovy. 349 365. gosti. nebese-m. morye-ch.275.276. vrache-m. domo-m. raby. vraehe-ch. imeny. .* synovo-m. koste-ch. domy. gost'-mi. p. 477). tmen-a.. vrarhi. 276. morya. From SYNOVO. tmen-a. goste-ch. rabye-ch. mori.. roc. and synove-ch.* synov. Ed p.* LOCATIVE.URAL. telyat-a. rabo-m. ' See $. voly\ gosttt. telyaie-m. koste-m. tetyatecft* • See §.] woM.277. kost'-mi. mater.i. ACCOS. volya-mi.* domov-e. imene-ch. vrachya. ^ See $. * See $. vodtf. kamene-m. volya-m. slovy.271.. goste-m. synov-e. domov.* synovy. slova. mater-mi.279. kosti. .278. telyat. matere-m. gosty-e. volya. imen. dome-ch. » See $. H.IN THE OLD SCLAVONIC. nebesy. rab'i. Dobrowsky. vod".e. voda-ch. In the locative occur also synovo-ch See $. volya. 274. volya-ch. and the form yech appe&rs to agree better with the preceding s (comp. nebes-a. nebes. knyaCya. knya(. slov\ morya. INSTR. voda-mi. knyaCi. more-m. kosti. but in this case ech and yeck are quently interchanged with one another. kamene-ch. mory'."" DATIVE. knyaCy'. kostii.

kesa-smin. " it bono" gerame." either simply kSsd (from kSmt. characterises only the pronominal declension." be possible. and without giving appended such to the adjective the licence of renouncing this syllable . which. 248. According to indeed this principle lately would and was my intention. masculine and neuter substantive and with nally all and indeed bases in a. without imparting itself to that of the substantive. Pali may in the be combined also.. after dropping the s. i. have. pass by augment or . as. geram. passed over to the adjective declension. kha-. ADJECTIVES. has. &c. in Sanskrit. The declension . Latin. further. 228. "in bono. distinct p. kesa-mhd. with adjective bases. Ed. . kesa-smd. khe. and extended themselves with the also. they have not remained adjectives alone. the appended syllable sma^ in 165. what has been introduced from pronominal : declension in those languages into general declension we will here only further remark that §.] 281. In the Lithuanian. "hair.mhi. in and if some inflected Zend belong only to the the cognate languages. including those which. but have extended themselves to the substantives the As regards already ex- Greek. emerged from the circle of the pronouns. this syllable.350 ADJECTIVES. and u. and 274. 366. origi- terminating in a consonant. which in the Sanskrit and pronouns. LG. of the adjective is not from that of the substantive forms. we have plained at §§. see p. 300). in the dative and locative singular. in several cases. apocope into the vowel declension locative thus the ablative and is singular of kesa. and Sclavonic. or combined with sma or its variation mha.

Ed. p. "to this. in forms like guter. am. those which terminate in the tlieme in a vowel). and we felt. thus we say to or der yute. which . namely. gutem. gute. the science of Grammar. but the examination of the Old Sclavonic declension. and approaches to the pronominal de- clension for no other reason than because. in this respect. operated in spirit.). 367. where the function of the inis herent pronoun cedes it . still a pronoun which more than we recognised. however. a pronoun. own the the definite (so I now name strong) adjectives are defined or personified by a pronoun incorporated with them. its though here no longer present in behind its original form. tiou is. which naturally follows As. then. they are comits jMjunded with declension. as blindamma (from blindasma. but has only left case-termination. 170. would be opposed still the genius of our language for is it lies in our perception that in guter a pronoun conal- tained. as tlie we perceive pronouns pronoun is in im. not to the weak. strong substantive. In comprehending." i-mma. which still in many other points had raised itself far above the empirical perception of the lan- guage. e. that Grimm's strong and Fulda's abstract-declension-form of adjectives diverges in not less than nine points from the strong substantives (?. 368. is How acute. very important discovery. "to him". beim. was here left far behind it. agreement of the Gothic §. the definite adjective declension. with [G. clension should it is natural that this form of de- be avoided.ADJECTIVES. to and run entirely the German to the. our percep proved by tlie fact the adjective beside the ein that we place the definite form of when deprived [G. discharged by a word which simply pregufer.1 pronominal datives like tha-mma. not der gvter. to explain the 351 full adjective dative. has to led me me.] . p. in which the indefinite adjectives remove themselves from all admixparallel ture of the pronominal declension. like the definite adjectives in the Sclavonic and Lithuanian. Ed. although it was no longer bodily present.

n. Instrumental. is einem grossen (not at the grossem). Locative. the indefinite: ein grosses. Accusative. f. some cases. in the oblique cases. UTHHANIAN. m. Genitive. m. f. likewise devoid of inflection .). yet. m. f. in the Lithuanian. n. but. yoye. im. OLD SCLAVONIC. m. yei. 255. m. but in Old Sclavonic has preserved. m. yei. n. " which") . f. yo must be formed from ya §. eines grossen (not grosses). however. maintained itself in this form in several cases (see below). yu.). Dative. f. ye. Occur. yam. yemu. the y has vocalized itself to i after lanIt signifies in both the vowel has been dropped. einen. yen. f. m. f. which in Lithuanian and is. einem. In the Old Sclavonic. and therefore which is identical with the indefinite genitive and dative. m. ac- cording to 255. "which"). ya* yH. §. J. yi. tye. Nominative. n. 282. yeyH. ya ( definite declension. guages with " he " . yls yin. according to . grossen indefinite . Old Sclavonic forms the nal form. The pronominal base. The SINGULAfi. and from yo again. ye or e : but the monosyllabic nait ture of the form has preserved from the suppression of lu the y. yrh. yanik. and has. m. in union sche. yego.— 352 ADJECTIVES. of its definitive pronominal element. which usually takes place in polysyllabic words. yeya. yo. f. ^^ in its origi- = Sanskrit ya. definite In the accusative. same time it and but in the former case is a bare tlieme. f. n. f. f. pronoun is as follows .* i. (n. . but in the latter case the n evidently belongs to the inflection. beside the definite eines. ye. the old relative this complete declension of meaning {i-sche. (a. m. m. m. yem." only as the relative in union with sche. n.

in Or The gerassiSf by assimilation from gerasyU. n. itself to the Prakrit y frefor quently assimilates I a preceding s. l/os. * See Note on preceding t page. m. m. DUAL.. Instr. DUAL. Gen. m. imu im. only the pronoun in some cases loses and the terminations of the adjective are in some cases somewhat shortened. as. Locative. yoM. m. Accusative. f." will serve as an example. m. 52. icfu ich. " hujus" HW tasi/a. GSras. f. full terminations through its y. va. gertofiL geru-tuse. and appears to be borrowed from the plural. geraiseis. MASCULINE.] OLD SCLAVONIC Nominative. Genitive. Instrumental.\ gerui/u. m. f. — with all the adjective to be rendered definite so that both the latter. Accusative. yom. f. Genitive.. * of the adjective is here not in its place. Instrumental. m. yu. yoms. f. " good. yh t/in.i* f. signifies the same as the Greek . D. Vocative. getamyame.^ geriemsiema. yu. Dative. f. tf^sk. gene^fu ger^fus. Loc.. f. n. yeis. yfe (yi)^ f. f. . The Lithuanian unites. ADJECTIVES. article p.). f. D. m. Accusative. the pronoun cited — which. preserve their cases . OLD SCLAVONIC. geruyn gerieyi. yu (v&). geroyo. yiem.. D. 369. gerasis. [G. n. m. m. f. yiems. geranyan. and the the pronoun. m. Locative. as tassa. PLURAL. m. . f. geruyun. Dative. f. in definite declension.. PLURAL. giriemsiom. Dative. m.. yo* ya. geramyam. 353 Nominative. p. yes.. Nominative. m. Dat. ff. gerasis. UTHUANIAN. yun. UTHUANIAN. A A . f. gerUyu. according to Ruhig (Mielcke. its yeyiL 283. n. ySs. Ed. yomlt. m. f. m. Genitive. yima. m. n. SraCCLAK.

^ See §. svyaty-m. more. * a\ Or svyatye-i. geraye. Indef.^ svyata. where an external identity perceptible. Or svatye-m. gerosies. HASCUUNE. svyatu-yiL svyafom. the indefinite and definite declension: SF^ATO). geroyoye. geromsomn. however. p. thatstn/fl/o-yej/M. as in the Lithuanian. svyaiy-ycu svyato-iJ^ svyaiye. Def. is left. Accusative.^ svyaloyu. svyato-yd. Note 2. PLURAL. 255. svyaiu. geruyii.: 354 ADJECTIVES. Vocative. svyat. SINGULAR. svyat. gerosos. FEMININE. geraiyei. 266. gerosos." may serve for example SINGULAR. over against one another. The the latter must originally have been written. svyuta-go. geranyeh. gerieyi. Genitive. the time. svyaty-7. declines only in some cases the adjective together with the appended pronoun. not only the y but also Thus the termi- nation alone insert For more convenient comparison we svyat (theme here. 370. * See Note ' svyata. I on preceding page. svyato-mH. svy(tto-m^ svyaiye. many vowel. has dropped adjective base svyata has weakened its o to a just as in the dative and locabefore the pronominal addition (§. gerases. but in most cases the latter alone. geromsom. geromsomis. in the Lithuanian the appended lost its pronoun has y only in in some cases. svynta-ya. ff.^ svyatye. geroyi. The Old Sclavonic. . "holy. and therefore the whole base. Locative. for this reason. in the Old Sclavonic that pronoun has its lost. svyaiy. FEMININE. geriyin. Dative. While. geroyi. Accusative. Comp. Def. svyafo-L* Genitive. geruyii. geriyi. differing from the Lithuanian. gerosusa. Instrumental.] 284. Nominative. in which. Instrumental. Nominative. as the syllable ye. Indef. Dative. with the indefinite form is not tive svyato-i. svyaiu. adjective 3 is inflected at the same The indefinite and definite fijrms are here the same. Ed.^ svyaty-'i. Locative. LG. DUAJL.

(e. a8 . svyaii-i. two cases. into y. Gothic ze (for se. find. has. according to $. this again. followed it. be lost ($. 255. Dative. svyafy-imi.279. ludef. according to 256. svyaf. Locative. Sanskrit sdm. svyaiy. answers as genitive to the Sanskrit W^iT for ^ te-thdm. however. occnrin lost e oldest MSS.. Indtf. 255. in I my opinion. however.). Nominative. * tl I give those fonns which. ye being used in both cases ^ e. the grave a of the feminine adjective base changed is into the lighter o and $. The identity with the masculine and neuter forms is arises from this. according to Dobrowsky (p. termination ojn has entirely disappeared (§. which m this case is most exactly followed by the German and Sclavonic. <). to the Gothic naman-e^ and the same relation tye-ch. Def. Ikf. sryat. is Although in the pronominal declension the genitive plural exter- nally identical with the locative. according to rule.ADJECTIVES PLUKAL. that . Nona.) which imen^ " nominum. svt/aty-ich^' svyaty-imJ svyaiy-iclu Genitive. masculine neuter. the reason of their agreement in that ^he Sanskrit. svyaia-ycu The rest like the masculine. as in the (<i.^ svyata-mi. svyaty. svyata. has. svyaty-m^ svyaty-di." has has to thi-ze. this. svyaio-e. in Old Sclavonic. svyaty-yot Instrumental.^ svyata-m. Accus. 278. Def. Tndef. ivyafy. the vowel. /. PLURAL.). Accusative. just like that of the locative characteristic ^ *« (}. 248.) See Notes 5 and 6. con- verted. gvynty-imiJ sayatom.). 302.}. svyati.) : The nasal rf ^TR sdm must. srynfyech. svyaty-ya. sryafy. as also in the ordinary declension the . 355 Def. in place of the i more ordinary forms. svyata-ch^ sryaty-ichJ SINGULAR. become ch. separate the we most nevertheless. Indef. " horum" This tye-cK however. then. Ln respect to their origin. in pronouns of the third person begins the plural genitive termination with a sibilant. svyato. svt/aty-ya. and as locative to ^ le-xhu . This s. which have the * of the pronominal base : si^aty-mi. sryaty-imi. svvafy-ich. contrary to rule.

only represented by bases in o. it is not surprising that in of a German also. upon the loss of which.] by an unorganic n. 69. however.p.). dialects. according to common with the Sanskrit. in variance from the older languages. This ab- animating to and personifying mark of case adjective. and in the feminine in 6. that of the genitive character. its adjectives. 139. because it feels might belong itself the indefinite more it. p. exactly defined through the article which pre- cedes or through another pronoun. why the indefinite adjectives — not simply in part. and peculiar to the German. than the definite it.366 [G. dispenses also with the dative character.] ADJECTIVES. Ed. which. and a. in which the article wanting. ya in the feminine.371. with the excep- tion few in M (of the comparative and participle present). omits the nominative sign. in Gothic terminate in a vowel. however. and the class of words in n appears to be the most generally made use of. yo in the masculine and neuter (see §. the pronoun of which incorporated with left has for the most part behind only its case terminations. remarkable. and then. in the Old Sclavonic. to be sought for in the obtuseness of class • of this in of words. the inflection §§. 140. . all dition. the latter s*and on an . but and for the first time in the more modern so is universally. in Old High German. has followed. 257. have [G. and early as in Gothic — have passed into the n declension. As in the Sanskrit the preponderating majority of adjective bases end in the masculine and neuter in a. other adjective bases. in the dialects. Ed. adjective. more modem The reason. end in feminine o for d (§. whose bases permitted this to be increased by n. and thereby an inducement further to weaken the declension of the indefinite adjectives. in their original cona. It is. inasmuch as a large number of words. have. and Greek. and as this class is. all lengthened their theme that in substantives 872.. is In the Lithuanian and Sclavonic. that in their indefinite condition. Latin. sence of the also. 285.).

is with the theme of the masculine and neuter. in the genuine. blinda-m. blindan-s. in the genitive to £ . equal footing with i. in p. 345. Grimm's strong declension they maintain themselves. since its 6 a..Y.). Greek.^bHnd6n-Sj^ « blindon-s. PLtTBAL. 2S6. while singular. without an unorganic conso- nantal augment. BLINDAN. See §. culine only by a more regular according to remains everywhere unchanged. and Latin. but from an older form of the feminine.^ » See J 140. as in adjective bases in i in the Sanskrit. biindan. BLINDAN n.g. therefore. StNCnLAK. from this." has extended itself in the indefinite to BLIKDAS. b/ind&n. the primitive feminine BLI^DA m. has not arisen [G.^ Ice. 141. it follows precisely that of AMMAN (p. SINGULAK. blindon-a? blinddn-Oy^ bhnd6\ blindCn. PLUKAL. declension of last letter As far as reg^irds the BLINDAN 322 G. as it is entirely foreign to the Indo-European family of languages to derive a feminine base through the lengthening of the but one of the masculine and neuter. variance from the principle which has been just given. and dative therefore §. (p. is German Grammar German from its to remark —and I have already called attention to this point in another place that the feminine of the indefinite adjective. that of NAMAN BLINDON differs from the masinfiection. ed. in the Indo-European family of languages. ^. always. where it is not identical. blindS? blindin} )at. made to diverge it through an extension or an addition important for to the end. BLINDAN. MASCULINE. is. &c. n.blinda'.^ blinda'-m. Ed. bUndon-s. blind'w. and m.). 357 of substantives.. although it is the feminine oi BLIND AX m.. e. derive the latter. See §. bUndon-g. 132. " blind. hlinflu\^ BLINDON. blindan-s.— — ADJECTIVES. FEMININE.e. SINGULAR. and the primitive feminine BLISDO to BLINVOX: one must not. . weakened NEUTEB. ed. Theme. * bIindin~s. original limits of their base. 373] masculine. PLURAL. 176 G. blind^-vu jien. blinddn-d.. the fem. As the feminine.blindin-s}bl'mdan-S.

MID TO " m.. B LIN DO "a gate. blindamma. haryds. hvaryn-na. hari.227. . {medius). "news. as in reality HARDU is the theme oi hardus. hvai-m. ^ See §. In order. hvarya-ns. hnryi-s." and HVARJA m. . in regard to midis. SINOULARPLCRA. blind's.. midyaizS." f. * §. n... hvai^ blindana. blindai. vulfa. by analogy with haryis and hvaryis.* vulfi-s. occur. vulfds^ hlindai. 228. Grimm gives midis (1.. MASCULINE. hvaryaizL V.. in the first place. f. hvaryi-s. vulfSs. and that of f. hvaryai? 3 midynna. midyai. c. The true theme MIDYA occurs. vulfa-ns.. G. hvary-is. vulfsi A.L." and answers . "an army. and n. blind's. is if its analogy ihe with hardus remembered.^ blindis. " wolf.. 171. then Grimm comp is wrong in taking MIDI for theme. by that of HAR YA that of MID JA m. hvarya-mma... Tlie nominative in adjective bases in ya docs not . hva-ns. however. midyans. Ed. blindaim.] HVA m. hari.. hvi s. the form yis is considered as nnorganic. to examine the definite declension of adjectives in Gothic." and the interrogative [G. V..). " who? " what ?" HVOf. vulf\ D. If. 374. unless perhapa it in the fragments which have last appeared and I have here formed 170. N." BADJA n. p. $. hnrya. "deluge. vulfa-m. harya-ns. hlindans. see 135. v<tJf\ . hva-s} hva-na. midyis. then. and. « See §.'' hury6s'^ midyai. D. G.. " See See §.. midyaim.358 ADJECTIVES.. n." KUNTHJOJ.. further. n. 287. « See $. we will.. blindaize. in the midya-sveipains. hva-mma. 135..^ midyis. n. hvi-zi. 1. midy'fs. " who ?" " what ?" HVARJO f.. ^ ^ From haryu-s. vulf-S. hnryi-s^ A. for the pur- pose of bringing into view their agreement and discrepancy with substantives and simple pronouns." DAURA GIBO a gift. N. harya-m. hvaryai-m. place by the side of each other the declension of the definite BLIND A m. a bed.. 160. midynmma. VULFA m. hary-^.

daur\ blindata.A.^ daura. and so for midyata The form hvo. kunthyos^ midyos^ kunthyo-s. here finds. gibSs. The SINGDTJtR.'^'''midyai^'' . The rest like the masculine. 959 ^. blindaizo. hvai-m. §.^ gib6-s.^ hvizd-sP V. by $^.^ hv6}^ hvizai}^ blindds. tuirya (^. 161. FEMININE. as * to hardu-s as u base.^ hvarya-ta^ badycu midyoy hvarya. as also in the accusative singular. kunthyd-m midySm. like Compare Zend forms ). For kunthya. blindos. termination. also midi. gibd-TTh gib'-d.ADJECTIVES. hvarya. the final vowel can b€ dropped hence kunthi as aocnaatire. opposition to the a of blinda surprising: however. . midyaia. 156. blinda? . kunthyd-s. G. hvaryos. do not exist. hvaryai}"^ gxbos. N.. 155. midyds.. V.^ hva.V. 137. nom. '" for blindata also blind. Formed from midya as theme. kunihyai. midya. hvaryaizds}^ kurdhy-d. hvaryd-s.42 9 Hva. [G. D G. from kunthyo. '^heec. +. the 6 in the reason of the deviation. midy'6. N. is. for hvata. bUndaizds. Old see §§. kunthycL.hznM"i. cannot be shewn to occur.. midyahSs. " See '* fixed 173. hvaryos. '« $. Luc 1. hvi-z6. A. also. but shortened to a (see . 231. in the accusative. hv6-s. rest like the masculine. NEUTEB. like some others of this pronoun. D. .. badi. ku^thi}'' midya. p. i midyis would be clearly more organic than midis.. . rightly formed by analogy from tho.''^ g'lbd-s.) but here. 69. by suppression of the final vowel of the base. blindai}'^ hvS. blindaim. hlindot hiA. A. 69. which. which could be referred stantive. gihoy g'lha. PL0KAL. midya.. 172. Adjective bas^s.A. hvarya. gihai. by Grimm. gasts. 375 ] blindat hl'mda. bat only sub- GASTI. blindos. with suppressed . answers to the Sanskrit ifv^ madhya. »» Note See $.Y. midyos. kunthyds. which again appears . . giha. ^^/ja^ tmriniy " qvartum" from J^^yJ^^ High German huaz.^ hvds. N." Grimm is p. Ed. hvari/d-m. 77. hvary^d.

the ati. too." ^^ i-drisa.360 If.] and Lithuanian. except the neuter nomina- tive accusative idam. indeed. as I ibai. c. the article line where h falls which has nothing to do with only to the nominative mascuruns through all and feminine. 17. affirmation expressed by pronominal "if. " so. by Lenz. i It base must be acknowledged to belong to the Sanskrit. and has been preserved only in composition with other should be observed. too. however. with the pronominal base ya in from this comes. the Greek runs parallel to the corruption Tf of the Prakrit.). affirmative is particle ya. as " so 2^ i-ti. (L^rvasi "he wanders" adi. 3d person singular present. the ai. 19. asked which pronoun is contained in the German defi- definite adjective. u^jai (1. the such. the same which. completely. my opinion also. ** ^rvm iham. as ." " if. in Latin. appears as h in 6. in disadvantageous comparison with the its Lithuanian and Sclavonic. is much. but it is not uncommon in the history of lanits isolated guages." ^rnr iy-at. as in the 3d person of the present Ae7e/ from \eyeTi). completely declined . the Indian relative ya This pronoun in German. as in 6g." ibaini. and further yabaU "lest". If. ir«n ta-lhd." ovrag). comes from the same base. in the iEolic el the Sanskrit y has it disappeared. also. as analogous with in Sanskrit. ya). 376.g. that a demonstrative words.vfj^bhamai. " this." has maintained it itself only in derivative forms. does not occur isolated in inflected state . ^ffffT has to the more usual ^f^ In Prakrit.** forms (e-fa. and Greek el the semi-vowel e. wliile in 6f it the cases. 63). nite. "so. for p. really occurs for yadi. renders the adjective (ii namely. in Sclavonic [G. 63 on j for y. see §. "whether. Ed. ADJECTIVES." The case : the same other in Gothic. in the believe. as in languages. Tjf^ to this. so that in this conjunction. in Gothic almost but in Sanskrit. I answer. that a word has been lost in regard to use. Sanskrit p. t!)Li/xe?= Sanskrit yushme. it is then. is which. p. yadU now being laid aside — — has the same relation as in Prakrit.

which is the more gratifying. worship."i. laghiyas.)." "also." and superlative light. this all pronoun often unites with almost others. aC^." with h enclitic. "industriously. itself as. ^lail i/o/yo. t/an. 288. Of these." ^i7^^ru*. "dry. hard'-hd. Pott. bears the same "to "to be worshiped. let us further observe yah* "and. hnasqvus. t AggvuSf "narrow. Ed. "strife" (comp. " much. " or " (see Massmann's Gloss. and these in blinds differ from the substantive declension. 252.). as in Sanskrit before the comparative iyas. " late. is contained in ky-i.*" "to sacrifice. and even in Gothic. " tender." seithug. as glaggou-ba.] in regard to the rough breathing. of which hereafter."AarA«.ishtha. in the Sclavonic. there are but a few. " more hard " (according to * The h may word.g." Some occur only as adverbs." agluSf "heavy. "now. "atthis time. which we annex below. " tender. forms the last portion of hvar-yis (for yas). for example. Latin jam).ADJECTIVES. to such an extent that before the y the u of the adjective is suppressed. "hard. "who?** although the interrogative base also occurs without this combination. probably."^u«." manvus^ "ready.V It also clearly andyw.e." Massmann's Gloss. In Gothic definite adjectives the pronominal base itself YA shews most plainly all in bases in u." ifiR yudhma. light." Jibi. e. 6f. pp. p. 236. laghv-ishtha from layhu. 7{^ 361 this y of jm^ ya-s." and. and. But to return to the Gothic YA. in Sanskrit the T«r yas. In addition to the adverb " much." "already" (comp."indnstrioua." thaursus. indeed." va-yuv relation as y/ietf to ^TO yushmi. To [G. and thus assimilate itself to the initial consonant of the following may arise t/ag. as the adjective u bases had not yet been adduced in this case ." Inyhishtha^ suflBxes "more "most as. "for much more. 07^0? to tn^ yqj.*" to ir^ yudh. for laghv-iyas. "to strive." thlaqvtu." since {Jilatis Grimm treated this subject the genitive _/liju* has been see found mats. and in conjanction with thi: yatthe. 377. and yas.f but a ya shews itself in the cases.

N. SINGULAR.] ADJECTIVES. that not a It form occurs. Hitherto. T »". with in any other case. the accusative plural masculine unmanv-yans. then. inflection t Without anian darku.). which not to be met Finally. (manv-yaize). tdlu.f (manv-ya). 48). aZu. p. furnish powerful proof because. may be proper to annex here the complete definite declension of either to be cases. Perhaps a euphonic influence of the v on the vowel also ar which follows So Urvasi. (manv-ya. mamau-s. 4. in this case. as I doubt not. p. manoharu for manohara. the as it is met with. n. 379. dvarana." manv-yana. 72. for hardv-izd from HARD U. mnvvu-s. manv'-ya-ta. Lithn« . as at times one finds in the Prakrit a final TIT a changed through the influence of a preceding p. * I am the more inclined to agree with him. MANFV. SINGULAR. ^di. FEMININE. according to with more or less confidence. however. examples. PLURAL.] NEUTER. These . G. {manv-yaizd^ Ed p. it is work . D. a nominative hnasqvus* also. SINGULAR PLURAL.manv-yai-m. {manv-yaim). manv-ya-ns. manvuy as 7^1? swddu. Massmann. {ma7w-ya-mma). Ed. 71." paratum". {manv-^aizds). the accusative singular neuter manv-yata. mnnv-ya-na. (manv-yai). 378. such a manner. Nom. dvaranu^ for kdla^ tdki. or qJ /. in the cases to be met with. (manv'-yds). is. to g* m. although few. (manv-yni). is is right in ascribing to this word. aitapa(2 C.) (manv-yds).— 362 [G. 9. hlindans is not from vulfans. PLURAL. if Grimm. difference of : to be expected MASCULINE. "siccum. CKevaarovq different although. Ac. and pronom. p. manvu-s. LG. or. as a few other adjecfiye bases in vu occur. the dative plural hnasqv-yaim are adduceable. only the accusative singular masculine <^aMrs-vana. Accus. they represent an entire class of words the definite adjective in u single variety of — in — viz.

the feminine base undistinguished from the masculine and neuter.. I." The feminine in the nominative. except i. for ^BFta and swddu-s answers both as feminine and masIn the Sanskrit. as in pdndu. also. answers to the Greek (§. manvus above. bright heaven": the assimilating in too.. : is. in the nominative in w-s. §. power which changes the a into e (comp. the feminine base in com- pound words. which «<iisl is particularly and thus swddict. Adjective bases in which in the Gothic. entirely without inflection I where this is wanting. either tnnu or tive. dangums.) the identity of the feit minine with the masculine remarkable. and then end..ADJECTITBS. " the sweet" (theme and is nominative). and tanwt. the . f. as in the Lithuanian and Sclavonic. ** light. as substanmeans the " slender woman. —Grimm finds (I. m.*' (compare sivHa. end. whence the nominative fanu-s. in devoid of inflection iuchi n. 137. frequently leave. and the neuter 7 u. facili-s. c. 169 Note). 134. as looks « appears. culine nominative to the Gothic manvus.). " 363 Remark upon 1."" The Lithuanian has bases t|tt adjective in u. " to the ral cases. as. facile. . s That. a short u in the feminine base may be lengthened. and only the neuter suchi-s is compare ^f^ m. with iBpi-^." tantl. 825." u. word 7]^eia. f. "to the bright heavens. they prefix an i to the a. in the nominative of both genders. 824. the feminine has it is equal claim to as the nominative character. so pdndus agrees with Tjiarjfu. with If pdndu two consonants do not precede the final may. think have shewn in §§. Greek.. and is thus the feminine of inj tanu. are wanting. (comp. which lengthened by an unoi^nic a 119. " white. and Latin.") which nevertheless. replace the u by a some. as szuriesu-s. sziviesiems is. "clean. p. be lengthened by an characteristic of this gender . in seveas szwiesam dangui. as an originally mere masculine termination and that I i. ^'•). Adjectives in in Sanskrit. in like manner. since he." " clear. according to ax. in the Sanskrit. however. t^pt. szwiesi. " thin. of . 721. 234.

has passed into it is v. analogous with tha-mma. "Remark been cited. so that of cases that the i is . becomes either by eu- phony. accusative. hardu-ya-na . to have communicated the feminine to the masculine. all i-na. howi. follows cases never- the pronominal declension. am. e. manv{u): -yana. shew themselves. Ed. hardvana. hlindana. therefore. appears. im. &c. With regard to blindamma. theless When. p. arises from his regarding amma. and the adjective base . I have thereforms fore left them. bUnd'-{y)ata. is also If the corresponding from is MIDY^^f the division blinda-mma. hardu-na. SZWIESA hand " from passes as the theme as szwiesbs rankos. 380. as in the Old Scla- vonic dative svynio-mii. 174. as the dative and accusative terminations of the pronoun and doubtful. as analogous with blind' -{y)ana. w. however. plural szwiesesf or it happens. &c. however. ana.). —With the accusative manvvana which has the conjectured dative manvyamma is least That Grimm should suggest forms like hardvamma. in fact. "of the bright (gen. accus. The i of ia. and as in our expressions like beim.g. szwiesen. itself as with the participles. and that. ^ in swddwt is In the oblique cases. except the case-termination. in so that after suppressing the v. indeed. the mentioned must be written hardu-mma.] ADJECTIVES. made. If. an unorganic a also rjBeia : added to the Lithuanian as it has been in this ia. final i* i of which is evidently identical with the Sanskrit ever. blindata. i-mma. while. the terminations are simply mma and and na. hardv-ana. or bl'mda-(^a)mma. e (comp. HARDU. tha-na. Note *). the preceding the place in which would be left. 2. a in the dative without annexing pronoun. szwiesai rankai (dat. accus. forms like hardvamma. contrary to expectation. in the majority entirely suppressed. p.364 [G. nothing left of the pronoun. they must be deduced it from hardu-ya-mma. doubtful whether they ought to be divided blind*-{y)nmma. as undivided. adjective . however. manv{u)-yata. manv{u)-yamma.

been dropped and the vowel which blindH-amma would have the same relation to blindC-yamma as midums^ " the middle man" (theme MID UMA). as well as the circumstance that where any adjective. into u and both. I &c. 365 however. which of the highest importance for the Grammar. declares itself blind' -yaim . the and has changed the middle . however. in " Remark — In the final a. If. " Remark line. speak in favour of dividing it thus. I say. and different t/. with the a of the base. gerus-yus (see 353) .g.. to its Sanskrit cognate form of the same import. hvai. to which now give the preference. both through the aim. then the pronoun has only lost its as in some cases of the Lithuanian definite. nevertheless the word manv-ynns. word hnasqv-yaim. — Although. in ger&s-us for p. Ed. «5^ft ktuume-hin from kusuma. ^T^fire asiv^-bhis from asua. 381. which is also adopted by Grimm. definite this inheritance really —these two reasons. to be itself thai. has preserved its a. but blindai proves pronominal inflection (compare ke) to 4. 3.ADJECTIVES. in the accusative plural mascu- hUndans is not different from vulfans. ac- cording to §.] word BLINDJ could is blinda-ns. the division blind'-amma. whose relation to first MIDUMA aXo i. 66. e. and the simple not form aught but [G. though from a point of view. San- w ^ be an abbreviation of blind-ya. be- comes ^: hence the instrumental plural of the Veda dialect and of the Prakrit. p. through the influence of the liquid. Sanskrit. and with respect to the y which has is left. mentioned above. inflections peculiar to the pronoun admonish us of the existence of an inherent pronoun in the exists . To this ^ answers the ai in . some cases an i blends itself with the which. as through the an abbreviation of only by skrit its te. suppressed the semi-vowel. inOT madhyama. which occurs elsewhere only in pronouns. is made. I thus trace — the latter has softened a. mentioned above. have. Just in the same manner the dative blindaim. blind-anSf and of deducing from blind-yans.

as the German dative." in the subjunctive suppresses the [salbos. (p. itself. &c. blind' -yana.. as is in the feminine singular genitive blindaizos iz6s — which = to be divided blinda- — from blinda-yizds j and this yizos is analogous with hvizds. Ais". For the the is rest. as in the Lithuanian geras-is The latter view pleases me the better because it accords more closely with blind'' -amma. for yeras-yis. however. which is simple. The vowel. 354). than while we i have now every reason. or the i may be considered as an alteration of the a of YA. 382. from hvazds. salbo. in Gothic unsubstantiated by the oldest definites. before we had a reason for seeking the pronoun Y-^ in the Gothic definite adjective. in this case. salbd. weakened to the lighter oi in masculine c the Gothic 354. from blind' -yamma. 353). which In the belongs to this mood feminine dative one should expect blindaizai for bliridai.) . appears. p. and answers to gibai. German compounded in the very . while the remaining dialects are. hvai-m. the thazos.). salbdi). — — because there is for a reason for the thinning of the in the is difficulty srhort of d placing the syllables together. on which account i. maintains i itself in its original form. "quibus" its Gothic pronominal datives like ** iha-im origin.366 ADJECTIVES. let it be considered. We is must not require BLINDO feminine adjective base 6. that its in the Sclavonic graver feminine a before union with the pronoun (p.. &c. and a (§. Sanskrit kasyds. for salbdis. an grammar shews to reY-^f cognise in the i a remnant of the pronominal base either as a vocalization of the y. blind'-ana. (§. where. ihizds.] never admissible. in this view. which in blind'-amma. tne of 69. compelled. Ed.). We were. Note 3. and that a diphthong is [G. to give to the extension of the base in German it a wider expansion by an has in the Sanskrit . i which means nothing. tasyds blindd-izds 172. which so often occurs in the Sclavonic (see p. " I anoint. then. in accordance with is identical with the old instrumental.

are used thi-z6. n. hva-ze.2d.ADJECTIVES. so that blinda-izi blinda- izd. however. also. from union with the old relative resting kept base. with Kero. as teshdm. as received from the Sanskrit. and blindaizd than by the Sanskrit of te-shdm m. As. would not be .^ hvi-ze. " harum'' or hlind'-{y)aize syllabic and therefore the division hlindai-ze should be made: as.). Ard. "old." as weak. I adopt in preference a shortening of or leave the quantity undecided. * The Gothic at would lead ns to expect i. The masand through the verv characteristic animated « (see §. ened forms of tka-zS. 134.* In the genitive plural mascu- and neuter the ai in hlindaize might be substantiated ^ through the Sanskrit ^ l^a:[^ of the pronominal genitive. " horum. do not retain it.. and in the feminine td-sdm. has cause to feel itself personified if blinds and defined determinately enougli. is made according to the analogy of blinda-izds. liowever. and tki-zS. 137. —The nominative masculine and feminine has Gothic. and Latin. pect a firm adherence to the old diphthong (comp. = Sanskrit f..). is given by the vowel. and. for thd-zS. with wanting. should still believe that neither the one nor the other has existed in Gothic. I therefore prefer to substantiate in a different way the ai i in hlindaiz^ m. n. altheis. which. to which the Old High German plinter would give authority. same manner: line 367 is in Old High German the genitive phnfera. culine blinds. or of blindais. the doubling of Notker. the mono. in which one would rather ex§. " Remark and 5. in by the pronominal base the division to be Jyi. (f. moreover. I according to Massmann). in has remained upon the original. as even the u bases. form blindaizd and I do it. ALTHYA. pronominal bases. is this. too. . Greek. applicable to the feminine fact. itself free. td-sdm). and the dative plinteru. the circumflex the e. and Grimm. hvi-zd." from the base Even could be looked upon as an abbreviation of blindeis (comp. " quorum. kd-sdm.

tive plural and neuter the form plint-yu. as Grimm of all.). which it supported by the Gothic (p 362). it German i and j (y) are not distinguished if remains uncertain in many. " the " (f. the form plintyu. manvu-s above. in the above forms also. its oldest the pronoun spoken of has had time. according to §. in * As in the Old High writing. to raise itself . Grimm writes diUy t. t. and. Old High German substantive declen- [G.iu^ m my opinion. to us the sound y. 791. but desju and expresses. like dyu. is Plini^r (the length of the ^ is here rendered certain) . which occurs in the chief ties. in dis- advantageous comparison with the Gothic. 383-3 sion in the nominative masculine. moreover. therefore. it and what that i of i is intended. here and where all authorities concur in retaining the in the adjective. has good substantiation.368 like ADJECTIVES. may hecome in the Old High German. shew so clearly the pronominal base X-^* have not received it in the nominative singular of the personal genders. "this"* (f. his opinion regarding the . up from the oblique cases nominative which was the more desirable. Gothic blind-a for blind-ya. not in all cases. and in the nominative and accusais more genuine than the The form plintyu. and corresponds very to the masculine plinth. leave . Ed. in the space of almost four centuries which intervene between memorials and to the Ulfilas. in wliat places of in the memorials which have come down If. contracted from plinta-ir (for plinta-yir) for the Old High ai. which.). in the analogous adjective forms is like plintju one reads J. 78. For explanation. German i corresponds. Pligh In Old German however. with regard to the retaining the y of the pronoun. we must. as even where the Gothic has a/. "she. i or y\ while remarks. as Grimm there Isidore and Tatian." desyu {de-syu).. number of strict Old High German authoriremarks. to the Gothic In the feminine. as the p. are the oldest fitly and those which. in the oblique cases. answers to feminine pronominal forms syu. omits the mark of case. however. and to the instru- mental masculine and neuter dyu (in the interrogative huiu). p. have u for yu. Otfrid.

therefore. "hcEC. most probable. dyu. "/lanc. I deduce the forms difhr. which partly given above. the relation is proved in which the Old High German forms s6. 369 however. Here. unites itself with the relative base loses its noun vowel. According to this. . A ' A WIK tydm. however. thai. T?ra "her "hasr dyd. 384. of the proDominal forms which have been mentioned. GF. that. ty-yata-ya. after suppression of the vowel following the y. n ya. where the more explanation through demonstrative base TO may indeed be simply inflected through all the cases: in several. . that i letter has vocalized itself first to Ac- cording to this. and. Ed. then OLD HIGH 'hcBc. the Sclavonic. W\syd i — sydy) syu. always demu. &c. thyd. dyu. OLD scixvasic ta-ya.RH. ^ t^l " hir tyds. then.] one must first transpose these into syo. Notker. JKlfmydni.— ADJECTIVES. by which the Compare. in the case before us. ihd. in a manner as remarkable as convincing. before they can pass as original forms for the Old High Ger- man. in the Old High German the combinaall tion of the base of the article with the old relative pronoun itself over the cases of the three genders is does not belong to the feminine alone neuter seen from the masculine and (d'^u)." dya. obtains Our mother tongue. mentioned stand to the Gothic iMsy thd : [G. &e. however. d'es.. instrumental form dt/u and from the dative also plural. that has extended for that it we have It is it occurs also in union with YO. n-i. des. p. first pro- SANSKRIT. it is important to consider. so and thence to e. or the sa which supplies its place in the nominative masculine and feminine. dyemu (from dyamu). from dyer. dyes (for dyis). that in the Sanskrit the pronominal base to. occurs dyem (diem). d'l/i. tu-yu. where together with in dhn dien.. and the Gothic genitive B B .

a simple word. namely. and ^ sya for sa-ya. as Gothic for blind- yafa — the vowel of the base DYA e is and the semihas disappeared.] culty of pronouncing it. in their origin. in fact.). men- ed. and dh are interchanged according to different authorities. 370 this. for taya. are less retention of the y of the definite pronoun diffi- for to the feminine or plural neuter p/m^'-vw for jp/en/a-yu a midy-yu would be analogous. is upon a more perfect dialectic form than that which to us in the preserved dia-sir. i) accusative feminine dya and thd. originally existed in the form midyo-yu. as favourable to the M/Z>J^ = Sanskrit madhya. does not occur. no longer appears for dliea from dhia for dhya. mentioned by Grimm 795. Isidorean dhea-sa.* answers admirably to the Sanskrit syllable . on account of the [G. which has not the sign of case. ntidynizus from midyn-yizds. therefore. 385. on the blind'-ata left. in fact. and our Modern German above deser. furnished by the demonstrative which I explain as compounded.. at least in respect of the first syllable. which. a combination of the Sanskrit tioned at p.. I>eser stands. for dya-s'dir — ai). upon dya-sSr or referred to (I. diespr rests. according to this even hvar-yaizds (from hvar-yayiz6s) be used. as i^e w tya. . however. daz — for dyaz. to the Sanskrit Gothic and the final nominative form " sa (Greek 6. the which has a full declension in the Old Sclavonic.<?a m tya. th. Ed. answers 6). p. 383 G. vowel. nominative midy^r is from midya-ir for midya-yaTf in Gothic. which the strange. but may have yn-ya . or mid- for the masculine as. the feminine genitive-form If. which above had become (from Further support of bases in the de-n (I my views regarding the difference of Gothic tha-na and the Old High is German give the accusative intentionally) deser. first Remark — The adjective bases which from their origin end in ya. and as. just as different as in the In the neuter. latter of also. ADJECTIVES. and analogous * D. would be. other hand.

300) and of a Old High German support the assumption theme GJBANDA. stronger personification it ' . theme from whence. to a weak theme. by a new addition. base J^." as well which may be deduced from a theme oijiyand-s (see p.. that in the its Lithuanian also the itself. or one gibandan (com- with a blunted declension. entirely dropped. the indefinite GIBANDAN has B LINDA'. kok-tai. tok-taX). kurs-ai. 386. "giving. * Ruhig (by Mielke.g. Note +). in Gothic. we must recollect.). mentioned at p. that is then doubly declijied. 140. Ed. 125. : for as bases which terminate in a consonant are in their declension. combines for itself.g. as from GIBAXDA. according to (§. 353.) tion of the nominative nd-s. p. for tat^ which latter is contained in the compound is tut-tai (comp. 290. besides also. GIBAND. §. as yis-sai (for yis-yai*). in such a manner. no feminine theme charanti has been formed from the unorganic theme charanta.] would not be necessary for GIBAND. 68) wrongly gives ai as the emphatic adjunct. and n.). In the Pali. indeed. . r.ADJECTIVES. mentioned at §. so that the base 371 YA is therein doubled. however. ed. as. as an extension of the original GIBAND. of him. as the doubling of the * in ta^gai. the analogy of iTi^'-s 135. e. The participle present singular has. 319 G. and it bases have been arisen. according to the analogy 164). and. BB 2 .' &c. preserved only the nominative masculine of the definite declension. the y not kurs-sai. 157. ' he ' yo-yo. BLINDAN all very probable that unorganic n preceded by an older with a vowel terall mination {nd. to extend pare (see p. The Pali (see p. itself to in order to belong. unless for the sake of the nominative gibanda §. then. hence e. szisstii. 289. After two consonants. yusai is clearly to be explained through the assimilative power of the y (see p. with the excep. in the indefinite adjective." . p. alike obtuse so it [G. The termination ai answers to the neuter tai. with composition with adjectives. 302). is above. gibands. fontis in several other cases.

see 119. 137. forms from bases terminating in a consonant the feminine theme by the addition of a vowel comes charanti. however. neuter plural in ia (ferenti{d). §. 174. GIBANDON. for it answers to the feminine Sanskrit nominative chalike is ranti {%. geniln-c-s) feminine as is the case in Lithuanian. however. It is not. 70. Ed. : and been imparted in (for i-d). has become GIBANDEIN. that what must otherwise appear very surprising. for it feminine theme charantd." for sible. in remarkable accordance with has pro- duced no feminine base GIB AND from the presupposed GIBANDA it {as . the Gothic stands the Pali. which nom. ferenfi-a). The §. and to Lithuanian forms sukanti. which a theme sukantin i nowise admis- In Latin.372 ADJECTIVES. gibnndo. originally feminine. must a have arisen consonant: §. and there was therefore no reason in the the Pali to give also to more recent form eharanfa a Here. {i. as well with the participles (see [G. e. the . Hence. \ but the feminine form gihandei from the old theme GIBAND. and hence is explained. fprenti-um.). in analogy with the Sanskrit charanti. bat as a transmission from the ancient period of the language. p. form eharanfa has arisen from for the masculine and neuter the necessity of passing from a class of declensions termi- nating in a consonant into one more convenient.g.] p.. from adjective thus : bases terminating with FERENTI and this from FERENT i. answering has arisen BLIND ON to BLINDAN). and therefore. again. bases in or f.). right to regard nominative as a production of the more recent theme. according to §. 363). terminating with a vowel in the theme. 142. to the other genders hence the ablatives genitive plural in i-um. in the nominative gihandei this must have arisen. (compare 119. by the later addition of an n. the indefinite GIBAN DAN to has no feminine. 387. in some i cases no longer remembered its original destination. from charant m. "the turning. Note) as has with the adjective bases in u (p. Sanskrit. also.. {ei=-i.

therefore kepanti. or the uninflected form is in i. accordto ing the analogy of midyer. which has been laid aside is so that it very often arbitrary whether the definite form of the participle. the nominative singular masculine. So in Grimm's hymns (II. it. k'ppanto {=Goih\c gibanda). tioned ** by As regards the Old Saxon forms menGrimm. than in tives. slApandyes or slnpondeas. namely. corresponds to it and as place of may be assumed. midynz. all other adjecin as the definite form in nds in Gothic. mi^yu. kepantn to the (= Gothic giband6). in my opinion. 373 when standing as substantives. incline." huandynm. " giving. although the flected ufpurrenti. f. answering to the masculine On it is account of the participial feminines in y//.). in relation to its other adjectives. the case termination. freely take this which is introduced into them from the feminine adjec- tive {infante. "Remark. whether that of the nominative or adverbial. 2. that here the i supplies the . midynz. This only is peculiar Old High German participle present. and haptizans by reverse might just as well occur. be rather adduced in . recognise the regular defining eleplinter." not kepanff like plinf. and not from KEPANTYA: therefore m. not requisite to presuppose masculines in yer. as above in plinfyu. t. however.ADJKCTIVES. participles. therefore. be given. n. base YA in its contrac- tion to It is. that in retains uninflected adverbial state it the defining pronominal i. dormieniisr gnomondye. to the declension of tnidySr. — In the yu I of k'epan'yu. sapienfe). " mcBrenfes. and indefinite base in also as the derivative an has sprung from KEPANTA. or both participles mit^ht stand in the same form. partly as kppenter and kepantaz. that there is far more frequent occasion to use this form divested of case terminations in the participle present. to be observed. in none of their cases. " habiton- iibusr they should. svstollens rendered by the unintaufanter. ment. the Old High German feminine of kepantir.

have maintained themselves in the degree of the Gothic [G." which ap- pears in a-tt^rl Vritra-han. that the participle present has. has. balavat-tama." and similar compounds. ajZm^<Kmj>»» huskdtara (Vend. from huska. and the to superlative by tama. and The Sanskrit radical ^^ han." the In the a>7aj^ Zend. and has treated the a which first remains according to the analogy of the conjugation vowel of the sixth class (see p. is expressed in Sanskrit by the feminine tard. 388." DEGREES OF COMPARISON. "holy". p. suffix The comparative tara. suchi-tarut suchi-tama. p. rests on the analogy of the frequently- occurring <»j<^AJ(2)> upa-zoitf " let him strike". punya-tama. the root zan (Siinskrit ^fT han) suppresses its final vowel. from suchi. " slaying. S. 383) . S. theme of the positive e. preserved the defining element more truly than other adjectives. from punya. since. e. from and neuter halavat. 362.g.] forms like manvyana. 43). "pure". Vritra-slaying "). culine which are added the common mas. . S. '• verethrazamtema verethrazans. 43) from nom. p. nominative masculine ^y^>»' huskd. "dry". in Zend. 104). " Vritra slaying. feminine tamd.* According to my opinion wttara owes * The participle present xant^ the nominative of which I recognise in j3v}4(j<}/oc/C9 verethra-zans. As^j^vM-^Aj^uj^gt? verethrazant. and that those forms p. in fact. Ed. " victorious " (literally. "clean".374 proof of the ADJECTIVES propositioD. "strong. g. (Vend. Aj^j^'^^^goJjJ spentdtema from spenta. 291. halavat-tara. mentioned at than that a theme in va belonged to the Old High German participle present before its conjunction with the pronominal syllable. tara through a perverunite sion of language and aj^^^ ^ma themselves with (in place of the theme) the nominative singular masculine p. taken the ioTVojan. punya-tara. the nominative of which is pa^jdo (Vend. in the dialect mentioned.

J " over a river") hence. factory etymology. mentioned at p. so that. is "the fifth": the vowel. panthan. step beyond " "to place beyond " its §. and probably also tra^ in in-tra-re. as a primitive. and is analogous to the Sanskrit ^7i/A<i». is become timu-s {optimus. contained in the form of to. origin to the root it tn (tar. the 2^nd o may also be looked upon as belonging to the base (oomp. as well in KT-Toq as in Taroq. from that of the comparative. 375 [G. "to extend. which." whence. partly because torily the superlative as sufl&x ^ ishtha its may is be satisfaciyas. abbreviated in a similar manner.). and also terminus. 1. intimus. more truly retained in the derivative rarog than in its base repo^. In this manner. from.)." has acutely remarked.DEGREES OF COMPARISON. TfWB tama-s has ultimus).56". according to $. 5S3. as that which is overstepped. and I now prefer recognising in it an abbreviation of tarama. p 43). the substantive tara.). by the exchange of the in witli s. Ed. In cuk5» vdo. as in iteyL-n-ro^ contrasted with "T^^ panchama. : is formed raro-s and TPm tama-s they both contain the same primitive. p. Notes. the said sign being o for *. simus. penetra-re. t and. but have tiken a different derivative suffix. raroj could be explained. which hence. with Grimm (III. g. as Lisch also. (e. therefore. "to 389. with this root are connected the preposition trans. also. The superla- tive sufl&x I derive. extimus. however. from ^t^ vdm. the sign of the noYninative has taken the place of the Indian n. considered derived from comparative through the suffix tha. more usual in Greek than Latin. In the Latin. In Latin. " a float. But tama. More nsnally. for rapTos or rapoTog. &c. p. but then im tama would be no regular formation. in Zend. although I assume no theoretic necessity that the superlative must have been developed through the degree of the comparative. do in Zend nominatives stands in the place of the Sanskrit an of the suffix txint and vd/ts . . in the Greek. however. 308. BumouTs Ya^na. . cxxviii. presents no I satis- formerly thought of the base tth tan.

As p. where." is = Latin vir for virus. Latin. first In valr. ^oFrTTlTT ekataras is "one of two persons. as the latter does from corresponding bases in ru. and in [G. whose chief notion individual- ized through that of duality or plurality: thus they appear in is "which of two persons?" "which of more than two persons. 599) still the adjective nommatives gaurs. which has remained to us in the adverb weder. the suffix not in use in genuine comparatives. so also vair. comp. as sonants . where this cause is wanting. Hence. indeed. but the a is introduced through the euphonic law 82. hvathar for hvathar{a)s. as alter for alterus. 292. •' and expresses the one of two persons. " mournful " (theme Gaura. and cir?R^ katara-s and to similar forms in Greek. "honoured. Ed.376 ADJECTIVES. " a field" (corop. as Trorepog (for Korepos). [G. hence akrs. in . a diphthong precedes If. Ed. which we will maxlmus [mac-simus) for mag-simus. p. and svirs. hva-thar.* "which of two persons?" Old High German. In eKacTTog the superlative different modification " suffix (otoj for ta-rog) presents a from that in ekafama-s.^" oinT»T^ katama-s.] between two. indeed. p. Sanskrit ^ftx ghora. the s protected by the two preceding con. lies at the bottom." and Skatama-s. bases in only the masculine has predominantly given up the with tbc preceding . neuter. but has maintained itself in pronouns in Latin in the form of . In the Gothic. TERU (ter. . " man. teru-m). it is natural that their suffixes should also be is transferred to other words. not extended itself universally in both languages. the simus is. This sup- pression has. the preceding long vowel and the diphthong au may here have operated. 391. "one of more than two.] huMar. in adjective «. it appears. "terrible"). alter Gothic. However. superlatives a relation between many. is generally preceded by the syllable hereafter explain. as an abbreviation of the Middle High Ger» The Gothic resembles the Latin nominative from its its in withdrawing the sign of the masculine bases in ra. eKorepo^. and in Gothic in that of THAR A hence uter." It is hardly necessary to call attention pronouns. however." instead of the one of many tara persons. above.." occur." is In Latin and German. Grimm. in comparatives a relation 390. ri. however.

479. man. as *?." which from * GARUXSI. die in dieser. in wieder is the comparative and the whole rests. In our German. two s should not meet at the end of the word hence the nominative drus. garuns. " the other. also. also. however. meaning into the demonstrative.ff. 377 Anthar. therefore. in order that. belongs here. and herein we may refer to the Isidoric it dhea-sa. also. the suporession of the nominative sign * is universal in bases in sa and . cannot be surprising if one them invested with a comparative or superlative sufor if some of them occur merely with a comparative For e. while the feminine acris might have permitted I havebeenremoved. according to for the feminine base. our anderer. as the final vowel of the . and answers to the Sanskrit whose initial syllable is itself the same which *' in ^^ TI any a. I f. perhaps."* suflBx. 293. ^rrfj^H antara-8. from ce as demonstrative base (compare " the other." ci-s. ^HKK antara means. Voss derives from Forster'8 Sanskrit "the journey. on a pre-existing Old High German word huia-dar or huyadar. in Sanskrit (although long). and so.'^ has united with the relative base alter.justas well as the masculine. have traced back the comparative nature of iter. ya. In prepositions. Jahrb. itarOf i. entThe icie in wieder. p. stance that the vowel can find the reason of this is firm adherence of the feminine to the termination i only in the circum it is particularly agrees with that gender. also." the comparative suffix is here intended to denote the person this following after. 119.. passing over thing. From this "^PH anya comes anyatara. comes from the demonstrative base as. so is. combined with a also." for the first time in i. finds fix. 37j0. base e. " alius." from DRUSA.^^ If. at the bottom of all genuine prepositions. in Sanskrit. ci-tra). "a market. termination. this adverb. p. the Latin ceterus to be considered.DEGREES OF COMPARISON. the true vowel of formation In Gothic. should be regarded as. its is to preceding i. in general. the adverb iterum from the same base. "a tall.g. my Review of Grammar in the Heidelb. is suppressed. particle of negation neweder. 1818. with a change of the interrogative -weder. . as in toeder.

ardar. however. track. the comparative nano longer recognised in the present condition of the Latin." " from. and is always expressed in Latin. Wn(T. a primitive an is the relation "in" is always expressed by the locative. the adverbially-used subter. of the interior) . numerous for ni. also. as the right is opposed to the left. Latin." "before. The prepositions which. partly as then obiter would be a similar &c. pariier)." "in.] pra. that ob-i-ter must be so divided.* and probably. and the original form of the preposition recognised in the Sanskrit derivative tas. derives v^THT antar from anta." "between". ture of these formations is As.378 ADJECTIVES. is standing this. the suffix ter admits of the further addition exterior." " towards. customary ior (dexterior." and the analogous . " before. p. Jahrb. to Tfiw^ prdtar. in certain compounds. prati." "towards. in an analogous word \(r. To answers the Sanskrit "among. Notwithregard to its suffix. wanting. at least in their original sense. according *' to native authorities. compound to obviam. " in the morning. Formations intelligible which do not quite follow the usual Indian Grammarians. Ed. there exists a relation between [G. " to. inter also. the preposition ob connected with the Sanskrit ^fij aAhi. are nevertheless frequently misunderstood by by the Thus Wilson." the division obi-ter might also be made. prceter. when I first treated this subject (Heidelb. as in the * I was of opinion. p. dexter (^frpiT dakshina). sinister. however." have the relations "under. like while the superlative timus has affixed itself to the core of the word {dextimus or -tumus." with rd. obiter (compare audacter." as their counter-poles and points of com- parison.] two opposite directions — thus. obi : observe ^tfim abhi-tas. 480). propter. i 1818. antar. with the comparative suffix. are inter. as in Sanskrit for which. that obiter compounded of oh and iter cannot entirely be disproved. ni. in a comparative suffix. t Comp." from abhi with the suffix is The common idea. " end. contain sinistimus)."t with a lengthened a. to arrive at. "near. however. pari. and looked upon as the is vowel of conjunction." "to. 392. 393. sinisterior. As. " over. and are rendered analogies." "from." from the preposition Ed. however. p.

). relation. 235. "the under one. dhama.).). also. according to 255. with for a." the T sound of the suffix is somewhat differently transposed. come ^vt: a-dhara and ^VH. sister forms. also."* ono-udu. tern of the Old Sclavonic suffix pronouns. from which. sonant letters (§. as a modification of respect to its suffix. The v^ dhara and VT dhama my opinion. from pra. ** to go. and expresses the same relation as ttr tus: e. " beneath. "end. tas.) corresponds with which. viz. "ambo^^ answering to suffixes g^ ubhdu./.^'. in vonic oba." cannot perhaps be denied. ovo-udU. usual intention of the suffix irs tus. in intus. " before. . Greek (from Beg. (a." A are. which ia Zend has become fixed (§." as dhara. which I have else- where explained as coming from the demonstrative base V a. The the it. and therefore adhas. 217. has exactly the same relation to in ^nrrr atas.). as also in thr prathama.." dev. [G. and the latter is not an offshoot of the former." to which inferus and infimus are akin. They however. tama. remarkably to * The demonstrative baae OVO answers . The form p. In this. have a cognate form of subtus.g.'" the San- skrit has the preposition w^H adhas.] du. 394. "the m. never- between anta. with a<. as fumus to ^nr dhuma-s. "hence. 56*. " from here. as they agree in the idea of room. as in d/ii^/ in relation to ^fi? abhU and in dfitpot. is. fas. For the relation " under. theless. in regard in ^avfi adhas (§. to its T sound. is that of the Latin to express distance 6ev from a §. 291. with a nasal prefixed. a-dhama. comp. analogoas word prdtar from pra. like to tara. Ed. "thence." however. if they are related. " smoke. 16 ). however. place. Greek -npuit 319 from itpo.DEGREES OF COMPARISON. Old Sclaare. as the latter also serves as the patdit." mentioned in §. otas. 25. the Zend jki»M ava. The suffix dhas of adhas. "among. only slightly-corrupted forms of the tara and fama first. which a final as in the Sanskrit must suffer before that into d (see §." and antar." or "the most under. rests on the form \i^ dhas which only occurs in tas. corresponds to the euphonic alteration."" and.

in general. itself in is contained in ovo-udu. with sche. Before the however. which (§. 255. exists in these been treated of at ttdH. aXAodi)" "upon" "towards. where " (relative). so adye. yudye. also have proceeded from the feminine accusative yu. de. dence on this point . As zdye (older accord- sde). suffix dye." (from the demonis far more widely diffused in the form of 294. adhi. in Greek. yudA. is on-udye.). from ^fu strative base which. in the last element of the diphthong a vocalised nasal is sometimes recognised. and as this pronoun also is. udHsche. but as." "to day. "this day. even more than in Latin.380 "Remark. as kudye. there assume that it every reason to ono-udtl. as gdye. 353. corresponds our unter. might be regarded as corruptions of yondu.. p. would again conduct us to a nasal preposition 266. "". e (e).^" (more anciently kde. " where . Gothic . (gr. 451 gives udil as the full just as he also lays down a suffix •dcJye. To the Sanskrit ^TnTT antar. for yudu. men- tioned above (at p. Hdyesche. with tlie final KO suppressed). &c. 392. the definitive pronoun. — Dobrowsky suffix. form of the "there/' ADJECTIVES. which forms adverbs of place. however.ed. be compared might with the Latin indcf uvde. I frequently stands as the corruption of an recognise in the suffix de the Sanskrit fv dhi. yildyH. "over. occur also the pronouns in a simple form. German. " (6. as our h'mtcr. Latin inter.). u-du.. i. " here §. "where?" onildye." throws light. J^wrfye. and others. As. from I.). to be explained ? But how I the 4 cannot speak with confi§. is frequently compounded with other adverbs. yondye. which has p.G. elder form vowel of the base idyesche. the preposishew themselves inclined to combine with the comtions parative suffix.): this accusative would then stand as theme to the derivative adverb. ing to older 255. according to ii. in respect to their nasal." a). yu-dye. &c. In di {-nodi. Old High German accusative. C-udyp. and forms. hiniar. U. two adverbs. has arisen the from hiuy a petrified on which Gothic hina-dag. and.

in the Sanskrit. tttt Rem. (Gramm. p. Ed.). 91. in ^nRiJJ antar^na. contra. was already formed. for the primitive languages. divides hrdth-arj vatar ("brother. before the existence German dialect. the." which adjectives. with u for the old ever. 160. and similar forms in- appear to me as datives. has first sutler." to different with the Old High German af-tar. e. e. look upon as an abbrevia- tion of nftara. also. see §. itself united Sec. and others. transmit us only ^TJ apa.DEGREES OF COMPARISON. 381 If.).'* are to be regarded as instrumental forms." " father").] ofthe latter with the two former is recognised. as in Latin extra. * Regarding dar and tar for thar. Rem. incontrovertible original identity [G. duo. uvonr. to which. trd. Crit. intra. 633. original strumental as (§. " where."* how- my opinion.). 260. as also. . The matter "after. oftra.). has only to dispose according to the of sound mentioned in language. (§. and of the gerund tra like ya. " as far as. however. regard termination thro. 121.g. §. according to §. 178. like "ij^ yatra. in the spirit of WiTT antar... for unrfor. "between. so that their : would be to be derived from tard compare forms HH^^^I manushya "inter homines" (Gramm. according to the principle in Tf of the Zend language Crit. one must not. In as to in feminine the tra. in a. 66." &c. from exfera. or " §§. i. In Gothic.). the Sanskrit pronominal adverbs in although they have a locative meaning. §. derive undar from the preposition und. tionship in the also. and so again divide the dar . the old comparative suffix upon German ground. I fjffra means "again. 158. &c. although the many anologons words denoting rtla- German and tie cog late languages clearly prove the Tsound to belong to the derivative suffix (see Gramm. Crit. this case occurs an adverb. 91. 66. f Grimm however. &c. at II.f as transmitted from an ancient period of the of a language. from "." tra. inter. and the abovementioned itself preposition relations . with Grimm (III. by a suffix ar. Per- haps.

It appears that Does. which appears me correct. " to bend oneself. suff. hin-ter which has already been Gothic 394. 617. t Grimm 259) assents to my opinion. gratia.f From hin-dary Old High 177. Ed. neihun. the Sanskrit supplies no root nd^ but perhaps nam." the before m of which. Ed. and to suppose a verb nithan. regarding the relationship of f»f ni and nidar (III. however. 235. clearly the comparative and the base appears to me. ADJECTIVES." " reverential sition salutation. §. Grimm first acutely remarked. distraction. e. : he wishes. dar suffix.] man G. so is the Gothic 252. " bending. in like manner." afterwards a preposition.)> the base of our nieder. according to the laws of euphony. would. ni-dar. our widevt supplied by the Sanskrit through its [G. 397. 382 §. identical with the Sanskrit sam. p.. trd). humanitas^ to where he divides ki-nd-da." which cannot which has been already expressed in Gothic any way be supported." to etymo- logically clear ki-wd-da. comes our ed. in spite of the difference of signi* in It is usual to attribute to it the meaning "in. and according as in the to which nd would be the " and da the derivative affiattis. ^ too. I. As aflra is related to aflar." naft. Old High German gi or Art." "into.] inseparable preposition f^ vi.g. compare Grimm. HI. our sondern. which expresses separation. is. " seorsim. ^i-narfa really signify Aw7n$/i<flw? it only the meaning gratia can be proved to belong to and this is also given by Grimm. 268. and II. to divide thus nid-ar. c). lll. the Gothic gives v6 To gi-nd- -da." is. indeed. vithra. to which the Old High German gindda (our Gnade) may belong. root. " to go from one another. Exactly similar first to is the Sanskrit to which I was the prove the meaning "below" to belong. Old High Ger[G." f^T ni." t.Crit. "low" (Gramm. " bent. however. 396. " obeisance. p." to the the primitive of which is Old High German widar. 09. in visrip. (p. nath. sun-dar. German discussed hin-tar. gi-nd-da has much the same formation still with aan-na-ti : it better agree with the feminine passiv* . is suppressed which does not produce Guna as nata. suffix . san-nati.* and whence comes the adjective tT^ nicha.' with the preposition sam. As the Gothic as inseparable prepo- ga.) {vaia^ vaivo). . blow." as root. "against. to " which the Sanskrit gives (^. In the Old High German sun-drd." "to disperse. another place. however. which Wilson explains by " reverence.

"=marp. and would be. is from a. therefore. that there is no necessity for a hypothetic Gothic base nith or nath." cannot be unexpected adverbs of place and time. wid-ar. 66. as the circumstance that genuine original prepositions never And come from etymoto divide verbs. so sundar." Perhaps. as also the adverb. Old High German samant. keep back every verb from our nidar. HI. Be that as it may. in a double respect. The in con-trcL. mean "everywhere. but are connected with pronouns.DEGREES OF COMPARISON. for the in meaning " end. to its primitive cum . I must. Old High wi-dar. word equally preserved with a corruption of . are wanting in the Gothic and High German. "mid. to ^j^ sam." passive participle san-na-td. according to %. one considers the easy and m (^ift ran". "toanswers surprisingly to gether with": the latter the Sanskrit Wf'it samanta (from sam + arda. samantdt. the comparative suffix dor. into vith-ra. dialectic variations of above preis sound from the Gothic mith. like Mitte. in most of the dialects mentioned. sister forms. sundru.)." and. either for " below.of languages. and however. the said ^nT anta contained. samanlatas. which frequently occurs in prepositions. is other Old High 214. in the ^J(^ mritas. Old vfd. however. Observe. that the true form of a it. as they can be fully set at rest by the existence of a Sanskrit primitive f^ ni. and as cum (compare avv) belongs. and to find their base in the Anglo-Saxon preposition widh. in the historj. fication. the Gothic samath. and. related to the 383 Sanskrit ^pr sanh ''with" (compare with. English with. according If. Swedish vid. " water. Old Sclavonic wid. is nearly just as much opposed meaning contra. " together Old High German samant). in like manner. with regard to its logy. Norman vidh.*" Gothic samnth. also. maintains itself equally with the other forms: as is it often occurs. " mortuus "). and the Latin u."' and the substantive gi'tiada or for the preposition nidar. Danish which mean " with. "an in all end*^)> the ablative of which. so much is certain. which of the same import with them (=:the Zend t^xi^ ^ot). frequent interchange ofr. German adverbs in nt (Grimm. ^poT6s= recognise. and which. Grimm wishes also German the Gothic preposition vi-thrd. to appearance. one would rather positions. too.i.

"that side. "beginfirst attaches itself to the prepositional ideas therefore hinont. what I is nearly the same.] whence " der vordere. cito. "in the midst") and Anfang. inmitten. " a\way sr sniumundd. 20l). lieve I can with still be- thrd or taro more confidence present the forms in as remarkable remains of ablatives.: 384 (compare ning. however. " thirdly. although an ablative meaning does not appear more plainly in them than in the Latin perp'^tuo. the Old High Germnn [G." but suppose a connection with the Sanskrit aeresis "srv^ adhara. on the contrary. prepositions. and. Note * p. and others. thai the notion of the part below. " from under." would be the same as " at this end. . "this side. Remark — As we have endeavoured I above to explain the Gothic af-tra and vithra as datives. Their meanplace. be rather considered as ablatives than as neuter accusatives of indefinite (Grimm's weak) forms. t so that 6 has the dt same relation to the to-be." With regard to the comparative forms there is. for d (§.). for-dar." uta-thro. subito. not from dal.." with aph- of the a and the very common exchange of the r is with so I (§. might. with according to rule. therefore. 183. p." inna-thrS. so that thridt/6 yfOu\d . "from within. named from As 5BT to the ablative forms in tarS.). ing corresponds most exactly to that of the Sanskrit ablative." thridyp. might then.''^ " amplius"'). skrit dt (§." it ADJECTIVES. and to that of "whence?" tha-tlirS. 398. Many other Gothic ad" hastily^" «pran<^. further. but only from pronouns. our fiir-der to be mentioned. verbs in o. and apocope of the from ovTUiT (§." and thus hva-thrd. some others. fur-dir (*' porro. Ed. 69." enovl. vorderste.** &c. " from behind. which expresses the withdrawing from a the Greek adverbs in dev . "from without." yam-thro." af-tar6. "a valley. " the under person. derive dalathr6. " thence. 1. " suddenly. thro." dala-thrd." alya-thrd. " hence.). sinteind. the 6 corresponds to the San6. Perhaps. 179. tertio.presupposed that in Greek ovroi has to ovtu><:. " from another quarter." " at that end.

neilhd Moreover. an old which most of them are only remains of is no longer preserved in other belong to a period cases. anda- and andavairthd do not occur by themselves alone adAs. tion of TovvavriQv.] : nominative. or changed that the into 2. also. however. in general. better as signed to the definite (strong) declension than to the indefinite. in the actual condi- tion of the Gothic. that unorganic adjective bases in an are. is dered definite through a pronoun preceding fore the forms in 6. all 3' sounds are rejected It is from the end of words. and. only used where the adjective it . Ed. for using the indefinite form is supplied by and Tovvavriov could not be otherwise literally reniv. especially adjective. had originally a vowel after them. p. are finals. by thata undaneitho. passages that the adverbs in without an article preceding them. certain T sounds (t. but Grimm for the adverbial accusative it would else be an unsuitable imitation of the Greek text. must ren- be further observed. answer to the Sanskrit ablative iritiyit 385 while the ecmmon It Gothic declension extends the ordinal bases in a by an unoro^anic n . thro has thrdt. but the int)ie ducement article. c c so that . shewn itself to us to be an abbreviation of sion of the < a question whether the suppresrequisite. it is verbially. for the as- very reason that no pronoun precedes them. In my can in no case be inferred from these d. then. ii. are. as by a universal law of sound was in in Greek. which. but to eKa(pp6v. As 7. thus THRJDY^N. it avrUa.DEGREES OF COMrARISON. 17. The case may be similar with 2 Cor.. where the indefinite adjective declension had not yet reto the transla- ceived the unorganic addition of an n. dered. d).. here of course andnneithd is the neuter accusative. belong to the same category. all nom. as far as we can follow their etymology. that there- which pass for adverbial. to where to does not belong opinion. 2 Cor. 399. thridya. th. and the Prakrit. where as Castiglione takes thata andavairtho for the [G. according to their formation.

. in pronouns expresses the locative relation." from the pronominal and I tt^ sa-ha — in the Vedic dialect and Zend sa-dha — It which derive from the pronominal base sa. The Sanskrit suffix V dha is appears. e. its ought. and consistently with the usual destination of the suffix dha. naMhat means "not *' " nor. as coming from the Sanskrit suffix v dha (^ ha)\ which. 33. in the 3d person singular and plural. without perceptible meaning. This holds good.). and the 2d person plural = Sanskrit th fir ti. "here. from the demonstrative base a. a5^ idha. in like manner. p. as in the Veda's ^U . ^ "here. in common language. and from nidha is formed. expresses " with. as. only in i-ha. with regard to tli. several times: a)»as79a50^ "^^ajI? A5 (P^ ^^^ imah idha vacho framrava. The passing over from the locative relation to the accusative. §. naidha. ^nT anti. abbreviated to ha. Ed. comes aj(oaj»a» * Vend. for example. ^ tha or f{ ta . however.)." fre/ The adverb [G. mean "here or there": it become a iha. even in Sanskrit. 368. Sade. . this " (mas. and found base i indeed. expressing the direction to a place (see tatra in my Glossary). 400.386 they are final ADJECTIVES. preposition. " fuBC hie verba enuntia." which Anquetil translates by " en prononfant bien ees paroles. expressing the direction whither. and I explain the or d. 10). according to $. in pronominal bases. "not". and the ablatives in i. which is. sounds of a second generation. by §. »»j^y so that xs(^\i^ ndit.* and as p. /. tas. occur also with accu- meaning. according to origin. t a + » makes ^.). 28. cannot be surprising. from na + it. comparable (§. with the same meaning." In the same page also occurs repeatedly aj(OAJ adha." answering to "neither" (literally it." in Zend. in that respect to the Sclavonic final consonants 255. p. 2.] quently occurs in combination with na. d." From AJ»AJ ava and aj^/oaj aMa. adfia (Rosen's Sp. to has. which. the common locative ad- verbs in sative tra. expresses direction to a place.

t be derived from the * Before my I acquaintance with the Zend. so might also the Gothic ni-thyis. more correctly preserved in the ** form of OVO* To the word ^^ ihatya. As in the Sanskrit the suffix W tya belongs only to local adverbs and prepositions.] than a brother. aj(oj ^ iha. however. corresponds the Greek suffix. frama-thya. ^ iha ** through the with (J from t propitius w tya. p.. Perhaps evda and base.rAj aeta-dha (Vend. or one who stands somewhat lower in relationship [G. is for nda from tda (comp." and is "father"." through which the preposition to be /ram shews itself an abbreviation offrama. very remotely. inde). therefore." which is derived from suffix . 387 To the avadha and Aj^^. Ed. "not having as father. and "not. in the Gothic. and evrav-da. kvdd<TiO£.). Zend-Vedic suffix dha corresponds most exactly the Greek da. as nasals are easily prefixed to another consonant. Old Sclavonic oba. S. a foreigner. vidra) : now. 164). <iS(^ ava and OVO have clearly nearer claims to take the Greek forms betwfen thoni. compounded of ««. and deeper examination of beUeved I could make out the Greek base av to agree with the Sanskrit amu." are. of this place. the grandson. the Latin from and. 135. in. with regard to their identical evda. afx<poi to ^>^ iibkdu. in the triple compound ev-r-avda. as propinquus. t Terms of relationship often exj>ress the relation. C C 2 meaniig ." is. "cousin" (for ni-tLyas." in relation to the grandfather. which may be said of our word neffe —without the In the is fully preserved from the Sanskrit. DEGREES OE COMPARISON. who is not the father of the etymology of In Latin it would be difficult to find nepos (nf/x)/-)— and the same aid of the word Vat:r. completely Zend a}(2aj»a5 avadha. and thus d/i^/ an- swers the to ^fi? abhi. &c. "here. §. *'not. 401. of the representatives. pitri. "a grandson. is but avda. " ilie. with regard to the prope. compare. I have no doubt." by casting oat the m (as Kovpos with kuthe Sclavonic.. whose theme ava has been conto av tracted in the Greek (compare av-di and av-ro^. but ingeniously. p.father" regarded as a possessive compound. the latter but in the Old Sclavonic it is being combined with the article). in evda i-dlia. which they are Thus »f5r naptri.

first members of compounds ttavrd-ixop^o^). eKeiae. whence may then be &c. namely. the introduction of an axo. dha. mean in Forms in illic. but which are obsolete. "to fall. as the theme. ni. as "from everywhere. §. and others. are in a measure raised to themes capable of declension.).avTa')(o might. as travTa'xpv. iravraxoi (old locative and dative). also. in un- meaning ax or even to which case we should have divide TTavT-axo-6ev. eKe7di. I recognise in the fVf Xt of a corruption of the suffix from f»s dhi . The addition of new suffixes or terminations to those already existing. Ti. to the Tlie Indian G'-ammarian?. but the root /a/. the plural neuter. wohin) CKeidev. less and with a signification answering of the e. wo and da with versus illic. mentioned at p." we combine our which might eKet is locative adverbs . rjxi think 61. nitya actually comes. mean everywhere ". according to Wilson. her and hin {woher. in to meaning of the preposition. iravTa-x^. literally as a local adverb. in the iden" tity of its suffix with 6a. 23. ah 5^0. see in naptri the negation. dha. or of the corrupted lies. TToT^Kaxoo^e. at. illic. but differently related. from which. dha. ^ ha (comp." and a suffix tri. though only for adverbs. the in Sanskrit. aspirates in In consideration Greek being is easily interchanged. or ha. said 7ravTa-)(p-c-6. "OPNIX said for "OPNI0. and develope. but not the father. also. a cognate form of the suffix 6a. and in Greek.. appears to than. case-forms. sempiternus. in which respect might be compared dyxh a sister form to meaning of Neffe the negation of the relationship of father points uncle.g. and. 382. one may also recognise in the syllable x°i ^^ forms like -jravTa-'x^o-dev Ttavra-xp-tre. which need not be wondered as iravra and TToAAa are also used as {TToKKd-(Ti^fjLos. But as the x° under discusI sion has arisen from 6a. as me assuredly more natural Buttmann supposes. the Doric. however.388 ancient preposition ADJECTIVES. &c. Un&di . At the bottom of these forms in my opinion.

however. in comis ei. diverged from the Greek. in wliich. On the other hand. d. alya-th. does not junction—" but. — compare bauth. notice with mrdhya.) . "to. third 389 As a form I in which the Vedio-Zend <re. a remnant of the Sanskrit locative.dha as prototype bination with the relative particle 399. 2. belongs ath. " whither.). to the expression of motion to a place. so suffix. in one direction. and it is to be observed that medials end of a word freely pass into aspirates (§." like ith-than . agrees with the rule for the transmutation of sounds at the (§. John vii." also. hvad gagcjis. ^ dh. in to the a: that rest it altered from its original intention to denote in a place. hva-drS. and it has (§. suffix it. Luke xiv. cr for d. itov imayeig — "whither?" also yain-d." The d in these forms.). bu-dum — so that the Gothic it T sound of the under discussion.] the Vedic-Zend a. answers to the Gothic th or whence we iro-ae. corresponds which. answering to the Greek 6. we have above recognised ablatives in we find in this comparative th. d. [G. 3. suffix dha appears in Greek. p. set out in this examination. " if. has preserved original locative cited as meaning together with the accusative. hvad —John xiii. To this class.991. contrary to the original intention of "thither. . eKPi-ae. 3. i-th. which only occurs in combination with than " but." in the tlie form is fxeaa-o^. ^sf^ adhi." Mark xi. again approached Remark also." with a nasal introduced. however. 402.)..91. 21. —As the formations in thrd. however. in forms like hva-tk. has. and thad-ei may be "where" and "whither.?" 35. 7.* "hither." but is used as a convii. 87. "midst. Thad.DEGREES OF COMPARISON. —ath-than. tard. which the probably c-on- nected with ij ya. as /zeaof from mil y of which has assimilated itself. after " has." then " (1 Cor. Greek evda. Ed. as in the adverbs in the expression of repose in a place is changed into that of motion to a place — in hidre. the form." "towards. To the Zend mean '• idha. yaindri ac- * Vide §. The suffix ce. in another. a\Ao-<re.

either simply or in comthus. caterva-tim." Azana " " abroad. I bent myself. adhari. in Old High in German t there exist.). also. "posferus" af-tumisfs. together with forms like legi-iimua. yaindrS tually occurs with a locative gaUsand sik arans. ni-dana. 1818. nominative tuma. bination with the common superlative suffix ISTA .] rupted to iana.a." however." hdliana t heimina " oiKodev" have lost & or a d preceding the a. or. p. formations III. 69. *rr»W nemima. as superlatives — one may look for that tarn in the Gothic cor- [G. "in the lower. " ex~ trem. af-ium. timus apviri-tim. as. -nepav. 480). Jr/na. thus. in the suffix consists notion that the whole of the or." and the Lithuanian wilke ever. or if they are formed after those in tana. That. *we bent ourselves/ answers to ' "i^fi nanama or *nnR nnndmn. Gothic af-tana. like tha-na = iHT tarn." hin-dumists. Old High hie-nieden. "whom?"." ferrana " vylrodev.^^ from the beginning. 403. " postremus. the Gothic i. merely of ana. ^d (§. finally. other principle. and accordingly regard " the pre- positional derivations in tana. fharei leik. behind ". Ed. I have already. hva- -na=oF»? ka-m. ana without a preceding sound (Grimm it is a question whether innana " within. 197. after the analogy of the ac- cusative masculine of pronouns. in Sanskrit.)." rtimana " from a distance. also. "under" (compare our "here below. 'we took/ answering to the singular nam. in another place (Heidelb. whether they rest on some . rov. (§. explained. as superlative forms. to apocope of the a— as in Latin. meaning.' " The superlative suffix ith lama occurs in the Gothic also in the form of TUMAN.). Jahrb. hindana.^^ If have suffiired one considers the Indian suffix ^t^ tama. €K€7 (Tvva')(^di^crovTat oi aeroi* Compare these forms with the Sanskrit. German As. as. with d for t in prepositional derivations. dana." forana shortened to forna " TToppoidev. pears abbreviated to tim in adverbs like which p. 'o-nov to o-to/^a. moreover proved by preterites like nemum. 295.390 ADJECTIVES. how- which in the genitive plural masculine to the Sanskrit is and neuter answers corresponds to if i. &c.

from w^T pole. mentioned whence the comparative wi-dar. obanoy "above. dana. with a glance at [G. which. and in as being etymologically pointed out to be that which over against the east. " one of two persons.DEGREES OF COMPARISON.** The west may perhaps be most lies satisfac- torily explained." is ^'^^ udanch. its from tifn prati. ildkAK " one of many persons. 404. ourselves to the prepositional 382. " opposite '*. and called opposite north. p. the latter superlatively. For base this object wi. in which I readily agree with him. Old High German or as they so frequently occur in prepositions. In the Sanskrit the appellations of the quarters of the heavens come from anch.). to be derivations from prepositions. " to prepositions . that the former expresses the direction whither (Grimm. however. The custom of the language disposes of the forms in r and na in such a manner. in relation to all the quarters of the globe. though the nature of their origin has become obscure. t^cktlH ikatama. " over. an adverb to it. as "that which is before. however. in. the original intention of the terminations. the south as "that below. we betake at p. was not. both which seem adapted to express the same direction the former comparatively. Ed. in the same manner. p. "below".*' corresponding 296. Greek tnrep. perhaps. the ova." Now it is remarkable that in tar German and ianui the names of the quarters of the world shew themselves through their terminations. from T?T ut. ." Gothic ufar. 205.*" by m^^J^ avdnch. has. which answers the Sanskrit TJTft upari. as " that above. " up. 376. We do not. dar. the latter the direction whence." by irra prdnch. " before the west as " that which is over against it." by TTW^ praiyanch. * By writing Grimm marks the corruptioa of the e from i.] that which is opposite. require to deduce ues-tar* we. as in Sanskrit. from "Upra. in combination is with the root ^^ go" thus the east denoted ''. ekatara. The to 391 preposition obar. ." but fact. as.

w'estana. to turn to a preposition which. in the Indian the south. d of derivation 102. at/Tor. Here s it may be necessary to observe. and as this pronoun is also {OVO." ADJECTIVES. ava. also.). or to the which in Sanskrit the Sclavonic front. os (for obs). ." "from the —for several prepositions start up toge- ther that would gladly sustain this quarter of the heavens. and as in Latin if it abs. more so. in like manner. assume this letter. 392 "towards the west." of explanation the west 6s-tano." exists as a pronoun. and to have tishkasa consonants which are disposed e. — Old It is High German 6s-tar. and the direction to which one is turned and one may. in s. for be received as a German sition case. see p.g. pre- position ava. necessary and. changed German. with prepositions. according difficult change than it into The east is more east. is prefixed to its may have as. wes-iana. except in this foreign to the practice of the German language. some prepositions terminating before in vowels certain combinations. 405. that in Sanskrit the . p. it obsolete east is remnant of and occurs in Greek as av. 387). appellation might have incorporated It which. In Zend. proper to and means "this". (av-dt. force to the §. with perfect justice. 96. to deduce it westar." from to its base wi. us. "towards the east. [G. signifies " below.. this ov). in the Sanskrit. but we may keep with the assumption of a euphonic also. as the derivative widar. nom. from the derivative would into s.] first may therefore be allowable for of all. pratikasa (§.. the principal point always where one stands. and. from then the ab. and that the taken as the side opposed to the west. in this itself. not necessary that the preposition after which the a prepo- east is named should elsewhere. turn that which is at the bottom to the uppermost." from the west. is language. in the the position to the east. Ed. annexes a euphonic from . ob But to were preferred widar. need not surprise us to find an base in German. pra- an for s before them. is preposition. be base.

by suppressing the Gothic last a arise (as in Greek av) aus uz. Ed. austan. {ava we declared aus-ter and ^sji^ avdnch + anch). 393 but one. from our aus. we cannot place in so subordinate a position to the west as to " mark it out as not west " (a-mtar from a- [G. 32) placed with more confidence and led the Old High German as a sister form. We cannot. As the most natural it point of departure.] •w'estar).— DEGREES OF COMPARISON. p. however." to be related.) which signifies which d belongs according to a universal law of euphony." sundana. 28. "out. The derivations from and or avo). towards the south. as also for the fact that the designation of the north. B. however. has subjected itself to a preposition. omit calling atten- tion to the Sanskrit preposition f^ nis. " southern. appeared to our ancestors as the remote disthis quarter is tance. according to austr. avas. would therefore. which in Sanskrit as it at name to the south. bold if the first glance might appear. is mentioned at therefore. without. 80. " up and hence. sundar. 25. 406. appears . The south. ds: the old northern form The Latin aus-ter might then beside — to which p. not to be mistaken. haurio.. (different ilt. is most suitable. Grimm be has already alluded (Wiener Jahrb. p. to (§. " south. As. We turn " now to the south. §. Old ~). High German is in Sanskrit g-w vt. the juxta-position of austar with the Latin ouster the Indian preposition ava. in Old High Gerfrom the man sun-dar. and the reason for the appellation of of the heavens being clearly in allusion to space. a new guarantee for the prepositional derivation of the names for east and west. we refrain from giving other prepositional modes in which one might arrive at the appellation of the east in German. certainly deserve less notice. although it is still more veiled in obscurity than that of the three sister appellations. avaa." and before sonant letters. too. suffix back by the hand of our comparative has given its to the preposition." the connection of which with the sundrd. 383.

The p.). " he. however.^ m. 297.394 in the form of nir. of comparatives are formed in Sanskrit by f<tnr tyas. older and iTfR ya-tara. the cardi- nal this number dwa melted down to corresponding in years. *' its o. still it quis?"' Dobr." corresponds etymoloko-tory-i gically. with 6 "two as a hardened form from 6 in h-yare. in which he divides is [G. also. for the notion of the superlative very close to the ordinal ." v. " some one '' (compare origin of these . ye-ter is said. which it is also usual to represent as the original form. and feminine ye-tera (ye-Tepa). yaj). we recognise a conso tha.). in which is the definitive pronoun is contained (§. is more in accordance with the history of language to divide ko-toryi than kotoryi or koto-ryi. 342)." from yo. " "which of two . ot-or . Ed. and combine with the demonstrative base p. ko-tery-i ye~tero.). that the suffix of the highest degree througli which. is properly ^ numbers ^g^w (e*c-Tor). however.] (p. forgotten. in which remarked its derivation from lyas in traction to ish (compare ish-ta. ADJECTIVES. Dobrowsky p. 389. 407. 343). respect to the singular. "the second" (m." from (p. (p. which of both. d. " offered. the Old Sclavonic ye-ter. 352) : viory-i. 255. clearly wrong. the ordinal (Terajo-To-j). as the formation or would there stand quite isolated and besides and yet this the pronoun i. neuter two pronouns is." (Gothic Ara-tW) (as definitive). Zend but the To Sanskrit "Sfiw^ katara. together with their comparative meaning for kotoryi means "who?" and yeter. A small number ishtha. then. formed from vtoro-i is in which v. In the Old Sclavonic the Indo-Greek compara- tive suffix occurs in vtoryi. and the corresponding superlative by as has been already ^ ishthn. 352). . strative base 298. does not occur in combination with the demonto. the suffix into for although the interrogative base KO may to lay aside (Mo. chotur-thas and TO^ shash-ihas lies are formed.

pancha-ma-s. is simple however. 22. numbers above two. " strong " (" gifted with strength. may ish.). from Latin. Crit. all p. §. "understanding. 9..] ever. thus (see §." comes maC-tyds . namely. Ed. " the fifth. 408. f^^lPririH^ vinsati-tama-s.). how- [G. the cases." from matt. from ^f^m^t mati-mat. compensation for the rejected accusative mel-iosem. 252. which fj.) the Indian comparative shews a broader form than the lyas above. may be the cause why the form forms like J|0^iu*4 gar-iydhs-am (graviorem). "intelligent. from haluvat.DEGREES OF COMPARISON. I deduce through assimilation from is-timus the 101. one would not rather regard the length of the Latin o as nasal : compare the old with Sanskrit in §.€^/t£ may in fieyt(T-Tog. 129. with a contraction of appears in the be compared (§. wherefore mo. the vowel preceding tliem.). which §. but together with whole suffixes. positive is exposed to great reductions final before so that not only vowels are rejected. for is —in Greek and Zend (comp. be held to be an abbreviation of tama." * The Taddbita suffixes are those which form deriTatire words not primitives direct from the root itself . as that latives. as gene- rally before Taddhita suffixes* beginning with a vowel. if through the pervading long o in Latin. The breadth of the sufiix. contracted from tyas is.) . g. a long d and a nasal preceding the fTTHT tydns s. e. are suppressed (Gramm. mentioned idris. suflfix jm tama occurs in ordinal numbers e. as the strong form in general as is probable &c. In the strong cases 129. is. corresponds the Latin in the superlatives in is-simus.). simple form in the adverb mag-is. 22. iori.g. 395 of order does to the super- and heuee the . which is still remarkable in the more contracted from lyas. To the form —euphonic is. viewed ids (§. in forms like q^H^ " the twentieth.. mav originally have been current in (§. which. This form. of the it.

Denary the connection of variyas with uru "great. from tripra. like the latter." " insignificant." ksMd-iyas from trap-it/as. which does not only To the sumean latissi- mus but is also optimus." With respect ar. I. 67. from fiuKpog. from kshipra. Ag. as a comThe case is suffix. pp. 409. exactly as above and others from kshipra and I believe I can hence explain. afforov^ where Buttmann (§. before the gradation suffix under discussion. ai(T')(i(no£.). more weighty from e^dpo^. the same with the lengthened vowel in forms like 6d(Taov. 231). is the concurrence of the Greek with the Sanskrit in this point. . But variyas might into one. radical syllable by Guna. suffixes (compare Burnoufs Vahista.. §." with which he rightly compares [G. 22) deduces. thus. too. the connection of which with evpvq one could scarcely have conjectured without the Sanskrit. &c. the lengthening of the vowel in uYjKiaro^. 290. on which principle also rests the Guna in analogous Sanskrit pensation for the suppression of the forms— namely. 230. also come from tion vara. tripra. e')(6t(TT0£. is easily transposed to ra (Gramm. . §.396 from the bala ADJECTIVES. Ed. disburthens itself of other p. Crit. 1834. p. 56\. " excellent. from " satis- hhudra. "quick" Cfrom base "to throw"). kvSktto^. ixdcraov. Rem. "knowing. 34\) : compare explains the Greek eBpuKov for eSapKov p. 3. as it which Burnouf (Vahista. hal4yas. Sanskrit with equal correctness and acuteness from vidvas (vidvd. kshPpislithas 28) . **) assumes that ." and uru might be an abbrevia- of varu. fied. vidwas). kship.] the Greek evpvs (Berl. N. which easily runs perlative "^T^s varishtha. as in the Zend vaedista. jxrjKKrro^. Jahrb. ksMp-iyas. comes . ed. since with vowels capable of suffix is Guna the dropping the of the compensated by strengthening appears to me. as to trapiyas. + vat). ac- cording to the same principle. Re- markable. p. In a similar manner M. the Greek apicrro£ (therefore faptcrro^) without doubt akin. let it be observed that Guna of f ^. o'lKTicrro^f a\yia-Tog. iraTpadi for trarapai (see G. that the former.

From I m comes deduce the derivative sri- fortunate. one must in any case have ground assume an fXTjKicrros. from comes bbuyhhtha and /xey/oroj. sreshtha. in the gradation forms under discussion. which occurs before suffixes. k. however. bahu. the initial vowel also of the same would accordingly be to raised by the weaker Guna. ishtha. from ." srSshtha. in from /xeyaXo-^. has lost as much as banh'-ishtha. p. On account of the great weight of the gradation suffixes i^«*. t^hfc t If there existed. as in Zend. as usual (^.] as Burnouf (Ya^na. c. of substituting a useless positive. in relation to MEFAAO. in forms like daafXiaVt The formation similar to bahuia. is the Sanskrit." common view. in my opinion. forming rnat. in my opinion. which has given suppression of the suffix of the positive base. ir^-shthn^ by the prescribed removal of the suflBx. p.. also. instead of by the Vriddhi. compared with bahuia. as Ag. &c. Gncian vowel-lengthening it in Bacraovy and and that of Sansk forms like kghep'yas. Ed. as %^^iT vaivasicata.* Remark. " of /ley/oroj from fieyag. " srSyas. " the best. p. " fortune. origin. 131) first pointed out. the comparative the a (a) . by bringing into con- nection with the Vriddhi. wrongly retracted— to by Guna. only that much ". from f^^TT vivasicat. " the Sanskrit positive base the addition of a nasal (1. 397 / has fallen back and united itself with while. rise to the ixhtha. very correctly remarked." as i coming from the sra as of srt.26. 25). be necessary [G. might it also be accounted for in a different way. in which I formerly concurred. a different account / is to be given of what has become of the j3pda(Tu)v (§. 300. but afterwards (Vahista. of much" Tff¥ banhishtha. . " better. by contraction with lyas.).^hepisktha. namely. historic con- nection between the others.) has compensated for the loss of ul/i by which therefore. — — It will then. rests on the same is principle with the " Guna in kshepishtha.).DEGREES OF COMPABISON. instead of the explain the ^ ^ of srh/as. Be that how it may. 410.t although one might * The Guna. Benary . especially in many other Taddhita patronymics. a krira^ one might hence also derive above gradations. and hence." from which sri-yas.

). we made an attempt to refer melior also to this root but cognate words often assume the transitions of sound. euphonic for srS-ishtha ."" "excellent'^). I do not see why. is the preceding also. optimus. 411." " the excellent. most estranged form through doubled which. whence bhadra.. otto-o-toj (see p. 87. expect in the superlative sray-ishtha. and also between labial medials and the the Greek (3e\rioiv. are nevertheless nothing else than / and on superlative forms. which is wanting in l3e\-Tepog. moreover." with which." and pr^-shtha from since priy §. in spite of the want of the of tarog. must retire. Ed. of BehTtoiv. might be connected with 'ermv agddha " deep. " fast. 245). /3e\ would then give the middle step between H^ bhad and mel. also Gothic bat-iza. sthi-ra. suffix a." properly. who collates also bdtyan. /SeAr/o-TOf. the suppression of an i may not hold good. for our besserer. should belong to this class. if might appear too daring . p. according and the Sanskrit bh becomes b. that.398 ADJECTIVES. As meanings melior. and the t be an unorganic addition. Inquiries. The ideal positive namely ayadog.) priy-a. also. " the man gifted with fortune ". p. But as in Greek e/ca-oroj. in certain cases. "fortunate. bhagavat. It is very common for d to become I (§. bat-ists." " swollen. " dear. in Sanskrit. although doubled. " fortune " and " splendour are generally the fundamental notions for that which is good and excellent [G. to It §. 63.). hence. also. 17. " the honourable. of the Crit. In the latter case." This happens. after removing the y. §. which Pott was acute enough first to remark (Etymol. 51. in the Gothic The old d gives. are usual. nasal of this organ there prevails no unfrequent exchange (comp. " fortunate. in stM-shtha from spM-shtha from sphi-ra. however. ^eh-rarog. from ^' a positive with the meaning remarked.] . bester. this ground it is that Burnouf takes his objection. If." it may be further in Sanskrit. the Gothic gdths (theme . only a to the euphonic alteration of pri (Gramm." t. derivation. 376). are associated with a Sanskrit root denoting fortune {bhad. "to use. also.

lyas-as. A. would [G. We would therefore prefer giving up this. ^eXriov^. abandoned still the former consonant of less favourable to the the Greek.). with 6. except in p. comes the nominative lyan. as perhaps one may that suppose in the oldest.* common between two v.] comparatives. The Greek. 22. HoaetSu). which was v<r-. 325 G. in the majority of cases. . tydns-as. as is so rejected.DEGREES OF COMPARISON. Ed. vowels. reduce the contracted forms like fieKrloi. From the strong theme t^ITO^ lydhs. pre- Grecian period. (§. ids-em. has iis. §. to an original io<ra^to<reg. since it declines its comparative as with v\ hence though ioT-em its theme terminated from the first accusative lov-a for the ( Sanskrit ^irf^ lydns-am. genitive lov-o^ for lyas-as. at]Sov^. which. identical with the weak theme. of the final letter rendered necessary through The vocative has a short the Greek Ztov. lan- while European sister * Comp. cannot become repossessed of the which abandoned in Sanskrit in the nominative and vocative masculine for legitimate reasons. words (A. i. the neuter tyas (N. mentioned at 94. ed.e. other It is. 412. as Pott has already.it6Wu>. 69. however. However. according to 299. and assuming. noticed somewhere. I believe. however. and to the vocative lyan answers ~iov to . forms roniarkable. and medials for Greek aspirates. and sounds iyan. g6da) is 399 to be compared. according to rule. be On the other hand. one might.). 22. Latin ior-is. on the presupposition that the contracted forms have rejected an isolated others). with the suppression §. as like all were.). is corresponds the Latin ius (§. 298.). has given up the it latter. the theoretic derivation of the com- parative 2 renders very embarrasing. p. toa-a^. s. and a few however. iydnsi (neuter plural). ^A 87. ^e\Ttovaa. v and not a. the a of which.. V. corresponding to ttjahsam. To lyan answers a. §. is suppressed only in a few eiKO). that while the Sanskrit in the weak. for §.

ist'-s 135. one chosen by Burnouf. . o. (^. and his remarks are also useful to us in ista Sanskrit Grammar. Jahrb. In form ajjoo-* stands nearer to the Greek ktto-^ than the Indian ishthat is and (§. With regard to their theory. of the Sanskrit and Zend it adduce from the European languages a cognate if ior termination to the Greek 7wi/. : after wirr. 1831. preserved the last element of the ns— the the the Latin in the form of r — and the while the Sanskrit also shews for the so that all more indulgence alone has it diflPers for the s than nasal.h the musi have passed intc y.] treatise on the Vahista.maj^ masySht.'?7i2.20. ista 300. 413. as ? in the geni- tive termination h6. arrived at. nom. Still the ^sya case. Ed. Without the intervention would be hardly possible to sister . which occurs repeatedly. t Berl. by his excellent [G. lov or and Jtxiv should be compared. the handed down form in tara can only scantily be *ited. Burnouf has rendered important service. The comparative form which belongs rare. I then conceived this form to be thn8 it/nd that they of the Sanskrit from had disappeared.). I. also. but its much more occasion for perhaps only on account of the want of appearance in the authorities which have been to us. and require no authentication. as the Zend frequently exhibits t for the Sanskrit to ista is aspirates. p.400 guages have comparative only ADJECTIVES. has originally existed.f It springs from the positive base • Comp. An example I of the comparative under discussion is the feminine ^waj^^. above view of tlie which is also the . Greek preserved in in comparative this respect from the other languages. and to which have already elsewhere drawn attention. In Zend.* than that after the Greek v the prototype of the Latin r. in which. namely a. one would think rather of a permutation of liquids. the superlatives in as^^OJ are more numerous than the corresponding ones in Sanskrit. completely identical with the Gothic ista. n.

and confirms. erit. Latin alius. and closer at hand. <r Greek comparatives €?\^(r(TuiVf with a doubled before . according to §. bliu-yas. by Lenz. MAyUAi^ masas. amabit. masanh. herein agreeing with the Latin karihigi. * Comp. "heavenly. from is simpler. the San" skrit f<isyo. in the in this dialect. that t. " hujus. D D .3 from a\yo^. 401 56 . 42. " more. amabis. &c. y to p. masah. 20). and then (§. like other good for the Sanskrit. §§. another interesting Prakrit form of the future. as. assimilations which are extremely common itself to the weaker consonant assimilates precedes or the stronger. t h. taa-oficu.). Gothic alya-. " I will endure. which consists in the Sanskrit s passes into A. " great " {maso. i in eris. Zend forms." from sahidiydmi." becomes bhavissadi. . fipdaffuiv. as elsewhere oAAos[G. the a has. mentioned at with which.* divya. feminine base If yehi is tyast. as Kpeha-ojv. "the . » would fall to the turn of the preceding to become y. In the Zend coincides with the Sanskrit forms p. explained (Demonstrative Bases. with fJ^ifH sydmi. 53. tav. 50)." ditwa. Ed." this follows it. althongh the other cannot be . also. but the syllable H ya m contracted to . are based on this which. he will be. instead of the medial form p.DEGREES OF COMPARISON. through the power of assimilation of the y become ^ and s has. from It (o-yofuu. corresponds to the Greek oAXoj becomes tassa . Sanskrit anyn. the loss of shews itself. have assimilated the preceding consonant. 414. in composition with attributive verbs.). 397. In Prakrit. the theory which holds that other suffixes fall away before compared with the Sanskrit the t the exponents of the comparative and superlative relation under discussion. thus anna. whether other. saJtishye (Urvasi. are p." bhavishyali. according to a law of euphony tlie very universally followed in Prakrit. shewn to be impossible it for it is certain that if the y of lyas had disappeared in Zend." and jyd-yast " older." from karishyasi sahihimi. " thou wiUst make. may be allowed here preliminarily to mention this. 56 . from anya. become the loss of the like srS-yas.." agree.

from ray^. «. g becomes ^ e. while in Greek k is modified in the same way x ^^ account of the contracted nature of the C (^^f^) ^o assimilation takes place after it. yryech. into least of all surprise us (see 99. is clear that r. is stronger than y. similar [G. which lat- ter may be akin to the Sanskrit WUT: adhara. the which. §. 'xeipttiv.. but the y entirely disappears.(r-aitiVj €\a(r-(ra)v. and e — •which latter y. Therefore one might thus a form i/cov. to <r which need the y has assimilated. as in the positive z. nunciation. I3d<r-<rciv. e. comes very near the vowel combined with a remainder of the syllable and frequently the ye— exert an influence on a guttural preceding them. Before the namely. ifi " thus " as- similates itself to the following hence. oKl^oiv. according to §. where j x. 119. (m. the transition of §. its s stands irregularly for as if the Zend." It is hence sanva from sarvc. y or produces i in Greek. ch becomes «. would vie with the Greek . prti^i from prAg.g.] to that which the comparative i.o^-w^ maz'ista. 57.).g. "everyi remarkable that the t . and before ye in the dative and locative singular. also of tti. from fJ. as it also is more powerful than one. oTui^yoav. the sides Old Sclavonic may be noticed. 6\ty-. 5. is pressed into the interior of the word (comp. as <9a<r-<ra)v from daa-yuiv. without presupposition of establish the assimilation from As o- to the {Kpeur- transition of the consonant of the positive base into '(xutv. as fxeilQuiv. answers to the Sanskrit h oiw^mahat.ey-. naturally leans upon also. in propreceding. &c. t. as before i and ye of the imperative. or. t. bei. k becomes as ch. With the superlative fxeyia-To^ compare the Zend A5^e. word Jiav.). as in d/ue/vioi/. fi6. " the under §. in which. mams (euphonical ly mas6).). l3pa<T-(rci>v. 6. of the nominative plural. gryes-i hoiu. (m). 401. while in the above ^wie^^MM^ maHy&hi. what has been remarked is in §. from fj-ei^yoiv. but ." consequently with aphaeresis of the a (comp. by permutation of consonants in this word. Ed. "great". 415.).). in [Jiei^uiv. p.402 which it ADJECTIVES. 255. but with regard to the gutturals.

) represented as analogous to mais." "Remark. 87. Greek. repo-^. 88. (§. in (see §. &c. He has however. 1. with Fulda. but was. avcarepov. fieyt<r-To^. p. " the ^»^9 "^-i-JJ-^^ mazyS more in the (literally greater) wise. 742). Vend. namely. p. " high. clear that the Gothic 402) . (May 1827.DF«REES OF COMPARISON. in viewing hauhis. 395 &c. —There are some other comparative adverbs of which. therefore. as k. related to the Zend maz-yS (from maz-yas). mazyo. thus. c. as is. perhaps. therefore.)." 3U1. I first pointed divide. and Lithuanian. ma-is . Ed. p. p. 214. '* and this most plainly p. in universal use so the German. is. We must and this word. afterwards." that mais does maiza. and indeed iu the Gothic the suffix of the comparative shews itself in the same ened form in which it appears in the Sanskrit. out in the Berl. originally. in is. 483 z." Do2 . in their degrees of comparison everywhere attach themselves to the more short- rare forms in Sanskrit and Greek. is identical with the Latin mug-is (coinp. " major. &c. which. as the genitive of the positive hauhs. ed. similarly with the form in tara. in adverbs like mais. Zend.. As Latin comparative a suffix has raised itself to universal currency. which in Sanskrit and Greek is only sparingly applied. the first time and I treated of this subject. ^'^^•'^9 . " in exactly the same to relation to hau- the higher." Yet hauhis stands hiza. Jahrb. its combination with the superlative 298. suffix and Latin.). which I hold to be a neuter comparative vidvdo. as it seems to be separated from in base and formation. which Grimm has since (IIL 5S9. S. 415 G. I was not in possession. p. whence it is form has lost mikils.J nection with comparatives in the Sanskrit. — — according to the rule for the removal of letters Mais. the Sclavonic. a guttural (compare ma-jor and mag-ior). more. as well in the base as in the termination. far it. with thus. 416. which we have become acquainted with above (p. agreed. . in "great" which has weakened the old a to i appears.) in the sense of " more." whose con- [G. we find.

[G. which Grimm wishes to leave under the forms which. examined the Old High German. together with which. 88. but tained as s in wirs. seems to potius. answering to the Gothic mais nrnjor ") because in mSr no formal expression of the felt.) — through assimilation from alyes. 35). although the Old from the point of view of comparative ga-raihtSza. are considered as genitive. In the Old High German. properly to signify therefore. Uiliier. is an essentially different (p. p. pejus. and 1 consider com- parative. Perhaps. High German rehtes. is to in the Latin ali-ter and similar adverbs. to use the expression. by their origin. xi.obsolete comparatives. as adjectives may just as well be expected as oza. which. one might believe the z in maiza belonged to the positive base. The which may in all be cited in Gothic. comparatives. ' ' is also still reallis. must pass into r. does not prevent the assumption that there may have been also iza in use a raihfiza. according to alles. are clothed as genitives. 417. comparative relation was any longer Raihtis. omnino' as a comparative. for. in order entirely to exclude the Gothic apparent genitive adverbs from the class of adjectives. ' Compared with the Zend maz-y6 and Greek /xe/^-wi'. are. aKKo£ — in which the comparative termination. p. or me it. as above 414 G.-^4 ADJECTIVES. as a our rechter . that together with eirteSt . the genius of the Old High to German language . be observed. The probability that these forms. word ed.] which have been transmitted to for genitives. 'omnino. *at first' (R.with the comparative adxerh frum/izd. left them the s.' its origin. has allowed itself be deceived through the identity of the comparative with the genitive termination is suffix is and taking some it . in . III. also.' I prefer to consider. occurs the superlative frumists. is still further increased thereby. evident comparatives. Ed. however.'' exists ul/es. which. and the comparative adverb 'jusfior." r'ehidr. ' adverb mer. particularly as the Old High German adds a second comparative suliix to its {m^riro. together . can only is be a genitive.

p.'' there occur. also. by be changed into z hence the modem theme MAIZAN. this letter. wliere from the theme ahman. " fall. and may be connected with the Sanskrit avara. from the original MAIS. seifhu. as. 'pejor. maiza. without exception devoid of inflection in substantives of every kind.). in all the cases of the singular. and anderesf. ahman-s comes the accusative.' which raised anew into vairsiza. ' 405 the aliter. where the consonant no longer capable of declension. : 418. ceived. As. in bases ending in a conis sonant. thus miu'S. for minior. minus. In the nominative and genitive singular. perhaps is vak'Sy 'worse. . by the favourite addition which we have seen Above. 86. less' (compare minor. also. 141. however. suns. as also in the nominative *. in of is. as the aborementioned mats. The nominative mas- culine and neuter are. The dative singular is. s nd in their adjective state (§.^ is 302." for drus-9 from drusa-s. " suhito. 'once' (see Graff. joined to participial bases in -then. as its The language. the form maiss must have become mais . maiz6.DEGREES OF COMPARISON. and probably. 289. between two [G. though without the same urgent necessity. statini. forms in eineaf. guise of superlatives. just as. 329). must. Ed. minius). 5. accusative plural. or otherwise the sibilant would have been necessarily suppressed. again. 292. and so .} vowels. preserved meaning was still too powerfully peran.. 'posterusr as above yeipoiv 'amplius* (from * was compared with ^nrc adhara seith-r.* an un- organic addition. Mate').). of final double the latter must be rejected (comp. sort * Some comparative adverbs the i of this * omit. from the theme drug. (5. therefore. comes it to be inserted §. namely. The comparative-suffix s is required in Gothic. On the other hand the feminine base does not develope itself from the masculine and neuter base MAIZAN as in general — from the unorganic bases * in an of the indefinite adjectives wotdd not be distinguished and A base in ». 1st Note). p. according to §§.' Grothic.* and anaks. which has remained unaltered in the adverb. . in the nominative and accusative plural. 140. temel* and anderes.

650.) agrees with my view of the sible. exists in the Sanskrit and Zend. answers to the Zend feminine base of the same thus MAIZEIN (ei = gariyas-i. Jahrb. be observed. to Greek. —but to . be deduced from MAIZEIN. and is Gramm. but before it . the Sanskrit ^ sfi remains also in where the Gothic has always here be further remarked. according to this. first become acquainted with . from mats + ein.) to the Gothic. &c. through what has been I be completely disclosed [G. III. 6. . Perhaps in the passage quoted above. look for after the y of lav. 419. in ^. appear identical with the unorganic Gothic an in MAIZAN. 1. on account of the superlative. which obtains It is further to just as foreign to the Sanskrit. These two kinds of feminines. the comparison of the transition ir s into of the Gothic * into z with that of the Indian b sh inadmis- two transitions rest upon euphonic laws which are entirely in the Gothic {§. so that he wishes to divide thus /xct'-fwv. to 756). 651.) is in which respect again the participle present to be compared. as in the kindred Gothic ma-iza. undiscovered (comsaid. a legitimate foundation.* The Old High German Grimm had not yet. not zt. tlie 101". import.). 290.. review of the • two Berl.40d no feminines which arise ADJECTIVES. it difference of these laws. of the said participle and the comparative. the original feminine base in i. is distinct. as appears from 299. according to §. an n is i. The nominative maizei may then.] and have already declared my opinion in this sense before. does not jj. 86. Ed. is identical with the theme 137. appears to . which Jacob Grimm. stand in Gothic very isolated . however. Crit. would. that st. (§. tracing back to the Sanskrit dhs. ^»>A)^^J4A)9 masyShh and Sanskrit forms like jiO<<m1 from gariyas. and regards the f not as a corruption of the y. 142. ov. . as an abbreviation offity[(a>v . me.). or may be viewed as a continuation of the form in Zend and Sanskrit which.. of which the one. as Buttmann also assumes. The Greek ew. also. p. pare I. as in the participle present §. May 1827.. however. in the (§. but the ground of their peculiarity. in that language. by while it we have assigned it. as the matter. admits an original s in the comparative which he. but as a comparative character.). 566.299. 743. I find. In respect c. as the Sanskrit {§. my parts of his Grammar since he afterwards ( II. p. added. calls still namely. p. tliat. 70. nominative. 21. may Grimm.

IZAN? 6. in this respect. in the Zend. (fem. which. than (nominative feminine and in ero. more comparatives 6ra or (nominative neuter). for minior. has whence. 303. 420.). nrindr-is. has brought its 407 feminine comparatives into the more usual path. originally y and d existed in juxta-position to one another and that for minniza. "priori h/asdza.] form. " tlie more intelligeut." and alyaleikds. to the Latin minor more resemblance suffix than to the Gothic minniza. Ed. is the 6 in i these forms to I be explained. y&hs has in the Gothic either the A or the y (=»J). must be changed into a vowel. 300."/rdrfvdza» . **fortior'"' masculine).DEGREES OF COMPARISON." frumoza. p. "inclarior" (Massmann. with starts according to rule. The few forms are. " prudent ior. " cnrouJa/oTejOcof. era. There reason to assume that. in the Gothic. comparatives. the only one that can is lost be adduced. and the ad- verbs sniumundSs. and gives. 6z. as corresponding to the Gothic minnizeU "the lesser" sibilant. If one from the is [G. then. in iro. which also in the Latin lost and in the weak cases in the Sanskrit. p. therefore. then. in the earliest period transmuted into minniro. German has become so in it current. of the Sanskrit strong themes 299. in the High German r. OZAN which can be adduced (nominative in Gothic svintkdzcL. the Gothic.'* unsvikunthdza. exactly to the Latin in minor. " erepm^. not minniri but minnira. iz-an. minnyoza. minnizei." was used . ira. beside the nasal. and ior frodoza. and still more is the Old High German &r dr^ correspond. " the lesser. believe only as coming from the long a iyAns or yahs (§§. 69. "hilarior^ garaihtdzaf "jusfior" framaldrozaj " provectior cetate" usdavdozaf " soUicitior. which. when the A is suppressed. The Gothic however. that but in the Old High there are masculine). however in oro more rare. besides is. frodoza. for latter Wa (§.** How. The comparative exhibits also in 6s. was. The Gothic d«. minnira. the form dz-an : it is. contrasted with the of IS.). 47).).

* The positive does not occur. the comparatives have . 6s{-s. 421. formed superlatives with in the lative. Note reik'-iza. 19. 69. SPEDJA. because this degree in the San- Zend.] hence sut'-iza. OSTA. hardUza. and those with 6 suppressed by corresponding to the One cannot. 6z. contracted a frumists. minus. nom." corresponds not frumdsts. Old High German. 303. SUTU*. any superlatives comparatives in skrit. y are represented in Latin plus. xv. but even to lengthen it. 358. from 7. however. 304. seith-a cognate languages. from 6. "light. from HARDU. Greek. layhu. as in the Greek Yj^iutv from 'HAY. in Gothic.). properly require in 6s. to ihefrumdza. lost the The forms which have by minor. "late" (see p. It is.). " miser^ : rimus" (1 Cor. {thana-seiihs. form of the comparative. and armdsfs. xii. In the rejection of the final vowel of the positive base before the suffixes of intensity the German from agrees with the "sweei*^.).408 ADJECTIVES. that. quite regular. "late"." hence spM*-iza. could not therefore regard the in forms ]ikefrdd6za. as merely a lengthening of the a in FRO DA as it would be completely contrary to the principle of these formations. but the Sanskrit sicddu-s and Greek )eftd tjiv-t us to expect a final y. p. The expla- nation of the comparative 6 given at §. remains therefore the only one that can be relied upon.Ed. . [G. "prior. from SEITHU. and in the Sanskrit laghiyas from J^a is also rejected. " infirmissimus " (1 Cor. and Latin always springs from the to is. 6st usually stands in the superwhere the comparative has 6r the Gothic furnishes two examples of this confusion of the use of language. after their fashion and thus. " rich. in lasivdsts." One (§. "amplius"). more recent dialects 6. and mag-is. REIK YA. 22. "hard". not only not to suppress the final vowel of the positive base. how- ever. "primus."''' ish. To is the remaining comparatives in oza the superlative but in the not yet adduced.).

Mshi. " the greater. as appears to be the case. 255. o (§. as frequently occurs with n 0." has taken the representation of the meaning "several times.) : the final ofye-i. 409 305.) " fem. the definitive pronoun (§. (n. but u. the comparative is formed in three ways. a-sakrit. " the best as b'ltizn. baliyasit neuter baliyas. from a positive which has been lost. (/." fem. bolu. unshi.). iJnii. and all the remaining comparatives ii. which. form (Dobr. In the Old Sclavonic. 332. 284. its from a positive which has been and it is lost. appears as in where may be observed. " " the better unype. srS-yas. then ye (§. that. as." mnii . si in the masculine and neuter. according to Dobrowsky.DEGREES or COMPARISON. with v for b and e for o. latter. neuter [G. * The a in ifitivrnv appears to me to be privative . Gothic minniza. in the positive. spring. however. may be compared with the Sanskrit baHydn. i yax of jyd-yas. with the preceding (m. lesser. so that fulvav would seem to be a sister form to the Latin minor.. answers to the 'j. &c. Bolii.255. the form yei is the genuine one. 320) . feminine in oryas-i^ shi it is easy to recognise the Sanskrit and herewith also the Gothic rei (oblique XheuxeZEIN. in like manner. which belong to this class have yei for If. s is and the loss of the is explained by §. and the dfjLetvuu. in Latia. (f. " the better (m. for comparatives always follow. 396). Ed. as mentioned at .j ". &c. the primitive and indefinite form must be veL With (§.).). so that a may have become . bhA-yas.)." positive velii. (1) By masculine . + The finite in Sanskrit. perhaps connected in base with /x. definite declension. so . and dfieivav would properly signify " the not " the not tliat more for trifling. respect to the stronger o corresponding to the weaker in letter e 256. occurs only in this dep.) ". Sclavonic lesser. bolii is For p. manner 208. p. and this u.* MniU "the neuter mnyee.7. literally " not once. a. 422. a.-f (p. which vowels are strengthened in Sanskrit. bolyee. answers to the Sanskrit 300. o it a would be the negation. namely. feminine shi. melior.). mensh'u has become u (»)." Perhaps this word is also inherent in omnit . and thus answer better to the neuter form yee. "the stronger** fem.] also used bolyei. the In the of lyas-i. neuter yee.

of the same meaning. e.310 p. 415 G. pache. however. p. ploravit. the th corresponds to the Sanskrit vdn»-am. " the lesser. the definite pronoun thus.). van for van*. that to say." and menshi." but by-vshi. The Old Sclavonic has ''' here. for trair-yov. so in rek-sh. be regarded k. as the abbreviation of ye 256. because there.255. "greater" —in Servian MSS. " quee /uW f' end in the masculine also. properly a participle. dolga.] Trao-o-coi/ . ••better". the positive dolg is connected with the Greek SoXt-xp^ needs scarce to be mentioned. identical with the Greek ao of Trdar-aov. which in manner dispense with bole." corresponds to the Sanskrit ^grhral baliyasi. ed." probably related to -nayv^i ( so that which is very obscure ) the final vowel of pache for pach-ye. masc. 4 ADJECTIVES. ushi. . which in the strong cases vdns. neuter vat (for vas). Anye. " longer " (neuter and adverbial). as by-v. um). in /ne/^cdv. hol-shi. " the stronger (f. as rurud-vdiu-am. for reasons which have been given before.. in fact. the « again appears in the oblique cases. 423. for fxetydov. therefore. "the greater (fem. where the s should stand at the end. oKtyav. answers remarkably to the Greek f oKli^civ. in the Sanskrit. Ed. is 18 G. nom. " more. as a modification of as the first <r of irdaraov has developed from x- Thus the C of a.(1.). keeps free from the adverbs in like definite pronoun. also. according to p. in preference to the comparative.). lost letter. While. is. Somewhat more distant is the Sanskrit ^fHw dirgha-s. the feminine has lost the ya oiyas-t* This feminine shi." to the Gothic minn-izei. fern. after the t follow terminations beginning with a vowel . The eh itself of pache may. w." '^ eum qui . dolgo {longus.). in departure from (2) and (3). corresponds to the Sanskrit of the wduplioated preterite in ra*. ed. according to §. bolyef [G. doll^-vee. qui fuit. in the nomitlxis native masculine." "eum qui dixit. the Sclavonic masculine and neuter have lost the * of the Sanskrit yas. in which the frequently-occurring interchange between r and I is * It may bo proper here to call remembrance to the past gerund. That. wn^. There are some comparative (§. as euphonic representative of the y of dofg.).

to is added an unorganic yO. G. first (7. in the euphonic law. Ed. then. sha. as in the above feminines in at but for it. shews by the evidence of the Sclavonic and Sanskrit. there remains shi.'"' be compared with the Sanskrit gariyas. ed. suppressed. which corresponds the Gothic-Lithuanian Y^ ^^ ^he naxxt. 424. so in the feminine nomi- natives dusha.) -' This adjunct in YO has preserved comparative sibilant the masculine and neuter. formation. and as to the feminine comparatives not being shya-ya but sha-ya. (2) The second. 279). in the feminine. the end. the adjective its base SINYO i. an organic Let garyee. especially [G. to be addition.). 411 The i of Bo}nxoif however. before a (Dobrowsky. 12).^ answering to tn NOW. " gravius.). themes NIUY-^. p. (§. p. as we have seen. 282. this on the special ground that sibilants gladly free p.** this se- cond formation are. of this pronoun. The of shii is the definitive e pronoun. for ye (§§. 332. shit. neuter shee. before (sini-T.] themselves from a following y. by far the is most prevalent form of the nominative masculine i Old Sclavonic comparative. suaha^ chasha. (nominative siny). must yield to §. the Sclavonic NOVO. 40l) therefore to be taken thus. " pejti.). loss. for stksya."' from guru. 284. that the ya which precedes is the sibilant shi. and tiiese are abbreviations of hhyo. which. which. is The rests definite feminine of SINYO sinyn-ya. union with the defining contracted to sini neuter sine-e for sinye-yp. shye. NAUY^i " new.t. the NEO. p. shyc. to be noticed kself. better feminine . and in the neuter After the she . is ya. The to is relation of the ttR comparative form under discussion ya* the Sanskrit and Zend o9A)^^ yas (p. to which the kindred Greek jSapv^ has permitted no euphonic reaction. &c (Dobr.255. " heavy "— according to Burnoufs correct remark from garu. Examples tlie of (m. feminine shaya.. 20. un-shu. as this adjective is pronounced in Pali —through the assimilating influence of the final u.DEGREES OF COMPARISON.

which has subsequently absorbed (p. theme PUSTOt of the desert. t Dobrowsky says it is. (c). for tick 6\ty-iu)v. tano-k^ "thin. *• deep " (definite."t in the Greek d&<y-(Titiv from ra^vS' As example of the form * I hold ko. masc. . slado-k to the Sanskrit swddu-s. A. 304."* Masculine sch. corresponds to the Sanskrit tanu-s. since the said sibilants. Ed. through BLAGO). from blag (theme since g. ch. 20. and to the Sclavonic is due.265. as to the truer preservation of the fundamental word. (m. Thus the above sladshii shews itself to be originally identical." Hence difficult it is clear that the final vowel positive base is rejected. for example. 334) from blagyi{x\iv6 the definite. the preference above the Greek and Gothic. but the preceding this vowel of the lost primitive §. evident that the comparative has not arisen from the adjec- tive X compounded with a pronoun. §. p. for the suffix of the positive for the final base. is more is difficult to recognise.). gives way so to a sibilant. : 412 iin-shaya. "still. gluboky-i). as [G. 6?uy-yuiv 402): as tish-aishu. yeishii. as in all the cognate languages. 425. and i. " sweet." Greek raw. ai feminine yeishaya. neuter yeishee stands for yei: and this ai evidently but after and stands only euphonically for ydi.'^ however. silent. " "the better" (masculine). according to $. Even ." and refer to ^. see $. in accordance with 298. "sweet.255. 284. sh. T jydst-shii from piist. (a. according to 255. good.. from ylUbok. or to ^ u. from (theme TICHO). on account of the unexpected V into I. "thin. far as the external diffe- rence may separate them ." with excliange of the r for according to 9. Compare the Sanskrit adverb t&shmm."t the influence of the y following. as well in the suffix of the positive as of the other degrees with the Greek fjS-iav and Gothic sut-iza {§. whence in the nom. and an corresponds either to a Sanskrit a. neuter Hn-shee •* ADJECTIVES. compare oA/^-tov. gladly divest themselves of a following y: hence blasch-ai'ihn. *' still. but from the simple indefinite one." theme TANOKO. . the y. althougli. as. . suffixes are rejected.] has been already remarked. transition of the the origin of the Sclavonic word (p. sladshii from (3) sladok.).- however whole gluh-shii the combination of the t with sh.).

the yei or at (for yai). of explanation [G. 4-26. = Gothic mais. L). probably. as in Old High German and in Gothic. another way namely. and from this could be easily contracted to . as their last element. " the greater vairsha. There is. ^4W may serve.DEGRBES OF COMPARISON. yun-ynshii. " the best. in Persian. yun-yet. contain. which the Sanskrit shews in the strong cases of the comparative suffix iydns. "the worse" (p. my opinion. In Persian the comparative is formed through ter " the better. the comparaiydiis.). that among the European languages the Greek only has preserved the As nasal. which distinguishes this formation from the second ? It might be supposed that to the also first formation in yet. through the comparative with bably from mai " more. in. where. for example. mSrero." occurs. the it i even in this of yei. 405). as an exact transmission of the Sanskrit lyas or yas. how- ever.] that the element of the first formation ye-t has not f. "the second has also been younger (m. "wdth yei. tive f^jTO tydru. then. origin to a transposition of the to the of iya. it deserves remark. of explaining this yetshit or (y)auku. that of the added. letter. but the third. once laid aside the definitive pronoun to which is foreign the comparative . may have method. from which the second formation has only presened the sibilant . in the nominative masculine." from yun. the superlatives in tertn. 400. and as. if it be not assumed that i owes 306. I must here admit a limitation iu . p. so that therefore in yun-yet-shii the said pronoun would be contained twice. mode according to 225. The only objection to this is this. are raised twice to the com- ^ (masculine). Ed. behter. that in Old Sclavonic the formation before us frequently occurs with a superlative meaning. together with this Still." prefixed (pro« §. is embarrassing. Whence comes. remark made at p. "junior." Now as. detained also that which preceded. parative degree in ." whence behterin. while in the more modem dialects the superlative relation is expressed nai. its (i/)a". which forms.

the y of which. where ians=Skr. with which we would compare the Sanskrit gariydhsam. Note •). however. parative under discussion means. which regard as a metathesis from gerens. 636." maxaua." gerhnis. connected in the positive base p. 398. as gero. therefore it [G." but venerable. have observed in Sclavonic comparaI tives.). tydns of the strong to t This has been already alluded by Grimm (III." I regard the u as the vocalization of the n.f through which we come But we come still very near the Sanskrit gariydns. as the avoiding of a great accumulation of consonants. gariydn).by 18 which etni$ similarly arrived at with the Latin issimtu.). also. We believe. " highly In order. given the preference to another explanation. who has. which. comparative adverbs like daugiaus. therefore. It " graviorem'' (nominative may be.). Ed. We have now geresn remaining. in so that. according to Wilson. thus daugiaus from dautjians.* but also the comparative sibilant through geresnis. also. The Sanskrit com* it is measured by weight. " more. 427. * In the Lith. liowever. For an example. p." or " very heavy. to analyze the Lithuanian that geresnis stands for geresniae. e produced by the euphonic influence of a preceding^ 193. hence genitive dative geresniam p. continues not only the nasal. not only "heavier. that here also we may explain geresn as from geryasn (geryans).c^^j4a>^ magyihi (§. and further recall attention to the Zend ^^.fl4 ADJECTIVES. 300. that. The termination m. y or i (§. favour of the Lithuanian. all the cases. has been resolved into tion t —corresponds to the unorganio which we. —for which appears for addi- ya might ])e expected. . we must observe is and the theme geresnio. as according to in Lithuanian Greek and Gothic goodness is measured by depth. 411. that gerSsnis much consequence and gariydns (strong theme) are also . **le8s. but it is not of to us. exceeding in this point the Greek. nearer to is often it through the observation. "the better" (m. clearly ."] gerdm. from gera-s. cases. in Lithuanian. may serve. GERESNIA.

" ut-tama. ut-tama. might be expected. " Remark.. 128. asp. 428. in-iimus. geresnis. resolved into u. —With respect to the Sanskrit gradation- suffixes tara.) af-tuma. thus gerausa-a. in Lithuanian. according us-tema. in the superlative. continues to its use the Sanskrit comparative suffix iyQ. va-raro^t with the unorganic spir. in departure from a. §. however. as often happens. . The emphasis upon the e of geresnis 415 be attibutable may to the original length in the Sanskrit strong theme gariydns. lama.. and in Latin ex-timus. us-tara. and. has dropped. cur in combination with the inseparable preposition hence ut-tara. Zend for ut-tara. the has exercised no euphonic influence.). ut-tama.] contrary to the principle which very generally followed i in the comparative and elsewhere. 255. is is not declinable added ia : hence GERAUSIA.). (p. is [G. in its original place it is. Hence the astonishing accuracy may justly be celebrated with which the Lithuanian. p. corresponding to the Sanskiit Skatura-s. : is. The Lithuanian superlative suffix is only another The nasal. in which it is to be remarked to that also in the §. gerausio.) all is . in the femi. in the Greek with 0- vg of wr-repog. 3ff7. 102.DEGREES OF COMPARISON. Ed. 'the higher. and from t (compare §. or more rare form preferred in Zend y&hs. gen. the Sanskrit. rather say. that they also oc"nr ut . as in EKarepog. the nominative of which. 295.* and to the « which ends the theme in (§. that is to modification of the comparative.' as above think. however. that in probability the u also in Gothic coDJunctives like haitau^ haiJiaityau. geraiisa. 'the highest. which. of nasal origin. I have further to add. recognise the base of utiara. even to the present left which in the latter is transposed. gerausios in which forms. not the but the i . 99. (§. in addition to it may be here further remarked. nine. I I however. which * Corap.

also." of which the latter is an accusative. The Gothic ain-s.^. I. terrogative expression precedes. undetrujinia" This unas could . whose original abundance satisfactory explanation regarding the multiplicity The Sanskrit eka. ** ko'pi). among others. Ed. and even without this api.). "also" (nom." the Old Latin which occurs in the Scipionian epitaphs. perhaps. " Htnavinshali. an instrumental. in order to express ** diminution by one." Unatrinshat. the combination of the demonstrative base S. a surprising resemblance to the Sanskrit Unas. by- which springs from pronouns affords that this number expressed of the 3d person. perhaps. 158. wit Ti ^n^ TT^ c|r3r tiirivrri ?f5iT 'W^ kaihan sa purushaH Partha kan ghatayati hanti kam. is connected with the Sanskrit pro- nominal adverbs ha. tinus shews. is. whose comparative we have recognised in the Greek eKctrepoj. "so. as Bhagavad-Gita. in combination with api. based on the Sanskrit defective pronoun ^a (§. comes the accusative masculine To this pronominal base belongs. theme AINA. signifies whoever". 21. " How can this person. cause one to be slain. which pro- perly " less. p. 72." and is prefixed to the higher numerals as. "also. piy opinion." &c. CABDINAL NUMBERS. masc. according to the principle of the Zend lan- guage is (§.. through which Still transition of the old o into u. (or) slay one ?" The Zend aj».] aSva.o':3: ( 416 ) NUMERALS. to latter is lengthened make up means for the i suppressed. and ivam. also oinos. of which hereafter. oureiner. Sna-m. 308.) whence. with the interrogative base ka. the Indo-European languages.ri^ . if an in11. " this.oa5 [G. which also. and the former. uufJeviyinti. O Partha. 429. In the designation of the prevails number is one great dif- ference among this. in of expressions for one." "only. from which the usual the more modern 4nus may be deduced.

" unicus. with y which has been prefixed according to 255. The Old Sclavonic.): p. idea they are. in the Lithuanian wiena-s. also. and partly.CARDINAL NUMBERS. " the §. as the Gothic ains : AINA. more accurately retained than more anciently. thong more of its X[%j truly. " rw^^^^AiO* once " (Sanskrit thBtT sakrit)." and ber one is halbs. Ed. number one of unity. in —The German has some remarkable expreslies which the number one "one-eyed." which is founded on the (§. or. In all numka for rule expressed by ha and in this syllable I recogcS nise a corruption of the abovementioned Sanskrit €«ir ika. oto^. it is highly probable." "Remark. and has vowel. " one. clearly connected with the Sanskrit ^rf^ ddi. and has the the also preserved the final vowel ena." . "that")." with ^fi^ vedmi. " one." if it oinos). not liave appeared in Latin. as jue/^o has arisen from olvo^ compare has retained the Indian diph- from /xe/^ova. sions. on the other hand. yedin. in the masculine nominative with respect to the e for i compare eKarepo^. as is /zoij. in halts. universal It for the mutiition of consonants 87 ). to mdna. The lost its Greek 'EN is founded. too. final on the demonstrative base ^ff hia. Sclavonic ONO in (nominative on." very its much : concealed as to its form. Gothic. as to haihs.] connected with the Gothic AINA and Sanskrit In ^t\ ina." not to referred to the medial participle in ana. "one-handed. 430. would bo erroneous to refer here to the Zend asw ha of ha-fairet. where be ovt] corresponds to the Sanskrit suflBx if it and (feminine of the masculine is and neuter ana). If ovog. in dice. if it is [G. hanfs." these words the "lame. really has name word the from to idea one might refer this the demonstrative base v^ ana. which also plays a part formation of words." first. On the other hand. as the Zend w h . in like manner. (n. 417 under the form of unu-s. " knowledge. an un organic ie w has been prefixed. "half. " I know. uno-s. icies-te. regard to to the for n S compare.

in both. Stands. then. But if the a of HAIHA is allotted to the numeral. that the a (§. the Sanskrit J." which 6). which only occurs at the end of . .. fidv6r from ^rtlTT chaUvdr. not with the purpose of following out the origin of these cognate words. of the h [G. have found only at the end of compound words. which wanting. preserves only the first like the Gothic. I while the Zend ashi. . 431. is instead of kh. " the six-eyed — has pre- served the last element : the Latin ocus. as /imf from "^^pancha . " as ^^i^A5jtoA5»jiwc3:^ csvas-mhim. though but with one eye." in Sanskrit. These words however.] of the eye. so that of the compounded .418 NUMERALS. for to which the h in Gothic never corresponds.seyAs y^ ksh only the is left. and this for ATHA stands for AHA. in manner. which appears to me more correct. the word eye only the question whether the one-eyed in Latin has also lost the other eye. member of the compound. and that IHA. and if the blind (ccecus). then the h in this word has not introduced any euphonic because. the * Connected. "eye.). but in order to prove the transition of the tenuis into the aspirate simple is . with this designation of "one. contained. divide HAIHA into HA-IHA H-AIHA is thus the latter portion of this compound word compounds portion like assuredly connected with the word ^^ first aksha. Ed. in regard to etymology. This appears to has not preserved one eye left. in HAIHA the diphthong ai is left entirely to the share we must assume p. for the aspiration stands in Gothic are. me of more probable than haihs is that the blind in Gothic should reco- ver his sight. however. with the aid of the first a. 82. however (the primiIf tive base ofoculus). The theme HAIHA or into : one may. so far connected. is ». without exception. is taken from the pronominal base sa (Greek may be the Greek d in i-ir\ovs. is introduced through the euphonic influence. It is that. 316).* Grimm compares haihs with c(Bcus (II. "eye" — which.

then tion of the Sanskrit tnfxST NIFA might pass as a transposi- pdwi. the Sanskrit we went. tt/tttco which correa vowel sponds to the Sanskrit TTT. that a language which had fitly a word for one-footed would If the last have applied it in this passage. and also in of in reduplication." for (Mark ix. " left . lie theme . there is. and ha-Ita may originally signify In it is for p. 6. tnr pat. therefore. "hand. in HA UFA." of the root jtt gam. "to fall. a radical vowel "wffrvmjagmima. Its Let us Gothic. is often rejected.CARDINAL NUMBERS. E E 3 . now examine skein. if ce is way of w riting." Ivans fdluns habandin. but in com- pounds. IlET. . however. foot. however. " lame " — nominative halts — must pass for a numeral. We in must further recall attention the is Latin codes. is contained therein. nominative abbreviated haufs ment: it is so that here. if however. (§. as in Gothic. together. in Latin compounds. disposition of the h to at 4i9 was already to satisfied. the representative of an a of the base the one-handed. in Sanskrit. 87. for the c : must be left to the odes as a derivative the correct from oculus caucus.).) opposed to the Gothic feet.' It is at least certain. as mark of case. which. several appellations of this member are id derived from roots which mean " to go. the notion of unity evidently represented only by the c. as in a two bases and a pronominal remnant. than feet to having two very be cast into hell. and the number one i. In the isolated state no theme vfa could be expected prefixed syllables as. only for irnteTu). would a. element. spring from ca-icus. is. and the Indian ened. was an i which was displaced. ha again HA-LTA. 45." is abbreviated to We shall. accord- "one-footed. is weakis which. in HA-LTA means the we must remember that. The numeral is here the most palpable ele- more difficult to search out the hand. to usual therefore. be compelled to assume that If it has fallen out between the n and /of HA-NFA." with/ ing to §." Now. gm is and in the Greek. "having * two where it is said it is better for thee to enter into life with one foot.

"containing a part". also. and it may "the be remarked. that. framed to express The one part of the whole. "to go. as perly. but in compounds the consonants do not always remain on the same grade which they adopt in the simple word [G. indeed. it appears to me. itself. . Ed.'iilbn appears to the me very prosi two parts. I pass on to explanation of hulb. as in must be It the already explained haihs. it is — the theme HALBA — might into with equal right.] e. have the meaning of "that which remains in clear that halbs enduring. the notion of the possessor supplied. "having one eye. according to the principle of the Sanskrit possessive compounds." is Be and this as it may. Gothic devolves on the reciprocal {sci-na. that from the root limb. signifies " part ": according to a euphonic law for nemo. and the hal^ as part of the wliole. a root NUMERALS. portion. no original and simple for which a peculiar it. must mention it that J. the t of quatuor appears as d in many derivatives and compounds. dimidivs is named after the middle through which the division went.. wliich in Sanskrit. 420 Gothic. HA-LTA may that stand for HA-LITHA comes.g. LITH. to so that syllable the si-k). So. into . other meanings. simple might be ex- pected. ^if/jus. equal to the absent part." with an aspirated /." In the Gothic. Grimm of divides the pronoun selher. in fact. The Zend has the expression m^immj na^mn. divided its two parts . perhaps. this word can have no better meaning something similar. that holb idea." and believes that may. p. the last With respect a verb kiban. among this is probably the secondary meaning. then." scarcely needs remark. The Latin for halb. per- haps. Before . according to origin. 432. laiba is means word half is " remnant. remnant. sis. than. without this ^thereby dissembling its original identity with the t of quatuor and ^Tf^ chatur." as the LIT also. and. and. or may be therein ex- pressed. I which is moveable. be. he betakes himself to silba " to remain. so that the ideas one and a fart.

the origiual. W[^ sdmi may be viewed sama. Ed. among other appellations. in rffxt. " this or that ". "a fourth part.g. become necesp. ^rrf*! halh is termed. " not. sary. of which the part. so that the former expresses the equality. half. ^*5^ sa-kala-s» . that they use word only without inflection at the beginning of comas a pounds. ^fjLi. would be expressed. 433. If it is so. for it is me a very and the ingenious designation for a tion of ff a regular contrac- na.""* regular derivative from suffix i. meaning these "a third part. 9^ia)>^<3Ai^ chathru-shum. and. 421 to ^ nema appears half. xs»'C^^')<^ thri-shva. of the part the two languages only semi-expresses the . In the accusative words. and the simple r^u means only the The Sanskrit designation whole " deserves further to be mentioned." final by a by which the suppression of the vowel. in Zend enters into combinations with numerals with the " part". " aw of rj^iavv." §. —that the latter is not is an abbreviation of the former. would be placed as erepov over and the Sanskrit and German each of supply each other's deficiencies. e..] [G. demonstrative therefore points at the "this or that" portion of the whole excluded by the negative na.'' and ^ ima. Wi " similar. of the Greek ^fiiav^ to it follows from what has been already said from the latter. As to its origin." last member comes "Hfn-o-us- very near to the Greek therefore. " suus^ which. and widening of the initial vowel of the primitive. one equal to the deficient part. As to the relation. " equal. means of "the having one equal equal. sdmi." xs»t^>)(^xi^ chathru-shva. the latter the unity. i. e. If this explanation is well founded. indeed. however. which one recognises both the Latin semi and the Greek and the three languages agree in this this also. In Sanskrit. and the W^tr sdmi against the deficient erepov . then in this designation of halb only one part of the whole. according to are written 9^^t)->^^ ihri-shu-m.CARDINAL NUMBERS. remarkably enough. 42. but the former a derivation and indeed I recognise in av the Sanskrit possessive swa.

but from this the present o\o^ has rejected the middle in Kopos. and for the in a measure furnishes a commentary and guarantee correctness of consists. would be tvaddyaizL Grimm appears. nominative tvai. From tvaddt/6. so that. my view of the " part. dwa. thv6s.. : naturally inflected with dual it tva. ou the other hand. II. also definite." 309. according to the ed. e. as a body with points." and "Sft^ kald. after the analogy ofthi-zS. 231. is opposed to the German halb as applying to one part. The form tvaddy'-i belongs to a theme TVADDfA (as hary'-^ from HARTA). i. " full. we arrive at the Old High German zueio. tva. of ^ sa. which. to have . " horum" from THA. 434. in Gothic. is " with. or tvaize. if regarded in the dual relation — and the last member of a compound Thus the may express each of the three numbers wsfi^ sakala ex- presses that in which the two parts are together." latter. as is the case compared with oPTT^ kumdra-s.287. zuei^o. However. to from the ordinal number. as signifying that which joins the parts and unites them.). Ed. p. aafior from fidvor. superfluous —and by by changing the p into a vowel.— 422 NUMERALS. tvo. perhaps. "a boy. the d— of which one besides.). p.*" is used especially in regard to the moon. but after the [G. The word the latter ^ERir^ salcala though this is scarcely perceptible. and according to the common declension base tv'-S (p. in Sanskrit is dwi-tiya for dwa-tiya. Gothic gives for according to §.* The Sanskrit displays in the dual * One would expect {§. . 374 G. and appears. which. 87. the form tvaddy^ occurs thrcij it is times in the sense of duorum whence clear that the genitive of the TFA was no longer in use in the time of Ulfila. zueiy6. syllallable. as plural. tvds. in Sanskrit.] manner of pronouns: . The theme of the declension which is is. is. according to Isid. okoKo^. or oKeKo^. on account of the form being monosyllabic I In the genitive masculine and neuter should look for tvt-z4. Kovpo£. tva dative tvaim. that in which the two points touch one another. analogy of the definite adjectives ($. and inflects in the want of a dual. terminations the it. 276). which have introduced rejecting both itself into the cardinal number. or oAcoAoj. Transposed into Greek relations of sound sakala-s would give. ac- cusative ivans. word WK^ sam-agra.

from the base OEO.. 435. 69. does not occur. The Zend neuter resolved into «. also. from the theme BA. number are much alpa. might be expected dwe.). due feminine like dhdre (p. as comlatter pounded with a cially as definite pronoun. so from the masculine theme dwa. Lave taken occasion. and dwau is declined like vrikdu (p. Gothic tvaiyi and tvaiaize. also abbreviated zua (comp.). in which I to suppose a cannot agree with him." To is tvai corresponds.. Ed. with which the Old Sclavonic dva c?i"ye is identical. and in which the an- nexed HNA reminds us of the appended pronoun ^ sma. together with tvos also tveihnos. which presupposes a masculine and neuter base TVEIHNA.CA5J)INAL NUMBERS. is 169. p. the it would correspond. which be deduced through aphaeresis from the Sanskrit base vbha. 43. 165. e. from the Old High German forms.)- On this Gothic TVEIHNA based the Old High aocnsative masculine zuene with loss of the h. &c. is y In the Greek and Latin duye. and dwe neuter like ddne (p. with euphonic (§. is appears in Old High German free from this addition. ba. according to §. bai. accu- sative masculine bans. " both.). the notions of . As. has in Prakrit and Pall taken the form mha (comp. 274). by exchanging the dental medials with gutturals. espe- [G. 276).78. In Zend the masculine §. by metathesis. in the nominative plural masculine. and the v the JJo). in Northern. " a little. TVEIUXO. and with the alteration of the h. which is not requisite if to regard like adjectives terminating similarly. Zvo. In the accusative plural feminine is Gothic. feminine neuter answers to the Sanskrit dic^ (§. however.). German nominative and The feminine. 208. Gothic to which. while the 255. . 2S5). gives tvaggya for the Gothic tvaddyS. The Old found. tvai had a plural. 228. and in the nomt- native and accusative zuo. ^. Old Sclavonic oba (nominative and accusative dual). neuter to dative bairn. fern. duo. discussed s into at §." akin to those of the pronouns and as ^^ if it forms. however.] a genitive tvaizS. ^r^alpi{^.). which would make the view necessary. of the number two is aj»^ dva (for dv&. which. '). 423 no difference between the pronominal declension and the ordinary one.

will not here occupy ourselves however.424 old V is. Ed. to be remarked of the Sanskrit nu- meral. "duos digitos longus. It is. p. The adverb more its fully zuiror. but it is clear. and their dual declension. From dwis viated bif comes. to the above dwis. dialects." The Old High zuiro. 436. its The Greek. apocope of the a and vocalization of the perhaps more .g. the V to b. bideps. to Sanskrit and Greek re- the Greek however. hence AsyAj^en^. but not without the intervention of another 5/y. and the others. German qui-falt. that the a of dwa in the beginning of compounds. e. cannot be 8tg. further. this is furnished by the Anglo-Saxon in compound words like ivi-fite. gives in stead hence. in both languages. in this point. which is repre- sented by the native grammarians as the proper theme p.v." like biceps. but in distinguishing the is surpassed by the Latin and the other European sister languages. " twice. 102). weakened (comp. 87. garded as an abbreviation of as is wont to be done.)." belongs. 5/ .*' "duplex" (Grimm HI. with exception of the Old High Ger§.] man. zui-beine. we is. in compounds. according to formation. nipples. The German [G. with the closer explanation which. word. in which 8Ft is inadmissible." S/j: contrast §i. ivi for dvi. require. resolved is into the u. in "having two mothers. to i (compare §. also quiro. The Lithuanian of has du in the nominative masculir*?. "bipes" ivi-finger. ^i^jLrjriap = fs^TlT dwimutri (theme). that they have both dropped the d and have both hardened "with two this abbre6/. NUMERALS." "bicolor. 6. and dwi in the nominative feminine. as the initial member of compounds ivi-hive. from the by Old Northern tvis-var. that ro has arisen from sva v. in the same way. bis . 5ua) answers to the Vedie masculine dwd genders the Greek 208. according to ." The Zend and Latin agree the corruption of this dwi very remarkably. "blpes. also the adverb in "twice.. but the final : vowel of the base not abandoned (§.^C^-'-^'^ hipaitistnna.): hence dwi.). 956. gives zui {=zwi) or qui.

is. languages base in it most is all of the mentioned. is "once". . and Old 310. which signifies period and time. in the Sanskrit. "once" (see Haughton). Sclavonic. tris-var. however. hence ekaidra. §/?. and as the meaning of word "time. 425 and thence to o (§. whence exactly the (§. in the dris. 87. the seventh time-segment of the year. the form again returned into the tris. according to §. . But to return to the Old Northern svar. because no longer felt the time. and more from lately also the o (from of s-var has p. and is. however. it is the comparative twice contained. first As then. Greek. but the an- nexed var corresponds to the Sanskrit substantive vdra. 77.] been dropped. Zend. accord- ing to the explanation which has been given." ^-d- Hence comes the Persian original baVi tliis bdr-i." genitive diwe-s. and varamvdram. also mentioned above. and Septem-ber. German drir. by the genius of the language. from the base DIWA. which we must now divide into time. "thrice.. TMI. Latin. in which.Greek The theme Lithuanian." and with which the English ce in twice. anciently to u. in the Gothic. with sufficient clearness. which precedes the var. HI. the transition of the v into we have b. the s of %F divis.) as in deo (also diu). THRI. we see. according to another law of sound declension of this same in The 47. in trisvar. we ber in may the hence very satisfactorily explain the Latin names of months i. Ed. therefore. in Persian. the idea of which is not surprising. ihrice» is connected. the r. is literally the seven-time. thris-var.). original limits of the Sanskrit.e. which occurs also in thrisvar. in Old High German. the Old Northern svar. "a servant. perfectly regular: only to be remarked the cases cannot be of the Gothic. v). 437. Whence comes. Middle High [G. thrisvar. is certainly identical with Tpi\." and already seen. "repeatedly. I believe that the s. is expressed therein twice. as in the Old High German suffix is first m^riro.CARDINAL NUMBERS. and f^TT iris.

(compare the Pali. accusative. 226. and vocative. $. while the Zend thry-anm or thray-anm comes from the original base. . theme DRIA.] 311. one might moot the question whether * With this extended theme one nominative masculine rfrie in may compare drio. and the accusative thri-ns may be The Sanskrit forms the genitive from an extended theme traya. 1. 233. terminations. nevertheless the feminine numrather ber has an appellation iri. adduced. is irregularly suppressed fif^HV tisras'\ hence for tisaras. 242. from the thri. Zend ^/ASMiJ^ tisaro. peculiar to it. [G. p. in the nominative. The feminine from the base DRIO. presupposes in like manner a masculine and neuter tisris. jpQ> thri.426 NUMERALS. number four would be identical which means " and. . which is so great that it is perhaps the fact. Both languages. Ed. hence traya-n-dm . is attached to the one wished to press still farther into the deep mystery of the appel- lations of numbers. however. and cha prefixed to with the particle. Isidor. and nominative neuter thriy-a Besides these. which is is different tisri. staad according to the more organic than ffHCH rule (comp." and which. 438.) : hence the genitive (§.). The Sanskrit feminine theme tigar is ^IT^T chatasar (chatasri) follows the analogy of the just mentioned . termination. tisras is t In the accusative. of the same sound. but becomes thriy-e. and the similarity between the two forms appears. as it must common . the Old to a High German theme DlilA. that the so number the three contained in the fourth numeral. that f% only a theme of the masculine and neuter its tri. a of which.). the dative ihri-m cited. is and although. that on account of the word being monosyllabic. of which the theme Sanskrit timr {ffm §. If places.). in other end of the word. which belongs with pronominal declension. the i is not iy suppressed before vowel §. it might quite as well be assigned to the feminine. agree in according to this. IV. that tisr-as would be a weakened the form of tasr-as.

chatur hence.CARDINAL NUMBERS. accus. five. This rerbal notion of passing over. four. since. originally be expounded nearly in "it. —that this. plural of the neuter. 439. masc. is. at special least. in Sanskrit. 129.* the pronominal roots remain the them. accus. this. considered as identical with the demonstrative bases of the same sound. mediately to designate this or that number. ace. is further to be added. compound and peculiar ideas as three. that. would be to this. chatudr-as. while this also the form of the nom. that has produced of original words the designation such . and kind forms the whole singular and dual from the weak theme. . the syllables tasa io the 427 might not be any language for theme cha-ta-sar. according irregularly chatur-n-dm for to the analogy of bases terminating with a vowel. also the only pos- one which conld be blended with the names of numbers. and as the appellations of only numbers explain culties resist all comparison with the verbal roots. masc. whatever particular I do not think. : and and thus the pronouns might actually to suffice better than they appear do in the forms of numerals which before us. : noQi. we of speech express the conjecture. &c. as the . sible however. p. But an obscuration of the original clearness of this method. neut. and WWT.. Ed. therefore. that a simple or owing also [G. though equally adapted to denote 312. trans-ffredi" and consider three. and no otlier one. manner it. and neut. a nasal Only " in three might one perhaps think of the Sanskrit root w iri. in means by which will to Without attempting to resolve the individual diffi the that numbers. -MHIT. chatudr as the strong theme. the operation with regard to the this numbers might &c. as the more (than two). The masculine and neuter weakt of the number four have." lie one might perhaps say. chatur-as. voc. adding. which would occur in the course of time. t To §. nom. chatwdr-i IS the gen. chatur-dm.] compound word might undertake imit. that from the strong theme springs voc.

The Lithuanian theme its lows the example of abbreviation interior.). Ed. an chathware . and therefore has as its base. is. fem. \sji6ri-r. chaturndm. genitive »"-' euphonic for KETURIA. 47. As to the European to §.):). ^TTtOT'i^ as. the only In Old Northern the nom. The . for gutturals and hence. p. sing." fidvdr to fidur — like Ihiu-s from ihiva-s. The " original theme fidvdr appears (accus. i}'^)MMi>7(^xi^ chathrusabut in the beginning of compound words it is 206. but in the state of declension extends the theme by an unorganic adduceable case. kefuri. 83). masc. Vend. with a inserted. we find ^'^f^M>/(3M^ chathrusnanm pp.. This j^c/wlr is based on the strong theme '5W1T chatudr. p. to contract " servant. one must labials. sister languages. in Gothic fidvdr. chathru-mdhim. (§. c//. Lithuanian.. and the weak theme . according to §. thivi-s — as in for the Sanskrit to fol- abbreviate chatwdr to chatur. is but extends the theme at the end. S. by trans- w<^M^ chathru (accus. is 7juj(i)doA}^ chathwdr.44. position. however. masc. " of her with four teats " (gen.. Vend. should not be four days. 87. introduced 246. on the other hand. 440.] i. For the Sanskrit genitive (1. Note . gen. p." referable to the Indian it weak theme said that the chatur. 204 and nanm). "forty" Jidur in Jidur-dogs.): is in the compound ^c/udr-f?^M??s. weak theme of the German. KETURIE. c. expect. ^7^^<i^(sxi^ more frequently found according to §. according to hence. by suppressing the its vowel but one.). as cl. the p.alware- priHistanydo. "four months" 248. so that the d.428 is NUMERALS. and the feminine keturios : KETURIA is serves the latter as " theme good" : the masculine keturi /'see analogous with yen. In the Zend the strong theme §. . and aspirates for smooth letters. and last Sclavonic has been brought from an Asiatic original site. <^7au(m5oa3^ chatftwdrd . 251. the masc. added to the r. weakening consists merely e is in the shortening of the and. whence. nom. S. hence dative fidv6ri-m. according 14. for it was as easy for the Gothic. nom. [G.

With regard by which this to the initial t let reference be is made to §. " twice.). itself to p. in quadrupes and other words. just like the Pali its last t has gained to quote. by a compulsory law.'' are formed. Lithuanian penki* Greek -nivre. fWR in tris. 313. chelyri. Gothic * This is the nomioatiTe masculine . "tri ". t accommo- [G. in disadvantageous comparison with the cognate languages. . The adverbial s. " ihrice. V. iEolic iteyi-ne. Zend yAs^^AJo) panchan. With the Zend transposition of the weak theme to chufhru(p. is. re-rrap-eg. without being forced s. But the collective chet- and the ordinal number cheiverty-X. Sanskrit ti^h panchan. §. ed. number three. p. keturi-s. has lost the capability of declension. and the Greek chatndras .ed. rest on the strong -<<r<4K^ ^WT^ chattdrd. and Old Sclavonic gives CHETYBT as . accusative masculine ketuTi-Ht. 14. The Latin has already. Ed. Teo-cra/o-er. vero. dropped the and hence fer and quater appear only as internal raodi6cations of the cardinal numbers. 349) numeral hence nom. That the latter has originally existed one learns from the Zend transposed form in the j»jo>7oaj^ chatl. chetyry-e. which. skrit chatur. in both.). 429 proceed from the base the mas- KETURI. which I am not able so that re-nape^. semi-vowel. and inflects the masculine like the feminine like KOSTI (p." and Zend thrvi.. 94. will scarcely be other than chaffdro (comp. culine and feminine theme.J CARDINAL NUMBERS.rus. just as in the third triy-e. in the Sanby the rule of sound mentioned " four times." for chaturs. also. agrees surprisingly the Latin quadru. 300 414 G. the feioiiiinc is penldo*t and holds the . which refers the weak theme ^THT chatur. 439 G. form by assimilatson of the The Prakrit form. and always supplies the neuter. also. stand in closer agreement with the Indian strong theme '^RTT chahcdr : the Latin guatuor. suppressed §.atthe beginning of compounds. 441 dated with the JEoVic irt'avpeg. The GOSTI. and the feminine form may. represent also the masculine. hence chalur. by which fs^ divh.

" sixty. it is remarkrecog- able that not one of the European languages will at all nise the final nasal. I doubt not comes from NIUNI. "eight" old {aszld. while. as in SHESHTI.ur/(p. 52). so that one has to look upon this nume- a feminine collective. 8. " nine. also. accusative. 139. and in Lithuanian." TI is a derivational suffix. Zend ^-^yAi^^AJo) panchananm (Vend. nnvnv." sibun^ fore without the unorganic i. Old Sclavonic p-t/atyA Zend panchan I is the theme. but "seven. the numbers 6 to 10 inclusive. "six. and rJasan found also in Gothic and Lithuanian. that of the latter. "eight. however. and therefrom nmn. S.) : tive Mis||«lR panchdndm. Moreover. obtains with the appellations of the numbers 6. with singular terminations. beside which the object numbered stands in apposition in like according to §." ahtau. The Greek has frequently preserved an a the same relation to it that keturios does to A:e. By this irregularity in the declension the Sanskrit and Zend prepare us in a measure for complete want of inflection in Greek and Latin. occur also saihs. only the syllable pa represented hy pya ($. in Sclavonic. 9. " twenty. num- bers hence the nominative. numbers "ten. in the multiplied ." comes the genitive niwx-6y which indeed might but which is also have proceeded from a theme NIUN or 348)." and taihun. and the appellations six to ten inclusive. p. is nevertheless. 7. and vocative have the other cases shew plural terminations. the iinorganic addi- must be expected." ahashti. as in FIDVORT. but "six. Ed. and as is also actually for the the case in Old High German in this number. * Occurs only uninflected: tion of an i in the declined theme. and the genders are not dlstint^uished in this and the following G. p. 428). t The theme ral as PYATI. and NIUNA." and corresponds to tbe Sanskrit suffix vihaati. that of saptan. and is inflected like KOSTJ (p. ti "nine.430 NUMERALS The Sanskri^ fimjy* Latin t/uinque. DEVfATI. geni- always singular neuter forms (therefore ^anc/m." only uninflected. n). of which The same we give only the masculine.J . 442. In Gothic." &c. that of ^tf^ ashtan. as. "ten." and Z)£5?4Tf.225. we must is observe. to The same obtains with the appellations for As to the formal relation of PYA TI panchan.

)." seeks to compare t