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A length of material supported horizontally at the points in such a way that it will carry vertical loads is called a beam. The loading perpendicular to its longitudinal axis causes bending and in most cases transverse shearing. In the simplest example the loads and supporting reactions act in a vertical plane containing the longitudinal axis, and the beam has a rectangular cross section. The loads and supports reactions are the external forces acting on the beam and they must be in equilibrium. But in order to study the strength of the beam it is necessary to know how these external forces affect it. As the theory appendix shows, the mathematical is to assume the beam is cut into two parts by transverse section and then to examine the equilibrium of each parts. To maintain equilibrium it is evident that certain forces must be introduced at the cut, and when the cut is not there these same forces exist internally in the material of the beam. In this experiment a horizontal beam has been actually cut into two parts (A) and (B) by vertical cross section, and is then held together with springs ( or springs balance ) which must produce a system of forces equivalent to whose which would normally exist internally in the beam at that section if it had not been cut. Since the forces in part (A) acting on part (B) must be equal and opposite to those in (B) acting on (A), it follows that the same value will be obtained by working to the right or left of the section plane. Given a horizontal beam with vertical loading the internal will be
for equilibrium of moments a moment of resistance due to compression in the top half of the beam section and tension in the bottom half. . we have the Diagram 2b. the direction of V shown in the diagram is in the negative ydirection. 2. we will look at the causes of the internal bending moment in a little greater detail. When summing forces. However before the next example. as we will see in the next example.1. If we then cut the beam and look at a left end section. In the experimental beam the second system of forces is replaced by compression at a hinge in the beam and tension in the under slung spring balance. Notice that there is a possibility for a degree of confusion with sign notation. and always choosing V & M in a positive direction according to the shear force and bending moments conventions defined above. yet it is a positive shear force. for vertical equilibrium a shearing force in the section plane. and have indicated in an exaggerated way the bending caused by the load. we will always select the V & M directions as shown in Diagram 1. In Diagram 2a. This approach will simplify the sign conventions. We will deal with possible confusion by always working from the left for our beam sections. Theory In the beam section shown in Diagram 1. we have shown a simply supported loaded beam. The vertical restraint is provided by the half housing at the end of part (A) which fits on the ball bearings pinned to the mating end of part (B). That is. This can lead to some confusion unless we are careful. we have shown the Shear Force V and Bending Moment M acting in positive directions according to the definitions above.
M. the torque produced by these x-forces is not zero. however for every positive x-force. as the beam bends. for the sake of clarity. However. Looking at Diagram 2c and mentally summing torque about the center of the beam. Thus the net horizontal (x-direction) internal force in the beam section is zero. the top region of the beam is put into compression and the bottom region of the beam is put into tension. This is the cause of the internal bending moment (torque) inside a loaded beam. there is an equal and opposite negative x-force.In this diagram we have. left out the vertical shear force which develops. To measure the bending moment at a normal value section of a loaded beam and to compare it with the theoretical value. OBJECTIVE There are two objectives of these introductory experiments as follows : 1. As a result there are internal horizontal (x-direction) forces acting in the beam. but have shown horizontal forces (-Fx and + Fx). even though the actual x-forces cancel each other. . These forces develop since. To comprehend the action of the moment of resistance within the beam.which we call the internal bending moment. we see that the horizontal x-forces cause a net toque . 2.
the equipment shown in figure 1 is used loading hanger load ruler PROCEDURE Part 1 1. 2.APPARATUS Figure 1 1. 2. The first hanger is 100mm from A. The result is recorded in table 2. 3. 4. 6. Then 10N is added to the first and third hangers. 4. Align two part of the beam is adjusted on the spring balance and the initial ‘no load’ is noted in table 1. Then 5N is put on the first hanger and 12N on the third hanger for one reading followed by moving the 10N from the third to second hanger for the next reading. 5. 4. A 5N weight is put on the second hanger. A 10N is placed on the first. The reading is in table 1 also. the balance is aligned and reread. re-align the beam and the balance. 2. 3. the beam is aligned and the balance reading is recorded. Part 2 1. The reading is recorded in table 2 . the third hanger is moved to 400mm from B after the beam aligned and the new ‘no load’ reading is recorded. Now. The whole procedure is repeated using a 20N weight. The third hanger is 300mm from B. 3. The second hanger (section C) is 300mm from A. 5.
RESULTS Table 1 Spring balance readings for bending moment at C W1 0 10 0 0 Load (N) W2 W3 0 0 10 0 0 0 0 10 Balance Reading (N) 15 20 29 21 Net Force (N) 5 14 6 Bending Moment (Nmm) 750 2100 900 Table 1 Spring balance readings for bending moment at C W1 0 20 0 0 Load (N) W2 W3 0 0 20 0 0 0 0 20 Balance Reading (N) 15 25 41 27 Net Force (N) 10 26 12 Bending Moment 1500 3900 1800 Table 2 Spring balance readings for bending moment at C W1 0 0 10 Load (N) W2 W3 0 5 5 0 0 10 Balance Reading (N) 15 21 31 Net Force (N) 6 16 Bending Moment 900 2400 Table 3 Spring balance readings for bending moment at C W1 0 5 5 Load (N) W2 W3 0 0 10 0 12 2 Balance Reading (N) 15 24 30 Net Force (N) 9 15 Bending Moment 1350 2250 Calculation of Bending Moment 10 5 10 .
3) -10(0.668 Nm MC 10 100 200 5 200 10 400 .3)-10(0.668 -2 = 2.2) = 4.1) =0 900 FB = 6 + 1.44 N ∑MA 0.6) +5(0.56 10 100 200 _____________↓______________________ ↑ 15.1) = 8.56 N ∑MC = 15.56(0.5 + 1 FB ∑Fy=0 = 9.5 0.9)-10(0.6)-5(0.44 N FA + FB -10-5-10=0 FA=25-9.100 A 200 300 300 B __________↓_____________↓_____________↓______________________ ↑ 15.56 N ↑ 9.9FB =0 = 10(0.44 =15.9 FB (0.3) + 10(0.
668 1.56 N ↑ B 5 N 15.836 2.44 -9.56 9.56 7 5.566 0 BENDING MOMENT DIAGRAM OBSERVATIONS Did the experimental result verify the theory? .56 0.A __________↓_____________↓_____________↓______________________ ↑ 15.44 SHEAR DIAGRAM 2.
e. it will be considered as positive if the bending couples are directed. This matches fully with the theory and the linear behavior of the structure. in which the values of the shear and of the bending moment are positive. the W2 gives the highest bending moment.. we state: The shear V and the bending moment M at a given point of a beam are said to be positive when the internal forces and couples acting on each portion of the beam are directed. by passing a section through the point where they are to be determined and considering the equilibrium of the portion of beam located in either side of the section. The shear at any given point of a beam is positive when the external forces (loads and reactions) acting on the beam tend to shear off the beam at that point. These conventions can be more easily remembered if we note that: 1. is precisely the situation that occurs in the left half of a simply supported beam carrying a single concentrated load at its midpoint. The bending moment at any given point of a beam is positive when the external forces acting on the beam tend to bend the beam at that point. DISCUSSIONS . 2. Summarizing the sign conventions we have presented. A similar convention will apply for the bending moment M. In the examples and sample problems of this section. Besides. the knowledge of M as a function of x is essential to the determination of the deflection of a beam. the shear and bending-moment diagrams will be obtained by determining the values of V and M at selected points of the beam. and negative otherwise. It is also of help to note that the situation.The determination of the maximum absolute values of the shear and of the bending moment in a beam are greatly facilitated if V and M are plotted against the distance x measured from one end of the beam. . i. How well did the results of part 1 justify the linear behavior of the structure? If we refer to the result. These values will be found in the usual way.
The balance reading is also can affected by the ambient condition. Besides of that it might be because of the apparatus problem where the apparatus is not in good condition. The moment M of that couple is referred to as the bending moment in the section. we can see the different of bending moment between the experimental reading and theoretical reading. We can approve the reading that we get from the experiment with theoretical reading. The difference of the reading between experimental and theoretical are different might be because of human error where the student read the balance in parallax error. The internal forces in any cross section of a symmetric member in pure bending are equivalent to a couple. In most cases the dominant criterion in the design of a beam for strength is the maximum value of the normal stress in the beam. CONCLUSION . while the shear force V creates shearing stress in that section. The bending couple M creates normal stresses in the cross section.From the experiment.
the strength of the beam depends on 'internal' forces or moments. They must be in equilibrium. 4. The group co-operation is also important. However. The experimental beam is in two parts. Recommendation 1. A hinged metal strip to simulate the loading pattern of panelled girder for a more advanced experiment on influence lines is available. The beam is simply supported on end bearings and several weight hangers can be attached at any position on either side of the hinge. Must have full concentration while doing this experiment. The loading causes bending and transverse shearing. joined together by a pair of low friction ball bearings. An underslung spring balance provides a resisting moment. Appendix . The loads and reactions are the 'external' forces acting on the beam. The experiment demonstrates the nature of these internal forces and their dependence on the external system of forces. 2. 3.A length of material supported horizontally and carrying vertical loads is called a beam. The position of the eye must be located perpendicular to the scale reading to avoid getting the wrong reading. and also allows the section bending moment to be measured. The apparatus for the experiment must be ensured to be in good condition to make sure no errors occurs when the experiment is conducted.
and John T.Gere Thomson Brooks Cole Structural Engineering Chyuan-Shen Lee and J.Strength of Materials (Mechanics of Solids).G and Armstrong Pearson Prentice Hall Mechanics of Materials James M. McGrawHill Mechanics of Engineering Materials Crawford. C.K Rajput. Mechanics of Material Ferdinand P. Chand. Jr. S. Beer. DeWolf. E. R. Russell Johnston.J Lee McGrawHill Engineering Mechanics Statics (SI EDITION) Anthony Bedford and Wallace Fowler Pearson Prentice Hall .
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