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Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management For Energy Delivery

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1) Mr. Sameer Gaikwad (Regional sales manager) 2) Mr. Kamin Dave (Relay Application Engineer) 3) Mr. B.Sundaram (Relay Application Engineer)

1) Mr. Mike O’Dowd (Regional sales manager)

4) 5) 6) 7) 8)

Mr. Jay Gosalia (Vice-President-Engineering & Marketing) Mr. Denis Tierney (Product Manager-F6 & F2 series) Mr. Yakov knobel (Sr. Application Engineer-Protective relaying) Mr. Jun Verzosa (Sr. Application Engineer-Protective relaying) Mr. He fang (Application Engineer-Protective relaying)

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Important considerations when design protection system:
1. Types of fault and abnormal Conditions to be protected against 2. Quantities available for measurement 3. Types of protection available 4. Speed 5. Fault position discrimination 6. Dependability / reliability 7. Security / stability 8. Overlap of protections 9. Phase discrimination / selectivity 10. CT’s and VT’s ratio required 11. Auxiliary supplies 12. Back-up protection 13. Cost 14. Duplication of protection

Types of protection
A - Fuses
For LV Systems, Distribution Feeders and Transformers, VT’s, Auxiliary Supplies

B - Over current and earth fault
Widely used in All Power Systems 1. Non-Directional 2. Directional

C - DIFFERENTIAL
For feeders, Bus-bars, Transformers, Generators etc 1. High Impedance 2. Low Impedance 3. Restricted E/F 4. Biased 5. Pilot Wire

D - Distance
For transmission and sub-transmission lines and distribution feeders, also used as backup protection for transformers and generators without signaling with signaling to provide unit protection e.g.: 1. Time-stepped distance protection 2. Permissive under-reach protection (PUP) 3. Permissive overreach protection (POP) DOBLE ENGINEERING PVT LTD, 305-SAKAR, OLD PADRA ROAD, VADODARA PH: (+91) (265) 555 77 15, FAX: (+91) (265) 235 62 85 DOBLE ENGINEERING COMPANY, WATER TOWN, MA, USA www.doble.com

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4. 5. 6. 7. Unblocking overreach protection (UOP) Blocking overreach protection (BOP) Power swing blocking Phase comparison for transmission lines 8. Directional comparison for transmission lines

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E - Miscellaneous:
Under and over voltage Under and over frequency A special relay for generators, transformers, motors etc. Control relays: auto-reclose, tap change control, etc. 5. tripping and auxiliary relays 1. 2. 3. 4.

Speed
Fast operation: minimizes damage and danger Very fast operation: minimizes system instability discrimination and security can be costly to achieve. Examples: 1. differential protection 2. differential protection with digital signaling 3. distance protection with signaling 4. directional comparison with signaling

Fault position discrimination
Power system divided into protected zones must isolate only the faulty equipment or section

Dependability / reliability
Protection must operate when required to Failure to operate can be extremely damaging and disruptive Faults are rare. Protection must operate even after years of inactivity Improved by use of: 1. Back-up Protection and 2. duplicate Protection

Security / Stability
Protection must not operate when not required to e.g. due to: 1. Load Switching 2. Faults on other parts of the system 3. Recoverable Power Swings

Overlap of protections
1. No blind spots 2. Where possible use overlapping CTs DOBLE ENGINEERING PVT LTD, 305-SAKAR, OLD PADRA ROAD, VADODARA PH: (+91) (265) 555 77 15, FAX: (+91) (265) 235 62 85 DOBLE ENGINEERING COMPANY, WATER TOWN, MA, USA www.doble.com

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Phase discrimination / selectivity
Correct indication of phases involved in the fault Important for Single Phase Tripping and auto-Reclosing applications

Auxiliary supplies
Required for: 1. Tripping circuit breakers 2. Closing circuit breakers 3. Protection and trip relays • AC. auxiliary supplies are only used on LV and MV systems. • DC. auxiliary supplies are more secure than ac supplies. • Separately fused supplies used for each protection. • Duplicate batteries are occasionally provided for extra security. • Modern protection relays need a continuous auxiliary supply. • During operation, they draw a large current which increases due to operation of output elements. Relays are given a rated auxiliary voltage and an operative auxiliary voltage range. The rated value is marked on the relay. Refer to relay documentation for details of operative range. it is important to make sure that the range of voltages which can appear at the relay auxiliary supply terminals is within the operative range. IEC recommended values (IEC 255-6): Rated battery voltages: 12, 24, 48, 60, 11 0, 125, 220, 250, 440 Preferred operative range of relays: 80 to 10% of voltage rated AC. component ripple in the dc supply: <10% of voltage rated

COST
The cost of protection is equivalent to insurance policy against damage to plant, and loss of supply and customer goodwill. Acceptable cost is based on a balance of economics and technical factors. Cost of protection should be balanced against the cost of potential hazards there is an economic limit on what can be spent.

Minimum cost:
Must ensure that all faulty equipment is isolated by protection

Other factors:
1. Speed 2. Security/Stability 3. Sensitivity: Degree of risk in allowing a low level fault to develop into a more severe fault DOBLE ENGINEERING PVT LTD, 305-SAKAR, OLD PADRA ROAD, VADODARA PH: (+91) (265) 555 77 15, FAX: (+91) (265) 235 62 85 DOBLE ENGINEERING COMPANY, WATER TOWN, MA, USA www.doble.com

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4. Reliability

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Total cost should take account of:
1. Relays, schemes and associated panels and panel wiring 2. Setting studies 3. Commissioning 4. CT’s and VT’s 5. Maintenance and repairs to relays 6. Damage repair if protection fails to operate Lost revenue if protection operates unnecessarily

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Cautions for Use: Check List
Check list 1) Is the correct rated voltage applied? 2) Is the applied coil voltage within the allowable continuous voltage limit? 3) Is the ripple in the coil voltage within the allowable level? 4) For voltage applied to a polarized coil, is polarity observed? 5) When hot start is required, is the increase in coil resistance resulting from coil temperature rise taken into account in setting coil voltage? 6) Is the coil voltage free from momentary drop caused by load current? (Special attention for self-holding relays.) 7) Is supply voltage fluctuation taken into account when setting the rated coil voltage? 8) The relay status may become unstable if the coil voltage (current) is gradually increased or decreased. Was the relay tested in a real circuit or with a real load? 1) Is the load rated within the contact ratings? 2) Does the load exceed the contacts minimum switching capacity? 3) Was the relay tested with a real load? A DC load may cause contact lock-up due to large contact transfer. Was the relay tested with a real load? 4) For an inductive load, is a surge absorber used across the contacts? 5) When an inductive load causes heavy arc discharge across the relay contacts, the contacts may be corroded by chemical reaction with nitrogen in the atmosphere. Was the relay tested with a real load? 6) Is the contact switching frequency below the specification? 7) When there are more than two sets of contacts (2T) in a relay, metallic powder shed from one set of contacts may cause a contact failure on the other set (particularly for light loads). Was the relay tested in a real circuit? 8) A delay capacitor used across relay contacts may cause contact welding. Was the relay tested with a real load? 9) For an AC relay, a large contact bounce may cause contact welding. Was the relay tested in a real circuit or with a real load?

Coil Drive Input

Load (Relay contacts)

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Operating Environment

1) Is the ambient temperature in the allowable operating temperature range? 2) Is relative humidity below 85 percent? 3) Is the operating atmosphere free from silicon gas? Depending on the load type, silicon gas may cause a black substance to from on the contacts, leading to contact failure. 4) Is the operating atmosphere free from excessive airborne dust? 5) Is the relay protected from oil and water splashes? 6) Is the relay protected from vibration and impact which may cause poor contact with the socket? 7) Is the relay free from mechanical shocks after it is installed in position? 10) Is insulation coating applied to the relay along with the PC board? Depending on the load type, a black substance may form to cause contact failure. 1) Is the relay subject to freezing or condensation (especially when shipping)? 2) Is the temperature in the allowable temperature range? 3) Is the humidity in the allowable humidity range? 4) Is the storing atmosphere free from excessive airborne dust? 5) Is the relay protected from oil and water splashes? 6) When shipping does vibration and impact exceed the allowable range?

Storage and Transport

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CHAPTER-1 CHAPTER-2

CHAPTER-3 CHAPTER-4 CHAPTER-5

CHAPTER-6

DISTRIBUTION FEEDER PROTECTION POWER SYSTEM MODEL: SHORT CIRCUIT STUDY, O/C & E/F RELAY COORDINATION TRANSFORMER PROTECTION SHUNT CAPACITOR BANK PROTECTION BASIC FUNDAMENTAL OF POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT BASIC FUNDAMENTAL OF HARMONICS

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“MULTIPLICATION OF THIS DOCUMENT IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED”

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TABLE OF CONTENTS: TITLE
Introduction IDMT OC & E/F Prot. DMT & IDMTL characteristics variations & their Applications Functional characteristics Non-directional phase & earth fault OC relays Advantage of Three OC & E/F scheme against two OC & E/F scheme Non-directional IDMTL relay with highest Application in TR feeder Directional Phase & earth fault OC relays Connection for Directional Phase OC relays Directional E/F OC elements Non-directional standby E/F Protection Sensitive E/F Protection using CBCT E/F Protection in 3-phase & 4-wire system 2-O/C & 1-E/F scheme in same parallel feeder operation Unit Protection Circulating Current system Balanced voltage system Summation arrangement Supervision of pilots

Sr.No. 1.1 1.2 1.2.1 1.3 1.4 1.4.1. 1.4.2 1.5 1.5.1 1.5.2 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4

PAGE NUMBER 12 12 13 19 21 22 26 27 31 36 38 43 44 45 46 46 47 48 49

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1.1 INTRODUCTION: Industrial power distribution systems make extensive use of cable feeder for example, between “captive generation bus” or “grid supply bus” to load center / power control center. These feeders are too often radial or sometimes form part of ring main system. While IDMTL OC / E/F protection is mostly used for radial distribution feeders particularly in the tail end, unit type protection such as a pilot wire protection, are also sometimes used on critical feeders. The unit protections are highly selective, sensitive & fast in operation but don’t have any backup capabilities. The IDMTL protections on the contrary, are simple & economical but slower in operation to necessities time co-ordination between adjacent sections for selective tripping. IDMTL relays, however provide excellent backup protection to the downstream system. 1.2 IDMT OVER CURRENT & EARTH FAULT PROTECTION: Application of relay is used as a primary protection as well as backup protection of transformer/motor/capacitor/cable feeders. Primary Protection & Backup Protection: -Æ Primary Protection: Device Closest to the Fault or Main Protection -Æ Backup Protection: Device next in the line, if main protection fails Definition : A device which operates, usually after slight delay, if the normal relay does not operate to trip its circuit breaker -Æ Backup Protection should be operate, if the primary protection fails. -Æ Reason for providing Backup Protection; 1) Failure of Primary Protection due to; -Æ No operation of relay -Æ Incorrect system design -Æ Wrong selection of the relay -Æ Improper installation & maintenance 2) Circuit Breaker failure (Stuck breaker) -ÆMainly Three kinds of back up relays: 1) Relay which trip the same breaker if the main relay fails (Relay back up) 2) Relay which open the next nearest circuit breakers on the same bus in case one of the local breakers fails to open (Breaker back up) 3) Relay which operate from a neighboring station so as to back-up both relays and breakers and their supplies (Remotes Back-up) in case of
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the failure of any local supply including the battery, or in case a circuit breaker or relay fails to function. While at the lower end of the distribution system (particularly at low voltage levels), fuses or series connected trip coils operating on switching devices, are used for short circuit protection, IDMT over phase/earth current relays find wide application at medium voltage levels. As the name implies, IDMTL relays have an inverse time OC characteristic (i.e. the operating time is inversely proportional to the current) and a definite minimum time (DMT) for high multiples of setting current. The time /current curve is usually represented on a logarithmic scale and gives the operating time at different multiples of setting current, for the maximum “Time Multiple Setting” (TMS). The TMS is continuously adjustable giving a range of time/current characteristic. 1.2.1 DMT & IDMTL CHARACTERISTIC VARIATIONS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS: There are different variation of IDMTL characteristics. These are i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) IEC Standard Inverse t = (0.14*TMS)/((PSM)0.02 - 1) IEC Very Inverse t = (13.5*TMS)/((PSM) – 1) IEC Extremely Inverse t = (80*TMS)/((PSM)2 – 1) UK Long Inverse t = (120*TMS)/((PSM) – 1) IEEE Moderately Inverse t = (TD/7)*{((0.0515)/(PSM0.02 – 1)) + 0.114} IEEE Very Inverse t = (TD/7)*{((19.61)/(PSM2 – 1)) + 0.491} IEEE Extremely Inverse t = (TD/7)*{((28.2)/(PSM2 – 1)) + 0.1217} IEEE US C08 Inverse t = (TD/7)*{((5.95)/(PSM2 – 1)) + 0.18} 13

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ix)

US C02 Short Time Inverse t = (TD/7)*{((0.02394)/(PSM0.02 – 1)) + 0.01694}

Where, PSM = Plug setting multiplier = If/Is TMS = Time multiplier setting TD = Time dial setting

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Below figure shows the above characteristics at the maximum time multiplier setting of 1.0

Figure (1A):- IEC60255 CURVES at TMS1.0

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Figure (1B):- IEEE CURVES at TD=7.0

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Definite Time Current Relays (DMT): In radial or loop circuits, where there are several line sections in series, there is no difference in current magnitude between a fault at the end of one section and a fault at the beginning of the next section as shown below;

G1 F1

TR F2 F3

R1 1.0s

R2 0.75s 0.5s 0.2s

Disadvantage: Relay “R1” will operate after 1.0s on “F1”, “F2” & “F3”

Where there are many section in series the tripping time for a fault near the power source may be dangerously high. This is obviously un-desirable because such faults involve large currents and are destructive if not removed quickly. In fact, the disadvantage of time-graded over current relays is the heaviest faults are cleared slowest. Standard Inverse Definite Minimum Time lag (IDMTL) over current relays: It’s a combination curve of Inverse time + Definite minimum time. This relay covers majority of the application in power system Very Inverse Time Current relays: Application of this relay is suitable in cases where there is a substantial reduction of fault current as the distance from the power source increases.

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Extremely Inverse Time Current relays: Application of this relay is suitable in grading with fuses & at the same time to remain inoperative on the switching current. As shown in formula the operating time of relay is inversely proportional to the square of the applied current. Long Inverse Time Current relays: Application of this relay is mainly for over load protection of NGR (Neutral grounding resistor). The IDMTL relays provide both time & current grading to achieve discrimination between successive stage in the distribution system.

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1.3 Functional Characteristics: Three essential characteristics of the protective relaying: 1) Sensitivity 2) Selectivity 3) Speed 1) Sensitivity: -Æ Pickup Setting must be greater than maximum load current in circuit. -Æ Lower the pickup of the relay more will be the sensitivity. -Æ Relay should be able to detect minimum fault current. Example: ----Æ Fault current magnitude = 35kA ----Æ CTR = 3000/1 ----Æ Relay Pickup, set at 75% Relay Operating current on Primary side = (75/100)*(3000) = 2250 Amp Relay Operating current on Secondary side = (75/100)*(1) = 0.75 Amp Sensitivity of relay during a fault = (2250/35000)*100 = 6.42% ----Æ Relay Pickup, set at 100% Relay Operating current on Primary side = (100/100)*(3000) = 3000 Amp Relay Operating current on Secondary side = (100/100)*(1) = 1.0 Amp Sensitivity of relay during a fault = (3000/35000)*100 = 8.57% Thus, lower the setting, higher will be the sensitivity for fault detection. 2) Selectivity: Three methods to achieve the discrimination 1) Discrimination by Time 2) Discrimination by current 3) Discrimination by both Time & current 4) Direction of the fault current 1) Discrimination by Time: • Basically used with definite time relays • Time of operation is independent of current magnitude • Discrimination time between successive relays say 0.3 sec
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EXAMPLE: • For fault on one outgoing feeder3 • Fuse Operates in 0.01s • Next feeder2 relay operates in 0.25s • Next feeder1 relay operates in 0.50s • All upstream relays are graded accordingly DISADVANTAGE: • Operating time of the upstream relays will be very high • The fault closest to the source takes longest time to clear ADVANTAGE: • Defined operating time for variable source operating condition. 2) Discrimination by Current: • Applicable only when substantial difference between the fault current magnitudes exist for the faults on the two ends of the equipment. • The impedance of the equipment shall be substantial that will create the above difference. EXAMPLE: • For the fault on the L.T. side of transformer TR • Fault current = 40,000 A @ 415V = 1509.09 A @ 11kV (Reflected fault on 11kV side) • For the fault on the H.T. side of Transformer TR • Fault current = 13.5 kA @ 11kV • IDMTL unit of Transformer Primary side (11kV) relay should be operate as a backup protection on L.T. fault • HIGHSET unit of Transformer Primary side (11kV) relay should be operate on H.T. fault DISADVANTAGE: • The discrimination is obtained but no backup ensured 3) Discrimination by both Time & Current: • Obtained using Inverse time relays (IDMTL) • IDMTL – Inverse definite minimum time lag • Relay operating time varied by adjusting time dial & current setting

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Relay operating time depends on fault current. Higher fault, less operating time. Operating time inversely proportional to current magnitude Discrimination achieved by both current & time

EXAMPLE: • For a given fault current magnitude, discrimination time is 0.3s for all the successive relays • Pickup value for all the relays set below the fault current level • For the fault on the outgoing feeder-1 • Fault current = 40,000 A @ 415V = 1509.2 A @ 11kV (Reflected fault current on H.T. side) • 250 A fuse operates in 0.01s • Next feeder-2 relay operates in 0.25s on L.T. side fault • Next feeder-3 relay operates in 0.5s on L.T. side fault • Next feeder-4 relay operates in 0.75s on L.T. side fault • For H.T. side of the Transformer TR • Fault current = 13.5 kA @ 11kV • Same Feeder-4 relay operates in 0.25s on H.T. faults ADVANTAGE: • With the same Pickup & Time dial settings, lower Tome of operating for near end faults and higher operating times for near end faults inherently achieved. • In case of the difference in the fault current magnitude along system, IDMTLL relays are superior to the DMT relays • In case of same fault current magnitude along system, desired operating time can be achieved by adjusting pickup & time dial 4) SPEED: • Speed: the clearance time of the fault • Fault clearing time < 100ms, high speed tripping • Necessity of high speed tripping: • Minimizing the damage of the equipment • Increasing stability margin for synchronous machines • Avoiding unwanted tripping of voltage sensitive loads • Speed without sensitivity: Unsatisfactory co-ordination

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• • • • • •

Methods to achieve high speed tripping: Unit protection: 1) Protection provide to trip instantaneously for faults only within unit under protection 2) No co-ordination with external protections Example: Bus differential protection Feeder pilot wire protection Transformer or motor protection Directional protection Restricted earth fault protection

1.4 Mainly Two types of Phase & Earth fault Over current relays: [A] Non-directional Phase & Earth fault Over current relays: Non-directional means when the fault current can flows on both direction through relay & fault current magnitude is more than threshold level of relay, it gives trip command to Circuit breaker.

F1

F2

G1

F1 F2 R1

Where, R1 = Non-directional OC relay F1 = In zone fault F2 = Out zone fault
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During fault “F1” , the fault current can flows through the relay towards the source G1 & fault “F2”, the fault current can flows through the relay away from source G1. So, relay R1 seen the magnitude of fault current which flows in both directions.
1.4.1 Non-directional Three Over current and One Earth Fault Scheme of Protection of a “DY1” & “DY11” Transformer’s feeder If the relays are protecting a transformer feeder, two over current and one earth fault scheme of protection will give inadequate protection. Why two over current & one earth fault scheme of Protection is inadequate? For the “Y-B” fault as shown in figure-2, the directions and magnitudes of fault currents are shown. If “Y-B” fault occurs on the secondary side of a transformer having vector group “DY1”, the magnitude of the current will be Iy, 2Iy & Iy in the R, Y & B lines of primary side respectively. The magnitude of the fault current is maximum in “Y-ph” & in “Y-ph” there is no over current element in this scheme as shown in figure-3. The tripping of the circuit breaker will be delayed because of low current (Iy) flows in “Rph” & “B-ph”. Thus two over current and one earth fault scheme is inadequate protection for this particular case.

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FIGURE:-2

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Figure-3 RECOMMENDATION: IT IS BETTER TO PUT 3-OC & 1-E/F SCHEME INSTEAD OF 2-OC & 1-E/F SCHEME FOR CRITICAL TRANSFORMER WHICH HAVE “DY-1” OR “DY-11” VECTOR GROUP. RECOMMENDED RELAYS FOR 3-OC & 1-E/F SCHEME: -ÆCDG-61 & CDG-11 LOWER COST ELECTROMECHANICAL RELAYS -ÆICM-21 LOWER COST ELECTROMECHANICAL RELAY -ÆSPAJ-141/142 ABB MAKE NUMERICAL RELAYS -Æ7SJ61X SIEMENS MAKE NUMERICAL RELAYS -ÆP124/125/126 ALSTOM MAKE NUMERICAL RELAYS

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1.4.2 Non-directional “IDMT” RELAYS WITH “HIGHSET INSTANTANEOUS OVER CURRENT UNIT” APPLICATION FOR TRANSFORMER PRIMARY FEEDER Particularly on any Transformer primary feeder required Two Over current elements; [A] Inverse definite Minimum time lag (IDMTL) Over current Unit

Application of IDMTL Unit is for Backup Protection of any down stream faults on Secondary side & primary faults on primary side. It is always co-ordinate with IDMTL relay of transformer secondary feeders for through faults or down stream faults only. Here as shown in figure-1, IDMTL unit should be operated as backup protection on fault (F1 & F2).
[B] Highset or Instantaneous Over current Unit

Application of Highset Unit is for Primary protection of fault on primary side. Due to the co-ordination problem, operation of IDMTL unit is very sluggish (take more time) for fault on primary side & it may chance to damage the transformer to sustain the fault current for longer time (Say 400ms or more). That is why the highest unit is required to operate instantaneously (Say 50ms) for primary feeder. Here as shown in figure-4, highest unit should be operated as primary protection on fault (F1).
The setting of an instantaneous over current unit on the primary side of transformer should be little above asymmetrical value of the fault current for three phase fault on the secondary of the transformer & it should be lesser than minimum value of the fault current on the primary side. DOBLE ENGINEERING PVT LTD, 305-SAKAR, OLD PADRA ROAD, VADODARA PH: (+91) (265) 555 77 15, FAX: (+91) (265) 235 62 85 DOBLE ENGINEERING COMPANY, WATER TOWN, MA, USA www.doble.com

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EXAMPLE SETTING OF HIGHSET UNIT: CTR RELAY TYPE PLUG SETTING RANGE OF IDMETL UNIT PLUG SETTING OF IDMTL UNIT PLUG SETTING RANGE OF HIGHSET UNIT FAULT CURRENT (F2) “F2” FAULT CURRENT REFLECTED ON 11Kv = 150 / 1A = CDG-61 = 0.5 – 2.0A = 1.0A = 2.0 – 20A = 40Ka on 415V BUS = 1.509kA

[A] PLUG SETTING MULTIPLIER DURING “F2” FAULT = 1.509 *1000 / 150 PSM = 10.06 [B] PLUG SETTING MULTIPLIER DURING “F1” FAULT = 4.000 *1000 / 150 PSM = 26.66 [C] HIGHSET UNIT SHOULD NOT BE OPERATED ON FAULT “F2”. THEREFORE, HIGHSET SETTING is > PSM “10.06” other wise it will immediately tripped on through fault (F2) & isolate whole system. HIGHSET SETTING is < PSM “26.66”. RECOMMENDED HIGHSET SETTING = 10.06 * 1.3 (Safety margin) = 13A

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Figure-4: Example system diagram RECOMMENDED RELAY (R2) ON PRIMARY SIDE IS “CDG-61 or EQUIVALENT”.

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1.5 Directional Phase & Earth fault Over current relays: Directional Over current relays are combinations of directional & over current units in the same enclosing case. Any combination of directional relay, inverse-time over current relay, and instantaneous over current relay is available for phase- or ground-fault protection. When fault current can flow in both directions through the relay location, it may be necessary to make the response of the relay directional by the introduction of a directional control facility. The facility is provided by use of additional voltage inputs or Polarizing voltage inputs to the relay. Relays that must respond to power are generally used for protecting against conditions other than short circuits. Such relays are connected to be polarized by a voltage of a circuit, and the current connections and the relay characteristics are chosen so that maximum torque in the relay occurs when unity-power-factor load is carried by the circuit. The relay will then pick up for power flowing in one direction through the circuit and will reset for the opposite direction of power flow. If a single-phase circuit is involved, a directional relay is used having maximum torque when the relay current is in phase with the relay voltage. The same relay can be used on a three-phase circuit if the load is sufficiently well balanced; in that event, the polarizing voltage must be in phase with the current in one of the three phases at unity-power-factor load. (For simplicity, the term “phase” will be used frequently where the term “phase conductor” would be more strictly correct.) Such an in-phase voltage will be available if phase voltage is available; otherwise, a connection like that in neutral voltage is not available. Directional Element of OC relay checks the phase angle between current & voltage and threshold magnitude of current. If the phase angle is reverse & fault magnitude crosses it’s threshold then it allows to operation of relay. Application: • Generally the Protection is applied for parallel feeders, cables, lines & transformers in ring main system. • Sometimes it is more helpful while relay co-ordination is not possible through non-directional IDMTL OC relays. • Protection should be able to offered with higher sensitivity while using the directional control. This is not possible with nondirectional OC relays. • Selective tripping
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Protection is not applied for radial distribution system. “F1” FAULT FEED BY “SOURCE – G2

G1

F1

R1

CB

G2

F2 “F2” FAULT FEED BY “SOURCE – G1

R2

Where, R1 = Directional OC relay on Line-1 R2 = Directional OC relay on Line-2 F1 = In zone fault of Line-1 F2 = In zone fault of Line-2
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Here as shown in figure below; relay R1 is connected on line-1 & relay R2 is connected on line-2. Relay “R1” seen fault current at “F1” location & “R2” seen fault current at “F2” location. 1.5.1 CONNECTION FOR DIRECTIONAL OVERCURRENT RELAYS: Two separate Elements: 1) DIRECTIONAL PHASE FAULT OVER CURRENT ELEMENT 2) DIRECTIONAL EARTH FAULT OVER CURRENT ELEMENT 1.5.1a DIRECTIONAL PHASE FAULT OVER CURRENT ELEMENT: RELAY CONNECTIONS: There are mainly three possibilities for a connectional connections of voltage and current inputs & these connections are dependent on the phase angle, at unity system power factor, by which the current and voltage applied to the relay are displaced. 1) 90o RELAY QUADRATURE CONNECTION

“Ia” current & “Vbc” voltage.

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2) 30o RELAY ADJACENT CONNECTION

“Ia” current & “Vac” voltage. 3) 60o RELAY CONNECTION

“Ia” current & “(Vbc+Vac)” voltage. Circuit diagram of most commonly method for phase over current element is 90o quadrature connection as shown below;

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Fig.5 Connections and vector diagram for a directional relay where phase-toneutral voltage is not available. This is the standard connection for Electromechanical, static, digital or numerical relays. Depending on the angle by which the applied voltage is shifted to produce maximum relay sensitivity (the Relay Characteristic Angle, or RCA for numerical relays & MTA for Electromechanical & static relays ) two types are available.

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1) 30o MTA LEAD (Maximum torque angle) or 30o RCA LEAD (Relay characteristic angle)

Fig.6 Vector diagram for the 30° connection (phase A element)

The A phase relay element is supplied with Ia current and Vbc voltage displaced by 30° in an anti-clockwise direction. In this case, the relay maximum sensitivity is produced when the current lags the system phase to neutral voltage by 60°. This connection gives a correct directional tripping zone over the current range of 30° leading to 150° lagging; see Figure 6. The relay sensitivity at unity power factor is 50% of the relay maximum sensitivity and 86.6% at zero power factor lagging. This characteristic is recommended when the relay is used for the protection of plain feeders with the zero sequence source behind the relaying point.

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2) 45o MTA LEAD (Maximum torque angle) or 30o RCA LEAD (Relay characteristic angle)

Fig.7 Vector diagram for the 45° connection (phase A element)

The A phase relay element is supplied with current Ia and voltage Vbc displaced by 45° in an anti-clockwise direction. The relay maximum sensitivity is produced when the current lags the system phase to neutral voltage by 45°. This connection gives a correct directional tripping zone over the current range of 45° leading to 135° lagging. The relay sensitivity at unity power factor is 70.7% of the maximum torque and the same at zero power factor lagging; see Figure 7. This connection is recommended for the protection of transformer feeders or feeders that have a zero sequence source in front of the relay. It is essential in the case of parallel transformers or transformer feeders, in order to ensure correct relay operation for faults beyond the star/delta transformer. This connection should also be used whenever single-phase directional relays are applied to a circuit where a current distribution.
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1.5.2 DIRECTIONAL EARTH FAULT OVER CURRENT ELEMENT: PRINCILAL: The directional earth-fault unit measures the neutral current “I0”, the residual voltage “U0” from open delta PT and the phase angle(pHi) between residual voltage(U0) and neutral current(I0). An earth-fault stage starts if all of the three criteria below are fulfilled at the same time: the residual voltage U0 exceeds the threshold or set level the neutral current I0 exceeds the set value if the phase angle between residual voltage and neutral current falls within the operation area

RELAY CONNECTIONS: The residual current is extracted as shown in Figure 8. Since this current may be derived from any phase, in order to obtain a directional response it is necessary to obtain an appropriate quantity to polarize the relay. Residual voltage: A suitable quantity is the residual voltage of the system. This is the vector sum of the individual phase voltages. If the secondary windings of a three-phase, five limb voltage transformer or three single-phase units are connected in broken delta, the voltage developed across its terminals will be the vector sum of the phase to ground voltages and hence the residual voltage of the system, as illustrated in Figure 8. The primary star point of the VT must be earthed. However, a three-phase, three limb VT is not suitable, as there is no path for the residual magnetic flux.

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Figure 8. Residual voltage connection for Earth fault element by using open delta PT

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RESIDUAL CONNECTION DIAGRAM OF “CDD21” EARTH FAULT UNIT:

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CHARACTERISTIC ANGLES FOR EARTH FAULT UNIT: The characteristic angles are varies from relay to relay but, most commonly are as shown below; Characteristics are available in ELECTROMECHANICAL & STATIC RELAYS (CDD21, 2TJM12 etc) are; 1) 30o MTA LAG or 30o RCA LAG FOR SOLIDLY EARTHED SYSTEM 2) 45o MTA LAG or 45o RCA LAG FOR SOLIDLY EARTHED SYSTEM 3) 12.5o MTA or 14o MTA FOR RESISTIVE EARTHED SYSTEM Characteristics are available in NUMERICAL RELAYS (SPAS348, MICOMP140 etc) are; 1) o to 90 degree RCA LAG.

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2) WATTMETRIC “Io*COS(pHi)” FOR RESISTIVE EARTHED SYSTEM

If the watt-metric component of zero sequence power is detected in the forward direction, it indicates a fault on that feeder, while a power in the reverse direction indicates a fault elsewhere on the system. This method of protection is more popular than the sensitive earth fault method while system is resistive earthed, and can provide greater security against false operation due to spurious CBCT output under non-earth fault conditions. Watt-metric power is calculated in practice using residual quantities instead of zero sequence ones. The resulting values are therefore nine times the zero sequence quantities as the residual values of current and voltage are each three times the corresponding zero sequence values. The equation used is: 3Vo * 3Io * COS(φ- φc) = Vres * Ires * COS(φ -φc) where: Vres = residual voltage Ires = residual current
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Knowledge Is Power Vo = zero sequence voltage Io = zero sequence current φ = angle between Vres and Ires φc = relay characteristic angle setting

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3) VARMETRIC “Io*SIN(pHi)” FOR REACTIVE EARTHED SYSTEM

If the Var-metric component of zero sequence power is detected in the forward direction, it indicates a fault on that feeder, while a power in the reverse direction indicates a fault elsewhere on the system. This method of protection is more popular than the sensitive earth fault method while system is reactive earthed, and can provide greater security against false operation due to spurious CBCT output under non-earth fault conditions. Watt-metric power is calculated in practice using residual quantities instead of zero sequence ones. The resulting values are therefore nine times the zero sequence quantities as the residual values of current and voltage are each three times the corresponding zero sequence values. The equation used is: 3Vo * 3Io * SIN(φ- φc) = Vres * Ires * SIN(φ -φc) where: Vres = residual voltage Ires = residual current Vo = zero sequence voltage Io = zero sequence current φ = angle between Vres and Ires φc = relay characteristic angle setting
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1.6 Non-directional stand by earth fault Protection: • • • • Protection is mainly used for Star-Star transformer or Star side of Delta-Star transformer. Time dial setting of Protection is require to co-ordinate with down stream feeder’s relay. Protection is work as a main protection for small transformer & backup protection of medium & large transformer. CTR is independent of load current.

R-ph Y-ph B-ph

IDMT / DMT E/F

3Iao

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1.7 Sensitive Earth fault protection using Core Balance C.T. (CBCTs): • • Normally applied when the earth fault current magnitude is very very low (10mA or 20mA). Where low infeed earth faults are excepted, requiring a very sensitive earth fault protection, CBCTs can be used in conjunction with sensitive earth fault relay.

The CBCT surrounds all 3-phases (and neutral also in case of 4-core cables) and is excited by the primary residual current. Better sensitivities are achieved due to reduced number of secondary turns since the turns ratio is independent of the load current. Usually static relays with sensitive setting and low ohmic burdens should be used with CBCTs to limit the output voltage requirement in view of low turns ratio. The CBCTs are used on cables which are usually armoured. The earthing of the cable sheath/armour should be such that the earth return current carried by the armour should not offset the earth fault current in the phase conductor as it would adversely affect the sensitivity. Typical earthing arrangement of the sheath/armour at load and source end is shown in figure ANNEXURE:-1

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1.8 Earth Fault Protection in 3-phase 4-wire System: • • • • 3-phase 4-wire means, 3-phase + Neutral. Normally, it is seen in LT (415V) distribution system. 4-CT connections are require because of high unbalanced loads. In 3-phase 4-wire system having substantial single phase unbalanced loads, conventional residually connected earth fault relays using 3-phase CTs cannot provide adequate sensitive against earth faults. This is because the earth fault relay is required to be set above the max. single phase unbalanced current. If a sensitive E/F setting is desirable, independent of the single phase unbalanced loads a 4th C.T. in the neutral becomes necessary as shown in figure below;

R Y B N

E/F

O/C

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1.9 Non-operation of two O/C and one E/F scheme for Parallel Feeder: Here as shown in figure below; two O/C and E/F scheme of protection as applied to a parallel feeder where the phase relays are provided in “R” & “B” phases. Let us consider “R-Y” phase fault as shown in figure below. The instantaneous directions of currents are as shown. For the case of the “R-Y” fault as shown in figure(), the relay in “R-phase” gets practically zero current (if fault current is of the order of the normal load current of feeder) while “Y-phase” carries practically double the fault current. The relay “R” will not operate because of insignificance current flow through its element and since there is no relay element in “Y-phase” this fault is not cleared. Solution: Three O/C & one E/F relay protection scheme take care of this.

IF2 IF2

IF1

IF2

2IF2

IF2 = IF1

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2.0 Pilot wire Unit Protection: There are mainly three types of pilot relaying relays: 1) DC Pilot Wire relay 2) AC Pilot Wire relay 1) DC PILOT WIRE RELAYING SCHEME: Mainly two schemes: 1) Series DC PILOT wire relaying scheme 2) Shunt DC PILOT wire relaying scheme 1) Series DC Pilot Wire Relaying scheme: Here as shown in figure below; Where, D = Poly-phase mho relay (Directional comparison) T = Tripping relay O = N/C contact of Over current fault detector S = Alarm relay for pilot wire open circuit indication • • The supervisory alarm relays (S) are energized through DC circuit. Relay (S) de-energized while pilot wire circuit break & it gives an alarm.

Scheme for Internal Faults: • When the internal fault occurs, the over current fault detector pick up. • Contact “O” will open • De-energized “S” relay • Mho relay contact “D” will close while power flow in to the protected section • Finally Relay “T” will energize to gives a trip command to their circuit breakers

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Scheme for External Faults: • When external fault occurs then one end Mho relay will energize but other end relay will not energize because of power flow direction & it will not gives a trip command to circuit breakers 2) Shunt DC Pilot Wire Relaying Scheme: Here as shown in figure below; Where, D = Poly-phase mho relay (Directional comparison) TC = Tripping relay or trip coil of CB O = N/C contact of Over current fault detector B = Blocking relay PW = Pilot Wire Scheme for External Faults: • External faults or Normal condition (Under load), Main relay (both end) contact “D” will energize because of the power flow directions • Blocking relay “B” will pick up • Now, N/C contact of “B” will open & it blocks the tripping

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Scheme for Internal Faults: • Internal fault condition, one end directional comparison relay will de-energize. • Now, DC supply at relay “B” will break. • Relay “B” contact close & it permits a trip command to circuit breakers. 2) AC Pilot Wire relaying scheme: The principal of unit protection was first established by merz-price. This fundamental differential system have formed the basis of many highly developed protective arrangements for feeders & many plant equipments. Two forms of Pilot differential schemes are available. a) Circulating current system b) Balanced voltage system 2.1 Circulating current system: In this arrangement current transformers of identical ratio & ratings are provided at each end of the protected zone & are interconnected by secondary pilot as shown in figure:2.1 below;

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CABLE

CT1

CT2

PILOT CHANNEL

87 R1

87 R2

Figure:2.1 For external faults, the two end CT’s see equal inflow & out flow producing a circulating current between the CT secondary & Pilots, with no differential current through the relay. For an in zone fault, however, the secondary current have an additive polarity & hence the summated current flows through the relay, causing operation. In practice, unequal saturation of the CTs can cause increased spill current through the relay on external faults, producing instability. The problem is normally overcome by making the relay branch “high impedance” by adding series stabilizing resistor. 2.2 Balanced voltage system: In balanced voltage system, CT secondary outputs are opposed for through fault so that no current flows in series connected relays. An in zone fault however, produce a circulating current, causing operation. The arrangement is shown in figure 2.2
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CABLE

CT1

CT2

PILOT CHANNEL

87 R1

87 R2

Figure: 2.2

In above arrangement, external faults would, in effect, cause a CT open circuit conditions, as no secondary current would flow. To avoid excessive saturation of the core. The core is provided with non-magnetic gaps to absorb the maximum primary m.m.f. the secondary winding therefore would produce an e.m.f. & can
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be regarded a voltage source. The inherent CT error & Pilot capacitance would produce a substantial spill current through the relay on external fault, causing instability. The problem is overcome by providing a through current bias (restraint) which increases the differential pickup, approximately proportional to the through fault current, there by ensuring stability. 2.3 Summation arrangement: In three phase system, independent protection can be provided for each phase using phase by phase comparison of the two end currents. This would however a require a minimum for core pilot adding up to the cost. An alternative is to combine the separate phase current in to a single quantity for comparison over a pair of Pilots. This achieved by using summation current transformer. A typical summation CT is shown in figure 2.3

R-ph

Y-ph

B-ph

N

The interface section of the summation winding (i.e. A-B & B-C) usually have equal number of turns & the neutral end winding (C-N) having greater number of turns. The above summation arrangement would produce output for balanced as well as un balanced faults. However, the relay offers a different sensitive for different types of faults depending upon the phases involved. In the summation arrangement illustrated, the associated relay will have highest sensitive for A-C & A-N faults.
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Knowledge Is Power 2.4 Supervision of Pilots:

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The pilot circuits are subjected to various hazards, which can cause open circuit or short circuit of the pilot cores. While overhead pilots are vulnerable to storms, buried pilots may be damaged during excavation. The pilot failure may lead to either mal operation or non-operation of the protection and hence continuous supervision of the healthiness of the pilots becomes necessary. This is achieved by injecting a small d.c. current through the pilot from one end and monitoring its presence at the other end by energizing an auxiliary relay. The auxiliary relay resets in the event of any discrepancy in the pilots and sounds an alarm. A small time delay is introduced to prevent transient operation due to primary system faults causing momentary dip in the auxiliary supply. Over current check feature may also be incorporated to prevent tripping on load in the event of a pilot open circuit condition as it may lead to instability. A typical pilot supervision arrangement is shown in figure-ANAXURE-2. The supervision arrangement detects any discrepancy in the pilot including open circuit, short circuit & cross pilot conditions.

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“MULTIPLICATION OF THIS DOCUMENT IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED”

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TABLE OF CONTENTS: TITLE
Introduction Parameter Conversions Two winding Transformer Parameter conversions 3-winding Transformer Parameter conversions Transmission line Parameter conversions Motor Parameter conversions Series Reactor Parameter conversions Shunt Capacitor Parameter conversions Shunt Reactor Parameter conversions Series Capacitor Parameter conversions Generator Parameter conversions Perunit & Percentage Qty Basic consideration for short circuit study Asymmetrical fault current 3-ph SC on unloaded synchronous m/c Symmetrical fault current Effect of low zero seq. impedance of generators ANSI/IEEE calculations Importance of X/R ratio PU method for SC calculations Ohmic method for SC calculations

Sr.No. 3.1 3.2 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.2.4 3.2.5 3.2.6 3.2.7 3.2.8 3.2.9 3.2.10 3.3 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3 3.3.4 3.3.5 3.3.6 3.3.7.1 3.3.7.2

PAGE NUMBER 55 55 58 62 66 67 70 70 71 71 71 76 78 79 81 84 88 94 102 108 125

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TITLE
Point-to-Point method for SC calculations 1-ph SC current for 1-ph TR system Introduction relay coordination study Functional characteristics Criterias for Pickup setting & time dial Data required for O/C & E/F relay co-ordination Example for Phase fault relay setting Example calculation for DMT relays

Sr.No. 3.3.7.3 3.3.7.4 3.3.7.5 3.3.7.6 3.3.7.7 3.3.7.8 3.3.7.9 3.3.3.10

PAGE NUMBER 134 139 149 154 157 159 162 170

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3.1 INTRODUCTION:

Successful Operation of a power system depends largely on the engineer’s ability to provide reliable and uninterrupted service to loads. The reliability of the power supply implies much more than merely being available. Ideally, the loads must be fed at constant voltage and frequency at all times. In practical terms this means that consumer’s equipment may operate satisfactorily. For example, a drop in voltage of 10-15% or a reduction of the system frequency of only a few hertz may lead to stalling of the motor loads on the system. As electrical utilities have grown in size, and the number of interconnections has increased, planning for future expansion has become increasingly complex. The increasing cost of additions and modifications has made it imperative that utilities consider a range of design options, and perform detailed studies of the effects on the system of each option, based on the number of assumptions: like normal and abnormal operating conditions, peak and off-peak loadings, and present and future years of handled. Future transmission and distribution systems will be far more complex than those of today. This means that the power system planner’s task will be more complex. If the systems being planned are to be optional with respect to construction cost, performance, and operating efficiency, better planning tools are required.
3.2 Parameter Conversion:

Power transmission lines are operated at voltage levels where kilovolts is the most convenient unit to express voltage. The amount of power transmitted is in terms of kilowatts or megawatts and kilo amperes or mega amperes. However the quantities, current and Ohms are often expressed as a percent or per unit of base value. The per unit value of any quantity is defined as the ratio of the quantity to its base value expressed as a decimal. Both the per unit (p.u.) and percent methods of calculation are simpler than the use of actual amperes, Ohms, and voltage values. The per unit method has an advantage over the percent method because the product of two quantities expressed in per unit is expressed in per unit itself, but the product of two quantities expressed in percent must be divided by 100 to obtain the result in percent. The per unit value of a line to neutral voltage on the line to neutral voltage base is equal to the per unit value of the line to line voltage at the same point on the line to line voltage base if the system is balanced. Similarly, the three-phase kVA is three times the kVA/phase and the three-phase kVA base is three times the
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base kVA per phase. Therefore the per unit value of the three-phase kVA on the three-phase kVA base is identical to the per unit value of the kVA per phase on the kVA per phase base. Base impedance and base current value can be computed directly from threephase values of base kilovolts and base kilo-amperes.
Base Current = {Base kVA (3-ph) / 1.7325*Base kV} Where, Base kV is the line-to-line voltage. Base Z = { (Base kV / 1.7325)2*1000 / (Base kVA) / 1.7325 } Base Z = { (Base kV)2 / (Base MVA) }

Sometimes the per unit impedance of a component of a system is expressed on a base other than the one selected as base for the part of the system in which the component is located. Since all impedances in any one part of a system must be expressed on the same impedance base when making computations, it is necessary to have a means of converting per unit impedances from one base to another. The per unit impedance is given by following equation;
Per unit Z = { ( Actual Z in Ohms*Base MVA ) / ( Base kV )2 }

Which shows that per unit impedance is directly proportional to “base MVA” and inversely proportional to the square of the base voltage. Therefore, to change from per unit impedance on a given base to per unit impedance on a new base, the following equation is used,
Per unit Znew = ( Per unit Zgiven )*( Base kVgiven / Base kVnew )2*( Base MVAnew / Base MKVAgiven )

The Ohmic values of resistance and leakage reactance of a transformer depends on whether they are measured from the LT side or HT side of a transformer. If they are expressed in “p.u.”, the base MVA rating of the transformer which is same as referred from HT side or LT side. The base kV is selected as the voltage of LT winding, if the ohmic values are referring to LT side, else it is selected as voltage of HT winding, if the ohmic values are referring to HT side of transformer. Whereas the “PU” values remains same regardless of whether they are determined from HT side or LT side.

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The advantages of the “PU” method are; • The “PU” impedance of machines of same type and widely different ratings usually lie within a narrow range, although the ohmic values differ for machines of different ratings. For this reason, when the impedance is not known definitely, it is generally possible to select from the tabulated values a “PU” impedance which will be reasonably correct. • When impedance in ohms is specified in an equivalent circuit, each impedance must be referred to the same circuit by multiplying it by the square of the ratio of rated voltages of the two sides of a transformer. The “PU” impedance, once expressed in proper base, remains same either referring from HT side or LT side. The way in which transformers are connected in three phase circuits does not affect the “PU” impedances of the equivalent circuit, although the transformer connection does determine the relation between the voltage bases on the two sides of the transformer.

3.2.1 Two winding Transformer Parameter Conversions:

Manufacturers usually specify the impedance of a piece of apparatus in percent or per on the base of the nameplate rating. It is converted to common base using MVA rating and the voltage rating of transformer. Sometimes the voltage ratings of the transformer does not match exactly with the base voltage on their respective sides, in case the transformer parameters are converted to the base values of voltage and MVA. To begin with, assuming that transformer tap is on primary side ( HV side ), the given impedance is converted to common base as;
Znewpu = { (Zoldpu)*(MVAnew / MVAold)*(Rated kVsec / Base kVsec)2 }

If the transformer parameters are given in actual units (ohms). Then the values are converted to common base as; Zpu = (Zohms)*(Base MVA / BasekV2) Base kV is the voltage referred to the side at which measurements are made. The transformer R/X ratio is used to separate the transformer resistance and reactance values from the impedance. If number of units are in parallel then the effective equivalent impedance is computed by dividing the impedance by units. X = [ {√Z2 / { 1 + ( R / X )2 }} / Units ] R = (X)*(R / X)
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Knowledge Is Power The minimum tap value is computed as;

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Tapmin(pu) = [ { VTap min kV / Base kVpri }*{ Base kVsec / Rated kVsec } ]
The maximum tap value is computed as;

Tapmax(pu) = [ { VTap max kV / Base kVpri }*{ Base kVsec / Rated kVsec } ]
The tap step value (pu) is computed as;

Tap step(pu) = [ { VTap max kV – VTap min kV } / { NTap max – NTap min } ]
Nominal tap value (pu) is computed as;
Tap nom = [ { VTap min kV + { ( NTap nom – NTap min )*Tap step kV } } ]*[ Base kV sec / Rated kV sec ]

The vector groups shows the connection of phases of two windings of a transformer and the numerical index for the phase displacement of the vectors of the two star-voltages. The numerical index shows by what multiples of 30o the low voltage vector lags ( anti-clockwise rotation of vectors ) behind the high voltage vector with the corresponding terminal designation. For example the groups are interpreted as;

Vector Group Dy5 – High voltage in Delta and low voltage in star connection. Vector Group Yz11 – High voltage in Star and low voltage in zigzag connection.

The transformer vector group information is required for 3-phase load flow and unbalanced fault studies. The different vector groups used are;
• • • • Star with neutral isolated. Star with neutral grounded. Star with neutral impedance. Delta connected.

The zero sequence impedances differ greatly depending on the type of connection and the construction of the transformers. Conductors connected to transformer windings with delta connection or with star with an insulated neutral point cannot carry a zero sequence current. The zero sequence impedance is therefore infinite. When the neutral point of star winding is earthed or connected, zero sequence can flow in the associated system. If the transformer is star
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connected on primary side and delta connected on secondary side, then shunt impedance will exists from primary node to ground and vice-versa. The neutral impedance given in ohms, converted to common base as; Base Zpri = ( Base kVpri2 / Base MVA ) in Ohm Base Zsec = ( Base kVsec2 / Base MVA ) in Ohm Rpu neutral pri = ( ROhm neutral pri / Base Z pri ) Rpu neutral sec = ( ROhms neutral sec / Base Zsec )
EXAMPLE: Rated MVA Primary Voltage Secondary Voltage Positive sequence impedance Zero sequence impedance TAPmin TAPmax TAPnormal Minimum TAP Voltage Maximum TAP Voltage Neutral Rpri = Rsec Connection = 315 = 420 kV = 240 kV = 0.125PU or 12.5% = 0.100PU or 10% = 1.0 = 17.0 = 12.0 = 360 kV = 440 kV = 2.0 Ohm. = YnYn0

The transformer is connected to a bus on HT side with voltage 400 kV and on LT side is connected to a bus with voltage 220 kV. Hence primary base voltage = 400 kV and the secondary base voltage is 220 kV. The common base MVA = 100 Zpositive seq. in PU = (%Z / 100)*(Base MVA / Rated MVA)*(Rated kV / Base kV)2 = (12.5 / 100)*(100 / 315)*(240/220)2 = 0.047225 PU
= [ {√Z2 / { 1 + ( R / X )2 }} / Units ] = [ {√(0.047225)2 } / { 1 + (0.05)2 } ] = 0.047166 PU
= (0.04766 * 0.05) = 0.002358 PU

Xpositive seq. in PU

Rpositive seq. in PU
Zzero seq. in PU

= (%Z / 100)*(Base MVA / Rated MVA)*(Rated kV / Base kV)2 = (10 / 100)*(100 / 315)*(240/220)2

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= 0.0377804 PU

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Xzero seq. in PU

= [ {√Z2 / { 1 + ( R / X )2 }} / Units ] = [ {√(0.0377804)2 } / { 1 + (0.05)2 } ] = 0.0377332 PU
= (0.0377332 * 0.05) = 0.00188666 PU

Rzero seq. in PU

Tapmin(pu) = [ { VTap min kV / Base kVpri }*{ Base kVsec / Rated kVsec } ] = [ { 360 / 400 }*{ 220 / 240 } ] = 0.82500 PU Tapmax(pu) = [ { VTap max kV / Base kVpri }*{ Base kVsec / Rated kVsec } ] = [ { 440 / 400 }*{ 220 / 240 } ] = 1.00833 PU Tap step(pu) = [ { VTap max kV – VTap min kV } / { NTap max – NTap min } ] = [ { 440 – 360 } / { (17 – 1)*400 } ] = 0.0125 PU
Tap nom = [ { VTap min kV + { ( NTap nom – NTap min )*Tap step kV } } ]*[ Base kV sec / Rated kV sec ] = [ { 360 + { (12 – 1)*5 } } / 400 ]*[ 220 / 240 ] = 0.95104 PU

The neutral impedance values are computed as;

Base Zpri = ( Base kVpri2 / Base MVA ) in Ohm = ( 400 )2 / 100 = 1600 Ohm. Base Zsec = ( Base kVsec2 / Base MVA ) in Ohm = ( 220 )2 / 100 = 484 Ohm. Rpu neutral pri = ( ROhm neutral pri / Base Z pri ) = ( 2 / 1600 ) = 0.00125 PU Rpu neutral sec = ( ROhms neutral sec / Base Zsec ) = ( 2 / 484 ) = 0.004132 PU
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3.2.2 Three Winding Transformer Parameter Conversions: The MVA rating of a two-winding transformer is same on primary and secondary side, whereas all the three windings of a three winding transformer may have different MVA ratings. The impedance of each winding of a three-winding transformer may be given in percent or PU based on the rating of its own winding. The transformer impedance values, which are measured by short circuit test, are
• • Impedance measured in primary with secondary short circuited and tertiary open (Z ps). Impedance measured in primary with tertiary short circuited and secondary open (Z pt). Impedance measured in secondary with tertiary short circuited and primary open (Z st).

If the three impedances measured in Ohms are referred to the voltage of one of the windings, the impedance of each separate winding referred to that same winding are related to the measured impedances as; Z ps = Zp + Zs Z pt = Zp + Zt Zst = Zs + Zt
Where Zp, Zs, and Zt are the impedance of primary, secondary and tertiary windings referred to primary circuit. If Zps, Zpt, Zst are the measured impedances refer to primary circuit, the real and reactive parts are separated as;

X ps = [ { √Z ps2 } / {( R / X ps )2 + 1} ] / Units X pt = [ { √Z pt2 } / {( R / X pt )2 + 1} ] / Units X st = [ { √Z st2 } / {( R / X st )2 + 1} ] / Units
Solving the above impedance simultaneous equations for Rp, Rs, & Rt, Xp, Xs & Xt yields,

Rp = [ R ps + R pt – R st ] / 2

Rs = [ R ps + R st – R pt ] / 2
Rt = [ R pt + R st – R ps ] / 2 Xp = [ X ps + X pt – X st ] / 2
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Xs = [ X ps + X st – X pt ] / 2 Xt = [ X pt + X st – X ps ] / 2
The impedance of the three windings are connected in star (Y) to represent the single phase equivalent circuit of the three winding transformer. Since the ohmic values of the impedances must be referred to the same voltage, it follows that conversion to PU requires the same MVA base for all the three circuits and requires voltage bases in three circuits of the transformer. The neutral impedances, if present is converted to per unit values on common base as;

Base Z pri = ( Base kV pri )2 / Base MVA Base Z sec = ( Base kV sec )2 / Base MVA Base Z ter = ( Base kV ter )2 / Base MVA Rpu neutral pri = Rohm neural pri / Base Z pri Rpu neutral sec = Rohm neutral sec / Base Z sec Rpu neutral ter = Rohm neutral ter / Base Z ter
EXAMPLE: Rated Primary MVA Primary Voltage Rated Secondary MVA Secondary Voltage Rated tertiary MVA Tertiary Voltage Zps RX-Ratio-ps Zpt RX-Ratio-pt Zst RX-Ratio-st TAPmin TAPmax TAPnormal Minimum TAP Voltage Maximum TAP Voltage Rpri = Rsec = Rtertiary Connection = 15 = 66 kV = 10 = 13.2 kV = 5.0 = 2.3 kV = 7% on 15 MVA, 66 kV = 0.05 = 9% on 15 MVA, 66 kV = 0.05 = 8% on 15 MVA, 66 kV = 0.05 = 1.0 = 17.0 = 12.0 = 59.4 kV = 72.6 kV = 2.0 Ohm. = YYnYn0

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Assuming the common base values as 15MVA and 66 kV. First step is to convert all the impedance to common base on primary side. Zps & Zpt are measured at primary ratings, need no conversion while the Zst measured at different ratings it is converted to common base values as;
Zst in PU = (%Z / 100)*(Base MVA / Rated MVA)*(Rated kV / Base kV)2 = (8.0 / 100)*(15 / 10)*(13.2 / 13.2 )2 = 0.12 PU = (%Z / 100)*(Base MVA / Rated MVA)*(Rated kV / Base kV)2 = (7.0 / 100)*(15 / 15)*(13.2 / 13.2 )2 = 0.07 PU = (%Z / 100)*(Base MVA / Rated MVA)*(Rated kV / Base kV)2 = (9.0 / 100)*(15 / 15)*(13.2 / 13.2 )2 = 0.09 PU

Zps in PU

Zpt in PU

X ps = [ { √Z ps2 } / {( R / X ps )2 + 1} ] / Units = [ { √(0.07)2 } / {( 0.05 )2 + 1} ] / Units = 0.06991 PU X pt = [ { √Z pt2 } / {( R / X pt )2 + 1} ] / Units = [ { √(0.09)2 } / {(0.05)2 + 1} ] / Units = 0.0898877 PU X st = [ { √Z st2 } / {( R / X st )2 + 1} ] / Units = [ { √(0.12)2 } / {(0.05)2 + 1} ] / Units = 0.1198503 PU Rst = Xst * RXRatio-st = 0.1198503 * 0.05 = 0.0059925 PU Rps = Xps * RXRatio-ps = 0.06991 * 0.05 = 0.0034955 PU Rpt = Xpt * RXRatio-pt = 0.0898877 * 0.05 = 0.00449438 PU Rp = [ R ps + R pt – R st ] / 2
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Knowledge Is Power = [ 0.0034955 + 0.00449438 – 0.0059925 ] / 2 = 0.00099865 PU

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Rs = [ R ps + R st – R pt ] / 2
= [ 0.0034955 + 0.0059925 – 0.00449438 ] / 2 = 0.00249685 PU Rt = [ R pt + R st – R ps ] / 2 = [ 0.00449438 + 0.0059925 – 0.0034955 ] / 2 = 0.00349565 PU Xp = [ X ps + X pt – X st ] / 2 = [ 0.06991 + 0.0898877 – 0.1198503 ] / 2 = 0.0199737 PU Xs = [ X ps + X st – X pt ] / 2 = [ 0.06991 + 0.1198503 – 0.0898877 ] / 2 = 0.0499363 PU Xt = [ X pt + X st – X ps ] / 2 = [ 0.0898877 + 0.1198503 – 0.06991 ] / 2 = 0.069914 PU Tapmin(pu) = [ { VTap min kV / Base kVpri }*{ Base kVsec / Rated kVsec } ] = [ { 59.4 / 66 }*{ 13.2 / 13.2 } ] = 0.9 PU Tapmax(pu) = [ { VTap max kV / Base kVpri }*{ Base kVsec / Rated kVsec } ] = [ { 72.6 / 66 }*{ 13.2 / 13.2 } ] = 1.10 PU Tap step(pu) = [ { VTap max kV – VTap min kV } / { NTap max – NTap min } ] = [ { 72.6 – 59.4 } / { (17 – 1)*66 } ] = 0.0125 PU
Tap nom = [ { VTap min kV + { ( NTap nom – NTap min )*Tap step kV } } ]*[ Base kV sec / Rated kV sec ] = [ { 59.4 + { (12 – 1)*0.825 } } / 66 ]*[ 13.2 / 13.2 ] = 1.0375 PU

The neutral impedance values are computed as; DOBLE ENGINEERING PVT LTD, 305-SAKAR, OLD PADRA ROAD, VADODARA PH: (+91) (265) 555 77 15, FAX: (+91) (265) 235 62 85 DOBLE ENGINEERING COMPANY, WATER TOWN, MA, USA www.doble.com

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Knowledge Is Power Base Zpri = ( Base kVpri2 / Base MVA ) in Ohm = ( 66 )2 / 15 = 290.4 Ohm.

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Base Zsec = ( Base kVsec2 / Base MVA ) in Ohm = ( 13.2 )2 / 15 = 11.616 Ohm. Base Zter = ( Base kVter2 / Base MVA ) in Ohm = ( 2.3 )2 / 15 = 0.35267 Ohm. Rpu neutral pri = ( ROhm neutral pri / Base Z pri ) = ( 2 / 290.4 ) = 0.00688 PU Rpu neutral sec = ( ROhms neutral sec / Base Zsec ) = ( 2 / 11.616 ) = 0.172176 PU Rpu neutral ter = ( ROhms neutral ter / Base Zter ) = ( 2 / 0.35267 ) = 5.671 PU 3.2.3 Transmission Line Parameter Conversions: For a transmission line, line resistance, reactance and the susceptance of the line are given in actual units (Ohms) per km length of the line per circuit. Zero sequence impedance denotes the impedance of zero sequence system of a three phase line per phase in which equal and in-phase currents are flowing through the three phase conductors of the system. The operative zero sequence impedance is affected by, among other things, the electrical conductivity of the earth and the presence of earth wires. The same formula are used for both positive and zero sequence parameter conversion. The line positive sequence parameters are converted to per unit on common base values as; Base Z = ( Base kV )2 / Base MVA R1pu = ( R1ohm / Base Z )*( Length / Circuits ) X1pu = ( X1ohm / Base Z )*( Length / Circuits ) B1pu = ( B1mho * Base Z )*( Length * Circuits )
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EXAMPLE: Number of Circuits = 1.0 Length of Line = 181km. Positive sequence R = 0.0288864 Ohm/km. Zero sequence R = 0.072216 Ohm/km. Positive sequence X = 0.32704 Ohm/km. Zero sequence X = 0.8176 Ohm/km. Positive sequence B = 1.78087E-06 mho/km. Zero sequence B = 1.52374E-06 mho/km. Common base MVA = 100 and Base voltage = 400.0 kV.

Base Z = ( Base kV )2 / Base MVA = ( 400 )2 / 100 = 1600 Ohm. R1pos. pu = ( R1ohm / Base Z )*( Length / Circuits ) = ( 0.0288864 / 1600 )*(181 / 1) = 0.003267 PU X1pos.pu = ( X1ohm / Base Z )*( Length / Circuits ) = ( 0.32704 / 1600 )*(181 / 1) = 0.03699 PU B1pos.pu = ( B1mho * Base Z )*( Length * Circuits ) = (1.78087E-06 * 1600)*(181*1) = 0.51574 PU R1zero. pu = ( R0ohm / Base Z )*( Length / Circuits ) = ( 0.072216 / 1600 )*(181 / 1) = 0.008169 PU X1zero.pu = ( X0ohm / Base Z )*( Length / Circuits ) = ( 0.8176 / 1600 )*(181 / 1) = 0.09249 PU B1zero.pu = ( B0mho * Base Z )*( Length * Circuits ) = (1.52374E-06 * 1600)*(181*1) = 0.44127 PU 3.2.4 Motor Parameter Conversions: The induction motor parameters are given in PU on its own rating. The motor is represented as a shunt impedance between node to which motor is connected and ground. The shunt impedance value is obtained after simplifying the exact
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equivalent circuit as shown in fig below. The motor parameters are converted to common base by using formula. Rmotor = Rold ( Base kV old / Base kV new )2*( MVA new / MVA old ) Rmotor = Rmotor / Units Xmotor = Xold ( Base kV old / Base kV new )2*(MVA new / MVA old ) Xmotor = Xmotor / Units By using above formula, stator resistance, rotor resistance, stator reactance, rotor reactance and magnetizing reactance are converted to common base. On simplifying the equivalent circuit, we obtain equations for the equivalent resistance and reactance as denoted below;
Rmotorq = Rstator + [ { ( Slip * Rrotor * ( Xmag )2 ) } / { Rrotor2 + ( Slip2 ( Xrotor + Xmag )2 } ]
Xmotorq = Xstator + [ ( Rrotor *Xmag ) + ( Slip *Xrotor*Xmag ( Xrotor + Xmag ) ) ] / [ Rrotor + ( Slip ( Xrotor + Xmag ) ) ]
2 2 2 2 2

Type of motor winding connection is used for zero sequence network calculations only. The motor neutral impedance, value is converted to common base and 3times of it is added to the zero sequence impedance value of the motor to get the effective zero sequence impedance.
EXAMPLE: Number of Units = 1.0 Voltage Rating = 2.3 kV Rating = 1.6785 MW, 0.8 P.F. Stator resistance = 0.029 Ohm. Stator reactance = 0.226 Ohm. Rotor resistance = 0.022 Ohm. Rotor reactance = 0.226 Ohm. Magnetizing reactance = 13.04 Ohm. Winding type = Delta. Common base = 100 MVA and base volt = 2.3 kV. Motor Zbase = (Base kV)2 / (Base MVA) = (2.3)2 / (2.098125) = 2.5213 Ohm. DOBLE ENGINEERING PVT LTD, 305-SAKAR, OLD PADRA ROAD, VADODARA PH: (+91) (265) 555 77 15, FAX: (+91) (265) 235 62 85 DOBLE ENGINEERING COMPANY, WATER TOWN, MA, USA www.doble.com

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)

= (0.029 / 2.5213)*( 2.3 / 2.3 )2 *(100 / 2.098125) = 0.5482 PU. Xstator = Xold ( Base kV old / Base kV new )2*(MVA new / MVA old ) = (0.226 / 2.5213)*( 2.3 / 2.3 )2 *(100 / 2.098125) = 4.2722 PU. Rrotor = Rold ( Base kV old / Base kV new )2*( MVA new / MVA old ) = (0.022 / 2.5213)*( 2.3 / 2.3 )2 *(100 / 2.098125) = 0.41588 PU. Xrotor = Xold ( Base kV old / Base kV new )2*(MVA new / MVA old ) = (0.226 / 2.5213)*( 2.3 / 2.3 )2 *(100 / 2.098125) = 4.2722 PU. Xmagnetizing = Xold ( Base kV old / Base kV new )2*(MVA new / MVA old ) = (13.04 / 2.5213)*( 2.3 / 2.3 )2 *(100 / 2.098125) = 246.504 PU.
Rmotorq = Rstator + [ { ( Slip * Rrotor * ( Xmag )2 ) } / { Rrotor2 + ( Slip2 ( Xrotor + Xmag )2 } ]

= 0.5482 + [{ (0.0077*0.41588*(246.504)2 )} / {(0.41588)2 + ( (0.0077)2 ( 4.2722 + 246.504)2 }]

= 50.010 PU.
Xmotorq = Xstator + [ ( Rrotor2*Xmag ) + ( Slip2*Xrotor*Xmag ( Xrotor + Xmag ) ) ] / [ Rrotor2 + ( Slip2 ( Xrotor + Xmag )2 ) ] = 4.2722+[ (0.415882*246.504)+(0.00772*4.2722*246.504 (4.2722+246.504))] / [ 0.415882(4.2722+246.504)2) ] = 19.215899 PU.

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3.2.5 Series Reactor Parameter Conversions: The reactors are used as branch elements to limit the current during fault conditions, to cyclic voltage fluctuations caused by repetitive loads (Cyclic loads) in conjunction with condensers and to limit the motor starting currents. The series reactor resistance and reactance values are given in PU on its own rating. The values are converted to common base as: R new = (R old)* (Base kV old / Base kV new)2* (MVA new / MVA old) X new = (X old)* (Base kV old / Base kV new)2* (MVA new / MVA old)
EXAMPLE: Rated Voltage = 11 kV. Rated Current = 262 Amp. kVar = 256. Reactor MVA = 1.7325 * 11*262 = 5 MVA X in Ohm = (kVar) / (3* I2) = (256*1000) / (3*2622) = 1.2431 Ohm/Phase X in PU = (1.2431 *5) / (11)2 = 0.0514 PU

Common base MVA = 100, Base Voltage = 11kV.
Rreactor = 0.0 PU. Xreactor = (0.514)*(100/5)*(11/11)2 = 1.028 PU

3.2.6 Shunt Capacitor Parameter Conversions: The shunt capacitor banks are used extensively to correct power factors and as results, improve voltage regulation at the point of connection. The shunt capacitor conductance and susceptance values are given in PU on its own rating. The values are converted to common base as: G new = (G old)* (Base kV new / Base kV old)2 * (MVA old / MVA new) B new = (B old)* (Base kV new / Base kV old)2 * (MVA old / MVA new)

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3.2.7 Series Capacitor Parameter Conversions: The series capacitors are sometimes used on transmission and distribution lines to compensate for the inductive reactance drop or to improve the system stability by increasing the amount of power that can be transmitted on tie lines. The series capacitor conductance and susceptance values are given in PU on its own rating. The values are converted to common base as: G new = (G old)* (Base kV new / Base kV old)2 * (MVA old / MVA new) All series elements are molded in impedance form, hence the parameters are converted to impedance form by inverting the admittance. R pu = (G pu) / (G2 pu + B2 pu) X pu = (B pu) / (G2 pu + B2 pu) 3.2.8 Shunt Reactor Parameter Conversions: The shunt reactor resistance and reactance values are given in PU on its own rating. The values are converted to common base as: R new = (R old)* (Base kV old / Base kV new)2* (MVA new / MVA old) X new = (X old)* (Base kV old / Base kV new)2* (MVA new / MVA old) All shunt elements are molded in admittance form; its data is converted to admittance form by using the formulaG pu = (R pu) / (R2 pu + X2 pu) B pu = (X pu) / (R2 pu + X2 pu) 3.2.9 Generator Parameter Conversions: The generator resistance, direct axis sub-transient & transient reactance, quadrature axis sub-transient & transient reactance etc., is specified in PU on its own rating. The reactance values are converted to PU on common base as: R gen = (R old)* (Base kV old / Base kV new)2* (MVA new / MVA old) R gen = (R gen) / Units X gen = (X old)* (Base kV old / Base kV new)2* (MVA new / MVA old)
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X gen = (X gen) / Units X 2(Neg.) = (X d” + X q”) / 2 T d’ = (X d” / Xd)* T do’, T do’ = Transient OC time constant T q’ = T d’ / 2 T a = (X 2(Neg.)) / (w*Ra), Ra = Stator Resistance in Ohm. By using the above formula, the Sub-transient, Transient, & Steady-state direct axis reactance, negative sequence reactance and the zero sequence reactance values are converted to PU on common base. The generator specified voltage is in actual units (kV). It is converted to PU by dividing it by the base voltage. V gen pu = (V gen kV) / (Base kV) Type of generator winding connection is used for zero sequence network calculations only. The neutral impedance is given in actual units (Ohms), it is converted to PU on common base as: Base Z = (Base kV)2 / (Base MVA) R neutral pu = (R neutral Ohms) / (Base Z) The generator neutral impedance value is converted to common base and 3 times of it is added to the zero sequence impedance value of the generator to get the effective zero sequence impedance.
Tdo’ = No load time constant determines the excitation and de-magnetisation with Open stator circuit. Td” = Sub-transient time constant determines the excitation and de-magnetization with three phase short circuit. Td’ = Transient time constant determines the excitation and de-magnetization with three phase short circuit. EXAMPLE: Number of units Voltage Rating = 1.0 = 11.0 kV

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Rated MVA Positive sequence resistance Steady state direct axis reactance Transient direct axis reactance Negative sequence reactance Zero sequence reactance Winding connection Neutral resistance Neutral reactance = 0.0 Ohms. = 260 MVA = 0.00154 PU. = 2.22 PU. = 0.265 PU. = 0.225 PU. = 0.125 PU. = Star connection. = 2.0 Ohms.

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Common base = 100 MVA and base voltage = 11 kV.

R gen = (R old)* (Base kV old / Base kV new)2* (MVA new / MVA old) = (0.00154)*(11 / 11)2* (100 / 260) = 0.00059 PU. X gen pos. = (X old)* (Base kV old / Base kV new)2* (MVA new / MVA old) = (2.22)*(11 / 11)2* (100 / 260) = 0.8538 PU. X gen Neg. = (X old)* (Base kV old / Base kV new)2* (MVA new / MVA old) = (0.225)*(11 / 11)2* (100 / 260) = 0.08654 PU X d’ = (X old)* (Base kV old / Base kV new)2* (MVA new / MVA old) = (0.265)*(11 / 11)2* (100 / 260) = 0.10192 PU.
Base Impedance = (Base Voltage)2 / Base MVA = (11)2 / 100 = 3.24 Ohm.

Generator technical data-sheet of Brush Electric Machine, USA are as shown below which is installed in Search-Chem industries ltd, Bharuch;
Rated MVA Terminal Voltage Frequency Speed Power Factor Applicable national standard Rated Air inlet temperature Unsaturated Direct axis Synchronous Reactance (Xd) Saturated Direct axis Synchronous Reactance (Xd) Saturated Direct axis Transient Reactance (Xd’) = 35 = 11.0kV = 50Hz = 3000RPM = 0.85 = IEC 34-3 = 15 deg. = 243.9% = 243.9% = 25.1%

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Unsaturated Direct axis Transient Reactance (Xd’) = 33.9% Saturated Direct axis Sub-transient Reactance (Xd”) = 18% Unsaturated Direct axis Sub-transient Reactance (Xd”) = 24.1% Unsaturated Quadrature axis Synchronous Reactance (Xq) = 224.1% Saturated Quadrature axis Synchronous Reactance (Xq) = 224.1% Unsaturated Quadrature axis Transient Reactance (Xq’) = 48.2% Saturated Quadrature axis Sub-transient Reactance (Xq”) = 17.7% Unsaturated Quadrature axis Sub-transient Reactance (Xq”) = 24.1% Saturated Negative sequence Reactance (X2) = 17.3% Unsaturated Negative sequence Reactance (X2) = 23.2% Saturated Zero Sequence Reactance (X0) = 10.2% Unsaturated Zero Sequence Reactance (X0) = 12.9% Leakage Reactance, Overexcited (XLM,OEX) = 21.2% Leakage Reactance, Underexcited (XLM,UEX) = 21.2% Short Circuit Ratio = 0.43 Open Circuit Time constant (Td0’) = 6.016second 3-ph Short-circuit transient time constant (Td3’) = 0.620second Line to Line short-circuit transient time constant (Td2’) = 0.975second Line to Neutral short-circuit transient time constant (Td1’) = 1.165second Short-circuit sub-transient time constant (Td”) = 0.015second Open Circuit Sub-transient time constant (Td0”) = 0.021second Open Circuit Time constant (Tq0’) = 0.522second 3-ph Short-circuit transient time constant (Tq’) = 0.522second Short-circuit sub-transient time constant (Tq”) = 0.015second Open Circuit Sub-transient time constant (Tq0”) = 0.041second

Generator technical data-sheet of Brush Electric Machine, USA are as shown below which is installed in Search-Chem industries ltd, Bharuch;
Rated MVA Terminal Voltage Frequency Speed Power Factor Applicable national standard Rated Air inlet temperature Unsaturated Direct axis Synchronous Reactance (Xd) Saturated Direct axis Transient Reactance (Xd’) Saturated Direct axis Sub-transient Reactance (Xd”) Unsaturated Zero Sequence Reactance (X0) Unsaturated Negative sequence Reactance (X2) Short Circuit Ratio = 60 = 11.0kV = 50Hz = 3000RPM = 0.85 = IEC 34-3 = 15 deg. = 257% = 22.7% = 15.9% = 10.4% = 19.4% = 0.41

Generator technical data-sheet of ALSTOM Electric Machine, UK are as shown below which is installed in Sanghi industries ltd, Kuttch;
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Rated MVA = 15 Terminal Voltage = 11.0kV Frequency = 50Hz Speed = 600RPM Power Factor = 0.80 Applicable national standard = IEC 60034 Ambient temperature = 50 deg. Unsaturated Direct axis Synchronous Reactance (Xd) = 169.4% Saturated Direct axis Synchronous Reactance (Xd) =Saturated Direct axis Transient Reactance (Xd’) = 28.1% Unsaturated Direct axis Transient Reactance (Xd’) = 34.7% Saturated Direct axis Sub-transient Reactance (Xd”) = 18.7% Unsaturated Direct axis Sub-transient Reactance (Xd”) = 23.1% Unsaturated Quadrature axis Synchronous Reactance (Xq) = 100.2% Saturated Quadrature axis Synchronous Reactance (Xq) = Saturated Quadrature axis Sub-transient Reactance (Xq”) = 21.5% Unsaturated Quadrature axis Sub-transient Reactance (Xq”)= 25.6% Unsaturated Negative sequence Reactance (X2) Unsaturated Zero Sequence Reactance (X0) Unsaturated Zero Sequence Resistance (R0) Short Circuit Ratio Open Circuit Time constant (Td0’) 3-ph Short-circuit transient time constant (Td’) 3-ph Short-circuit saturated transient time constant (Td’) Short-circuit sub-transient time constant (Td”) Short-circuit saturated sub-transient time constant (Td”) Maximum kVAr available at zero p.f. under-excited Maximum kVAr available at zero p.f. over-excited Over speed Typical Parameters Considered for fault study: Generator: • Transient (Xd’) or sub-transient (Xd”) reactance is considered for positive sequence. • Negative sequence reactance which is approximately equal to (Xd”). • Zero sequence reactance, which is comparatively small around 0.1 to 0.7 times of (Xd”). • Assume Short Circuit Ratio = 1 / Xd while value of Xd is not given in data-sheet Transformer: • Positive sequence, Negative sequence, & Zero sequence impedances are equal. = 24.5% = 6.5% = 0.914% = 0.637 = 3.63second = 0.743second = 0.590second = 0.05second = 0.035second = 0.51 PU = 0.76 PU = 720RPM

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3.2.10 Per Unit (PU) and Percentage Quantity (%): Per Unit Quantity = Percentage Quantity / 100 • • • • • • Quantity => Voltage, Current, MVA, Impedance E.g. Z = 10% => Z = 0.10 PU; V = 105% => V = 1.05PU Per Unit Computation is slightly advantageous over percentage computation. Product of two quantities expressed in PU. Result also in PU. Product of two quantities expressed in percent. Result shall be divided by 100 to get percent. Fault level calculations are generally performed using PU only.

Per Unit Quantity:

Q(PU) = Q (ACTUAL) / Q (BASE) e.g. Vbase = 6.6kV; Vactual = 3.3kV; => V = 0.5 PU e.g. Pbase = 100 MVA; Pactual = 200 MW; => P = 2 PU
Choosing Base: In general, MVA (3-ph) & Voltage (L to L) chosen as base Base Current = Base MVA / 1.7325 * Base Voltage Base Impedance = Base Voltage / 1.7325 * Base Current = {Base Voltage / (1.7325 * Base MVA / 1.7325 * Base Voltage) } = (Base Voltage)2 / Base MVA Base Voltage changes on either side of Transformer: • • • • • Choose Base Voltage as 11 kV and Base Power as 100 MVA Let there be 11 / 132 kV Transformer. On the HT side of Transformer, base voltage is Automatically 132 kV. You can not independently choose another base voltage on other side of Transformer. Base Power is 100 MVA on either side of Transformer.

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On Low voltage side: Base voltage = 11 kV (Always L to L ) Base MVA = 100 (Always 3-ph Power) Base Current = 100 / 1.7325 * 11 = 5.2486 kA Base Impedance = (11)2 / 100 = 1.21 Ohms

On High voltage side: Base Voltage = 132 kV (Always L to L) Base MVA = 100 (Always 3-ph Power) Base Current = 100 / 1.7325 * 132 = 0.4374 kA Base Impedance = (132)2 / 100 = 174.24 Ohms Advantages of Calculations in Per Unit System: Per Unit Impedance of Transformer is same whether referred to Primary or Secondary. e.g. 11 / 33 kV, 50 MVA, Z = 10% (0.1PU) • • In PU, Z = 0.1 on either 11 kV or 33 kV side In Ohms, on 11 kV side:

Z base = (Base Voltage)2 / Base MVA = (11)2 / 50 = 2.42 Ohms Z 11 = (Z base * Z pu) = (2.42)* (0.1) = 0.242 Ohms.
On 33 kV side:

Z base = (Base Voltage)2 / Base MVA = (33)2 / 50 = 21.78 Ohms Z 33 = (Z base* Z pu) = (21.78)* (0.1) = 2.178 Ohms
• • Per Unit Impedance lie within a Narrow Band while Ohmic values can be widely different. Transformer 415 V to 400 kV and 500 kVA to 500 MVA. Z lies between 5% (0.05PU) to 15% (0.15PU)

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• Generator 1 MVA to 500 MVA, X’d lies between 20% (0.2PU) to 30% (0.3PU)

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PU = only realistic way to solve big and practical problems. 3.3 Basic Considerations of Short-Circuit Calculations:
Why Short-Circuit Calculations?

Several sections of the National Electrical Code relate to proper over-current protection. Safe and reliable application of over-current protective devices based on these sections mandate that a short circuit study and a selective coordination study be conducted. The protection for an electrical system should not only be safe under all service conditions but, to insure continuity of service, it should be selectively coordinated as well. A coordinated system is one where only the faulted circuit is isolated without disturbing any other part of the system. Over-current protection devices should also provide short-circuit as well as overload protection for system components, such as bus, wire, motor controllers, etc. To obtain reliable, coordinated operation and assure that system components are protected from damage, it is necessary to first calculate the available fault current at various critical points in the electrical system. Once the short-circuit levels are determined, the engineer can specify proper interrupting rating requirements, selectively coordinate the system and provide component protection.
General Comments on Short-Circuit Calculations:

Short Circuit Calculations should be done at all critical points in the system. These would include: - Service Entrance - Panel Boards - Motor Control Centers - Motor Starters - Transfer Switches - Load Centers Normally, short circuit studies involve calculating a bolted 3-phase fault condition. This can be characterized as all three phases “bolted” together to create a zero impedance connection. This establishes a “worst case” condition that results in
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maximum thermal and mechanical stress in the system. From this calculation, other types of fault conditions can be obtained. Sources of short circuit current that are normally taken under consideration include: - Utility Generation - Local Generation - Synchronous Motors and - Induction Motors Capacitor discharge currents can normally be neglected due to their short time duration. Certain IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers) publications detail how to calculate these currents if they are substantial.
3.3.1 Asymmetrical Components:

Short circuit current normally takes on an asymmetrical characteristic during the first few cycles of duration. That is, it is offset about the zero axis, as indicated in Figure 1.

Figure 1. In Figure 2, note that the total short-circuit current Ia is the summation of two components - the symmetrical RMS current IS, and the DC component, IDC. The DC component is a function of the stored energy within the system at the initiation of the short circuit. It decays to zero after a few cycles due to I2R losses in the system, at which point the short circuit current is symmetrical about the zero axis. The RMS value of the symmetrical component may be determined using Ohm’s Law. To determine the asymmetrical component, it is necessary to know the X/R ratio of the system. To obtain the X/R ratio, the total resistance and total reactance of the circuit to the point of fault must be determined. Maximum thermal and mechanical stress on the equipment occurs during these first few cycles. It is important to concentrate on what happens during the first half cycle after the initiation of the fault. DOBLE ENGINEERING PVT LTD, 305-SAKAR, OLD PADRA ROAD, VADODARA 79
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Figure 2. Where, Ia = Asymmetrical RMS Fault Current in kA. IDC = DC component depend on X/R in kA Is = Asymmetrical RMS Fault Current in kA. Ip = Instantaneous Peak Current in kA. Figure 2 illustrates a worst case waveform that 1 phase of the 3 phase system will assume during the first few cycles after the fault initiation. The key portions are: - Symmetrical RMS Short Circuit Current = Is - Instantaneous Peak Current = Ip - Asymmetrical RMS Short Circuit Current (worst case single phase) = Ia
Interrupting Rating, Interrupting Capacity and Short-Circuit Currents:

Interrupting Rating can be defined as “the maximum short-circuit current that a protective device can safely clear, under specified test conditions.” Interrupting Capacity can be defined as “the actual short circuit current that a protective device has been tested to interrupt.”
Interrupting Rating:

Equipment intended to break current at fault levels shall have an interrupting rating sufficient for the system voltage and the current, which is available at the line terminals of the equipment. DOBLE ENGINEERING PVT LTD, 305-SAKAR, OLD PADRA ROAD, VADODARA 80
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Available Short-Circuit Current: Service Equipment shall be suitable for the short circuit current available at its supply terminals. Low voltage fuses have their interrupting rating expressed in terms of the symmetrical component of short-circuit current, IS. They are given an RMS symmetrical interrupting rating at a specific power factor. This means that the fuse can interrupt any asymmetrical current associated with this rating. Thus only the symmetrical component of short-circuit current need be considered to determine the necessary interrupting rating of a low voltage fuse. For U.L. listed low voltage fuses, interrupting rating equals its interrupting capacity. Low voltage molded case circuit breakers also have their interrupting rating expressed in terms of RMS symmetrical amperes at a specific power factor. However, it is necessary to determine a molded case circuit breaker’s interrupting capacity in order to safely apply it. The reader is directed to Buss bulletin PMCB II for an understanding of this concept.
Three Phase fault through Impedance: Fault MVA = Base MVA / (Z1 + Zf) Ia1 = Fault MVA / 1.7325*(Rated kV), Ia2 = 0, Ia0 = 0 Let, Ia1 = Positive sequence Fault Current in kA, Ia2 = Negative sequence Fault Current in kA Ia0 = Zero sequence Fault Current in kA Z1 = Positive sequence impedance in PU. Zf = Fault impedance in PU. Example: (Z1 + Zf) = 0.2 PU., Base MVA = 15, Rated kV = 11, Base kV = 11.

PU method:
Step:-1 Fault MVA = 15 / 0.2 = 75 MVA Step:-2 Ia1 = 75 / 1.7325*(11) = 3.93kA.

Ohm method:
Step:-1 Find Base Impedance value in Ohm DOBLE ENGINEERING PVT LTD, 305-SAKAR, OLD PADRA ROAD, VADODARA PH: (+91) (265) 555 77 15, FAX: (+91) (265) 235 62 85 DOBLE ENGINEERING COMPANY, WATER TOWN, MA, USA www.doble.com

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Z base = (Base Voltage)2 / Base MVA = (11) / 15 = 8.066 Ohms
Step:-2 Find Z value in Ohm Z in Ohm = (Z base * Z pu) = (8.066)* (0.2) = 1.613 Ohms. Step:-3 Find Fault current Ia1 = Rated kV / 1.7325*(Z in Ohm) = 3.93kA. Single-line to ground fault: (Z1’ + Z2’ + Z0’) = (Z1 + Z2 + Z0) / 3 Fault MVA = Base MVA / (Z1’ + Z2’ + Z0’) Ia0 = Fault MVA / 1.7325*(Rated kV) Let, Ia1 = Positive sequence Fault Current in kA, Ia2 = Negative sequence Fault Current in kA Ia0 = Zero sequence Fault Current in kA Z1 = Positive sequence impedance in PU. Zf = Fault impedance in PU. Example: Z1 = 1.35 PU., Z2 = 1.35 PU, Z0 = 1.0 PU, Base MVA = 100, Rated kV = 6.6, Base kV = 6.6.

Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management For Energy Delivery 2

PU method:
Step:-1 (Z1’ + Z2’ + Z0’) = (Z1 + Z2 + Z0) / 3 = (1.35 + 1.35 + 1.0) / 3 = 1.23 PU Step:-1 Fault MVA = 100 / 1.23 = 81.30 MVA Step:-2 Ia0 = 81.30 / 1.7325*(6.6) = 7.11kA.

Ohm method:
Step:-1 Find Base Impedance value in Ohm

Z base = (Base Voltage)2 / Base MVA = (6.6)2 / 100 = 0.4356 Ohms
Step:-2 Find Z value in Ohm Z in Ohm = (Z base * Z pu) = (0.4356)* (1.23) = 0.5357 Ohms. DOBLE ENGINEERING PVT LTD, 305-SAKAR, OLD PADRA ROAD, VADODARA PH: (+91) (265) 555 77 15, FAX: (+91) (265) 235 62 85 DOBLE ENGINEERING COMPANY, WATER TOWN, MA, USA www.doble.com

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Step:-3 Find Fault current Ia1 = Rated kV / 1.7325*(Z in Ohm) = 7.11kA.

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3.3.2 Sudden three-phase short circuit on an unloaded synchronous generator: A sudden three-phase short circuit on an initially unloaded synchronous generator will have several types of current components: a unidirectional (or DC) transient current, an AC transient current, and an AC steady state current. Upon close examination, the AC transient current is seen to decay first rapidly, then more slowly. The initial rapid decay is called the sub-transient (Xd”) part and the slower decay is called the transient part. The AC component is symmetrical, since all three phases will have essentially the same RMS current values at any time, but the DC transients are asymmetrical. Thus the symmetrical short-circuit current excludes the DC terms and the asymmetrical current includes both the AC and the DC terms. Figure 2.1.1 shows plots that resemble actual short-circuit currents in the three armature phases. The phase a current is completely offset in the negative direction, while the b and c phase currents are offset half as much in the positive direction. The exact offsets will depend on the instant at which the fault occurs relative to the pre-fault voltage waveform.
DC offsets:

The physical reason for the existence of the DC offsets is that the current and flux waveforms of an inductive circuit cannot change instantly. Since the pre-fault current is zero, the DC offset in any given phase must take on a value equal in magnitude and opposite in sign to the value of the AC waveform just after the fault. Since the AC currents are shifted by 120o from each other, the DC components of the three phases will always add to zero. The maximum DC offset in a phase current is the peak value of the AC initial component. This occurs in one phase at most, since the three DC offsets must add to zero as discussed above. That means that the maximum DC offset is 1.414 times the initial RMS AC waveform.

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View of DOBLE “DATC” software which is shown a DC OFFSET with L/R=300ms

3.3.3 Symmetrical short-circuit current:

In most short-circuit current calculations, the AC (or symmetrical) current is needed. We consider a sudden three-phase short circuit on an unloaded synchronous generator. The sub-transient component of this current decays with a time constant that is determined by the time constant of the damper windings, which are windings on the pole faces of salient-pole synchronous motors and generators. Cylindricalrotor machines usually have no damper windings, but eddy currents in their solidiron rotors have much the same effect. Just after the short circuit, the RMS value of the current is I" = E / Xd" where E is the pre-fault voltage and Xd" is the generator sub-transient reactance. If E is in volts (line- neutral) and Xd" is in ohms, then I" will be in amps. If E and Xd" are in per-unit, then I" will be in per unit. Since Xd" is usually tabulated in percent or per unit, and since E is approximately 1.00 per unit, we will use per-unit equations for our calculations.

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Figure 2.1.1 Synchronous machine armature short-circuit currents for sudden 3-ph Fault

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The transient component decays with a much longer time constant (about 1 second compared to several cycles for the sub-transient) that is due to the time constant of the field winding. A few cycles after the fault occurs, the RMS value of the current is I' = E / Xd' where Xd' is the generator transient reactance. Figure 2.1.2(below) shows the rms ac (or symmetrical) short-circuit current for the same case that is illustrated in the previous figure.

If the short circuit is left on until the transients die out, the steady-state shortcircuit current may be determined. We subtract the steady-state current from the ac component, and plot the result on semi-log paper, as shown in Figure 2.1.3 (below), to determine transient and sub-transient time constants and reactances.

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Figure 2.1.3 The transient time constant Td' is the slope of the line fitted by ignoring the initial part of this curve. The excess current for the first few cycles may be plotted on a similar graph to obtain the sub-transient time constant Td". Calculation: According to ANSI/IEEE Std. 242-1996, the total AC component of armature current consists of the steady-state (Id) value and two components that decaying at a rate according to their respective time constant. Iac = (Id” – Id’)*(e(2*3.14*f*t)/(Td”) ) + (Id’ – Id)*(e(2*3.14*f*t)/(Td’) ) + Id-----------(1) (1) Subtransient Component, Id” Id” = (e”/Xd”) p.u. where e” = (et + Xd” Sin(theta) )----------------(2) When machine is at no-load, e”=et (2) Transient component, Id’ Id’ = (e’/Xd’) p.u. (3) Steady-state component, Id Id = (et/Xd)* (If/Ifg)----------------------------------------------------------(3)
(4) The DC component of the armature current is controlled by the sub-transient reactance and the armature time constant:

Idc = (1.414)* (Id”)* (e(2*3.14*f*t)/(X/R) ) = (1.414)* (Id”)* (e(t/(L/R)) )---------------------------------------------(4)
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General Description of Calculation Methodology: 3.3.4 EFFECT OF LOW ZERO-SEQUENCE IMPEDANCES ON GENERATORS:

Good design practice dictates that short circuit calculations be performed to ensure that the IEC rating specified for equipment is higher than the anticipated fault currents. Properly rated equipment is not only a code requirement but can impact the cost of a project. Equipment that is underrated must be replaced, and overrated equipment costs more than properly rated equipment. Short circuit calculations during the design phase require some assumptions and generalizations, which are validated or corrected when a detailed study is completed. The detailed study is usually completed prior to the review of equipment submittals. Underrated equipment identified in the study can be changed before orders are released or factories prepare the equipment for shipment. In the case study mentioned in the introduction, the detailed short circuit study was not completed until after the equipment had been installed. Since the engineer had used the positive sequence impedance of the generator for his calculations (or used generator decrement curve data, which is based on the positive sequence impedance), some of the equipment was underrated. As will be discussed below, the lower zero sequence impedance of a generator can result in line-to-ground fault currents that can be as high as one and a half times the phase fault currents.
ANALYSIS

To graphically illustrate the variation in magnitude between line-to-ground faults and phase faults, we will begin by looking at the one-line diagram for a typical installation. This is shown in Figure below. The service transformers are 2500 kVA and the generators are 1500 kW.

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Table 1 summarizes the impedance values for the transformers and generators shown. All values are shown in per unit for each phase. The kVA base is 10,000 and the kV base for the primary is 13.8 and 0.48 for the secondary. Note that the values for the generator reactance are sub-transient values. As can be seen by observation, the generator zero-sequence X(0) impedance is somewhat lower than the positive-sequence X(+ve). This contrasts markedly with the transformers and the utility source impedance, where the zero-sequence impedance X(0) is essentially the same as the positive sequence impedance X(+ve).

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TABLE:-1: SOURCE & TRANSFORMER DATA For the purpose of this analysis, we will assume that the utility and generators will never be paralleled. As such, there is no need to consider the implications of the lower generator zero-sequence impedance being in parallel with the utility transformer zero-sequence impedance.

To determine the available three-phase fault currents, the pre-fault voltage (usually taken to be the nominal voltage) would be divided by the equivalent positive sequence impedance of the network, as seen from the faulted bus. Using the impedance values for the conductors shown in Table 2, for a fault at the ATS, the positive sequence network, with the generator as the source, would be as shown in Figure. (Since the line-to-ground fault current magnitudes for the transformer source are the same as the phase fault current magnitudes, we will confine our analysis to the generator source.)

TABLE:-2: CONDUCTOR IMPEDANCE VALUE

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POSITIVE SEQUENCE DIAGRAM OF NETWORK

The equivalent impedance of the positive sequence network would then be the parallel combination of the series combination of generators and their conductors in series with the conductor to the ATS. Neglecting the impedance of the conductors, neglecting the resistance of the generators, and using only the positive sequence impedance would yield the following results:

We now turn our attention to the available line-to-ground fault currents. For this calculation, the pre-fault voltage would be divided by the equivalent zero sequence impedance of the network, as seen from the faulted bus. Looking at the impedance seen at the ATS for a line-to-ground fault, the following sequence network is generated.
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DOBLE ENGINEERING PVT LTD, 305-SAKAR, OLD PADRA ROAD, VADODARA PH: (+91) (265) 555 77 15, FAX: (+91) (265) 235 62 85 DOBLE ENGINEERING COMPANY, WATER TOWN, MA, USA www.doble.com

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Sequence Network for Line-to-Ground Faults

As before, we will neglect the impedance of the conductors and the resistance of the generators. This would yield the following results:

As can be seen from this calculation, the line-to-ground fault current is almost 125% of the three-phase fault current. If the model were expanded to include five generators, the three-phase fault current would be approximately 27.75 kA and the line-to-ground fault current would be 34.5 kA. If the AIC rating of the equipment to be used were based on the three phase currents, the equipment would be underrated. Of course, in a case with fewer and/or smaller machines, the disparity between the phase fault currents and the ground fault currents may not be a problem, that is, 125% of the phase fault currents may still be well below the minimum IEC rating of equipment in a given voltage rating. However, it is always important to check before the equipment is approved for manufacture and shipment.

CONCLUSIONS

This simple, two machine model demonstrates the higher magnitudes that can be anticipated for line-to-ground faults when a facility is fed from a generator source. When specifying the IEC rating of equipment, it is important to consider the source of the fault and the nature of that source. Although simple installations with small machines may not be affected, good design practice would dictate that consideration be given to the calculation of line-to-ground fault currents. Failure to compare the equipment short circuit ratings to the calculated line-to-ground fault currents can cause construction delays and expensive equipment replacement.

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3.3.5 ANSI/IEEE CALCULATION METHODS: In ANSI/IEEE short-circuit calculations, an equivalent voltage source at the fault location, which equals the pre-fault voltage at the location, replaces all external voltage sources and machine internal voltage sources. All machines are represented by their internal impedances. Line capacitances and static loads are neglected. Transformer taps can be set at either the nominal position or at the tapped position, and different schemes are available to correct transformer impedance and system voltages if off-nominal tap setting exists. It is assumed the fault is bolted, therefore, arc resistances are not considered. System impedances are assumed to be balanced three-phase, and the method of symmetrical components is used for unbalanced fault calculations. Three different impedance networks are formed to calculate momentary, interrupting, and steady-state short-circuit currents, and corresponding duties for various protective devices. These networks are: ½ cycle network (sub-transient network), 1.5-4.0 cycle network (transient network), and 30-cycle network (steady-state network). ANSI/IEEE standards recommend the use of separate “R” and “X” networks to calculate X/R values. An X/R ratio is obtained for each individual faulted bus and short-circuit current. This X/R ratio is then used to determine the multiplying factor to account for the system DC OFFSET. ½ Cycle Fault: It is used to calculate momentary short-circuit and protective device duties at the ½ Cycle after the fault. The following table shows the type of device and its associated duties using the ½ cycle fault. Type of Device High Voltage Circuit breaker Low Voltage Circuit breaker Fuse Switch gear & MCC Relay Duty Closing & Latching capability Interrupting capability Interrupting capability Bus bracing Instantaneous settings

½ cycle fault is also consider as a sub-transient period fault, primarily because all rotating machines are represented by their sub-transient reactances, as shown in table: DOBLE ENGINEERING PVT LTD, 305-SAKAR, OLD PADRA ROAD, VADODARA PH: (+91) (265) 555 77 15, FAX: (+91) (265) 235 62 85 DOBLE ENGINEERING COMPANY, WATER TOWN, MA, USA www.doble.com

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Type of Machine Utility Turbo generator Hydro generator with amortisseur winding Hydro generator winding Condenser Synchronous motor without Xsc X” Xd” Xd”

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amortisseur 0.75*Xd” Xd” Xd”

Induction machine >1000hp @ 1800rpm or Xd” = 1/LRC (LRC = Locked rotor current) less Induction machine >250hp @ 3600rpm Induction machine >50hp Induction machine <50hp Xd” = 1/LRC 1.2*Xd” 1.67*Xd”

1.5 – 4.0 Cycle Fault: It is used to calculate the interrupting short-circuit and protective device duties 1.5 – 4.0 Cycle after the fault. The following table shows the type of device and its associated duties using the 1.5 – 4.0 cycle fault. Type of Device High Voltage Circuit breaker Low Voltage Circuit breaker Fuse Switch gear & MCC Relay Duty Interrupting capability N/A N/A N/A IDMTL Over current relay settings

1.5 – 4.0 cycle fault is also consider as a transient period fault, because all rotating machines are represented by their transient reactances, as shown in table: DOBLE ENGINEERING PVT LTD, 305-SAKAR, OLD PADRA ROAD, VADODARA PH: (+91) (265) 555 77 15, FAX: (+91) (265) 235 62 85 DOBLE ENGINEERING COMPANY, WATER TOWN, MA, USA www.doble.com

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Type of Machine Utility Turbo generator Hydro generator with amortisseur winding Hydro generator winding Condenser Synchronous motor without Xsc X” Xd” Xd”

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amortisseur 0.75*Xd” Xd” 1.5*Xd”

Induction machine >1000hp @ 1800rpm or 1.5*Xd” = 1/LRC (LRC = Locked rotor less current) Induction machine >250hp @ 3600rpm Induction machine >50hp Induction machine <50hp 1.5*Xd” = 1/LRC 3.0*Xd” Infinite

30 Cycle Fault: It is used to calculate the steady state short-circuit current and duties for some of the protective devices 30 Cycle after the fault. The following table shows the type of device and its associated duties using the 1.5 – 4.0 cycle fault. Type of Device High Voltage Circuit breaker Low Voltage Circuit breaker Fuse Switch gear & MCC Relay Duty N/A N/A N/A N/A IDMtL Over current relay settings

The type of rotating machine and its representation in the 30-cycle fault is shown in following table. Note that induction machines, synchronous motors, and condensers are not considered in the 30-cycle fault calculation. DOBLE ENGINEERING PVT LTD, 305-SAKAR, OLD PADRA ROAD, VADODARA 96 PH: (+91) (265) 555 77 15, FAX: (+91) (265) 235 62 85 DOBLE ENGINEERING COMPANY, WATER TOWN, MA, USA www.doble.com

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Type of Machine Utility Turbo generator Hydro generator with amortisseur winding Hydro generator winding Condenser Synchronous motor without Xsc X” Xd’ Xd’

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amortisseur Xd’ Infinite Infinite

Induction machine >1000hp @ 1800rpm or Infinite less Induction machine >250hp @ 3600rpm Induction machine >50hp Induction machine <50hp Infinite Infinite Infinite

ANSI Multiplying Factor (MF): The ANSI (American National Standards & Institute) multiplying factor is determined by the equivalent system X/R ratio at a particular fault location. The X/R ratio is calculated by the separate “R” and “X” networks. Momentary (1/2 Cycle) short-circuit current calculation (Buses & HV CB): The momentary short-circuit current at the ½ cycle represents the highest or maximum value of the short-circuit current (before its AC & DC components decay toward the steady state value). Although, in reality, the highest or maximum short-circuit current actually occurs slightly before the ½ cycle, the ½ cycle network is used for this calculation. The following procedure is used to calculate momentary short-circuit current: Step:-1 Calculate the symmetrical rms value of momentary short-circuit current using the following formula: DOBLE ENGINEERING PVT LTD, 305-SAKAR, OLD PADRA ROAD, VADODARA PH: (+91) (265) 555 77 15, FAX: (+91) (265) 235 62 85 DOBLE ENGINEERING COMPANY, WATER TOWN, MA, USA www.doble.com

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Imom,rms,symm = ( Vpre-fault ) / ((1.7325)*Zeq)

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Where Zeq is the equivalent impedance at the faulted bus from the ½ cycle fault. Step:-2 Calculate the Asymmetrical rms value of momentary short-circuit current using the following formula: Imom,rms,Asymm = (MFm)*( Imom,rms,symm ) Step:-3 Calculate the Multiplying or Asymmetrical factor using the following formula:
(MFm) = Under root( 1 + (2e)-2*3.14/(X/R))

Step:-4 Calculate the Peak value of momentary short-circuit current using the following formula: Imom,Peak = (MFP)*( Imom,rms,Asymm ) Step:-5 Calculate the Peak Multiplying factor using the following formula:
(MFP) = 1.414*(Under root( 1 + (e)-3.14/(X/R)))

In both equations for MFm and MFP calculation, X/R is the ratio of X to R at the fault location obtained from separate X and R networks at ½ cycle. The value of the fault current calculated by this method can be used for following purpose: • • • • Check closing & latching capabilities of high voltage circuit breakers. Check bus-bar capacity. Adjust relay instantaneous settings. Check interrupting capabilities of fuses and low voltage circuit breakers.

High voltage Circuit breaker Interrupting short-circuit current calculation: The interrupting fault currents for high voltage circuit breakers correspond to the 1.5 – 4.0 cycle short-circuit for high voltage circuit breakers:

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The following procedure is used to calculate the interrupting short-circuit current: Step:-1 Calculate the symmetrical rms value of the interrupting short-circuit current using the following formula: Iint,rms,symm = ( Vpre-fault ) / ((1.7325)*Zeq) Where Zeq is the equivalent impedance at the faulted bus from the 1.5 – 4.0 cycle fault. Step:-2 Calculate the short-circuit current contributions to the fault location from the surrounding buses. Step:-3 If contribution is from a Remote bus, the symmetrical value is corrected by the factor of MFr, calculated from MFr = Under root( 1 + (2e)-4*3.14*t/(X/R)) Where t is the circuit breaker contact parting time in cycles, as given in the following table: Circuit breaker rating in Cycles Contact Parting time in Cycles 8 4.0 5 3.0 3 2.0 2 1.5 Low voltage Circuit breaker Interrupting short-circuit current calculation: Due to the instantaneous action of low voltage circuit breakers at maximum short-circuit values, the ½ cycle network is used for calculating the interrupting short-circuit current. The following procedure is used to calculate the interrupting short-circuit current: Step:-1 Calculate the symmetrical rms value of the interrupting short-circuit current using the following formula: Iint,rms,symm = ( Vpre-fault ) / ((1.7325)*Zeq) DOBLE ENGINEERING PVT LTD, 305-SAKAR, OLD PADRA ROAD, VADODARA PH: (+91) (265) 555 77 15, FAX: (+91) (265) 235 62 85 DOBLE ENGINEERING COMPANY, WATER TOWN, MA, USA www.doble.com

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Where Zeq is the equivalent impedance at the faulted bus from the ½ cycle fault. Step:-2 Calculate the adjusted asymmetrical rms value of the interrupting short-circuit current duty using the following formula: Iint,rms,adj = MF * Iint,rms,symm
(MF) = {1.414*(Under root( 1 + (e)-3.14/(X/R)))} / {1.414*(Under root( 1 + (e)-3.14/(X/R)TEST))} for unfused power breakers. (MF) = {1.414*(Under root( 1 + (2e)-2*3.14/(X/R)))} / {1.414*(Under root( 1 + (2e)-2*3.14/(X/R)TEST))} for fused power or molded case breakers.

Step:-3

Where (X/R)test is calculated based on the test power factor. The manufacturer maximum testing power factors given in the following table are used as the default values: Circuit breaker type Max Design %PF (X/R)test Power breaker (Unfused) 15 6.59 Power breaker (fused) 20 4.90 Molded case (>20000A) 20 4.90 Molded case (10001-20000A) 30 3.18 Molded case (<10000A) 50 1.73 IEC CALCULATION METHODS: Initial Symmetrical Short-circuit current (I”k): This is the rms value of the ac symmetrical component of an available short-circuit current applicable at the instant of short-circuit if the impedance remains at zero time value. Peak Short-circuit current (ip): This is the maximum possible instantaneous value of the available short-circuit current. Symmetrical Short-circuit Breaking current (Ib): This is the rms value of an integral cycle of the symmetrical ac component of the available short-circuit at the instant of contact separation of the first pole of a switching device. Steady state Short-circuit current (Ik): This is the rms value of the short-circuit current which remains after the decay of the transient phenomena.

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Sub-transient Voltage (E”) of a Synchronous machine: This is the rms value of the symmetrical internal voltage of a synchronous machine which is active behind the sub-transient reactance Xd” at the moment of short-circuit. Sub-transient Reactance (Xd”) of a Synchronous machine: This is the effective reactance at the moment of short-circuit. For the calculation of shortcircuit currents, the saturated value of (Xd”) is taken. According to IEC Standard 909, the synchronous motor impedance used in IEC shortcircuit calculations is calculated in the same way as the synchronous generator. Zk = KG(R+Xd”) KG = (kVn * Cmax) / kVr* {1 + (Xd”)*(SIN(pHi))} Where kVn and kVr are the nominal voltage of the terminal bus and the motor rated voltage respectively, Cmax is determine based on machine rated voltage, Xd” is machine sub-transient reactance (Per unit in motor base), and “pHi” is the machine rated power factor angle. Minimum time delay (Tmin) of a Circuit breaker: This is the shortest time between the beginning of the short-circuit current and the first contact separation of one pole of the switching device. Voltage factor C: This is the factor used to adjust the value of the equivalent voltage source for minimum and maximum current calculation according to the following table: Nominal Voltage Vn Low voltage; 100V 1000V Medium voltage:>1kV 35kV 230V/400V High voltage:>35kV 230kV Cmax to 1.05 to 1.05 1.00 to 1.10 Cmin 1.00 1.00 0.95 1.00

Initial symmetrical short-circuit current calculation: I”k = (C * Vn) / {(1.7325)*Zk} Where Zk is the equivalent impedance at the fault location. Peak short-circuit current calculation: IP = 1.414* (I”k)* (R/X) DOBLE ENGINEERING PVT LTD, 305-SAKAR, OLD PADRA ROAD, VADODARA 101 PH: (+91) (265) 555 77 15, FAX: (+91) (265) 235 62 85 DOBLE ENGINEERING COMPANY, WATER TOWN, MA, USA www.doble.com

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DC component of short-circuit current calculation: (2*3.14*f*t)/(X/R) IDC = 1.414* (I”k)* (e )

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Asymmetrical Short-circuit current calculation for MV CB: (-4*3.14*f*t)/(X/R) IK,ASYMM. = (I”k)*{1 + (2e )} DC component of short-circuit current calculation for MC CB: (2*3.14*f*t)/(X/R) IDC = 1.414* (I”k)* (e ) Asymmetrical Short-circuit current calculation for LV CB: (-4*3.14*f*t)/(X/R) IK,ASYMM. = (I”k)*{1 + (2e )} Asymmetrical Short-circuit current calculation for FUSE: (-4*3.14*f*t)/(X/R) IK,ASYMM. = (I”k)*{1 + (2e )}

3.3.6 The Importance of the X/R Ratio in Low-Voltage Short Circuit Studies: Introduction: In some short circuit studies, the X/R ratio is ignored when comparing the short circuit rating of the equipment to the available fault current at the equipment. What is not always realized is that when low-voltage gear is tested, it is tested at a certain X/R ratio. The X/R ratio is important because it determines the peak asymmetrical fault current. The asymmetrical fault current can be much larger than the symmetrical fault current. The purpose of this article is to introduce such terms as the X/R ratio and asymmetrical fault current and to relate the importance of the X/R ratio to the rating of low-voltage equipment.
X/R Ratio and Asymmetrical Fault Current:

In AC electrical systems, impedance has two components. The first is called reactance (X). Reactance depends on two things: (1) the inductance and (2) the frequency. Inductance reflects how hard it is to change the current. All conductors have some inductance, but a more useful example of a component having inductance is a coil of wire. Frequency is fixed at either 60 or 50Hz, depending upon where in the world the electrical system is, so the reactance is solely dependent upon the inductance. The second component of impedance is the familiar resistance (R). Resistance is a measure of how hard it is for current to flow. When current flows through a material having resistance, heat is transferred from the material to the surroundings.
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The resistance and reactance of a circuit establishes a power factor. The power factor (p.f.) is given by the following equation: p.f. = cos(tan-1(X/R)) If the power factor is unity (1), then the impedance only has resistance. If the power factor is zero, then the impedance only has reactance.
The power factor also determines how much the voltage and current waveforms (sine waves) are out of phase. Remember that both voltage and current are sine waves in linear AC electrical systems. For purely resistive systems, the voltage and current are in phase. For purely reactive systems, the voltage and current are 90-degress (one-quarter of a cycle) out of phase, with the voltage leading the current. Figure 2 below illustrates this.

Effect of P.F. upon Voltage (------) and Current (------) waveform

The above equation means that the power factor and X/R ratio are related. Therefore, power factor and X/R ratio are different ways of saying the same thing. Please note that as power factor decreases, the X/R ratio increases.

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Right after a fault occurs, the current waveform is no longer a sine wave. Instead, it can be represented by the sum of a sine wave and a decaying exponential. Figure 3 below illustrates this phenomenon.

Sine-wave (-----) , Decaying Exponential (-----), and their Sum (-----)

Please note that the decaying exponential added to the sine wave causes the current to reach a much larger value than that of the sine wave alone. The waveform that equals the sum of the sine wave and the decaying exponential is called the asymmetrical current because the waveform does not have symmetry above and below the time axis. The sine wave alone is called the symmetrical current because it does have symmetry above and below the time axis. The actual waveform of the asymmetrical fault current is hard to predict because it depends on what time in the voltage cycle waveform the fault occurs. However, the largest asymmetrical fault current occurs when a fault happens at a point when the voltage is zero. Then, the asymmetrical fault current depends only on the X/R ratio, or power factor, and the magnitude of the symmetrical fault current. Figure 4 below shows how the ratio of the peak asymmetrical current to the RMS symmetrical current varies with the X/R ratio. (RMS symmetrical current equals
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the peak symmetrical current divided by the square root of 2.) What Figure 4 shows is that the peak asymmetrical current increases with the X/R ratio. Figure 4. Peak asymmetrical current as a function of symmetrical RMS current. (Data taken from notes on the GE Electrical Distribution & Control Low-voltage Protector Application Seminar.)

Role of X/R Ratio when Comparing Short Circuit Ratings:

Low voltage devices have one rating, as opposed to medium-voltage gear, which have both a momentary and interrupting rating. This rating is reported in terms of symmetrical current. Therefore, the rating must be compared to the calculated symmetrical current. But the story does not end here. All low voltage protective devices are tested at an X/R ratio. The X/R ratio at which a device is tested depends upon the device type. Table 1 below summarizes the device types and the X/R ratios at which they are tested.

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Table 1. X/R ratios at which low voltage protective devices are tested.

Although low voltage devices do not have asymmetrical ratings, if we know the symmetrical current rating and the test X/R ratio, Figure 4 gives us the maximum asymmetrical fault current. So, in a way, there is an asymmetrical fault current rating, but it is not explicit. Therefore, in any short circuit study, both the X/R ratio and the symmetrical fault current must be taken into account. Remember that, for a calculated value of RMS symmetrical current, as X/R ratio increase, the maximum asymmetrical current (peak or RMS) also increases. If the calculated symmetrical fault current is larger than the device short circuit rating, the device in underrated, regardless of X/R ratio. However, it is possible for the device to be underrated even if the short circuit rating exceeds the calculated symmetrical fault current. How is this possible? We will discuss this next. Consider some equipment whose calculated symmetrical fault current is less than the short circuit rating of the equipment. Also, the calculated X/R ratio is less than or equal to the test X/R ratio. The maximum calculated asymmetrical fault current will be less than the maximum asymmetrical current that corresponds to the short circuit rating and the test X/R ratio. The device will be properly rated. Now consider another possibility. What if the symmetrical fault current is the same as the equipment’s rated current, but the actual X/R ratio is larger than the tested X/R ratio? Now, the maximum asymmetrical fault current will be larger than the maximum asymmetrical current corresponding to the short circuit rating and the test X/R ratio. Although the available symmetrical fault current is equal to the rating, the asymmetrical fault current is higher than that when the device was tested. The device is not rated properly.

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The above two paragraphs motivate a de-rating factor, or multiplying factor (MF), that is defined by the following formula:

If the calculated X/R ratio at a device is larger than the test X/R ratio of the device, then the calculated symmetrical fault current must be multiplied by the multiplying factor. Or, equivalently, the short circuit rating must be divided by the multiplying factor. The multiplying factor is equal to the ratio of the calculated asymmetrical fault current to the asymmetrical fault current at the test X/R ratio and the rated symmetrical current. Here is an example of the process. After running a fault analysis, the symmetrical fault current at some low voltage switchgear is found to be 62kA during the first half-cycle. The switchgear contains power circuit breakers rated at 65kA. The asymmetrical peak fault current was found to be 149kA. The X/R ratio was calculated to be 11.1. The test X/R ratio of low voltage power circuit breakers is 6.6. Although the symmetrical fault current is lower than the rating of the circuit breakers, the fact that the X/R ratio is higher than the test value means that we must use the multiplying factor.

Therefore, the effective symmetrical fault current is 1.07 X 62kA = 66kA. Because 66kA > 65kA, the switchgear is underrated. We can also de-rate the switchgear. Then, the effective rating of the gear is 65kA / 1.07 = 61kA. Now, because 62kA > 61kA, the switchgear is under-rated.
Summary of X/R Ratio:

When performing short circuit calculations, it is important to consider the X/R ratio. The higher the X/R ratio, the higher the asymmetrical peak fault current. Therefore, when verifying the ratings of electrical equipment, both the symmetrical short circuit rating and the X/R ratio must be taken into consideration.
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If the calculated X/R ratio is larger than the test X/R ratio, then the equipment short circuit rating must be de-rated by a multiplying factor. This multiplying factor equals the ratio of the calculated peak asymmetrical fault current divided by the peak asymmetrical current corresponding to the rated symmetrical current and the test X/R ratio. 3.3.7 Procedures

and Methods:

Short-Circuit Current Calculations & Relay-Coordination: To determine the fault current at any point in the system, first draw a one-line diagram showing all of the sources of short-circuit current feeding into the fault, as well as the impedances of the circuit components. To begin the study, the system components, including those of the utility system, are represented as impedances in the diagram. It must be understood that short circuit calculations are performed without current limiting devices in the system. Calculations are done as though these devices are Replaced with copper bars, to determine the maximum “available” short circuit current. This is necessary to project how the system and the current limiting devices will perform. Also, current limiting devices do not operate in series to produce a “compounding” current limiting effect. The downstream, or load side, fuse will operate alone under a short circuit condition if properly coordinated. 3.3.7.1 Three-phase Short-Circuit Calculation by Per-Unit Method: The Per-Unit method is generally used for calculating short-circuit currents when the electrical system is more complex. After establishing a one-line diagram of the system, proceed to the following calculations: Step-1: Infinite Source (Power Grid) Impedance:

Source Impedance Zs = MVA Base / MVA Fault Step-2:
Transmission Line Impedance:

Step-3:
Power/Distribution Transformer Impedance: DOBLE ENGINEERING PVT LTD, 305-SAKAR, OLD PADRA ROAD, VADODARA 108 PH: (+91) (265) 555 77 15, FAX: (+91) (265) 235 62 85 DOBLE ENGINEERING COMPANY, WATER TOWN, MA, USA www.doble.com

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Z2 PU = √(X PU)2 + (R PU)2 Or Z2 PU = (%Z)* (KVA Base) / (100)* (KVA X’mer)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------

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Step-4:
Cable:

X PU = {(X in Ohms)* (KVA Base)} / {(1000)* (kV Base)2} R PU = {(R in Ohms)* (KVA Base)} / {(1000)* (kV Base)2}
Z3 PU = √(X PU)2 + (R PU)2
-----------------------------------------------------------------------

Step-5: Determine the total Single Circuit line Impedance of Power Grid: Z’ Total PU = (Zs PU + Z1 PU + Z2 PU + Z3 PU) Step-6: Determine the total Short Circuit MVA from Power Grid: MVA SC1 = (MVA Base) / (Z’ Total PU) Step-7: Determine Short Circuit Current Contribution from Power Grid: I kA1 = (MVA SC1) / (1.7325* Rated KV) Step-8: Determine the Short Circuit Contribution from Generator: Z gen PU = {(%X’d)* (MVA Base)} / {(100)* (MVA Rated)} Step-9: Determine the total Short Circuit MVA from Generator: MVA SC2 = (MVA Base) / (Z gen PU) Step-10: Determine Short Circuit Current Contribution from Generator: DOBLE ENGINEERING PVT LTD, 305-SAKAR, OLD PADRA ROAD, VADODARA 109 PH: (+91) (265) 555 77 15, FAX: (+91) (265) 235 62 85 DOBLE ENGINEERING COMPANY, WATER TOWN, MA, USA www.doble.com

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I kA2 = (MVA SC2) / (1.7325* Rated KV)

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Step-11: Determine the Short Circuit Contribution from Motors or Dynamic loads: Z loads PU = {(%Z)* (MVA Base)} / {(100)* (MVA Rated)} Generally, %Z = 25% consider for LT motors or loads and %Z = 15-20% for HT motors or loads. Step-12: Determine the total Short Circuit MVA from Dynamic loads or Motors: MVA SC3 = (MVA Base) / (Z loads PU) Step-13: Determine Short Circuit Current Contribution from Dynamic loads or Motors: I kA3 = (MVA SC3) / (1.7325* Rated KV) Step-14: Determine Total Short Circuit Current at Fault: I kA symm RMS = (I kA1 + I kA2 + I kA3) Step-15: Determine X/R ratio of the system to the point of fault: X/Rratio = (X PU total) / (R PU total) Step-16: Determine the Asymmetrical RMS short-circuit current to the point of fault: I kA asymm RMS = (I kA symm RMS)* (Asym Factor) Step-17: Determine the Asymmetrical Factor:
Asym Factor or Momentary multiplying factor (MFm) = Under root( 1 + (2e)-2*3.14/(X/R))

Step-16: Determine the Peak value of short-circuit current to the point of fault: I kA mom, peak = (I kA Asymm RMS)* (MFP) Step-17: Determine the Multiplying peak Factor: DOBLE ENGINEERING PVT LTD, 305-SAKAR, OLD PADRA ROAD, VADODARA 110 PH: (+91) (265) 555 77 15, FAX: (+91) (265) 235 62 85 DOBLE ENGINEERING COMPANY, WATER TOWN, MA, USA www.doble.com

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Peak Momentary multiplying factor (MFP) = 1.414*(Under root( 1 + (e)-3.14/(X/R)))

Example is shown in fig

All Sources and loads feed fault Current figure (3)

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CASE STUDY-1:

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CASE STUDY-2:

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GR1

GR2

4-DGSETS

GR1TR1

F1 2MVA-TR

4X350KW

4X250KW

DY. LOAD

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FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS
The calculation of fault level / short circuit current can be calculated using PU values of impedances / reactances of different components of the system. For calculation of PU values, let us select the base MVA = 15 MVA ¾ INFINITE SOURCE: Fault level at infinite bus as given by GEB is 5481 MVA at Jambua Load Dispatch Center, at 132 KV voltage level & 15.5 KM far from the plant site. Based on this, source impedance can be found out as given below: Source Impedance Zs = 15 / 5481 = 0.0027367269 PU ¾ TRANSMISSION LINE: According to data available from GEB, the two 132 KV transmission lines, having Panther 0.2 conductor & 15.5 KM length have following parameters R = 9.31 X 10-4 PU / KM / circuit X = 2.216 X 10-3 PU / KM / circuit Zt = Under root of ( R2 + X2 ) = Under root of ( (0.000931)2 + (0.002216)2 ) Zt = 0.0024036258 PU / KM / circuit Total impedance for 15.5 KM long line Zt = 0.00558837 PU / circuit ¾ POWER TRANSFORMER: The rating of power transformer is 15 MVA / 20 MVA. For calculation of transformer impedance, normal operating conditions are to be considered. So the rating of the transformer = 15 MVA has to be considered. Power transformer PU impedance can be calculated as follows. 9.2 X 15 Ztr = ----------------100 X 15 Ztr = 0.092 PU

¾ CABLE:
The cable between power transformer & 6.6 KV HT panel is 8 X 3C X 300 sq.mm. & the length of the cable = 100 mtrs The impedance of the cable Zc = 0.0006780303 PU DOBLE ENGINEERING PVT LTD, 305-SAKAR, OLD PADRA ROAD, VADODARA 117 PH: (+91) (265) 555 77 15, FAX: (+91) (265) 235 62 85 DOBLE ENGINEERING COMPANY, WATER TOWN, MA, USA www.doble.com

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¾ 2270 DESIEL GENERATOR:
According to Generator data, the sub-transient reactance (X”d) of the Generator = 16.3 % The PU value of Generator impedance on 15 MVA base can be found out through following formula: 16.3 X 15 PU impedance of Generator Zg = --------------------100 X 2.270 = 1.0770925 PU

¾ 350 KW, 6.6 KV CHILLER MOTOR:
As the actual motor transient reactance is not available, the motor transient reactance is selected as 17 % for all HT motor, according to statistical analysis. The PU value of 350 KW, 6.6 KV motor impedance on 15 MVA base can be found out through following formula: Motor impedance Zm = 17 X 15 ------------------100 X 0.4375 5.82857 PU

=

¾ 350 KW MOTOR CABLE:
The cable connecting 6.6 KV panel & 350 KW motor is 1 X 3C X 185 sq.mm. with 550 mtrs length. The PU value of the cable connecting 350 KW motor & 6.6 KV panel Zcm Zcm = 0.0436294 PU

¾ 250 KW, 6.6 KV COMPRESSOR MOTOR:
As the actual motor transient reactance is not available, the motor transient reactance is selected as 17 % for all HT motor, according to statistical analysis. DOBLE ENGINEERING PVT LTD, 305-SAKAR, OLD PADRA ROAD, VADODARA 118 PH: (+91) (265) 555 77 15, FAX: (+91) (265) 235 62 85 DOBLE ENGINEERING COMPANY, WATER TOWN, MA, USA www.doble.com

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he PU value of 250 KW, 6.6 KV motor impedance on 15 MVA base can be found out through following formula:

Motor impedance Zm = =

17 X 15 ------------------100 X 0.3125 8.16 PU

¾ 2 MVA DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER( LT1, LT2, LT3 ):
Percentage Impedance of Transformer (%Z) = 6.43% 2 MVA distribution transformer PU impedance can be calculated as follows. 6.43 X 15 Ztr = ----------------100 X 2 Ztr = 0.48225 PU

¾ CABLE:
The cable between distribution transformer & 6.6 KV HT panel is 8 X 3C X 300 sq.mm. & the length of the cable = 525 mtrs The PU impedance of the cable Zc = 0.02847 PU

¾ LT DYNAMIC LOAD:
As the actual LT motor data of transient reactance is not available, according to standard statistical analysis, it is taken as 25 % The LT motors are not considered individually but are considered as a lumped load on each LT transformer According to the plant operating condition, 1. 2 MVA load is considered as a Dynamic lumped load on each 2 MVA transformer The PU impedance of the LT dynamic load Zm = = 25 X 15 ---------------100 X 1.2 3.125 PU

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FAULT LEVEL CALCULATION AT 132 KV SWITCHYARD BUS:
Total impedance of a Two grid from infinite source to 6.6 KV panel: 0.00558837 = 0.002736729 + ----------------2 = 0.00553085 PU / circuit Fault contribution of Both Grid running in parallel = 15 / 0.00553085 = 2712 MVA

CONDITION - A: WHEN ALL 4 DG SETS ARE RUNNING IN PARALLEL WITH TWO GRID SUPPLY

¾ Fault contribution of both the Grid for a fault on 6.6 KV bus
Total impedance of two grid lines from infinite source to 6.6 KV panel: 0.00558837+ 0.092 + 0.0006780303 = 0.002736729 + ------------------------------------------------2 = 0.518698 PU / circuit Fault contribution of Both Grid running in parallel = 15 / 0.0518698 = 289 MVA

¾ Fault contribution of all the four DG SETS for a fault on 6.6 KV bus
The PU impedance of a single DG = 1.0770925 PU

Considering all four DG running in parallel, total PU impedance = 0.2692731 PU Fault contribution of all DG running in parallel = 15 / 0.2692731 = 55.7 MVA = 56 MVA (say) ¾ Fault contribution of all the HT motors for a fault on 6.6 KV bus
Considering normal working condition of the plant, total 4 no of 350 KW & 4 no of 250 KW motor are taken in to consideration for Fault contribution DOBLE ENGINEERING PVT LTD, 305-SAKAR, OLD PADRA ROAD, VADODARA 120 PH: (+91) (265) 555 77 15, FAX: (+91) (265) 235 62 85 DOBLE ENGINEERING COMPANY, WATER TOWN, MA, USA www.doble.com

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Total PU impedance of a single 350 KW HT motor feeder = 5.8285714 + 0.0436294

= 5.872200814 PU
Total PU impedance of a single 250 KW HT motor feeder = 8.16 + 0.0436294

= 8.2036294 PU Total PU impedance of all HT motors = 5.872200814 / 4 || 8.2036294 / 4 = 0.8556042 PU Fault contribution of all HT motor running in parallel = 15 / 0.8556042 = 17.53 MVA = 18 MVA (say)

Total fault level on 6.6 kv bus for 2 Grid & 4 DG-SET running in parallel = 363 MVA & This value exceeds the bus bar short circuit rating of 350 MVA.
CONDITION B: WHEN ALL 4 DG ARE WORKING IN PARALLEL WITH ONE GRID

¾ Fault contribution of one Grid for a fault on 6.6 KV bus This condition considers both the infinite sources & both the transmission lines but only a single power transformer & a single 6.6 KV incoming grid, keeping 132 KV bus coupler closed. Total impedance of a single grid from infinite source to 6.6 KV panel:
0.00558837 = 0.002736729 + ------------------+ 0.092 + 0.0006780303 2 = 0.0982088 PU Fault contribution of one grid = 15 / 0.0968405 = 153 MVA

¾ Fault contribution of all the four DG for a fault on 6.6 KV bus
The PU impedance of a single DG = 1.0770925 PU Considering all four DG running in parallel, total PU impedance = 0.2692731 PU Fault contribution of all DG running in parallel = 15 / 0.2692731 = 55.7 MVA = 56 MVA (say)

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¾ Fault contribution of all the HT motors for a fault on 6.6 KV bus
Considering normal working condition of the plant, total 4 no of 350 KW & 4 no of 250 KW motor are taken in to consideration for Fault contribution Total PU impedance of a single 350 KW HT motor feeder = 5.8285714 + 0.0436294 = 5.872200814 PU Total PU impedance of a single 250 KW HT motor feeder = 8.16 + 0.0436294 = 8.2036294 PU Total PU impedance of all HT motors = 5.872200814 / 4 || 8.2036294 / 4 = 0.8556042 PU

Fault contribution of all HT motor running in parallel

= 15 / 0.8556042 = 17.53 MVA

= 18 MVA (say) Total fault level on 6.6 kv bus for 2 GRID & 4 DG running in parallel = 227 MVA This value is well within the bus bar short circuit rating of 350 MVA. CONDITION C: WHEN 5 DG ARE WORKING IN PARALLEL WITH ONE GRID

¾ Fault contribution of one Grid for a fault on 6.6 KV bus
This condition considers both the infinite sources & both the transmission lines but only a single power transformer & a single 6.6 KV incoming grid, keeping 132 KV bus coupler closed. Total impedance of a single grid from infinite source to 6.6 KV panel: 0.00558837 = 0.002736729 + ------------------+ 0.092 + 0.0006780303 2 = 0.0982088 PU DOBLE ENGINEERING PVT LTD, 305-SAKAR, OLD PADRA ROAD, VADODARA 122 PH: (+91) (265) 555 77 15, FAX: (+91) (265) 235 62 85 DOBLE ENGINEERING COMPANY, WATER TOWN, MA, USA www.doble.com

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Fault contribution of one grid = 15 / 0.0968405 = 153 MVA

¾ Fault contribution of all the 5 DG for a fault on 6.6 KV bus
The PU impedance of a single DG = 1.0770925 PU Considering all 5 DG running in parallel, total PU impedance = 0.2154185 PU Fault contribution of all DG running in parallel = 15 / 0.2154185 = 69.63 MVA = 70 MVA (say)

¾ Fault contribution of all the HT motors for a fault on 6.6 KV bus
Considering normal working condition of the plant, total 4 no of 350 KW & 4 no of 250 KW motor are taken in to consideration for Fault contribution Total PU impedance of a single 350 KW HT motor feeder = 5.8285714 + 0.0436294 = 5.872200814 PU Total PU impedance of a single 250 KW HT motor feeder = 8.16 + 0.0436294 = 8.2036294 PU Total PU impedance of all HT motors = 5.872200814 / 4 || 8.2036294 / 4 = 0.8556042 PU Fault contribution of all HT motor running in parallel = 15 / 0.8556042 = 17.53 MVA = 18 MVA (say) Total fault level on 6.6 kv bus for 2 GRID & 4 DG running in parallel = 241 MVA This value is well within the bus bar short circuit rating of 350 MVA.

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SR. NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

SOURCE CONDITION 2G+4D+M 1G + 4D + M 4D + M 2G + M 5D + M 1G + 5D + M 3D + 2G + M

6.6kV BUSBAR (MVA) 363 227 74 307 88 241 349

Fault current at 6.6KV BUSBAR (KA) 32.45 19.85 6.47 26.85 7.69 21.08 30.53

SUMMARY OF THREE PHASE FAULT LEVEL CALCULATIONS ON 6.6 kV VOLTAGE LEVEL

WHERE, G = GRID OR GUJARAT ELECTRICITY BOARD SUPPLY. D = DIESEL GENERATOR SETS. M = MOTOR. From above results, we can conclude that, running two grid in parallel with four DG SETS will create a fault level greater than rated 350 MVA fault level. Hence, it is recommended to run a single grid in parallel with four DG SETS considering future scope of one more DG.

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3.3.7.2 Three-phase Short-Circuit Calculation by Ohmic Method:
Step-1:
Most circuit component impedances are given in ohms except utility and transformer impedances, which are found by the following formulae, (Note that the transformer and utility ohms are referred to the secondary KV by squaring the secondary voltage.) tXutility in Ohms = 1000 (kVsecondary)2 / S.C. kVAutility. Step-2: Xtransformer in Ohms = (10)*(%X)*(kVsecondary)2 / kVAtransformer. Step-3: The impedance (in Ohms) given for current transformer, large switches and large C.B. is essentially all X. Step-4: Xcable and bus in Ohms. Rcable and bus in Ohms. Step-5: Total all X and R in system to point of fault. Step-6: Determine impedance (in Ohms) of the system by:

Step-7: Calculate short-circuit symmetrical RMS amperes at point of fault.

Step-8: Determine the motor load. Add up the full load motor currents. The full load motor current in the system is generally a percentage of the transformer full load current, depending upon the types of loads. The generally accepted procedure assumes 50% motor load when both motor and lighting loads are considered.

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Step-9: The symmetrical motor contribution can be approximated by using an average multiplying factor associated with the motors in the system. This factor varies according to motor design and in this text may be chosen as 4 times motor full load current for approximate calculation purposes. To solve for the symmetrical motor contribution:

Step-10: The total symmetrical short-circuit RMS current is calculated as:

Step-11: Determine X/R ratio of the system to the point of fault.

Step-12: Calculate the asymmetrical RMS short-circuit current.

Step-13: The short-circuit current that the motor load can contribute is an asymmetrical current usually approximated as being equal to the locked rotor current of the motor. As a close approximation with a margin of safety use:

Step-14: The total asymmetrical short-circuit RMS current is calculated as:

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Case Study-2: Sc=175 MVA (min fault MVA ) Sc=220 MVA (max fault MVA )

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Determinate the equivalent impedance network related to the 22 kV level (figure 12) and calculate the fault currents, on the 22 kV voltage level. In the example all impedances are considered to be pure reactances.

The short-circuit currents are calculated for different fault points in the system. This is done for both maximum and minimum short-circuit capacity.

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Three-phase short-circuit current:

The phase to phase short-circuit current can be found by multiplying the three phase short-circuit current by a factor:

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3.3.7.3 Three-phase Short-Circuit Calculation by Point-to-Point Method:
The application of the point-to-point method permits the determination of available shortcircuit currents with a reasonable degree of accuracy at various points for either 3ø or 1ø electrical distribution systems. This method can assume unlimited primary short-circuit current (infinite bus).

Basic Point-to-Point Calculation Procedure:

Step-1:
Determine the transformer full load amperes from either the nameplate or the following formulas:

Step-2: Find the transformer multiplier.

Note: Transformer impedance (Z) helps to determine what the short circuit current will be at the transformer secondary. Transformer impedance is determined as follows: The transformer secondary is short-circuited. Voltage is applied to the primary, which causes full load current to flow in the secondary. This applied voltage divided by the rated primary voltage is the impedance of the transformer. Example: For a 440 volt rated primary, if 18.0 volts causes secondary full load current to flow through the shorted secondary, the transformer impedance is 18/440 = 0.0409 = 4.09%Z. In addition, UL listed transformer 25KVA and larger have a ± 10% impedance tolerance. Short circuit amperes can be affected by this tolerance. Step-3: Determine the transformer short-circuit current; DOBLE ENGINEERING PVT LTD, 305-SAKAR, OLD PADRA ROAD, VADODARA 134 PH: (+91) (265) 555 77 15, FAX: (+91) (265) 235 62 85 DOBLE ENGINEERING COMPANY, WATER TOWN, MA, USA www.doble.com

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Note: Motor short-circuit contribution, if significant, may be added to the transformer secondary short-circuit current value as determined in Step 3. Proceed with this adjusted figure through Steps 4, 5 and 6. A practical estimate of motor short-circuit contribution is to multiply the total motor current in amperes by 4. Step-4: Calculate the "f" factor.

Where: L = length (feet) of circuit to the fault. C = constant from Table 6, page 27. For parallel runs, multiply C values by the number of conductors per phase. I = available short-circuit current in amperes at beginning of circuit. Note: The L-N fault current is higher than the L-L fault current at the secondary terminals of a single-phase center-tapped transformer. The short-circuit current available (I) for this case in Step 4 should be adjusted at the transformer terminals as follows: At L-N center tapped transformer terminals, I = 1.5 x L-L Short-Circuit Amperes at Transformer Terminals At some distance from the terminals, depending upon wire size, the L-N fault current is lower than the L-L fault current. The 1.5 multiplier is an approximation and will theoretically vary from 1.33 to 1.67. These figures are based on change in turns ratio between primary and secondary, infinite source available, zero feet from terminals of transformer, and 1.2 x %X and 1.5 x %R for L-N vs. L-L resistance and reactance values. Begin L-N calculations at transformer secondary terminals then proceed point-topoint.

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Step-5: Calculate "M" (multiplier).

Step-6: Calculate the available short-circuit symmetrical RMS current at the point of fault.

Calculation of Short-Circuit Currents at Second Transformer in System: Use the following procedure to calculate the level of fault current at the secondary of a second, downstream transformer in a system when the level of fault current at the transformer primary is known.

Procedure for Second Transformer in System: Step-1: Calculate the "f" factor (IS.C. primary known)

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Step-2: Calculate "M" (multiplier).

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Step-3: Calculate the short-circuit current at the secondary of the transformer. (See Note under Step 3 of "Basic Point-to- Point Calculation Procedure".)

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3.3.7.4 1ø Short-Circuit Current Calculations – 1ø Transformer System:

Procedures and Methods:
Short-circuit calculations on a single-phase center tapped transformer system require a slightly different procedure than 3Ø faults on 3Ø systems. 1. It is necessary that the proper impedance be used to represent the primary system. For 3Ø fault calculations, single primary conductor impedance is only considered from the source to the transformer connection. This is compensated for in the 3Ø short-circuit formula by multiplying the single conductor or single-phase impedance by 1.73. However, for single-phase faults, primary conductor impedance is considered from the source to the transformer and back to the source. This is compensated in the calculations by multiplying the 3Ø primary source impedance by two.

2. The impedance of the center-tapped transformer must be adjusted for the half-winding (generally line-to-neutral) fault condition. The diagram at the right illustrates that during line-to-neutral faults, the full primary winding is involved but, only the half-winding on the secondary is involved. Therefore, the actual transformer reactance and resistance of the half winding condition is different than the actual transformer reactance and resistance of the full winding condition. Thus, adjustment to the %X and %R must be made when considering line-to-neutral faults. The adjustment multipliers generally used for this condition are as follows: 1.5 times full winding %R on full winding basis. 1.2 times full winding %X on full winding basis. DOBLE ENGINEERING PVT LTD, 305-SAKAR, OLD PADRA ROAD, VADODARA 139 PH: (+91) (265) 555 77 15, FAX: (+91) (265) 235 62 85 DOBLE ENGINEERING COMPANY, WATER TOWN, MA, USA www.doble.com

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3. The impedance of the cable and two-pole switches on the system must be considered "both-ways" since the current flows to the fault and then returns to the source. For instance, if a line-to-line fault occurs 50 feet from a transformer, then 100 feet of cable impedance must be included in the calculation. The calculations on the following pages illustrate 1ø fault calculations on a single-phase transformer system. Both line-to-line and line-to-neutral faults are considered.

Note in these examples: a). The multiplier of 2 for some electrical components to account for the single-phase fault current flow. b). The half-winding transformer %X and %R multipliers for the line-to-neutral fault situation. c). The KVA and voltage bases used in the per-unit calculations.

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Comparison of Results:
Per-Unit Method vs. Point-to-Point Method Per-Unit Method X1 Line-Line 16,984A Line-Neutral 20,041A PTP Method 18,453A 20,555A

Impedance and Reactance Data–Transformers and Switches:

This table has been reprinted from IEEE Std 141-1986, IEEE Recommended Practice for Electric Power Distribution for Industrial Plants, Copyright© 1986 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc with the permission of the IEEE Standards Department.

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Impedance Data for Three Phase Transformers:

Impedance Data for Single Phase Transformers:

National standards do not specify %Z for single-phase transformers. Consult manufacturer for values to use in calculation. Based on rated current of the winding (one–half nameplate kVA divided by secondary line-to-neutral voltage). Note: UL Listed transformers 25 KVA and greater have a ± 10% tolerance on their impedance nameplate. DOBLE ENGINEERING PVT LTD, 305-SAKAR, OLD PADRA ROAD, VADODARA 146 PH: (+91) (265) 555 77 15, FAX: (+91) (265) 235 62 85 DOBLE ENGINEERING COMPANY, WATER TOWN, MA, USA www.doble.com

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This table has been reprinted from IEEE-Std 242-1986 (R1991), IEEE Recommended Practice for Protection and Coordination of Industrial and Commercial Power Systems, Copyright© 1986 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. with the permission of the IEEE Standards Department. Impedance Data for Single Phase and Three Phase:

These represent actual transformer nameplate ratings taken from field installations. Note: UL Listed transformers 25KVA and greater have a ±10% tolerance on their impedance nameplate. Current Transformer Reactance Data: Approximate Reactance of Current Transformers

Note: Values given are in ohms per phase. For actual values, refer to manufacturers' data. This table has been reprinted from IEEE Std 241-1990, IEEE Recommended Practice for Commercial Building Power Systems, Copyright© 1990 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. with the permission of the IEEE Standards Department.

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Disconnecting Switch Reactance Data: Disconnecting-Switch Approximate Reactance Data, in Ohms

Note: The reactance of disconnecting switches for low-voltage circuits (600V and below) is in the order of magnitude of 0.00008 - 0.00005 ohm/pole at 60 Hz for switches rated 400 4000 A, respectively. For actual values, refer to manufacturers’ data. This table has been reprinted from IEEE Std 241-1990, IEEE Recommended Practice for Commercial Building Power Systems, Copyright© 1990 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. with the permission of the IEEE Standards Department.

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3.3.7.5

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INTRODUCTION: RELAY CO-ORDINATION STUDY
Relay co-ordination procedure is used for power system protection. Power system protection engineering deals with precautionary measures to be taken to safeguard the power system during abnormal operating conditions. The practice of protection engineering involves periodic fault studies followed by relay setting, checking and co-ordination studies. The Protection philosophy is to adopt a mainly Primary Protection & Backup Protection. PRIMARY PROTECTION & BACKUP PROTECTION: -Æ Primary Protection: Device Closest to the Fault. -Æ Backup Protection: Device next in the line. -Æ Backup protection should be Operates, If the primary protection fails. -Æ Reason for Providing Back up Protection; • Failure of primary protection: -Æ Mal-operation of the relay. -Æ Incorrect system design. -Æ Wrong selection of the relay. -Æ Improper installation and maintenance. • Circuit Breaker failure (Stuck breaker)

Ideal backup protection would be completely independent of the main protection. Current transformers, Voltage transformers, auxiliary tripping relays, trip coils and dc supplies would be duplicated. The following compromises are typical; -Æ Separate current transformers are used for each protective system as this involves little extra cost. -Æ Common voltage transformers are used. -Æ Trip supplies to the two protections should be separately used. Why do we need to coordinate protective relaying system? It is evident that in spite of all precautions taken in the design & installation of electrical power / distribution systems, there are bound to arise abnormal conditions or faults some of which like short circuits may prove extremely damaging to not only the faulty component but to the neighboring components & to the power system as a whole. It is of vital importance to limit the damage to a minimum by speedy isolation of the faulty section, without disturbing the working of the rest of the system. It is obvious that faster the speed of operation of elements of protective system (relay & breaker), less is the damage to the equipment. The time setting of the relays has to be DOBLE ENGINEERING PVT LTD, 305-SAKAR, OLD PADRA ROAD, VADODARA 149 PH: (+91) (265) 555 77 15, FAX: (+91) (265) 235 62 85 DOBLE ENGINEERING COMPANY, WATER TOWN, MA, USA www.doble.com

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decided based on the short time rating of the equipments to be protected. More over if the faults are not cleared within the time, the generator may go out of step and complete shut down of all the generator may occur resulting in to total dark-out. On the same way relay should not be made extremely fast, as otherwise the relays may operate unnecessarily for transient conditions Protective system should be able to discriminate between fault & load condition even when the minimum fault current is less than the maximum load current. The relay should be able to distinguish between over load & over current. Only faulty element of the system should be isolated & healthy section should be left intact. This selectivity can be obtained by grading of protections of several zones. All the above can be achieved by proper coordination of protective relaying system of different zones. The relay coordination is one of the ways through which the system can become more stable & more reliable. The following points may be considered while co-coordinating the operation of different releases / relays in a radial system. • • • • Circuit Breaker Interrupting Time Release overshoot Release operating time error Final safety margin

The discrimination time between two electro-mechanical relays are as shown below; T = ( 0.4t + 0.2 ) in second The discrimination time between two numerical relays are as shown below; T = ( 0.4t + 0.15 ) in second Where “t” is the operating time of fuse and 0.4*t is the discrimination time between fuse & breaker. The discrimination time between two electro-mechanical relays are as shown below; T = ( 0.25t + 0.2 ) in second The discrimination time between two numerical relays are as shown below; T = ( 0.25t + 0.15 ) in second Where “t” is the operating time of fuse and 0.25*t is the discrimination time between breaker & breaker. DOBLE ENGINEERING PVT LTD, 305-SAKAR, OLD PADRA ROAD, VADODARA 150 PH: (+91) (265) 555 77 15, FAX: (+91) (265) 235 62 85 DOBLE ENGINEERING COMPANY, WATER TOWN, MA, USA www.doble.com

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The time interval according to ANSI/ IEEE Std-242: 1986 is usually 0.3 to 0.4 seconds. This interval is measured between relays in series either at the instantaneous setting of the load side feeder circuit breaker relay or the maximum short circuit current which can flow through both devices simultaneously, whichever is lowest. The recommended time has the following components: • Circuit breaker opening time (3 cycles): 0.06 seconds • Relay over-travel or Overshoot: 0.10 seconds • Safety factor for CT saturation, setting errors, etc.: 0.22 seconds An over current Protections are used for the feeder protections because of economical cost and more simplicity. An over current relay operates when the magnitude of the current exceeds it’s preset value. Normally, various types over current protection with various characteristics are used for feeder protection as mention below;

• • • • • • • • • •

Standard Normal inverse (3.0s at 10times of PS), T in second = [0.14 / ((PSM)0.02 – 1)]* TMS Standard Very inverse (1.5s at 10times of PS), T in second = [13.5 / ((PSM) – 1)]* TMS Standard extremely inverse(0.8s at 10times of PS), T in second = [80 / ((PSM)2 – 1)]* TMS Standard long inverse(17s at 10times of PS), T in second = [120 / ((PSM) – 1)]* TMS IEEE Normal inverse, IEEE Moderately inverse, IEEE very inverse, IEEE extremely inverse, IEEE short time inverse, IEEE long time inverse.

Earlier in electro-mechanical protection, one relay is used with only one characteristic like CDG-11 has Normal inverse characteristic, CDG-12 has long inverse characteristic, CDG-13 has Very inverse characteristic, CDG-14 has Extremely inverse characteristic. But, now today modern numerical protection (like SPAJ-140C, 7SJ600, 7SJ61, IM30-AP, P123, SEL-501 etc.) have more than one characteristics so, now, today we have better selectivity and ranges which is given a better relay co-ordination. Application of Extremely Inverse Time Over-current Relay: It is sometimes difficult to find an inverse time relay having characteristics are not suitable to grade with fuses because of characteristic curve is not close with defined fuse characteristic. Extremely inverse characteristic is very close with fuse operating characteristics as shown in figure(1A). DOBLE ENGINEERING PVT LTD, 305-SAKAR, OLD PADRA ROAD, VADODARA 151 PH: (+91) (265) 555 77 15, FAX: (+91) (265) 235 62 85 DOBLE ENGINEERING COMPANY, WATER TOWN, MA, USA www.doble.com

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Figure (1A):- IEC CURVES

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Figure (1B):- IEEE CURVES at TD=7.0

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3.3.7.6

Functional Characteristics:
Three essential characteristics of the protective relaying: 1) Sensitivity 2) Selectivity 3) Speed 1) Sensitivity: -Æ Pickup Setting must be greater than maximum load current in circuit. -Æ Lower the pickup of the relay more will be the sensitivity. -Æ Relay should be able to detect minimum fault current. Example: ----Æ Fault current magnitude = 35kA ----Æ CTR = 3000/1 ----Æ Relay Pickup, set at 75% Relay Operating current on Primary side = (75/100)*(3000) = 2250 Amp Relay Operating current on Secondary side = (75/100)*(1) = 0.75 Amp Sensitivity of relay during a fault = (2250/35000)*100 = 6.42% ----Æ Relay Pickup, set at 100% Relay Operating current on Primary side = (100/100)*(3000) = 3000 Amp Relay Operating current on Secondary side = (100/100)*(1) = 1.0 Amp Sensitivity of relay during a fault = (3000/35000)*100 = 8.57% Thus, lower the setting, higher will be the sensitivity for fault detection. 2) Selectivity: Three methods to achieve the discrimination 5) Discrimination by Time 6) Discrimination by current 7) Discrimination by both Time & current 8) Direction of the fault current 5) Discrimination by Time: • Basically used with definite time relays • Time of operation is independent of current magnitude • Discrimination time between successive relays say 0.3 sec EXAMPLE: • For fault on one outgoing feeder3 • Fuse Operates in 0.01s DOBLE ENGINEERING PVT LTD, 305-SAKAR, OLD PADRA ROAD, VADODARA 154 PH: (+91) (265) 555 77 15, FAX: (+91) (265) 235 62 85 DOBLE ENGINEERING COMPANY, WATER TOWN, MA, USA www.doble.com

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Next feeder2 relay operates in 0.25s Next feeder1 relay operates in 0.50s All upstream relays are graded accordingly

DISADVANTAGE: • Operating time of the upstream relays will be very high • The fault closest to the source takes longest time to clear ADVANTAGE: • Defined operating time for variable source operating condition. 6) Discrimination by Current: • Applicable only when substantial difference between the fault current magnitudes exist for the faults on the two ends of the equipment. • The impedance of the equipment shall be substantial that will create the above difference. EXAMPLE: • For the fault on the L.T. side of transformer TR • Fault current = 40,000 A @ 415V = 1509.09 A @ 11kV (Reflected fault on 11kV side) • For the fault on the H.T. side of Transformer TR • Fault current = 13.5 kA @ 11kV • IDMTL unit of Transformer Primary side (11kV) relay should be operate as a backup protection on L.T. fault • HIGHSET unit of Transformer Primary side (11kV) relay should be operate on H.T. fault DISADVANTAGE: • The discrimination is obtained but no backup ensured 7) Discrimination by both Time & Current: • Obtained using Inverse time relays (IDMTL) • IDMTL – Inverse definite minimum time lag • Relay operating time varied by adjusting time dial & current setting • Relay operating time depends on fault current. Higher fault, less operating time. Operating time inversely proportional to current magnitude • Discrimination achieved by both current & time EXAMPLE: • For a given fault current magnitude, discrimination time is 0.3s for all the successive relays • Pickup value for all the relays set below the fault current level • For the fault on the outgoing feeder-1 • Fault current = 40,000 A @ 415V DOBLE ENGINEERING PVT LTD, 305-SAKAR, OLD PADRA ROAD, VADODARA 155 PH: (+91) (265) 555 77 15, FAX: (+91) (265) 235 62 85 DOBLE ENGINEERING COMPANY, WATER TOWN, MA, USA www.doble.com

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• • • • • • •

= 1509.2 A @ 11kV (Reflected fault current on H.T. side) 250 A fuse operates in 0.01s Next feeder-2 relay operates in 0.25s on L.T. side fault Next feeder-3 relay operates in 0.5s on L.T. side fault Next feeder-4 relay operates in 0.75s on L.T. side fault For H.T. side of the Transformer TR Fault current = 13.5 kA @ 11kV Same Feeder-4 relay operates in 0.25s on H.T. faults

ADVANTAGE: • With the same Pickup & Time dial settings, lower Tome of operating for near end faults and higher operating times for near end faults inherently achieved. • In case of the difference in the fault current magnitude along system, IDMTLL relays are superior to the DMT relays • In case of same fault current magnitude along system, desired operating time can be achieved by adjusting pickup & time dial 8) SPEED: • Speed: the clearance time of the fault • Fault clearing time < 100ms, high speed tripping • Necessity of high speed tripping: • Minimizing the damage of the equipment • Increasing stability margin for synchronous machines • Avoiding unwanted tripping of voltage sensitive loads • • • Speed without sensitivity: Unsatisfactory co-ordination Methods to achieve high-speed tripping: Unit protection: 1) Protection provide to trip instantaneously for faults only within unit under protection 2) No time co-ordination with external protections Example: Bus differential protection Feeder pilot wire protection Transformer or motor protection Directional protection Restricted earth fault protection

• • • • • •

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3.3.7.7 CRITERIAS FOR PICKUP SETTING & TIME DIAL: Proper selection of Pickup & Time dial setting is essential. DMT RELAYS: • Primary Operating Current: • Setting must be above maximum running load current and largest drive starting current by safety margin. • Setting must be below the lowest through fault current. • Maximum load current includes motor full load current. Hence, it is subtracted. • Relevant for generally used DOL Starting. • Formula; o If > P.O.C > (IRL + ISTM – IFLM) Where, P.O.C. = Desired Primary Operating Current of relay IRL = Maximum running load current ISTM = Highest rating drive starting current IFLM = Highest rating drive full load current IF = Minimum fault current relay to sense • Over Load Pickup setting: o Pickup > (Primary operating current) / C.T. RATIO

IDMTL RELAYS: • Generally the pickup setting is available in steps (not continuously) in electromechanical relays & variable in numerical relays. • Not possible to get the exact set point value. • Select the next higher available step. • PSM > 2 for IDMT Relays • DMT Relays: Independent of fault current. Step:-1 • Primary operating current: o P.O.C. = (IRL + ISTM – IFLM) Where, P.O.C. = Desired primary operating current IRL = Maximum running load current ISTM = Highest drive starting current IFLM = Highest drive full load current DOBLE ENGINEERING PVT LTD, 305-SAKAR, OLD PADRA ROAD, VADODARA 157 PH: (+91) (265) 555 77 15, FAX: (+91) (265) 235 62 85 DOBLE ENGINEERING COMPANY, WATER TOWN, MA, USA www.doble.com

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Step:-2 Plug setting (PS) = (P.O.C.) / (C.T.R) = [ (IRL + ISTM – IFLM) / C.T.R. ] Selected Pickup setting: Select the next higher available step. Step:-3 Actual Primary Operating current (P.O.C.) = Selected Pickup setting * C.T.R. Step:-4 Plug setting Multiplier (PSM) = Fault current / Actual P.O.C. Step:-5 Desired relay Operating time (t) = td + T Where, td = Discrimination time & T = Downstream relay/fuse operating time Step:-6 Based on formula or curves, Calculate the relay operating time at TMS1.0 on PSM Step:-7 Desired Time Dial Set point (TMS) = { (Desired relay Operating time) / (Relay operating time at TMS1.0) } Select time dial setting: Nearest higher time dial setting selected Example: Relay type: CDG31 (3.0s at 10times) & CDG31 (1.3s at 10 times) • • Operating time at PSM = 10, & TMS = 1.0 is 3.0s / 1.3s For given change in time dial (Delta-TMS)-Æ Operating time of 3.0s relay is more than 1.3s relay. So, the closer relay co-ordination will be achieved by 1.3s relay.

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3.3.7.8 DATA REQUIRED TO PERFORM O/C & E/F RELAY CO-ORDINATION STUDY: 1. Power, voltage ratings, impedance, and connection configurations of all transformers included in the system to be analyzed. 2. Normal and emergency switching/steady state conditions. 3. Nameplate data from all protective devices included in study; i.e., manufacturer’s Catalog number, voltage/current, and IEC ratings. 4. Trip device type-range and current setting. 5. Conductor sizes, types, configurations, and temperature ratings. 6. Current transformer ratios. 7. Utility equipment rating and device settings. 8. Existing System one-line diagram.

REQUIRED DATA OF TRANSFORMER: ¾ MVA rating ¾ Primary and secondary voltage rating ¾ Percentage impedance [%Z] on the given MVA rating for positive and zero sequence [%Z1 and %Z0] ¾ X/R Ratio for positive and zero sequence ¾ Winging connection and Neutral Grounding Reactance / Resistance if any ¾ Tap data for both fixed taps and LTC taps, minimum and maximum %tap position and steps size for LTC REQUIRED DATA OF LINE / CABLE: ¾ Cable/Conductor type ¾ Cable length [ more than 100 Mt ] and cable size ¾ Resistance [ohm], Reactance [ohm] and Susceptance [mho] per Km for both positive and zero sequence values.

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REQUIRED DATA OF MOTOR: ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ KW rating MVA rating Rated RPM Rated current [ I ] Rated kV Starting current [ Ist ] No load current [ I0 ] Rotor resistance and reactance in ohm [ R2 & X2 ] Stator resistance and reactance in ohm [ R1 & X1 ] Magnetizing reactance in ohm Type of starting Motor performance characteristics

REQUIRED DATA OF GENERATOR: ¾ MW rating ¾ Voltage rating ¾ Direct axis reactance [ Xd ] in % or p.u. ¾ Quadrature axis reactance [ Xq ] in % or p.u. ¾ Direct axis transient reactance [ Xd’ ] in % or p.u. ¾ Quadrature axis transient reactance [ Xq’ ] in % or p.u. ¾ Direct axis sub-transient reactance [ Xd” ] in % or p.u. ¾ Quadrature axis sub-transient reactance [ Xq” ] in % or p.u. ¾ Synchronous reactance [ Xs ] in % or p.u. ¾ Negative phase sequence reactance [ X2 ] in % or p.u. ¾ Zero phase sequence reactance [ X0 ] in % or p.u. ¾ Transient time constant ( short circuit ) [ Td’ ] in seconds ¾ Sub-transient time constant ( short circuit ) [ Td” ] in seconds ¾ Generator Reactive capacity curve, if available ¾ Generator negative phase sequence withstand capacity curve ¾ Over-voltage and under-voltage withstand capacity ¾ Over-frequency and under-frequency withstand capacity REQUIRED DATA OF RELAYS: ¾ Relay type, model and manufacturer’s name ¾ CT rating/ratio
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Plug setting range Time dial setting range Relay characteristic curve details Instantaneous setting data or Range.

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3.3.7.9 EXAMPLE FOR PHASE FAULT RELAY SETTING:-

Figure:- circuit diagram

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IMPEDANCE CALCULATION: Base MVA = 500 Base kV = 11 Step:-1 Source Impedance (Zs) = (500 / 500)*100 = 100% Step:-2 Impedance of Cable (Z’c1 in Ohms) = ( (0.042)2 + (0.086)2 )0.5 = 0.096 Ohms Length of cable = 2kM & number of parallel path = 5 Total Impedance of Cable (Zc1 in Ohms) = (0.096*2 / 5) = 0.038 Ohms Value on Base MVA (Zc1 in PU) = [ (0.038 * 500) / (11)2 ]* 100 = 15.7% Step:-3 Impedance of reactor (Zr1 in PU) = (4 * 500) / (20) = 100% Step:-4 Impedance of Cable (Z’c2 in Ohms) = ( (0.128)2 + (0.093)2 )0.5 = 0.1582 Ohms Length of cable = 1kM & number of parallel path = 1 Value on Base MVA (Zc2 in PU) = [ (0.1582 * 500) / (11)2 ]* 100 = 65.37% Step:-5 Impedance of Cable (Z’c3 in Ohms) = ( (0.128)2 + (0.093)2 )0.5 = 0.1582 Ohms Length of cable = 1kM & number of parallel path = 1 Value on Base MVA (Zc3 in PU) = [ (0.1582 * 500) / (11)2 ]* 100 = 65.37% Step:-6 Zc2 II Zc3, so total (Zc4 in PU) = [ (0.1582 * 500) / (11)2 ]* 100 = 65.37/2 = 32.68%

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Fault Calculation: 1) Fault at Bus C: CONDITION:-A Both “C2” & “C3” cables are running in parallel SC MVA at Bus C = (500) / (1 + 0.157 + 1 + 0.3268 ) = (500) / (2.4838 ) = 201.3MVA SC current (IkA) = (201.3) / (1.73 * 11) = 10.56 kA CONDITION:-A Only “C2” cables are running SC MVA at Bus C = (500) / (1 + 0.157 + 1 + 0.65 ) = (500) / (2.807 ) = 178MVA SC current (IkA) = (178) / (1.73 * 11) = 9.33 kA 2) Fault at Bus B: SC MVA at Bus B = (500) / (1 + 0.157 + 1 ) = (500) / (2.157) = 231.8MVA SC current (IkA) = (231.8) / (1.73 * 11) = 12.16 kA 3) Fault at Bus A: SC MVA at Bus A = (500) / (1 + 0.157 ) = (500) / (1.157) = 432.1MVA SC current (IkA) = (432.1) / (1.73 * 11) = 22.68 kA ¾ Relay (F1/F2) –51–Extremely Inverse –0.8 sec These relays perform overcurrent protection of the cable feeders, Busbar C and backupprotection to relays F1, F2 and their associated fuses FS1 and FS2. The settings for Relays 1 and 2 will be identical, so calculations will only be performed for Relay 1. Consider first the current setting of the relay. Relay 1 must be able to reset at a current of 400A – the rating of the feeder. The relay has a drop-off/pick-up ratio of 0.95, so the relay current setting must not be less than 400/0.95, or 421A. A suitable setting that is greater than this value is 450A. The current setting should be three times the largest fuse rating (i.e. 3 x 160A, the rating of the largest fuse on the outgoing circuits from Bus bar C), leading to a current setting of 480A, or 96% of relay rated primary current. Note that in this application of relays to a DOBLE ENGINEERING PVT LTD, 305-SAKAR, OLD PADRA ROAD, VADODARA 164 PH: (+91) (265) 555 77 15, FAX: (+91) (265) 235 62 85 DOBLE ENGINEERING COMPANY, WATER TOWN, MA, USA www.doble.com

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distribution system, the question of maximum and minimum fault levels are probably not relevant as the difference between maximum and minimum fault levels will be very small. However in other applications where significant differences between maximum and minimum fault levels exist, it is essential to ensure that the selection of a current setting that is greater than full load current does not result in the relay failing to operate under minimum fault current conditions. Such a situation may arise for example in a selfcontained power system with its own generation. Minimum generation may be represented by the presence of a single generator and the difference between minimum fault level and maximum load level may make the choice of relay current settings difficult. The grading margin now has to be considered. For simplicity, a fixed grading margin of 0.3s between relays is used in the calculations. Between fuse and relay, Equation (0.4t + 0.15), and with fuse FS2 pre-arcing time of 0.01s (from Figure 1(C) & 1(D)), the grading margin is 0.154s. Consider first the IDMT overcurrent protection. Select the EI characteristic, as fuses exist downstream, to ensure grading. The relay must discriminate with the longest operating time between relays F1, F2 and fuse FS2 (being the largest fuse) at the maximum fault level seen by relays 1 and 2. The maximum fault current seen by relay 1 for a fault at Busbar C occurs when only one of cables C2, C3 is in service. This is because the whole of the fault current then flows through the feeder that is in service. With two feeders in service, although the fault level at Busbar C is higher, each relay only sees half of the total fault current, which is less than the fault current with a single feeder in service. With EI characteristics used for relays F1 and F2, the operating time for relay F1 is 0.02s at TMS=0.1 because the fault current is greater than 20 times relay setting, at which point the EI characteristic becomes definite time and 0.05s for relay F2 (TMS=0.25). ¾ Relay (R1) & Relay (R2) –51–Extremely Inverse –0.8 sec Relay (R1) must be co-ordinate with Fuse. Plug settings Phase fault setting: CTR = 500/1A Relay setting = 480 A %Loading on CT = 480 / 500 = 0.96. The full load current is 96 % of CT primary. So selected setting is on secondary side = 0.96*5 = 4.8 Amp. Time multiplier settings: Phase fault setting:

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Condition:-1 The required time of operation of relay = 0.3 + 0.05 = 0.350 Seconds. The 3- phase fault current at 11 V bus C is 9.33 kAmp. Plug Setting Multiplier (PSM) = 9.33 *103 / 480 = 19.43 Time of operation at TMS1.0 = (80*1.0) / ((19.43)2 – 1)) = 0.212 Seconds Require TMS = 0.35 / 0.21 = 1.64 This setting is outside the range of relay, so it is require to be changed by increasing current setting value. Now, new setting is 125% of CT primary = 500*1.25 = 625 A New PSM = 9330 / 625 = 14.98 Time of Operation at new PSM on TMS1.0 = (80*1.0) / ((14.98)2 – 1)) = 0.358s Require TMS = 0.35 / 0.358 = 0.98 Condition:-2 Fault current = 5.3 kA while two feeders (c2 & c3) are running in parallel PSM at Fault current = 5.3*1000 / 625 = 8.48 Time of Operation at TMS1.0 = 1.12s Actual Operating time at selected TMS = 1.12*0.98 = 1.09s ¾ Relay (R3) –51- Extremely Inverse –0.8 sec Relay (R3) must be co-ordinate with Relay (R1 & R2) Plug settings Current Setting: Full load current (Ifl) of feeder is = 1000A CTR = 1000/5A Plug setting Amp. Of Relay = (Ifl) / (CT primary *0.95) = 1052.0 Amp Plug setting of Relay = 106% = 1000 * 1.06 = 1060 Amp So the selected setting on CT secondary side = 1.06*5 = 5.3 Amp. Two possibilities of faults are as below; 1. for a fault just beyond relays 1 and 2 where the fault current will be the busbar fault current of 12.2kA 2. for a fault at Bus C where the fault current seen by either relay 1 or 2 will be half the total Bus C fault current of 10.56kA, i.e. 5.28kA Condition:-1 Set value = 1060 A Fault Current = 12.2 kA PSM = 12200 / 1060 = 11.50 DOBLE ENGINEERING PVT LTD, 305-SAKAR, OLD PADRA ROAD, VADODARA 166 PH: (+91) (265) 555 77 15, FAX: (+91) (265) 235 62 85 DOBLE ENGINEERING COMPANY, WATER TOWN, MA, USA www.doble.com

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Time of Operation at TMS1.0 = (80*1.0) / ((11.50)2 – 1)) = 0.609s Require time of Operation = 0.35 + 0.21 = 0.51s Require TMS = 0.51 / 0.609 = 0.8367 = Say (0.84) Condition:-2 Set value = 1060 A Fault Current = 10.56 kA PSM = 10560 / 1060 = 9.96 Time of Operation at TMS1.0 = (80*1.0) / ((9.96)2 – 1)) = 0.8146s Time of operation at TMS = 0.8146*0.84 = 0.6842s which is less than (R1 & R2 time) So, It is require to be change; set value = 1.06*1000 = 1060 Amp New PSM = 5300 / 1060 = 5.0 Time of Operation at TMS1.0 = 3.36s Require TMS = 1.12 / 3.36 = 0.33 Highset setting: 1.3*12.2 = 15.86 kA which is greater than L.T. fault current so, it is not operate in through fault condition. ¾ Relay (R4) –51- Standard Inverse –3.0 sec This must grade with relay 3 and relay 5. The supply authority requires that relay 5 use an SI characteristic to ensure grading with relays further upstream, so the SI characteristic will be used for relay 4 also. Relay 4 must grade with relay 3 at Bus A maximum fault level of 22.7kA. However with the use of an instantaneous high set element for relay 3, the actual grading point becomes the point at which the high set setting of relay 3 operates, i.e. 15.86kA. At this current, the operation time of relay 3 is [(80) / ((14.96)2 – 1)]*0.85s = 0.305s Thus, relay 4 required operating time is 0.305 + 0.3 = 0.605s at a fault level of 15.86kA. Relay 4 current setting must be at least (2800) / (3000 * 0.95) = 98% For convenience, use a value of 100% (=3000A). Thus relay 4 must operate in 0.605s at 15860/3000 = 5.29 times setting. Thus select a time multiplier setting of 0.15, giving a relay operating time of 0.62s for a normal inverse type characteristic. At this stage, it is instructive to review the grading curves, which are shown in Figure 1(C). While it can be seen that there are no grading problems between the fuses and relays 1/2, and between relays F1/2 and relays 1/2, it is clear that relay 3 and relay 4 do not grade over the whole range of fault current. This is a consequence of the change in characteristic for relay 4 to SI from the EI characteristic of relay 3 to ensure grading of relay 4 with relay 5. The solution is to increase the TMS setting of relay 4 until correct grading is achieved. The alternative is to increase the current setting, but this is undesirable unless the limit of the TMS setting is reached, because the current setting DOBLE ENGINEERING PVT LTD, 305-SAKAR, OLD PADRA ROAD, VADODARA 167 PH: (+91) (265) 555 77 15, FAX: (+91) (265) 235 62 85 DOBLE ENGINEERING COMPANY, WATER TOWN, MA, USA www.doble.com

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should always be as low as possible to help ensure positive operation of the relay and provide overload protection. Trial and error is often used, but suitable software can speed the task – for instance it is not difficult to construct a spreadsheet with the fuse/relay operation times and grading margins calculated. Satisfactory grading can be found for relay 4 setting values of: Iset4 = 1.0 or 3000A TMS = 0.275 At 22.7kA, the operation time of relay 4 is 0.93s. The revised grading curves are shown in Figure 1(D). ¾ Relay (R5) –51- Standard Inverse –3.0 sec Relay 5 must grade with relay 4 at a fault current of 22.7kA. At this fault current, relay 4 operates in 0.93s and thus relay 5 must operate in 0.3 + 0.93 = 1.23s at 22.7kA. A current setting of 110% of relay 4 current setting (i.e. 110% or 3300A) is chosen to ensure relay 4 picks up prior to relay 5. Thus 22.7kA represents 6.88 times the setting of relay 5. Relay 5 must grade with relay 4 at a fault current of 22.7kA, where the required operation time is 1.23s. At a TMS of 1.0, relay 5 operation time is [(0.14*1.0) / ((6.88)0.02 – 1)] = 3.56s Therefore, the required TMS is 1.23/3.56 = 0.345, use 0.35 nearest available value.

Figure:-1 (C) Initial grading curves

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Figure:-1 (D) revised initial grading curves

Figure:- 1 (E) Final curves DOBLE ENGINEERING PVT LTD, 305-SAKAR, OLD PADRA ROAD, VADODARA 169 PH: (+91) (265) 555 77 15, FAX: (+91) (265) 235 62 85 DOBLE ENGINEERING COMPANY, WATER TOWN, MA, USA www.doble.com

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3.3.7.10 EXAMPLE CALCULATION FOR DMT (Definite Minimum time) RELAYS: TRANSFORMER CAPACITY = 1000 KVA PRIMARY VOLTAGE = 11KV SECONDARY VOLTAGE = 0.415KV PRIMARY CURRENT = 52.54 Ampere SECONDARY CURRENT = 1392.8 Ampere CTR = 1600 / 1A HIGHEST DRIVE RATING = 100KW FUL LOAD CURRENT OF HIGHEST DRIVE = 174 Ampere RELAY TYPE = SPAJ140C SPAJ140C relay having both characteristics DMT & IDMT, but here only DMT is used Pickup range = (0.5 – 5.0)*In insteps of 0.1*In Time delay = 0.05 – 300s insteps of 0.01s Fault current = 40kA Desired Pickup setting > (IRL + ISTM – IFLM) / CTR > (600 + 870 – 174) / 1600 > 0.81 Allow 30% margin for minimum desired pickup setting because, 10% for safety & 20% for impedance & voltage variation etc. Pickup setting > 1.3 * 0.81 = 1.053 Set relay on 1.1*In Desired time delay (t) = td + T = (0.4t1 + 0.15) + T = (0.4*0.01 + 0.15) + 0.01 = 0.164s Set time delay at 0.17s. DOBLE ENGINEERING PVT LTD, 305-SAKAR, OLD PADRA ROAD, VADODARA 170 PH: (+91) (265) 555 77 15, FAX: (+91) (265) 235 62 85 DOBLE ENGINEERING COMPANY, WATER TOWN, MA, USA www.doble.com

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3.3.8 Application: Dynamic Testing of Relay by using DOBLE power system model & F6150 Power system simulator:

FRONT-VIEW OF DOBLE F6150 SOFTWARE BASED PROTECTION TESTING SIMULATOR

POWER SYSTEM MODEL IN SOFTWARE:
It is used for automatic calculate a various fault conditions like 3-ph, ph-ph, ph-g, D-L-G faults. All Data are taken from generator data-sheet. Make: Brush Electric Machine, USA Rated MVA Rated V Fault Current Number of Machines Unsaturated direct axis Transient reactance of Machine(Xd') Unsaturated Negative sequence reactance of machine(X2) Zero sequence reactance of machine Zero sequence resistance of machine Consider only One NGR on circuit. = 35 = 11kV = 1840A = 2.0 = 24.3% = 21% = 6.5% = 0.914%

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Fault condition is considered as two machines are run in parallel on same bus and fault is occurred on same bus. So, i have not considered any line data.
3.3.8.1 CASE:-1 ---->PRIMARY OHMS TAB: NEAR END
Res. in PU Reactance in PU

FAR END
Res. in PU React. in PU

Positive Sequence Imp.(Xd') 0.000 Negative Sequence Imp.(X2) 0.000 Zero Sequence Imp.(X0) 0.009 MVA = 35 kV = 11 CT Ratio : 2000 or 2000 / 1A PT Ratio : 100 or 11000 / 110V Method Used for Calculation = Per Unit.

0.243 0.211 0.065

0.000 0.000 0.009

0.243 0.211 0.065

Software calculated value of Base Impedance Value = 3.5 Ohms. ---->RESULT TAB: Fault Type = 3-PH Fault. Location = 100% Grd. Resistance = 0.0 Arc Resistance = 0.0 Load Angle = 0.0 Source voltage consider as a PT secondary Volt: Near End = 110/1.7325 = 63.5V Far End = 110/1.7325 = 63.5V Consider as a Radial Model OFF

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Output calculated DATA of Fault voltage and current are;
NEAR END MAG. 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.779 3.779 3.779 PH. 0.0 0.0 0.0 270.0 150.0 30.0 FAR END MAG. 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.779 3.779 3.779 PH. 0.0 0.0 0.0 270.0 150.0 30.0

VA VB VC I1 I2 I3 CASE:-2

Now, changed Grd. Resistance fron 0.0 to 1.0 Ohm. If you want to use your formulas with a Ground Resistance of 1.0 Ohm secondary, you may use radial line model: Fault Type = 3-PH Fault. Location = 100% Grd. Resistance = 1.0 Arc Resistance = 0.0 Load Angle = 0.0 Source voltage consider as a PT secondary Volt: Near End = 110V / 1.732 = 63.51V Consider as a Radial Model ON Output calculated DATA of Fault voltage and current are; NEAR END VA VB VC I1 I2 I3 MAG. 3.77 3.77 3.77 3.773 3.773 3.773 PH. 273.4 153.4 33.4 273.4 153.4 33.4

Where the 3.773 A comes from: 63.51V / {16.802@90degrees(Xd' secondary) + 1(Grd. Res.)} = 63.51 / 16.832@86.6 = 3.773 @ 86.6 = 3.773A @ 273.4 degrees

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THEORETICAL CALCULATION FOR 3-PHASE FAULT:
Base MVA = 35 Base kV =11 (1) BASE IMPEDANCE = (BASE KV)^2 / BASE MVA = (11)^2 / 35 = 3.4571 Ohms (2) Z in PU on new base = 0.243PU (3) Short Circuit or Fault MVA = Base MVA / Z in PU = 35 / 0.243 = 144.03 MVA

(4) Short Circuit Current in kA = ( (Fault MVA) / (1.7325 * Rated kV) ) = (144.03) / (1.7325* 11) = 7.55kA on Primary side of CT. (5) Fault Current Flows in CT secondary is = ( Fault Current on Primary side / CT Ratio ) = (7.55 * 1000) / (2000) = 3.77 Amp on Secondary side of CT during 3-ph fault condition. Above theoretical value of fault current is match with Power System Model software value. Sample Calculation of L/R VALUE: Consider a value of X/R of Transformer = 45. ==> X/R = 45 ==> (2*3.14*Fn*L) / R = 45 ==> L / R = 45 / (6.28*50) ==> L / R = 0.143 = 143.3ms This value you have to put in "State Simulation" for differential Protection testing. NOTE: L/R values are depends on system Impedance (R + jX). So, it may be change to test for generator, Line, Feeder (OC) protections. But, worst condition you will have to take like L/R = 300ms

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VIEW OF POWER SYSTEM MODEL FOR DYNAMIC RELAY TESTING:

ENTER THE VALUES OF SEQ. IMPEDANCE ENTER VALUES OF BASE MVA & KV SELECT METHOD THEORITICAL CALCULATION OF BASE IMPEDANCE = (11)2 / 35 = 3.45 OHMS But, software shows only one decimal digit, so the value = 3.5 OHMS

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---->RESULT TAB: Fault Type = PH-G Fault. Location = 100% Grd. Resistance = 0.0 Arc Resistance = 0.0 Load Angle = 0.0 Source voltage consider as a PT secondary Volt: Near End = 110/1.7325 = 63.5V Far End = 110/1.7325 = 63.5V Consider as a Radial Model OFF Output calculated DATA of Fault voltage and current are; NEAR END MAG. 0.00 51.5 54.3 5.308 0.000 0.000 PH. 0.0 256.5 102.6 271.0 00.0 00.0

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FAR END MAG. 0.00 51.5 54.3 5.308 0.000 0.000 PH. 0.0 256.5 102.6 271.0 00.0 00.0

VA VB VC I1 I2 I3

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SOFTWARE SHOWS SIMULAION OF PHASE TO GROUND FAULT:

SELECT FAULT TYPE: “Ph-G” MAGNITUDE OF GROUND FAULT CURRENT

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THEORETICAL CALCULATION FOR PHASE TO GROUND FAULT:
Base MVA = 35 Base kV =11 (1) BASE IMPEDANCE = (BASE KV)^2 / BASE MVA = (11)^2 / 35 = 3.4571 Ohms (2) Zpositive seq. in PU on new base = 0.243PU Znegative seq. in PU on new base = 0.211PU Zzero seq. in PU on new base = 0.065PU (3) Short Circuit or Fault MVA = Base MVA / Z in PU = 35 / [(0.243 + 0.211 + 0.065) / 3] = 202.31 MVA

(4) Short Circuit Current in kA = ( (Fault MVA) / (1.7325 * Rated kV) ) = (202.31) / (1.7325* 11) = 10.61kA on Primary side of CT. (5) Fault Current Flows in CT secondary is = ( Fault Current on Primary side / CT Ratio ) = (10.61 * 1000) / (2000) = 5.305 Amp on Secondary side of CT during ph-g fault condition.

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3.3.8.3

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PHASE TO PHASE FAULT SIMULATION:
---->RESULT TAB: Fault Type = PH-PH Fault. Location = 100% Grd. Resistance = 0.0 Arc Resistance = 0.0 Load Angle = 0.0 Source voltage consider as a PT secondary Volt: Near End = 110/1.7325 = 63.5V Far End = 110/1.7325 = 63.5V Consider as a Radial Model OFF Output calculated DATA of Fault voltage and current are; NEAR END MAG. 59.0 29.5 29.5 0.000 3.504 3.504 PH. 360 180.0 180.0 000.0 180.0 180.0 FAR END MAG. 59.0 29.5 29.5 0.000 3.504 3.504 PH. 360 180.0 180.0 000.0 000.0 000.0

VA VB VC I1 I2 I3

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SOFTWARE SHOWS SIMULAION OF PHASE TO PHASE FAULT:

SELECT FAULT TYPE: “Ph-Ph” Magnitude of Fault current

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THEORETICAL CALCULATION FOR PHASE TO PHASE FAULT:
Base MVA = 35 Base kV =11 (1) BASE IMPEDANCE = (BASE KV)^2 / BASE MVA = (11)^2 / 35 = 3.4571 Ohms (2) Zpositive seq. in PU on new base = 0.243PU Znegative seq. in PU on new base = 0.211PU Zzero seq. in PU on new base = 0.065PU (3) Short Circuit or Fault MVA = Base MVA / Z in PU = 35 / [(0.243 + 0.211) / 1.73] = 134.11 MVA

(4) Short Circuit Current in kA = ( (Fault MVA) / (1.7325 * Rated kV) ) = (134.11) / (1.7325* 11) = 7.039kA on Primary side of CT. (5) Fault Current Flows in CT secondary is = ( Fault Current on Primary side / CT Ratio ) = (7.039 * 1000) / (2000) = 3.51 Amp on Secondary side of CT during ph-ph fault condition.

Conclusion: Above all cases, theoretical values are similar to software simulated values. same fault current apply to phase & earth fault over current relay to check for relay co-ordination.

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TEABLE OF CONTENTS: TITLE Introduction Nature & effects of Transformer faults Protection against external faults Protection against internal faults Magnetizing inrush current 4-CTs REF scheme for 3phase 3-wire system 5-CTs REF scheme for 3phase 4-wire system 4-CTs REF scheme for 3phase 4-wire system 4-CTs REF scheme for 3phase 4-wire system by using voltage operated high impedance relay Protection against Incipient faults Protection against Overloading of transformer Overfluxing Protection Sr.No. 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.2.1 PAGE NUMBER 184 184 186 190 203 207 210 211 213

4.3 4.4 4.5

214 216 218

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1.0 INTRODUCTION: Power Transformer is one of the most important equipment in a power transmission and distribution system. Being a static equipment, the design and construction is relatively simple. Which makes the transformer a highly reliable piece of equipment. The reliability can be further enhanced by providing adequate protections, besides proper maintenance while in service. The Choice of protection is influenced by several factors, the important ones being. 1) Size and rating of the transformer 2) Vector configuration 3) Source and Neutral Earthing 4) Type of transformer (2 winding / 3 winding Auto Transformer, Rectifier Transformer etc.) 5) Infeed condition (radial, parallel, interconnecting). 6) OLTC Range 2.0 NATURE AND EFECT OF TRANSFORMER FAULTS: The nature of faults against which the transformer is to be protected, can be broadly classified as:2.1 External Faults or Through Faults : These are short circuits of earth faults on the supply net work outside the transformer. The infeeds through the transformer may be high, if the faults are electrically close and the leakage reactance of the transformer is low. The excessive faults current may cause enormous Electromechanical forces causing displacement / hot spot generation inside the transformer. 2.2 Internal Faults : Primary protection of transformer is intended to protect the transformer against internal faults associated with the windings and connections. Internal faults can be classified as : a. Short circuits, Inter turn faults due to insulation deterioration b. Incipient faults c. Regulation faults
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a. Short Circuits , Inter turn faults, earth faults : These faults are of serious nature causing immediate damage, but are generally detectable due to unbalance / over shooting of current at the transformer Terminals. Faults are; (ii) Phase-to-earth fault, or Phase-to-Phase fault on the H.V. & L.V. bushing terminals. (iii) Phase-to-earth fault, or Phase-to-Phase fault on H.V. & L.V. windings. (iv) Short circuit between turns of the H.V. & L.V. windings. (v) Earth faults on a tertiary winding, or short-circuit between turns of a tertiary winding. b. Incipient Faults : These are initially minor faults causing slowly developing damage. These are not detectable at winding terminals in the absence of any unbalance in current or voltage, incipient faults include :1) Limited arcing in the oil say due to failure of inter-lamination or core bolt insulation or accident damage or poor electrical connection causing hot spots in windings / connections . 2) Cooling system failure :- This may be due to low oil content clogged oil flow due to sludge formation , failure of oil pumps or fans or blocking of radiator. c. Regulator Faults :

These include faults associated with the tap changer / tap change controls. Operation on unequal taps parallel transformers may cause overheating due to circulating currents. 2.3 Abnormal Operating Condition : The abnormal operating condition include overloads and over excitation of transformer.

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3.0 PROTECTION AGAINST EXTERNAL FAULTS: Small distribution transformers with no control breakers are often protected by fuses. The fuse ratings are chosen well above the maximum loads and should be adequate to over ride any transient over current conditions such as magnetizing in rush or DOL starting of a motor feeder. While a fuse can provide adequate protection against short circuits, it cannot provide effective protection against earth faults, in view of possible low infeeds. For larger transformers , controlled by circuit breakers, IDMT over current relays are more commonly used as phase and earth fault backups. The over-current relay provides a two fold advantage. 1. it avoids delay at lower amplitudes of faults currents as would happen in case of fuses. 2. It provides a sensitive earth fault protection largely independent of the full load rating of the transformer as shown in figure(). The IDMT over-current relays are often supplemented by highest instantaneous over-current elements on the primary side of the transformers. The highest elements are set over and above the maximum through fault current and primarily intended to ensure high speed clearance of terminal short circuits on the primary side. The choice of over current / earth fault backup greatly influenced by the vector configuration, type of earthing and infeed conditions. Some of the typical applications are discussed below. 3.1 Delta/ Star Transformers (Delta winding connected to Grounded Source): The delta winding provides zero sequence isolation between the star winding and the source, a residually connected earth-fault relay on the delta side will not respond to earth-faults on the star side and hence its operation remains restricted to earth faults in the delta windings. A sensitive instantaneous earth fault relay(in high impedance mode ) can therefore, be provided on the delta-side without requiring any time co-ordination with the star side backup protection . This will be evident from the current distribution shown in below fig. 3.1(a)

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In case of a delta/ star transformer, a phase to phase faults on the star side produces 2:1:1 current distribution on the delta side. It is therefore, advantageous to provide 3-0/c elements on delta side (as against 2 elements ) to enable faster clearance, through the phase element sensing highest current, in backup mode. Below Fig. 3.1 (b) below shows the current distribution for phase fault on star side to illustrate the above.

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3.2

Star/ Star Transformers:

Star/Star transformers with grounded neutrals exchange zero sequence current between primary and secondary. The earth-fault backup is therefore usually IDMT type , time co-ordinated with the down-stream protections. Star/Star transformers with grounded neutrals have a comparatively low zero sequence impedance, particularly, when these are provided with delta connected tertiary. Even without a delta tertiary winding the zero sequence impedance of the primary winding is significantly low due to the tank effect. Consequently, the primary winding serves as a zero sequence shunt, by passing substantial zero sequence current, in the events of an upstream earth faults, causing nonselective tripping. It is therefore, preferable to provide a directional earth fault protection looking into the transformer, on the primary side, to circumvent the above problem. In case the transformer is having infeeds on both sides (say grid supply on the primary and captive generation on the secondary), It would be desirable to have directional earth-faults relays on both primary and secondary side. Fig. 3.1 c) below shows the zero sequence shunting effect of a star/star transformer.

Since an up stream earth faults cases a current outflow from the transformer, a directional earth-fault relay (67 N)looking into the transformer would not respond for such faults and enable better co-ordination. The over-current relays (phase CT connected- not shown in the figure) will also face a similar situation. However, since they have a comparatively high setting (above full load) and see only 1/3rd current compared to earth fault relay, the problem is less pronounced . Over DOBLE ENGINEERING PVT LTD, 305-SAKAR, OLD PADRA ROAD, VADODARA 188
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current relays need not therefore, be directional. In case of interconnecting transformers with infeeds on both sides, it is advantageous to go for directional over-current and earth fault relays on either side, to minimize grading problems. 3.3 Highset Element: The IDMT over current relays are often supplemented by highest instantaneous over current elements on the primary side, mainly to provide high speed clearance of severe terminals short circuits, overriding the IDMT elements. The highest elements should be set over and above the through fault current on secondary side and should preferably have low transient overreach to enable closer setting, the presence of offset fault current.

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4.0 PROTECTIONS AGAINST INTERNAL FAULTS: A high speed unit type of protection such as differential / restricted earth fault protection is applied as a primary protection against internal faults. 4.1 Differential Protection : • High Impedance differential protection scheme o Too much popular in India for cable, generator, motor & busbar differential protections. o No more complexity, lower cost o Stabilizing resistor is required to connect in series with operating coil of relay for stability in external fault condition o Metrosil require to connect in across of operating coil for high voltage absorber • Low Impedance differential protection scheme o Too much popular in India for two winding or three winding differential protections. o More complexity, higher cost o Inbuilt restraining coil & % slope characteristics which is able to set at variable points. It maintain the stability at external faults o Inbuilt 2nd harmonic & 5th harmonic restraining feature

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Operation criteria: Here as shown in below figure; this is a complete phase and earth fault protection operating on Merz- price circulating current principle.

• • •

Relay Operates while, Ix – Iy > Id (Means the difference between CT1 & CT2 current is more than “Id” setting) Id > K(I1 + I2)/2, where K = %slope & (I1 + I2)/2 = Ibias Relay Restraint while, Ix – Iy = 0 (Means the CT1 current is equal to CT2 current)

The differential relay compares the currents on the primary and secondary side of the transformer using C.Ts of matched ratio, such that the secondary currents are balanced in magnitude and phase for an external fault or load. While magnitude balance is achieved by a proper selection of CT ratio on primary and secondary side or by using interposing current transformers (ICTS), phase balance is achieved by appropriate vector connections of the associated CT/ICTs (for example star side CTs are connected in delta and vice versa). Though theoretically it looks easier to achieve an amplitude and phasor balance, there are certain practical problems. These are discussed below as also the measures adopted to circumvent these problems, in a practical differential scheme.
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Why Low impedance scheme is more reliable for Transformer differential protection? The reasons are; • • • • • Unequal secondary currents or different voltage level at two end, because of the different turns ratio of the transformer windings & CTs (which is take care by % slope curve in relay) Phase shift between two windings (i.e. DYn11 – 330degree etc.) (which is take care by ICTs selection) Tap changing under the load condition Magnetizing inrush current during transformer energize (which is take care by 2nd harmonic feature of low impedance differential relay) Unmeasured grounded neutral current (which is take care by zero sequence elimination function in relay)

Normally above all the problems are not available in high impedance differential scheme Unequal current matching: Normally, the unequal currents matching requires either auxiliary CTs (ICTs) or a means of scaling within the relay. Fig. A shows the use of taps on the relay windings to match a 2(10A)-to-1(5A) difference in the levels of the CT secondary currents under normal load conditions. For this difference the 10A current flows through just half the number of turns in restraint winding R1 as does the 5A current in restraint winding R2, so that the ampere-turns of the two windings are equal.

Fig. A-Schematic of electro-mechanical & static relay
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Above figure normally applicable for electromechanical & static relays. But in modern numerical relay “TAP” point is also adjustable as shown in Fig.B. So, that the net differential current which is flows through operating coil is very-very close to zero.

Fig. B-schematic of numerical relay

Phase Shift Compensation: The phase shift developed in a star-delta power transformer can be handled by connecting the CTs in star on one side and in delta on the other side, per Fig. C. The relay current input from the delta CTs is the phasor difference of two phase currents.

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Note in Fig. C that the delta CTs are on the star-grounded side of the transformer. The phase shift can be accommodated with the delta CTs on either side. However, it is essential to put the delta CTs on the star side in order to prevent incorrect tripping for an external ground fault, shown in Fig. D. Here, the delta CTs are on the wrong side. The three units of current flow entering from the grounded star are not measured, so they produce an unbalance. (The delta-CT ratio is assumed to be 3/1 to provide balancing for phase faults.) In contrast, in Fig. 10 delta CTs on the wye side produce a balance.

Fig. D

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Fig. E Since the unbalance on the primary of the wye-side CTs is caused by zerosequence current, the delta CTs filter out this unbalance in Fig. E. There are two ways to form the CT delta. The connections must mirror those of the power transformer to provide the proper balance. ICTs Connection for vector group matching: A practical biased differential scheme showing C.T. connections is illustrated in fig Fig. F below for a delta / star (Dy 11) transformer. Transformer type : DY11 ICT type: YD1

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Vector Diagram before ICT

IRL

Ir

Ir

IRL

Ib Delta side vector Star side vector

Iy

Vector IRL lead 30 degree to Ir

So, above diagram it is clear that the this 30 degree difference should be compensated by adding the YD1 ICT on star winding of transformer otherwise it may chance to mal-operate the relay on normal load condition or external fault condition.

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Fig. F Typical C.T. Connections for Biased Differential Protection Following work out illustrates the choice of matching CTs/ICTs for a delta /star transformer. Transformers rating: 10 MVA, 66/33 KV, Dy11 Transformer F.L. current: 66KV side 33KV side : IFL = (10 X 1000) / (1.73 X 66 ) = 87.5A : IFL = (10 X 1000) / (1.73 X 33 ) = 175A

Equivalent secondary FL current, considering a matching CT ratio of 100/ 1A for 66 KV CTs and 200/1A for 33 kV CTs:IFL (Secondary side) = 87.5 / 100 = 0.875A (66kV side) IFL (Secondary side) = 175 / 200 = 0.875A (33kV side) Since the transformer is of Dy11 vector configuration the 33KV line current will be leading the66KV side line currents by 30. To achieve phasor balance, the 33KV
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side C.T. secondary current will have to be phase retarded by 30 by connecting the interposing current transformers in star/ delta (Yd1 ) configuration as shown. The ICT ratio can be worked out as follows. ICT primary current (corresponding of F.L. condition )=0.875A Line current on ICT secondary side to match in amplitude with the 66KV side CT secondary current pf 0.875A. The ICT secondary current corresponding to the above line current =0.875/ Hence, ICT ratio = {(0.875) / (0.875/1.7325)} = 1.0 / 0.577 A Alternatively, a CT ratio of 200/0.58 Amps can be selected on 33 side and the 33KV CTs can be directly connected in delta to achieve both amplitude and phase matching without necessitating ICTs. Example: Transformer Data: Rated MVA = 150MVA Rated Primary kV = 11kV Rated Secondary kV = 132kV Transformer type = DYn11 Step:-1 Rated full load current on primary (Delta) side (Ip) = (150*106)/(1.73*11*103) = 7882.3 Amp Now, CTR on primary side = 8000/5A So, CT secondary current = (5*7882.3)/8000 = 4.92A Step:-2 Rated full load current on secondary (Star) side (Is) = (7882.3)*(11/132) = 656.85 Amp Now, CTR on secondary side = 800/1A So, CT secondary current = (1*656.85)/800 = 0.821 Amp Step:-3 Selection of ICT of Star winging is YD1 Now, secondary current of each ICT = 4.92/1.73 = 2.84A Thus, ICT RATIO = 0.821/2.84 = 1/3.45A
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Tap Changing under load: • Current matching should occur for condition where the load tap changer is in neutral position (Mid tap). • Then, the unbalance current flows in relay with the taps at the minimum or maximum tap positions. • This unbalance current can causes operation of relay during normal load condition.In practical differential protection for transformers, this problem is over come by providing through current bias ( or restraint). The bias, modifies the differential pick up and pegs it above the maximum expected differential current in the face of ratio mismatch produced by the tap changer and C.T. errors, thereby ensuring stability on through faults. A typical bias characteristic is shown in fig. G below;

Un restrain region = Id>> 3.0 Operate = Id> Idiff Restrain

0.15

1

2 Ibias

10

fig. G Typical Bias Characteristic

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Example for Relay setting: Transformer Data: Rated MVA : 250MVA Rated Primary kV : 15.75kV Rated Secondary kV : 240kV Taps : -5% to +7.5% Connection type : DY11 %Impedance : 14% Current Transformer Data: L.V. side : 10,000/5A - star connection H.V. side : 1,000/1A - star connection Step:-1 Transformer F.L. current: 15.75KV side : IFL = (10 X 250) / (1.73 X 15.75 ) = 9164A

240KV side : IFL = (10 X 106) / (1.73 X 240) = 601A IFL (Secondary side) = 9164*5 / 10000 = 4.582A (15.75kV side) IFL (Secondary side) = 601 / 1000 = 0.601A (240kV side) Step:-2 ICT RATIO: IFL secondary on delta side = 4.582A therefore, the current flows through secondary on star side = 4.582/1.73 = 2.648A because of star-delta ICT. Now, ICT ratio on star side should be = 0.601/2.648A = 1 / 4.4A Step:-3 Now, Voltage at maximum TAP = {(7.5*240)/100} + 240 = 258kV Voltage at minimum TAP = 240 - {(5*240)/100} = 228kV So, at maximum TAP the turn ratio = 258/15.75 = 16.38 Step:-4 Now, assume the fault current on star side = 4.0kA
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Reflected fault current on delta side = (4.0)*(16.38) = 65.52kA Step:-5 CT secondary current:
Now, Secondary current on start side during a fault condition = (4000*1/1000)

= 4.0A
Secondary current on delta side during a fault condition Step:-6 ICT reflected current on delta side = (4.0*4.4) / 1.0 = 17.6A Step:-7 ICT secondary (Delta side) current flows in relay restraining coil = 17.6*1.73 = 30.44A Step:-8 Differential current flows in operating coil = (32.76 – 30.44) = 2.31A Bias current = (32.76 + 30.44)/2 = 31.6A Step:-9 %Slope = {(2.31) / (31.6)}*100 = 7.31% Select the nearest slope setting = (65.52*1000*5)/10000 = 32.76A

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Inrush current: It is define as the transient exciting current resulting from a sudden change in the exciting voltage. When the primary side of a transformer is switched on the supply with its secondary unloaded, it acts as a simple inductive reactor. The value of the voltage at the instant of switching can be any where between zero and the peak value. a) Switching at peak voltage with core Initially demagnetized

At voltage maximum, the steady state value of the flux and hence the magnetizing current it zero. Hence the flux wave immediately assumes the normal shape for an inductive circuit with both the core flux and magnetizing current rising from zero.

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b) Switching at Zero voltage with core initially demagnetized

Initial value of the flux in the core is zero as against the steady state value of “flux” corresponding to voltage zero. Since the total steady state flux change during voltage half cycle is 2times of flux (i.e.-flux to +flux ) the flux rises from zero to 2times of flux. This is known as the doubling effect. Modern transformers operate at very low saturation level (around 1.1times the working flux level.) The flux doubling, therefore, causes extreme saturation of the core and transformer consequently draws heavy magnetizing current from the supply source. While the normal steady state magnetizing current may be less than 5% of full load current, the transient core saturation may raise it to several times the normal load current. The situation is even worse if there is remnant flux in the core which happens to be in the direction in which the first peak occurs. Since the Inrush current flows only in the primary winding it appears as an operating current to the differential relay, producing instability. The immunity to inrush current can be obtained either by delaying the protection or by providing a harmonic restraint.
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a. Time delay : Since the magnetizing inrush is a transient phenomena, a small time delay can be provided in the differential relay to override the same and ensure stability Induction disc relays with an adjustable delay provided by the disc movement, is one of the earlier designs of biased differential protection. b. Harmonic Restraint : Time delay associated with the differential relay, as explained before, would make the protection slower in operation and increase the fault damage. Modern high speed differential relay, therefore, employ a different approach to this problem. the inrush current is highly distorted and contains a fairly high proportion of 2nd ammonic component. Typical analysis of an inrush current wave shows following ammonic contents. Harmonic Component Fundamental DC 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th %of Fundamental 100 55 63 26.8 5.1 4.1 3.7 2.4

The proportion of 2nd harmonic generally varies between 30-65 % of the fundamental and is unique to the inrush current. This component is filtered from the filtering circuit and is used to restrain the protection the same way as through current bias. The harmonic restraint is so proportioned that 15% of 2nd harmonic current will just balance the operating current of 100% of fundamental frequency elimination. While through current bias and 2nd harmonic bias (restraint ) is an essential feature of a modern high speed differential protection. Following additional features are an incorporated to enhance stability and maintain operating speed. i) 5th Harmonic bypass or restraint :

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This feature is provided to immune the protection against over excited operation of the transformer. The magnetizing current of an over excited transformer contains substantial proportion of 5th harmonic restraint. ii) Unrestrained Differential Highset (Id>>): The harmonic restraint may slow down the protection , on severe internal fault, if the associated CTs suffer transient saturation and produce a high degree of harmonic distortion. To ensure high speed operation under the above condition an unrestrained differential highest with pick up threshold (usually 8-10 times ) is incorporated in the differential relay. Typical circuit of a high speed, harmonic restraint biased differential relay (DTH31) is shown fig below:

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There are alternative designs which do not use harmonic bias (restraint) to achieve immunity against magnetizing inrush or over excited operation of the transformer. One such design, distinguishes between the above conditions and an internal fault , by verifying the zero periods in the differential current waveform over a cycle. The magnetizing current waveform during switching inrush or over excited condition has substantial zero periods (in excess of ¼ cycle over one cycle period), Unlike in the case of an internal fault. This methods enables high speed of operation for internal fault in the absence of any harmonic restraint. Numerical versions of differential protections are also now available which use suitable algorithm for measurement. The ratio and phase angle correction is a software function in these relays, which eliminate the need for matched CTs/ ICTs. The numerical versions are usually multifunction and provide additional protection elements( such as REF / over-fluxing etc.). Besides, several diagnostic non-continuous self monitoring are provided. 4.2 4- CTs Restricted Earth Fault (REF) Protection Scheme for 3-phase 3-wire system : This is a circulating current earth fault differential system, usually applied to the star winding of a transformer, by balancing the residual current of the three line current transformers with the output current of a CT in the neutral earth connection. The protection arrangement is shown in fig. 4.2.a ) below.

Fig. 4.2 a) Typical Ref C.T. Connections For an external earth fault, the associated phase and neutral C.T. see same fault current (lF) but of different polarity , while the phase C.T. sees an outflow of current, the neutral C.T. sees an inflow with respect to the transformer. The
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phase and neutral C.T. therefore, form a series connection between them with no differential current through the relay, if the C.T. s are assumed to be ideal with no errors. For an internal fault, either the neutral C.T. see an inflow because of infeed reversal through the latter (in case of parallel transformers). This produces a differential current through the relay corresponding to the summated infeeds at the fault point, there by causing operation. In practice, however, the associated C.T.s may experience unequal saturation say due to the remnant flux in the core or dissimilarities in their magnetizing characteristics, particularly when the through fault current has large D.C offsets with slow decay rate. The worst condition would occur when one C.T. completely saturates while the other remains fully active during a severe external fault as shown in fig. 4.2 b)

Fig. 4.2 b) Equivalent C.T. Circuit for External Fault The voltage that can be developed across the relay under the above condition is given by; Vs = (IF/n)*(RCT + 2RL) Volts Where IF = Maximum through fault current limited by transformer leakage current N = C.T. RATIO RCT = C.T. secondary resistance 2RL = To & fro Lead resistance
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The REF protection is invariably high impedance and is calibrated either in terms of voltage or current. In case of voltage relay, a setting voltage above “Vs” can be set. In case of current operated relay, a series stabilizing resistor is added to make the relay branch high impedance such that current through the relay will not exceed its current setting (Is). The external stabilizing resistor value can be worked out as follows: Rst = (Vs/Is) – [( VAR ) / (Is)2] Where, (VAR) = VA burden at relay setting (Is) Rst = Stabilizing resistor Is = relay setting The minimum primary operating current (POC) is influenced by the magnetizing current of the associated C.T.s and is given by: POC = N [Is + N1*Im] Amps Where, N = CT RATIO N1 = Number of CTs are connected in parallel Im = Magnetizing current of each CT at Vs The relay branch being high impedance may force the CTs in to saturation for a severe internal fault when summated current associated CTs seek its path through the relay. This may cause peak over voltage across the CT secondary / Pilot as also the relay threatening the insulation. The maximum peak voltage across the CT secondary is given by the expression:Vpeak = (2*1.414)*[(Vk*(Vp – Vk))]1/2 Where, Vk = Knee point voltage Vp = Prospective voltage assuming unsaturated operation = (IF/N)*(Rst + Rr) Where, Rr = Relay resistance or relay ohmic burden If the peak voltage so worked out exceeds 3000 Volts a non-linear resistor (metrosil) should be provided across the relay branch to limit this voltage within safe limits.

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4.2.1
5- CTs Restricted Earth Fault (REF) Protection Scheme for 3-phase 4-wire system :

CT1

Rph
CT2

Yph
CT3

Bph

N
External FAULT “F2”

mc

Stabilizing resistor Relay Internal Fault “F1” Figure shows only secondary winding (Star) of DYn11 Transformer

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Here as shown in above figure which shows 5-CTs connections scheme for 3-phase 4wire system. Sensitivity: If the internal fault (F1) occurred between “Bph-N” then it will not sensed by relay because the fault current can not flows through Earth CT via earth but it sensed by neutral CT via neutral wire. Stability: If the external fault (F2) occurred between “Bph-N” then it not sensed by relay through Bph CT via neutral wire because the magnitude of fault current at relay terminal is near by zero & it remains stable.

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4.2.2
4- CTs Restricted Earth Fault (REF) Protection Scheme for 3-phase 4-wire system :

CT1

CT2

CT3

K External fault “F2”

mc

Stabilizing resistor Relay Internal Fault “F1”

Figure shows only secondary winding (Star) of DYn11 Transformer

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4.2.2.1
4- CTs Restricted Earth Fault (REF) Protection Scheme for 3-phase 4-wire system using voltage operated high impedance relay :

CT1

CT2

CT3

K External fault “F2” V mc

Stabilizing resistor Relay Internal Fault “F1”

Figure shows only secondary winding (Star) of DYn11 Transformer

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EXAMPLE: CALCULATION OF RELAY SETTING FOR RELAY TYPE 7VH60: The Minimum setting voltage for stability is; Vs = (If/N)*(RCT + 2RL)------------------------------------(4.2.2.1) Where, If = fault current = 35,000 Amp(Say) N = CT RATIO = 3000/1A RCT = CT Secondary resistance = 2.0 OHMS RL = Lead resistance = 0.5 OHMS Now, above all values put in formula 4.2.2.1; Vs = {(35000)/3000}* {2 + 1} = {11.66}* {3} = 34.99 Volts Now, available next range = 48V It means, the relay will operate while the operating current magnitude is more than relay settings (20mA) with 48Volts across on relay terminals.

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Here as shown in above figure which shows 4-CTs connections scheme for 3-phase 4wire system. Earth CT connection is below the point “K”. If the internal fault (F1) occurred between “Bph-N” then it will sensed by relay through Earth CT via neutral wire & during an external fault (F2) between “B-N”, it’s stable through Earth CT via neutral wire. 4.3 Protection against Incipient Faults: Most of the distribution plants (including chemical-petrochem & fertilizers etc.) commonly used protection against incipient (developing) faults is Buchholz relay. The relay has two floats actuating mercury switches & is placed in the pipe connecting the transformer tank to the conservator. A slow generation of gas due to a minor fault causes a stream of bubbles which pass towards the conservator and in the process get trapped into the Buchholz chamber, lowering its oil level. Consequently the alarm float lower (trip) floats, tilting the mercury switch and closing the trip contact. While mounting the relay care should be taken to ensure that the arrow on its case should point to the conservator and the connecting pipe should have an upward slope of about 8o. Besides, Buchholz relay, temperature monitoring devices such as oil and winding temperature indicators are provided for transformers. These can also give fairly good indication of an incipient failure such as generation of hot spot, failure of cooling system etc. The winding temperature is measured by thermal image technique. In this technique a temperature sensing device (usually a silistor-silicon resistor) is placed in the transformer oil at the top of the transformer tank. The silistor is encapsulated with a heater element in a thermal moulded material, the latter being fed from the load current, through a bushing CT. The combination thus forms a thermal replica of the transformer winding. The silistor is used as an arm of a resistance bridge supplied from stabilized d.c. supply. An indicating instrument calibrated in terms of temperature is energized from the out of balance voltage of the bridge. 4.4 Protection against overloading of transformer: The winding temperature indicator is primary protection to effectively detect overloading. Thermal image overcurrent relays with exponential or I2*t time/current characteristics (like CDG12 etc.)are also used for protection against overload. This protection detects DOBLE ENGINEERING PVT LTD, 305-SAKAR, OLD PADRA ROAD, VADODARA 215 PH: (+91) (265) 555 77 15, FAX: (+91) (265) 235 62 85 DOBLE ENGINEERING COMPANY, WATER TOWN, MA, USA www.doble.com

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overload but does not detect failure of cooling system unlike the temperature indicating devices. Definite time over current relays (like CTU-31 etc.) are also used to provide pre-trip alarm, if the overload exceeds permissible limit. Such relays are required to have high reset ratio continuously adjustable current setting to match permissible overload rating of the transformer. 4.5 Overfluxing Protections: Increase in input voltage causes increase in working flux levels, thereby increasing the iron losses and magnetizing current. The core bolt get heated and the interlamination insulation and core bolt insulation is weakened. The reduction in supply frequency also increases the core flux and has similar effect as that due to over voltage. The generator transformers are more prone for overfluxing as these may be subjected to an uncomfortable combination of over voltage and under frequency during start up or coasting down, due to AVR/Governor malfunctioning. The expression for induced voltage in a transformer is given by V = pHi*f*T Where, pHi = Core flux F = Frequency T = No. of turns (Constant) Thus “pHi” is inversely proportional to (V/F). The ration of V/F is therefore, an index of overfluxing in a transformer. Typical seting range for the relay is (1.05-1.2) on 110V/50Hz basis. The overfluxing condition does not warrant immediate isolation of transformer and hence the relay is provided with adjustable time delays which also helps to prevent transient operation due to momentary disturbances. The practical overfluxing relays are either definite time of inverse time versions with a pre-trip alarm.

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4.6 Application Diagram of Complete OC & EF scheme for 2.5MVA DYn11 TR:

F1 I=0

O/C & E/F SCHEME FOR “F1” FAULT ON DELTA SIDE
STAND BY EARTH FAULT SCHEME FOR EXTERNAL “E/F” ON STAR SIDE “REF” SCHEME FOR INTERNAL FAULT “E/F” ON STAR SIDE

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4.7 Application Diagram of Differential scheme for Y-Y TR with one sets of ICTs:

The D-connected equalizing windings of the interposing CTs are used to eliminate possible zero sequence currents in case of external earth faults and could always be arranged for rated current 1 A.

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4.8 Application Diagram of Differential scheme for Y-Y TR with two sets of ICTs:

When interposing CTs are used on both windings of the power transformer they should be Yd-connected. In that case there is no need for any D-connected equalizing winding.

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4.9 Application Diagram of Differential scheme for D-Y TR with one set of ICTs:

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4.10 Application Diagram of Combined Differential & REF scheme for D-Y TR with one set of ICTs:

Fig. DY11 TR with YD1 ICTs • • • • Separate relays are require while using electromechanical or static relays for differential & REF Protections as shown in figure below (MBCH-12 + CAG14). It is very is to use with modern numerical relays (i.e. SPAD346C) by using proper vector group selection in differential element. Separate “PS” class CTs are not require for both schemes on star side. Complex scheme.

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4.10.1 Application diagram of combined differential & REF scheme by using MBCH-12 & CAG14 relay on DY1 TR.

Here as shown in above figure; • 3-units of MBCH-12 Relays are used for low impedance differential protection • single pole unit of CAG-14 Relay is used for High impedance REF protection on star winding of TR • ICT connections are YD11

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Example of Application Relays for Low impedance differential Protection: Sr.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Make ALSTOM ALSTOM ALSTOM ALSTOM ABB ABB ABB EASUN REYROLLE SIEMENS Type DTH31/32 MBCH12 KBCH12 MICOMP632 RADSB-4 SPAD-346C RET521 DUOBIAS-M/420 7UT62

Example of Application Relays for High impedance REF Protection: Sr.No. 1 2 3 4 5 Make ALSTOM ALSTOM ABB EASUN-REYROLLE SIEMENS Type CAG14 FAC14 SPAE010 4B3/5B3 7VH60

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“MULTIPLICATION OF DOCUMENT IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED”

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TABLE OF CONTENTS: TITLE
Shunt capacitor bank prot Capacitor unbalance prot Unbalance prot. Methods for ungrounded Wye connected bank Unbalance prot. Methods for grounded Wye connected bank Prot. of the SCB against system disturbances & faults Example Relay application

Sr.No. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

PAGE NUMBER 222 222 226 233 237 239

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1.0 SHUNT CAPACITOR BANK PROTECTION:
The protection of Shunt Capacitor Bank’s involves: a) Protection of the bank against faults occurring within the bank including those inside the capacitor unit; and, b) Protection of the bank against system disturbances and faults. The protection selected for a capacitor bank depends on bank configuration, whether or not the capacitor bank is grounded and the system grounding. 1.1 Capacitor Unbalance Protection: The protection of shunt capacitor banks against internal faults involves several protective devices/elements in a coordinated scheme. Typically, the protective elements found in a SCB for internal faults are: individual fuses (not discuss in this paper), unbalance protection to provide alarm/ trip and over-current elements for bank fault protection. Removal of a failed capacitor element or unit by its fuse results in an increase in voltage across the remaining elements/ units causing an unbalance within the bank. A continuous over-voltage (above 1.1pu) on any unit shall be prevented by means of protective relays that trip the bank. Unbalance protection normally senses changes associated with the failure of a capacitor element or unit and removes the bank from service when the resulting over-voltage becomes excessive on the remaining healthy capacitor units. Unbalance protection normally provides the primary protection for arcing faults within a capacitor bank and other abnormalities that may damage capacitor elements/ units. Arcing faults may cause substantial damage in a small fraction of a second. The unbalance protection should have minimum intentional delay in order to minimize the amount of damage to the bank in the event of external arcing. In most capacitor banks an external arc within the capacitor bank does not result in enough change in the phase current to operate the primary fault protection (usually an over-current relay) The sensitivity requirements for adequate capacitor bank protection for this condition may be very demanding, particularly for SBC with many series groups. The need for sensitive resulted in the development of unbalance protection where certain voltages or currents parameters of the capacitor bank are monitored and compared to the bank balance conditions. Capacitor unbalance protection is provided in many different ways, depending on the capacitor bank arrangement and grounding. A variety of unbalance protection schemes are used for internally fused, externally fused, fuse-less, or un-fused shunt capacitor. DOBLE ENGINEERING PVT LTD, 305-SAKAR, OLD PADRA ROAD, VADODARA 226 PH: (+91) (265) 555 77 15, FAX: (+91) (265) 235 62 85 DOBLE ENGINEERING COMPANY, WATER TOWN, MA, USA www.doble.com

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a) Capacitor Element Failure Mode For an efficient unbalance protection it is important to understand the failure mode of the capacitor element. In externally fused, fuseless or unfused capacitor banks, the failed element within the can is short-circuited by the weld that naturally occurs at the point of failure (the element fails short-circuited). This short circuit puts out of service the whole group of elements, increasing the voltage on the remaining groups. Several capacitor elements breakdowns may occur before the external fuse (if exists) removes the entire unit. The external fuse will operate when a capacitor unit becomes essentially short circuited, isolating the faulted unit. Internally fused capacitors have individual fused capacitor elements that are disconnected when an element breakdown occurs (the element fails opened). The risk of successive faults is minimized because the fuse will isolate the faulty element within a few cycles. The degree of unbalance introduced by an element failure is less than that which occurs with externally fused units (since the amount of capacitance removed by blown fuse is less) and hence a more sensitive unbalance protection scheme is required when internally fused units are used. b) Schemes with Ambiguous Indication A combination of capacitor elements/ units failures may provide ambiguous indications on the conditions of the bank. For instance, during steady state operation, negligible current flows through the current transformer between the neutrals of an ungrounded wye-wye capacitor bank for a balanced bank, and this condition is correct. However, the same negligible current may flow through this current transformer if an equal number of units or elements are removed from the same phase on both sides of the bank (Fig.1 ). This condition is undesirable, and the indication is obviously ambiguous. Where ambiguous indication is a possibility, it is desirable to have a sensitive alarm (preferably one fuse operation for fused banks or one faulted element for fuseless or unfused banks) to minimize the probability of continuing operation with canceling failures that result in continuing, undetected over-voltages on the remaining units. It may also be desirable to set the trip level based on an estimated number of canceling failures in order to reduce the risk of subjecting capacitor units to damaging voltages and requiring fuses to operate above their voltage capability when canceling failures occur.

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Figure-1: Compensating failures in the same phase result in no unbalance signal Alstom make electromechanical Over current relay type “CDG-11” is used for above application which is mention in figure-1. c) Undetectable Faults For certain capacitor bank configurations some faults within the bank will not cause an unbalance signal and will go undetected. For example: a) Rack-to-rack faults for banks with two series groups connected phase-overphase and using neutral voltage or current for unbalance protection; b) Rack-to-rack faults for certain H-bridge connections. d) Inherent Unbalance and System Unbalance In practice, the unbalance seen by the unbalance relay is the result of the loss of individual capacitor units or elements and the inherent system and bank unbalances. The primary unbalance, which exists on all capacitor bank installations (with or without fuses), is due to system voltage unbalance and capacitor manufacturing tolerance. Secondary unbalance errors are introduced by sensing device tolerances and variation and by relative changes in capacitance due to difference in capacitor unit temperatures in the bank. The inherent unbalance error may be in the direction to prevent unbalance relay operation, or to cause a false operation. The amount of inherent unbalance for various configurations may be estimated using the equations provided in reference. If the inherent unbalance error approaches 50% of the alarm setting, compensation should be provided in order to correctly alarm for the failure of one unit or element as specified. In some cases, a different bank connection can improve the sensitivity without adding compensation. For example, a wye bank can be split into a wye-wye bank, thereby doubling the sensitivity of the protection and eliminating the system voltage unbalance effect. DOBLE ENGINEERING PVT LTD, 305-SAKAR, OLD PADRA ROAD, VADODARA 228 PH: (+91) (265) 555 77 15, FAX: (+91) (265) 235 62 85 DOBLE ENGINEERING COMPANY, WATER TOWN, MA, USA www.doble.com

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A neutral unbalance protection method with compensation for inherent unbalance is normally required for very large banks. The neutral unbalance signal produced by the loss of one or two individual capacitor units is small compared to the inherent unbalance and the latter can no longer be considered negligible. Unbalance compensation should be used if the inherent unbalance exceeds one half of the desired setting. Harmonic voltages and currents can influence the operation of the unbalance relay unless power frequency band-pass or other appropriate filtering is provided. e) Unbalance Trip Relay Considerations The time delay of the unbalance relay trip should be minimized to reduce damage from an arcing fault within the bank structure and prevent exposure of the remaining capacitor units to over-voltage conditions beyond their permissible limits. The unbalance trip relay should have enough time delay to avoid false operations due to inrush, system ground faults, switching of nearby equipment, and non-simultaneous pole operation of the energizing switch. For most applications, 0.1s should be adequate. For unbalance relaying systems that would operate on a system voltage unbalance, a delay slightly longer than the upstream protection fault clearing time is required to avoid tripping due to a system fault. Longer delays increase the probability of catastrophic bank failures. With grounded capacitor banks, the failure of one pole of the SCB switching device or a single phasing from a blown bank fuse will allow zero sequence currents to flow in system ground relays. Capacitor bank relaying, including the operating time of the switching device, should be coordinated with the operation of the system ground relays to avoid tripping system load. The unbalance trip relay scheme should have a lockout feature to prevent inadvertent closing of the capacitor bank switching device if an unbalance trip has occurred. The unbalance trip time delay should be long enough to avoid false tripping due to following conditions; • • • Inrush. System ground faults. Switching of near by equipment.

The unbalance trip time delay should be minimized to reduce damage from arcing faults with in the bank structure & reduce damage to CTs, VTs & relay system for single phase or open phase conditions.

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f) Unbalance Alarm Relay Considerations To allow for the effects of inherent unbalance within the bank, the unbalance relay alarm should be set to operate at about one-half the level of the unbalance signal determined by the calculated alarm condition based on an idealized bank. The alarm should have sufficient time delay to override external disturbances. 1.2

Unbalance Protection Methods for Ungrounded Wye connected Banks:
Shunt capacitor banks are not grounded in industrial or commercial power systems for a various reasons. The some reasons are as below; Grounded bank provide a low impedance path to ground for zero-sequence (ground or unbalanced) harmonic currents. These harmonic currents have the potential of exciting resonances and may also cause communication interference and nuisance ground fault relay tripping. • Grounded bank may cause ground fault relay operation when unbalanced due to a blown capacitor fuse or fuses, capacitor tolerances and system voltage unbalances. • Grounded bank have high discharge currents during system ground faults. These discharge currents can cause nuisance fuse operation surge arrestor damage. • Grounded banks on resistive grounded systems can be damaged during system ground faults. Due to these disadvantages, most of the capacitor banks are left ungrounded for industrial and commercial power systems up to 33kV. Disadvantage: • The disadvantage of ungrounded bank is the over voltage that occurs when the bank is unbalanced due to a capacitor fuse blowing as shown in figure below. The over voltage appears across the remaining capacitors on the phase in which the fuse has opened. The over voltage can be as high as 50%, depending upon the bank configuration, and can reduce the life and permanently damage the remaining capacitors. • Above reason, the kVAR out is reduced •

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Considerations for Neutral Voltage Unbalance Protection: There are so many technical considerations when setting and applying a neutral voltage unbalance protection system. The following are the some considerations as below; • The unbalance protection system should be sensitive enough to alarm for the loss of one or more capacitors, but trip out for a loss of sufficient or additional capacitor units that will cause an over voltage in excess of 110% on the remaining capacitors. The unbalance protection system should have a time delay of at least 0.5s to overcome false operations due to inrush, ground faults on the line, lightning, switching of nearby equipment, and other transient unbalance conditions. The unbalance protection system should have a lockout feature to prevent automatic reclosing of the capacitor bank switching device.

• •

a) Unbalance Protection for Ungrounded Single Wye Banks The simplest method to detect unbalance in single ungrounded Wye banks is to measure the bank neutral or zero sequence voltage. If the capacitor bank is balanced and the system voltage is balance the neutral voltage will be zero. A change in any phase of the bank will result in a neutral or zero sequence voltage.

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Figure-(a) Figure-(b) Fig. (a) shows a method that measures the voltage between capacitor neutral and ground using a VT and an over-voltage relay with 3rd harmonic filter. It is simple but suffers in presence of system voltage unbalances and inherent unbalances. The voltagesensing device is generally a voltage transformer but it could be a capacitive potential device or resistive potential device. The voltage-sensing device should be selected for the lowest voltage ratio attainable, while still being able to withstand transient and continuous over-voltage conditions to obtain the maximum unbalance detection sensitivity. However, a voltage transformer used in this application should be rated for full system voltage because the neutral voltage can under some conditions rise to as high as 2.5 per unit during switching. An equivalent zero sequence component that eliminate the system unbalances can be derived utilizing three voltage-sensing devices with their high side voltage wyeconnected from line to ground, and the secondaries connected in a broken delta. The voltage source VTs can be either at a tap in the capacitor bank or used the VTs of the bank bus. Figs. (b) shows a neutral unbalance relay protection scheme for an ungrounded wye capacitor bank, using three phase-to-neutral voltage transformers with their secondaries connected in broken delta to an over-voltage relay. Compared to the scheme in Fig. (a), this scheme has the advantage of not being sensitive to system voltage unbalance. Also, the unbalance voltage going to the over-voltage relay is three times the neutral voltage as obtained from Fig (a). For the same voltage transformer ratio, there is a gain of three in sensitivity over the single neutral-to-ground voltage transformer scheme. The voltage transformers should be rated for line-to-line voltage.

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Figure-1(a)

Figure-1(b)

Modern digital relays can calculate the zero sequence voltage from the phase voltages as shown in Fig (a), eliminating the need of additional auxiliary VTs to obtain the zero sequence voltage. Fig (b) shows the same principle but using the VTs on the capacitor bank bus. Although schemes shown in Fig (b), 1(a) and 1(b) eliminate system unbalances, they do not eliminate the inherent capacitor unbalance. Alstom make electromechanical residual IDMTL over voltage relay type “VDG-14” is used for above application. Range: (5.4V – 20V) & TMS = (0.1 – 1.0)

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IDMTL Characteristic of VDG-14 Fig. 2 shows a protection scheme that removes the system unbalance and compensate for the inherent capacitor unbalance. It is a variation of the voltage differential scheme for grounded banks described below). The best method to eliminate the system unbalance is to split the bank in two Wyes; however, it may not be always possible or desirable. The system unbalance appears as a zero sequence voltage both at the bank terminal and at the bank neutral. The bank terminal zero sequence component is derived from 3 line VTs with their high side Wye connected and their secondaries connected in broken delta. The difference voltage between the neutral unbalance signal due to system unbalance and the calculated zero sequence from the terminal VTs will be compensated for all conditions of system unbalance. The remaining error appearing at the neutral due to manufacturers capacitor tolerance is then compensated for by means of a phase shifter. b) Unbalance Protection for Ungrounded Double Wye Banks Ungrounded banks can be split into two equal banks. This bank configuration inherently compensates for system voltage unbalances; however, the effects of manufacturers DOBLE ENGINEERING PVT LTD, 305-SAKAR, OLD PADRA ROAD, VADODARA 234 PH: (+91) (265) 555 77 15, FAX: (+91) (265) 235 62 85 DOBLE ENGINEERING COMPANY, WATER TOWN, MA, USA www.doble.com

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capacitor tolerance will affect relay operation unless steps are taken to compensate for this error.

Figure-2: Compensated Neutral Voltage unbalance method Three methods of providing unbalance protection for double wye ungrounded banks are presented. Fig. 3(a) uses a current transformer on the connection of the two neutrals and an over-current relay (or a shunt and a voltage relay). Fig. 3(b) uses a voltage transformer connected between the two neutrals and an over-voltage relay. The effect of system voltage unbalances are avoided by both schemes, and both are unaffected by third harmonic currents or voltages when balanced. The current transformer or voltage transformer should be rated for system voltage. The neutral current is one-half of that of a single grounded bank of the same size. However, the current transformer ratio and relay rating may be selected for the desired sensitivity because they are not subjected to switching surge currents or single-phase currents as they are in the grounded neutral scheme. Although a low-ratio voltage transformer would be desirable, a voltage transformer rated for system voltage is required for the ungrounded neutral. Therefore, a high turns ratio should be accepted.

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Figure-3(a)

Figure-3(b)

Fig. 4 shows a scheme where the neutrals of the two capacitor sections are ungrounded but tied together. A voltage transformer, or potential device, is used to measure the voltage between the capacitor bank neutral and ground. The relay should have a harmonic filter.

Figure-4

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1.3 Unbalance Protection Methods for Grounded Wye connected Banks: a) Unbalance Protection for Grounded Single Wye Banks An unbalance in the capacitor bank will cause current to flow in the neutral. Fig. 5 (a) shows a protection based on a current transformer installed on the connection between the capacitor bank neutral and ground. This current transformer has unusual high overvoltage and current requirements. The ratio is selected to give both adequate overcurrent capability and appropriate signal for the protection. The current transformer output has a burden resistor and a sensitive voltage relay. Because of the presence of harmonic currents (particularly the third, a zero sequence harmonic that flows in the neutral-to-ground connection), the relay should be tuned to reduce its sensitivity to frequencies other than the power frequency. The voltage across the burden resistor is in phase with the neutral-to-ground current. This neutral-to-ground current is the vector sum of the three-phase currents, which are 90° out of the phase with the system phase-to-ground voltages. This scheme may be compensated for power system voltage unbalances, by accounting for the 90° phase shift, and is not unusually appropriate for very large capacitor banks requiring very sensitive settings. Each time the capacitor bank is energized, momentary unbalanced capacitor charging currents will circulate in the phases and in the capacitor neutral. Where a parallel bank is already in service these current can be on the order of thousands Amps causing the relay to mal-operate and CT to fail.

Figure-5(a)

Figure-5(b)

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Fig.5 (b) presents an unbalance voltage protection scheme for single grounded wye connected SCB’s using capacitor tap point voltages. An unbalance in the capacitor bank will cause an unbalance in the voltages at the tap point of the three phases. The protection scheme consists of a voltage sensing device connected between the capacitor intermediate point and ground on each phase. A time delay voltage relay with third harmonic filter is connected to the broken delta secondaries. Modern digital relays use the calculated zero sequence voltage instead as shown in Fig. 5(b). b) Unbalance Protection for Grounded Double Wye Banks Fig. 6 shows a scheme where a current transformer is installed on each neutral of the two sections of a double Why SCB. The neutrals are connected to a common ground. The current transformer secondaries are cross-connected to an over-current relay so that the relay is insensitive to any outside condition that affects both sections of the capacitor bank in the same direction or manner. The current transformers can be subjected to switching transient currents and, therefore, surge protection is required. They should be sized for single-phase load currents if possible. (Alternatively, the connections from neutral to ground from the two wyes may be in opposite directions through a single-window current transformer).

Figure-6 c) Voltage differential protection method for grounded wye banks On large SCBs with large number of capacitor units, it is very difficult to detect the loss of 1 or 2 capacitor units as the signal produced by the unbalance is buried in the inherent bank unbalance. The voltage differential provides a very sensitive and efficient method to compensate for both system and inherent capacitor bank unbalances in grounded wye capacitor banks. Fig. 8 shows the voltage differential scheme for a single wye-connected bank and Fig. 8 for a double wye-connected bank. DOBLE ENGINEERING PVT LTD, 305-SAKAR, OLD PADRA ROAD, VADODARA 238 PH: (+91) (265) 555 77 15, FAX: (+91) (265) 235 62 85 DOBLE ENGINEERING COMPANY, WATER TOWN, MA, USA www.doble.com

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The scheme uses two voltage transformers per phase: one connected to a tap on the capacitor bank; the other, at the bank bus for single Wye banks; or, for double Wye banks, at a similar tap on the second bank. By comparing the voltages of both VTs, a signal responsive to the loss of individual capacitor elements or units is derived. The capacitor bank tap voltage is obtained by connecting a voltage-sensing device across the ground end parallel group (or groups) of capacitors. This may be a midpoint tap, where the voltage is measured between the midpoint of the phase and ground. Alternatively, the tap voltage may be measured across low-voltage capacitors (that is, a capacitive shunt) at the neutral end of the phase.

Figure-7 Voltage differential scheme for grounded single wye SCB For commissioning, after checking that all capacitors are good and no fuses have operated, the voltage levels are initially adjusted to be equal. The initial difference signal between the capacitor bank tap voltage and the bus voltage (for single Wye banks) signals is zero, and the capacitor tolerance and initial system voltage unbalance is compensated. If the system voltage unbalance should vary, the relay system is still compensated because a given percent change in bus voltage results in the same percent change on the capacitor bank tap. Any subsequent voltage difference between capacitor tap voltage and bus voltage will be due to unbalances caused by loss of capacitor units within that particular phase. For double Wye banks, the tap voltage is compared the other Wye tap voltage. Modern digital relay dynamically compensate secondary errors introduced by sensing device variation and temperature differences between capacitor units within the bank. If the bank is tapped at the midpoint the sensitivity is the same for failures within and outside the tapped portion. If the bank is tapped below (above) the midpoint, the sensitivity for failures within the tapped portion will be greater (less) than for failures outside the tap portion. This difference may cause difficulty in achieving an appropriate DOBLE ENGINEERING PVT LTD, 305-SAKAR, OLD PADRA ROAD, VADODARA 239 PH: (+91) (265) 555 77 15, FAX: (+91) (265) 235 62 85 DOBLE ENGINEERING COMPANY, WATER TOWN, MA, USA www.doble.com

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relay setting. The sensitivity for a midpoint tap and a tap across low-voltage capacitors at the neutral end of the phase is the same. Tapping across the bottom series groups or a midpoint tap is not appropriate for fuseless banks with multiple strings because the strings are not connected to each other at the tap point. Tapping across the low-voltage capacitors is suitable for fuseless capacitor banks.

Figure-8 Voltage differential scheme for grounded double wye SCB Protection against Other Internal Bank Faults: The are certain faults within the bank that the unbalance protection will not detect or other means are required for its clearance. a) Mid-Rack Phase to Phase Faults Usually individual phases of a SCB are built on separate structures where phase to phase faults are unlikely. However, consider an ungrounded single Wye capacitor bank with two series groups per phase where all three phases are installed upon a single steel structure. A mid-rack fault between 2 phases as shown in Fig. 9 is possible and will go undetected. This fault does not cause an unbalance of the neutral voltage (or neutral current if grounded) as the healthy voltage is counter balance by the 2 other faulty phase voltages. The most efficient protection for mid-rack phase to phase faults is the negative sequence current. Tripping shall be delayed to coordinate with other relays in the system.

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Figure-9 Mid-rack Fault b) Faults on the Capacitor Bank Bus Time over-current relays for phase and ground are required to provide protection for phase and ground faults on the connecting feeder (or bus-work) between the bank bus and the first capacitor unit. Directional over-current relays looking into the bank are preferred to avoid mal-operation of the TOC 51N for unbalance system faults. 1.4 Protection of the SCB Against System Disturbances and Faults: System Over-voltage Protection The capacitor bank may be subjected to over-voltages resulting from abnormal system operating conditions. If the system voltage exceeds the capacitor capability the bank should be removed from service. The removal of the capacitor bank lowers the voltage in the vicinity of the bank reducing the over-voltage on other system equipment. Time delayed or inverse time delayed phase over-voltage relays are used. Relays for Bank Closing Control Once disconnected from the system a shunt capacitor bank cannot be re-inserted immediately due to the electrical charge trapped within the capacitor units, otherwise catastrophic damage to the circuit breaker or switch can occur. To accelerate the discharge of the bank, each individual capacitor unit has a resistor to discharge the trapped charges within 5min. Under-voltage or undercurrent relays with timers are used to detect the bank going out of service and prevent closing the breaker until the set time has elapsed.

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Alstom make electromechanical relay type “VDG-13”, “CTIG-12” & “VTT-11” Relays are used for above applications. VTT-11 relay setting should be around 5.0s CONCLUSIONS: The protection of shunt capacitor banks uses simple, well known relaying principles such as over-voltage, over-currents. However, it requires the protection engineer to have a good understanding of the capacitor unit, its arrangement and bank design issues before embarking in its protection. Unbalance is the most important protection in a shunt capacitor bank, as it provides fast and effective protection to assure a long and reliable life for the bank. To accomplish its goal, unbalance protection requires high degree of sensitivity that might be difficult to achieve. The latest IEEE Guide for the Protection of Shunt Capacitors Banks shall be the guiding document when implementing a protection scheme to a shunt capacitor bank.

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-Æ Application diagram of ABB make Numerical capacitor bank protection relay type SPAJ-160 is shown below;

Schematic connection diagram of “SPAJ-160”

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Application Example of SPAJ-160:

Fig. Protection of a capacitor bank connected as a double-star in a distribution network with three-phase current measurement.

Fig. Protection of a capacitor bank connected as a double-star in a distribution network with two-phase current measurement.

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Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management For Energy Delivery

Fig. Protection of a capacitor bank connected as a double-star in an industrial network with two- or three-phase current measurement. In this case a nondirectional earth-fault protection is used.

Fig. Protection of a one-phase bridge connected capacitor filter bank.

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References: (1) IEEE Std C37.99-2000, IEEE Guide for the Protection of Shunt Capacitors Banks. (2) ABB & ALSTOM Relay Manuals.

Thank You
DOBLE ENGINEERING PVT LTD, 305-SAKAR BUILDING, OLD PADRA ROAD, VADODARA PH: (+91) (265) 555 77 15 Email: kdave@doble.com

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“MULTIPLICATION OF DOCUMENT IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED”

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Question #1: Question #2: Question #3: Question #4: Question #5:

What is Power Factor? What Causes Low Power Factor? Why Should I Improve My Power Factor? How Do I Correct (Improve) My Power Factor? How Long Will It Take My Investment in Power Factor Correction to Pay for Itself? Question #6: Testing of Application Relay by using DOBLE F6150 INSTRUMENT?

Question #1: What is Power Factor?
KW is Working Power (also called Actual Power or Active Power or Real Power). It is the power that actually powers the equipment and performs useful work. KVAR is Reactive Power. It is the power that magnetic equipment (transformer, motor and relay) needs to produce the magnetizing flux. KVA is Apparent Power. It is the “vectorial summation” of KVAR and KW. Let’s look at a simple analogy in order to better understand these terms…. Let’s say you are at the ballpark and it is a really hot day. You order up a mug of your favorite brew sky. The thirst-quenching portion of your Tea is represented by KW (Figure 1). Unfortunately, life isn’t perfect. Along with your ale comes a little bit of foam. (And let’s face it…that foam just doesn’t quench your thirst.) This foam is represented by KVAR. The total contents of mug, KVA, are this summation of KW (the Coffee) and KVAR (the foam).

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Figure-1 Power Factor (P.F.) is the ratio of Working Power to Apparent Power.

Looking at our Coffee mug analogy above, power factor would be the ratio of Coffee (KW) to Coffee plus foam (KVA).

Total Coffee P.F. = --------------------Coffee + FOAM Thus, for a given KVA: • The more foam you have (the higher the percentage of KVAR), the lower your ratio of KW (Coffee) to KVA (Coffee plus foam). Thus, the lower your power factor.
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The less foam you have (the lower the percentage of KVAR), the higher your ratio of KW (Coffee) to KVA (Coffee plus foam). In fact, as your foam (or KVAR) approaches zero, your power factor approaches 1.0.

Our Coffee mug analogy is a bit simplistic. In reality, when we calculate KVA, we must determine the “vectorial summation” of KVAR and KW. Therefore, we must go one step further and look at the angle between these vectors.

Let’s look at another analogy …… Kamin here is dragging a heavy load (Figure 2). Kamin’s Working Power (or Actual Power) in the forward direction, where he most wants his load to travel, is KW. Unfortunately, Kamin can’t drag his load on a perfect horizontal (he would get a tremendous backache), so his shoulder height adds a little Reactive Power, or KVAR. The Apparent Power Kamin is dragging, KVA, is this “vectorial summation” of KVAR and KW.

Figure:-2

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The “Power Triangle” (Figure 3) illustrates this relationship between KW, KVA, KVAR, and Power Factor:

POWER TRIANGLE:

Note that…in an ideal world…looking at the Coffee mug analogy: •

KVAR would be very small (foam would be approaching zero)

KW and KVA would be almost equal (more Coffee; less foam)

Similarly…in an ideal world…looking at Kamin’s heavy load analogy: • KVAR would be very small (approaching zero) • KW and KVA would be almost equal (Kamin wouldn’t have to waste any power along his body height)

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Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management For Energy Delivery

• • •
So….

The angle theta (formed between KW and KVA) would approach zero Cosine(Theta) would then approach one Power Factor would approach one

In order to have an “efficient” system (whether it is the Coffee mug or Kamin dragging a heavy load), we want power factor to be as close to 1.0 as possible. Sometimes, however, our electrical distribution has a power factor much less than 1.0. Next, we’ll see what causes this.

Question #2: What Causes Low Power Factor?
Since power factor is defined as the ratio of KW to KVA, we see that low power factor results when KW is small in relation to KVA. Remembering our beer mug analogy, this would occur when KVAR (foam, or Kamin’s shoulder height) is large. What causes a large KVAR in a system? The answer is…inductive loads. Inductive loads (which are sources of Reactive Power) include: • • • • Transformers Induction motors Induction generators (wind mill generators) High intensity discharge (HID) lighting

These inductive loads constitute a major portion of the power consumed in industrial complexes.

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Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management For Energy Delivery

So, inductive loads (with large KVAR) result in low power factor.

Question #3: Why Should I Improve My Power Factor?
You want to improve your power factor for several different reasons. Some of the benefits of improving your power factor include: 1) Lower utility fees by: a. Reducing peak KW billing demand Recall that inductive loads, which require reactive power, caused your low power factor. This increase in required reactive power (KVAR) causes an increase in required apparent power (KVA), which is what the utility is supplying. So, a facility’s low power factor causes the utility to have to increase its generation and transmission capacity in order to handle this extra demand. By lowering your power factor, you use less KVAR. This results in less KW, which equates to a dollar savings from the utility.

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b. Eliminating the power factor penalty Utilities usually charge customers an additional fee when their power factor is less than 0.95. (In fact, some utilities are not obligated to deliver electricity to their customer at any time the customer’s power factor falls below 0.85.) Thus, you can avoid this additional fee by increasing your power factor. 2) Increased system capacity and reduced system losses in your electrical system: By adding capacitors (KVAR generators) to the system, the power factor is improved and the KW capacity of the system is increased. For example, a 1,000 KVA transformer with an 80% power factor provides 800 KW (600 KVAR) of power to the main bus.

By increasing the power factor to 90%, more KW can be supplied for the same amount of KVA.

The KW capacity of the system increases to 900 KW and the utility supplies only 436 KVAR. Uncorrected power factor causes power system losses in your distribution system. By improving your power factor, these losses can be reduced. With the current rise in the cost of energy, increased facility efficiency is very desirable.
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And with lower system losses, you are also able to add additional load to your system. 3) Increased voltage level in your electrical system and cooler, more efficient motors As mentioned above, uncorrected power factor causes power system losses in your distribution system. As power losses increase, you may experience voltage drops. Excessive voltage drops can cause overheating and premature failure of motors and other inductive equipment. So, by raising your power factor, you will minimize these voltage drops along feeder cables and avoid related problems. Your motors will run cooler and be more efficient, with a slight increase in capacity and starting torque.

Question #4 How Do I Correct (Improve) My Power Factor?
We have seen that sources of Reactive Power (inductive loads) decrease power factor: • • • • Transformers Induction motors Induction generators (wind mill generators) High intensity discharge (HID) lighting

Similarly, consumers of Reactive Power increase power factor: • • • Capacitors Synchronous generators (utility and emergency) Synchronous motors

Thus, it comes as no surprise that one way to increase power factor is to add capacitors to the system. These--and other ways of increasing power factor--are listed below: 1) Installing capacitors (KVAR Generators) Installing capacitors decreases the magnitude of reactive power (KVAR or foam), thus increasing your power factor.
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Inductance and capacitance react 180 degrees to each other. Capacitors store KVARS and release energy opposing the reactive energy caused by the inductor. The presence of both a capacitor and inductor in the same circuit results in the continuous alternating transfer of energy between the two. Thus, when the circuit is balanced, all the energy released by the inductor is absorbed by the capacitor. Following is an example of how a capacitor cancels out the effect of an inductive load…. 2) Minimizing operation of idling or lightly loaded motors.
We already talked about the fact that low power factor is caused by the presence of induction motors. But, more specifically, low power factor is caused by running induction motors lightly loaded.

3) Avoiding operation of equipment above its rated voltage. 4) Replacing standard motors as they burn out with energy-efficient motors.

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Even with energy-efficient motors, power factor is significantly affected by variations in load. A motor must be operated near its rated load in order to realize the benefits of a high power factor design.

Question #5 How Long Will It Take my Investment in Power Factor Correction to Pay for Itself?
A calculation can be run to determine when this payoff will be. As an example, assume that a portion of your facility can be modeled as in Figure 6 below. Your current power factor is 0.65. Following are the parameters for your original system: • • • • • 163 KW load 730 hours per month 480 Volt, 3 phase service 5% system losses Load PF = 65%

We’ll calculate the total amount the utility charges you every month as follows:
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First, we’ll calculate your energy usage: 163 KW X 730 Hours/Month X Rs4.08/KWH = Rs4,854.79/Month Next, we’ll calculate your demand charge: 163 KW X Rs2.16/KW = Rs352.08/Month Finally, we’ll calculate your Power Factor Penalty: 190 KVAR X 730 Hours/Month X Rs0.15/KVARH = Rs208/Month Now, let’s say that you decide to install a capacitor bank (Figure 7). The 190 KVAR from the capacitor cancels out the 190 KVAR from the inductive motor. Your power factor is now 1.0. Following are your parameters for your system with capacitors: • Corrected PF = 1.0

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You can calculate your loss reduction: Loss Reduction = 1-(0.652 / 1.002) = 0.58 Therefore, your system loss reduction will be as follows: 0.58 X 0.05 (losses) = 0.029 System Loss Reduction Your total KW load will be reduced as follows: 163 KW X 0.029 = 4.7 KW Now we can calculate your savings in energy usage: 4.7 KW X 730 Hours/Month X Rs4.08/KWH = Rs141.00/Month Next, we’ll calculate your savings in demand charge: 4.7 KW X Rs2.16/KW = Rs10.15/Month Finally, remember that your Power Factor Penalty is zero. Let’s calculate how long it will take for this capacitor bank to pay for itself. • Capacitor Cost = Rs30.00/KVAR

Suppose your savings per month are as follows: • • • Rs141.00 Energy Usage Rs10.15 Demand Charge Rs208.00 PF Penalty Charge Rs359.15 Total

Your payback will be at the following time: Rs15.00/KVAR X 190 KVAR/Rs359/Month = 16 Months Installation of your capacitors will pay for themselves in 16 months.

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Question #6: Testing of Application Relay (LoVAR) by using DOBLE F6150 INSTRUMENT?

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Vector Diagram • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Select Phase Rotate “I” (PHROTI) macro in “ProTesT software. Click on the “Test Tab”. Select Source “VA” in SRC column. Select Source “I1” in SRC column. Put the terminal numbers (i.e. 27-28, 25-26) in high and low column. Put the Amplitude of Voltages (i.e. VA=110V & I1=1A). Put the Action Tab of phase angles in phs column. Put the value of Frequency (i.e. FA=50.000Hz, FB=50.000Hz) in Freq column. Put the value of Expected angle at which the relay will operate ( P.F.=0.85lag, so angle is 31.78deg.) Select “Action” menu. Put the value of Offset phase, Offset duration. Put the value of “+/- Delta phase” (Say 1deg.), Delta time. Put the value of “Phase limit” (Say –90deg) Give run command.

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“MULTIPLICATION OF DOCUMENT IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED”

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Introduction:
The objective of the electric utility is to deliver sinusoidal voltage at fairly constant magnitude throughout their system. This objective is complicated by the fact that there are loads on the system that produce harmonic currents. These currents result in distorted voltages and currents that can adversely impact the system performance in different ways. As the number of harmonic producing loads has increased over the years, it has become increasingly necessary to address their influence when making any additions or changes to an Installation. To fully appreciate the impact of this phenomenon, there are two important concepts to bear in mind with regard to power system harmonics. The first is the nature of harmoniccurrent producing loads (non-linear loads) and the second is the way in which harmonic currents flow and how the resulting harmonic voltages develop. Linear and non-linear loads: A linear element in a power system is a component in which the current is proportional to the voltage. In general, this means that the current wave shape will be the same as the voltage. Typical examples of linear loads include motors, heaters and incandescent lamps. On the other hand, the current wave shape on a non-linear load is not the same as the voltage. Typical examples of non-linear loads include rectifiers (power supplies, UPS units, discharge lighting), adjustable speed motor drives, ferromagnetic devices, DC motor drives and arcing equipment. The current drawn by non-linear loads is not sinusoidal but it is periodic, meaning that the current wave looks the same from cycle to cycle. Periodic waveforms can be described mathematically as a series of sinusoidal waveforms that have been summed together. Harmonics are created by electronic circuits such as adjustable frequency speed drives (VFD), rectifiers, rectiformer etc. They can cause problems to other loads in power system. The bas frequency of the power supply is the fundamental, or first harmonic, which in the standard Indian power system, is 50Hz. Additional harmonics, which in frequency are multiples of the first or fundamental, can appear on the power supply. For example, the second harmonic of a 50Hz supply is 100Hz, which is twice 50Hz. The third becomes 150Hz.

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Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management For Energy Delivery

Fundamental Frequency 50Hz

Third Harmonic Frequency 150Hz Symmetrical & Un-symmetrical waves:
Symmetrical waves contain only odd harmonics and un-symmetrical waves contain even and odd harmonics. A symmetrical wave is one in which the positive portion of the wave is identical to the negative portion of the wave. An un-symmetrical wave contains a DC component (or offset) or the load is such that the positive portion of the wave is different than the negative portion. An example of un-symmetrical wave would be a half wave rectifier.

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Knowledge Is Power Phase Rotation:

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Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management For Energy Delivery

Phase rotation describes the order in which waveforms in each phase of a three-phase system cross zero. This can be shown with a waveform diagram, as illustrated below, or with a phasor diagram of lines and arrows, also shown below. Phasors are used for simplification purposes. The length of the arrows represents voltage or current magnitudes, while the angles between them show phase relationship.

Odd-numbered harmonic, such as the 3rd, 5th, etc, are more prevalent than evennumbered harmonics, such as the 2nd and 4th. Higher-numbered harmonics are generally smaller in amplitude, reducing their effect on the power distribution system.

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All harmonics cause heat in conductors and other system components. This is in addition to the heat generated by normal operating currents. Negative sequence harmonics, in addition to this heating effect, also cause another problem in induction motors. The reverse phase rotation of these harmonics generates a reversal rotating magnetic field, which not only reduces forward motor torque, but also increases the motor current demand.

Harmonic current flow:
When a non-linear load draws current, that current passes through all of the impedance that is between the load and the system source. As a result of the current flow, harmonic voltages are produced by impedance in the system for each harmonic. Distorted-current induced voltage distortion. These voltages sum and when added to the nominal voltage produce voltage distortion. The magnitude of the voltage distortion depends on the source impedance and the harmonic voltages produced. If the source impedance is low then the voltage distortion will be low. If a significant portion of the load becomes nonlinear (harmonic currents increase) and/or when a resonant condition prevails (system impedance increases), the voltage can increase dramatically. These voltages sum and when added to the nominal voltage produce voltage distortion. The magnitude of the voltage distortion depends on the source impedance and the harmonic voltages produced. If the source impedance is low then the voltage distortion will be low. If a significant portion of the load becomes non-linear (harmonic currents increase) and/or when a resonant condition prevails (system impedance increases), the voltage can increase dramatically.

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Knowledge Is Power Harmonic Effects:

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Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management For Energy Delivery

Zero sequence harmonics add together, creating a single-phase signal that does not produce a rotating magnetic field. This harmonics, however, can cause additional heating in the neutral conductor of a three-phase, four-wire system. This can be a significant problem since the neutral conductor is usually not protected by a fuse or circuit breaker.

Harmonic currents can produce a number of problems, namely: • Equipment heating • Equipment malfunction • Equipment failure • Communications interference • Fuse and breaker mis-operation • Process problems • Conductor heating

K- Factor for Transformer:
K-Factor is a numerical rating that indicates a transformer’s ability to handle the extra heating caused by harmonics. A standard transformer has a K-1 rating. A transformer with a K-5 rating would be able to handle five times the harmonic heating effects of a standard transformer. DOBLE ENGINEERING PVT LTD, 305-SAKAR, OLD PADRA ROAD, VADODARA 267 PH: (+91) (265) 555 77 15, FAX: (+91) (265) 235 62 85 DOBLE ENGINEERING COMPANY, WATER TOWN, MA, USA www.doble.com

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Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management For Energy Delivery

It is essentially a transformer survival rating. As long as the load k-factor is lower than the ‘k’rating of the transformer, the full kVA rating of the transformer can be used. The transformer survives the harmonic losses without overheating but voltage distortion remains essentially unaffected.

Harmonics analysis & Testing of Relays: Harmonic analysis is required for power system & protection engineers to reduce or avoid nuisance trips under healthy power system. DOBLE “DATC” and “TransWin” Application software are used for harmonic, Swing, Various transient phenomenon like C.T. saturations, magnetizing inrush phenomenon, Locked rotor characteristic of motor etc. Capability: • • • • • • • User friendly and easy to use. No programming skilled is required. Easy for analysis. Graphical representation. Graphical display output. Export “COMTRADE” file for Testing of Relays. Automatic Fault calculations like “S-L-G”, “D-L-G”, “Three-phase fault” etc.

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Knowledge Is Power Problem, Effect, & Solution:

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The design & application of relays is always a challenge for power system protection engineers because it’s job like as a detective to detect a power system faults & isolate the faulty circuit from the power system. It offers all the satisfying life, security, interest & number of varieties (technological) Security: Means the profession is not over crowded, in fact the manufacturers of relays have the greatest difficulty in finding a good protection engineers. Interest: Means it’s require wide range of knowledge of Power system & machines while the engineers want to design the relays. It means the relay engineers constantly adds to mathematical, electrical & general knowledge. Varieties: Means it comes from the wide range of characteristics required of protective relays and activities which is connected with making & selling them, such as power system study, automation study, computer applications, customer applications etc. References: 2. Protective Relaying, Wan.C.Warrington. 3. Art & Science of Relay, Russell Masson. 4. Power System & Protection, Bhuvnesh Ojha & Date. 5. Engineering Dependable Protection Part-I. 6. IEEE/ANSI Committee Reports. 7. ALSTOM, ABB, SIEMENS, REYROLLY Relay Manuals 8. Protective relay Application guide – GEC ALSHOM, UK 9. ProTesT user guide – Doble Engineering Company, USA

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