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**Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Direct Stiffness Method
**

Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

Lesson 27 The Direct Stiffness Method: Beams Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

27. For example. Such a method of identification is adopted in this course for the ease of imposing boundary conditions directly on the structure stiffness matrix. In Fig. nodes are located at the supports.1b. This is done whenever the cross sectional area changes suddenly or if it is required to calculate vertical or rotational displacements at an intermediate point. Derive member stiffness matrix of a beam element. The stiffness matrix of each individual beam element can be written very easily. The beam ABCD is divided into three beam members.1 Introduction. However.Instructional Objectives After reading this chapter the student will be able to 1.1a. in this case. The given continuous beam is divided into three beam elements as shown in Fig. 27. we break the given beam into a number of beam elements.1b. In the case of truss. the stiffness matrix of the entire truss was obtained by assembling the member stiffness matrices of individual members. 27. 27. Kharagpur . However this can be much simplified provided we follow the procedure adopted for trusses. 2. Write the global load-displacement relation for the beam. Let us use lower numbers to denote unknown degrees of freedom (unconstrained degrees of freedom) and higher numbers to denote known (constrained) degrees of freedom. Thus each span is treated as an individual beam.1c.1d. Assemble member stiffness matrices to obtain the global stiffness matrix for a beam. Towards this end. Version 2 CE IIT. one could obtain the global stiffness matrix of a continuous beam from assembling member stiffness matrix of individual beam elements. 27. If the axial deformations are neglected then each node of the beam will have two degrees of freedom: a vertical displacement (corresponding to shear) and a rotation (corresponding to bending moment). 4. This is preferred while solving the problem on a computer. 27. The possible displacement degrees of freedom of the beam are also shown in the figure. a few problems were solved using stiffness method from fundamentals. numbers enclosed in a circle represents beam numbers. In a similar way. Hence. In fact the load displacement relation for the entire structure was derived from fundamentals. In chapter 23. Write down global load vector for the beam problem. This procedure runs into trouble when the structure is large and complex. 3. It is noticed that. The procedure adopted therein is not suitable for computer implementation. there are four nodes and eight degrees of freedom. consider a continuous beam ABCD as shown in Fig. one could number sequentially as shown in Fig. Such a division is shown in Fig. However sometimes it is required to consider a node between support points.

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

there are four possible degrees of freedom for this member and hence the resulting stiffness matrix is of the order 4 × 4 .2 Beam Stiffness Matrix. 27. Kharagpur . Two degrees of freedom (one translation and one rotation) are considered at each end of the member. Displacements are considered as positive in the direction of the coordinate axis. Let L be the length of the member. In this method counterclockwise moments and counterclockwise rotations are taken as positive. Fig.2 shows a prismatic beam of a constant cross section that is fully restrained at ends in local orthogonal co-ordinate system x' y ' z ' . 27. The positive sense of the translation and rotation are also shown in the figure. The elements of the stiffness matrix indicate the forces exerted on Version 2 CE IIT. The beam ends are denoted by nodes j and k . A area of cross section of the member and I zz is the moment of inertia about z ' axis. single headed arrows are used to indicate translational and double headed arrows are used to indicate rotational degrees of freedom.In the above figures. The x' axis coincides with the centroidal axis of the member with the positive sense being defined from j to k . Hence.

the member by the restraints at the ends of the member when unit displacements are imposed at each end of the member.3b.3a. The restraint actions are also shown in the figure. Kharagpur . Let us calculate the forces developed in the above beam member when unit displacement is imposed along each degree of freedom holding all other displacements to zero. 27. This displacement causes both shear and moment in the beam. In Fig. Now impose a unit displacement along y ' axis at j end of the member while holding all other displacements to zero as shown in Fig. the unit rotation in the positive sense is imposed at j end of the beam while holding all other displacements to zero. The restraint actions at ends are calculated referring to tables given in lesson … Version 2 CE IIT. 27. In particular they form the first column of element stiffness matrix. The restraint actions are shown in the figure. By definition they are elements of the member stiffness matrix.

3d. then only rotational degree of freedom Version 2 CE IIT. 27.3c.1) The stiffness matrix is symmetrical. Kharagpur . Similarly in Fig. if the supports are unyielding. The stiffness matrix is partitioned to separate the actions associated with two ends of the member. For continuous beam problem. 27. Hence the member stiffness matrix for the beam member is 1 ⎡ 12 EI z ⎢ L3 ⎢ 6 EI z ⎢ 2 L [k ] = ⎢ 12 EI z ⎢ − ⎢ L3 ⎢ 6 EI z ⎢ 2 ⎣ L 2 6 EI z L2 4 EI z L 6 EI z − L2 2 EI z L − 3 12 EI z L3 6 EI z − L2 12 EI z L3 6 EI z − L2 4 6 EI z L2 2 EI z L 6 EI z − L2 4 EI z L ⎤1 ⎥ ⎥2 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥3 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥4 ⎦ (27.In Fig. unit rotation about z ' axis at end k is imposed and corresponding stiffness coefficients are calculated. unit displacement along y ' axis at end k is imposed and corresponding restraint actions are calculated.

The reduced stiffness matrix will be. 27.2) Instead of imposing unit displacement along y ' at j end of the member in Fig. q31 and q 41 .4 is possible. q 21 .3a. 27. apply a displacement u '1 along y ' at j end of the member as shown in Fig. Kharagpur . Version 2 CE IIT. Let the restraining forces developed be denoted by q11 .5a. holding all other displacements to zero. ⎡ 4 EI z ⎢ L [k ] = ⎢ 2 EI z ⎢ ⎣ L 2 EI z ⎤ L ⎥ 4 EI z ⎥ ⎥ L ⎦ (27. 27.shown in Fig. In such a case the first and the third rows and columns will be deleted.

3) Now. q 2 . ⎡ 12 EI z ⎡ q1 ⎤ ⎢ 3 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ L ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢q ⎥ ⎢ 6 EI z ⎢ 2 ⎥ ⎢ L2 ⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 12 EI z ⎢ q3 ⎥ ⎢− L3 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 6 EI z ⎢ ⎣q 4 ⎥ ⎦ ⎢ 2 ⎣ L 6 EI z L2 4 EI z L 6 EI − 2z L 2 EI z L − 12 EI z L3 6 EI z L2 − 12 EI z L3 − 6 EI z L2 6 EI z ⎤ ⎡ u '1 ⎤ L2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 2 EI z ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ u'2 L ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 6 EI z ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ − 2 ⎢u ' 3 ⎥ L ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ 4 EI z ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣u ' 4 ⎥ ⎦ L ⎦ (27.2.4) This may also be written in compact form as. Let the restraining forces developed at member ends be q1 . q 41 = k 41u '1 (27. {q} = [k ] {u'} (27. Kharagpur . the force displacement relationship can be written as. q31 = k 31u '1 .The forces are equal to. u ' 2 . q11 = k11u '1 . Then by the principle of superposition. q3 and q 4 respectively as shown in Fig.3 and 4 respectively.5) Version 2 CE IIT. give displacements u '1 .5b along respective degrees of freedom. u '3 and u' 4 simultaneously along displacement degrees of freedom 1. 27. q 21 = k 21u '1 .

3 Beam (global) Stiffness Matrix.6a. The formation of structure (beam) stiffness matrix from its member stiffness matrices is explained with help of two span continuous beam shown in Fig. the x . Kharagpur . z and z ' ) are parallel to each other. Note that no loading is shown on the beam. For the case of continuous beam. Hence it is not required to transform member stiffness matrix from local co-ordinate system to global co Version 2 CE IIT. 27. The orthogonal co-ordinate system xyz denotes the global co-ordinate system.27.axes are collinear and other axes ( y and y ' .and x' .

f 3 Local d . The continuous beam is divided into two beam members.6b) The local and the global degrees of freedom are also indicated on the top and side of the element stiffness matrix. They are. The node and member numbering for the possible degrees of freedom are shown in Fig 27. For obtaining the global stiffness matrix. Version 2 CE IIT.o.ordinate system as done in the case of trusses.o. [K ] may be written as. f 1 Local d . 27. For this member there are six possible degrees of freedom.6b. f 1 ⎡ k '11 ⎢k ' [k '] = ⎢ 21 ⎢ k '31 ⎢ ⎣ k ' 41 2 2 k '12 k ' 22 k '32 k ' 42 3 3 k '13 k ' 23 k '33 k ' 43 4 4 k '14 ⎤ k ' 24 ⎥ ⎥ k '34 ⎥ ⎥ k ' 44 ⎦ 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 (27. f 1 4 2 2 5 3 k k k 2 2 2 6 4 13 23 33 [k ] 2 ⎡ k 11 ⎢ 2 k 21 =⎢ 2 ⎢ k 31 ⎢ 2 ⎢ k 41 ⎣ k k k 2 2 2 12 22 32 k 2 42 k 2 43 k 214 ⎤ ⎥ k 2 24 ⎥ k 2 34 ⎥ ⎥ k 2 44 ⎦ ⎥ 1 3 2 4 3 5 4 6 (27. Also in the figure.o. each beam member with its displacement degrees of freedom (in local co ordinate system) is also shown. first assume that all joints are restrained. the member stiffness matrix of element 1 and 2 are the same. Let [K ] denotes the continuous beam stiffness matrix of order 6 × 6 . Kharagpur .o.6b. Global d . Since the continuous beam has the same moment of inertia and span. From Fig. This will help us to place the elements of the element stiffness matrix at the appropriate locations of the global stiffness matrix. The continuous beam has six degrees of freedom and hence the stiffness matrix is of the order 6 × 6 .6a) Global d .

Thus it is required to replace the member loads by equivalent joint loads. 27. Joint loads could be handled very easily as done in case of trusses.Member AB (1) ⎡ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ [K ] = ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ 1 k11 1 k12 1 k13 1 k14 0 0 2 k13 k k k 2 23 2 33 2 43 0 0 2 k14 k k k 2 24 2 34 2 44 k k k 0 0 1 21 1 31 1 41 k k k 0 0 1 22 1 32 1 42 k 1 2 k 33 + k11 k +k 2 k 31 1 43 2 k 41 2 21 1 23 k 1 2 k 34 + k12 k +k 2 k 32 1 44 2 k 42 2 22 1 24 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (27.7 ) ] receives element from both members 1 and 2. Kharagpur . The element of the global stiffness matrix corresponding to global degrees of freedom 3 and 4 [overlapping portion of equation (27. Version 2 CE IIT. Consider a continuous beam ABC as shown in Fig.7) Member BC (2) The 4 × 4 upper left hand section receives contribution from member 1 ( AB ) and 4 × 4 lower right hand section of global stiffness matrix receives contribution from member 2.4 Formation of load vector. 27.7. This is evaluated by invoking the method of superposition. The equivalent joint loads must be evaluated such that the displacements produced by them in the beam should be the same as the displacements produced by the actual loading on the beam. Note that stiffness matrix of each member was developed for end loading only. We have two types of load: member loads and joint loads.

the joints are restrained against displacements and fixed end forces are calculated. 27.8(a). the displacements produced by the joint loads in Fig.8(c) must be equal to the displacement produced by the actual beam in Fig.8(a).The loading on the beam shown in Fig. 27.8(b) and Fig. 27.8(c). 27. In Fig. 27. Thus the loads shown Version 2 CE IIT.8(c). 27. 27. Kharagpur .8(c) these fixed end actions are shown in reverse direction on the actual beam without any load.8(b) is restrained (fixed) against any displacement. Since the beam in Fig. In Fig. 27. is equal to the sum of Fig.

Now expanding equation (27. And {pu }.9) where {P}is the global load vector. the load displacement relationship for the beam can be written as.Let. ⎧ Pb − ⎪ L ⎪ Pab 2 ⎧ p1 ⎫ ⎪ − ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ L2 ⎪ p2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎛ Pa wL ⎞ ⎪ p3 ⎪ ⎪ − ⎜ L + 2 ⎟ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎝ ⎠ ⎨ ⎬=⎨ 2 2 ⎛ ⎪ p 4 ⎪ ⎪− ⎜ wL − Pba ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎜ L2 ⎝ 12 ⎪ p5 ⎪ ⎪ wL ⎞ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ −⎛ + 2P ⎟ ⎜ ⎪ ⎠ ⎭ ⎪ ⎝ 2 ⎩ p6 ⎪ ⎪ 2 wL ⎪ ⎪ 12 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎞⎪ ⎟ ⎟⎪ ⎠ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (27.8(c) are the equivalent joint loads . p 2 . This equation is solved exactly in the similar manner as discussed in the lesson 24. {P} = [K ]{u} (27. {u} is displacement vector and [K ] is the global stiffness matrix. Thus the global load vector is. p1 . p3 .4.10) where {p k } and {u k } denote respectively vector of known forces and known displacements.8) 27.3.in Fig.5 and 6 respectively as shown in Fig.5 Solution of equilibrium equations After establishing the global stiffness matrix and load vector of the beam. 27.2. p 4 . {u u } denote respectively vector of unknown forces and unknown displacements respectively.10). 27. p5 and p 6 be the equivalent joint loads acting on the continuous beam along displacement degrees of freedom 1. In the above equation some joint displacements are known from support conditions. Kharagpur .8(b). Version 2 CE IIT. The above equation may be written as ⎧ ⎪{p k }⎫ ⎪ ⎡[k11 ] ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎪ { } p ⎣[k 21 ] ⎩ u ⎪ ⎭ ⎢ [k12 ]⎤ ⎧ ⎪{u u }⎫ ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎬ [k 22 ]⎥ ⎦⎪ ⎩{u k }⎪ ⎭ (27.

Fig. 27. Thus.{ p k } = [k11 ]{u u } + [k12 ]{u k } { p u } = [k 21 ]{u u } + [k 22 ]{u k } (27.9d.11b) Since {u k } is known. ⎧ R1 ⎫ ⎧ p1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ = − R ⎨ 3⎬ ⎨ p3 ⎬ + [K 21 ]{u u } ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ R5 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ p5 ⎪ ⎭ (27. And support reactions are evaluated from equation (27.12) The reactions may be calculated as follows. 27. The reactions of the beam shown in Fig. R3 and R5 be the reactions along the constrained degrees of freedom as shown in Fig.9a. Kharagpur . Since equivalent joint loads are directly applied at the supports. the unknown joint displacements can be evaluated.11(a). 27.11b). 27. Version 2 CE IIT. Let R1 . after evaluating unknown displacement vector.11a) (27.9c and Fig.9a are equal to the sum of reactions shown in Fig. from equation 27. they also need to be considered while calculating the actual reactions. 27.9b.

Pb + K 14 u 4 + K 16 u 6 L Pa R3 = + K 34 u 4 + K 36 u 6 L wL R5 = + 2 P + K 54 u 4 + K 56 u 6 2 R1 = (27.13c) or Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .13b) (27.13a) (27.From the method of superposition.

the global stiffness matrix is generated.16) In the next lesson few problems are solved to illustrate the method so far discussed.⎧ ⎫ ⎧ R1 ⎫ ⎪ Pb L ⎪ ⎡ K 14 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ R3 ⎬ = ⎨ Pa L ⎬ + ⎢ K 34 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ wl ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ R ⎩ 5 ⎭ ⎪ + 2P⎪ ⎢ ⎣ K 54 ⎩2 ⎭ K 16 ⎤ ⎥⎧ ⎪u 4 ⎫ ⎪ K 36 ⎥ ⎨ ⎬ ⎥⎪ ⎩u 6 ⎪ ⎭ K 56 ⎥ ⎦ (27. Summary In this lesson the beam element stiffness matrix is derived from fundamentals. one could analyse continuous beam by the direct stiffness method. q 4 are calculated as follows. The global load vector is defined. q3 . With this background. q 2 . ⎧ Pb ⎫ q ⎧0⎫ ⎧ 1⎫ ⎪ L ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ Pab ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ q 2 2 ⎪ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ L ⎪ [ ] K + = ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ Pa ⎬ element1 ⎨ ⎪ ⎪0⎪ ⎪q3 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ L ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎩u 4 ⎪ ⎭ ⎪− Pa b ⎪ ⎩q 4 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎩ L ⎭ (27. Assembling member stiffness matrices. For example consider the first element 1.14a) may be written as. Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .14a) Equation (27.14b) Member end actions q1 . The global load-displacemet relation is written for the complete beam structure. ⎧ ⎫ ⎧ R1 ⎫ ⎪ Pb L ⎪ ⎡ K 14 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎨ R3 ⎬ = − ⎨ Pa L ⎬ + ⎢ K 34 ⎪R ⎪ ⎪ wl ⎪ K ⎣ 54 ⎩ 5⎭ + 2P⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎩2 ⎭ K 16 ⎤ ⎧u 4 ⎫ K 36 ⎥ ⎥ ⎨u ⎬ ⎩ 6⎭ K 56 ⎥ ⎦ (27. The procedure to impose boundary conditions on the load-displacement relation is discussed.

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Analysis of Statically
Indeterminate
Structures by the Direct
Stiffness Method

Analysis of Statically

Indeterminate

Structures by the Direct

Stiffness Method

Indeterminate

Structures by the Direct

Stiffness Method

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