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Microbiology taxonomy, and their use to humans as a source for tinder, medicinals (e.g., penicillin), food (e.g., beer, wine, cheese, edible mushrooms) and entheogens, as well as their dangers, such as poisoning or infection. 10. PARASITOLOGY: the study of parasites, their hosts, and the relationship between them. DIVISIONS OF MICROBIOLOGY 1. GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY: deals with the total spectrum or organisms including the disease causing and non-disease causing organisms. 2. CLINICAL/ MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY: deals with the pathogenic or pathologic organisms. A BRIEF HISTORY OF MICROBIOLOGY DEVELOPMENT OF MICROSCOPY • Aristotle (384-322) and others believed that living organisms could develop from non-living materials. • 1590: Hans and Zacharias Janssen (Dutch lens grinders) mounted two lenses in a tube to produce the first compound microscope. • 1660: Robert Hooke (1635-1703) published "Micrographia", containing drawings and detailed observations of biological materials made with the best compound microscope and illumination system of the time. • 1676: Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) was the first person to observe microorganisms. • 1883: Carl Zeiss and Ernst Abbe pioneered developments in microscopy (such as immersion lenses and apochromatic lenses which reduce chromatic aberration) which perist until the present day. • 1931: Ernst Ruska constructed the first electron microscope. SPONTANEOUS GENERATION CONTROVERSY • 1688: Francesco Redi (1626-1678) was an Italian physician who refuted the idea of spontaneous generation by showing that rotting meat carefully kept from flies will not spontaneously produce maggots. 1836: Theodor Schwann (1810-1882) helped develop the cell theory of living organisms, namely that that all living organisms are
the study of microorganisms, which are
unicellular or cell-cluster microscopic organisms. This includes eukaryotes such as fungi and protists, and prokaryotes such as bacteria and certain algae. Viruses, though not strictly classed as living organisms, are also studied. Microbiology is a broad term which includes many branches like virology, mycology, parasitology and others. A person who specializes in the area of microbiology is a microbiologist. DEFINITIONOF TERMS
4. 5. 6. 7.
MICROORGANISM: (also can be spelled as micro organism) or microbe is an organism that is microscopic (too small to be seen by the naked human eye). FUNGI: are heterotrophic organisms possessing a chitinous cell wall. The majority of species grow as multicellular filaments called hyphae forming a mycelium; some fungal species also grow as single cells. PROTISTS: are diverse group of organisms, comprising those eukaryotes that cannot be classified in any of the other eukaryotic kingdoms as fungi, animals, or plants. PROKARYOTES: are group of organisms that lack a cell nucleus , or any other membrane-bound organelles BACTERIA: (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms ALGAE: (sing. alga) are large and diverse group of simple plant-like organisms, ranging from unicellular to multicellular forms. VIRUSES: (from the Latin virus meaning "toxin" or "poison"), is a sub-microscopic infectious agent that is unable to grow or reproduce outside a host cell VIROLOGY: is the study of biological viruses and virus-like agents: their structure, classification and evolution, their ways to infect and exploit cells for virus reproduction, the diseases they cause, the techniques to isolate and culture them, and their potential uses in research and therapy. MYCOLOGY: is the study of fungi, their genetic and biochemical properties, their
when scratched on the skin of a healthy patient. The agent must be recoverable from the experimentally-infected host. German bacteriologist was the first to cultivate anthrax bacteria outside the body using blood serum at body temperature. 1861: Louis Pasteur's (1822-1895) famous experiments with swan-necked flasks finally proved that microorganisms do not arise by spontaneous generation. culture media. petri dishes TREATMENT AND PREVENTION OF DISEASE • 1100: Physicians from India and China can realize that the liquid from the pustules of a smallpox victim. salmon develop a treatment for hog cholera by injecting killed hog cholera microorganisms into pigeons and demonstrate immunity to subsequent administration of a live microbial culture of cholera. would also give life-long protection against illness. 1835 Agostino Bassi de Lodi showed that a disease affecting silkworms was caused by a fungus . 1891: Ehrlich shows that antibodies are responsible for part of immunity 1897: Almworth and David Sample develop an effective vaccine against typhoid fever using killed cells of Salmonella typhi 1897: Waldermar Haffkine develops a vaccine against plaque 1912: Paul Ehrlich announces the discovery of a cure for syphilis. 1796: Edward Jenner uses cowpox to immunize against smallpox 1884: Ilya Ilich Metchnikoff demonstrates that certain body cells move to damaged areas of the body where they consume bacteria and other foreign particles. This intentional infection. 1867: Joseph Lister (1827-1912) introduced antiseptics in surgery. 1886: Theobald Smith and D. • • • • • • • • • • • • 2 . introduces variolation to Europe. he reduced surgical mortality due to bacterial infection considerably. a chemically synthesized antimetabolite. a Hungarian physician who decided that doctors in Vienna hospitals were spreading childbed fever while delivering babies. 1940: Howard Florey and Ernest Chain produce an extract of penicillin and show it can kill bacteria in animals. 1857: Louis Pasteur proposed the "germ theory" of disease. 1876: Robert Koch (1843-1910). This eventually led to: • Development of pure culture techniques • Stains. he subsequently published "Koch's postulates" (1884). agar. 1721: Lady May Wortley Montgue. 1885: Paul Ehrlich proposes that certain chemicals affect bacterial cells and begins a search for one that can treat syphilis. 3. wounds and dressings. wife of the ambassador to the Ottoman Empire.E. the critical test for the involvement of a microorganism in a disease: The agent must be present in every case of the disease. 1546: Hieronymus Fracastorius (Girolamo Fracastoro) wrote "On Contagion" ("De contagione et contagiosis morbis et curatione"). would most often cause mild disease. 4. 1938: Max Theiler produces a vaccine against yellow fever by passing the virus through mice to weaken it.INTRODUCTION TO MICROBIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY LECTURE composed of one or more cells and that the cell is the basic functional unit of living organisms. 2. Domagk uses Protonsil. By spraying carbolic acid on surgical instruments. termed variolation. The disease must be reproduced when a pure culture of the agent is inoculated into a susceptible host. Building on pasteur's "germ theory". The agent must be isolated and cultured in vitro. This is the beginning of the science of immunology. the first known discussion of the phenomenon of contagious infection. The cure is the specific chemotherapeutic agent for a bacterial disease. 1929: Gerhard J. He calls the process phagocytosis. to kill Streptococcus in mice. He started forcing doctors under his supervision to wash their hands before touching patients.the first microorganism to be recognized as a contagious agent of animal disease. 1847: Ignaz Semmelweiss (1818-1865). • This eventually led to: • Development of sterilization • Development of aseptic technique PROOF THAT MICROBES CAUSE DISEASE • • • • • • 1.
1944: W. E. 1979: Smallpox is declared to be eliminated. Proteins and mRNAs) d. Bugie and Selman Waksman discover streptomycin. b. ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM: A system of membranous saccules and channels involved in protein synthesis. • • 2 TYPES OF CELL IN MICROBIOLOGY EUKARYOTIC CELL 3 . 1957: The Soviet Delegation to the World Health Organization proposes a vaccination effort to eradicate smallpox. • • • • • A. the first antibiotic obtained pure from a group of soil organisms. 2. MITOCHONDRIA:Organelles serving as the site for energy production through cellular respiration in eukaryotic cells. 1942: Selman Waksman suggests the word “antibiotic” to describe the class of compounds produced by one organism that inhibit or kill other microorganisms. age 23 of Somalia. This is the only example of a microbial disease that has been wiped from the surface of the earth. 1944: Albert Schatz.INTRODUCTION TO MICROBIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY LECTURE • 1940 Selman Waksman and H. 3. e. The site within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells where ribosomal subunits are assembled. GOLGI APPARATUS:Stacks of membranous saccules involved in processing and transporting molecules within and from eukaryotic cells. However. LYSOSOMES:Membrane-bound vesicles of hydrolytic enzymes used to digest materials that enter eukaryotic cells by endocytosis. 1941: Charles Fletcher demonstrates that penicillin is non-toxic to human volunteers. B. the actinomycetes. by injecting a police officer suffering from a lethal infection. The eukaryotic nuclear body containing the chromosomes of the cell. lipid synthesis. The program finally begins in 1967. The nuclear body is bounded by a nuclear membrane having pores connecting it with the endoplasmic reticulum c. 5. 4. and transport of molecules within eukaryotic cells. A nucleolus is present.C. is the last known victim of naturally occurring smallpox.H. 1977: Ali Maow Maalin. RIBOSOMES:Organelles serving as the site of protein synthesis in all cells. THE NUCLEUS a. Boyd Woodruff discover actinomycin. the recent specter of bioterrorism and the smallpox stocks kept by several governments make new epidemics of smallpox still possible. CYTOPLASMIC STRUCTURES 1. The chromosomes contain linear DNA macromolecules arranged as double helix. Feldman an H. Hinshaw at the Mayo Clinic successfully treat tuberculosis with streptomycin. a very effective drug against tuberculosis. Enclosed by a nuclear membrane that exhibits selective permeability due to pores that permit the exchange of large molecules (eg.
There are no chloroplasts. and lysosomes are absent c. The nuclear body is not bounded by a nuclear membrane. CHLOROPLASTS:Organelles serving as the site of photosynthesis in eukaryotic cells. EXOCYTOSIS:The process in which intracellular material is enclosed in a membrane-bound sac that moves to the cytoplasmic membrane and fuses with it. MITOSIS:The process of chromosome duplication in eukaryotic cells DIPLOID or 2N:Two of each type of chromosome are present.INTRODUCTION TO MICROBIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY LECTURE 6. F. releasing the material from the cell. CELL WALL a. Haploid (1N) sex cells in diploid or 2N organisms are produced through meiosis. CIRCULAR CHROMOSOME: A chromosome of doublestranded DNA where the two ends of the DNA covalently bond together forming a physical circle. It usually contains one circular chromosome composed of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) associated with histone-like proteins. 4 . Internal membrane-bound organelles such as mitochondria.) b. protozoans. Photosynthesis usually takes place in infoldings or extensions derived from the cytoplasmic membrane. 8. C. There is no nucleolus. 9. algae. CYTOSKELETON:A system of microtubules.The electron transport system is located in the inner membrane of the mitochondria G. NUCLEOID: The prokaryotic (bacterial) nuclear body usually composed of a single molecule of circular. Seen in most prokaryotic (bacterial) cells. The ribosomes are composed of a 50S and a 30S subunit forming an 70S ribosome. The cytoplasmic membrane is a fluid phospholipid bilayer containing sterols b. actin filaments. c. chromosomal DNA. and fungi. endoplasmic reticulum. Golgi apparatus. d. ENDOCYTOSIS:The process of cells taking up particles or molecules by enclosing them in a vesicle pinched off from the cell membrane. PROKARYOTIC CELL A. algae. Animal cells and protozoans lack cell walls. The nuclear body is called a nucleoid. vacuoles. B. The membrane is capable of endocytosis (phagocytosis and pinocytosis) and exocytosis. There is no mitosis and no mitotic spindle. THE NUCLEUS a. usually composed of cellulose or chitin. VACUOLE: a membrane-bound sac that plays roles in intracellular digestion and release of cellular waste products 7. A mitotic spindle involved in mitosis is present during cell division. Eukaryotic cell walls are never composed of peptidoglycan (PEPTIDOGLYCAN:A tight-knit molecular complex composed of chains of amino sugars connected by peptide linkages. forms the cell wall of Eubacteria. CYTOPLASMIC MEMBRANE/ CELL MEMBRANE / PLASMA MEMBRANE a. E. b. The nucleus divides by mitosis b. D. b. MEIOSIS:Nuclear division that occurs as a part of sexual reproduction wherein the daughter cell receives the haploid number of chromosomes. d. and fungi have cell walls. CELL DIVISION a. RESPIRATORY ENZYMES AND ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN . REPRESENTATIVE ORGANISMS . Plant cells.The domain Eukarya: animals. STEROLS:Complex lipids found in the membranes of eukaryotic cells. and intermediate filaments that provide the internal framework and allow for movement in eukaryotic cells. CYTOPLASMIC STRUCTURES a. plants.
along with the cell wall.INTRODUCTION TO MICROBIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY LECTURE e. b. is a fluid phospholipid bilayer usually lacking sterols . Members of the domain Archae have cell walls composed of protein. BINARY FISSION: One cell splits into two cells. CYTOPLASMIC MEMBRANE/ CELL MEMBRANE / PLASMA MEMBRANE a. They may contains only actin-like proteins that. genitalia. with specific genera populating various body regions during particular periods in an individual’s life. There is no mitosis. D.The membrane is incapable of endocytosis and exocytosis. REPRESENTATIVE ORGANISMS . F.The electron transport system is located in the cytoplasmic membrane. 5 . The cell usually divides by binary fission. HAPLOID or 1N: Has only one of each chromosome. The cytoplasmic membrane. CELL WALL a. G. contribute to cell shape. CELL DIVISION a. Prokaryotic cells are haploid. Normal microbial flora inhabits the human skin. or harm the host or may exist as commensals. SKIN FLORA: Staphylococcus epidermidis (90 %) Enterobacter Staphylococcus aureus (10-40%) Klebsiella Micrococcus luteus (20-80%) Escherichia coli Diphtheroids Proteus Acinetobacter NAIL FLORA: major types of fungi found under the nails Aspergillus Penicillium Cladosporium Mucor ORAL AND UPPER RESIRATORY TRACT FLORA: Streptococcus pyogenes Staphylococcus Streptococcus agalactiae Neisseriae Haemophilus Diphtheroids Mycoplasma Pneumococci GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT FLORA: Streptococci Bifidobacterium Lactobacillus Eubacterium Bacteroides Peptostreptococcus UROGENITAL TRACT FLORA: Lactobacillus acidophilus Peptostreptococcus Diphtheroids Streptococcus Staphylococcus epidermidis Bacteroides Corynebacteria Torulopsis and Candida E. C. eyes. a complex carbohydrate. MICROBES AND HUMAN WELFARE NORMAL MICROBIAL FLORA the normal microbial flora is relatively stable. members of the domain Bacteria have cell walls composed of peptidoglycan . RESPIRATORY ENZYMES AND ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN . With few exceptions. Microorganisms of the normal flora may aid. b. or unique molecules resembling but not the same as peptidoglycan. Meiosis is not needed. Many bacteria do contain sterol-like molecules called hopanoids (Sterol-like hopanoids are found in the cytoplasmic membrane of many bacteria) b. and gastrointestinal tracts Viruses and parasites are not considered members of the normal microbial flora by most investigators because they are not commensals and do not aid the host. oropharynx.The domain Bacteria and the domain Archae. nails.
4. SECONDARY: when the body has been weakened by the primary infection there are many instances predisposition to secondary infection with the same or another organism 3. external defense c. SPORADIC: occurs occasionally SOME IMPORTANT TERMS 1. PARASITE: an organism which lives in or within and at the expense of another living organism 8. PRIMARY first disease noted in an illness 2. portal of entry II. FACTORS DETERMINING INFECTION I. BACTEREMIA: microorganisms invade the blood stream but there is no active multiplication of them. 5. TOXEMIA: bacteria are localized and produce a toxin which is spread throughout the body and absorbed by the body cell. 9. capsule d. FOMITES: lifeless or inanimate things.INTRODUCTION TO MICROBIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY LECTURE CONJUCTIVAL FLORA: Corynebacteria Streptococci Neisseriae Haemophilus parainfluenzae Moraxellae Staphylococci MICROBES AND HUMAN DISEASE INFECTION Define as the invasion of the tissues of the body by pathogenic organisms which then multiply and cause disease. which have the power of absorbing. FOCAL: when the organism is originally confined to one area. TOXIC: means poison IMMUNITY Ability of the living individual to resist or overcome infection TYPES OF IMMUNITY 1. non-specific internal defense d. SEPTICEMIA: the blood stream is invaded and there is multiplication of the microorganism 3. SUSCEPTIBILITY: state when the organism loses its power to resists infection. invasiveness 6 . MIXED: occurs when the disease is caused by two or more organisms c. which may serve as a source for further dissemination of organisms or toxic materials other parts of the body TYPES OF FOCAL INFECTION 1. enables the individual to resists infection without first having the disease INFECTION BASED ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF MICROORGANISM IN THE HOST 1. toxins b. PANDEMIC: when the population concern is much greater than that of the entire country or even a continent. CONDITION OF CONTACT a. NON. DISEASE: signifies imperfect functioning of one or more of the body organs to some impairment in structure. specific resistance due to antibodies SPREAD OF INFECTION 1. VIRULENCE: a. ENDEMIC: when the disease is prevalent in the usual number in a given population and there is no increase in the number of cases 5. general well-being b.CONTAGIOUS DISEASE: a kind of disease that is not transmitted by mere touch or contact 2. EPIDEMIC: occurs in a limited time among a limited population in an unusual number of cases of a communicable disease 3. CONTAGIOUS DISEASE: caused by living organisms directly from a person with the disease or by contact with a secretion or objects he/she touches 4. 2. HEALTH: condition of the body in which all various functions are being performed normally without any discomfort 7. COMMINICABLE DISEASE: disease that is caused by specific microorganisms transferred to host in different ways 3. RESISTANCE OF THE HOST a. LOCAL: when the symptoms are confined to one area 2. TYPES OF INFECTION 1. EPIDEMIOLOGY term given to the distribution of the disease of mankind 2. miscellaneous III. NATURAL: innate. number of contact b. PYEMIA: pus producing bacteria repeatedly invade the blood and localize at different point causing new metastatic foci of infection 4. retaining or transporting organisms 6.
A SOURCE OF CALCIUM. killed culture. AGGLUTINATION: phenomenon of clumping of the cells distributed in a fluid. ACTIVE: relatively lasting immunity due to the development of antibodies within the individual as a result of contact with the microorganism or their product TYPES OF ACTIVE IMMUNITY A. ammonia. protein. ANTIBIOTIC: growth-inhibiting substances 8. ALLERGY: condition of unusual or exaggerated specific susceptibility to a substance 6. they lack certain enzymes such as catalase. they are killed by oxygen. ARTIFICIALLY ACQUIRED: -results from immunization with attenuated culture. Without energy life can not exist and quickly dies or becomes inactive. or preformed organic matter like sugar. antitoxin or toxoid. but some seem to only need it in trace amounts. 9. OXYGEN REQUIREMENTS OBLIGATE AEROBES: must grow in the presence of oxygen. 2. nitrate/nitrite. A SOURCE OF WATER. MAGNESIUM. VACCINE: preparation of killed or attenuated infective agent used to produce active artificial immunity. SOME IMPORTANT TERMS 1. but oxygen is lethal to many microbes. ZINC. This may be light (the sun or lamps) or inorganic substances like sulfur. DESENSITIZATION: process of rendering a person insensitive to a specific protein by giving small injections of the foreign protein to which he is sensitive over a period of time until he no longer reacts to it. peroxidase. ISOLATION: separation for the period of communicability from infected person to healthy person. they cannot carry out fermentation OBLIGATE ANAEROBES: do not carry out phosphorylation. A SOURCE OF PHOSPHOROUS. QUARANTINE: the limitation of freedom of movement equal to the longest usual incubation period of disease 12. fats etc. vaccines. ALLERGEN: any substance capable of inducing or exciting a condition of allergy or hypersensitivity 5. This may be nitrogen gas. like bacterial spores. but can survive in the presence of oxygen FACULTATIVE ANAEROBES: can perform both fermentation and aerobic respiration. ANTIGENS: any substance which stimulates the production of specific antibodies 2. These are called TRACE metals that are required by some enzymes to function. COBALT ETC. NATURALLY ACQUIRED: -attained as a result of an attack of the disease itself B. A SOURCE OF CARBON. ACQUIRED: harbored by the individual during his lifetime TYPES OF ACQUIRED IMMUNITY 1. can exist for long periods without free water. GROWTH AND ENERGY METABOLISM 1.INTRODUCTION TO MICROBIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY LECTURE 2. and superoxide bismuthase. All cells use oxygen in a bound form and many require gaseous oxygen (air). A SOURCE OF MINERALS LIKE IRON. carbon monoxide or ammonia. carbon monoxide. AEROTOLERANT ANAEROBES: bacteria that respire anaerobically. POTASSIUM & SODIUM. MICROBIAL NUTRITION. 4. or complex organic material A SOURCE OF OXYGEN. 11. SULFUR. A SOURCE OF NITROGEN. VACCINATION: any act of protective inoculation with a virus or bacteria 7 . All life requires liquid water in order to grow and reproduce. 2. This can be carbon dioxide or monoxide. Some resting stages of cells. toxin. or a nitrogenous organic compound like protein or nucleic acid. 13. sensitized bacteria. methane. All life has the same BASIC NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS which include: A SOURCE OF ENERGY. Most cells require calcium in significant quantities. IMMUNIZATION: process of conferring immunity of an individual 10. but they do not grow or metabolize. ANAPHYLAXIS: allergy in which the allergen is an antigenic protein 7. PASSIVE: a short-lived immunity in which the antibodies are produced n another animal whose blood or serum is injected into a person. ANTIBODIES: formed by the body in response to antigen with which it combines in a specific antagonistic manner 3.
TEMPERATURE MESOPHILES: bacteria that grow best at the middle of these range (37 deg Celcius) PSYCHROPHILES: bacteria that can grow in a lower temperature optima (0-8 deg Celcius) THERMOPHILES: bacteria that can grow in a higher temperature optima (40-60 deg Celcius) 4. ASEPSIS: absence of bacteria 5. Miscellaneous HALOPHILIC: organisms which grow at high salt concentration OSMOPHILIC: organisms that can withstand high osmotic pressures SACCHAROPHILIC: organisms that can grow at increased sugar concentration HUMIDOPHILIC: organisms that can grow at moist environment BAROPHILIC: organisms that can withstand intense water pressure CAPNOPHILIC: organisms that can grow in the presence of carbon dioxide 6. CONTAMINATION: presently living infectious agent on the external surface of the body. CONCURRENT DISINFECTION: process of killing all bacteria found in materials used by the patient when the patient is still confined in the hospital 7. 8. Boiling Boiling for 5 minutes destroys most microorganisms and viruses.INTRODUCTION TO MICROBIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY LECTURE MICROAEROPHILIC BACTERIA: grow well in low oxygen concentration. ENERGY METABOLISM GLYCOLYSIS: most common pathway in bacteria for sugar metabolism HEXOSE MONOPHOSPHATE SHUNT 8 . RESULTS OF MICROBIAL GROWTH turbidity acid production pigment production gas production motility MICROBIAL CONTROL SOME IMPORTANT TERMS 1. DISINFECTION: the process of putting a chemical in certain areas to kill all forms of bacteria 4. STERILIZATION: process of freeing a material from all types of microorganisms 2. DECOMPOSITION: process of natural decay of a substance 9. Moist Heat A. 3. POLLUTION: process of undesirable substances either physical or chemical 10. but are killed by higher concentrations ENTNER DOUDOROFF PATHWAY KREB’S CYCLE 7.9 BASOPHILES: bacteria that can grow at pH 7. DISINFECTANT: chemicals that kill all forms of bacteria 3.1 to pH 14 5. a notable exception is endospores Boiling for at least 5 minutes can be used to treat drinking water. pH NEUTROPHILES: Many bacteria grow best at neutral pH (pH 7) ACIDOPHILES: bacteria that can grow at pH 1 to pH 6. SEPSIS: a condition where all forms of bacteria are present 11. ANTISEPTICS: solutions or chemicals that inhibit the growth of bacteria but do not kill them 6. TERMINAL DISINFECTION: destruction of all bacteria in materials used by the patient when the patient is discharged. Physical Methods Used to Destroy Microorganisms Moist Heat Dry Heat Filtration Radiation High Pressure 1.
Also used to destroy medical wastes and contaminated animal carcasses. 2.000 psi are thought to denature protein and alter the permeability of the cell. Autoclaving (Pressured Steam) Typical treatment is 121oC psi for 15 minutes or longer. Items can be sterilized even after packaging. a process that destroys endospores. Produces reactive molecules that damage other cell components. Pasteurization Significantly decreases the numbers of heatsensitive microorganisms. Used to produce beer and wine. Chemicals used in Sterilization. Ultraviolet Radiation Damages DNA. Dry Heat A.2µm is commonly used to remove bacteria. 9 . B. Penetrates poorly. 2. laboratory glassware. Glutaraldehyde is widely used to sterilize medical instruments. Radiation A. 0. and approved types of produce and meats. High Pressure Treatments of 130. and Preservation of Non-Food Substances Alcohols Aldehydes Biguanides Ethylene oxide Gas Halogens Metals Ozone Peroxygens Phenolic Compounds Quaternary Ammonium Compounds 1. Used in biological safety cabinets. Filtration A. Filtration of Air HEPA filters are used to remove microbes that have a diameter greater than 0. specialized hospitals rooms. surgical instruments. Used to extend the shelf life of certain commercial food products such as guacamole. Rapid evaporation limits their contact time. Laboratory glasswares is sterilized by heating it to 160oC to 170oC for 2 to 3 hours. Irritating to respiratory tract. and as disinfectants for treating instruments. Powders. and to sterilize some heat-sensitive medications. and Disinfection. Alcohols Ethanol and Isopropanol Easy to obtain and inexpensive . and other items that can be penetrated by steam. Filtration of Fluids Various pore sizes are available. Juices are also routinely pasteurized. Dry Heat Ovens Oxidizes cell components and denatures proteins. Also used in some vacuum cleaners and home air purification units. C. 5. and to distinct surfaces. Widely used to sterilized microbiological media. B. and drugs such as penicillin. Products retain color and flavor. herbs. including spoilage microbes and pathogens (except sporeformers) Milk is pasteurized by heating it to 72oC for 15 seconds. Also used to destroy microbes in spices. 4. requiring longer times and higher temperatures. Aqueous solutions of alcohol are used as antiseptics to degerm skin in preparation for procedures that break intact skin. Used to destroy microbes in the drinking water. Ionizing Radiation Destroys DNA and possibly damages cytoplasmic membranes. 3. The canning process renders food commercially sterile. skin and eyes. oils and other anhydrous materials are also sterilized in ovens. disposable surgical supplies. Used to sterilized heat-sensitive materials including medical equipment. Incineration Oxidizes cell components to ashes Flaming of wire inoculating loops. Aldehydes Glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde Capable of destroying all forms of microbial life. Less efficient than moist heat.INTRODUCTION TO MICROBIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY LECTURE B. B. and airplanes.3 µm.
adheres to and persists on skin and mucous membranes. Commonly used to sterilized medical devices 5. 12. Ozone This is unstable form of molecular oxygen readily breaks down. and deodorant soaps. Peracetic acid is a more potent germicide than is hydrogen peroxide. Silver nitrate drops can be used to prevent eye infections caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae in newborns. and wastewater. Tincture of iodine and iodophores can be used as disinfectants or antiseptics. Ethylene Oxide Gas Easily penetrates hard-to-reach places and fabrics and does not damage moisturesensitive material. explosive. some forms of chlorine may react with organic compounds to form toxic chlorinated products. 3. Halogens Solutions of chlorine are widely used to disinfect inanimate objects. Metals Silver Most metal compounds are too toxic to be used medically. reasonable cost. Widely used to disinfect inanimate objects and to preserve non-food substances. including toothpastes. Inactivated by anionic soaps and detergents. 6. and more recently. Biguanides Chlorhexidine Relatively low toxicity. lotions. leaves an active antimicrobial residue. 9. but its use is limited because it can cause neurological damage. 11. Iodine is more expensive than chlorine and does not reliably kill endospores. organic compounds and other impurities neutralize the activity. and potentially carcinogenic. Phenolic Compounds Triclosan and hexachlorophene Wide range of activity. 4. Hexachlorophene is highly effective against Staphylococcus aureus. 7. 10. impregnated into catheters and surgical mesh. remains effective in the presence of detergents and organic contaminants. The effectiveness of hydrogen peroxide as an antiseptic is limited because the enzyme catalase breaks it down. Quaternary Ammonium Compounds Non-toxic enough to be used on food preparation surfaces. Halogens Chlorine and Iodine Chlorine solutions are inexpensive and readily available. surfaces. Some metal compounds are used to prevent microbial growth in industrial processes. Peroxygens Hydrogen peroxide is used to sterilize containers for aseptically packaged juices and milk. Triclosan is used in a variety of personal care products. Peroxygens Hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid Readily biodegradable and less toxic than traditional alternatives. however. Peracetic acid is widely used to disinfect and sterilize medical devices. Destroys a wide range of microbes.INTRODUCTION TO MICROBIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY LECTURE Formalin is used in vaccine preparation. 10 . drinking water. Used to disinfect drinking water and wastewater. Silver sulfadiazine is used in topical dressings to prevent infection of burns. 8. Chlorhexidine is widely used as an antiseptic in soaps and lotions. It is toxic.
INTRODUCTION TO MICROBIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY LECTURE 11 .
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