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(2) San Basics

(2) San Basics

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Published by: Sreenivas Reddy G on Apr 13, 2013
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Storage Basics

Ripunjaya Rawat Storage Technical Manager - Storage

Prepared By -

Date –

Page 1

At the end of this course, you will be able to:
 Have overview of a Storage network.  Differentiate between Storage Network Technologies such as DAS, SAN & NAS  Identify features and benefits of each Storage Network Technology  Have overview of Fiber Channel protocol  List SAN components  Define different SAN topologies such as point-to-point, arbitrated loop, and switched fabric topologies

Prepared By -

Date –

Page 2

In order to ensure productivity of training, we need to be….

- Punctual……………..
- Put mobile on vibration and do not receive calls within the training room…………….. - Not dropout from the training without permission…………….. - Be more interactive…………….

Prepared By -

Date –

Page 3

LESSON 1 Introduction to SANs Basic terms and concepts Advantages of SAN and NAS LESSON 2 A Fibre Channel Primer SAN Connectivity SAN Components SAN Topology LESSON 3 Products and features LESSON 4 Point-to-point.switched fabric LESSON 5 Hard and soft zoning ZONING RAID Date – Page 4 LESSON 6 Prepared By - . arbitrated loop.

LESSON 1 INTRODUCTION TO SAN Prepared By - Date – Page 5 .

What is a Storage Area Network? A dedicated network for servers and storage systems LAN SAN Prepared By - Date – Page 6 .

Storage Basics Disk Storage Subsystem Hard Disk Controller Bus Prepared By - Date – Page 7 .


RAID: ―Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks‖  Fault-tolerant grouping of disks that server sees as a single disk volume  Combination of parity-checking, mirroring, striping  Self-contained, manageable unit of storage

JBOD: ―Just a Bunch of Disks‖  Drives independently attached to the I/O channel  Scaleable, but requires server to manage multiple volumes  Do not provide protection in case of drive failure

Prepared By -

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Page 8

SAN Components
Servers with host bus adapters Storage systems
RAID JBOD Tape Optical

Hubs and switches Bridges and extenders SAN management software

Prepared By -

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Page 9

Storage Basics

Traditional host to storage communication used

Parallel Transport like SCSI & ESCON.  High performance  Low protocol overhead  Static configuration  Short distances

 Connectivity is limited to a single host
Prepared By Date – Page 10

Storage Basics Networks Use Serial Transport  More flexible  Provide greater distance capabilities  Provide shared connectivity between host systems Prepared By - Date – Page 11 .

NAS DAS .DAS. SAN .Direct attached storage     The most familiar form of storage. Runs on various versions of SCSI and SATA Access Devices like Hard disks. tape drives & Robotic controls in a Tape library  Now expanding to USB based connections Prepared By - Date – Page 12 . This offers high performance.

 Network allows the devices to be connected over long distances. archiving and retrieval. restoration..Contd. SAN – What’s different  Uses a network to create a shared pool of storage devices.  Provides a fast connection medium for data backup. Prepared By Date – Page 13 .  Allows sharing data between different network servers.

 These solutions are required for critical response solutions. Prepared By - Date – Page 14 .  SAN devices use optical fiber or bus based access topologies for very fast disks connected directly through special networks and special network cards. connected over a high-speed optical network and dedicated to the task of storing and protecting data.  The disks used are typically SCSI or Fiber Channel disks.Contd… SAN – Storage Area Networks  SAN is a collection of computers and storage devices.

(Network Attached Storage) NAS Dedicated. multi-protocol filer File I/O File I/O Attached directly to network Prepared By - Date – Page 15 .

scalable file sharing Prepared By - Date – Page 16 .SAN and NAS • • • • SAN Remote storage access Private net for storage Storage protocols Centralized management • • • • NAS Remote file access Shares user net Network protocols Distributed management Good for hosting large databases Good for simple.

high-connectivity network technologies • SANs expand easily to keep pace with fast growing storage needs • SANs allow any server to access any data • SANs help centralize management of storage resources • SANs reduce total cost of ownership Prepared By - Date – Page 17 .Summary • SAN Benefits • SANs fully exploit high-performance.

Prepared By - Date – Page 18 .

LESSON 2 SAN CONNECTIVITY Prepared By - Date – Page 19 .

channel-like reliability and performance.integrity -. then encapsulated and transported within Fibre Channel frames.scalability Prepared By - Date – Page 20 .Storage Basics Fibre Channel .why and how?  Increase in the number of servers and storage devices.  Network like flexibility. bandwidth -.reliability -.availability -.  SCSI commands are mapped to Fibre Channel constructs.  The SCSI driver is well implemented in all operating system. This allows the SCSI protocol to be used over a Fibre Channel network.

voice. structured High performance Open.Channel Memory Disk Traditional Connectivity Network Processor Closed. unstructured Error-free secondary Error-free Large data transfer Hardware intensive Peer to peer Data. video Software intensive Prepared By - Date – Page 21 .

voice. video Software intensive Prepared By - Date – Page 22 . structured High performance Open.Channel Memory Disk Traditional Connectivity Network Processor Closed. unstructured Error-free secondary Error-free Large data transfer Hardware intensive Fibre Channel Peer to peer Data.

this ensures channel-like access to target.  Low latency: Less than 2 micro second latency input port to output port of FC Prepared By - Date – Page 23 .  All SCSI commands and user data is sent over 2112 byte Fibre Channel payload frames.Storage Basics Fibre Channel features Initiator arbitrates for access before transmitting.

Prepared By Date – Page 24 . 4 Gbit/sec & 10 Gbit/sec (400MBytes/sec and 1 GBytes/sec) just released.  Long distance: Up to 10KM distance.  Heterogeneous systems support . even longer with extenders.Storage Basics Fibre Channel features  Connectivity: Thousands of devices per fabric (network)  Performance: Current speeds: 1 and 2 Gbit/sec (100 and 200 MBytes/sec).UNIX. Windows etc.

3 FC .1 FC .FC Protocol Architecture ULP (Upper Level Protocol) SCSI-3 IP ATM FC .2 FC .AL FC .0 Framing Protocol Encode / Decode Physical Variant Common Services Fibre Channel Physical & Signaling Interface ( FC.3 Command Set Mapping FC Link Encapsulation FC .ATM FC .LE FC . Optical Prepared By - Date – Page 25 . FC-PH2.3 Command Set Mapping (IPI-3 STD) SCSI .4 IPI .PH.AL -2 8B/10B Encoding Copper. FC-PH3 ) FC .

 provides error correction/handling Prepared By - Date – Page 26 .FC Frame Classes • • • Class 1  Acknowledged Connection Service  Dedicated path between ports Class 2  Acknowledged Connectionless Service  Independently switched frames  Non-dedicated path between ports Class 3  Unacknowledged Connectionless Service  Same as Class 2 without acknowledgements  Invalid frames are discarded.

4x also defined) 2112 bytes Prepared By - Date – Page 27 .Fibre Channel by the Numbers • Speed  Xfer rate:   • • Maximum User Payload: Bit Error Rate: 1x10-12 Distance  Copper: 10’s m  Shortwave Laser (MMF): ~500 m (850 nm)  Longwave Laser (SMF): ~10 km (1300 nm) Connections  Point to Point: 2  Arbitrated Loop: 126  Switched Fabric: 16 Million (224) 1.062 Gbit/sec (2x.

How Does FC Compare to SCSI? Fibre Channel Connections 16 Million Distance Bandwidth Hot Plug Multiple Protocols 10km Per connection Fibre Channel AL 126 10km Shared Bandwidth Parallel SCSI 15 25m 160 MB/sec Shared Bandwidth 200 MB/sec 200 MB/sec Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Prepared By - Date – Page 28 .

Prepared By - Date – Page 29 .

LESSON 3 SAN COMPONENTS Prepared By - Date – Page 30 .

Storage Basics SAN components  Host Bus Adapter (HBA)  Fiber/Copper Cabling  Hub  Fibre Channel or IP Switch  Multi-protocol Gateway or Router  Storage Array  Management System Prepared By - Date – Page 31 .

Storage Basics FC Connectors SC (Seimens Connector) LC (Lucent Connector) Prepared By - Date – Page 32 .

 May be dual port cards. HBA software driver provides the storage information required by the Operating System. Prepared By Date – Page 33 .g.  Handles I/O and Control requests.  Copper/Optical media support.PCI or SBUS) and Fibre Channel network.Storage Basics FC (HBAs) Host Bus Adapters Provides an Interface between the Servers or Workstations Internal Bus (e.

Host Bus Adapters & Interfaces • PCI to FC Adapter    32/64-bit.HSC. SBus 100 MB/sec FC performance GBIC support SNMP and MIB compliance AL and Fabric login support (vendor-specific) Copper/optical media support (vendor-specific) Operating system support (vendor-specific) Date – Page 34 • Features      Prepared By - . 33/66-MHz. PCI 2.1 compliant Other buses .

copper or optical GBIC’s Network management software Supports FC-AL Prepared By - Date – Page 35 .Hubs • Multi-Port Fibre Channel Hub    6 -16 ports.

Fibre Channel Hub Hub Node • Node Node Node Node Features  Zoning  Integrated SNMP and MIB-compliant management  Configuration management tools and utilization monitoring  Automated port isolation and device failover  N+1 hot-swappable components for fault-tolerance  Fabric upgradeability/integration Prepared By - Date – Page 36 .

Fibre Channel Switch • Multi-Port Fibre Channel Switch     8 -16 ports (or more) Copper or optical GBIC’s Fast. non-blocking. dedicated bandwidth Special services (time. name. etc.) Prepared By - Date – Page 37 .

Fibre Channel Switch Switch Node • Node Node Node Node Features  Zoning  Integrated SNMP and MIB-compliant management  Configuration management tools with utilization monitoring  Automated port and device fail-over  N+1 hot-swappable components for faulttolerance Date – Page 38 Prepared By - .

Storage Systems • Features  FC-attached to the SAN  High RPM. fibre drives  Support for multiple RAID levels  SNMP and MIB-compliant  Multiple storage processors for load-balancing  N+1 hot-swappable components  GUI configuration management tools with utilization monitoring Date – Page 39 Prepared By - .

 The Fibre Channel ports on that Device are called Ports.  Nodes can be an Initiator (HBA) or a Target (Storage) Prepared By Date – Page 40 .Storage Basics Nodes  A device e.  Each Port has a Transmit Fibre and a Receive Fibre  In other words SAN is a collection of ―nodes‖ attached to each other using a device called as a ―switch‖.g.server or storage with a Fibre Channel Interface is called a Node.

Summary and Questions SAN Components • • • • • Cables Interfaces/Adapters Hubs Switches Storage Systems Prepared By - Date – Page 41 .

LESSON 4 SAN TOPOLOGY Prepared By - Date – Page 42 .

SAN Topologies Point-to-Point 100MB > < 100MB Arbitrated Loop 100MB 100MB Switched Fabric 100MB 100MB Prepared By - Date – Page 43 .

Point-to-Point Topology 100 MB/sec 100 MB/sec Prepared By - Date – Page 44 .

Arbitrated Loop • • • TX of each node is connected to the RX of the next node until a loop is formed Operational sequence:  Arbitrate for control of the loop  Open channel to target  Transfer data  Close Maximum bandwidth .currently 100 MB/sec Tx Rx Node 1 Rx Tx Prepared By Date – Node 2 Node 3 Tx Rx Page 45 .

Arbitrated Loop Topology Prepared By - Date – Page 46 .

Switched Fabric • • • Maximum number of nodes = 16 million Maximum bandwidth = 200MB/sec x nodes Nodes (N-ports) log into the Fabric (F-ports)  Internal routing and addressing managed by fabric  End to end connection managed by the N-Ports Fabric Node TX TX Node RX F-Port RX N-Port F-Port N-Port Prepared By - Date – Page 47 .

Switched Fabric Topology 10 Km Prepared By - Date – Page 48 .

Lesson 5 ZONING Prepared By - Date – Page 49 .

Zoning Zoning arranges FC connected devices into logical groups Switch Zone X Zone Y Node Node Node Node Node Prepared By - Date – Page 50 .

Storage Basics Zoning Soft zoning: Zone by World Wide Name – Flexibility – Reconfiguration – Troubleshooting Hard zoning: Zone by Domain/physical switch port –More Secure – Simplified HBA replacement Prepared By Date – Page 51 .

Hard Zoning Prepared By - Date – Page 52 Aug 2005 .Port Zoning .

WWN Zoning – Soft Zoning Prepared By - Date – Page 53 Aug 2005 .

Zoning • • Operation  Zone members “see” only other members of the zone  Zones are configured dynamically  Devices can be members of more than one zone  FC-AL zoning allows the creation of private loops on a single hub  Switched fabric zoning can take place at the port or device level Benefits  Secured device access  Allows operating system co-existence Prepared By - Date – Page 54 .

Lesson 6 RAID Prepared By - Date – Page 55 .

Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks Prepared By - Date – Page 56 .

RAID0 Data Block A A1 A2 A3 A4 LDEV A1 A2 A3 A4 4 Data Prepared By - Date – Page 57 .

RAID1 Data Block A A1 A2 A3 A4 Mirrored Block A A1 A2 A3 A4 Data Block B B1 B2 B3 B4 Mirrored Block B B1 B2 B3 B4 LDEV0 A1 A2 A3 A4 A1 A2 A3 A4 B1 B2 B3 B4 B1 B2 B3 B4 LDEV1 1 Data Prepared By - 1 Mirror Date – + 1 Data 1 Mirror Page 58 .

RAID0/1 2D + 2D Array Group • RAID 0/1 —Striped and mirrored (aka. ―dual read‖ RAID 1) —50% storage overhead —Best for performance LDEV0 sensitive applications —Better read & write performance LDEV1 LDEVn Data Mirror Data Mirror Mirror Data Mirror Data RAID 0/1 is a striped and mirrored copy within a ACP pair Prepared By - Date – Page 59 .

RAID5 3D + 1P Array Group * •RAID 5 —Stripes parity across disks —25% storage overhead —More cost effective $/usable MB —Excellent performance D1 D5 D9 P(10-12) D2 D6 P(7-9) D10 D3 P(4-6) D7 D11 P(1-3) D4 D8 D12 * Shows logical not physical view Prepared By Date – Page 60 .

Review: SAN Terms and Concepts SAN NAS RAID JBOD Fibre Channel Point-to-Point a shared-bandwidth SAN that uses hubs to chain servers and storage nodes in a serial ring topology network for servers and storage systems multi-protocol network filer redundant array of inexpensive disks “just a bunch of disks” protocol and architecture for SANs Arbitrated Loop Prepared By - Date – Page 61 .

Review: SAN Terms and Concepts Continued Switched Fabric a dedicated-bandwidth SAN that uses switches to provide parallel paths that connect servers and storage nodes into a “fabric” Segregation of ports on a switch or hub to produce separate SANs Zoning GBIC Giga-Bit Interface Converter Prepared By - Date – Page 62 .

Prepared By - Date – Page 63 .

91 9958696627 Short Id:rrawat3 Prepared By - Date – Page 64 .Seat No:FA28 Ext. 703065 Mobile no. no.

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