ISBN: 978 - 81 - 905947- 0 - 7 Published by: K. S. Pangtey B-5/11 Green Tower (ONGC) Golf Green Kolkata-700095 West Bengal, India Phone: 033 24296972 e-mail: email@example.com
01. 02. 03. 04. 05. 06. 07. 08. 09. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. BEAUTY CONTEST MAP ENLARGEMTN COVER ON COVER THE WALL POINT OR PERIOD TOUCHING BALLS CLOSING-IN V/S ZOOMING-IN PLOTS & SUB-PLOTS PLANTS HATE GREEN KILO CASE HOUSE CATEGORY DEGREE OF DISTANCE HEAD MASTER LAT-X TELESCOPIC EFFECT NEW DELHI OR NEWDELHI WHOSE SIDE IS IT ANYWAY LOOSER CAN BE WINNER SERVING FIRST CURSE OF CURVE WHITE ALWAYS WINS HONEY COMB 07 10 15 18 23 28 30 34 40 41 43 46 51 54 58 61 64 68 75 81 91 94
TEASER - 01 BEAUTY CONTEST
Imagine a contest of beauty pageant. Participants come onto stage one by one in front of Judges for each event. The participants and Judges do not know each other. The Judges are asked to award points on a scale from 1 to 10 (no fractions) to each candidate. If you are made one of the judge and is asked to choose one out of following choices for the first participant in first event which one would you choose ? (a) 01 (c) 02 (e) 09 (b) 05 (d) 10
THE EXPLANATION: The contests are generally conducted to select a winner from among a group of contestants. In a contest, it is not important how much marks or points (absolute) an individual gets, rather the whole process is to make a proper sorting from among a chaotic group through a comparative analysis. Sorting cannot be done in isolation, it can only be done if there are more than one candidates put
together and compared together. If the winner candidate gets 5 point on a scale of 1 to 10, it does not mean that she or he is not worth 10, it merely indicates that all other candidates have points less than 5. When 1st candidate comes onto stage, judges may find it difficult to award a point as they would not know whether she is best or worst among all candidates. Judges would normally rely on their own past experience to make an imaginary benchmark or standard and attempt a comparison with that. Therefore the whole process would be highly influenced by an individual’s experience which would amount to biased judgment, especially during initial stage. If 1st candidate is awarded 1 point, for example, it would mean that an assumption has been made that all remaining candidates are better than her and would get either one or more than 1 point. Now if all remaining participants turn out to be worst than 1st candidate then there would be a big dilemma as no numbers are available less than one hence all shall end up having 1 point each. Similarly if 1st candidate is given 10 points same situation would arise in reverse order Let us compare beauty contest (crude comparison) to a “ball game” where participants are replaced by balls of various sizes chaotically placed in a cluster. These balls are required to be sorted out based on their sizes.
CHAOTIC CLUSTER OF BALLS OF DIFFERENT SIZES
The balls are ten in numbers and named as A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J & K and judges award points on the basis of their sizes on a scale of
In case D is awarded 5 marks (mid point of scale). if D is awarded 10 or 9 marks (maximum) the result will be 99% wrong. the result of contest would be 50% correct and if awarded 10 or 9 marks (maximum) still result would be 50% correct. The smallest one gets 1 and largest one gets 10 points. The sizes of balls are not known to judges prior to contest. the result would be correct up to 99%.
BALLS SORTED AS PER SIZES
The name and diameter of balls are shown in a table below: SN ITEMS D 1 BALL CHARACTARISTICS B 2 I 3 G 4 E 5 H 6 A 7 J 8 C F
1 Ball Name 2 Ball Size (Dia) (cm)
Let us imagine that D is the first one paraded in front of judges. the result would be 100% correct. if E gets 5 point (middle). at least half of the remaining candidates would get correct markings. Suppose E is the first candidate paraded in front of judges and is awarded 1 or 2 marks (minimum).
.1 to 10 (no fractions). however. • If D is awarded 1 or 2 (minimum marks). • However.
2 or 9. having a size equal to A4 paper and scale of 1:100 is enlarged by 200% (2 times) (B). 10) there is a danger of going 100% wrong or right by 0%. Following conclusion can be drawn from the analysis. (b) However.e. what will be the scale of enlarged map? (a) 1:50 (b) 1:71 (approx) (c) 1:75
. (c) Therefore the correct way would be to choose the mid-point for initial participants so that the danger of going wrong by 100% is avoided and a fair amount of points are made available on either side for awarding later participants and a dead end is averted. To be on safe side the correct way would be to choose the midpoint. (a) If points are picked up from extreme ends of a scale (1.02 MAP ENLARGEMENT
If a map (A). ********
TEASER . if points are chosen from middle of the scale (5) the answer would always be 50% to 100% right and will never be 100% wrong. i.Awarding of marks at extreme end is a total gamble and there is every danger of going wrong by 99% and candidates may end up getting incorrect marks.5 so that a fair amount of points are available on either side and a dead end is avoided. So the probability of choosing points correctly would always vary from 0% to 100%. The probability of choosing points correctly would always vary from 50% to 100% and will never be less than 50%.
Both are linked in such a way that size is inversely proportional to scale (ratio). Distance on map 1 : 100 =
Distance on ground
When a map is enlarged or compressed. two things change. (i) scale of map (ii) size or dimension (length & width) of map.
.A: MAP OF AN AREA WITH SCALE
B: MAP SHOWN AT ‘A’ ABOVE IS ENLARGED
THE EXPLANATION: We know that a scale or ratio of 1:100 means 1m on map equal to 100 m on ground. Larger the map narrower the ratio of a unit distance on map to unit distance on ground.
having a ratio of 1:100. Three types of similar relationship (between actual and model) can be envisaged. Volume (length.
ENLARGEMENT OF AN AREA (2D)
. Area (length & width .one dimensional) 2.A map is a kind of a scaled down model of an area (2D) where an actual surface area is represented on a paper (media) suitable for human use.three dimensional) 1) If a scaled down model of an actual line (one dimensional). is enlarged by 200% (2 times) in same way as a map is enlarged. width& depth . the ratio of model (enlarged) to that of actual one would become 1:50 (exactly half). 1.two dimensional) 3. Line (length .
ENLARGEMENT OF A LINE (1D)
2) If a map (scale down model) of an area (earth surface). having a scale of 1:100 is enlarged by 200% (2 times) the scale of enlarged map would become 1:71 (approx) and not half as in case of a line.
3) Now if we want to change the scale of same map from 1:100 to 1:50 (half). if a scale down model (similar to map) of a 3D solid object or volume (having a ratio / scale of 1:100) is enlarged 200% the ratio would be 1:79 and not 1:50 as in case of a line and neither 1:71 as in the case of an area. The area being a 2 dimensional entity. Area = = = = = X x Y 2(X) x 2(Y) 4 (X x Y) 200% x 200% 400%
CHANGING SCALE OF AN AREA (2D)
4) On same analogy. the map shall have to be enlarged by 400% (4 times) and not 200% (2 times) as would be in case of one dimensional objects such as a line. enlargement will have to be done twice along X and Y direction (length and width).
ENLARGEMENT OF A SCALE MODEL (SOLID: 3D)
it would be enlarged by 800% (8 times) and not 400% (4 times) as would be in case of a map. along X. similar to earths surface (2D) & second is volume contained within its body (3D). One is the surface of the object. Volume = = = Or = = 200% x 200% x 200% 800% XxYxZ 2(X) x 2(Y) x 2(Z) 8 (X x Y x Z)
CHANGING SCALE OF 3D MODEL (VOLUME: 3D)
The solid objects have two elements which can be compared for map to ground type relationship.5) Now if scale of same 3D model is changed from 1:100 to 1:50. For example the ratio of surface area would be governed by 2D conversion like that of map to ground. Y and Z axis. The solid model being 3 dimensional. the enlargement will have to be done volume wise. ********
. Therefore the ratio or scale would depend upon which aspect is being considered while doing enlargement. where as ratio for volume would be governed by 3D conversion formula.
.TEASER .03 COVER ON COVER
Consider that there is a book with a specific cover design which is named here as K. Whether it is possible to do so? (a) Yes (b) No
THE EXPLANATION: 1) We have a book cover design named as K and its exact photograph M of smaller size (stamp size). M is identical to K in all respect. Name of Book cover design Name of Stamp size photograph of K = = K M
Barring size difference. The smaller one M is to be placed or printed on bigger one K. Now a stamp size (medium size) photograph (named as M) of cover of K is to be printed on the left bottom corner of same cover (as is done for the cover of this book).
it is an action of ‘adding’ or introducing new things to the original cover K.A BOOK (M) AND STAMP SIZE IMAGE OF ITS COVER (M)
When M is printed on K (bottom left corner). the M (the stamp size exact image of K) will get automatically cancelled and invalid and a new stamp
Any alternation or changes made on the K would amount to changing the original design therefore K would become KM.
STAMP SIZE IMAGE OF BOOK COVER (M) IS PUT ON ITS COVER (K)
2) Now as K has become KM.
NEW STAMP SIZE IMAGE (S) IS PUT ON BOOK COVER (KM)
3) Now KM has become KMS. the process. the cover gets altered and the whole process is repeated again. the S (the stamp size exact image of KM) will get automatically cancelled and a new stamp size image shall have to be put on the new book cover KMS Name of new book cover design Name of Stamp size photograph of KMS = KMS = Y
Now as soon Y is placed on KMS. with new name.
. shall have to be made all over again and put on the new book cover KM. Name of new book cover design Name of Stamp size photograph of KM = KM = S
Now as soon the stamp size image S is placed / printed on the new book cover (KM).size image. as indicated at (1) above will get repeated once again and KM will become KMS.
shall remain constant throughout its length over an undulating earth surface? (a) Yes (b) No
. So the process of placing or printing stamp size image on itself triggers another action and creates new cover. a wall of exact 5 m height (H). Now. Therefore every time a stamp size image or photograph of a book cover is printed (placed) on itself it gets altered which in turn invalidates its stamp size image. is to be erected across an undulating earth’s surface. similar to that of China wall.NEW STAMP SIZE IMAGE (Y) IS PUT ON BOOK COVER (KMS)
The process continues till infinity. Indicate whether the width (X) of the wall.04 THE WALL
The dimension of a wall is measured by its length (Y). The width (X) of a wall can also be equated to its Height (H). not more & not less. width (X) and thickness or depth (Z). ********
Normally. they are . sea surface can be considered to
. length (Y) and thickness (Z). However. On the other hand the height of a wall (H) is measured along a vertical line (plumb line) which is perpendicular to the equi-potential surface of earth’s gravity field. when same wall is build over an inclined ground surface. a fourth element or fourth dimension .width (X).
GEOMETRICAL ELEMENTS OF A WALL
The width of a wall (X) is measured along a line normal to ground surface which may not be parallel to equi-potential gravity field.height (H) comes into play. This fourth element is same as width (X) when on flat ground.GREAT WALL OF CHINA CRISS-CROSSING MOUNTAINS
THE EXPLANATION: When a wall is standing on a flat ground its dimension is defined by three elements.
HEIGHT OF A WALL IS INDICATED BY ARROWS
. Width (X) would be maximum on a flat ground and would decrease proportionately along sloppy ground. However. ground surface is not always parallel to equi-potential surface and is highly undulating.
TREES GROWING VERTICAL (PARALLEL TO PLUMB LINE) (OBLIQUE TO STEEP SLOPE)
If height (H) of a wall (measured along plumb line) is kept constant throughout its length over an undulating ground.be parallel to equi-potential gravity field and plumb line is always perpendicular (normal) to sea surface. trees are always perpendicular to equi-potential surface. irrespective of ground slope on which it grows. On an average. therefore can be considered to be parallel to Plumb Line. the width (X) will not remain same every where.
However. over vertical part. the width (X) would be zero while height (H) would be 100%. therefore H and X would be same. the height (H) of wall would not remain same everywhere. Geometrically it would amount to putting a new staircase over the ground surface.Alternatively if width (X) is kept constant.
WIDTH OF A WALL IS INDICATED BY ARROWS
There can be varying degree of ground slopes. For example a stair case type slope can be likened to combination of vertical and flat surfaces.
VARIOUS SHAPES OF WALL RESULTING DUE TO COMBINATION OF WIDTH & HEIGHT OF THE WALL
. Over flat part of staircase both plumb-line and width of wall would be parallel. Wall would have maximum height along slopes and minimum on flat surface.
.Over a slopping ground. The relationship between H and X can be roughly established as follows: Q X Where: X H Q = = = Wall Width Wall Height Angle between Plumb-line and ground slop = H x
ANGLE (Q) BETWEEN GROUND SLOPE AND PLUMB LINE
If Q is 90 degree (in case of flat ground) X would be equal to H. The X would progressively decrease with decreasing Q and eventually become zero if Q is zero (in case of vertical ground). the width (X) of wall can vary from 0% to 100%.
months. then. Same thing applies to each week (Monday to Sunday) and each day which encompasses a time period of 24 hrs.TEASER . Time segments are designated by various names such as hours. When we say 01 year. Similarly January month means a time period having 31 days starting from day 1 and ending at 31st day of the month.
. we actually mean a period of 12 months starting from January to December. Generally. On same line January to February implies whole of January and whole of February (a total of 59 days). when one says 2000 to 2001. starting from 00 hours to 24 hours. January (01) to May (05) is equal to 5 months and Monday to Friday is equal to 5 days. years etc which represent a specific time interval / period. 10 AM (10 Hrs) to 02 PM (14 Hrs) is equal to how many hours? (a) 4 hrs (b) 5 hrs (c) Both
THE EXPLANATION: Time is a continuum phenomenon however humans have segmented them for their convenience and daily uses. it means 2 years comprising whole of year 2000 (12 months) and whole of year 2001 (12 months) and no fractions. Year 2001 to year 2005 is equal to 5 years.05 POINT OR PERIOD
has full 12 hours (00 to 12 hrs).
LARGE TIME INTERVAL / DIVISIONS (PERIOD)
A watch. similarly a year should have 12 months. Therefore each segment of time will qualify to be called by its name only at the end of its specified period. else it may not be called a year.
DIVISIONS OF TIME INTERVAL (PERIOD) OF A DAY (01 PM to 05 PM)
. A decade has 10 full years. therefore a day can not be called a day unless entire period of 24 hours is completed. used for day to day work.Any segment of a time period (say a day) has a starting point and ending point. a month has full 30 days (1st to 30th days) and a week has seven full days (1st to 7th day). (1st to 10th year).
When we say a match or a game will start at 01 PM or 01 hours and finish at 05 PM or 05 hours (or will last from 01 to 05 hours) it can have following meaning.01 hour included)
SHORT TIME PERIOD (01 to 05 HRS)
.01 hour not included)
SHORT TIME PERIOD (01 to 05 HRS)
2. 01 PM (hrs) to 05 PM (hrs) = 4 hours (00 . 01 PM (hrs) to 05 PM (hrs) = 5 hours (00 . 1.
same convention is not applied when we refer in terms of years or months. 01 hours or 01 0’ Clock’ meant end of 01 hour (or beginning of 02 hours). 02 inch to 06 inch = 05 inches (2nd inch included)
SHORT DISTANCE (SPACE) INTERVAL ( 01 to 06 INCH)
. space is also a continuum phenomenon and space has also been segmented for convenience and daily uses. on a horizontal scale. horizontally as well as vertically. When we say that ‘so and so was a number one player from 01 year to 05 year it invariably means 5 years and includes year from 00 to 01 also. Similar to time. It never means beginning of 01 hrs hence does not include 00 to 01 hour. However.As per prevailing convention. inches etc. On human scale. space is generally segmented into kilometers. For example. meters. 02 inch to 06 inch = 04 inches (2nd inch not included)
SHORT DISTANCE (SPACE) INTERVAL (02 to 06 INCH)
2. whenever we say 02 inch to 06 inch it can have two meanings. centimeters. 1. feet.
in petroleum exploration industry. imagine that a rock layer containing oil has been found to occur between 400 m to 410 m in a well. The properties of rock layer containing oil and its depth from surface is recorded and measured by wire line logs (as shown below). 400 m to 410 m = 10 m (400th m not included) = 11 m (400th m is included)
. measurement of a depth interval can also create similar anomaly. 400 m to 410 m ii. For example. Its thickness would be measured as 10 m (as shown above).On a vertical scale. which occur in rock layers. The depth interval of oil layer can be written in two options: i. is extracted by drilling a well (8 to 10 inch diameter) deep into earth. oil.
DEPTH INTERVAL OF AN OIL WELL (00 to 1000 m & 390 to 420 m)
its depth interval would start from a point at 400 m and downward to 410 m. the depth interval is generally demarcated from a point on top of layer to a point at bottom of layer.However. The well path is measured and marked continuously so that a point will always fall on some numeral. one of the options can be followed provided it is qualified with a definition or explanation. as per industry practice would be taken as 10 m and not 11 m. in petroleum industry practice.06 TOUCHING BALLS
How many balls of same size can remain in touch with each other at the same time? (a) (b) (c) (d) Four Three Six Nine
TEASER . So if top of layer falls exactly at 400 m. Depending upon the convention and practice. hence thickness of interval.
THE EXPLANATION: On a two dimensional plane (2D).
FOUR BALLS OF EQUAL SIZE IN A BOX (3D)
THREE BALLS OF EQUAL SIZE ON A FLAT SURFACE (2D)
In three dimension (3D). Three balls together forming each face of a tetrahedron. a maximum number of four balls can remain in touch with each other at a time and form a tetrahedron. a maximum of three balls can remain in touch with each other at a time.
On a plane (2D).
SIX BALLS OF EQUAL SIZE ON A FLAT SURFACE (2D)
In three dimension (3D) a single central ball can remain in touch with 12 balls of same size at a time. a single central ball can remain in touch with a maximum of six balls of same size at a time. making an hexagonal shape.
TWELVE BALLS OF EQUAL SIZE IN A BOX (3D)
07 CLOSING-IN V/S ZOOMING-IN
Zooming-in is defined here as a simulation of an act of moving closer to an object-in-view with the help of a magnifier such as telescope or binoculars. Closing-in is defined here as an act of physically moving closer to an object-in-view. This is performed with the help of a magnifier such as zoom lens. The process of magnification is identical in both cases? (a) True (b) Falls
THE EXPLANATION: Zooming-in Zooming-in is a simulation of an act of movement toward or away from an object and not the actual act of movement. The observer and object do not move physically towards or away and remain fixed at their places and the relationship with regard to
. In motion picture or television. zooming-in is a process of changing rapidly from a long shot to a close-up while maintaining the subject or scene in focus or vice-versa. One aspect which is common in both processes is that things get magnified and look bigger to the viewer.TEASER .
• All objects seen within view-field progressively appear bigger. The process of zooming-in can be equated simply to the process of enlargement of a 2D picture where only X and Y (length and width) is stretched and 3rd axis Z (depth) does not play any role.angle and depth between observer and object remain unchanged. Geometrically following things happen in zooming-in process. The process can be likened to enlargement or stretching of a photograph on a paper (2D).
IMAGE OF AN OBJECT SEEN BY NAKED EYE
ZOOMIN-IN: IMAGE OF AN OBJECT SEEN WITH THE HELP OF A MAGNIFIER (OBJECT IS ENLARGED)
. All objects. with respect to depth and angle does not change while zooming-in or zooming-out. hence the viewer’s relation with object. near or farther within view-field magnify at same rate.
3rd dimension (Z-axis) comes into play as a result of movement of the viewer. the depth and angle of object keep changing and become pronounced at close range. In real world the three dimensional (3D) objects have three axis. hence the viewer’s relation with object. The nearer one magnifies at much higher rate than the farther one. Geometrically following things happen in closing-in process: • • • All objects within a view-field progressively appear bigger. When viewer moves toward an object. with respect to depth and angle constantly change while closingin or closing-out. The nearer objects magnify at much higher rate then the farther objects. The image on our retina forms in 2D format (length & width) however as viewer moves toward an object.Closing-in: The closing-in process involves both viewer and object and they come closer progressively to each other and eventually come into physical contact. X. All objects. seen within view-field magnify at different rate.
IMAGE OF AN OBJECT SEEN BY NAKED EYE
. The image of each objects seen within the view-field magnify at different rate depending on its depth and angularity. Y and Z (length. width and depth) and each point on an object is at a different depth and at different angle at a given time and space with respect to viewer.
With following conditions. however similarity ends here.08 PLOTS & SUB-PLOTS
A square piece of plot / land (green) with open space and road (brown) on all side is to be divided into many sub-plots (parts). 1) All sub-plots should be equal in size 2) All sub-plots should be equal in shape 3) All sub-plots should have equal accessibility to road and open space present on all sides Under aforementioned conditions. is that in case of closing-in nearer object magnify at much higher rate than the farther one where as in case of zooming-in all objects within viewfield magnify at same rate. The major difference between two. this piece of land can be divided into how many maximum sub-plots (parts)
. with regard to magnification. ********
TEASER .CLOSING-IN: IMAGE OF AN OBJECT SEEN AT CLOSE RANGE BY NAKED EYE (OBJECT IS ENLARGED)
Conclusion: In both processes objects within view-field magnify and appear progressively bigger.
hence the sum total of length of sides and angle of corners when divided should remain constant (4C + 4S). The square plot of a land has 4 corners (4C) and 4 sides (4S) and each side has fixed length and each corner has fixed angle. Corners (C) Sides (S) =4 =4
SQUARE PLOT WITH 4 SIDES & 4 CORN
. it can have only two dimensions (2D). therefore individual sides or individual corners can be divided 2 times only to make them symmetrical on either side of a line.(a) (b) (c) (d)
4 8 12 2
SQUARE PLOT WITH ROADS ON ALL SIDES
THE EXPLANATION: Division of a square plot of land: The land being an areal quantity.
(1) When divided into 2 sub-plots: 2 Plots = 2 x (2C+1S+½S+½S) Or = 2 x (2S+1C+½C+½C) = (4C + 4S) = (4S + 4C)
SQUARE PLOT DIVIDED INTO 2 EQUAL PARTS
(2) When divided into 4 sub-plots: 4 Plots = 4 x (1C+½S+½S) Or = 4 x (1S+½C+½C) = (4C + 4S) = (4S + 4C)
SQUARE PLOT DIVIDED INTO 4 EQUAL PARTS
(3) When divided into 8 sub-plots: 8 Plots = 8 x (½C +½S) = (4C + 4S)
To make identical sub-divisions (sub-plots) corners and sides would have to be equally shared without changing their original positions. The shape of a piece of land can be trigonal. The corners and sides of a square or a hexagonal shaped land have fixed number of corners and sides and are linked together in a definite pattern. P C Square plot (4 sided)
Maximum number of sub-plots number of corners or sides
. 7. The sub-divisions or sub-plots are in a way symmetrical divisions and their number is dependant on the shape of a plot. 5. 4 and 8 equitable sub-plots only and cannot be divided into 3. 6. circular and so on. The relationship between the number of corners or sides and the maximum possible sub-divisions or sub-plots equal in all respect can be established in following manner:
P Where.SQUARE PLOT DIVIDED INTO 8 EQUAL PARTS
Keeping in focus the conditions laid down above. hexagonal. 9 or more number of sub-plots. pentagonal. it is observed that a square land can be divided into 2.
= = = =
4 Cx2 4x2 8
8 EQUAL DIVISIONS
Trigonal plot (3 sided) C P = = = = 3 Cx2 3x2 6
6 EQUAL DIVISIONS
Pentagonal plot (5 sided) C P = = = = 5 Cx2 5x2 10
10 EQUAL DIVISIONS
Hexagonal plot (6 sided) C P = = = = 6 Cx2 6x2 12
12 EQUAL DIVISIONS
Round plot (infinite sided) C P = = = = infinite Cx2 infinite x 2 infinite
TEASER .09 PLANTS HATE GREEN
We talk of greening our earth. We love green color and want to green whole earth but what we do not realize is that had plants liked it we would not have seen green as we see it today. A circle can have any number of sides and corners hence it can be divided into an infinite number of equal parts or sub-plots. But
. Therefore green color is the enemy of plants.INFINITE EQUAL DIVISIONS
An infinite number of radial rays can be drawn from the center of a circle (round plot) outward. In other words all colors are consumed by the object except the one that is reflected and reaches to the eyes of viewer. but plants hate green color? (a) True (b) Falls THE EXPLANATION: The color of any object is due to its inherent quality of dislike for that color.
Such short forms. then indicate which of the
= 1000 M2 = 1000000 M2
. This principal is used universally by all kinds of creature. it’s a misnomer. for deriving equations or formula. If sun suddenly starts beaming only green color it would be soothing to our eyes but it will be an end to the majority of plant life.10 KILO CASE
If Y2K stands for year following is correct ? (a) 1 KM2 (b) 1 KM2 (c) Both THE EXPLANATION: In day to day life. its a selfish way of seeing through the eyes of humans and not plants. when used in combination with other similar short forms or numerals. Therefore when we say let us green earth. especially in written form. The K is one of the most used single alphabet in modern times which is a short form for Kilo. May be it’s a deliberate ploy used by plants so that animals are befriended for their own survival. The K symbol is used extensively as independent entity or in combination with other alphabets or numerals. For example in metric system K is commonly used in 2000. especially in the minds of students not conversant with such usage. has the potential of creating confusion. the long words are frequently squeezed or compressed and are represented by a single alphabet. like colors of flowers. may be perhaps to save time. space and energy.why plants hate it and we love it. ********
Since K and M also represent independent entity confusion may be created that whether both are part of same unit or not? There is a possibility that K would be perceived as an independent alphabet separate from M and only M is squared (M2) and not K.
. 32 or 1 x 2 x 32. used in combination with other alphabets such as M as a single dimensional entity. 2. This is similar to a numerical quantity squared.combination with other alphabets such as KG or Kg (Kilo-gram). Y2K (Year 2000) and so on. This scenario is very much possible on the assumption by an individual that K being a dominant alphabet is separate even when combined with alphabet like M. KM or Km (Kilo-meter). hence must be squared together as KM2 or as K2 M2. whether allowed independently or together. 1 KM ii = = 1xKxM 1 x 1000 x M
Problems may start cropping up when KM is squared (multi dimensional) as this involves multiplication of itself. KL or Kl (Kilo-liter). 1KM2 = = = = 1xKx MxM 1 x 1000 x M x M 1000 x M x M 1000 M2
iii However since general convention provides that both K and M must be written together as KM or Km for Kilometer. the end result will remain same. such as 1232 which would be red as 123 x 123 and not as 1. the confusion level is zero because K and M. where K. When K is used in combinations: i The equations.
B. large number of residential houses were to be constructed in different sizes. could be constructed initially. the completed houses were graded and grouped in A. C & D pattern was a full proof method? (a) Yes (b) No
. Whether the categorization of houses in A. Kilometer or any similar quantity or entity should better be either denoted by one alphabet. Due to certain problems only few houses of different sizes. such as T or R or if two alphabets are essential then it could be placed within a bracket (KM)2 then squared. scattered haphazardly. ********
TEASER . While making allotment. B.1KM2
= = = = =
1 x KM x KM 1xKx KxMxM 1 x 1000 x 1000 x M x M 1000000 x M x M 1000000 M2
To avoid confusion or any other anomalous perception once for all. where A is smallest and D is largest house. C and D category as per their sizes in ascending order.11 HOUSE CATEGORY
In a particular locality.
HOUSES NAMED (NUMBERED) FROM BEGINNING OF A SERIES LEAVING NO NUMBERS AT BEGINNING
. A is a starting point or dead end. B. especially if more houses of different sizes are yet to be constructed. Therefore this type of grading or categorization is unidirectional or one way expandable.THE EXPLANATION: The grading of houses are generally done either in ascending order. As alphabets are not available prior to A. Unidirectional (one way expansion) growth pattern: In A. But there is an anomaly in this system. where A is at bottom or in descending order where A is at top. growth is not assumed prior to A. If houses are required to be constructed in sizes smaller than A (in case of ascending order) or bigger than A (in case of descending order) it will not be possible to assign category in same series. therefore unidirectional pattern has the danger of running out of alphabets for new houses and bidirectional pattern would be preferred. Alphabets are available only beyond D hence growth is assumed beyond D only. C and D grading system.
L and M so that plenty of alphabets are made available at either end for future expansion of houses at both end. middle (in-between) expansion is not possible.Bi-directional (two way expansion) growth pattern: In a bidirectional grading nomenclature (categories).
. K and P or A second series can be added to the first series. as no gap is left in-between. Like J(1). say between K and L we will again run out of alphabets. K(2) and so on. However.
HOUSES NAMED (NUMBERED) FROM MIDDLE OF SEIRES LEAVING NUMBERS AT BOTH ENDS
Multi-expansion growth pattern: In uni-directional or bi-directional pattern. therefore a multi-directional pattern would be most suitable to accommodate all possibility of future expansion. For example house categories can be named as J. J(2). K. if houses are required to be constructed in the middle (inbetween) of the series. the grading is done with no dead end. K(1). What would happen if houses are required to be constructed in the middle of series say between J and K? Two things can be done to accommodate middle expansion: (i) (ii) Sufficient gaps can be created in bi-directional series such as D. F.
is a map of a surface showing undulations with the help of lines joining equal elevation. the ratio of a unit distance on a contour map at any point to that on ground is always same. (a) (b) True Falls
.HOUSES NAMED (NUMBERED) WITH GAPS LEAVING NUMBERS BETWEEN TWO HOUSES
Since more houses are yet to be constructed and also because original plan of construction of new houses may change in terms of size depending on requirement. ********
TEASER . by definition. also called topographic map. the nomenclature of the categories of houses (already completed) shall have to be in such a way to accommodate future houses without disturbing the existing series of categories.12 DEGREE OF DISTANCE
A contour map. otherwise we will end up having multiple series with confusing and chaotic house addresses within same locality. On a regional scale.
THE EXPLANATION: A map or any drawing made on a flat sheet of paper are 2D transformation of 3D objects. As the use of shading became systematized the contour lines. Even the image formed on our retina (eye) is in 2D format. During earlier days relief on a map used to be shown with the help of variations of light and shade to give effect of 3D objects in 2D images. The 3D perception in our brain is caused due to 2D image received from two different eyes set at an angle with respect to center of an object. on which contours are
. Contour map is a graphical conventional method for showing changes in height or depth on a 2D map with the help of lines that connect points of equal elevation called contour lines. visually representing different elevations of land came into general use. Areas of tightly spaced contour lines describe steep changes in elevation and sparse contours depict flat areas. The Mean Sea Level (MSL) is generally taken as “base” or datum surface.
CONTOUR MAP WITH VARIABLE SHADING
The pattern of contour lines can depict landforms.
Two things can happen while making contour maps (especially on a regional scale) of earth surface.
RIGID CAKE CURVED AND FLATTENED
RIGID HEMI-SPHEROID (EARTH) CURVED AND FLATTENED
. in accordance with its scale should match to that on ground.referenced or plotted. With each contour line representing a standard distance above or below the base line. However earth. Theoretically. making a regional contour map is a tricky one. The globe surface is curved along two directions X & Y axis. the distance measured on a contour map. one can accurately calculate height or depth simply by counting the lines from the base line. being a spheroid. When flattened or stretched it cracks vertically (when one axis is curved) and also horizontally when both axis are curved. i.
When rubber sheet is flattened the distance between summits (S1 – S2 – S3) of cones progressively decreases where as distance between base (root) of cones (R1 – R2 – R3) does not change. the plumb lines (or longitude lines) that converge downward towards center of earth are made parallel with constant distance between longitudes. The tall mountain (vertical component: height or depth) is squashed onto a 2D flat base or datum surface.ii. irrespective of undulations.
TALL OBJECT SQUASHED ON A FLAT SURFACE
While making contour maps.
LONGITUDE LINES BECOME PARALLEL ON FLATTENING
The earth surface can be likened to a curved rubber sheet over which cones (similar to mountains) are placed.
Therefore one (single) scale may not be applicable to measure a ratio between a unit distance on map to that on the ground at all points in a regional map.
CONTOUR MAP OF AN UNDULATING SURFACE (2D)
. Conversely. In a regional contour map. does not change. are squeezed on to a smaller area on a datum plane. the depths of oceans are brought-up and stretched. such as Mean Sea Level (MSL). irrespective of bending or flattening of rubber sheet. such as Himalaya or Tibetan Plateau. S2.RUBBER SHEET WITH CONES (CURVED & FLATTENED)
CONTOURES OF CONES PLOTTED ON RUBBER SHEET
Where as the distance between summits of cone (S1. The contour map assumes that the distances between S1 to S2 to S3 is same as that between R1 to R2 to R3. the bigger area of a mountain. S3) in a contour map.
TEASER .Although a single scale has been provided for above contour map. which one was that? (a) Ravan. with the help of god Hanuman over the evil Ravan. the ratio (map to ground) may be different for depths (dark region) and different for high ground (light region).13 HEAD MASTER
Ramayan is one of the greatest epic of Hindu (Indian) Mythology. Tibetan plateau and Indian Planes together. the monkey king (c) Jatayu. There may be huge elevation difference between them. One out of following kings had an asymmetrical body. It is a saga of victory of god Ram.
RELIEF MAP OF TIBETAN PLATEAU AND INDIAN PLAIN (ONE SCALE MAY NOT BE APPLICABLE)
Similarly a single scale may not be applicable for a map or a photograph of large area depicting Himalayas. The saga is entwined with multiple kings and warriors. the vulture king
. the demon king (b) Sugreev.
a line. The Reflection symmetry is the most familiar type of symmetry which is also known as line or bilateral symmetry. characteristics such as angles. The distance to the center of rotation is kept constant and the amount of turning called the angle. The corresponding point is at same distance from the axis as is the original point. The rotational symmetry results from the transformation called rotation. which is the turning of a shape around a center point or the center of rotation. This result from the transformation called reflection occurring across a line or the axis. shapes. side lengths. c) glide-translation and d) reflection etc. b) translation. which is just another term for "movement" with specific direction and magnitude. is measured in degrees. There can be several different types of symmetry and in each type. Reflection may happen first or second but the figure that results after a reflection and translation is called glide reflection of the original figure. or a plane where shape on one side match exactly to the shape on another side. The main types of symmetry include: a) rotation. The glide reflective symmetry results from the transformation called glide reflection and is actually a combination of a reflection and a translation.
.THE EXPLANATION: Symmetry is the preservation of form and configuration across a point. The translational symmetry results from the transformation called translation. and sizes are maintained. distances. Translation is making a copy and then moving it.
Ravan was the demon king and he had ten heads on his solder. the vulture king and Jamvant.
TEN HEADED RAVAN WITH SINGLE NECK
. attached to a single neck. Ten heads of Ravan was arranged in ‘T’ shaped pattern. the Sugreev. In the Hindu epic Ramayan. the monkey king. the monkey god. the bear king among others. The Ravan had tormented god Ram and had abducted his wife Sita.SYMMETRICAL IMAGE ON EITHER SIDE OF A VERTICAL LINE (Reflection symmetry)
Human and animal bodies are bilateral symmetries because one half (right side) is exact correspondence of other half (left side) on opposite side of a dividing plane passing through the center of the body. was flanked by four heads on one side and five heads on other side making total ten. Jatayu. God Ram killed the demon king Ravan over a long battle with the help of Hanuman. The central head.
To create a perfect symmetrical body for Ravan with ten heads. The neck would be branching so that five (5) heads are equally divided on either side and are balanced. It is possible that he was constantly troubled by the assymetricity of his body manifesting in his violent behavior and hot headedness. the heads must have to be arranged in a ‘Y’ shaped pattern with two central heads attached to a ‘Y’ shaped neck.14 LAT.Therefore the unequal number of heads on either side of central head created an imbalance and assymetricity in the body of Ravan.X
. In terms of assymetricity.
TEN HEADED RAVAN WITH TWO NECKS
TEASER . the demon king. Ravan had inherited a defective body.
respectively. The latitude value is measured from the equator. Chomolungma or Sagarmatha) and at its root is always same: (a) True (b) Falls
THE EXPLANATION: The earth's surface is divided by an imaginary set of grid lines.
. the longitude and the parallels of latitude. which are referred as geographic coordinate system. (a) Latitude lines Latitude lines on the earth's surface are drawn connecting all points equidistant (parallel of latitude) from the equator and form a set of rings around the globe. The length of one degree of latitude averages about 69 mile (110 km). (say Everest.The latitude reading / value (Degrees) on the summit of a mountain. it increases slightly from the equator to the poles as a result of the earth's polar flattening. with positive values going north and negative values going south. These coordinates appear on all standard maps and on some they may be the only way of locating and referencing a specific point. The equator is 0° latitude and the North Pole and South Pole are 90° N and 90° S latitudes.
as a line from which if a weight is suspended it is directed exactly toward the earth’s center of gravity. is designated the prime meridian. By international agreement.(b)
Longitude lines: Longitude lines are a set of north-south rings crossing the equator at right angle and converging at poles. and all points along it are at 0° longitude. All other points on the earth have longitudes ranging from 0° to 180° E or from 0° to 180° W. England. the meridian passing through the original site of the Royal Greenwich Observatory at Greenwich.
. A plumb line is defined.
The Angle ‘LAT-X’ The height of an elevation or depression on earth is measured along the plumb line. These lines form great circles and always divide earth into two.
The plumb line cuts latitude at an angle which increases from zero degree at equator. hence the location of S and R would not be at same point with respect to latitude values. such as a mountain top.R line) are always oblique to each other. contour maps are generally made on a base or reference plane. The crux of the anomaly lies in the phenomenon of obliqueness of latitude plane with respect to plumb line. While making a contour map.
. the Latitude lines and plumb lines (S . on a contour map both S and R would be located exactly at same place.The longitude plane and plumb line pass through the center of earth. the location of a point on earth surface. On the other hand. Except along equator. and fall on same plane and do not cut each other.
NORTHERN HEMISPHERE SHOWING ANGLE LAT-X
As we know. so that height or depth are calculated by counting contours up or down from the reference or base plane. irrespective of height hence would have same latitude value. However. is transferred straight down onto a base plane along plumb line and not along latitude line. barring equator. This angle is referred to as “LAT-X” here. the latitude plane does not pass through earth’s center hence both plumb line and latitude line do not fall on same plane and cut each other therefore are oblique to each other. to 90 degrees at poles.
.CROSS SECTION (X-Y) SHOWING S-R LINE (PLUMB LINE) OBLIQUELY CUTTING LATITUDE LINES
The summit (S) and root (R) of a mountain can be likened to two floors of a building with S being first floor and R being ground floor. The floors are linked by a stair case which is parallel to latitude plane. like first floor. The staircase is always diagonal cutting ground and 1st floors at different points. the summit (S).
LATITUDE LINES CUTTING A BUILDING DIAGONALLY
Therefore. shall not have same latitude (staircase) as that at root (R) or ground floor. Walking along the staircase from ground floor to first floor is like walking along a latitude plane. contrary to a contour map where both S and R are placed at same point. The slope of staircase would depend on angle ‘X’ and gap between two floors.
length and width. The most important thing in determining shape and size of 3D objects in contour map or aerial photograph is whether relative position of each point. have been maintained taking into account the element of height. The shape of the mountain. The contour map (especially on a local scale) maintains the relative position of each points with respect to each other as seen in ground
. with respect to each other. The contour maps are systematized form of showing same variations of light and shade by means of lines connecting equal elevation or depth. or the tall building would be exactly same in both aerial photograph and contour map: (a) Falls (b) True
THE EXPLANATION: The aerial photograph is a method of creating 2D image of relief of an undulating surface by means of variations of light and shade. compare an aerial photograph (seen from top) of a mountain with contour map of same mountain or an aerial photograph of a tall building with contour map of same building.TEASER .15 TELESCOPIC EFFECT
On a local scale.
even though aerial photographs do not hide anything. Single map scale would be applicable for each step. The ratio would depend on how close the photograph is taken from. Each step shall have to have its own scale depending upon its depth from the level on which photograph is referenced. The ratio between top and bottom steps with respect to size and position would not be same as would be in reality. Single scale would not be applicable for all steps in the aerial photograph (C). However. The objects seen within the ‘view finder’ have to be adjusted for depth element because photographs or image in 2D formats lack depth. One scale would not be applicable for all the objects seen within same photo-frame and shall vary according to depth. The nearer objects appear bigger and farther one becomes smaller telescopically. In an aerial photograph (C). the step closer to the viewer would appear bigger than the step away from viewer (towards bottom). Therefore shape of object get distorted proportionately with depth in an aerial photograph.
. it deforms the feature and distorts the relative position of points seen in ground. the relationship between each step with respect to their size and position remain constant irrespective of relative distance of each step from top to bottom. Take for example a pyramid shaped structure with staircase type slopes as shown in figure below (A). • In the map view (contour map) of the structure (B).at all level. The ratio of an area between top step and bottom step would remain same as would be in reality. taken from very close range from top. irrespective of their depth or height from reference level (datum level) on which map is made.
TALL BUILDING SEEN FROM ABOVE
ROOF IS MUCH BIGGER THAN BASE
. only the top stair would be visible in the aerial photograph and all below would be hidden behind.SHADED CONTOURS (B) & PHOTOGRPH (C) OF A PYRAMID (A) SEEN FROM TOP
In an extreme case (D). It may appear like an inverted pyramid. like a tall building seen from above (E).
D: A PYRAMID SEEN FROM TOP AT CLOSE RANGE
TEASER . during British Raj the Delhi (which was the capital city of India during Moghul Raj). British Raj moved the capital of India from Calcutta to metropolis of Delhi. prefixed to the name of Delhi was adopted. They constructed a new city adjacent to Delhi which was completed in 1931 and was named as New Delhi.16 NEW DELHI OR NEWDELHI
New Delhi is the capital city of India.
. In 1912. The New. Delhi was the capital city of India. was expanded and the expanded part of city was named as New Delhi. perhaps to reflect the new development and also keeping in line the new trend prevailing during those days. If that happens New Delhi would be called as? (a) New New Delhi (b) New Newdelhi (c) Brand New New Delhi
THE EXPLANATION: During Moghul raj. probably to reflect the new development and to distinguish it from old city of Delhi at that point of time. In 1912. because this side of city was new at that time. Let us assume that another expansion of New-Delhi on same style is again undertaken today and expanded part of city is proposed to be renamed in same manner as was done earlier so that it reflects new development.
Literally. it would be called New Newton and old part of the city would always be called as old Newton. it can only be sensed relatively. If new regime decides to name the expanded part of the city in same way as was done earlier why it can’t be re-named as New New Delhi (or New Newdelhi) again? With the passage of time. Since its formation. New and Delhi may not remain separate words in same sense as it was thought initially but both may merge and become a single word Newdelhi in same way as Newton or Newman are single words. is to be renamed in same way as that of Delhi to reflect new expansion. as it would have conveyed at the time of its naming. new means recent but how recent cannot be known. Like new year becomes old within few weeks and new baby becomes old within few months. having no relation with the literal meaning of new Imagine that if an old city. virtually adding several new city to it. named after Newton. therefore New added by British raj to Delhi may not convey same meaning today.
NEW CITY AND OLD CITY SIDE BY SIDE
. New Delhi has expanded in all direction. today’s new is tomorrow’s old. Time does not stop for any one.
humans. left. the expanded and new part of the city can be easily renamed again as New Newdelhi and old part can continued to be called Old Newdelhi. cars. (a new word) with no relation with its literal meaning. watches or TVs.
CLUSTER OF NEW & OLD CITY SIDE BY SIDE
This process can continue till big cities stop growing and adding new cities. books.
. houses.If New Delhi becomes Newdelhi. have their own right. dogs. ********
TEASER . front and back sides.17 WHOSE SIDE IS IT ANY WAY
Every object such as. planes.
CARS AND HUMANS FACE SAME DIRECTION WHEN DRIVING HENCE BOTH HAVE SAME SENSE OF RIGHT AND LEFT
. we refer left or right side in same way as it would be in case of a car or a plane or a dog or a human? Similarly when we say clockwise or anticlockwise we refer to it from watch’s own side? (a) Falls (b) True
THE EXPLANATION: When humans are driving cars. both car and driver face in same direction.When we refer left or right side of a book or a watch or a TV or a road. hence left hand side of driver is also left hand side of the car.
When a woman looks into a mirror everything gets reversed. Book itself does not have its own left or right side. even though both book and man are facing each other in same way as he would be facing his image in the mirror. Her left hand becomes right hand of her image in mirror because both of them are facing each other and the image behaves as if she is an another person looking at her.
RIGHT IS LEFT (AND VICE VERSA) WHEN LOOKING INTO MIRROR
RIGHT IS RIGHT (NOT LEFT) WHEN REFERRING TO BOOKS
. when a man is reading a book. The left side of the man (reader) is also the left side of book and his right side is the right side of the book. the left and right side of book does not get reversed. Had it been so our right would have been left side of the book.
The circularity of clockwise movement would be from top to right. What would be the ‘clockwise’ movement ?
WHAT IF CLOCKS HAD HANDS & LEGS AS WE HAVE (CLOCKWISE MOVEMENT WOULD BE REVERESED)
. (in same way as car’s steering is moved when turning to right).
CLOCKWISE MOVEMENT (GENERALLY LEFT TO RIGHT)
Assume that a watch has grown its own hands and legs and is behaving like a human being. The opposite sense of rotation would be ‘counterclockwise’ or ‘anticlockwise’. we are explicitly referring to the direction from viewer / user point of view.Similarly when we are facing a watch and referring to a direction called ‘clockwise’ or anticlockwise’ movement.
As the reader and the book or the TV or the photograph or the watch always face each other when in use. they have left and right side similar to humans. (Anticlockwise movement would be opposite to that):
In strictest sense. animals etc face in same direction as humans while in use. User centric world view: 1. from TOP to LEFT (in same way as car’s steering is moved when turning to left) and not TOP to RIGHT as is normally considered. the “clockwise” movement is a misnomer because we never consider watch having left / right side like us. On the other hand.18 LOOSER CAN BE WINNER
. cars. All man made materials or even natural ones are referenced from user (humans) point of view because we are the ones who use them and we are the ones who require communication in such languages which fundamentally is based on naming of each and every possible aspect perceived by humans. The left or right side of an object is dependant on whether they face in same direction or opposite direction as that of humans (user) while in use. buildings.Clockwise movement would be. 2. ********
TEASER . Hence it can be called ‘viewer-wise clock-movement”. but we refer it from our own point of view. trains. there was perhaps no need to assign left or side to them but was always referred from user’s point of view.
7-6. 0-6. the looser have won 30 (58%) and winner only 21 (42%) thanks to rules framed to favor one with no breaks.0 or 76. the winner gets away with 9 fewer games than the looser.The scoring system in Lawn Tennis goes through a tortuous four course steps. then he has to win six (6) games first with a gap of two to win one set and win maximum set out of five or three to win a match. A player has to win first points. The winner always wins more games than the looser. Out of a total possible 51 games in the match. then set and only then he wins a match. 7-6. barring tie breakers. No weightage is given to the games won in previous set and it does not matter whether previous set is won by 6 . 7-6. (a) True (b) Fall
THE EXPLANATION: Lawn Tennis is played with four tiers / steps of scoring system. In case of a score line of 0-6. then games.
A player has to win five (5) points first with a gap of two to win one game. In this system each set is like an independent match and have to be won separately. both have same value.
Entire match is one entity. First part is not forgotten
. a player has to win points first. no tier. then sets and only then a match is won. you win more points you win match. Each set is like an independent match and have to be won separately and no weightage is given to points won in previous set whatever may be the margin.
BADMINTON: LITTLE LESS TORTUOUS SCORING THAN TENNIS
The scoring system in basket ball. no layering.
Here.TENNIS MATCH: MOST TORTUOUS SCORING SYSTEM
Badminton is also played on same scoring system but with one tier fewer than Tennis. No segments. on the other hand is the most simplest one.
in the US Open final of 1985 but still Martina lost the match. A great tempo and excitement is generated from the word go and never a dull moment creeps throughout the match. M. 3 games less than the Martina. where as Hana Mandlikova won 15 games (7+1+7).and points won from the start get full weightage and is carried forward till the end of the match. The result would have been just opposite. Or Martina Navratilova def.
BASKET BALL: SIMPLE SCORING SYSTEM
Some Examples of Close Tennis Matches:
Women’s Events: 1. 7. had basket ball type scoring system was followed. US Open Women’s Final 1985 Hana Mandlikova def. Hana Mandlikova : 18 .6.6. Hana took her chance more
.6. 1.15 Two-time US Open champion Martina Navratilova won a total of 18 games (6+6+6). Navratilova: 7.
Had the points / games scored in previous set been carried forward till the end of the match Steffi would have been a clear winner (16 . Andy Roddick: 5-7.6. 1993: Steffi Graf def. 6 .6. Wimbledon Men’s Final. Or Jana Novotna def Steffi Graf: 16 . Roger Federer : 39 . 1.14 Steffi Graf won a total of 16 games (6+6+4). 3. 7-6. 6 . 2.38
. 7. Wimbledon Women’s Final.6. 16-14 Or Andy Roddick def.4. 2009: Roger Federer def.carefully and reserved energy for the crucial set where it mattered most. Had it been 5 setter Martina would have definitely won the match as she showed consistency. 2 games less than Jana Novotna. 3-6.
Men’s Events: 1.4. Steffi Graf: 1.14 Steffi Graf won a total of 14 ( 7+1+6) games. US Open Women’s Final 1994 Arantxa Sanchez def. 2 games more than the total of 14 games (1+7+6) won by Arantxa Sanchez Vicario in US Open 1994 but still she lost the match. 7-6. who won a total of 16 (6+6+4) games in the entire match but still she lost match? The cumulative system would have produced just opposite result.14). Or Steffi Graf def Arantxa Sanchez : 16 . Jana Novotna: 7.6.
Guillermo Canas: 18 .6 Or Roger Federer def.16 Roger Federer faced same situation here too.6. The king Federer could have easily won had it been five setter. August 2007 Novak Djokovic def. But did he loose? In fact he won more games. 2. the top 3. Inspite of winning more games (39) than Roger (38). 3. New set starts as a new match. Roger Federer: 7. 7. Andy lost the match. ATP/WTA Miami Masters Event. Federer had said then that it was one of those matches where he should have never lost.One of the longest and keenly contested match ever played at the Wimbledon. I thought Andy had upper hand and looked more sharp than the aging war horse Roger throughout the game. 4th Round. Federer could not do any thing but look to next event. Roger Federer: 7. Nadal and Federer.6. Djokovic beat Roddick.6. April 2007 Guillermo Canas def. Montreal Masters Men’s Final.6. but thanks to weird rules that did him in. 7. 2. 2. 2 & 1 of tennis at that time in a row. Or Roger Federer def. However he was very lucky in the final as he won title with a deficit of two games. 7-6 in the forth round of ATP/WTA Miami Masters Series event in April 2007. a big feat indeed. Tennis. as he had already collected more breaks and more games than Novak. Novak Djokovic 18 . US Open Men's Singles Fourth Round.6. 7-6.16 The serb. 6-2. 1987
. 4. had stunned him. curiously does not recognise previous set. why? At least I am hugely disappointed. Guillermo Canas of Argentina. I am sure.
Ivanisevic: 6 . Roger Federer finally overcame Rafael Nadal in a five-set epic final to win his fifth consecutive championship at the All England Club. M.4. Roger Federer: 26 – 26. made by wise men had other things up the sleeves. 7. Locked in the toughest test. 6 .4.7.J.4. 6 -2 Or Rafael Nadal drew. laws of the game. Connors: 23 . Connors
def.6. 6 .25. 4-6. Wimbledon Men’s Final 1992 A.21
This is considered to be one of the greatest come back match of the US Open tennis where Connors made it to quarterfinals in spite of 2 set down.5. 6 . Agassi: 25 .6. On a cumulative basis Pernfors won a total of 23 games (6+6+5+4+2). the match could have gone either way. Nadal had more breaks and showed more consistency and should have been given more chances to prove his prowess. A. 7-6. Or G. 5. G.6. 2007: Roger Federer def. Wimbledon Men’s Final. 6.4. Rafael Nadal: 7-6. Pernfors: 1. 6. Pernfors def. Agassi def. The dual was a photo finish and needed an extraneous and crooked process of scoring system to decide the winner. 6 .
. Goran blasted 37 aces and won a total of 25 games (7+4+4+6+4) equal to that won by Agassi (25 games) and still lost. 2 games more than Connors who won a total of 21 games (1+1+7+6+6). At this stage the match was equally balanced and should have ended in a draw.2 Or M. Both won equal number of games (26 each) but still Nadal was denied further chance. Ivanisevic drew. Continuous scoring system. 2-6. 1. without any break between sets would have made Pernfor winner. However. however. 1. J.
but the performance in the immediate past (previous set) is totally ignored and a new set begins afresh from scratch. i What will be the score if Andy retains his service and breaks 1st service of Sandy (S) in the 1st set ? (a) (b) ii 6–4 6–3
What will be the score if Sandy retains his service and breaks 1st service of Andy in the 1st set ? (a) (b) 4–6 3–6
. The rules seem to favor the opportunistic.19 SERVING FIRST
Andy (A) and Sandy (S) are facing each other in a tennis match where Andy (A) is serving first in first set. may win more games but still shown the door. it is the looser. tennis is played in hiccups. On one hand a lot of weightage and importance is attached to the distant past performance of a player while seeding them (so to give them unfair advantage). cunning and to those who are conserving energy deliberately and ruthlessly pouncing on few chances coming their way.Why this discrepancy? In all above matches the looser has won more or equal number of games and showed better consistency but they still lost the match. Each set is like a separate match and at times players deliberately slowdown to come back in next set and dullness creeps in. It is a shame ! We see a great ambiguity here. So it is not necessary that winner always wins more games. where tempo is maintained throughout the match. Unlike basket ball match. Had points been carried forward in a seam less manner the boring moments would have been minimized and consistency would have been rewarded. ********
(a) Andy (A) retains his service ( ) and breaks (X) service of Sandy (S) and wins first set.THE EXPLANATION: Andy (A) is serving first in 1st set.
. Table – a Games 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 TOTAL Service A S Result Score 1–0 2–0 3–0 3–1 4–1 4–2 5–2 5–3 6–3 9 (5+4) the 1st
(b) Sandy (S) retains his service ( ) and breaks (X) the 1st service of Andy (A) and wins first set.
one game more than A (Table-b).a). where as for exactly same number of break S is required to play 10 games for none of his fault. Here A and S do exactly same thing but A achieves a gap of 3 games to 2 of S without doing any thing extra. It can have a psychological impact on the performance of S. the maximum gap created between A and S is of the order of 3 games where as when S breaks 1st service of A (Table-b) the maximum gap is of the order 2 games only. why this discrimination ? (c) Now. he wins set at 4 – 6 and plays a total of 10 games.Table – b Games 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total Service A S Result X Score 0–1 0–2 1–2 1–3 2–3 2–4 3–4 3–5 4–5 4–6 10 ( 5+5 )
When A breaks 1st service of S (Table . By breaking only once in the whole set A gets away by playing only 9 games (serves five time to four of S). he wins set at 6 – 3 and plays a total of 9 games (Table-a) where as when S breaks 1st service of A. what happens if score line is: 6 – 1 in favor of A (Table-c) or 1 – 6 in favor of S (Table-d)
. When A breaks 1st service of S.
Table . A shall get an opportunity to serve odd numbers (4 times) and S shall have opportunity to serve even numbers.a & b) are seven (1 to 7) with 4 odd numbers (1st. 4th & 6th).c Service A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Total 4 3 S 1–0 1–1 2–1 3–1 4–1 5–1 6–1 7 (4+3)
X X 7
Table – d Service A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Total 4 3 S 1–0 1–1 1–2 1–3 1–4 1–5 1–6 7 (4+3)
X X X 7
The total number of games played (in both cases) (Table . for same score line (6 – 1) A is required to break serve of S only two times (Table-c) where as S toils to break A three times (Table-d). Therefore. 3rd & 5th) and 3 even numbers (2nd. So A gets 4 serves and S gets 3 serves. By virtue of serving first.
Each set / match can be played in two stages. especially if winner and loser are of same caliber. Alternatively set can continue till a difference of 4 points is achieved. Whosoever win maximum points with a gap of 4 wins the set else set goes to 2nd stage. it is very obvious that A is enjoying a certain amount of advantage over S only because he is serving first.Why this inequality ? In all above cases. • 1st stage to be of 4 serves in total (2 each continuously). 2nd stage would consist of maximum of six Steps (S-1 to S-6). In today’s hyper sports and intense competitive era even a hair line gap advantage may have impact on the final result. irrespective of points difference and points in each set are added at the end of match and winner is decided on the basis of maximum points won cumulatively in a match.
. so that equal opportunity level is achieved. either the set is terminated. In case of a tie at the end of 6th step. One who wins maximum points with a difference of four (4) at any step wins the set.
1) 1st STAGE: Total: 4 services (2 each with no gap). Each player will be given one service alternatively at each step. What is the solution: Equality ?: Each player must be given equal number of services in each set and in each match. Set itself can be converted into a match beyond a certain point.
PLAYER A S
SCORE/ RESULT Go to WIN 2nd STAGE
2 3 4
2) 2nd STAGE: 2nd stage consists of maximum 12 services PLAYER A 1st STAGE 1 2 3 4 4-0 3-1 2-2 S SCORE / RESULT WIN Go to 2nd STAGE
WIN S-1 S-2 2nd STAGE 5 6 7 8 S-3 S-4 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 5-1
Go to NEXT SERVE 4-2 3-3
6-2 7-3 8-4
5-3 6-4 7-5
4-4 5-5 6-6
games or points won in each set can be added together at the end of match and who so ever wins maximum points. both run at same speed from start to finish. It would indicate that the looser is not of equal caliber and match deserves to end fast. ********
TEASER . Now both are competing with each other for 800 m race (cycle) together (pack running) in an indoor stadium with circular / oval track. Alternatively.20 CURSE OF CURVE
Consider there are two humanoid robots K1 and K2.In each set there will be seven (7) opportunity (one in 1st stage & six in 2nd stage) to win the set early. Who will win? (a) One of them (K1 / K2) (b) Both
. in whole match (cumulative) with a difference of 4 shall win the match. match will be over very quickly. Both have exactly identical capabilities. If each set ends in 1st stage itself.
like 3rd umpire in cricket or stretched photographs in sprinting are used extensively in order to extract the hair line gap to decide who is in or who is out. There are many events where extraneous factors other than individual effort appear to be influencing the result. This micro-second precision level is rigorously applied in all games and even one hundredth (1/100) of a second or one tenth of an inch is not spared in separating winner from looser. The lanes in 100 m sprint events are all straight and parallel hence are exactly identical. Although variation in lane qualities may appear miniscule at human scale but can get magnified many time at sub-second (microscopic) scale.
CLOSE FINISH: REQUIRE MACHINE SCRUTINY
But what is startling is that same precision of microscopic level analysis is seldom applied to the game in entirety to see whether factors other than individual efforts are influencing the results.THE EXPLANATION: Game at micro-second scale: In modern day sporting events. in 400 m oval (circular) track. One such area is track & field event where tracks are designed in such a way that each lane is different from other and each track is curved at every turn.
. however. the conditions are not exactly same for all lanes. the electronic gadgets.
L Where: L P R Z = Length of individual lane (Lane-1) = 22 / 7 (Constant) = Radius of individual lane = Straight part of the track = Z + PR2
Now. take for example lane one (L-1) and lane two (L-2) are having radius R1 & R2 of 50 feet & 54 feet respectively.FULL CIRCULAR AND SEMI-CIRCULAR TRACKS
The total length of an individual lane (circumference) in case of round track (an extreme case) can be shown as follows: L Where: L P R = Length of individual lane (say Lane-1) = 22 / 7 (Constant) = Radius of individual lane = PR2
Or in case of an oval track (semi circular track) the formula for total track length would be as follows. (assuming a
minimum lane width of 5 feet) the length of individual lanes would be as follows, (Z being constant for both lane): L1 = P(R1)2 = 22/7 x 502 = 7857 feet = P(R2)2 = 22/7 x 542 = 9165 feet
The ratio: L1 / L2 Or (R1)2 / (R2)2 = 54 / 52 = 0.86 = 7857 / 9165 = 0.86
Therefore Lane-2 is dissimilar to Lane-1 (1: 0.86) in terms of total distance (end to end). In case of 400 m or longer race, any discrepancy due to this would get multiplied. The degree of curvature or circularity for each lane can be determined by the ratio between total length of lane (circumference) and total length of maximum number of straight dashes one can make within the limits of an individual lane. C1 Where C1 D1 L1 = Degree of curvature of Lane-1 = Total length of straight dash in Lane-1 = Total length / circumference of Lane-1 (PR12 ) = D1 / L1
THE OUTER-MOST CIRCULAR TRACK HAS THE LONGEST STRAIGHT DASHES
Lane-3 has 5 straight dashes (SD) of equal length (5SD) Lane-2 has 4 straight dash of equal length and one is 1/3 (4SD+1/3SD). Lane-1 has 3 straight dashes of equal length and one is ½ (3SD+1/2SD). There are three areas of concern in case of oval / circular tracks; 1. The lanes are not 100% equal in terms of total lengths. 2. The lanes are not 100% equal in terms of curvature. 3. The ratio between curvature and straight portions of track are not 100% equal between the lanes. If two lanes are equal in terms of all characteristics, the ratio should be always 1:1 (100%) between lanes as happens in case of 100 m sprint event. Therefore anything less or more than 100% would mean un-equality among lanes, which when subjected to microscopic level would magnify many times. Who would win K1 or K2 The races are generally run in packs or individually along single lane. Pack or bunch running involves body touching and constant
fight for inner circle where as independent running does not involve body touching.
PACK RUNNING AND SINGLE LANE RUNNING
In case of pack or bunch running, as long both, K1 and K2 run on straight portion of the track, they will be running side-by-side without body touching, however the moment they enter into curved portion, the one on inside track (say K2), being nearer would occupy the inner circle and would forge ahead of K1 simply because inner side of the curve has less distance. K1, being towards outside, would immediately fall back, as he has to cover longer distance and would remain behind, thereafter till end and finish second. Therefore only one (K1) would win the race.
RUNNING AROUND BENT PART OF A TRACK
On the other hand, independent running, although does not involve body touching and fight for inner circle, one has to tackle the curvature of the track to maintain the speed and body tilt.
BODY TILTING WHILE NEGOTIATING A BEND
(ii) Cumulative Effect: The tracks are generally laid in an oval shape where the ratio of straight portion to curved portion of track varies from stadium to stadium. however negligible it may be.The impact on races: the impact of circular track on results can be summarized as follows: (i) Body Tilt Effect: The inner most lane has maximum curvature and outer most the least. In case of small indoor stadium. Any amount of variations among lanes. maximum in inside lane and vice versa. The variable tilting affects the speed and momentum and ultimately the result. especially in events where participants are required to run multiple times through same lane. he may have to pass through curved portion more frequently than the one allotted outer most lane. if one is allotted inner lane. can turn into a ‘snow ball’ on a cumulative basis. Since curvature is variable for each lane the body tilt varies from lane to lane. The speed is maximum in straight portion and minimum in curved portion.
. To overcome lane curvature athletes tilt their body inside proportionate to their speed and curvature so as to avoid falling out of lane due to centrifugal force.
The time difference is so small (1/100 second) that it still amazes even today and creates
. Athletes have every right to demand identical conditions on a microscopic scale.
BODY TILT AT BENDS INCREASES WHEN HIGH SPEED IS MAINTAINED
It is evident wide from above that the participants are not provided equal running conditions at same standard of precision as their results are subjected to. The impact can be seen more easily in the events such as motorcycle / formula car race where participants need to maintain high speed over a long and tortuous track. The scale of stretching of time and space was amazing and unbelievable.(iii) Scale Effect: The impact of curvature may appear miniscule at human scale but can get magnified many times at micro-second level. The glaring examples: The result of 400 m hurdle in 1984 Los Angeles Olympics for bronze medal was subjected to a very high degree of magnification and nothing was spared in denying PT Usha of India a bronze. She literally lost by a whisker. It was amazing that she was made to loose by one hundredth of a second (1/100 second).
FLYING SIKH MILKHA SINGH OF INDIA
. was denied bronze medal in 400 m race in 1960 Rome Olympics by a wafer thin margin of 1/10 seconds.
SPRINT QUEEN P. Milkha Singh of India. There can be no doubt that the result would have been definitely different (plus or minus) if she had been allotted another lane than she was running in.doubt whether it was her deficiency or track design deficiency that cost her bronze. USHA OF INDIA
Similarly.T. although he had broken the Olympic records.
• In an ancient Hindu Sanskrit language eight (8) is referred to as Ashtami. hence name Ashtamium. 2.
. especially those who loose by whiskers. in terms of variable curvature. In order to achieve identical lane properties. elevation. The lanes do not cross on same level but cross one over the other like an over bridge so as to avoid clashing of athletes. The first and foremost requirement is to thoroughly analyse the existing track & field design at microscopic level with respect to its effect on the outcome of results so as to eliminate any doubt in the minds of participants.There may be hundreds of such close cases where doubts would always remain in the minds whether failure was due to extraneous causes. These cases should be put to modern tests involving computer software analysis to see if results were influenced by factors other than individual efforts. especially over long races. such as lane variation. 3. What is the solution: 1. The races are always run in 200 m or in multiple of 200 m. Each individual lane is curved at two ends and the product of sum total impact of degree of curvature. track designs as indicated below can be tried: a. variable total distance and variable straight to curved ratio. Each lane is of same length of 200 m. undulation or any other element is always constant for each lane. The dissimilarity among the lanes in a circular track is very obvious. ASHTAMIUM (8): 8 Shaped Track Design.
SWIMMING POOL TYPE TRACK DESIGN TRACKS ARE ALL STARIGHT AND PARALLEL
. Each individual runs in his own track to and fro (by touching the end of each lane). SWIMMING POOL TYPE RACE TRACK Another variation could be similar to that of ‘swimming pool type’ where all tracks are parallel and straight.
ASHTAMIUM: NEW TRACK DESIGN
There is no need to run in packs as several tracks can be accommodated in a single stadium.
21 WHITE ALWAYS WINS
Two computers C1 & C2. The game of chess in its present form is highly complicated. the balance is tilted in favor of white. Therefore in order to analyse game of a chess in a transparent and convincing manner. the game should end in a draw as both have equal capabilities and both make no mistakes. There is multiplicity of pieces and there are tens of moves and whole game thrives on mistakes committed by opponents. This aspect is very difficult to see in complicated and long winding moves.
. However. who will win match in a best of 5 (five) games ? (a) C1 (b) C2 (c) End in a draw
THE EXPLANATION: Theoretically. simple commonsense logic proves it otherwise. If C1 starts with white pieces first and both make no mistakes. the chess board and pieces can be scaled down to: a) 36 squares (6 x 6) with 24 pieces or to b) 16 squares (4 x 4) with 8 pieces.TEASER . with identical capabilities are pitted against each other in a game of chess. It is a well known fact that in the game of chess.
. As the number of moves become very less and short it becomes easy to foresee future best moves. In the strip down version the positions and movements of each piece remain same. This is required to see and magnify the inherent flaws in a game of chess.36 SQUARES 24 PIECES
16 SQUARES 8 PIECES
The simplified version will have less complicated moves and will be easily understandable even to a layman. Let us imagine that C1 with white and C2 with black pieces play the game: (a) First move by white: White Queen to B3
(b) First move by black: Black Queen to B2. Any body can easily understand the move and see himself whether game ends in a draw or in favor of either of one.
(c) Second move by white: White rook to D1 (Game is over)
In this simplified game. C2 (black) would never win. Unlike many other sports where both opponents are allowed to fight at same time. C2 (black) is left with no option but to be content with second best move and is always busy defending C1(white) and never gets to attack The game of chess is unique in the way that it is like a battle field where every move kills pieces (soldiers) and reduces opponent’s ability to fight from the word go. in chess opponents are allowed to hit alternatively and white getting first opportunity it unleashes best move. Black receives the first lethal blow and never recovers thereafter. C1 (white) would en-cash best move and will go for a kill. as would happen in case of competing machines. getting the first opportunity to move always goes for best move and inflicts maximum damage and if no mistake is done.
. It is evident here that C1 (white). Black is left with second best move and always remains behind white. it is very evident that C1 (white) attacks from the word go and is always one step ahead of C2 (black).
but in chess white starting first. The central feature of the bee hive is its nest the honeycomb and this marvel of engineering consists of panels of sixsided cells (cylindrical cells) made of beeswax.22 HONEY COMB
Honey bees make hexagonal cells / combs.For that matter any one who starts (attacks) first in any game has some advantage. Beeswax is produced
. has 100% advantage. because? (a) Round combs are out of fashion (b) Bees know no other comb making (c) For economy and geometric reasons
THE EXPLANATION: The honeybee. one of man's oldest friend is a social insect living in large colonies. ********
They can be pentagonal (five sided). There can be two classes of cylindrical cells: (a) Class one are those types of cylindrical cells when packed together fit perfectly with each other. octagonal (eight sided) or round cells (infinite sided) and so on. They are hexagonal (six sided). The cells within the comb are used to raise young ones and store honey and pollen.
CLASS ONE TYPE OF CELLS
(b) Class Two are those types of cylindrical cells when packed together do not fit with each other and leave gaps in between.from glands on the underside of the worker bees which they take with their mouths into the honeycomb. trigonal (three sided) and tetragonal (four sided) cells.
CLASS TWO TYPE OF CELLS
ROUND CELLS PACKED TOGETHER
2.Why Hexagonal cylindrical cells: 1. Geometrically the best fit or the maximum cells that can be packed in a minimum space would always produce a hexagonal (six) mesh. This adds up to the total wall length required to be constructed in a unit hive. When round cells or cylinders are packed together on a plane. Round cylindrical individual cells are most suitable for keeping young ones. six cells remain in touch with the central one at a time.
ROUND CYLINDERS PACKED TOGETHER
. This adds up to the total required area for a unit hive. However. The wall of individual cells have minimal contact with each other hence separate and independent walls for each cell is required to be made every time a new cell is made. as larva and young ones also have round shape and fit 100%. two deficiency occur when round cells are packed together The round cells leave plenty of unused inter-cellular space.
• Hexagonal cells share cell wall equally. are also not favored because. larvae are round in shape. • Round eggs or larvae closely fit in a hexagonal cell and wastage of intra-cellular gaps are minimal.
. although produce a perfect fit. when packed together has 100% wall contact and leave no inter-cellular gaps therefore cells occupy less space in unit hive. hence less number of cells would fit in a unit space. • Since. plenty of intra-cellular space are left unused at the corners within cells. increases the net volume of individual cell and also increases the length of wall.
ROUND AND TRIGONAL SHAPED CELLS PACKED TOGETHER
4. hence more material and more labor for bees. thereby minimizing total length of wall in a unit hive.3. The unused portions within cells add up to the total space in a hive. The square and triangular shaped cells. The hexagonal cells (cylindrical) are favored as it minimizes the above mentioned shortcomings in a bee hive: • The hexagonal cylindrical cells. The unused intra-cellular space.
when finger tips of both hands are joined opposite to each other on a plane (left below) gaps remain between finger tips as they are round shaped. However. round shaped oranges convert to hexagonal oranges automatically without any change in individual orange volume. Similarly. Maximum six (hexa) oranges can remain in contact with a single central orange in a pack.
. The inter-orange space vanishes and the walls (peels) become common.
SPHERICAL OBJECTS (ORANGES) PLACED TOGETHER AND WHEN SQUEEZED TIGHTLY
6.HEXAGONAL CELLS PACKED TOGETHER
5. when fingers are pressed towards each other the gaps vanish and the finger tips attain half hexagon shape. When they are squeezed tightly together. Take for example a plateful of oranges of same sizes and round shape.
.FINGERS PUT TOGETHER LEAVE GAPS BUT WHEN SQUEEZED TIGHTLY GAPS VANISH AND HAEXAGONAL OUTLINE EMERGES
These examples show that hexagonal honey combs are based on fundamental geometric and economic reasons. Perhaps science of geometry was inherent in nature before humans understood and perfected it.
TURN PAGE FOR ANSWERS
a a a c
.THE TEASERS 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
THE ANSWERS b b b b c a b b a c b b a b a b a b (i) .b (ii) .
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