This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
FINAL DRAFT
prEN 133842
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
NHRS 1.06 N 033
October 2002
ICS 91.060.40
English version
Chimneys  Thermal and fluid dynamic calculation methods Part 2: Chimneys serving more than one heating appliance
Abgasanlagen  Wärme und strömungstechnische
Berechnungsverfahren  Teil 2: Abgasanlagen mit
mehreren Feuerstätten
This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for formal vote. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/TC
166.
If this draft becomes a European Standard, CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which
stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.
This draft European Standard was established by CEN in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language
made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Management Centre has the same
status as the official versions.
CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece,
Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
Warning : This document is not a European Standard. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without notice and
shall not be referred to as a European Standard.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36
© 2002 CEN
All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved
worldwide for CEN national Members.
B1050 Brussels
Ref. No. prEN 133842:2002 E
prEN 133842:2002 (E)
Contents
Foreword ..................................................................................................................................................................... 4
1
Scope .............................................................................................................................................................. 5
2
Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 5
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.4.1
Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 6
chimney segment .......................................................................................................................................... 6
collector segment .......................................................................................................................................... 6
airflue gas system ........................................................................................................................................ 6
flue gas mass flow ( m ) ................................................................................................................................. 6
declared flue gas mass flow ( m W, j )............................................................................................................. 6
3.4.2
calculated flue gas mass flow ( m Wc, j ) ........................................................................................................ 6
3.5
calculated flue gas temperature ( T Wc, j )...................................................................................................... 6
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10
3.11
3.12
calculated draught of the flue gas of the heating appliance (PWc,j) ........................................................ 6
flue damper .................................................................................................................................................... 6
balanced flue chimney .................................................................................................................................. 6
cascade arrangement.................................................................................................................................... 7
uulti inlet arrangement .................................................................................................................................. 7
air duct ............................................................................................................................................................ 7
pressure equalising opening........................................................................................................................ 7
4
Symbols, terminology, units ........................................................................................................................ 7
5
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
Calculation method ....................................................................................................................................... 9
General principles ......................................................................................................................................... 9
Pressure equilibrium condition.................................................................................................................. 10
Mass flow requirement................................................................................................................................ 11
Pressure requirement ................................................................................................................................. 11
Temperature requirement ........................................................................................................................... 12
Calculation procedure................................................................................................................................. 12
6
Flue gas data characterising the heating appliance ................................................................................ 14
7
Data for chimney and connecting flue pipes............................................................................................ 15
8
8.1
8.1.1
8.1.2
8.2
8.3
8.3.1
8.3.2
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
Basic data for the calculation..................................................................................................................... 15
Air temperatures .......................................................................................................................................... 16
External air temperature (TL)....................................................................................................................... 16
Ambient air temperature (Tu) ...................................................................................................................... 16
External air pressure (pL) ............................................................................................................................ 16
Gas constant ................................................................................................................................................ 16
Gas constant of the air (RL)......................................................................................................................... 16
Gas constant of flue gas (R) ....................................................................................................................... 16
Density of air (ρL) ......................................................................................................................................... 16
Specific heat capacity of the flue gas (cp) ................................................................................................. 16
Water vapour content (σ(H2O),j) and condensing temperature (Tsp) ....................................................... 16
Correction factor for temperature instability (SH) ..................................................................................... 16
Flow safety coefficient (SE) ......................................................................................................................... 16
External coefficient of heat transfer .......................................................................................................... 17
9
Determination of temperatures .................................................................................................................. 17
10
Mixing calculations...................................................................................................................................... 19
2
prEN 133842:2002 (E)
10.1
Flue gas mass flow ( m , j ) ............................................................................................................................19
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6
10.6.1
10.6.2
10.6.3
Flue gas temperature at the inlet of the chimney segment (Te,j) .............................................................19
CO2content of the flue gas in the chimney segment (σ(CO2),j) ..............................................................19
H2Ocontent of the flue gas (σ(H2O),j) ........................................................................................................19
Gas constant of the flue gas (R,j) ...............................................................................................................19
Flue gas data ................................................................................................................................................20
Specific heat capacity (cpV,j), (cp,j) ...............................................................................................................20
Thermal conductivity of the flue gas (λAV,j), (λA,j) ......................................................................................20
Dynamic viscosity (ηAV,j), (ηA,j) ....................................................................................................................20
11
Density and velocity of the flue gas ..........................................................................................................21
12
12.1
12.1.1
12.1.2
12.2
12.2.1
12.2.2
Draught at the outlet of the connecting flue pipe and draught at the inlet of the chimney
segment ........................................................................................................................................................22
Draught at the inlet of the chimney segment............................................................................................22
Draught due to chimney effect in the chimney segment (PH,j) ................................................................22
Pressure resistance in the chimney segment (PR,j)..................................................................................22
Draught required at the outlet of the connecting flue pipe (PZe,j) ...........................................................25
Calculated pressure resistance of the connecting flue pipe (PV,j) ..........................................................25
Pressure resistance of the air supply (PB,j) ...............................................................................................28
13
Inner wall temperature ................................................................................................................................28
14
14.1
14.2
14.3
14.4
14.5
14.6
14.7
Cascade installations ..................................................................................................................................29
Principle of the calculation method ...........................................................................................................29
Pressure equilibrium condition..................................................................................................................29
Mass flow requirement................................................................................................................................30
Pressure requirement..................................................................................................................................31
Temperature requirement ...........................................................................................................................31
Calculation procedure.................................................................................................................................31
Draught at the outlet of the connecting flue pipe and draught at the inlet of the collector
segment ........................................................................................................................................................31
14.7.1 Draught at the flue gas inlet into the collector segment (PZC,j,l)..............................................................31
14.7.2 Draught at the outlet of the connecting flue pipe (PZeC,j,l)........................................................................34
14.8
Inner wall temperature (TiobC,j,l) ...................................................................................................................36
15
Balanced flue chimney................................................................................................................................36
15.1
Principle of the calculation method ...........................................................................................................36
15.2
Pressure equilibrium condition..................................................................................................................36
15.3
Mass flow requirement................................................................................................................................36
15.4
Pressure requirements................................................................................................................................37
15.5
Temperature requirements .........................................................................................................................38
15.6
Calculation procedure for balanced flue chimneys .................................................................................38
15.7
Mass flow of the supply air.........................................................................................................................39
15.8
Determination of the temperatures in balanced flue chimneys..............................................................40
15.8.1 Separate ducts .............................................................................................................................................40
15.8.2 Concentric ducts .........................................................................................................................................40
15.8.3 Concentric connection pipes .....................................................................................................................47
15.9
Pressure resistance of the air supply........................................................................................................52
15.9.1 Draught due to chimney effect at the outlet of the supply air duct........................................................52
15.9.2 Draught due to chimney effect at the outlet of the air supply duct of connection pipes.....................53
15.9.3 Pressure resistance of the air supply duct of the chimney segment j (PRB,j) ........................................53
15.10 Density and velocity of the supply air .......................................................................................................57
15.10.1 Density and velocity of the supply air in the air supply duct averaged over the length of
the chimney segment ..................................................................................................................................57
15.10.2 Density and velocity of the supply air averaged over the length of the connection pipes .................58
Annex A (informative) Recommendations..............................................................................................................59
A.1 Recommendations for the chimney and heating appliances:.......................................................................59
A.2 Recommendations for connecting flue pipes:................................................................................................59
Annex B (informative) Characteristics for the heating appliance ........................................................................60
3
prEN 133842:2002 (E) Foreword This document prEN 133842:2002 has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN /TC 166. Annexes A and B are informative. "Chimneys". This draft is one of a series of standards prepared by CEN/TC 166 comprising product standards and execution standards for chimneys. the secretariat of which is held by UNI. 4 . This document is currently submitted to the Formal Vote.
prEN 133841:1998 EN 1443:1999 5 . The general principles of this calculation method of prEN 133841 also apply to this standard.g. 2 Normative references This European Standard incorporates by dated or undated reference. (This do not apply to balanced flue chimney.Part 1: Chimneys serving one appliance. − chimneys with multiple inlets from more than 5 storeys. same side of building). For dated references. either (1) where the chimney is connected with more than one connecting flue pipe from individual or several appliances in a multiinlet arrangement or (2) where the chimney is connected with an individual connecting flue pipe connecting more than one appliance in a cascade arrangement. provisions from other publications. − chimneys with open fire places. For undated references the latest edition of the publication referred to applies (including amendments).) − chimneys serving heating appliances with open air supply through ventilation openings or air ducts. and the publications are listed hereafter. These normative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text. open fire chimneys or chimney inlets which are normally intended to operate open to the room − chimneys which serve a mixture of fan assisted or forced draught burners or natural draught appliances. e. The case of multiple inlet cascade arrangement is covered by the case (1). gaseous and solid fuels. 1 Scope This part of prEN 13384 specifies methods for calculation of the thermal and fluid dynamic characteristics of chimneys serving more than one heating appliance. This standard is in support of the execution standards for a chimney installation serving more than one heating appliance. The execution standard identifies limitations and safety considerations associated with the design. subsequent amendments to or revisions of any of these publications apply to this European Standard only when incorporated in it by amendment or revision.Thermal and fluid dynamic calculation methods .prEN 133842:2002 (E) Introduction The calculation described in this standard is complex and is intended to be solved by using a computer programme. which are not installed in the same air supply pressure region (e. Chimneys . This part of prEN 13384 does not apply to: − chimneys with different thermal resistance or different crosssection in the various chimney segments. Chimneys .General requirements. This part of prEN 13384 covers both the cases. commissioning and maintenance of a chimney serving more than one heating appliance (not dealt within the calculation method). Fan assisted appliances with draught diverter between the fan and the chimney are considered as natural draught appliances. installation.g. This part does not apply to calculate energy gain. This part of prEN 13384 deals with chimneys operating under negative pressure conditions (there can be positive pressure condition in the connecting flue pipe) and is valid for chimneys serving heating appliances for liquid.
6 calculated draught of the flue gas of the heating appliance (PWc.Metal chimneys – Execution standard. 3.1 chimney segment part of a chimney between two consecutive flue gas connections or between the last flue gas connection and the chimney outlet 3. In case of a chimney serving more than one heating appliance.1 declared flue gas mass flow ( m W. j ) flue gas temperature at the outlet of the heating appliance j depending on the calculated flue gas mass flow 3. j ) flue gas mass flow calculated with respect to calculated draught and the working conditions of the heating appliance j 3. 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this European Standard.8 balanced flue chimney chimney where the point of air entry to the combustion air duct is adjacent to the point of discharge of combustion products from the flue.2 collector segment part of a connecting flue pipe between two consecutive flue gas connections or between the last flue gas connection and the chimney inlet 3.7 flue damper device to close or partially close the flue 3.4. the terms and definitions given in EN 1443:1999.4 flue gas mass flow ( m ) mass of the flue gas leaving the heating appliance through the connecting flue pipe per unit of time.prEN 133842:2002 (E) prEN 12391:2000 Chimneys . the air being transported through an appliance which is out of action is also given the term flue gas mass flow.j) draught at the flue gas outlet of the heating appliance j depending on the calculated flue gas mass flow 3.3 airflue gas system system of concentric or non concentric ducts or parallel ducts for transport of combustion air from the open air to the heating appliances and products of combustion from the heating appliances to the open air 3.2 calculated flue gas mass flow ( m Wc. 3. j ) flue gas mass flow given by the manufacturer of the heating appliance j with respect to the heat output used in the calculation 3. the inlet and outlet being so positioned that wind effects are substantially balanced 6 .4. prEN 133841:1998 and prEN 12391:2000 and the following apply.5 calculated flue gas temperature ( T Wc.
10 uulti inlet arrangement arrangement where two or more appliances situated in different spaces are connected to the chimney by individual connecting flue pipes 3. For more than one cascade system/connection. although a part of them is already listed in part 1 of this standard series.j effective height of the chimney segment j m HV. units Symbols. Table 1 . the indices numbering scheme for the calculation formula should be adopted in a similar manner to that for a single cascade scheme.81 m/s H. Indices added to symbols for purposes of the calculation method for chimneys serving more than one heating appliance relate to one chimney segment and/or connection flue pipe section. j flue gas mass flow in the chimney segment j kg/s 2 2 2 7 . g. terminology and units are given to make the text of this standard understandable.11 air duct independent duct in a building or a structural part of a flue terminal conveying combustion air to a roomsealed appliance 3.1 is the effective height of a section of a chimney segment between the outlet of the connecting flue pipe of the heating appliance in the lowest position and the outlet of the connecting flue pipe of the next heating appliance).Symbols.j coefficient of cooling of the chimney segment j  kj coefficient of heat transmission of the chimney segment j W/(m ·K) kob. farthest appliance connection. terminology.prEN 133842:2002 (E) 3. Indices numbering shall begin at the lowest.j effective height of the connecting flue pipe j m K.j coefficient of cooling of the connecting flue pipe j  L. Symbols assigned to a specific section will be indicated by the number of the section after the comma (e. An example of an indices numbering scheme is given in Figures 1 and 2. terminology. H.9 cascade arrangement arrangement where two or more appliances situated in the same space are connected by a common connecting flue pipe to the chimney 3.12 pressure equalising opening opening or duct that directly connects the air duct with the flue at its base 4 Symbols.j coefficient of heat transmission at upper end of the chimney segment j W/(m ·K) KV. units Symbols Terminology Units 2 A cross sectional area of the chimney m cp specific heat capacity of flue gas J/(kg·K) D diameter m Dh hydraulic diameter m g acceleration due to gravity = 9.j length of the chimney segment j m m .
j mean temperature of the flue gas in the chimney segment j K To.j calculated pressure resistance of the air supply of the heating appliance j Pa PH.j pressure resistance of the chimney segment j Pa Pr Prandtl number  PW.prEN 133842:2002 (E) 8 m V. j declared flue gas mass flow of the heating appliance j kg/s m Wc. j flue gas mass flow in the connecting flue pipe j kg/s m W.j ambient air temperature of the chimney segment j K TW.j calculated flue gas temperature of the heating appliance j K U internal circumference of the chimney m wm.j declared flue gas temperature of the heating appliance j K TWc. g.j minimum heat output of the heating appliance j kW QN.j mean velocity over the length and over the cross section of the chimney segment j m/s αi internal coefficient of heat transfer of the flue W/(m ·K) γ angle between flow directions e.j pressure resistance of the air supply j of the heating appliance j Pa PBc. j calculated flue gas mass flow of the heating appliance j kg/s N number of heating appliances serving the chimney  Nu Nusselt number  Qmin.j minimum draught for the heating appliance j Pa PWc.j flue gas temperature at the inlet of the chimney segment j K Tg.j draught at the flue gas inlet into the chimney segment j Pa PV.j temperature limit of the chimney segment j K Tiob.j nominal heat output of the heating appliance j kW PB.j flue gas temperature at the outlet of the chimney segment j K Tu. between connecting flue pipe and the chimney segment deg ηA dynamic viscosity of flue gas N·s/m 2 2 .j calculated draught of the heating appliance j Pa PZ.j theoretical draught available due to chimney effect in chimney segment j Pa PL wind velocity pressure Pa pL external air pressure Pa PR.j calculated pressure resistance of the connecting flue pipe j Pa R gas constant of the flue gas J/(kg·K) r mean value of roughness value of the inner wall m Re Reynolds number  RL gas constant of the air J/(kg·K) SE flow safety coefficient  SH correction factor of temperature instability  Te.j inner wall temperature at the outlet of chimney segment j at temperature equilibrium K TL external air temperature K Tm.
using the ambient and external air temperatures as specified in prEN 133841: − heating appliances for solid fuels without fan and heating appliances with regulated air supply are in operation at nominal heat output. − All heating appliances are simultaneously operating at nominal heat output. 9 . The validation for the mass flow requirement and pressure requirement for working conditions with heating appliances at minimum heat output is not required in the following cases: − the heating appliances do not have any heat output range − the heating appliances have a heat output which is limited to a fixed value as specified on a label on the appliance. using the external and ambient air temperatures specified in prEN 133841.j density of flue gas averaged over the length and over the cross section of the chimney segment j kg/m ψ coefficient of flow resistance due to friction of the flue  ζ coefficient of flow resistance due to a directional and/or cross sectional and/or mass flow change in the flue  1 Λ 5 5. − All heating appliances are simultaneously operating at minimum heat output − A single heating appliance operating at nominal heat output and all other appliances out of action (all possible cases) − A single heating appliance operating at minimum heat output and all other appliances out of action (all possible cases) If the control of the installation guarantees that not all appliances will be in operation simultaneously. In this case the nominal heat output is the given heat output on the label. After such a distribution has been found three requirements shall be verified: (1) the mass flow requirement (formulae 4 and 5) (2) the pressure requirement (formula 6) (3) the temperature requirement (formula 7) NOTE The calculation is affected by the specific installation design.prEN 133842:2002 (E) thermal resistance m2·K/W λA coefficient of thermal conductivity of flue gas W/(m·K) ρm.1 3 Calculation method General principles The calculation is based upon determining the mass flow distribution in the chimney which fulfils the pressure equilibrium condition (formula 1) at each flue gas inlet to the chimney (see Figure 1). For recommendations for the installation of appliance and connection flue pipes see annex A. − heating appliances heated with solid fuels without fan and appliances with regulated air supply. The temperature requirement shall be validated for the following relevant working condition. The validation of the mass flow requirement for working conditions with appliances at nominal heat output is not required in the following case: − the heating appliances have a flue gas mass flow at minimum heat output higher than or equal to the flue gas mass flow at nominal heat output. The validation of the mass flow requirement and pressure requirement shall be done at following working conditions. the validation of the mass flow requirement and pressure requirement may be done with the maximum number of appliances which will be in operation under the most adverse condition.
If the chimney system includes a draught regulator.prEN 133842:2002 (E) − heating appliances with a draught diverter which provide domestic hot water only are out of action. The validation of the temperature requirement is not necessary when the chimney serves only domestic gas fired water heaters with instantaneous production and domestic gas fired storage water heaters.1 in Pa (1) ∑ (PH.k theoretical draught due to chimney effect in chimney segment k in Pa PR.k pressure resistance of the chimney segment k in Pa PWc.2 Pressure equilibrium condition The following formulae shall be fulfilled for each chimney segment j at all relevant working conditions: PZ. j + PV. − heating appliances with a fixed output range are in operation at this (nominal) heat output. j + PBc. j − PZe. j = − PL + N k= j Where: PZ.j heating appliance j required draught at the flue gas inlet to the chimney segment j PL wind velocity pressure N number of heating appliances in Pa in Pa . − all other heating appliances are in operation at minimum heat output.j calculated draught of the heating appliance in Pa PV. j in Pa (3) PZ. k ) in Pa (2) PZe. j = PWc. k − PR. When chimneys suitable for operating under wet conditions are located inside a building the check of the temperature requirement is necessary only for the top of the chimney. the system is handled as a cascade system.j calculated pressure resistance of the connecting flue pipe of chimney segment j 10 PBc.j calculated pressure resistance of the air supply for the PZe. 5. These heating appliances operate with a considerable secondary air (These operate only a short time and therefore it can be assumed that condensation will not cause damage or a lack in safety).j draught at the flue gas inlet to the chimney segment j in Pa PH. j ≤ 0.
6). j ≥ m W. j declared mass flow of the heating appliance in kg/s Where a damper is applied.j) is more than or equal to the negative pressure in the room where the heating appliance is placed at calculated draught conditions for air supply. 5 shall be verified for all relevant working conditions (see 5.4 Pressure requirement Additionally it has to be checked that the negative pressure (draught) in the chimney (PZ. 5.Example of multiple inlet arrangement and numbering pressure values and temperature values of a chimney serving more than one heating appliance 5. flow resistance shall be taken as 0 unless additional data are available. j ≥ 0 Where: m Wc. j calculated mass flow of the heating appliance in kg/s m W. The check on the pressure requirement shall be done using the same conditions 11 .prEN 133842:2002 (E) Figure 1 .3 Mass flow requirement Formulae 4 resp. j in kg/s (4) in kg/s (5) and for each heating appliance out of action: m Wc. For each heating appliance in operation at nominal or minimum heat output : m Wc.
The check of the temperature requirement shall be done with a separate calculation using the newly calculated flue mass flows that fulfil the pressure equilibrium conditions at an external air temperature of Tuo. The following relations shall be verified: PZ.j PBc.j temperature of the inner wall of the chimney segment j at the end temperature limit for chimney segment j in K in K The temperature limit Tg.j = Tsp.j of the flue gas (see 8.15 K.j ≥ Tg.j for chimneys suitable for operating under dry conditions is equal to the condensing temperature Tsp. NOTE The following cases can be exempted from meeting the temperature requirement provided that it is accepted that in case the requirement for temperature should be not fulfilled no guarantee can be given that no moisture appears.5 in Pa draught at the inlet to the chimney segment j calculated pressure resistance of the air supply for the heating appliance j in Pa in Pa Temperature requirement The relations (7) shall be verified for all relevant working conditions (see 5.j Where: Tiob.j 5.6 Calculation procedure For the calculation of the pressure and temperature values in a chimney serving more than one heating appliance an iterative procedure is necessary.j for chimneys suitable for operating under wet conditions is equal to the freezing point of water: Tg. − heating appliances which are substituted to a usual chimney which is already in operation and − the heat output of the heating appliances which are connected and/or substituted does not exceed 30 kW for each and − the flue gas losses are not more or equal than 8 % and − an effective air conditioning of the chimney during standstill periods is given by draught diverters or dampers and − sufficient standstill periods are given (e. In this cases insulation is recommended. In each point of connection between various ducts (at the end of connecting flue pipes.prEN 133842:2002 (E) as specified for the check on the mass flow requirement (see 5. the begin and the end of the chimney segments). Tg. 5.6). j Where: PZ. g. the following procedure shall be used: 12 (6) . j ≥ PBc.j The temperature limit Tg.3 and 5.j Tg.6).j (see prEN 133841) in K (7) Tiob. all called nodes (see Figure 2).j = 273. the minimum steady state heat output of the heating appliance is not less than 20 % as the required heat).6). This calculation procedure is based on the application of mass and energy conservation formulae under quasi steady state conditions.
. j1 + m V. A possible starting value for the calculated mass flow is the declared flue gas mass flow of the appliance m W.The draught at the begin of the chimney segment (at point 3).j1 temperature of the flue gas at the end of chimney segment j1 in K ToV. j = m .j temperature of the flue gas at the inlet of chimney segment j in K . j ⋅ c pV. j in kg/s (8) m . j ⋅ c p. is derived from the draught of this chimney segments and all succeeding sections according to formula 2. j1 + m V. j1 flue gas mass flow in chimney segment j1 in kg/s m V.j specific heat capacity of flue gas in chimney segment j in J/(kg⋅K) To.prEN 133842:2002 (E) Figure 2 . m . j in J/s (9) where: m .j) and temperature values ( To.j at point 2. PZ. ToV.j1 at point 1.j. j = m . NOTE For certain fan assisted heating appliances according to the information of the manufacturer it can be assumed that the mass flow is independent of the draught in the chimney. j flue gas mass flow in connecting flue pipe in kg/s m . For each iteration the following parameters shall be obtained: . j1 ⋅ c p. Te. 13 . j ⋅ ToV. j . j1 ⋅ To.j temperature of the flue gas at the end of connecting flue pipe j in K Te. the actual pressure (PZe. j flue gas mass flow in chimney segment j in kg/s cp. This information can be used to limit the number of iterations.j specific heat capacity of flue gas in connecting flue pipe j in J/(kg⋅K) cp. the average values of the actual temperature.Designation of flow numbering for each node j (see formulae 8 and 9) .j1 specific heat capacity of flue gas in chimney segment j1 in J/(kg⋅K) cpV.The mass flow and the temperature shall be calculated with formulae 8 and 9. Before the first iteration an estimate of the calculated flue gas mass flow at the appliance outlet is necessary. mass flow and velocity of the flue gas.j at point 3).for each section between two nodes. j ⋅ Te.for each node j.
If the pressure equilibrium condition is not fulfilled a new estimate of m W based on the observed difference between PZ. When the pressure equilibrium condition is fulfilled.in each connecting flue pipe calculated mass flow (formula 13). j PWc. 5.j) − declared flue gas temperature of the heating appliance (tW.8).j of the heating appliance shall be given th for both working conditions in form of a 4 degree polynominal (formula 10). 5.prEN 133842:2002 (E) Each iteration consists of the following two phases: Phase 1: Calculate variables starting from the lowest node up to the outlet to the atmosphere as follows: .e. average velocity of the flue gas (formula 28). j 4 m Wj 4 in Pa (10) y2 in °C (11) .calculated/estimated flue gas mass flow at the appliance outlet .j and a new iteration shall be made. out of action). 5. flue gas temperature at the end (see prEN 133841:1998. average density of the flue gas (formula 29). . nominal.in each section of the flue calculated mass flow after the confluence with the respective channels (formula 14).j and PZe. 6 Flue gas data characterising the heating appliance For the calculation of the temperature and pressure values the relevant flue gas data characterising the heating appliance shall be specified. j m + b ⋅ Wc. j Where: 14 +b 2 2 m Wc.pressure resistance in the chimney segment (using formula 32).draught required at the flue gas inlet into the chimney (formula 3) . declared draught of the heating appliance (PW. Phase 2: Calculate the draught values in each node tracking the flue duct backwards from the outlet into the atmosphere down to the node that is at the greatest distance: . m Wc. average velocity of the flue gas (formula 30).8).draught due to chimney effect at the inlet of the chimney segment (formula 31). 5. . the values calculated at the last iteration can be considered. The calculated draught PWc. j = bo + b1 ⋅ m Wj t Wc. This includes: − minimum.8). flue gas temperature at the end (see prEN 133841:1998.draught at the inlet of the chimney segment (using formula 2). j m Wc. .j) Both values shall be given in relation to the flue gas mass flow at various working conditions of the heating appliances (in operation. j = yo + y1 ⋅ m W. for the purpose of this standard.8). The iteration described above (phase 1 and phase 2) at the working conditions under consideration (i. to be those regarding the operation of the chimney. j ⋅ 3 m Wj m Wj 3 m + b ⋅ Wc. average flue gas temperature (see prEN 133841:1998. minimum load and out of action) shall be continued until the pressure equilibrium condition is fulfilled (formula 1). temperature of the flue gas after the confluence (formula 15) average density of the flue gas (formula 27). average flue gas temperature (see prEN 133841:1998.
1 and Table B. j m Wc. b2. 5. rV. In addition the declared volumetric concentration of CO2 of the flue gases at the relevant working conditions (nominal heat output and minimum heat output for the appliances σ2)W. b4 y0.j shall be specified.prEN 133842:2002 (E) b0. b3. j declared flue gas mass flow of heating appliance j in kg/s Data for chimney and connecting flue pipes 1 1 The mean roughness value for the inner wall (rj resp. j = 1 m Wc.j calculated draught of the heating appliance calculated flue gas temperature of the heating appliance in Pa in °C The values for b and y shall be obtained for both working conditions separately. j calculated flue gas mass flow of heating appliance j in kg/s m W.j σ(CO2)Wc. y1.6. b1.% in Vol. The declared content of CO2 of the flue gases at the two working conditions can also be determined with Table B. j calculated flue gas mass flow of heating appliance j in kg/s m W.% (12) f m2 f m1 − in other cases σ(CO2)Wc.j) and the thermal resistance ( resp.2). In case these values are not given.j tWc. j for each connecting flue pipe and each chimney segment shall be identified (see prEN 133841:1998.% m Wc. 15 . ) Λ . j 1 − 1 + m W. y2 factors for the polynominal in the formula for calculated draught of heating appliance j factors for the exponential in the formula for calculated flue gas temperature heating appliance j m Wc.j shall be determined for the two working conditions "in operation at nominal heat output" and ”in operation at minimum output” using the following formula: − for heating appliances for liquid and gaseous fuels and heating appliances for solid fuels with automatic feed σ (CO 2 )Wc. j W. j in Vol. the flue gas data characterising the appliance are given in annex B. j σ (CO 2 ) m W.2 of prEN 133841:1998. fm2 declared CO2 content of the flue gas of heating appliance j calculated CO2 content of the flue gas of heating appliance j coefficients according to prEN 133841 in Vol.j fm1.j = σ(CO2)W. 8 Basic data for the calculation The basic data for the calculation shall be identified for each chimney segment unless otherwise specified in this clause.% Where: σ(CO2)W. j declared flue gas mass flow of heating appliance j in kg/s PWc.j Λ V.j 7 in Vol. The calculated CO2 content of the flue gas of the heating appliance j σ(CO2)Wtat.
8.1 Air temperatures External air temperature (TL) For the calculation of the external air temperature (TL) see prEN 133841:1998. 5.4. For the check of the mass flow requirement and for the check of the pressure requirement SH = 0. a single value is relevant for all chimney segments. 5. 8.5 shall be used.1 Gas constant Gas constant of the air (RL) For the calculation of the gas constant of the air (RL) see prEN 133841:1998.2 External air pressure (pL) For the calculation of the external air pressure (pL) see prEN 133841:1998.7.5.1.6.4 Density of air (ρL) For the calculation of the density of air (ρL) see prEN 133841:1998.j) and condensing temperature (Tsp) For the calculation of the water vapour content (σ(H2O). 5.8 Flow safety coefficient (SE) A safety coefficient SE = 1.7 Correction factor for temperature instability (SH) A single value is relevant for all chimney segments.3 8.6 Water vapour content (σ(H2O).2 Gas constant of flue gas (R) For the calculation of the gas constant of flue gas (R) see prEN 133841:1998. 8. A single value is relevant for all chimney segments. A flow safety coefficient for balanced flue systems SEB = 1.7.5 shall be used for each chimney segment.3. For the check of the temperature requirements the parameter SH is not used. 8. 5. 22 in this standard.7.2. 16 .1. 8.3.3.7.3.prEN 133842:2002 (E) 8. a single value is relevant for all chimney segments.2.1 8.j) and condensing temperature (Tsp) see prEN 133841:1998. 21.7.7. 5. For gas mixing use formula 19 in this standard.2.1.5 Specific heat capacity of the flue gas (cp) For the calculation of the specific heat capacity of the flue gas (cp) see prEN 133841:1998. except a value of 1.7.2 shall be used. 8.2 Ambient air temperature (Tu) For the calculation of the ambient air temperature (Tu) see prEN 133841:1998. For gas mixing use formulae 20.1. 8. 5.2 shall be used for strictly controlled appliance and chimney installations.7. 8. 5. 5. a single value is relevant for all chimney segments.1.1. 8. For gas mixing use formula 18 in this standard.
− the mean flue gas temperatures in the chimney segment (Tm. − the flue gas temperatures after gas mixing at the beginning of the chimney segments (Te.8.2.8 − the calculated flue gas temperatures of the heating appliance (Twc.j) and − the temperatures of the inner wall at the end of the chimney segments (Tiob.prEN 133842:2002 (E) 8. 5. 5.j). − the mean flue gas temperatures in the connecting flue pipes (TmV.j. formula 7).j). − the flue gas temperatures at the end of the chimney segments (To.j) using flue gas data characterising the appliance (formula 11).9 External coefficient of heat transfer For the calculation of the External coefficient of heat transfer see prEN 133841:1998.j). 17 .2. − the flue gas temperatures at the end of the connecting flue pipes (ToV. The mass flow rate and the CO2 content of the flue gas in the connecting flue pipe shall be calculated with the formulae 14 and 17. 9 Determination of temperatures The following temperature values shall be calculated according to prEN 133841:1998. The relevant formulae for the calculation of the temperatures are listed in Table 2.j).
j ⋅ LV. j ψ smooth V. j ⋅ k . j ⋅ Nu V. j ⋅ L. j = TuV. j Prandtl number PrV. j = ⋅ 0. j 1 1 DhV. j ⋅ 1 + L.8 0 . j flue gas temperature at the end of the chimney segment To. j = + S H ⋅ + α iV. j ) ( )] ) To. j = mean flue gas temperature Tm. j [ ( ⋅ 1 − exp .j cooling value of the chimney segment K. j Λ . j ⋅ ρ mV.j coefficient of heat transmission k.j (mass flow and pressure check) coefficient of heat transmission of the connecting flue pipe kV. j 1 D hi ⋅ + Λ . j η A.j coefficient of heat transmission of the connecting flue pipe kV. j Prandtl number Pr. j ⋅ cpV.j 0 .8 0 . j =  η AV. j ( Nu V. j + )  λ AV. j −1 −1 λ AV. j ⋅ 1 + L ψ V. j wm.TuV.j) ⋅ exp (KV. j Re . j ⋅ cp. j Dha ⋅ α a. j TmV. j ⋅ DhV. j = Tu. j = + SH α i. j 0 . j 1 + + k V.j Tm.j + (TWc.j Formula TWc. j K.j Reynolds number Re.67 D 0 .Calculation of the temperatures Terminology mean flue gas temperature in connecting flue pipe TmV. j .67 ψ hV. j ⋅ α aV. j 0 . j DhVa.0214 ⋅ Re . j Dha ⋅ α a.j Re V. j = k V. j ⋅ α aV.j W m2 ⋅ K )  λ A. j K  mV. j Λ V. j α iV. j ⋅ Nu. j Nusselt number NuV. j ⋅ exp − K .j (temperature check) internal coefficient of heat transfer of the connecting flue pipe αiV. j Λ V.prEN 133842:2002 (E) Table 2 . j Unit )] K ToV.0214 ⋅ ReV.j) U V. j = max Dh Nusselt number Nu. j smooth V. j 1 DhV.j (mass flow and pressure check) 1 k. j ⋅ Dh.KV. j ⋅ cpV.67 ψ hV.j . j = max .j λ A. j = Reynolds number ReV. j DhVa. j  Te.j (temperature check) 1 D 1 hi k. j + KV. j  m. j η A. j − TuV. j K V.j flue gas temperature at the end of the connecting flue pipe ToV cooling value of the connecting flue pipe KV. j η AV. j − 100 ⋅ Pr. j − 100 ⋅ PrV. j ⋅ cp.j = TuV.4 = ⋅ 0.j K. j + Te. j − Tu. j − T u. j = + + α i. j ( [ ( ⋅ 1 − exp − K . j = −1 −1 W m2 ⋅ K W m2 ⋅ K W m2 ⋅ K ( Pr. j ⋅ ρ m.4 Nu . j = W m2 ⋅ K W m2 ⋅ K 0 .4 DhV. j ⋅ k V.4 α i. j  . j wmV.j 18 K K U . j internal coefficient of heat transfer αi.j PrV. j = α iV.67 D 0. j coefficient of heat transmission k. j = Tu.
5 Gas constant of the flue gas (R. j1 R. To simplify the calculation the heat capacities of the flue gas in the connecting flue pipe j and in the previous chimney segment j1 are based on the mean flue gas temperatures.1 Flue gas mass flow ( m . j m . 10. j in Vol.4 H2Ocontent of the flue gas (σ(H2O). j shall be calculated with formulae 13 and 14: m . % (16) The CO2content of the flue gas in the connecting flue pipe shall be calculated with formula 17: σ (CO 2 )V. jToV. j in kg/s(14) 10. j c pV.j in chimney segment j shall be calculated with formula 15. j1 + m V. j1 σ (CO 2 ). j1 R. j1To. jσ (H 2 O )V. j 100 − σ (H 2 O )V. j RV. j = m . j RV.j) The CO2content σ(CO2). j1 + m V. j1 R. j1 + m V.j) The flue gas temperature Te. j1 + m V. j σ (CO 2 )V. j−1 + m V. j 2 V. j = m . j = σ (CO 2 )Wc.1 of prEN 133841:1998 for each kind of fuel for heating appliance j.2 Flue gas temperature at the inlet of the chimney segment (Te. Te. % (18) σ(H2O)V. j RV. j in Vol. j in kg/s (13) m V. j1 R. j RV. j1 100 − σ (H 2 O ). j = m Wc. j = m . j = m . j in Vol. j in K (15) 10. j1 + m V.j) The gas constant of the flue gas R. j1 + m V. j1 + m V.3 CO2content of the flue gas in the chimney segment (σ(CO2). j m j−1c p. j1σ (H 2 O ). j in J/(kg⋅K)(19) 19 .j) The H2Ocontent σ(H2O). j m .prEN 133842:2002 (E) 10 Mixing calculations At the point of the inlet to the chimney segment the flue gas mass flow. j RV.j in chimney segment j shall be calculated with formula 16: σ (CO 2 ). 10. % (17) 10.j shall be taken from Table B. j1 + m V. j ) The flue gas mass flow in chimney segment j m . j1c p.j in chimney segment j shall be calculated with formula 19: R. j c pV.j in chimney segment j shall be calculated with formula 18: σ (H 2 O ). j [ ] m . j = [ ] [ ] [100 − σ (H O) ] m j1 R j1 100 − σ (H 2 O ). the flue gas temperature and the CO2 and H2Ocontent as well as the gas constant and specific heat capacities shall be calculated.
j . j1 m V.j shall be taken from Table B.prEN 133842:2002 (E) RV. j1σ (CO 2 ). j = ( ) 1011 + 0.j in W/(m2⋅K) (23) λA. j ⋅ σ (CO 2 )V.j shall be calculated with the following formula: f ci.6 Flue gas data 10. Table B1.000065 ⋅ tm. j1 1 + f c3V. j m . j ⋅ t mV. j m . j ⋅ σ (CO 2 ). fc1.j).j2 in Ns/m2 (26) Legend for the formulae in clause 10 cp. fc1. jσ (CO 2 )V.j= 0. (ηA.1 of prEN 133841:1998 for each kind of fuel for heating appliance j.j shall be calculated with the following formulae: λAV.j= 0.j = 15 ⋅ 106 + 47 ⋅ 109 ⋅ tmV.j specific heat capacity of flue gas in connecting flue pipe j in J/(kg⋅K) 20 .j and fc3.000065 ⋅ tmV.6. j in J/(kg⋅K) (20) The factors fc0. j + f c1.1 Specific heat capacity (cpV. j = 1 ⋅ σ (CO 2 ).j = 15 ⋅ 106 + 47 ⋅ 109 ⋅ tm. j + 0.j. j2 σ (CO 2 ). j 2 + f cO. j ⋅ t m.0003 ⋅ t mV. fc2.j).1 of prEN 133841:1998 for each kind of fuel for heating appliance j. j + f c1.j j shall be calculated with the following formulae: ηAV. j1 1 + f c3. The specific heat capacity of the flue gas in the chimney segment cp. jσ (CO 2 )V. jσ (CO 2 )V.j and/or in the chimney segment λA. j = ( ) 1011 + 0.j.j specific heat capacity of flue gas in chimney segment j in J/(kg⋅K) cpV. j2 + f c0.j) The specific heat capacity of the flue gas in the connecting flue pipe cpV. 10. j ⋅ t mV.05 ⋅ t mV.j. j + 1 + f c3. j1 + m V.j) The thermal conductivity of the flue gas in the connecting flue pipe λAV. j1σ (CO 2 ).0223 + 0.j shall be taken from Table B. j in J/(kg⋅K) (21) The factors fci.j. j + 0.20 ⋅ 1012 ⋅ tmV. j 1 + f c3. 10.j and ηA.j shall be calculated with formula 21: cp. j1 ⋅ f ci.j (fc0. (λA.j and fc3. j 1 + f c3. j (22) When all appliances served by the chimney operate with the same fuel the coefficient fci. (cp.6. j in J/(kg⋅K) 1 + f c3V. j + f c2.05 ⋅ t m.j2 in Ns/m2 (25) ηA.j for determination of cp.j in W/(m2⋅K) (24) 10.20 ⋅ 1012 ⋅ tm.0003 ⋅ t m.j .j shall be calculated with formula 20: c pV. j ⋅ t m.2 Thermal conductivity of the flue gas (λAV.j).j) can be determined according to prEN 133841:1998.3 Dynamic viscosity (ηAV.j for determination of cpV.j) The dynamic viscosity ηAV. fc2. j + f c2.0223 + 0. j1σ (CO 2 ).6. j 2 σ (CO 2 )V. j ⋅ f ciV.
% σ(H2O)V. j ⋅ TmV.j specific gas constant of flue gas in connecting flue pipe j in J/(kg⋅K) tm. j A. j flue gas mass flow in connecting flue pipe j in kg/s Rj1 specific gas constant of flue gas in chimney segment j in J/(kg⋅K) RV. j−1 flue gas mass flow in chimney segment j1 in kg/s m V.j1 volume concentration of H2O in chimney segment j1 in Vol. j ⋅ ρ mV. j AV.j shall be calculated with the following formula: wm. j 3 in kg/m (30) 21 .j shall be calculated with the following formula: ρ m.j shall be calculated with the following formula: ρ mV. j in kg/m3 (29) The average velocity of the flue gas in the connecting flue pipe wVm.j volume concentration of H2O in connecting flue gas pipe j in Vol.j average temperature of flue gas in connecting flue pipe j in °C to. j = pL R. j in m/s (28) The average density of the flue gas in the connecting flue pipe ρmV. j 3 in kg/m (27) The average velocity of the flue gas in the chimney segment wm. % σ(CO2). j ⋅ ρ m. j ⋅ Tm. j = m V.j average temperature of flue gas in chimney segment j in °C tmV.prEN 133842:2002 (E) factors for determination the specific heat capacity for each heating appliance j (see prEN 133841:1998. % fci. Table B 1)  m .j1 temperature of the flue gas at the end of connecting flue pipe j in K σ(CO2).j1 volume concentration of CO2 in chimney segment j1 in Vol.j1 temperature of the flue gas at the end of chimney segment j1 in K ToV. j = m .j shall be calculated with the following formula: wmV.j volume concentration of CO2 in chimney segment j in Vol.j volume concentration of CO2 in connecting flue gas pipe j in Vol.j 11 Density and velocity of the flue gas The average density of the flue gas in the chimney segment ρm. % σ(CO2)V. % σ(H2O). j = pL RV.
2 Pressure resistance in the chimney segment (PR.j) results from the difference between the sum of draught due to chimney effect and the sum of the pressure resistance of all chimney segments which are located above the inlet and shall be calculated using formula 2.j average temperature of the flue gas in chimney segment j in K TmV. j 12 Draught at the outlet of the connecting flue pipe and draught at the inlet of the chimney segment 12.j) The draught due to chimney effect PH.1.j specific gas constant of the flue gas in connecting flue pipe j in J/(kg⋅K) Tm.prEN 133842:2002 (E) Legend to formulae in clause 11 A.j in chimney segment j shall be calculated with the following formula: L.1. j P13. 12. j 2 wm.j average temperature of the flue gas in connecting flue pipe j in K ρm.81 ρL density of external air ρm. j PR.j g acceleration due to gravity = 9.j average density of flue gas in connecting flue pipe j in kg/m 3 m V.j average density of flue gas in section j 12.j) in m 2 m/s 3 in kg/m 3 in kg/m The pressure resistance PR.j average density of the flue gas in chimney segment j in kg/m 3 ρmV. j in Pa (32) (31) . j flue gas mass flow in the chimney segment j in kg/s flue gas mass flow in the connecting flue pipe j in kg/s pL external air pressure in Pa R.j) in Pa Where effective height of chimney segment j H.j cross sectional area of the chimney segment j in m 2 AV.1 Draught due to chimney effect in the chimney segment (PH.ρm. j2 + S EM.j = H.j ⋅ g ⋅ (ρL . j ζ ∑ .j in chimney segment j shall be calculated with the following formula: PH.j cross sectional area of the connecting flue pipe j in m 2 m . j + S EG. j = S E ψ .1 Draught at the inlet of the chimney segment The draught at the inlet of the chimney segment j (PZ. j + D h Where: 22 ρ m.j specific gas constant of the flue gas in chimney segment j in J/(kg⋅K) RV. j PG.
j average velocity of flue gas in chimney segment j in m/s 12.j flow safety coefficient for change change of velocity of the flue gas SEG.j by ≥ by 0.j average density of flue gas in chimney segment j in kg/m wm.j change of pressure due inlet in chimney segment j + 1 SE flow safety coefficient SEG.N = 0 23 .j < 0) SEM. 12.j flow safety coefficient for passing a connection SEM. j+1 − ρ m.j internal hydraulic diameter of chimney segment j in m Σζ. The change of pressure PG.j < 0) to to flue change gas of mixing in flue in Pa gas the in Pa area of the of (SEG. flow 0. j = ρ m.2.j change of (SEM.7.  ψ.1. 6.j = 1.j length of chimney segment j in m Dh.j = pressure caused = SE for PG.1.4.j sum of pressure resistance coefficients of the chimney segment j  ρm.0 for P13. j 2 2 ⋅ wm.j coefficient of friction of the flue of the chimney segment j  L.1.0 for PG.10.2 Pressure resistance coefficients For the calculation of the pressure resistance coefficients see prEN 133841:1998.2. Table B.j change of pressure due from chimney segment j to section j + 1 P13.2.3 Pressure change in flue gas due to change of the flue gas velocity For the calculation of the pressure change in flue gas due to change of the flue gas velocity see prEN 133841:1998.2.j 2 2 ⋅ wm. j average density of flue gas in chimney segment j average velocity of flue gas in chimney segment j in Pa (33) in kg/m in m/s 3 At the last chimney segment (the chimney outlet): PG.j = 1.1.j wm.prEN 133842:2002 (E) PG.j ≥  pressure SE for caused P13.1 velocity 3 Mean roughness value for the inner wall (chimney segment and connecting flue pipe) For the calculation of the mean roughness value for the inner wall (chimney segment and connecting flue pipe) see prEN 133841:1998. j+1 Where: ρm. Table B. 12.j from chimney segment j to j + 1 shall be calculated with the following formula: PG.
j+1 (35) Formula (35) is only applicable if there is no change in chimney diameter A with For AV. Table B.j+1 angle of the connection and the chimney segment j+1 the connecting in ° ζ13.1. j+1 2 −1 A A 1 + 1.j+1 A 2 − ⋅ ⋅ 1 − A m m .prEN 133842:2002 (E) 12.j+1 flue gas mass flow in connecting flue pipe j+1 in kg/s m . j+1 . 6 and 8.8) and a connection point =1 AV.j+1 m V. j = ζ 13. j+1 Where: 24 (34) A cross sectional area of the chimney in m 2 AV. j+1 ≥ 1. 0° < γ ≤ 90° A < 1 the individual resistance of the connection point can be determined as sum of the AV. j AV.162 ⋅ + cosγ − 1 − 0.j+1 − ζ 13. j+1 V.03 ⋅ 1 − m.j (see Figure 3) is included in the pressure resistance of the chimney segment j below this inlet and it shall be calculated with the following formulae: P13. respectively.j+1 AV.j+1 pressure resistance coefficient of the connecting flue pipe j+1 and the chimney segment j+1 connection ρm.j+1 −1 m V. 0 ≤ m V.4 Pressure loss due to mixing in the area of the inlet of the chimney segment (P13) The pressure loss due to flue gas mixing at the inlet of the chimney segment P13.j+1 average velocity of the flue gas in chimney segment j+1 in m/s m V. j+1 m . of A prEN 133841:1998.0. j+1 = 0. j +1 ≤ 1.38 ⋅ 1 − .2.j+1 flue gas mass flow in chimney segment j+1 in kg/s between flue pipe between 3 j+1 the .j+1 m V. j +1 m . j+1 in Pa 2 m V. j+1 2 2 ⋅ wm.j+1 average density of the flue gas in chimney segment j+1 in kg/m wm. j+1 individual resistances of a crosssection constriction (see shape no.j+1 cross sectional area of the connecting flue pipe j+1 in m 2 γ. j+1 ⋅ ρ m.
2 Pressure resistance of the connecting flue pipe (PRV.1.j 2 mV.j at the outlet of the connecting flue pipe j is the sum of the calculated draught PWc.j + DhV.j of heating appliance j and the calculated pressure resistance of the flue gas pipe PV.j) see prEN 133841:1998.j shall be calculated with the following formula: in Pa (36) PV. This may be by adequate separation or by flow directions.j EMV.j = PRV.11.j) The draught required PZe.prEN 133842:2002 (E) Figure 3 – Change of pressure due to flue gas mixing in the area of the inlet to chimney segment j+1 The pressure resistance coefficient values used in the calculation method presumes that there is no flow interference between individual points of connection of appliances.2.PHV.j 12.j) For the calculation of the draught due to chimney effect in the connecting flue pipe (PHV.j .2 Draught required at the outlet of the connecting flue pipe (PZe. 5.2. 12.j and the calculated (negative) pressure resistance of the air supply PBc.j is due to the difference between the velocity of flue gas in the connecting flue pipe and in the corresponding chimney segment j.j P23.j in Pa (37) The pressure difference PGV.1 Calculated pressure resistance of the connecting flue pipe (PV.1.j ρ mV.j + SEGV.j) The pressure resistance of the connecting flue pipe PRV.2.1.j shall be calculated with the following formula: LV.j PRV.j) The calculated pressure resistance of the connecting flue pipe PV.j and it shall be calculated using formula 3.j = S E ψ V.1 Draught due to chimney effect in the connecting flue pipe (PHV. It shall be calculated with the following formula: 25 . 12.2.j w2 + S ζ ∑ V.j PGV. 12.
prEN 133842:2002 (E) PGV.0.j = 1.j ⋅ 1 − m .j ≥ 0. j ≥ 1.j ≥ 0.0 ≤ m V.j average velocity of the connecting flue gas in the flue gas pipe in m/s 3 The pressure loss P23.j < 0 SEMV. j 2 ⋅ wm.j coefficient of friction of the flue gas pipe j LV. j m V.j flow safety coefficient for P23. j 2 2 ⋅ wmV. 0° < γ ≤ 90° (40) .j = SE for P23. j −1 + 0.j .j < 0) ψV.j = .j (see Figure 4) is due to the change of flow direction and mixing of flue gas in the area of the inlet into chimney segment j. It shall be calculated with the following formulae: ρ m.0 for P23.j = 1.j length of the connecting flue gas pipe j in m DhV. j 2 2 − ⋅ wm.2 ⋅ − 1 − ⋅ ⋅ cosγ . j AV.j AV.j (SEMV.j m .j sum of resistance coefficients of the connecting flue pipe (exclusive of the mixing effects at the inlet to the chimney) ρmV. P23. j = ζ 23.j AV.j .8 ⋅ 1 − m m AV. j V. j + cosγ .j = SE for PGV. j ρ mV. j ≤ 1.j −1 A m V.j internal hydraulic diameter of flue gas pipe in m ΣζV. j = ρ m. j in Pa (38) Where: SE flow safety coefficient SEGV. j m . SEMV.0 for PGV.j 2− ⋅ AV. SEGV.j average density of the connecting flue gas in the flue gas pipe in kg/m wmV. j ⋅ j 2 in Pa (39) −1 2 2 2 m m A A A V. j A with 26 AV.j flow safety coefficient for change of pressure caused by change of velocity of the flue gas SEGV.0.92⋅ 1 − − ⋅ 1. j A ζ 23.
Figure 4 – Pressure loss P23j due to the change of flow direction and mixing of flue gas in the area of the inlet into chimney segment j 27 . j Where: ζ23.j flue gas mass flow in connecting flue gas pipe j in kg/s m . j individual resistances of a crosssection constriction (see no. Table B. respectively.j angle of connection between connecting flue pipe and the chimney segment 3 in ° The pressure resistance coefficient values used in the calculation method presumes that there is no flow interference between individual points of connection of appliances.j average flue gas velocity in chimney segment j in m/s m V. of prEN 13384A 1:1998.j cross sectional area of connecting flue pipe j in m2 A cross sectional area of chimney in m2 γ.j pressure resistance coefficient for change in flue gas direction and mixing at the area of flue gas inlet j in chimney segment j ρm. 6 and 8.j average density of the flue gas in chimney segment j in kg/m wm. This may be achieved by adequate separation of points of connection or by the use of flow deflectors.8) and a connection point =1 AV.prEN 133842:2002 (E) For A < 1 the individual resistance of the connection point can be determined as sum of the AV.j flue gas mass flow in chimney segment j in kg/s AV.
5.j) 12.g.2.3. window frame in living rooms): n = 1.j) The calculated (negative) pressure resistance for air supply PBc.2. j ⋅ m W. 12.10.j) The pressure resistance of the air supply (PB.12 using formulae in Table 3.11. 13 Inner wall temperature The temperature of the inner wall of the chimney Tiob.j is calculated with the following formula: m Wc.g. j n in Pa (41) Where: PB.prEN 133842:2002 (E) 12. 12. j calculated flue gas mass flow for heating appliance j in g/s m W.2.5  In case more than one heating appliance in a room is connected to the inlet of the chimney segment the sum of the flue gas mass flows shall be used in formula 41 for m Wc. j = PB.1 Pressure resistance of the air supply (PB. room for the heating appliance with an opening for air supply): n = 2 .2.2 Pressure resistance of the air supply (PB.j of a chimney segment j shall be calculated in analogy to prEN 133841:1998.2.2.in case of an opening (e. j declared flue gas mass flow of heating appliance j in g/s n exponent depending on the kind of air supply: . projected pressure resistance of air supply for the heating appliance j in Pa m Wc.2.3. 5. 5.in case of slits (e. j and m W.3 Coefficient of flow resistance (ζ) For the calculation of the coefficient of flow resistance (ζ) see prEN 133841:1998. j PBc.j) shall be calculated in accordance to prEN 133841:1998. j .2 Calculated pressure resistance for air supply (PBc.j minimum.1. 28 .
j ob. j.j = 0 in the case where the entire chimney segment is not insulated In the case of ventilated cladding with ventilated gaps of a width of 1 cm to 5 cm αao = 8 may be used.1 ∑ (PHC. j i. Consequently PL = 0 and is omitted from the formulae. After such a distribution has been found three requirements shall be verified: (1) the mass flow requirement (formulae 45 and 46) (2) the pressure requirement (formula 47) (3) the temperature requirement (formula 48) The inlet/outlet construction is assumed to be designed in such a way that wind effects are minimised.j. j + n=l 29 .j = 23 section j < N section j = N in the case any part of the chimney segment is external αao. j K with Tuo.n ) in Pa (42) in Pa (43) NCj PZC.prEN 133842:2002 (E) Table 3 . j T =T − ⋅ T −T iob.2 Pressure equilibrium condition The following formulae shall be fulfilled for each collector segment j.j see Table 2 αao.1 Principle of the calculation method The calculation is based upon determining the mass flow distribution in the collectors (see Figure 5) which fulfils the pressure equilibrium condition (formula 42) at each flue gas inlet to each collector segment. j Units −1 W m2 ⋅ K k ob. j ⋅ α ao. j Dhao.n − PRC. j Λ o.j.j.j flue gas temperature at the inner wall Tiob.l = PZ. j = + + + α i .1 W m2 ⋅ K W m2 ⋅ K 14 Cascade installations 14. j. j α uo. j Λ . αao. A.j Formulae 1 Dh 1 1 k ob.j = 8 in the case where the chimney segment is internal to the building (1/Λ)o.l ≤ 0. j ob.l at all relevant working conditions: PZC. 14.j = calculated according to prEN 133841:1998.j = 23 in all other cases of a noninsulated top of the chimney or when an additional heat transfer resistance of an insulated top of a chimney is included in the calculations (1/Λ)o.Formulae for calculation of inner wall temperatures at the end of a chimney segment Terminology coefficient of heat transmission at the end of the chimney segment kob.l − PZeC.
l calculated pressure resistance of the connecting flue pipe of the heating appliance j.l = PWc.j.j. j. j.n pressure resistance of the collector segment j.l calculated pressure resistance of the air supply for the heating appliance j. j.l PHC.l Where: PZC.l + PV.l theoretical draught due to chimney effect in collector segment j.n PWc.l PBc.l ≥ 0 30 in kg/s (46) . j.l required draught at the flue gas inlet into the collector segment j. 46 shall be verified for all relevant working conditions (see 5.l in kg/s (45) and for each heating appliance out of action: m Wc.l ≥ m W.Example of cascade arrangement and numbering of heating appliances and collector segments 14.6).l PZeC.j. j.l PZ.n PRC.prEN 133842:2002 (E) PZeC.j draught at the flue gas inlet into the collector segment j.l PV.n calculated draught of the heating appliance j.j NC. j.j.j.j.3 Mass flow requirement Formulae 45 resp.l + PBc. j.l draught at the flue gas inlet to the chimney segment j number of heating appliances of the collector j in Pa (44) in Pa in Pa in Pa in Pa in Pa in Pa in Pa in Pa Figure 5 .j. For each heating appliance in operation at nominal or minimum heat output : m Wc.
j.j.j.l temperature of the inner wall of the collector segment j.5 Temperature requirement The relations 48 shall be verified for all relevant working conditions (see 5.l PBc.7 Draught at the outlet of the connecting flue pipe and draught at the inlet of the collector segment 14.l in kg/s m W. flow resistance shall be taken as 0 unless additional data are available.l suitable for operating under wet conditions is equal to the freezing point of water: Tg. j.l shall be calculated with the following formula: PHC.l) results from the difference between the sum of draught due to chimney effect and the sum of the pressure resistance of all collector and chimney segments which are located above the inlet and shall be calculated using formula 43.1 Draught due to chimney effect in the collector segment (PHC.j.6): Tg.j.2.l ≥ PBc.j.l suitable for operating under dry conditions is equal to the condensing temperature Tsp. 14.l at the end in K Tg.j.l = Tsp.l = HC.l temperature limit for collector segment j. j.ρmC.l of the flue gas (see 8. 14.l ≥ Tg.l declared mass flow of the heating appliance j.j.1.l The temperature limit Tg.l in Pa calculated pressure resistance of the air supply for the heating appliance j.l ⋅ g ⋅ (ρL .l Pa in Pa (47) draught at the inlet into the collector segment j.15 K.j. The following relations shall be verified: PZC.2.l) The draught due to chimney effect PHC. 14.l (PZC. The check of the temperature requirement shall be done with a separate calculation using the newly calculated flue mass flows that fulfil the pressure equilibrium conditions at an external air temperature of TL = Tuo.l Where: PZC.l in kg/s Where a damper is applied.3 and 14. 14. The check on the pressure requirement shall be done using the same conditions as specified for the check on the mass flow requirement (see 14.1 Draught at the flue gas inlet into the collector segment (PZC.6).j.6 Calculation procedure For the calculation procedure see 5.l) is more than or equal to the negative pressure in the room where the heating appliance is placed at calculated draught conditions for air supply.l (see 12.l = 273.j.j.j. j. Tiob.l in K (48) Where: Tiob.7.j.j.j.l in K The temperature limit Tg.4 Pressure requirement Additionally it has to be checked that the negative pressure (draught) in the collector (PZC.6.l) The draught at the inlet of the collector segment j.j.l calculated mass flow of the heating appliance j.j.prEN 133842:2002 (E) Where: m Wc.7.6).j. j.l in collector segment j.l) in Pa (49) 31 .2) in 14.j.
0 for PGC.7. Table B.l length of the collector segment j.j.j.NCj Where P23.l (50) in Pa in Pa   in m in m 3 in kg/m in m/s At the last collector segment j.j.l LC.l < 0) coefficient of friction of the flue of the collector segment i.l+1 2 2 ⋅ wmC. j.2.1.l in Pa wmC.l P13C.j.2 Pressure resistance coefficients For the calculation of the pressure resistance coefficients see prEN 133841:1998.j.NCj (to the chimney inlet) put P23.l effective height of collector segment j.2.7.j.81 ρL density of external air ρmC.j.j. j. SEGC.j.1. 14.l DhC.l average velocity of flue gas in collector segment j. j.l PGC.1. Table B.l PRC.l 2 change of pressure due to change of flue gas velocity from collector segment j.l 2 2 ⋅ wmC. j.3 Pressure change in flue gas due to change of the flue gas velocity (PGC.1 Mean roughness value for the inner wall (collector segment and connecting flue pipe) For the calculation of the mean roughness value for the inner wall (collector segment and connecting flue pipe) see prEN 133841:1998.j.j.7.l 2 Where PGC.l = SE for P13C.j.l g acceleration due to gravity = 9.j.j.j.l to section j. − j. j. 6.l+1 pressure loss due to mixing of flue gas in the area of the inlet into collector segment j. j.l LC.l = SE for PGC. 14. j.j pressure loss due to the change of flue direction and mixing of the flue gas in the area of the inlet into chimney segment j in Pa 14.1.l = 1.j.NCj (to the chimney inlet): 32 in Pa (51) .j.l) For the calculation of the pressure change in flue gas due to change of the flue gas velocity (PGC.l internal hydraulic diameter of the collector segment j.j.j instead P13C.l shall be calculated with the following formula: ρ mC.l ≥ 0.j.l + S EMC.l = 1. j. SEMC.l) in m 2 m/s 3 in kg/m 3 in kg/m The pressure resistance PRC.j.l P13C.l 14. j. j.7. j.l + ∑ζ C.j.l D hC.l = S E ψ C.l sum of pressure resistance coefficients of the collector segment j.l SE SEGC.l < 0) flow safety coefficient for change of pressure caused by flow passing a connection (SEMC.l+1 shall be calculated with the following formula: PGC.l ρmC. j.j from collector segment j.prEN 133842:2002 (E) Where HC.l+1 flow safety coefficient flow safety coefficient for change of pressure caused by change of velocity of the flue gas (SEGC.l ΣζC.l At the last collector segment j.l + S EGC.2.l to j.l wmC.j.l SEMC.l in collector segment j.l ≥ 0. j.1.l+1 ρ mC.2.j.0 for P13C.7.l average density of flue gas in collector segment j.j.l average density of flue gas in section j.2 Pressure resistance in the collector segment (PRC.j.j. The change of pressure PG.l = ρ mC. j.4.10.l) see prEN 133841:1998.l ψC.
j.1.l+1 m C.l+1 = 0.2.j.l average velocity of flue gas in collector segment j.l+1 ζ 13C. j.8. j. 0 ≤ m V.l +1 ⋅ V.j.l +1 cross sectional area of the collector segment j. j. j.l +1 C. j.l+1 AV.l+1 γC. j 2 Where: ρmC.0.j.l+1 Where: AC. j. j.j.l+1 with AC.7.l wmC.j.l+1 + 2 − AV. j.2. j.38⋅ 1− A AV.l+1 angle of the connection between the connecting flue pipe j.l ρm. j In formula 40 put AC. NCj instead of m V.l+1 2 2 V.j) For the calculation of pressure loss due to the change of flue direction and mixing of the flue gas in the area of the inlet to the chimney segment (P23.l+1 and the collector segment j.l +1 AV.j.l) The pressure loss due to flue gas mixing at the inlet of the collector segment P13. l +1 For AC.l+1 flue gas mass flow in connecting flue pipe j. j.j.l+1 −1 A AC.l+1 average velocity of the flue gas in collector segment j. l +1 in Pa (53) −1 m A C.l+1 −1 − 0. − j ρ mC.j.l+1 ≥ 1.l +1 m ⋅ 1 − m C .NCj instead of AV.j) see 12.j and m 33 (54) .l+1 m C.l is included in the pressure resistance of the collector segment before this inlet and it shall be calculated with the following formulae: P13C.j.l+1 2 in m 2 in m in ° 3 in kg/m in m/s in kg/s in kg/s 14. j.1.NCj 2 2 ⋅ wmC. j.j wm.j. j. l+1 flue gas mass flow in collector segment j.l +1 m C.7.j.l +1 + ⋅ 1+1.4 Pressure loss due to mixing of flue gas in the area of the inlet of the collector segment (P13C.l +1 m m − V.l+1 V. 6 and 8) and a junction AC.2. j. shape No. j. j.l+1 V. j. j. 0° < γ C.NCj = ρ m.l+1 AV.l+1 pressure resistance coefficient of the connection between the connecting flue pipe j.l average density of flue gas in chimney segment j average velocity of flue gas in chimney segment j in kg/m in m/s 3 in kg/m in m/s 14.2. j.j.l+1 average density of the flue gas in collector segment j.l+1 and the collector segment j. Table B. j.l+1 C.5 Pressure loss due to the change of flue direction and mixing of the flue gas in the area of the inlet to the chimney segment (P23. j. j.j.l = ζ 13C. j.l+1 =1 m V. l +1 ≤ 90° < 1 the individual resistance of the junction shall be determined as the sum of the individual resistances of a crosssection reduction (see prEN 133841:1998. j.prEN 133842:2002 (E) PGC. C. j.l+1 wmC. j. j.l+1 ⋅ ρ mC.l+1 cross sectional area of the connecting flue pipe j.j. j.j.j 2 ⋅ wm.03⋅ 1− m m C .l+1 2 2 ⋅ wmC.1. j.l+1 ρmC.NCj in Pa (52) 3 average density of flue gas in collector segment j.l+1 ζ13C.l+1 AV.l+1 ≤ 1. j.62⋅ cosγ C.
3 2 in m in kg/s Draught at the inlet of the chimney segment (PZ. j.1.2.NCj+1 flue gas mass flow in collector segment j+1.2.l is due to the difference between the velocity of flue gas in the connecting flue pipe and in the corresponding chimney segment j.2.l and it shall be calculated using formula 44.prEN 133842:2002 (E) Where: AC.j.l + ∑ζ V.7.l at the outlet of the connecting flue pipe j.1.j+1.j.l) The draught PZeC.l and the calculated (negative) pressure resistance of the air supply PBc.NCj+1 2 in m in kg/s 14.j shall be calculated with the following formula: ρ L 2 PRV.j. V.1. j.7. j+1 C..l 2 2 ⋅ wmC.l V.j.NCj+1 instead of AV.NCj m C.l mV. NCj +1 cross sectional area of collector segment j+1.l wmV.j.l of heating appliance j.l in Pa (56) The pressure difference PGV.l is the sum of the calculated draught PWc. j+1.1 Draught due to chimney effect in the connecting flue pipe (PHV.l PGV.l shall be calculated with the following formula: PV.j+1 and m Where: AC.l in Pa (55) 14.j.l = PRV.11.j.PHV. l D 2 hV.l P23.j.j.l = SE ψ V.l and the calculated pressure resistance of the flue gas pipe PV.l = 34 ρ mC.j. 14.NCj flue gas mass flow in collector segment j.j.j.j.NCj cross sectional area of collector segment j. 14.l . j. NCj +1 instead of m In formula 35 put AC.j+1.7.j.l − ρ mV.j.j.7.j. j.j) For the calculation of draught at the inlet of the chimney segment (PZ. It shall be calculated with the following formula: PGV.2. j+1.l) The calculated pressure resistance of the connecting flue pipe PV. j 2 2 ⋅ wmV.j.j.j. + SEMV. j in Pa (57) .1 Calculated pressure resistance of the connecting flue pipe (PV.2 Draught at the outlet of the connecting flue pipe (PZeC.j.l j.2 Pressure resistance of the connecting flue pipe (PRV.j.l) The pressure resistance of the connecting flue pipe PRV. 5.NCj+1 m C.l + SEGV.j.1.j.1. NCj 14.j) see 12.l) See prEN 133841:1998.7.
l in kg/m average flue gas velocity in collector segment j.l ≥ 1.l angle of connection between connecting flue pipe and the collector segment j.8.l ΣζV. Table B.j.j. j.j. shape No.l AV.j.3 Coefficient of flow resistance (ζ) in kg/s 2 in m 2 in m in deg For the calculation of the coefficient of flow resistance (ζ) see prEN 133841:1998.l = 1 .l AV.l 3 average density of the flue gas in collector segment j. j. It shall be calculated with the following formulae: P23C.l = SE for PGV.l AV.0 for P23C.j.l A −1 m C. l Where: ζ23C.l with AV.l = 1.l AV.j. j.l LV. j.j.l < 0 flow safety coefficient for P23C.l cross sectional area of collector segment j.j.j.l ⋅ C.j. j.l C. AV.l 2 in Pa (58) A A 2 A −1 A C.l ≥ 0.j.j.l For AC. l pressure resistance coefficient for change in flue gas direction and mixing at the area of flue gas inlet into collector segment j.l ≥ 0.j.l SEMV.j.l in kg/s m C.2. 0° < γ C.2. j.j.7.l AC.j.j.j.l wmV.j. SEGV.l 2 2 ⋅ wmC. 6 and 8) and A a junction C.j.3. j.j.l m V.l = SE for P23C.j. SEMV.l < 0) coefficient of friction of the flue gas pipe j.j.l m C.j. j. j.1.l ⋅ ρ Cm.l in m internal hydraulic diameter of flue gas pipe in m sum of resistance coefficients of the connecting flue pipe (exclusive of the mixing effects at the inlet to the chimney) 3 average density of the connecting flue gas in the flue gas pipe in kg/m average velocity of the connecting flue gas in the flue gas pipe in m/s The pressure loss P23C.l = ζ 23C.l AV. j.j.j.j.0 for PGV.j.l AC.l flow safety coefficient flow safety coefficient for change of pressure caused by change of velocity of the flue gas SEGV.j.l in m/s flue gas mass flow in connecting flue pipe j.l ρmV.l (59) ≤ 1. j. 0 ≤ m V.j.j. j.l V.prEN 133842:2002 (E) Where: SE SEGV.l ⋅ V.j. j.l ≤ 90° < 1 the individual resistance of the junction shall be determined as the sum of the individual resistances of a crosssection reduction (see prEN 133841:1998.j. 5.l m m − V. j. j. j.l m V.l cross sectional area of connecting flue pipe j.0.l ρmC.2 ⋅ cosγ C.l ψV.l − 1 − C.l. l flue gas mass flow in collector segment j.j.l + 2 − AV. j.92⋅ 1− m m C.l wmC.l m C.l + ⋅ 1.l = − 0. j.j.l length of the connecting flue gas pipe j.l C .l = 1. j.l is due to the change of flow direction and mixing of flue gas in the area of the inlet into collector segment j.j.8 ⋅ 1 − AV.j. j.j.l ⋅ cosγ C.l 2 ζ 23C.l ⋅ 1 − m C.j. j.l 14. 35 .l (SEMV.10.l γC.l DhV.l −1 + 0.
1 Principle of the calculation method The calculation is based upon determining the mass flow distribution of the flue gas in the chimney and the mass flow distribution of the supply air in the air supply duct which fulfils the pressure equilibrium condition at each flue gas inlet to the chimney (see Figure 6). 5.k ( + PHB.11. j = ∑ (P RB.k pressure resistance of the air supply duct of the chimney segment k Pa PHB.l) see prEN 133841:1998.k ) + PRBV. 2 and 3 shall be fulfilled at all relevant operating conditions for each chimney segment j and also at the pressure equalising opening for which j = 0 shall be used.prEN 133842:2002 (E) 14.12. 36 .j draught due to chimney effect in the air supply duct of the connection pipes j Pa N number of appliances connected to the chimney  The inlet/outlet construction is assumed to be designed such that wind effects are minimised. 5.k draught due to chimney effect in the air supply duct of chimney segment k Pa PRBV. j ) (60) k=j Where: PBc. j + PHBV.2 Pressure resistance of the air supply (PB. After such a distribution has been found three requirements shall be verified: a) the mass flow requirements (formulae 4 and 5) b) the pressure requirement for the flue gas (formula 61) c) the temperature requirement (formula 7) 15.8 Inner wall temperature (TiobC.j shall be calculated using the following formula: N PBc.l) see prEN 133841:1998. 15.j. The pressure resistance for the air supply of the heating appliance j connected to a balanced flue chimney PBc.j. 15 Balanced flue chimney 15.j pressure resistance of the air supply of the heating appliance j Pa PRB.7.j. Consequently PL = 0 and is omitted from the formulae.4.l) For the calculation of the pressure resistance of the air supply (PB.j pressure resistance of the air supply duct of the connection pipes j Pa PHBV.3 Mass flow requirement The formulae 4 and 5 shall be fulfilled.l) For the calculation of the inner wall temperature (TiobC. 14.2.2 Pressure equilibrium condition The formulae 1.j.
k + PHB.j draught at the flue gas inlet to the chimney segment j in Pa PRB.prEN 133842:2002 (E) 15.k ) (61) k= j Where: PZ.k draught due to chimney effect in the air supply duct of chimney segment k in Pa Figure 6 . the following formula shall be verified: N PZ.Example for numbering pressure values and temperature values of balanced flue installations serving more than one heating appliance 37 .k pressure resistance of the air supply duct of the chimney segment k in Pa PHB. j ≥ ∑ (P RB.4 Pressure requirements At all the entry points in the flue and for all the system operating conditions.
6. Each iteration consists of the following two phases: Phase 1 Calculate variables starting from the lowest node (see Figure 7) up to the outlet to the atmosphere as follows: − at the pressure equalising opening.0 − PB.8.0 coefficient of flow resistance through the pressure equalising opening. average temperature of the flue gas and supply air (see prEN 133841:1998. average density of the flue gas (using formula 27) and supply air (see 116). average velocity of the flue gas (using formula 28) and supply air (see 117) . This calculation procedure is based on the procedure as described in 5.0 ⋅ A0 ⋅ ρ B. 5. − in each flue duct and air supply duct of the chimney segments: mass flow of the flue gas after merging and mass flow of the supply air before merging using formula 8 for flue gas and formula 63 for supply air.0 = 2 ⋅ PZ.8 or in case of concentric ducts formulae 100 and 101).2.0 mass flow of the supply air in the chimney segment 0 kg/s ζ. if any: mass flow of the supply air at the pressure equalising opening m B. 5.0 (62) Where: m B.0 ρ ⋅ ζ . 15. A value of 3.9). temperature of the flue gas and supply air at the end of the connection pipes (see prEN 133841:1998.10) Pa A0 crosssectional area of the pressure equalising opening m ρB.6 Calculation procedure for balanced flue chimneys For the calculation of the draught and temperature values in a balanced flue chimney serving more than one heating appliance an iterative procedure is necessary using preestimated values (see 15.0 shall be used unless other values are given by the manufacturer. 5.prEN 133842:2002 (E) 15. or in case of concentric ducts formulae 97 and 99).  PZ. 38 .0 draught in the air supply duct at the pressure equalising opening 2 kg/m 3 Pa − in each flue duct and air supply duct of the connection pipes: mass flow of the flue gas and supply air flow (they are equal to the mass flows at the outlet and inlet of the appliance).5 Temperature requirements The formula 7 shall be fulfilled.0 density of the supply air in the chimney segment 0 PB.8.0 draught in the chimney at the pressure equalising opening (calculated according to prEN 133841:1998.
prEN 133842:2002 (E)
temperature of the flue gas/air after merging (using formula 9 for flue gas, whilst the temperature of
the supply air shall be equal upstream and downstream the connection of the air inlet pipe and the air
inlet duct);
average density of the flue gas (using formula 28) and supply air (see 116);
average velocity of the flue gas (using formula 29) and supply air (see 117);
temperature of the flue gas and supply air at the end of the chimney segments (see formulae 75 and
77 or prEN 133841:1998, 5.8);
average temperature of the flue gas and supply air (see prEN 133841:1998, 5.8 or in case of
concentric ducts formulae 78 and 79).
Phase 2
Calculate the real draught values in each node tracking the chimney backwards from the outlet into the
atmosphere down to the node that is at the greatest distance from it:
−
−
−
−
−
draught due to chimney effect at the inlet of the chimney segment (using formula 71 and 72);
pressure resistance in the chimney segment (using formula 32);
draught at the inlet of the chimney segment (using formula 31);
draught due to chimney effect at the pressure equalising opening, if any (using formula 71 and 72);
pressure resistance in the chimney segment at the pressure equalising opening, if any (using formula
32);
− draught at the inlet of the chimney segment at the pressure equalising opening, if any, (using formula
31).
The iteration described above (phase 1 and phase 2) at the working conditions under consideration shall be
continued until the pressure equilibrium condition is fulfilled (formula 1).
15.7 Mass flow of the supply air
In each point of connection between the air supply duct of the chimney segments and the air supply duct of
the connection pipes the following formula shall be used:
m B, j+1 = m BV.j + m B, j
(63)
Where:
BV, j , m
B, j mass flow of the supply air in the air supply ducts
m B, j+1 , m
Figure 7 – Pressure loss P23j due to the change of flow direction and mixing of flue gas in the area of
the inlet into chimney segment j
39
prEN 133842:2002 (E)
15.8 Determination of the temperatures in balanced flue chimneys
15.8.1 Separate ducts
When the thermal resistance of the flue duct is higher than 0,65
W
the determination of the temperatures
m 2K
of the flue gas for separate ducts shall be calculated according to clause 9. The temperature of the supply
air within the air ducts shall be taken equal to the external air temperature.
Otherwise the determination of the temperatures shall be undertaken in a similar way as described in
15.8.2.
15.8.2 Concentric ducts
The following calculations are valid for a segment length up to 3 m.
For segments more than 3 m subdivide the construction into more segments and redo the calculation.
15.8.2.1
Principle of calculation for the determination of the temperature
In addition to procedure described in 5.6 the calculation of the temperatures in the concentric ducts depends
on assuming initial values for unknown temperatures. The formulae in 15.8.2 are used iteratively until the
conditions in 15.8.2.9 are fulfilled.
15.8.2.2
Coefficient of heat transmission between the flue and the air supply passage
For the calculation of the coefficient of heat transmission between the flue and the air supply passage for
concentric ducts (see Figure 8) the following formula shall be used:
1
k, j =
1
+
α i, j
S H ⋅
1
+
Λ
Dh
Dha ⋅ α a, j ⋅ S rad
in
W
(64)
m 2K
Where:
k,j
αi,j
αa,j
coefficient of heat transmission between the flue and the air supply
passage of the chimney segment j
in
coefficient of heat transfer between the flue gas and the inner surface of
the flue duct of the chimney segment j
in
coefficient of heat transfer between the supply air and the outer surface
of the flue duct of the chimney segment j
in
m 2K
W
m 2K
W
m 2K
Dh
hydraulic diameter of the flue
in m
Dha
hydraulic diameter of the outside of the flue duct
in m
SH
correction factor for temperature instability
1
Λ
thermal resistance of the flue duct
Srad
correction factor for radiation from the outer surface of the flue duct to
the inner surface of the air supply duct
For balanced flue chimneys with concentric ducts the correction factor SH shall be taken as 1.
40
W
in
W
m 2K

prEN 133842:2002 (E)
In order to account for the effects of radiation from the outer surface of the flue duct to the inner surface of
the air supply duct the calculation of the coefficient of heat transmission k,j includes a correction factor for
radiation Srad, for which the value 2 shall be taken.
For chimney segments in which the inner wall temperature of the flue duct is always lower than the
condensing temperature of the flue gas the value Srad = 1 should be taken.
Key
1
2
3
4
5
Flue (wth flue gas)
Flue duct
Air supply passage (wuith supply air)
Air supply duct
Ambient air
Figure 8  Definition of the symbols used for the calculation of concentric balanced flue systems
For the calculation of the coefficient of heat transfer between the supply air and the outer surface of the flue
duct of the chimney segment j αa,j the following formulae shall be used:
α a, j =
λB, j ⋅ Nu a, j
in
DhB
W
m 2K
(65)
with
DhB =
4 AB
U a + U iB
D
Nu a, j = 0,86 ⋅ hB
Dha
in m
(66)

(67)
0,16
⋅ Nu B, j
and
41
j 0 .j Nusselt number for the outside of the flue duct of the chimney segment j DhB hydraulic diameter of the air supply passage in m AB crosssectional area of the air supply passage in m² UiB circumference of the inside of the air supply duct in m Ua circumference of the outside of the flue duct in m Dha hydraulic diameter of the outside of the flue duct in m NuB.j coefficient of heat transfer between the supply air and the outer W in 2 surface of the flue duct of the chimney segment j m ⋅K λB. j ψ B.j cinematic viscosity of the supply air in chimney segment j ms 15.j 42 coefficient of heat transmission between the supply air and the ambient air of chimney segment j in coefficient of heat transfer between the supply air and the inner surface of the air supply duct of chimney segment j in W m2 ⋅ K W m2 ⋅ K (70) . j = wB.3 in W m ⋅K  2 Coefficient of heat transmission between the supply air and the ambient air The coefficient of heat transmission between the supply air and the ambient air shall be calculated using the following formula in case of concentric ducts: 1 k B. j 1 DhiB + S H ⋅ + Λ B DhaB ⋅ α aB.67  (68)  (69) with Re B. j 0.j αiB.8 ) − 100 ⋅ PrB. j Where: αa. j 0.j Prandtl number of the supply air in chimney segment j  L. j = ψ smoothB. j 0 .0214 ⋅ Re B. j = 1 α iB.8. 67 ( ⋅ 0.j the higher of the value of the coefficient of friction of the inside of the air supply duct and the outside of the flue duct of the chimney segment j  ψsmoothB.j thermal conductivity of the supply air in the chimney segment j Nua.j average velocity of the supply air in chimney segment j m/s νB.j length of the chimney segment j in m wB.j coefficient of friction of the air supply for hydraulically smooth flow of the chimney segment j  ReB.2.j Nusselt number for a reference pipe flow  ψB.4 D ⋅ 1 + hB L . j in W m2 ⋅ K Where: kB. j ⋅ DhB ν B.j Reynolds number of the air supply passage of chimney segment j  PrB.prEN 133842:2002 (E) Nu B.
j = k. j = 1 − 0. For the calculation of αiB.j cooling value of the flue duct of the chimney segment j k.j according to formula (68) and DhB.4 Cooling value of the flue duct The cooling value of the flue duct shall be calculated using the following formula: K .8.prEN 133842:2002 (E) 1 Λ B thermal resistance of the air supply duct DhaB hydraulic diameter of the outside of the air supply duct in m DhiB hydraulic diameter of the inside of the air supply duct in m αaB. j in DhB W m2 ⋅ K (71) with D Nu iB. j ⋅ cp.j Nusselt number for a reference pipe flow  DhB hydraulic diameter of the air supply passage in m DhiB hydraulic diameter of the inside of the air supply duct in m Dha hydraulic diameter of the outside of the flue duct in m 15.2.14 ⋅ ha DhiB 0. j ⋅ Nu iB. j ⋅ U ⋅ L.j Nusselt number for the inside of the air supply duct of the chimney segment j  NuB.j coefficient of heat transfer between the outside of the air supply duct and the ambient air W in m2 ⋅ K W in m2 ⋅ K correction factor for temperature instability SH  For balanced flue chimneys with concentric ducts the correction factor SH shall be taken as 1. j (72) and NuB. where λB. j (73) m . 6 ⋅ Nu B. j where: K. j = λB.j the following formula shall be used: α iB.j coefficient of heat transmission between flue and the air supply passage of the chimney segment j in W m2 ⋅ K U circumference of the flue in m L. j mass flow of the flue gas in the chimney segment j in kg/s 43 .j according to (69).j thermal conductivity of the supply air in of the chimney segment j W in m2 ⋅ K NuiB.j length of the chimney segment j in m m .
j . j ⋅ U iB ⋅ LB. j + 2 ⋅ TeB.prEN 133842:2002 (E) specific heat capacity of the flue gas in the chimney segment j cp. j ) 2 ⋅ K . j = E.j .j B.j temperature of the flue gas at the begin of the chimney segment j in K ToB. j .2.1 To. j ⋅ E.j ambient air temperature of the chimney segment j in K K.j temperature of the supply air at the end of chimney segment j in K TeB. j . j where KB.j temperature of the supply air at the begin of the chimney segment j in K Tu.j .8.8. j ⋅ Tu.j B.j temperature of the flue gas at the end of the chimney segment j in K Te.5 J kg ⋅ K Cooling value of the air supply duct The cooling value of the air supply duct shall be calculated using the following formula: K B. j ⋅ cpB. j m B.j B. j ⋅ Tu. j = kB. j ) 2 ⋅ K . j + K B.j To. j in K (75) or formula 76 when starting the iteration from an estimate for ToB. j e.j length of the chimney segment j in m m B.j cooling value of the flue duct of the chimney segment j  KB.j 15.j ⋅ cpB.j cooling value of the supply air duct of the chimney segment j  kB.j coefficient of heat transmission between the supply air and the ambient air of the chimney segment j W in m2 ⋅ K UiB circumference of the inside of the air supply duct in m LB.j B.2. j + K B. j (77) where 44 To. j (74) m B. j = (2 − K )⋅ (2 + K )⋅ T + 2 ⋅ K ⋅ (E (2 + K )⋅ (2 + K ) + .j specific heat capacity of the supply air in the chimney segment j 15. j e. j = (2 − K )⋅ (2 − K )⋅ T + 2 ⋅ K ⋅ (E (2 + K )⋅ (2 − K ) − .j cooling value of the air supply duct of the chimney segment j  . j . j ⋅ cp. j mass flow of the supply air in the chimney segment j in g/s cpB. j in K (76) m . j − 2 ⋅ ToB.j ⋅ Te.j ⋅ Te.6 in J kg ⋅ K Flue gas temperature at the end of the chimney segment The flue gas temperature at the end of the flue duct of chimney segment j shall be calculated using formula 75 when starting the iteration from an initial estimate for each TeB. j ⋅ E.
15. j ) K.j temperature of the flue gas at the end of chimney segment j in K Te. j ) in K (78) in K (79) or formula 79 when starting the iteration from an estimate for ToB. j − 2 (Te.j temperature of the flue gas averaged over the length of the chimney segment j in K To.1 TeB. j K .j temperature of the flue gas at the beginning of chimney segment j in K 45 . j 2 in K (80) where Tm. j + To. j mass flow of the supply air in the chimney segment j cpB.j temperature of the supply air at the beginning of chimney segment j in K K. j − TeB.j where To. j − ToB.j ( 2 ToB.j temperature of the flue gas at the end of the chimney segment j in K Te. j − To. j + To.j cooling value of the flue duct of chimney segment j  NOTE The formulae above are derived assuming that the heat exchange can be approximately calculated from the difference in mean temperatures.j specific heat capacity of the flue gas in the chimney segment j m B.j temperature of the supply air at the end of chimney segment j in K TeB. j e.prEN 133842:2002 (E) m . j = Te.j specific heat capacity of the supply air in the chimney segment j E. j = Te. j = Te. j + To.2.8.j heat flux ratio between the flue gas and the supply air in the chimney segment j in kg/s in J kg ⋅ K in kg/s in J kg ⋅ K  The supply air temperature at the end of the chimney segment j for concentric ducts shall be calculated using formula 78 when starting the iteration from an initial estimate for each TeB.7 Temperature of the flue gas averaged over the length of a chimney segment The temperature of the flue gas averaged over the length of the chimney segment j for a concentric duct shall be calculated using the following formula: Tm. j − T − To.j temperature of the flue gas at the beginning of chimney segment j in K ToB. j mass flow of the flue gas in the chimney segment j cp.
Nseg temperature of the supply air at the entrance of chimney segment Nseg in K TL temperature of the external air in K TeB.2.1 shall be searched for iteratively until the following condition is fulfilled: TeB. 46 .j temperature of the supply air at the end of chimney segment j in K TeB.j for all nodes.9 Iteration For the calculation of To. shall be taken as 1 (K) in K NOTE Other mathematical methods for solving the formulae (64) to (82) can be used as long as the conditions (85) and (87) are fulfilled. j + ToB.8.j temperature of the supply air at the entrance of chimney segment j in K ToB.j temperature of the supply air at the begin of chimney segment j in K 15. adapting TeB.2. j − ToB.prEN 133842:2002 (E) 15.j temperature of the supply air averaged over the length of chimney segment j in K ToB.j it is necessary to know the relevant supply air temperatures TeB.j1 for j > 1 in K (84) in K (85) ToB. For the supply air temperature at the entrance of the topmost chimney segment Nseg the following formula shall be used: in K TeB.j = TeB. j 2 in K (81) where TmB.Nseg − TL ≤ ε where TeB. j = TeB.j+1 temperature of the supply air at the end of chimney segment j+1 in K Nseg number of chimney segments used in the calculation ε maximal convergence error. j+1 ≤ ε for j < Nseg Nseg in K (83) and when calculating the supply air temperatures from the bottom to the top of the concentric balanced flue chimney use: ToB.j for j < Nseg until the following conditions are fulfilled: TeB.8 Temperature of the supply air averaged over the length of a chimney segment The temperature of the supply air averaged over the length of the chimney segment for a concentric duct shall be calculated using the following formula: TmB.8.Nseg = TL (82) Starting from an initial estimate for TeB.j and ToB.j use the formulae (64) to (81) repeatedly.
For concentric connection pipes in which the inner wall temperature of the flue duct is always lower than the condensing temperature of the flue gas the value Srad = 1 should be taken.16 ⋅ Nu BV.j hydraulic diameter of the outside of the flue duct of the concentric connection pipes j in m αiV.3 Concentric connection pipes 15. j ⋅ Nu aV. j = λBV. j + S H + V. j in m U aV. j W m2 ⋅ K (87) with DhBV. j ⋅ S rad in W m2 ⋅ K (86) Where: coefficient of heat transmission between the flue gas and the supply air of the connection pipes j kV.j W m2 ⋅ K in W m2 ⋅ K W m2 ⋅ K correction factor for the heat transfer by radiation Srad  For concentric connection pipes the correction factor SH shall be taken as 1. j DhaV. j + U iBV. 1 k V.1 Coefficient of heat transmission between the flue and the air supply passage of concentric connection pipes The coefficient of heat transmission between the flue gas and the supply air of concentric connection pipes j shall be calculated using the following formula.j in W m2 ⋅ K SH correction factor for temperature instability 1 Λ V. j in DhBV. In order to account for the effects of radiation from the outer surface of the flue duct to the inner surface of the air supply duct of the concentric connection pipes the calculation of k.8.j includes a correction factor for radiation Srad. j 1 DhV. j = 0.prEN 133842:2002 (E) 15. j = 1 α iV. j (89) and 47 . j 4 ⋅ ABV.j the following formula shall be used: α aV. For αaV.86 ⋅ DhVa.j coefficient of heat transfer between the flue gas and the inner surface of the flue duct of the concentric connection pipes j in coefficient of heat transfer between the supply air and the outer surface of the flue duct of the concentric connection pipes j in αaV. j ⋅ α aV. for which the value 2 shall be taken. j DhBV.8. j (88) 0.3. j = Nu aV.j hydraulic diameter of the flue of concentric connection pipes j in m DhaV. j thermal resistance of the flue duct of the concentric connection pipes j DhV.
4 DhBV. j in W m2 ⋅ K Where: kBV. j ⋅ aBV. j 0.j 1 DhiBV.j circumference of the outside of the flue duct of the concentric connection pipes j in m NuBV. j (91) ν BV.67 ( ⋅ 0.8. j ψ BV. j = ψ smoothBV.j 48 coefficient of heat transmission between the supply air and the ambient air for the concentric connection pipes j in W m2 ⋅ K (92) . j = 0 .67 (90) wBV.j Nusselt number for the outside of the flue duct of the connecting air pipes j  DhBV.prEN 133842:2002 (E) Nu BV.j crosssectional area of the air supply passage of the concentric connection pipes j in m² DhVai.j thermal conductivity of the supply air in the concentric connection pipes j in W m2 ⋅ K NuaV.j hydraulic diameter of the air supply passage of the concentric connection pipes j in m ABV. j Where: λBV.2 Coefficient of heat transmission between the supply air and the ambient air for concentric connection pipes The coefficient of heat transmission between the supply air and the ambient air for concentric connection pipes shall be calculated using the following formula: 1 k BV. j 0.8 ) − 100 ⋅ PrBV. j ⋅ DhBV.3.j circumference of the inside of the air supply duct of the concentric connection pipes j in m UaVi.j Reynolds number of the air supply passage of the concentric connection pipes j  PrBV. j DhaBV.0214 ⋅ Re BV. j ⋅ 1 + L V.j hydraulic diameter of the outside of the flue duct of the concentric connection pipes j in m UiBV. j + S H ⋅ + BV.j Prandtl number of the supply air in the concentric connection pipes j  LV. j = 1 iBV.j Nusselt number for a reference pipe flow for concentric connection pipes j  ψBV.j coefficient of friction of the air supply passage of the concentric connection pipes j for hydraulically smooth flow  ReBV.j length of the concentric connection pipes j in m 15.j the higher of the value of the coefficient of friction of the inside of the air supply duct and the outside of the flue duct of the concentric connection pipes j  ψsmoothBV. j Re BV. j 0.
j Nusselt number of the inside of the air supply duct of the concentric connection pipes j  DhBV. For the calculation of αiVB.3.j Nusselt number for a reference pipe flow for concentric connection pipes j  NuiBV.j coefficient of heat transfer between the outside of the air supply duct of the concentric connection pipes j and the ambient air W m2 ⋅ K W m2 ⋅ K in W m2 ⋅ K For concentric connection pipes the correction factor SH shall be taken as 1.2.prEN 133842:2002 (E) αiBV. where λBV.6 ⋅ Nu BV.1 Cooling value of the flue duct of concentric connecting pipes The cooling value of the flue duct of concentric connecting pipes shall be calculated using the following formula: K V. j thermal resistance of the air supply duct of the concentric connection pipes j in DhiBV.j cooling value of the flue duct of the concentric connection  49 .j according to (90) and DhBV. j where KV.j hydraulic diameter of the outside of the air supply duct of the concentric connection pipes j in m SH correction factor for temperature instability αaBV.j hydraulic diameter of the air supply passage of the concentric connection pipes j in m DhiBV. j ⋅ cpV. j = 1 − 0.j thermal conductivity of the supply air in the concentric connection pipes j in W m2 ⋅ K NuBV.j hydraulic diameter of the air supply passage of the concentric connection pipes j in m DhaBV.j according to (91).j hydraulic diameter of the outside of the flue duct of the concentric connection pipes j in m 15. j in DhBV. j ⋅ Nu iBV. j 0 . j ⋅ L V. j Nu iBV.14 ⋅ DhiB. j (94) NuBV.j the following formulae shall be used: α iBV. j ⋅ U V. j (95) m V.8.j coefficient of heat transfer between the supply air and the inner surface of the air supply duct of the concentric connection pipes j in 1 Λ BV. j = λBV. j = k V.j hydraulic diameter of the inside of the air supply duct of the concentric connection pipes j in m DhaV. j W m2 ⋅ K (93) with DhaV.
j) The flue gas temperature at the end of the flue of the concentric connection pipes j shall be calculated using the following formula: ToV.j cooling value of the air supply duct of the concentric connection pipes j kBV.8.2 Cooling value of the air supply duct of concentric connection pipes The cooling value of the air supply duct of the concentric connection pipes j shall be calculated using the following formula: K BV.8. j + 2 ⋅ TeBV. j ) ( 2 + K V. j = m V.j length of the concentric connection pipes j in m m BV. j ⋅ cpBV. j ⋅ LV. j TeBV. j ⋅ TW. j ⋅ U iBV. j flue gas mass flow in the concentric connection pipes j cpV.j specific heat capacity of the supply air in the concentric connection pipes j 15.3 in kg/s in J kg ⋅ K Flue gas temperature at the end of the flue of concentric connection pipes (ToV.j coefficient of heat transmission between the supply air and the ambient air for the concentric connection pipes j  in W m2 ⋅ K UiBV.3.j circumference of the flue of the concentric connection pipes j in m LV. j + 2 ⋅ K V. j ⋅ cpBV. j ⋅ cpV.prEN 133842:2002 (E) pipes j coefficient of heat transmission between flue and the air supply passage of the concentric connection pipes j kV. j ⋅ E V. j ⋅ (E V.j length of the concentric connection pipes j in m m V. j in K (97) with E V. j mass flow of the supply air in the concentric connection pipes j cpBV.2. j = kBV. j ) ⋅ TW. j m BV.j in W m2 ⋅ K UV.j specific heat capacity of the flue gas in the concentric connection pipes j in kg/s in J kg ⋅ K 15. j + K BV. j where 50 (98) (99) . j (96) m BV.K V.j circumference of the inside of the air supply duct of the concentric connection pipes j in m LV. j ) + 2 ⋅ K V. j ) ⋅ ( 2 + K BV. j = ( 2 .3. j ) ⋅ ( 2 + K BV. j ⋅ TuV. j = ToB. j where KBV.
j temperature of the supply air at the end of chimney segment j In K in kg/s in J kg ⋅ K in kg/s in J kg ⋅ K NOTE 1 The formulae 97 is derived assuming that the heat exchange can be approximately calculated from the difference in mean temperatures.j cooling value of the flue of the concentric connection pipes j  NOTE 2 In addition to the check of the temperature requirement of the chimney a check of the supply air temperature at the end of the air supply of the concentric connection pipe ToBV. j mass flow of the supply air in the concentric connection pipes j cpBV.j temperature of the supply air at the begin of the concentric connection pipes j temperature of the ambient air of the concentric connection pipes j in K TuV.j temperature of the flue gas at the end of the flue of the concentric connection pipes j in K TW.j can also be undertaken if there exists a maximum air inlet temperature for the heating appliance given by the manufacturer.j temperature of the flue gas at the outlet of the appliance j in K TeBV.j cooling value of the air supply duct of the concentric connection pipes j  m V.j specific heat capacity of the flue gas in the concentric connection pipes j m BV. j ) in K (100) where ToV.j cooling value of the flue duct of the concentric connection pipes j  KBV.j heat flux ratio between the flue gas and the combustion air in the concentric connection pipes j  ToB. j = TW. The supply air temperature at the end of the air supply passage of the concentric connection pipes j shall be calculated using following formula: ToBV. j − ToV.prEN 133842:2002 (E) ToV. j − TeBV. j K V. j − ( 2 TW. j + ToV.j temperature of the flue gas at the outlet of the appliance j in K ToBV. 51 .j specific heat capacity of the supply air in the concentric connection pipes j EV. j mass flow of the flue gas in the concentric connection pipes j cpV.j temperature of the supply air at the end of the concentric connection pipes j in K TeBV.j temperature of the flue gas at the end of the flue of the concentric connection pipes j in K TW.j temperature of the supply air at the begin of the concentric connection pipes j in K KV.j in K KV.
j + ToBV.j = H.3.65 W shall be taken as 0.j temperature of the flue gas averaged over the length of the concentric connection pipes j in K ToV.prEN 133842:2002 (E) 15. j + ToV.9.j temperature of the supply air averaged over the length of the concentric connection pipes j in K ToBV.j temperature of the supply air at the begin of the air supply passage of the concentric connection pipes j in K 15.4 Temperature of the flue gas averaged over the length of the concentric connection pipes The temperature of the flue gas average over the length of the concentric connection pipes j shall be calculated using the following formula: TmV.j density of supply air averaged over the length of chimney segment j in kg/m 3 2 .j height of chimney segment j in m g acceleration due to gravity. j 2 in K (101) where TmV.j) in Pa (103) where 52 PHB.8. j = TeBV. shall be taken as 9. j 2 in K (102) where TmBV. j = TW.j g (ρL .j temperature of the flue gas at the end of the flue of the concentric connection pipes j in K TW.1 Draught due to chimney effect at the outlet of the supply air duct The draught due to the chimney effect in the air supply duct for balanced flue chimney with separate ducts and for balanced flue chimney with concentric ducts with flue ducts with a thermal resistance higher 0.j temperature of the flue gas at the outlet of the appliance j in K 15.81 in m/s ρL density of ambient air in kg/m 3 ρmB.5 Temperature of the supply air averaged over the length of the concentric connection pipes The temperature of the supply air averaged over the length of the concentric connection pipes j shall be calculated using the following formula: TmBV.3. m2 ⋅ K The draught due to the chimney effect at the outlet of the supply air duct of chimney segment j of other balanced flue chimneys shall be calculated using the following formula: PHB.8.j temperature of the supply air at the end of the flue of concentric connection pipes j in K TeBV.j draught due to chimney effect in the supply air duct of chimney segment j in Pa H.9 Pressure resistance of the air supply 15.ρmB.
15.ρmV.9.j height of the connection pipes j in m g acceleration due to gravity. j ⋅ wmB. j 2 B.j draught due to chimney effect in the air supply duct of the connection pipes j in Pa HV.81 in m/s ρL density of the ambient air in kg/m 3 ρmBV. shall be taken as 9. shall be taken as 9. j + S EGB. j ⋅ PGB.j = S EB ⋅ ψ B.j density of the flue gas averaged over the length of the air supply duct of the connection pipes j in kg/m 3 2 The draught due to chimney effect at the inlet of the air supply duct of the connection pipes j shall be calculated using the following formula: PHBV. thermal resistance higher 0. j ⋅ in Pa (106) where 53 .prEN 133842:2002 (E) NOTE Experience shows that a limit should be applied to the minimum cross sectional area of the air supply duct of concentric air flue systems.9.j) The pressure resistance of the air supply duct of the chimney segment j PRB.j draught due to chimney effect in the air supply duct of the connection pipes j in Pa HV.ρmBV.81 in m/s ρL density of the ambient air in kg/m 3 ρmV. j ⋅ PB31.2 Draught due to chimney effect at the outlet of the air supply duct of connection pipes The draught due to the chimney effect at the outlet of the air supply duct of connection pipes of balanced flue chimneys with separate ducts and of balanced flue chimneys with concentric ducts with flue ducts with a shall be taken as 0.j = HV.j g (ρL . j + S EMB. j PRB.65 W 2 m ⋅K The draught due to chimney effect at the outlet of the air supply duct of connection pipes j for other balanced flue chimneys shall be calculated using the following formula: PHV. A factor of 1.j height of the connection pipes j in m g acceleration due to gravity.3 Pressure resistance of the air supply duct of the chimney segment j (PRB.5 times the flue cross sectional area is recommended.j density of supply air averaged over the length of the air supply duct of the connection pipes j in kg/m 3 2 15.j g (ρL .j = HV. j ⋅ + DhB ∑ς ρ 2 mB.j) in Pa (104) where: PHV.j shall be calculated using the following formula: L.j) in Pa (105) where PHBV.
j+1 2 2 ⋅ wmB.prEN 133842:2002 (E) PRB. N for j = N in Pa (107) in Pa (108) where ρmB. j = ς B31.j coefficient of friction of the air supply passage of the chimney segment j L. j+1 for j < N 2 ⋅ wmB.j pressure change due to change in velocity of the flow in the air supply passage of chimney segment j in Pa ψB. j = PGB.j due to the splitting in the area of the inlet into air supply duct of the connection pipes j+1 shall be calculated with the following formula: PB31.j flow safety coefficient for the pressure resistance due to change of flow velocity in the chimney segment j (SEGB.j = SEB for PB31.j < 0)   3 in m/s The pressure change due to change of velocity of the flow PGB.j = SEB for PGB.j velocity of the supply air based on the average density of the supply air in the chimney segment j SEB flow safety coefficient for the air supply duct  SEMB.0 for PGB.0 for PB31.N 2 ρ mB.j = 1.j pressure change due to change in velocity of the flow in the air supply passage of chimney segment j in Pa wmB.j < 0)  SEGB. j+1 for j < N in Pa (109) .N = ρ mB.j sum of coefficients of flow resistance in the air supply passage of the chimney segment j  ρmB.j length of the chimney segment j in m DhB.j density of the supply air averaged over the length of the chimney segment j in kg/m PGB. j − ρ mB.j flow safety coefficient for the pressure resistance due to splitting of the air supply (SEMB. j+1 ⋅ with 54 ρ mB.j hydraulic diameter of the air supply passage of chimney segment j in m ΣζB. j+1 2 2 ⋅ wmB.j density of the supply air averaged over the length of the chimney segment j in kg/m wmB.j pressure loss due to the splitting of the air supply in the area of the inlet into the connecting air supply duct of the chimney segment j+1 in Pa PGB. j 2 2 ⋅ wmB.j ≥ 0 and SEGB.j velocity of the supply air based on the average density of the supply air in the chimney segment j in m/s 3 The pressure loss PB31.j = 1.j in the air supply passage in chimney segment j shall be calculated with the following formula: PGB.j pressure resistance of the air supply duct of the chimney segment j in Pa PB31.j ≥ 0 and SEMB.
j ∑ς ρ 2 mBV. j PRBV.prEN 133842:2002 (E) ς B31.N= 0 in Pa (111) Where: 15. j+1 = 0.j density of the supply air averaged over the length of the chimney segment j in kg/m in kg/m 3 3 Pressure resistance of the air supply duct of the connection pipes j (PRBV. j ⋅ (112) where: 55 . j + S EMBV. j mass flow of supply air in the connection pipes j kg/s m B. j ⋅ + DhBV. j+1 2 for j < N (110) and PB31. j ⋅ PB32. j ⋅ PGBV. j mass flow of the supply air in the chimney segment j kg/s ρmB.j shall be calculated with the following formula: LV. j + S EGBV.35 ⋅ m B.9. j = S EB ⋅ ψ BV. j+1 m BV.j density of the supply air averaged over the length of the chimney segment j ζB31.j flow resistance coefficient due to splitting of the air supply in the area of the inlet into the air supply duct of the connection pipes j+1 m BV. j in Pa 2 BV.4 PB31.j) The pressure resistance of the air supply duct of the connecting pipes j PRBV.j pressure loss due to the splitting of the air supply in the area of the inlet into the air supply duct of the connection pipes j+1 in Pa ρmB. j ⋅ wmBV.
j = SEB for PGBV.j density of the supply air averaged over the length of the connection pipes j in kg/m 3 ρmB.j sum of coefficients of flow resistance in the air supply passage of the connection pipes j ρmBV.j density of the supply air averaged over the length of the chimney segment j in kg/m 3 wmBV.j velocity of the supply air based on the average density of the supply air in the connection pipes j SEB flow safety coefficient for the air supply duct  SEMBV. j 2 2 ⋅ wmB.j density of the supply air averaged over the length of the connection pipes j wmBV.j velocity of the supply air based on the average density of the supply air in the chimney segment j in m/s The pressure loss PB32.prEN 133842:2002 (E) PRBV. j = ρ mBV.j shall be calculated with the following formula: PGBV.j pressure change due to change in velocity of the flow in the air supply passage of the connection pipes j in Pa ψBV.j coefficient of friction of the air supply passage of the connection pipes j  LV. j 2 2 ⋅ wmB.j velocity of the supply air based on the average density of the supply air in the connection pipes j in m/s wmB. j 2 where: PGBV.j < 0)  in kg/m 3 in m/s The change of pressure due to change of the flow velocity in the air supply duct of the connection pipes j PGBV.0 for PGBV.j length of the connection pipes j in m DhBV.j = SEB for PB32. j in Pa (114) .j pressure resistance of the air supply duct of the connecting pipes j Pa PB32.j hydraulic diameter of the air supply passage of the connection pipes j in m ΣζBV.j flow safety coefficient for the pressure resistance due to change of flow velocity in the connection pipes j (SEGBV.j 2 ⋅ wmBV.0 for PB32. j ⋅ with 56 ρ mB.j due to the splitting of the air supply in the area of the inlet into the air supply duct of the connection pipes j shall be calculated with the following formula: PB32.j flow safety coefficient for the pressure resistance due to splitting of the air supply into the connection pipes j (SEMBV.j = 1.j pressure loss due to the splitting of the air supply in the area of the inlet into the connecting air supply duct of the chimney segment j+1 in Pa PGBV.j < 0)  SEGBV. j − ρ mB.j ≥ 0 and SEMBV.j = 1.j ≥ 0 and SEGBV. j = ς B32. j in Pa (113) pressure change due to change in velocity of the flow in the air supply passage of the connection pipes j in Pa ρmBV.
j temperature of the supply air in the air supply duct of chimney segment j in kg/m 3 in Pa in J kg ⋅ K in K The velocity of the supply air in the air supply duct averaged over the length of the chimney segment j wmB.11 (115) Where: PB32. j ⋅ ρ mB. j ⋅ AB .j crosssectional area of the air supply passage of the connection pipes j m 2 m BV.j shall be calculated with the following formula: ρ mB. j in m/s (117) where: 57 . 27 A ς B32. j ABV.j shall be calculated using the following formula: wmB. j = m B. j 0. j 2 m m ⋅ 1 − 2 ⋅ BV.10.j m B. j = pL RL ⋅ TmB. j = 1 − 0. j mass flow of the supply air in the chimney segment j kg/s χ. The density of the supply air in the air supply duct averaged over the length of the chimney segment j ρmB.j density of the supply air averaged over the length of the chimney segment j in kg/m AB crosssectional area of the air supply passage of the chimney m 2 ABV.j density of the supply air in the air supply duct averaged over the length of the chimney segment j pL pressure of the external air RL gas constant of the air TmB.65 W/m K the temperature of the supply air varies and consequently the density needs to be calculated. 15. j mass flow of the supply air in the connection pipes j kg/s m B.1 Density and velocity of the supply air in the air supply duct averaged over the length of the chimney segment When calculating a balanced flue chimney with a flue duct with a thermal resistance less than or equal to 2 0. j m BV.3 ⋅ B ABV.j velocity of the supply air based on the average density of the supply air in the chimney segment j in m/s ρmB. j m B. these values shall be used. j AB. j ABV. j ⋅ m B. j in kg/m 3 (116) where: ρmB.10 Density and velocity of the supply air 15.prEN 133842:2002 (E) 0 . j ⋅ AB ⋅ cos γ + BV.j angle of connection between the supply air duct of the connection pipes j and the supply air duct of the chimney segment j 3  Where a manufacturer supplies the data for his product.j pressure loss due to the splitting of the air supply in the area of the inlet into the connecting air supply duct of the chimney segment j+1 in Pa wmB.
2 J kg ⋅ K in in kg/m 3 Density and velocity of the supply air averaged over the length of the connection pipes When calculating a balanced flue chimney with a flue duct with a thermal resistance less than or equal to 2 0. j in kg/m 3 (118) where: ρmBV. j in m/s (119) where: 58 wmBV.j density of the supply air in the air supply duct averaged over the length of the chimney segment j pL pressure of the external air RL gas constant of the air TmBV. j mass flow of the supply air in the air supply duct of the connection pipes j in K ABV. The density of the supply air averaged over the length of the connection pipes j ρmBV.prEN 133842:2002 (E) wmB.j density of the supply air in the air supply duct averaged over the length of the chimney segment j 15. j = pL RL ⋅ TmB.65 W/m K the temperature of the supply air varies and consequently the density needs to be calculated. j ⋅ ρ mBV. j mass flow of the supply air in the air supply duct of chimney segment j in K AB.j velocity of the supply air averaged over the length of the connection pipes j m BV.j shall be calculated with the following formula: ρ mBV.j crosssectional area of the air supply passage of the chimney segment j in Pa ρmB.j crosssectional area of the air supply passage of the connection pipes j in Pa ρmBV. j = m BV. j ABV.j temperature of the supply air in the air supply duct of chimney segment j in kg/m 3 in Pa in J kg ⋅ K in K The velocity of the supply air averaged over the length of the connection pipes j wmBV.j density of the supply air averaged over the length of the connection pipes j in J kg ⋅ K in kg/m 3 .10.j shall be calculated using the following formula: wmBV.j velocity of the supply air in the supply air duct averaged over the length of chimney segment j m B.
5 m. doors for the combustion chamber and openings for air supply of the heating appliances should be closed. 59 . the free cross area of the common pipe section should be calculated according to the calculation method given in this standard regarding the sum of the nominal heat outputs of both heating appliances.1 Recommendations for the chimney and heating appliances: − Heating appliances which are out of action over a longer time period should be closed with shutoff devices or dampers where this is allowed. The total length of the connecting flue pipe should not exceed 2. These devices should be closed during periods when no combustion takes place. The vertically rise directly from the appliance outlet should exceed half of the total length. The free cross section of connecting flue pipes should be constant in form and size and have as a minimum the same hydraulic diameter as the flue gas outlet of the heating appliance. Some recommendations are provided here. A. however. Where the connecting flue pipe does not rise vertically and directly from the appliance outlet its length should not exceed 0. In any case. These recommendations should be taken into account during the calculation if they are relevant.5 m. A. In case two heating appliances are connected to a chimney by only one connecting flue pipe.prEN 133842:2002 (E) Annex A (informative) Recommendations The design of chimneys serving more than one heating appliance needs some experience.2 Recommendations for connecting flue pipes: Connecting flue pipes should rise vertically and directly from the appliance outlet towards the chimney.
1 should be used in case relevant flue gas values are available.j Working tWc.j 0 0 tuV.j .j 0 0 Heating appliances with draught in operation 0 0 PW.j 0 0 in operation PWG.j 0 0 out of action 0 0 PW.j 0 PW.j 0 0 tuV. y2 used in formulae 10 and 11 are not specified by the manufacturer of the heating appliances Table B.Specification of flue gas characteristics of heating appliances with available flue gas values Heating appliance PWc.j 1 out of action 0 0 PW. Table B.2 should be used in case no flue gas values are given.j 0 0 tuV.j + PWG.j 0 0 diverters for gazeous fuels Heating appliances without draught diverters for gazeous fuels with fan Where: tuV.j 0. b2 and the factors y0.j guaranteed pressure difference created by the fan at nominal heat output 60 . y1.j tW.j ambient air temperature of the boiler room tW.j minimum draught for the heating appliance j PWG.tuV. b1.1 .j flue gas temperature of the appliance j PW.j 0 0 tuV.j + PWG. Table B.8 solid fuels without fan out of action 0 0 PW.j 0 0 tuV.j 0 0 liquid fuels without fan out of action 0 0 PW.j 0 0 Heating appliances fired for in operation 0 0 PW.prEN 133842:2002 (E) Annex B (informative) Characteristics for the heating appliance In case the factors b0.j condition b0 b1 b2 b3 b4 y0 y1 y2 Heating appliances fired for in operation 0 0 0 0 PW.j 0 0 tW.j 0 tW.j 0 0 tW.
j 0 0 0.6 0 0 tuV.j 0 0 1.2 .j Working b0 b1 b2 b3 b4 y0 y1 y2 condition in Pa in Pa in Pa in Pa in Pa in °C in °C in °C in g/(s⋅kW) in % Heating appliances fired for in operation 0 0 0 0 9 0 250 0.j 0 0.8 1. j (CO2)W.0 liquid fuels without fan out of action 0 0 13.84 5.j 0 0   Heating appliances with draught 61 .1 0 0 tuV.Specification of flue gas characteristics of heating appliances without available flue gas values PWc.5 0 0 tuV. j / Q N.85 7.j 130tuV.j Heating appliance tWc.j 0 0 0.4 diverters for gazeous fuels out of action 0 0 3.2 0 Heating appliances fired for in operation 0 0 9 0 0 250 0 0 0.84 0 Heating appliances without draught diverters for in operation 50 0 50 0 0 tW.2 8.85 0 in operation 0 0 3.j m W.prEN 133842:2002 (E) Table B.j 0 0   gazeous fuels with fan out of action 0 0 50 0 0 tuV.1 solid fuels without fan out of action 0 0 13.5 0 0 tuV.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.