Contents

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CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION ........................................................................... vi I. REVIEW of BASIC THEORY MATERIALS............................................... 1 II. RHYTHM ..................................................................................... 14 III. BASIC TONALITY .......................................................................... 60 IV. TRIADIC GENERALIZATION............................................................ 77 V. DIATONIC HARMONY................................................................. 103 VI. HARMONIC PROGRESSION.......................................................... 116 VII. HARMONIC ANALYSIS ................................................................. 147 VIII. HARMONIC SUBSTITUTIONS & TURNAROUNDS............................ 167 IX. HARMONIC SPECIFICITY.............................................................. 195 X. COMMON MELODIC OUTLINES.................................................... 240 XI. HARMONY: OVERVIEW of VOICINGS ............................................ 280 XII. MODES & MODAL FRAMEWORKS ................................................. 319 XIII. QUARTAL HARMONY.................................................................. 341 XIV. OTHER SCALES & COLORS ........................................................... 349 XV. EXTENDED TERTIAN STRUCTURES & TRIADIC SUPERIMPOSITION... 389 XVI. PENTATONIC APPLICATIONS ....................................................... 407 XVII. COLORING “OUTSIDE” the LINES & BEYOND................................ 413 XVIII. ANALYSIS: the BIG PICTURE.......................................................... 424 XIX. EXPANDING HARMONIC VOCABULARY ........................................ 460 XX. CODA........................................................................................ 474 Appendix I: Reference for Chord/Scale Relationships ........................................ 475 Appendix II: Elaborations of Static Harmony ................................................... 486 Appendix III: Endings.................................................................................. 492 Appendix IV: Composing Tips ...................................................................... 500 Appendix V: Theory Applications.................................................................. 503

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INTRODUCTION
PURPOSE
Jazz is an aural tradition. The music is passed from one teacher to a student, from one generation to the next, not from written books, but from the tradition of personal interaction, listening and imitation. The success of this method is proven world wide. There are no etude books for Indian classical music; a student of African drumming does not run to the store to buy a copy of the well-tempered drum book. Most of the great jazz artists we listen to learned from the aural traditions and not from written textbooks. Why write one? This book is meant to be a supplement to and not a substitute for the aural musical education. This book is a resource to augment the learning experience of listening, transcribing classic jazz performances, and performing the music with peers. The book has been developed over the last ten years of teaching. I want to extend thanks to the hundreds of students who helped me determine areas that needed clarification and allowed me to formulate answers. Thanks also to Reed Kotler whose internet discussion group offered me the opportunity to offer my answers to many common questions. I appreciated the opportunity to try out parts of chapters in those electronic chats, honing my opinions in some productive (and sometimes heated) discussions.

ORGANIZATION
It is my contention that jazz music theory should not be separated from traditional tonal music theory. C major is C major. Music of many different styles still share fundamental building blocks. Jazz shares tonal principles, harmonic frameworks, forms, and melodic construction with tonal music from the Baroque, Classical, and Romantic periods, and with ancient folk and contemporary popular music. The book is divided into two volumes that correspond with two levels of jazz theory classes at the university level. Volume I deals with the relationship of jazz improvisation to the traditional major/minor system (Chapters 1-11). This section includes a lengthy chapter on rhythms in jazz performance. Volume II examines additions to and extensions beyond the major/minor systems (Chapters 12-17). Many of the concepts in the second section are best understood in relation to the foundation of the major/minor system. After study of the component parts of jazz, a student should be prepared to recognize how pieces fit into the whole of a jazz improvisation and be able to transcribe and analyze complete jazz improvisations. Chapter 18 provides analyses models of five well-known improvisations. Chapter 18 could be used as a graduate level jazz theory class using the transcriptions included here as a beginning. There are five appendices included at the end of Volume II which should be valuable resources for students of jazz: Reference for Chord/Scale Relationships, Elaborations of Static Harmony, Endings, Composing Tips, and Theory Applications. Students are encouraged to supplement this book by consulting the many available sources for the history of jazz, lists of representative musicians and recordings, and lists of standard jazz tunes for performance. Good music theory should describe how the music sounds. And music theory has only two rules: (1) does it sound good? and (2) does it sound good? All else is a discussion of principles: “if I do this , it sounds good; if I do that, it doesn’t.” I have tried to keep all discussions relative to the aural experience.

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There are no mathematical charts that are irrelevant to practical applications. The book’s concepts were based on personal research of jazz improvisation by outstanding jazz artists and the study of great musicians from all eras. The book includes musical examples from a wide range of sources including Bach, Mozart, Charlie Parker, Duke Ellington, Tom Harrell and Mike Stern. It is these artists who are the ultimate authority and who have determined the fundamental laws of music theory. I have never liked the distinction between an “ear player” and a “theory player.” It implies that one who knows theory is separated from the aural, and implies that one who plays by ear knows nothing of what he plays. A good player (“ear” or “theory”) knows what it is that he hears, plays by ear, and understands the concepts of what he plays. Whether he is able to articulate what it is that he does is another matter. A “theory player” who does not sound good has not used music theory well. I based this book on music theory that describes how the music sounds never loosing sight of the two rules. What about those students who define jazz as “playing what you feel” and often shun theory discussions? Art can express feelings. Without some knowledge these students wander about musically and consequently express very little. There are many skills to be mastered. I am reminded of something said by the great baseball philosopher, Yogi Berra, “If you don’t know where you are going, you might wind up someplace else.” Learning theory can give these students some direction and goals so they wind up playing what they feel instead of winding up someplace else. As a writer studies grammar and vocabulary, an improviser and composer studies music theory: to find and master the tools necessary for the goal of personal expression. Any young improviser who wants to “play what he hears” or “play what he feels” has an idea about some notes that sound good in a context. That idea is music theory. Those who do not improvise often wonder what it is that we do. This is the simplest answer to the question, “on what do we improvise?”—We improvise on the melody (paraphrasing), or improvise on the harmony (being either specific or general). A dictionary defines improvisation as “inventing with little or no preparation.” Few improvise on the melody or harmony without a great deal of preparation. Preparation for jazz improvisation can occupy a lifetime. The study of music is a never ending puzzle. One piece may be solved, but in doing so one finds it connects to a larger piece of the puzzle. When we are done with the Sunday crossword puzzle we tossed it aside; but, thankfully, music is a puzzle that can entertain and fascinate an artist for a lifetime. When I began to play, improvise and compose music, I was confronted with twelve pitches and no patterns or preconceived notions about structure. I spent years practicing and studying patterns of scales, arpeggios, melodic shapes, embellishment figurations, harmonic possibilities, and rhythms. I find I get closer to completing a circle and returning to the point where I am confronted with twelve pitches and no patterns or preconceived notions about structure.

LANGUAGE & MUSIC
There are numerous analogies between the musical and verbal languages. Some similarities are relevant to the music learning process. Anyone who has tried to learn a spoken language as an adult can only marvel at the ease at which extremely young children learn a language. Children begin learning language in the womb. Studies in music education have also found the best time to develop the musical language is at an early age, and that the chances for developing complete musical skills diminish with each passing year. Babies only four days old can distinguish one language from another by noticing the general rhythms and melodies. This confirms the relationship between musical perceptions and language. A child will imitate distinctive sounds, words and phrases before linking them to any meaning. Around age one, meanings are associated with words and single words appear in their speech. By age three they are analyzing grammar and recognize that sentences are constructed from noun phrases (“The big bad wolf”) and verb phrases (“ate the grandmother”). As they advance and mature, they construct sentences using this common grammar to express independent and individual thoughts. At the point when the child be-

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gins reading, the reading material is much more elementary than the child’s aural languages skills, and they work to balance the two skills. This is the opposite of the musical learning experience for so many children. The first day with an instrument is often spent looking at whole notes on a page. By the time many students attempt to understand the aural significance (the real musical language!) they are past their prime learning period. While their reading skills may be quite advanced, many of these students attach little actual musical meaning to what they have been trained to reproduce. At the age when training the ear is finally stressed, it is often more difficult to ever achieve any balance. Children can distinguish noun and verb phrases and individual words even though language is not spoken one . . . word . . . at . . . a . . . time. Language, like a musical line, is often a nonstopstreamofsound. So often a musical student will attempt melodic dictation trying to hear each individual note of a phrase rather than trying to hear groups of notes analogous to noun and verb phrases. A child can perceive the basic meaning of “The big bad wolf ate the grandmother,” to be “wolf ate grandmother.” A music student should learn to distinguish groups of pitches in a phrase as pointing to a single pitch that is more important than the surrounded pitches. The phrase below includes all twelve chromatic pitches, yet the bracketed groups of pitches point to the three notes of the C major triad. The line is not heard as random chromaticism, but as an embellished tonal idea in the key of C major. We can hear the bracketed groups of pitches in the same way we hear noun and verb phrases.
C

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↓ ↓ j n œ b œ œ ‰ #œ œ #œ œ bœ œ nœ œ #œ œ
3

Identifying each pitch by its vertical alignment with the given chord provides no insight and serves no real purpose. We do not hear separate words or letters in a sentence, nor would we analyze a sentence in this way.
C

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↓ ↓ j n œ b œ œ ‰ #œ œ œ b œ œ nœ œ #œ œ #œ
3 #6 M7 M9 m9 1 #4 M6 m6 P5 P4 M2 A2 M3

One of the characteristics of music and jazz music in particular is that the musical ideas may not be contained within the measure lines. The measure lines do not exist in music; they exist only in music notation. If melodies are highly polyrhythmic, as they are in many jazz compositions and improvisations, the melodies will often overlap the measure lines, and the notes will not align vertically with the written chord symbols. It is extremely important when listening or analyzing to realize that music is linear and not vertical. If we analyze music vertically confining the notes to neat groups of four eighth notes it makes as much sense as trying to read the sentence “The big bad wolf ate the grandmother,” as “Theb igba dwol fate theg rand moth er.” A valuable tool for teaching language is the use of memorization of common phrases. All language courses teach basic conversational, useful phrases: “how are you?” “which way to the [train station] [bathroom] [theater]?” “will you accept my credit card?” At the more advanced level, a student of language may memorize portions of great literature or important documents. (“Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day? . . ,” “We hold these truths to be self-evident . . .”) The value of this exercise is obvious: the student learns to appreciate the sound, structure and finer use of the language. The musical analogy

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is also obvious: students wishing to learn the jazz language should memorize short and long phrases from important jazz improvisations in order to appreciate the sound, structure and finer use of the musical language. We diagram and analyze sentences to determine the noun and verb phrases and identify the modifiers. We diagram sentences to learn to use the basic structures to construct our own sentences. Different modifiers can be used, the sentences reordered and the potential for expression is infinite. Musical analysis can parallel this grammar exercise. Analyzing well constructed musical lines can teach us how to play our own individual lines. We can borrow the fundamental principles and shapes of a well constructed line, add or subtract decorative chromaticism and embellishments (modifiers), change the rhythmic character and create infinite lines of individual expression. Pat Metheny responded to a question about jazz improvisation and echoed the language analogy: Improvising on chord changes is a lot like giving a speech about a fairly complex subject using fairly complex grammar—there is no way you can just wing it, you have to have done a lot of research into the subject and have a pretty wide ranging vocabulary that makes the language in all its potential available to you. much in the same way that all of us are capable of kind of “improvising” our sentences without really thinking too much about verbs, adjectives, pronouns, etc. A really good improviser who has studied harmony and its implications for years can sort of just “play.” There is no getting around it, if you are serious about playing on a tune like Giant Steps or even Phase Dance for that matter, you will have to know everything there is to know about particular chords, series of chords, key changes, etc. The only way to get past the problems . . . is to practice a lot for many years and to learn all you can about music. There are no short cuts or quick fixes. (3.24.99)

CONCLUSION
I have written three books with the goal of making it easier for students to learn all they can about jazz music. The books are certainly not short cuts or quick fixes, but companions for many years of practice and study. This theory book was to have been the first that I published, but I spent so much time on Chapter 10 on common melodic outlines that it became a book itself, Connecting Chords with Linear Harmony . Comprehensive Technique for Jazz Musicians is meant to be the practice room companion to this theory book, though published first. Jazz Theory Resources can provide theoretical explanations and suggestions that may be pursued in the practice room and provide insight into the organization of jazz improvisation and composition. Music is more than the sum of the parts. This book is just about “some” of the parts.

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I. REVIEW of BASIC THEORY MATERIALS
This book assumes the student is more than familiar with the basics of music theory: the notes of the staves, intervals and inversions, tertian chord construction, notation principles, key signatures and the order of accidentals. There are a number of good books which were designed to teach these basics. This chapter reviews a few of the fundamentals in the interest of clarity.

CHROMATIC SCALE
The one scale that all jazz musicians use is the chromatic scale. It is shown below written ascending and descending. Altered notes want to continue in the direction in which they have been altered. Sharps indicate a raised note and the direction it wants to resolve. Flats indicate a lowered note and the direction it wants to resolve. Accidentals, when written correctly, make lines easier to read. The note above Cn is not always a C#. It may be a Db under certain circumstances. If a line moves up from C to D through a chromatic note, that note is C# , indicating the alteration and the direction of the resolution. If a line moves down from D to C through a chromatic note, that note would be Db, indicating the alteration and the direction of the resolution.

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Chromatic Scale: Difference in ascending and descending

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˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ b˙ ˙

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INTERVALS & INVERSIONS
Intervals, the distance between two pitches in a melody line or in a chord, are primary musical building blocks. It is important to understand their construction and their individual sounds. Intervals are easier to understand and hear in the context of actual music, but a review of the principles here will expedite understanding material presented in this book. To find the intervals between two pitches count the first as one and continue to the second pitch. For example, the interval from D up to F is a third: D (1) - E (2) - F (3). If the interval is inverted, D down to F or F up to D, the interval is a sixth: D (1) - E (2) - F (3) - D (4) - E (5) - F (6), or F (1) - G (2) - A (3) - B (4) - C (5) - D (6). The presence of accidentals does not change the numeric value of intervals. Db to F and Dn to F are both separated by the interval of a third: Db to F is made of four half steps and is a major third; and Dn to F is made of three half steps and is a minor third. Intervals will have different qualities depending on the number of half steps. Seconds can be minor, major or augmented. Thirds are usually either minor or major. Octaves, fourths and fifths are diminished, perfect or augmented. Sixths can be minor, major, and sometimes augmented. Sevenths are usually minor or major. All intervals can be inverted as shown below. Inverted intervals added together equal 9: Unison (1) Second (2) Third (3) Fourth (4) Interval qualities are inverted as shown below: Major Perfect Augmented Minor Perfect Diminished Octave (8) Seventh (7) Sixth (6) Fifth (5)

An inverted third becomes a sixth and a major becomes a minor, so a major third inverts to a minor sixth. Spelling makes an considerable difference in analyzing intervals. The pair of intervals and their inversions below will sound the same, but are spelled and should be analyzed distinctly. An augmented second has the same number of half steps as a minor third, but the letter names of the pitches decide the numerical interval. Any C to any D is the interval of a second and therefore inverts to a seventh; any C to any E is a third and therefore inverts to a sixth. A2 d7 m3 M6

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Intervals and spelling will be easier to understand with discussion of scales. Scales are made of intervals, and intervals come from scales.

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MAJOR SCALE CONSTRUCTION
There are two ways of understanding the construction of a major scale. The major scale can be defined as intervals relating to tonic or intervals relating to adjacent pitches. C major scale shown with intervals relating to tonic pitch:
P8 M7 M6 P5 P4 M3

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C major scale shown with intervals relating to adjacent pitches:
W M2 W M2 H m2 W M2 W M2 W M2 H m2

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In order to create the same order of intervals starting on F, it is necessary to lower the Bn to Bb. Most scales have one pitch for each letter, so there are only seven pitches in the scale. It is for this reason that Bb is used instead of A# in the F major scale regardless of ascending or descending. This avoids having an An and an A# in the same scale. Any additional chromatic pitches that might occur it the key of F would follow the principle that altered notes want to continue in the direction in which they have been altered.
W M2 W M2 H m2 W M2 W M2 W M2 H m2

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In order to create the same scale starting on G,. it is necessary to raise the Fn to F#.
W M2 W M2 H m2 W M2 W M2 W M2 H m2

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MINOR SCALE CONSTRUCTION
Natural or pure minor is found on the sixth degree of a major scale. A natural minor scale is related to a major scale in the sense that they share the same pitches and therefore the same key signature. An minor is the relative minor of C major . A natural minor scale can be parallel to a major key if they share the same tonic. C minor is the parallel minor to C major. Parallel minor can be created by lowering the third, sixth and seventh degrees of the major scale. C Natural Minor - Parallel Minor to C major A Natural Minor - Relative Minor to C major

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The natural minor scale does not have a leading tone. In order to create a dominant chord and harmonize minor keys, the seventh degree must be raised. This creates the leading tone and the interval of an augmented second between the sixth and seventh degrees. The augmented second has the same number of half steps as a minor third, but will not sound like a minor third in the scales below. The altered leading tone is added in order to create harmony with a dominant chord, and the scale is therefore called harmonic minor. C Harmonic Minor:
A2

A Harmonic Minor:

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A2

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Jazz Theory Resources

Most would prefer Db (5bs) to C# (7#s) and B (5#s) to Cb (7bs). Continuing around the circle would yield the keys of C# major with seven sharps and Cb major with seven flats. There are other possible keys. Using the parallel keys is advisable whenever possible. A Melodic Minor: & ? ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ #˙ #˙ ˙ #˙ #˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ n˙ n˙ ˙ n˙ n˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ C Melodic Minor: &˙ ?˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ n˙ n˙ ˙ n˙ n˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ b˙ b˙ ˙ b˙ b˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ CIRCLE of FIFTHS Review of the circle of fifths with key signatures. This principle was addressed concerning chromatic scales: raised pitches want to ascend. C major/A minor F major/D minor G major/E minor B b major/G minor 1 b 0 0 b # 1 # D major/B minor 2 b 2 # E b major/C minor 3 b b 5 3 # A major/F minor # 4 A b major/F minor 4 # Emajor/C b b # 6 6 G b major/Eb minor F major/D minor 5 # # minor # minor D major/B minor b b B major/G # # Jazz Theory Resources . lowered pitches want to descend.Chapter 1 Review of Basic Theory Materials 5 It is a natural tendency to raise the sixth and seventh degrees when ascending from the dominant to the tonic and lower them when descending.

Db. Eb. C#. D#. C#. Gb. A#. G#. G#. D#. This principle will have great significance regarding hearing tonal music. Ab Bb. Ab. A# F#. A subdominant is not named for being the pitch below the dominant. Ab. Db Bb. Eb. G#.6 Chapter 1 Review of Basic Theory Materials SCALE DEGREE NAMES Commonly used names for the steps of any scale: Submediant &˙ ?˙ Tonic Supertonic Mediant Subdominant ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ Dominant ˙ ˙ b˙ b˙ Subtonic n˙ n˙ Leading Tone The names were derived from their relationship to tonic. This is important to understand as it shows the importance of learning pitches as they relate to the home pitch. D# F#. C#. C major/A minor F major/D minor B b major/G minor E b major/C minor A b major/F minor D b major/Bb minor G b major/Eb minor F # major/D# minor B major/G# minor E major/C# minor A major/F# minor D major/B minor G major/E minor No #s/Nobs 1b 2b 3b 4b 5b 6b 6# 5# 4# 3# 2# 1# Bb Bb. Dominant Mediant Supertonic &˙ Tonic ˙ ? ˙ œ œ ˙ Subdominant œ ˙ œ œ ˙ œ Submediant œ˙ b ˙œ Subtonic n ˙œ Leading Tone KEY SIGNATURES & ORDER of ACCIDENTALS Key signatures and the order of accidentals should be memorized. rather it is named for because it is the pitch a fifth below the tonic. Eb. Cb F#. Db. E# F#. and not as they relate to adjacent pitches. Ab. Gb Bb. Eb. E b Bb. G# F#. C# F# Jazz Theory Resources . C#.

The notes in the second measure below are not aligned vertically as they are in the first measure. Correcting them will make homework assignments. as in the second measure. making it difficult to tell which notes are to be played together. arrangements and compositions easier to read. it should be visually reflected on the page. Correct vertical alignment: Incorrect vertical alignment: &cœ ?c œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ACCIDENTALS Accidentals should precede the notes in the corresponding space or on the line as in the first measure. solo transcriptions. Here are a few common errors. If they are placed arbitrarily before the note. The accidental should never follow the note: in a paragraph we may write “Bb.Chapter 1 Review of Basic Theory Materials 7 COMMON NOTATION ERRORS The principles and rules of notation are designed to make the music easier to read.” but in the staff it should be written “bB. STEMS Notes above the middle line of any clef have stems down. If two notes occur at the same rhythmic place. Correct stems: Incorrect stems: &cœ ?c œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ NOTE ALIGNMENT Check the vertical alignment of notes. below middle line have stems up.” Alignment of Accidentals: & œ bœ bœ œ œ bœ œb œ Jazz Theory Resources . it makes reading difficult.

as a lowered note. wants to move down. Using the C# and G# also avoids having repeated pitches of the same letter name: Dn to Db and Ab to An. A Gn followed by a G# indicates upward resolution. Would it be the diminished fourth of the A7 chord and the lowered tonic of D minor? The Ab. The An should have had a courtesy accidental in the first two measures. for lowered notes: use flats. The C# is a tone that indicates the modulation from the key of F to the key of D minor. The courtesy accidental is unnecessary with the use of G#. the C# is preferable to the Db. However. For raised notes: use sharps. The first two measures of the example below are drawn from a published transcription of a Charlie Parker improvisation. and is the third of the indicated A7 chord. or: cÛ Û Û Û Û Û Û Û ÛÛÛÛÛÛÛÛÛÛÛÛÛÛÛÛ Beam eighth notes in groups of two.8 Chapter 1 Review of Basic Theory Materials Accidentals should follow the logic of the chromatic scale. A Db is meaningless in this context. and sixteenth notes in groups of four. 3 4Û Û Û Û Û Û Û Û Û Û Û Û Û Û Û Û Û Û The time signature 6 of eighth notes as 3 8 has the same number 6 4. Accidentals that indicate modulations should be used when appropriate rather than their enharmonic equivalents. but the subdivisions should be grouped differently to indicate the pulse difference. and beam sixteenth notes in groups of four. 6 8Û Û Û Û Û Û Û Û Û Û Û Û Û Û Û Û Û Û Jazz Theory Resources . when writing for instruments in triple meter. is the leading tone to D minor. The change in the first measure from Dn to Db might seem correct since the flat lowers D. and allows anticipation of the An. beam eighth notes in groups of two or four. 8 indicates two beats per measure so eighth notes should be grouped in threes and sixteenth notes in groups of six. Ambiguous Accidentals: Preferred Notation: Dm7 E ø7 & b œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ bœ œ œ BEAMING E ø7 A7 œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ #œ œ œ A7 Dm7 For instrumental writing in common time. It slows down reading when the Ab is followed by an An: the Ab indicated downward motion which was contradicted by the An. The second two measures is a preferable version.

If musicians have to stop a rehearsal and to count out the notes in the measure. Make the notation as easy to read as possible. Û. then there was probably a more logical way to notate the rhythms. Û Û Û. Û Û. Top line preferred to the bottom line: Û. Û Û J Û.Chapter 1 Review of Basic Theory Materials 9 IMAGINARY MEASURE LINE Observe an imaginary measure line between beats two and three in common time when subdivided by eighth notes. The top line notation is preferred to that on the bottom in the following examples. Û. The notation on the bottom line while mathematically correct is more difficult to read because the imaginary measure line principle is not observed. between every beat when subdivided by sixteenth notes. Û. J Û. Jazz Theory Resources . Û Û Û Û Û Û Û Û Û Û Û Û Û ‰ ‰ Û J Û. Û Û Û Û Û Û Û Û Û Û Û J Û Û J Œ Œ Û Û. Top line preferred to the bottom line: Û. Û Û. making it difficult to see the separate beats in the measure.

relationships of note values. For more background. These polyrhythms are probably Jazz Theory Resources . œ. J œ œ œ œ œ As a piece progresses. instruments) but jazz has drawn much of its rhythmic heritage from the African culture. œ. for awhile suggesting the quarter note pulse. One role in the band may be to play a primary pulse on a cowbell.10 Chapter 2 Rhythm in Jazz Performance II. which can be divided into three eighth notes. J œ œ 3 ˙ ˙ > œ. there are many other sources for basic rhythmic concepts and notation. œ c> œ œ > œ œ œ > œ œ > œ œœ > œ œ > œ œœ> œœœ > œ Œ Ó œ œ œ > œœœ> Pulse #3 c ˙ c> œ. These quarter notes can be subdivided into two eighth notes. œ œ.1 Polyrhythms Soloist œ œ. but some generalizations will be helpful for understanding certain aspects of jazz rhythm. scales and pitch sets. œ œ. POLYRHYTHMS No attempt will be made here to thoroughly explain the inner workings of an African drum ensemble. œ. individuals may improvise rhythms suggesting combinations of the pulse. and their subdivisions of quarter note and eighth note triplets. A single chapter could never begin to cover all the aspects of rhythm in musical performance. A basic understanding of rhythmic notation. œ ˙ 3 ˙ ˙ > œ Œ Ó > œ Œ Ó > œ Œ Ó Pulse #2 Pulse #1 > œ œ J œ œ > œ œ > œ. RHYTHM in JAZZ PERFORMANCE The rhythmic language is the main element that distinguishes jazz from the European musical traditions. making the music polyrhythmic. 2. c œ 3 ˙ ˙ > œ œ ˙ œ > œ. Jazz music borrowed many things from European musical traditions (major/minor harmonic systems. > œ. The emphasis of one or the other pulse is suggested by the use of accents. ability to accurately read and write simple rhythms is assumed. There will probably be other pulses introduced including half note triplets. This chapter will touch on rhythmic concepts that are unique and prevalent in improvised and composed jazz performances. and other times suggesting the dotted quarter pulse. Another role is to suggest a second pulse which could be notated as a dotted quarter. The two pulses will continue throughout the piece. In an African drum ensemble there are many different pulses occurring at once. something we could write in Western notation as quarter notes.

2. Nowhere is this more true than understanding the eighth note feel. Even eighth notes have the ratio 1:1. œ 5 3:2 This study was fascinating but it offered little help for the aspiring young jazz musician. The best way to understand the jazz swing feel is to listen to hours of great musicians playing jazz. As with all the material written about jazz. A close examination reveals many different concepts from one player to the next and even from one player within a single performance. In the European tradition. The best way to understand the jazz swing feel is to listen to hours of great musicians playing jazz. The 3:2 ratio is difficult to read and even more difficult to teach. others where they will be more like the dotted rhythms. listening and the experience. the real meaning is in the playing. Jazz Theory Resources . Quarter notes are usually divided into two even eighth notes. œ 3:1 2:1 œœœ 3 Some research has been done using a computer system to time the relationship between the first and second notes in the improvisations of artists like Oscar Peterson.3 3:2 Subdivision with 3:2 ratio: œœœœœ 5 œ. swing eighth notes. There will be times when the eighths notes are perfectly even. What makes the music swing is not just the ratio of eighth notes. as they have permeated the American and World pop music. Sonny Stitt.2 1:1 Different ratios of subdivision: œ œ œ. 3:2 can be conventionally notated: 2. well placed accents and articulations. John Coltrane. A dotted eighth note followed by a sixteenth note has a ratio of 3:1 and this is too much of a difference to create a convincing pair of swinging eighth notes. others may fall in that indefinable area between the 3:2 and 2:1 ratios. The results were tabulated and the average ratio was in the neighborhood of 58:42. This ratio can be rounded to 60:40 and then reduced to 3:2. as in a triplet figure with the first two eighths tied. the pulse can be divided into two or into three. When dividing a quarter note in a swing feel into a subdivision of two. swing eighth notes. or three eighth notes as in a triplet. SWING EIGHTH NOTE Defining a swing eighth note is to define the indefinable. the two notes are rarely of equal value.Chapter 2 Rhythm in Jazz Performance 11 recognized now as being a part of more than just jazz. but the combination of forward drive. The first eighth note in a swing feel typically has a longer duration than the second eighth note. Miles Davis and many others. The jazz eighth note ratio is more commonly explained as a ratio of 2:1. but the combination of forward drive. What makes the music swing is not just the ratio of eighth notes. well placed accents and articulations.

Jazz Theory Resources . In the European model of a common time measure.FOUR. To play jazz convincingly. the polyrhythmic character is lost.two . œ ^ œ ^ ‰ œ ^ œ œ œ J J ^ œ J Watch a jazz musician count off a tune. I think they both missed the point.12 Chapter 2 Rhythm in Jazz Performance ACCENTS & ARTICULATIONS Anyone who has practiced European art music has at one time practiced scales. Sing the tune Hit the Road Jack while clapping your hands.. but without the accents. and this. legato line be performed with no accents so musicians must practice in order to perform it correctly. c œ ^ œ .(snap) . while the accents played by the improviser may suggest a meter or combinations of meters that actually extend over the measure line. Often this means playing the surrounding notes softer. “One . smooth legato lines up and down their instruments.TWO . The accents are a way of bringing out the polyrhythmic character of the music. You are probably clapping on beats two and four. beats one and three are the strong beats with beat one being the stronger of the two. In order to play Mozart. “Hit the Road (clap) Jack (clap).(snap) . Heavy irregular accents are part of the tapestry of jazz music. making long.three .. String players must change the bow on an upbeat rather than the downbeat as they may have been accustomed. Remember. Try this rhythmic test. If a line of eighth notes is played with no accents. but as a part of suggesting the polyrhythmic nature of jazz. Guitarists may pick the upbeat and hammer the finger or slide to the downbeat.one . Horn players will tongue the upbeats and slur to the downbeats. Many jazz musicians set their metronome to click on two and four to simulate this accent. Usually he will snap his fingers on beats two and four to establish the tempo and then count. I heard a pianist complimenting another pianist saying he could play all the Oscar Peterson lines. Quarter notes will usually be played short regardless of their location in the measure. lyrical.4 Short quarter notes: . It is hard to play a line with all loud notes and then play a note with an accent. Part of the African music tradition is the use of irregular and sometimes unpredictable accents.5 Accented upbeats: Ó Many jazz lines end on an upbeat and these notes should be accented. The music may be in march time. From the influence of African rhythmic traditions. A traditional jazz band will play four quarter notes in a row and beats two and four will get slightly more of an accent than beats one and three. The irregular accents should not be mistaken for haphazard. you must learn to control accents.” The accented upbeats are not limited to the pulse but also effect the subdivisions of the pulse. Eighth notes will get a slight accent on the upbeat rather than the downbeat. that to accent a note it must be louder than the surrounding notes. the objective is to play smooth lines without accents. Players will achieve this by slurring the upbeat to the downbeat. > > > > &c œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ œ 2. being careful not to accent any notes. and not on beats one and three. the opposite is true: beats two and four get more of an emphasis. Beats three and four are the weaker beats. to him made him the better player. in some music. 2. Making the surrounding notes softer will help the accented note stand out. not randomly.” This emphasizes the back beat rather than the traditional strong downbeats one and three. Classical music performance demands the refined.

The resulting accents will often suggest another pulse and help create the polyrhythms inherent in jazz. Important notes Jazz Theory Resources . œ.6 End on short accent: ^ c œ œ œ œ Œ do ba do DAHT œ œ do ba ^ œ œ Œ do DAHT ^ œ œ œ œ do ba do DAHT Long notes on the upbeat at the end of lines should also be played with an accent. œ œ DAH dot dot . and are often written with very simple melodic rhythms. .Chapter 2 Rhythm in Jazz Performance 13 Lines that end on short notes on the upbeat should are usually played short and accented and will often be notated with a “^” symbol. The shape of the line is the most important thing to consider when determining accents. œ. œ. These accents create a counter-rhythm to the four quarter notes per measure. œ. . œ œ œ b> J dot dot do DAH ^ œ Œ Ó DAHT The upbeats of a jazz line generally get accented. but the shape of the line is the most important thing to consider when determining accents. œ. Often. 2. 2. Jazz improvisers will almost never play the melody the way it is written in sheet music. The top notes of a line and any changes of direction call for an accent. > & c ‰ œ.8 Accented upbeat: . 2. 2. œ.9 “Bopping the top:” &c > 3 > > > > > ^ ‰ # œj œ b œ œ œ œ # œ œ œ # œ n œ b œ œ œ # œ œ b œ œ œ œ œ. j œ Many of the tunes used for jazz improvisations are show tunes. This kind of accenting is often called “bopping the top” of the lines. The resulting rhythm is a series of dotted quarter notes.7 End on long accent: > c œ œ œ œ œ do ba do DAH œ œ do ba > œ œ œ do DAH > œ œ œ œ do ba do DAH ˙ Ó Upbeat dotted quarter notes lead to a downbeat and should be accented. the first “improvements” made by a jazz improviser are to the melodic rhythms. In the following example (which is closely related to a favorite line of Charlie Parker) the top notes of the line should receive an accent.

. Ó . 2.” Delaying the first note.10c Anticipating beats three and one. ^ œ Œ Ó Long notes. any value from a dotted quarter note and above. Here is a five-note melodic idea as it may appear on sheet music. While some notes are played earlier.10h Ó &c Ó 2. anticipating the final note. are usually played forte-piano (Í ).10d More anticipation. > j. . others are delayed.14 Chapter 2 Rhythm in Jazz Performance which typically land on the downbeat will be moved ahead to the upbeat. .10f 3 down. > c ‰ ‰ j & œ œ œ œ j œ ˙ 2.10a “Square melody” &c œ œ œ œ 2. œ œ œ Delayed by a beat and the rest hurried along. Ó . Ó >j > c ‰ & œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ 2. and others may be hurried along to make up for differences.10b ˙ Ó And here are a number of ways a jazz musician may alter the rhythms to “jazz them up. and calls attention to the more common upbeat accents. > c ‰ & œ œ œ œ j œ ˙ 2.10c . 2 up. Ó .10e Downbeat followed by upbeats. > > c & œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ 2. > ^ Œ ‰ œj ‰ œ .10g Starting with upbeat.10j ∑ ^ ^ c Œ & œ œ œ œ œ ∑ Ending on a downbeat preceded by an accented dotted quarter. >j > > ^ &c ‰œ œœœœœ œ 2. There may be a slight crescendo at the end of the note into either the cut-off or the next melodic pitch. 2. . Using a repeated note (iteration). > j c & œ œ œ œ. The anticipation pushes the melody forward. This is Jazz Theory Resources . c ‰ & œ œ œ œ œ ˙ 2.

This underscores another major difference in the European and African cultures. depending on the players. The same is true for much of the music written for jazz bands. The ride cymbal pattern can be many variations of quarter and eighth note combinations. Most contemporary music published for jazz ensembles includes all articulation markings. this and many other aspects of jazz have been learned and passed on aurally: learning by imitating the master. The drummer may add a pair of eighth notes on the back beats creating what is generally considered the jazz “ride” pattern. the historical period and the time of night. Determining the basic roles will help in understanding the foundation and help to understand the deviations from the norm. One disadvantage to reading charts with all articulations written in is the students never develop the critical skills to make the appropriate articulations and phrasing decisions themselves.Chapter 2 Rhythm in Jazz Performance 15 more prevalent in ensemble work than in improvisation and will vary in intensity depending on the ensemble. What follows is some general guidelines for the roles and responsibilities within the jazz rhythm section. each member must understand their role and its relationship to the rest of the team. these lines of demarcation may be clear or deliberately obscured. a seasoned professional was reluctant to provide verbal details on how to articulate certain unmarked passages. The bass player may slightly emphasize the backbeat by accenting two and four with the hi-hat. RHYTHMIC ROLES For a basketball. Without the solid pulse as a foundation there can be no subdivision of that pulse. Within an eight measure phrase you may hear: Jazz Theory Resources . The player was expected to know how to phrase and articulate in the style. relying on their ears to imitate and govern their decisions. In early baroque music. He expressed surprise at playing quarter notes short and playing all the long notes forte-piano. The African oral tradition depends on the master/apprentice approach. The backbeat is emphasized by the drummer’s hi-hat closing on beats two and four. In a rehearsal recently. Once these roles are established. Historically. There is no substitute for the aural experience. there is still no substitute for listening to the style and imitating. The European tradition of learning involves the written page. The bass player locks in to that quarter note pulse and “walks” a quarter note accompaniment. There is no substitute for the aural experience. With any jazz performance. baseball or soccer team to be successful. This may be only a point of departure for many great jazz drummers. For him this was just part of how to make it sound like jazz. There are no African drumming etude books in the African drum tradition. in part due to the large education market. Probably few of the earlier jazz musicians thought a great deal of exactly what things went in to making the music sound like jazz. This is also true in the African drum ensemble and the jazz rhythm section. the subdivisions can be easily felt. He then played the passages for the younger players. The jazz musicians were expected to see the notes and interpret them in a jazz style. The pulse is generated from two parts of the rhythm section: the ride cymbal and the bass. While this might insure a more accurate performance of the composer’s ideas. but fundamentally has to supply the quarter note pulse. The pair of eighth notes may shift and in doing so imply time signatures other than 4 4 . articulations and phrase markings were not included.

œ Ó J Anticipation of beats one and three: 2.12 Bass line with ghosted “spit” notes: ? œ b c œ œ ¿ œ nœ ¿ œ œ bœ ¿ nœ œ ¿ ¿ œ œ bœ ¿ œ bœ ¿ nœ bœ Œ Ó 3 In a rock beat.15 Combination accompaniment rhythm: c ‰ œ Œ œ Œ J œ ‰ œ Ó J The guitarist and pianist can reinforce the snare drum rhythms shown in 2. The rhythm sections of the Miles Davis Quintet from the 1950’s with Philly Jazz Theory Resources . In a swing feel. Some possible snare drum combinations include: 2. 2. the pulse is played by the ride cymbal while the hi-hat plays the backbeat. Listen to some of the great jazz rhythm sections and how they develop the rhythmic interplay while accompanying (“comping” for) a soloist.15. the bass drum has the role of providing the pulse while the snare has the backbeat. That leaves the snare drum to accent other rhythmic figures.13-2.11 Ride cymbal pattern implying multiple mixed meters: c œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ The bass player adds to this by playing subdivisions between his quarter notes.14 Anticipated accompaniment rhythm: c Œ ‰ œ Œ ‰ œ J J A combination of “Charleston” rhythm displaced and on the beat: 2. These little spit notes have more importance as rhythm than pitch.16 Chapter 2 Rhythm in Jazz Performance 2.13 “Charleston” rhythm: c œ. Often these notes are muffled or ghosted. The use of combinations of quarter note and dotted quarter rhythms add to the polyrhythmic character.

The structural places in a piece will usually be anticipated with an upbeat of four accent. Accent groupings of two eighth notes correspond to the quarter pulse while accent groupings of three eighth notes refers to the secondary dotted quarter Jazz Theory Resources . The bass drum in contemporary jazz is usually used to accent major structural points or strong accents in the music.17 illustrates the dotted quarter rhythm over the last four measure of the blues.16 represents possible accompaniment figures which could be played by the guitarist or pianist and maybe also the snare drum using rhythms from ex. and either Red Garland or Wynton Kelly on piano provide excellent listening models. F7 Cm 7 b Û ‰ Û ‰ Û J J J F7 B 7 9 There are times when long streams of dotted quarter notes may be superimposed over the common time groove. note how often the eight measure phrase served as a guidepost for resolving rhythmic dissonances. œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ . B 7 b Û Ó J Û Ó J 5 Gm7 Û Ó J Û Ó ‰ Û Œ Û Œ Û. Û | J J J B 7 b Û. Listen particularly to the rhythm sections of the John Coltrane Quartet where Elvin Jones on drums and McCoy Tyner on piano play streams of dotted quarter rhythms over the steady common time bass lines. 1 F7 & Û.. 2. Ex. creating great waves of rhythmic dissonance between the drums and piano and the steady pulse from the bass. It is unlikely that all would decide to play the same figures without prior planning. Paul Chambers on bass. This group has recorded some trio and quintet material together in the 1970’s and 1980’s. as the improviser in the African drum ensemble. It is rare in modern playing to hear the bass drum play the “four on the floor” four beats per measure on a swing feel. The basic rhythmic currency for swing improvisation is the swing eighth. 2. ?b c œ œ œ nœ œ .. J J # G °7/B A ø7 D7 Gm7 F7 ‰ Û Œ Û. b œœ Œ Ó œ œ œ œ œ œ. 2. plays a variety of rhythms over the top of the rhythm section. this may occur at the end of four measure phrases as shown below. œ j jŒ ‰ j œ œ b œ œ b œ n œ . & Û.. Tony Williams on drums and Herbie Hancock on piano stretched the boundaries of polyrhythms more than ever before..13-2. œ œ œ. but rhythmic variety is created in a number of ways. The jazz improviser. œ œ Œ Ó œ œ bœ œ The Miles Davis Quintet rhythm sections of the early 1960’s with Ron Carter on bass. Û. œ b œ œ œ œ œ œ œ . Ex.15. 2.. œ &b c Œ œ œœ œ œ bbœ œœ .17 Last four measures of Blues: Gm9 D 13 C9sus4 C13 G 13 Fm aj7 b j œœ œ . 2. n œ œœ œ œ bœ œ bœ œ bœ b D7 13 # b9 Gm9 C13 G 13 b F13 œ œ œœ œ ‰bbbœ œ . Û Œ ‰ Û Œ ‰ Û Œ ‰ Û ‰ Û ‰ Û J J J J J J J C7 F7 D7 Gm7 C7 ‰ Û Œ Û Û ‰ Û | ‰ Û. In the blues..16 Possible “comping” patterns for Blues: & c Û.Chapter 2 Rhythm in Jazz Performance 17 Joe Jones on drums. When listening to them stretch rhythmic boundaries..

the harmonic rhythm is half-notes. we expect the bass to play the root of the chord on beat one. We confine the written notes of a line to measures for reading ease. If chords change every four beats. Music is heard and conceived in a linear manner and should be studied in the same way. G7 for four beats and C major 7 for eight beats. The pianist or guitarist may anticipate each chord symbol playing the changes on the upbeat of four. having established the eighth note.18 Chapter 2 Rhythm in Jazz Performance pulse. It was a valuable learning experience. creating waves of consonance and dissonance. or delay the resolution into the next measure. delays the G7. I often ask. Music is heard and conceived in a linear manner and should be studied in the same way. A chord chart may show the harmonic rhythm as whole notes: Dm7 for four beats. A jazz improviser. The bass player may directly follow the chord chart playing the roots of the chords on the downbeats as shown. It pointed out something to all of the class: keeping time and the chords was everyone’s responsibility. with the accompaniment instruments. It is important to remember this when analyzing written solos. This is not unique to jazz. In the example below. They did not swing nearly as well when I played with them. This is part of the polyrhythmic energy of a jazz rhythm section. If chords change every two beats. “Who keeps the time in the band. Every one played one chorus with accompaniment and one without until we all could make it through the form keeping the time and playing the chord changes convincingly. the harmonic rhythm is whole notes. The pianist or guitarist may anticipate or delay the changes. He could not keep the time or the changes by himself. There is a variety of harmonic rhythm in jazz performances and not all of it corresponds to the meter or to where it is written on the page. A saxophone student in an improvisation class once complained that the rhythm section was not keeping good time and would occasionally play wrong chords. and the 3-5-7-9 arpeggio of the Dm7 begins on the fourth beat and spills over into the G7 measure. A soloist has more freedom and may anticipate or delay a great deal when creating his lines. The trumpet line begins the Dm7 on the upbeat. but when viewed in the larger harmonic scheme the soloists may have anticipated or suspended the melodic material of one chord over another chord. Jazz suspensions may involve several notes. when standing in front of a student band. but the harmonic implications are not always confined to those measures. anticipate the changes even more. The melody or improvised solo may play with the bass. It is everyone’s job to keep the time. Drummers learned to play the tune and keep the form on their solos. I sat in with an outstanding bass player and drummer. It was clearly not them. church hymnals and music from all style periods are full of suspensions and anticipations. The vertical alignment of notes may often seem senseless. When I was a young novice player. We practiced a drill for a few rehearsals to gain control of these elements.” Almost everyone in the band will point at the drummer. G7 is clearly heard on the third beat with a 3-5-7-b9 arpeggio and again the Jazz Theory Resources . but me. A drummer cannot fix the bad time played by one. The next time through the tune I stopped the rhythm section and allowed the saxophone to play an unaccompanied chorus. If there is one chord per measure in 4 4 . Below is an example of how different harmonic rhythms may be suggested in a jazz performance. and anticipates the C major 7. The rhythmic and melodic pieces sometimes agree and sometimes clash. The discrepancy created by the different players making the chord changes occur at different times is a large part of what makes the jazz performance interesting. corresponding to where the chord symbol is notated on the page. Do not fall into the trap of labeling everything by its vertical arrangement. will use any combination of other subdivisions and rhythmic units. much less sixteen other musicians. HARMONIC RHYTHM in JAZZ PERFORMANCE Harmonic rhythm is the rhythm of the harmonic changes. the pianist anticipates the Dm7.

its own subdivision is revealed.18 Harmonic rhythm discrepancies in jazz performance: G7 Cm aj7 œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ J œ œ ‰ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ #œ ˙ G7 Cmaj7 Dm 7 .Chapter 2 Rhythm in Jazz Performance 19 line spills into the next measure before coming to rest on the C major. It is important to be able to hear and respond musically within these larger units of time. The second line (2. so a better place to begin may be with the entire piece. AABA: all usually 8 measures in length. The first B leads back down to the second A. A whole note is a small unit of time in relationship to the entire piece. The second B may be slightly different than the first.) By zooming in on one chorus (3.) shows the piece divided into five choruses or repetitions of an AABA form. Zooming in another power at (4. 2. Each chorus is further subdivided into four eight measure phrases labeled AABA. This eight measure phrase can be heard as four two measure phrases or two four measure phrases. and so on down to sixteenths or maybe thirty-second notes. sometimes 16 or 24 measures. Each chorus represents a subdivision of the original time unit. ÛÓ J J J J J Dm 7 G7 Cmaj7 œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ ˙ Dm7 Trumpet &c &c ?c Piano Bass THE LARGER VIEW: FORM as RHYTHMIC STRUCTURE Many music theory books include a rhythmic subdivision chart showing the whole note subdivided into two halves. The second and last A section may be slightly different than the first. not just the smaller units of note values within a measure. where the second B provides some closing material. It is better to begin with something larger than the whole note for an overview of rhythmic subdivision. a half note later than the chord chart suggests. The second A may lead to the B.) of the graph below. Most of the jazz standard tunes used as vehicles for improvisation fall into one of the following forms: BLUES: usually 12 measures. Imagine that the entire piece represents one unit of time. (Example AABA tune: I Got Rhythm) ABAB 1 : all usually 8 measures in length. The first line (1. (Example ABAB tune: Just Friends) (More will be discussed regarding form and its relationship to harmonic analysis in a later chapter. Û Û ‰Û| ‰ÛŒ Û Û Û. represents entire piece from beginning to end. which will be five minutes for the sake of this discussion. and the last A provides some closing material. Jazz Theory Resources . a subdivision of the original unit. the halves into quarters. Being aware that all music is experienced in linear time will help in understanding the necessity of linear and not strictly vertical analysis of music.).) reveals the A section further subdivided into eight different measures.

2 measure phrase 2 measure phrase 4 measure phrase The eight measure fragment (4.19 1. CHORUS I (AABA form) CHORUS II (AABA form) CHORUS III (AABA form) CHORUS IV (AABA form) CHORUS V (AABA form) 3. The single measure is represented by the whole note in the graph below. A 8 measure phrase A 8 measure phrase B 8 measure phrase A 8 measure phrase 4. & 2. Large form rhythmic subdivision: ENTIRE PIECE 2.20 Chapter 2 Rhythm in Jazz Performance 2.) which may repeat several times to create the entire piece (1.) With this larger perspective.) from the previous graph can be divided into one-measure segments. 2. the discussion of the whole note chart showing the note values and relationships is appropriate.) which is a part of a thirty-two measure AABA form (3.20 must be viewed in the larger scope as a subdivision of an eight measure phrase (4.20 Single measure rhythmic subdivision w ˙ œ œ 3 ˙ œ œ œ 3 œ œ œ 3 œ œ œ 3 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ Jazz Theory Resources . This single measure in 2.

They are not necessarily rushing the beat. the eight measure phrase is shaped by all members of the band. no matter how the rhythm section is playing around them seem to play their notes squarely in the middle of the pulse. followed by the trumpet (Chorus III). Sometimes a musician will improvise several times through the form. play slightly ahead of. always knowing where the actual pulse is. In fact. The band plays the melody of the song for the first minute (Chorus I: AABA). but just pushing it ahead by playing “on top” of the beat. This takes some time to master. one has to know where that pulse is. Mature players gain a great sense of where the pulse is and adapt to musical situations. right on top of. as any beginning improviser who has lost the form will attest. A beginning improviser should practice playing with a metronome and develop a strong sense of pulse before attempting to play around that pulse. They can shift from playing ahead to playing behind. Different players will. and they actually may be rushing or dragging the pulse. There are other players who. say the jazz performance of this piece lasts for five minutes (the Entire Piece). an experienced jazz musician senses the difference between the first A and the last A of an AABA form. sensing one hundred and twenty eight measures. in varied musical settings. PLACEMENT of the NOTES One deficiency of the standard notation system is its inability to show minute variances in placement of individual notes. Within each form. Others can artfully play just behind the band. To continue this example. The entire piece being subdivided into five parts makes the jazz performance very much like the five paragraph paper form as shown below: Jazz Performance Statement of the melody: Introduces the form and themes on which the band will improvise. There are some players who consistently play slightly ahead of the beat which can give the music a forward drive. Closing paragraph: Tell them what you told them. A simple line composed of eighth notes can be played in different ways depending on the placement of those notes in relationship to the pulse. building his ideas to a logical conclusion. A improviser may learn to feel a thirty-two measure form as one unit of a four-chorus improvisation. An improviser learns to feel an entire thirty two measure form.Chapter 2 Rhythm in Jazz Performance 21 Seasoned improvisers and composers sense and feel larger units of time. With this perspective knowing where beat three is in a measure is analogous to knowing where the B section is in an AABA form. Jazz Theory Resources . the form being an augmentation of the measure. Paragraph One: Discuss one aspect of the subject. creating at once a laid-back feeling and a tension from the pull created by the rhythmic discrepancy between the soloist and the rest of the band. and the piano (Chorus IV). The push-pull inaccuracies are part of the life-blood of the music. Alto solo: The alto player expresses his version of the melody and harmony. Trumpet solo: The trumpet player expresses his version of the melody and harmony. But do not throw your metronomes away quite yet. Piano solo: The piano player expresses his version of the melody and harmony. Paragraph Two: Discuss another aspect of the subject. The B is the third beat of the form. Paragraph Three: Discuss another aspect of the subject. Restatement of the melody: Reminds the listener of original themes. or slightly behind the actual pulse. To be able to play around the pulse effectively and convincingly. Anyone who has heard music created on computers and quantized to “perfect” rhythmic units knows how inhuman perfection sounds. The alto sax improvises over the form for a minute (Chorus II). just as a beginning musician can tell the difference between beats one and four. Five Paragraph Paper Introductory paragraph: Tell them what you are going to tell them. The band plays the melody again at the end (Chorus V). In younger players it may be an underdeveloped sense of time. These variances in the hands of mature players give life to the performance.

This rhythm is typically called the “Charleston Rhythm. In musical notation that would be a dotted quarter (3). There are thirty-two eighth notes in a four measure phrase which divides into sixteen even quarter note beats. short-long. œ ˙ J œ. SYNCOPATION STUDIES The eighth note is the basic unit of currency for jazz. long-short. 1 + 2 and 1 + 1 + 1. the polyrhythms usually fit into the eight bar phrases defined by the forms of many show and pop tunes which are the basis for so much of the jazz literature. within a quarter note pulse. Thirty-two is not divisible by three (the dotted quarter pulse) without a remainder of two. Syncopation is created by a shift of the accent in a musical passage. It is shown with four different articulations: long-long. and three individual eighth notes (1 + 1 + 1). œ Ó J œ ‰ œ ˙ J œ ‰ œ Ó J A dotted quarter note is equal to three eighth notes. The dotted quarter note imposition can occur anywhere in the measure and can be articulated in many ways. Typically in the European model. In the following example. every other eighth note is on an accented down beat. but it is the groupings of the eighth notes that create the rhythmic business. By accenting every third eighth note. This is the most fundamental type of syncopation used in jazz: the dotted quarter pulse (grouping of three eighth notes) against the quarter note pulse (grouping of two eighth notes).21 Different articulations of the “Charleston Rhythm” c œ. the dotted quarter rhythm occurs on beat one. a shift will occur contradicting the basic pulse. it may be divided into any of these combinations: 2. This is one of the many rhythmic characteristics borrowed from African culture. where beats that were normally weak may now be accented.22 Chapter 2 Rhythm in Jazz Performance A beginning improviser should practice playing with a metronome and develop a strong sense of pulse before attempting to play around that pulse. (3) œ ˙ J (2 + 1) œ œ œ ˙ (1 + 2) œ œ ‰ œ ˙ J (1 + 1 + 1) œ œ œ œ ˙ Jazz Theory Resources . In many musical passages where the dotted quarter pulse “Charleston Rhythm” is implied. In jazz performances. The jazz improviser/composer uses mixtures of threes (dotted quarter pulse) and twos (quarter pulse) to create the cross-rhythms associated with jazz.22 Variations of the “Charleston Rhythm” c œ.” 2. 2 + 1. and short-short. Much of the syncopated dissonance with the primary pulse is resolved after four or eight measures. a quarter and an eighth (2 + 1). and three can be expressed as 3. and eighth and a quarter (1 + 2).

Below are four black boxes (positive space). The negative space. Dexter Gordon. The bottom line is then the negative space of the top line. but here are some musical examples that occur frequently and naturally. while never actually playing the pitch. J œ. This type of manipulation is one thing that creates dramatic interest in the music.23 Negative space Visual artists depend on the recognition of negative space.25 œ. Switch every four measures. œœ œ J œ Œ Ó c ‰œœ œœ‰œ œ œœ‰œœ J J J œœ‰œœ œœ ‰œœ œœ‰œ œ Œ Ó J J J This may sound like a mathematical game. and Dave Brubeck both used the negative space rhythm from ex. œ. in a blues improvisation. œ. ˙ œ. creating a constant dotted quarter pulse against the quarter note pulse. œ. œ œ œ J œ œ. Try dividing the class into two sections. a white cross. œ. 2. The concept of negative space is also important in music.Chapter 2 Rhythm in Jazz Performance 23 Negative space is implied space created by a positive image.24. œœ œ J œ œ. bœ Œ ‰ œj œ œ bX œ œ œ Ó Jazz Theory Resources . 2. is also clearly visible and important to the image. The bottom line in the following examples shows the rhythm of the notes that are not being played by the top line. 2. J œ. Any pitches that are played (positive space) may imply other pitches that are not played. & b c ‰ œj œ œ b œ ‰ œj œ œ bœ Ó . 2. The dotted quarter “Charleston Rhythm” is shown on the top line repeated over a four measure phrase. A certain pitch may be stressed by playing a number of pitches around that pitch that point to that pitch.24 Dotted quarter “Charleston Rhythm” extended over four measure phrase shown with implied negative space rhythms: c œ. and it can be. œ. any rhythm that is played (positive space) may imply a rhythm not played (negative space). œ. Have one section tap the top lines and the other tap the bottom lines on this and following examples. As with pitches. ˙ b .

œ œ J œ œ œ. œ œ Œ Ó J œ Œ Ó c œ œœ‰œœ J œœ‰œœ œœ ‰œœ œœ‰œ œ œœ‰œœ J J J J Duke used the negative rhythm from ex.26 œ œ œ œ J œ œ ‰ J &c ‰ œ. J œ. you will be playing either The Charleston.27 Dotted quarter rhythm displaced and extended over four measure phrase shown with implied negative space rhythms: c ‰ œ.27 in the piece It Don’t Mean a Thing if it Ain’t Got That Swing. 2. j œ œ œ b œ &b c Œ œ œ ‰ œ J ∑ œ œ ‰ œ œ œ œ ‰ œ œ œ œ ‰ œ œ Œ Ó J J J It appears at this point that if you use these syncopated rhythms.24 can be displaced by an eighth note creating the following line shown with positive and negative rhythms. œ. œ. œ. 2. œ. œ. ˙ œ œ Ó The dotted quarter rhythm from ex. j œ œ œ j œ œ. 2.28 ‰ œ. œ.24 Chapter 2 Rhythm in Jazz Performance 2. œœ œ J ‰ œ. 2. or It Don’t Mean a Thing if it Ain’t Got That Swing! Jazz Theory Resources . œ.

2. œ. J œ œ œ œ œ œ œ. 2.29 Dotted quarter rhythm displaced and extended over four measure phrase shown with implied negative space rhythms: c Œ œ œ œ. and eighth and a quarter (1 + 2). or three individual eighth notes (1 + 1 + 1). 2 + 1.24. J œ. 2. 2. œ œ œ J œ œ. (2 + 1). Changing the rhythm will also change the implied negative space rhythm. 2.32 Ex. 2.29. 2. the dotted quarter note equals three eighth notes which can be expressed as 3. 3. 2. 2. 3. J œ Œ Ó c œœ‰œœ œœ ‰œœ œœ‰œ œ œœ‰œœ J J J J œœ‰œœ œœ œ Œ Ó J You can see the negative rhythm from ex.24 with the pattern: (2 + 1).30 & c ‰ œj œ # œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ‰ œ bœ œ nœ ‰ œ bœ œ nœ ‰ œ ˙ J J J bœ . c œ œœœ œ œ œ. As discussed previously and shown below.24 can be displaced by a quarter note creating the following line shown with positive and negative rhythms.31 Variations of the dotted eighth note “Charleston Rhythm” c œ. j œ The next stage in developing a sense for these rhythms involves understanding the subdivision of the dotted quarter notes. every other dotted quarter value is substituted with another combination of a quarter and an eighth (2 + 1). 1 + 2 and 1 + 1 + 1. etc.Chapter 2 Rhythm in Jazz Performance 25 The dotted quarter rhythm from ex. (3) œ ˙ J (2 + 1) œ œ œ ˙ (1 + 2) œ œ ‰ œ ˙ J (1 + 1 + 1) œ œ œ œ ˙ More musical rhythmic material can be created by substituting combinations of the variations to the dotted quarters in ex. In the following several examples. 2. J œ œœœ œ œ Œ Ó c ‰œŒ œœ‰œ Œ œœ‰œŒ J J J œœ‰œŒ œœ ‰œŒ œœ‰œ œ Œ Ó J J J Jazz Theory Resources .27.29 in the following melody composed by Sonny Rollins. œœ œ J ‰ œ.

(2 + 1). œ J J J œ Œ Ó œ Œ Ó ‰œœ œ ‰œ œ œ ‰œœ J J J Ex. 3. 2. j œ &c Œ bœ Salt bœ œ Œ bœ Salt bœ œ Ó Pea nuts Pea nuts Jazz Theory Resources . J J J J œ ‰œœ œ J œ‰œœ J J ‰ œ ‰ œ œ. 2. c Œ œ œ œ.33 Ex. c ‰ œ ‰ œ œ. J c Œ œ œœŒ œ œ ‰ œ œ œ œ ‰ œ. etc. œœ‰œŒ œœ œ Œ Ó J c œ œ ‰ œ œ œ œ ‰ œ.34 œ ‰ œ œ ‰ œ ‰ œ œ.26 Chapter 2 Rhythm in Jazz Performance 2.24 with the pattern: (1 + 2). 3. etc.35 resembles the Dizzy Gillespie tune Salt Peanuts. (2 + 1).29 with the pattern: (2 + 1). 3. J œ Œ Ó c œœ‰œŒ œœ ‰œŒ œœ‰œ Œ œœ‰œŒ J J J J 2. 2.27 with the pattern: (2 + 1). (1 + 2).36 œ.35 Ex. J œ œœœ œ œ œ. 3. 2. J œ œ œ œ œ œ œ. œ. œ. J J c œ œ ‰œœ J 2. 3. you probably noticed that the negative space to ex 2. etc. 3. J œœ‰œœ œœ œ Œ Ó J œ Œ Ó œ œœŒ œ œœŒ œ œœ Œ œ œœŒ If you are singing along.

J œœœœœ œœ œ Œ Ó œœŒ œ Œ Ó Œ œœÓ œœŒ Œ œœ Ó 2. (1 + 1 + 1). c œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ. 2. (1 + 2). 3. 3. 2. etc. œ J œ Œ Ó œ Œ Ó ‰œ‰œœ ‰œ ‰œœ ‰œ‰œ œ ‰œ‰œœ J J J J J J J J Ex. 2.40 Ex.37 Ex. J œ œ ‰ œ œ œ œ ‰ œ. 3. 3. 3. J œ Œ Ó c œœŒ œ œœ Œ œ œœŒ œ œœŒ œ œœŒ œ œœ œ Œ Ó 2. œœ œ J œ œ œ œ.Chapter 2 Rhythm in Jazz Performance 27 2.29 with the pattern: (1 + 2).39 Ex.27 with the pattern: (1 + 1 + 1). 3. c ‰ œ œ œ.38 œ œ œ œœœ J œ. (1 + 2).27 with the pattern: (1 + 2). 3. J c œ ‰œ‰œœ J J 2. c ‰ œ œ œ œ. œ œ ‰ œ œ œ œ ‰ œ. etc. J c œ Œ ‰œœ J œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ. c Œ œ œ ‰ œ. 3. (1 + 1 + 1). etc. J Œ ‰œœ Œ J œœœœ J œ œ œ œ œ. 2. J c Ó œœŒ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ.24 with the pattern: (1 + 1 + 1). etc. œ J œ Œ Ó œ Œ Ó ‰œœ Œ ‰œ œ Œ ‰œœ J J J Jazz Theory Resources .

œ parked car? œ. the secondary pulse is a dotted quarter. Jazz Theory Resources . 4 œ... 2. SYNCOPATION in the JAZZ WALTZ The majority of the music played by jazz musicians is in common time. All three rhythms are shown in ex. 3.. J œ Œ Ó c œœŒ Œ œœ Ó Œ œœÓ œœŒ Œ œœ œ Œ Ó A musician • • • • involved in the creation of music needs several rhythmic skills including: a strong sense of pulse and its subdivision a strong sense of any secondary polyrhythmic pulses and their subdivisions the ability to aurally recognize and create music using rhythmic material the ability to visually recognize and interpret rhythmic material in written music Singing and tapping the rhythmic examples in this chapter will help develop the rhythmic independence. . Three quarter notes per measure defines the waltz. It may help to hear the combination of dotted quarter rhythms by singing “Who parked the car?” as shown. Who œ œ the œ . 3. œ œ œ œ œ .... Who 3 œ the œ 4 œ ‰ œœ . A superimposition of two dotted quarters creates the feeling of 6 8 meter with the first dotted quarter on beat one.. Jazz musicians do have a version of the waltz that goes beyond “oom-pah-pah. the second on the upbeat of two.41 Ex. invent and interpret rhythmic musical material.29 with the pattern: (1 + 1 + 1). c Œ œ œ œ œ.28 Chapter 2 Rhythm in Jazz Performance 2. . Displacing the two dotted quarters by and eighth note puts a dotted quarter on the upbeat of beat one and another on beat three. etc.42. 2. œœ parked car? ?3 œ. J œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ. four beats to the measure. œ œ œ &4 ‰ œ œœ . J œœŒ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ.” The syncopation principle is the same. If the primary pulse is a quarter note. (1 + 1 + 1). œ.42 Jazz Waltz 3 . the aural and visual recognition needed to read. 2.

œ > œœ ‰J œ œœœœŒ œ.28) and Sonny Rollins (ex. œ. (2 + 1). j œ œ œ bœ nœ œ œ bœ nœ œ F The superimposed dotted quarter note pulse need not be constant.” Anyone who plays jazz is just that. œ.30). I called the piece Ornithelestes which means literally “Bird-stealer. Several examples have already been shown from Dexter Gordon (ex. œ.” has influenced so many jazz improvisers. œ. Jazz Theory Resources .44 . œ. 2. The implied divisions are shown above the line for reference. 2. 2. 2. (2 + 1). The idea began in the second complete measure and for the two measures Brown implied 3. œ œ.25). . the proven method is to study the masters. œ. To learn language or a craft of any kind. It is beneficial to study several examples from jazz performances to see how great jazz artists incorporate polyrhythms in their improvisations and compositions. Beginning with the pick-up notes. œ. the melodic accents are based on the dotted quarter pulse shown creating a secondary pulse to the primary quarter note pulse of the bass line. œ. What one does with the borrowed material is what separates mimicking and parroting from true personal development. This may seem contradictory to develop individual vocabulary by borrowing from others.Chapter 2 Rhythm in Jazz Performance 29 POLYRHYTHMS in PERFORMANCE All of the discussion of possible rhythmic variations and superimpositions are meaningless and merely mathematical games without understanding and recognizing their place in musical performance. as Parker. Dave Brubeck (ex. . Many ask. Clifford Brown used the dotted quarter note pulse to break up an otherwise straight forward eighth note line.26). I composed a blues that used nothing but Parker lines. > > œ &b c œœœœœ œœ ‰œ J ˙ œ. whether they intended to or not. and 2 before continuing the line with eighth notes. The following example is created with a line borrowed from Parker that has a different conclusion added. This idea recurred in many forms throughout this solo. 3. 3. after studying the previous material. the “Bird.43 Line similar to Charlie Parker line: &c ?c >j 3 œ > > > > > ^ ‰ #œ œ bœ œ œ #œ œ œ #œ nœ bœ œ œ #œ œ bœ œ œ œ ∑ Gm 7 C7 œ. how to get these ideas into their own playing. 2. Shifting between combinations of quarter and dotted quarter groupings makes this improvised line by Miles Davis interesting. Duke Ellington (ex. 2. stolen to show students ways to develop ideas from borrowed material. To develop individual vocabulary within that craft one must borrow from the vocabulary of those masters.

47 œ. Parker. œ. œ J & b œ œ bœ œ nœ œ œ bœ bœ œ Œ Ó Displaced accents are created by odd combinations of twos and threes and give the music the excitement and unpredictability that makes listening challenging and interesting.5-6 of the same piece. œ. shown in ex.46 œ. 2. œ œ œ œ Œ J j œ œ œj b œ . œ œ œ. 2. œ. œ. œ. œ Ó ‰ œ.45 &b c Ó 3 bœ œ bœ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ bœ . œ. 2.30 Chapter 2 Rhythm in Jazz Performance 2. in the melody to Au Privave began with suggested dotted quarter groupings and slipped in a pair of displaced quarter notes in the ex 2. œ. œ.46 below. œ. J ‰ J ˙ bœ œ œ œ A pair of superimposed dotted quarter rhythms are sequenced in this improvised example from Charlie Parker.47. œ Ó 3 œ b c ‰ jœ œ œ ‰ œj b & œ 3 œœœœ Ó 3 ‰ b œj œ œ œ œ ‰ œj 3 œœœœ Ó Jazz Theory Resources . œ œ œ œ bœ & b c nœ . Parker continued the play on the dotted quarter note in mm. j & b c œ œ œ Œ œ # œ œ ‰ œj ‰ œ œ œ œ œ 2.48 ‰ œ.

11-12. 2.49 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ œ. œ œ œ œ j œ œ. with a sense of when to give the listener the expected and when to give the unexpected.1. Ex. Parker imposed a long passage of dotted quarter displaced accents. Parker used strings of dotted quarter note superimpositions beginning on beat three of m.6. In the melody to the blues tune Billie’s Bounce.6 to be on beat two. The second two measures had no melodic motion as Parker just drew attention to the rhythmic superimposition of dotted quarter values.50 œ. ˙ Parker achieved a balance between on the beat and off the beat material. After so many dotted quarter notes. œ. Ex.51 shows the accents implied by the entire melody. Parker then returned to the first rhythmic motive beginning on the third beat of m. Motive (b) returned on the downbeat of m. œ &b c Ó Œ ‰ j œ œ nœ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ ‰ œ. 2. 2. œ. œ. one would expect the first note of m. with a sense of when to give the listener the expected and when to give the unexpected. 2. simply the accents suggested by the melody. œ. œ.51 does not show all the notes of the melody.8.10 followed by the overlapping motive (a) in mm. œ. Parker was inventive and dramatic in the development of his rhythmic ideas. j œ ‰ œ œ œ Jazz Theory Resources .Chapter 2 Rhythm in Jazz Performance 31 In the first two measures of this improvisation. Reducing the melody of Billie’s Bounce to rhythmic notation alone helps to focus on the rhythmic development. Parker emphasized the downbeats one and three by coming to rest on chord tones and using notes with longer values. ˙ j & b c œ œ #œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ . The chart in ex. Motive (a) returned beginning on the upbeat of beat three in m. but instead. (a) overlapped itself several times. 2. It occurred in the exposition of this idea in mm. Parker achieved a balance between on the beat and off the beat material.50 shows the first three measures of the melody. Parker played it earlier on the upbeat of beat one creating a second motive (b) which is really a variation of motive (a). œ. œ. labeled (a).1-3.

œ. another measure of 8. ‰ œ œ œ. œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ &œ œ œ Montgomery used the dotted quarter note implying resolved at the end of the eight measure phrase.51 Rhythmic outline of implied melodic accents: c œ 1 Œ œ.53 fast swing Dotted half-note accents: > > > > > > œ œ œ œ œ œ c & œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ etc. On the recording you can hear members of the band laugh at the way Montgomery set up a rhythmic idea only to turn it upside down or sideways just when 4 they had it figured out. œ. > > > > œ œ œ œ ‰ > œ. 2. Again the conflict of the two pulses was Jazz Theory Resources . œ Œ a.52 by the assortment of irregular accents. 3 œ Œ 7 a. Of course. ‰ œ œ J ‰ œ. a. These three mea4 6 sures could have been notated as one measure of 6 8 followed by a measure of 4 . ‰ œ œ J œ Œ œ 4 œ œ 8 Œ Œ œ. 2 and finally a measure of 4. a. J J œ 11 a.32 Chapter 2 Rhythm in Jazz Performance 2. 2. Parker was not thinking of notational questions when he conceived of this line. ˙ b œ œ & b c œ œ œ œ nœ œ Œ œ #œ œ bœ œ nœ œ œ œ œ # œ œ œ Wes Montgomery’s live recording of Impression is a lesson in creating rhythmic expectations. b. 2.52 œ. developing them. œ œ ˙ œ. ‰ œ. a. 2.53 is essentially a 3 4 idea played over the 4 measures. ‰ œ. œ. The idea was completed and reset at the end of the eight measure phrase. 3 8 over 4 4 . œ J 2 œ ‰ œ. where he began again. œ œ. 12 A sense of mixed meter is created in ex. Ex. œ 9 ‰ œ ˙ J œ 10 b. and adding surprising twists and turns. œ J Ó 5 œ J 6 œ J ‰ œ J œ a.

In the solo.56 Dotted quarter-note accents: œ.Chapter 2 Rhythm in Jazz Performance 33 2. Any number of combinations occur. 2. œ œ œ œ œ. > œœœœœ Groupings of notes implying other pulses do not have to last for several measures to be interesting. œ The repeated notes of ex. œ. Montgomery developed this idea over an AABA form and eventually developed the four quarter note measure and elicited a surprised response from the band. œ . œ. œ. J ˙ œ.53 but resolved the conflict at the end of every four rather than eight measure phrase. There are countless examples of steady eighth note lines interrupted briefly with groupings like the ones from this Carl Fontana improvisation. œ.55 make the focus of this idea clearly rhythmic. œ œ œ œj œ . œ œ œ œ. It is related to the rhythm in ex. œ œ œ J j j œ œ . Dividing the pulse into three or triplets provides another opportunity for cross rhythms. œ œ j œ Subdivision of a quarter note is not limited to a pair of eighth notes.55 k > k > k > k > c & œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ k > k > k > k k k k k > & œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ fast swing k k k k œ œ bœ œ ketc. Jazz Theory Resources . &c #œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ j j œ ‰ ‰ œ œ b œ œ bœ œ. 2. Any combination of triplets divided evenly or unevenly in relationship to the pulse may be found in jazz improvisations. 2. œj œ œ j j & j œ. 2. œ J œ œ . œ.54 Dotted quarter-note accents: &c Ó fast swing ‰ œ.

59 Polyrhythms 3 3 3 B pedal ˙ ˙ ˙ b˙ œœ ˙ œ bœ œ ˙ œœœ ˙ œ œ œ b˙ œ œœ œœ œ œœ œbœ œ œ #œ œ œ nœ bœ b œ œ œ œ c œ œ b œ & œ ˙ 3 b 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 ˙ & œ bœ 3 ˙ œ œ œ bœ œ bœ œ œ œ Œ nœ œ œ œ 3 3 3 3 G7 ˙ Cm Ó 6 3 Grouping eighths into three note sets in 3 4 time may suggest an imposition of 8 over the 4 meter as shown on the top line of ex. It may be wickedly difficult to try to read figures like this but once heard.34 Chapter 2 Rhythm in Jazz Performance 2. they are easily recognized. Freddie Hubbard. 2. Ordering those eighth notes into groups of three can create the cross rhythms and syncopated polyrhythms. When the pulse is subdivided into triplets. the metrical division is typically pairs or groups of four eighth notes. and may suggest 3 2 meter over the 4 . This is traditionally called “hemiola” and is shown on the second line of ex. A common misconception is that all syn3 copation is hemiola. 2.60.57 3 Groupings of triplet subdivision 3 cœœœ œœœ œœœ œ œœœ œœœ œœ 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 cœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œ œœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œ cœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ This is a common blues idea played by thousands of guitarists in blues bars.59 suggested half-note triplets or a 3 2 measure imposed in the space of a 4 4 measure. 2. In order to create the rhythmic dissonance and cross rhythms with triplets. Grouping the eighths into four note groupings takes the syncopation over the 3 measure line into the next measure. 2. 2. notes are grouped into threes. particu- Jazz Theory Resources . but traditionally it is the implication of a 3 2 measure over two 4 measures.60. Herbie Hancock’s groupings of triplets into sets of four in ex. on the same recording used similar rhythmic ideas at this point in Dolphin Dance. then the notes must be grouped into pairs or fours.58 F7 Blues triplet cliché 3 3 3 c b œ œ œ œ œ œ b œ œ bœ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ bœ Ó & 3 In 4 4.

j bœ œ Œ œ bœ œ .60 Metric equivalents: 3 4 œ. 3 gested. In mm. make it swing and yet never suggest 3 4 time.5-6 suggests 6 8 time.1-2. the half note implied over the 3 4 meter.63. 2. Evans suggested 8 meter as in ex.62 F ø7 3 4 Mozart: Piano Sonata in G major. Later in the same solo. K. 6 Evans used hemiola.61 6 3 8 over 2 over 3 4 œ.Chapter 2 Rhythm in Jazz Performance 35 larly at cadential points. 2. 2. œ œ # 3 œœœ œœœ œ œœœ œ œœœœœœœ œ & 4 œœ œœ œ Ò Ò œ œ Òœ œ Òœ œ ?# 3 œ Œ Œ ˙ 4 Ò Ò Three different divisions of 3 4 time are suggested in the melodic excerpt below. 2. 3 4 ˙ 3 4 œ 2. 5 œ œ œ bœ . 2. œ œ œ œ. mm. ˙ b bœ . 2. In ex.61 is an example of hemiola at a cadential point from a piano sonata from the classical period composed by Mozart. Bill Evans was an artist who could play a waltz. œ œ ˙ œ œ. Ex.63 Hemiola: ˙ ˙ A7 ˙ ˙ Dm7 ˙ &3 4 œ œ œ j #œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ Gm 7 Jazz Theory Resources . This idea was used frequently in Baroque music. j œ D ø7 G13 9 b Cmaj7 & nœ .3-4 suggests 2 time and mm.64.283 time is sug- Bert Ligon: View From the Bridge B 13 9 &3 4 œ 1 bœ bœ b b b˙ E maj7 ‰ œ J nœ .

œ. œ œ œ œ. In mm. . The accents (shown above mm. 2. 4 2. 3 4 œ. at the mod4 4 ulation point. In order to get back to .9-11. and 4 4 3 4 œ. œ œ J œ. they may switch to 4 4 meter where the dotted quarter becomes the new quarter note. the rhythm section may begin to play series of dotted quarters and the rhythmic pattern shown on the top line. Hancock accented two then three sixteenth notes and managed to come out. much faster than the dancers would want at a wedding party. the emphasis changed to quarter notes with groupings of four sixteenth notes. 2.11-12) created the 3:2 type rhythm discussed in ex. œœœœ œœ œœ. œ œ œ . expanded and played over the measure line.4-8. making the quarter note accent displaced by one sixteenth note. œ œ œ . In mm.11-12. 3 4œ œ œ œ. 2. What changed was the other 8 ) began the piece and 4 rhythmic parts which alternately suggested 12 or the on two 8 4 meter. Two measures of the 3 4 becomes one 3 measure of the 4 . and began again every three measures. the top line rhythm becomes the typical ride pattern. resolving the rhythmic conflict on the downbeat of m. œ œ œ . When the snare entered it played 4 and four of the 4 meter. . the band may suggest quarter note triplets which.67. (2 + 1) repeated.64 Dotted Quarter Superimposition œ œ œ œ B bmaj7 E7 Am 7 œ 3 œ œœœ œ & 4 œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ J œ œ Many jazz waltzes are played fast. every fourth sixteenth was accented. In 3 4 meter. In ex. The ride pattern (shown in 12 remained constant. .13. œx»x œ c œ. making the original ride pattern the syncopated figure shown in the measures. but the accent was displaced. œœœœ œœ œœ.3. a Tale of Two Rhythms. In ex.»q cœ cœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ 3 3 cœ œ œ œ œ œ Michael Brecker used another modulation idea on his piece Escher Sketch.65 the relationships are shown between the two meters.66 Metric Modulation 12 œ . 2.27 (in sixteenths rather than eight notes). emphasizing dotted eighth notes over the quarter note pulse. œ œ J q.36 Chapter 2 Rhythm in Jazz Performance 2. At the beginning of a new section or new eight bar phrase. Hancock began with the rhythm shown in ex. Jazz Theory Resources . 4 4 The syncopated figure was created by groupings of 3. 2.65 Metric modulations between 3 4 . œœœœ œœ œ 16 J J J J Herbie Hancock is an artist with an amazing command of cross rhythms and over the bar-line phrasing. become the quarter note of the original 3 meter. œ œœœ œœ œœ. A fast waltz can transform itself into a slower medium swing by something called metric modulation. In mm.

œ . œ. intense forward drive while actually involving fewer notes. 4 of two and three note groupings create interesting cross rhythms. œ . Jack DeJohnnette never played the textbook ride pattern over the first chorus of Keith Jarrett’s solo on the standard from which this was transcribed. œ. œ œ . œ . while never losing sight of the actual pulse and meter. it can create a swirling. œ . J œ.Chapter 2 Rhythm in Jazz Performance 37 2. 2. j œ Not all cross rhythms are created by groupings of three eighth notes over the 4 Combinations 4 measures. œ œ œ &c 1 r œ œ œ œ œ œœœœœ œœ œœ œœ œœœ œœ œœ œœœœœ œœ œœ œœœœœœœœœœ > œ# œœœ œ œœ œœœœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ≈ œœ œ œœ œ œœ œ œ œœœ œœœœ œ# œ œ œ & œœ œ œ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœ œ œœ 5 ` ` ` ` ` ` ` j j j j j j j œ œ . j j œ œ . j j j j j j œ . j œ . œ . œ ?c œ D9sus4 œ œ œ. If played with sensitivity. œ . œ > œ œ œ√ œ œœ > œ b œb œ > œœ> œ œœ> œ œ œ b> œ #œ > œ œœ> œ b œ œ #> œ n œ# œ > œ œ> œ œœ> > œ œœ > œ œ œ œ œ œ #> n œ b œ n œ œ & œ œ 9 √ > > > > > > # œ œ œ œ & œ œ œ œœ œ œœ œœœ œ œ Œ Ó 12 j œ . Hancock divided two 4 measure into 2 + 3 + (3 + 3) + 3 + 2 in the rhythmic ostinato foundation for Maiden Voyage. He did play four quarters in a row later in the first chorus. j j œ œ . but Jazz Theory Resources . œ. Less can be more. œ œ .67 Extensive Cross-rhythms j œ . j j j j j œ . œ œ œ œ œ J What is the drummer doing with his ride cymbal while the soloists are playing so many polyrhythms? Other polyrhythms may be implied that correspond or contradict the metric implications of the tune and the soloist. œ .68 œ œ. œ . œ .

but occurs frequently in jazz. œ œ J œ Œ œ œ Œ .. Œ œ œ Œ œ.38 Chapter 2 Rhythm in Jazz Performance not until m. œ. Again.‰œœ œœ‰œ œœ‰œ‰œœœ. ˙. Playing in the holes. The 2-3 clave is the reverse of the 3-2. The 3-2 clave has three notes played in the first measure and two in the second. There are two basic clave beats (3-2 clave and a 2-3 clave) and then several variations. Here is the first eight measure phrase with some of the polyrhythmic implications indicated by the smaller notes above the staff. œ.27. and funk styles. or the negative space helps to space the notes correctly..71 3-2 Clave with two hands: 2-3 Clave with two hands: j j Œ Œ Œ Œ . ‰ J J J J J J J J LH RH Another good way to practice the clave beat (or any of the rhythms discussed) is to alternate the right and left hand playing the clave beat with accents. 2. but to the number of notes played in a measure..37. œ œ J œ . ˙ ˙. The 3 and 2 do not refer to groupings of eighth notes. 2.. the negative space rhythms in the other. c . ˙. . œ . playing all the notes in the measure helps reinforce the steady subdivision and helps sense the correct spacing. A good way to get the feel of the clave beat is to play the clave beat with one hand. .18. . 2. The clave beat and its variations are extremely significant to the structure of some Latin music. ÷c ‰ œ ‰ œ œ ‰ œ J J J 1 2 Œ œ ‰ œ Œ J 3 œ ‰ œ Œ œ J 4 ‰ œ œ œ ‰ œ J J ˙. The clave may not be as structurally significant as it is in some Latin music.70 3-2 Clave: 2-3 Clave: c . ˙. ˙ ÷œ œ ‰ œ œ J 5 6 œ ‰ œ œ œ œ Œ œ ‰ œ œ J J 7 8 œ œ œ ‰ œ œ J 9 CLAVE BEAT The Clave beat is a rhythm which uses combinations of two and three eighth note groupings to create a syncopated pattern. œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ . . Jazz Theory Resources . œ. œ. ˙. .œœ‰œ‰œœœ ‰ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ . pop. These patterns can be found in ex. 2.33 and 2..69 Polyrhythmic Ride Pattern: ‰ œ. Try reversing the hands and alternating four measure phrases after a few times. œ. 2. œ.

. Œ œ œ œ. œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ > œ œ œ œ œ . Œ œ œ Œ œ œ. The subdivisions of the two measures is 3 + 3 + 2 + 2 + 3 + 3 for the 3-2 clave and 2 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 2 for the 2-3 clave. œ œ J œ ‰ œ. 2.. In ex. œ Œ œ. J œ Œ Œ .. and 1 + 3 + 2 + 2 + 3 + 3 + 2 for the 2-3 clave. Ex. .Chapter 2 Rhythm in Jazz Performance 39 2. Ex... œ œ J œ Œ œ œ œ. & e: 2-3 Clave variations c.. œ .72 3-2 Clave with two alternating hands: 2-3 Clave with two alternating hands: RH LH > > > > > > > œœœ> c . œ œ.73.. Jazz Theory Resources . J œ .. J œ œ. As with the original version. J . œ. Œ œ .78 show the last two measures of the piece... œ . œ .73 3-2 Clave variation a: 2-3 Clave variation a: c . ‰ œ . .. the second of the notes on the “2” side is shifted by an eighth note. .. J œ . and while not structurally as significant. d. . . 2. Ex. practicing playing with two hands will help integration and precision in playing these rhythms. Charlie Parker used the 3-2 variation b several times on Moose the Mooch. œ....... œ œ J œ . The clave is a structural building block of many Latin styles of music. 2. d. . œ . 2. J . One or more of the notes may be shifted forward or backward by an eighth note..77 shows mm. J œ œ. ...15-16.74 3-2 Clave variation b: 2-3 Clave variation b: c . There are several variations of the basic 3-2 and 2-3 clave beats.. does occur frequently in swing and jazz styles. J œ ‰ œ. œ œ J œ . œ . ‰ œ .75 3-2 Clave variations c. the two measures preceding the bridge. 2. J œ Œ œ. and ex. J œ. œ œ. J œ Œ œ œ J œ Œ J œ œ œ.76 shows the opening two measures establishing the clave. 2. The following variations are created by delaying the last note on the “3” side combined with all three versions of the “2” side. 2.. The subdivision of the two measures is 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 2 + 2 for the 3-2 clave. œ Œ ..74 shifts the first of the notes on the two side forward by on eighth note. > œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ . & e: c . J œ œ. . J œ œ. J œ . 2.

j œ œ œ & c ‰ œ. œ. Chameleon may not look like the same rhythm as it is written with sixteenths and eighths rather than eighths and quarters. . written by Paul Anka and Johnny Carson. œ . 2. . . œ. The second is the bass ostinato from Herbie Hancock’s Chameleon .40 Chapter 2 Rhythm in Jazz Performance 2.80 bœ bœ œ. . bœ nœ bœ œ . .78 ‰ œj ‰ œj œ œ 3-2 Clave ‰ œj ‰ œ J œ œ #œ nœ œ. Ex. œ. j œ œ Œ Classic Funk Bass line: ?c . œ. . Jazz Theory Resources . œ. œ. Here’s Johnny. ˙ œ b œ &b c œ ‰ J‰ œ J 2. œ .77 3-2 Clave 3 ‰ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ J œ œ. bœ . bœ >j . b œ >j . .76 3-2 Clave œ. bœ nœ . b œ n œ ‰ J ‰ ≈ ≈ . 2. 2. J b œ . œ Œ b œœœœ œ & b c œ ‰bœ J 3 ‰ œ œœœœ œ Œ J 3 The 2-3 clave with the same variation b can be heard in the next two quite different examples. . œ Œ œ.79 TV theme: ‰ œ. b œ . œ. >j . œ. . ˙ b &b c 2. œ.79 is the pre-Jay Leno theme for the Tonight Show.

The following is an example of a 4 2 mixed meter piece. 8 . 8 and 8. As odd as these meters seem. # œ 4 ‰œ J 4 œœœ ‰œ J œ 2 4 ˙ ˙ ˙˙ #œ œ 2 4 . Some jazz compositions are created using a variety of meters within phrases. ?3 4 . they are all created by different combinations of twos and threes in a measure. .. ‰ œj Œ & b bbbb 4 œ œ œ E bm 7 ? b b b 5 . add the answer “I did” to hear a 4 groove like Take Five. Few of these compositions work their way into the mainstream of jazz literature and are rarely called casually at jam sessions. John McLaughlin.... œ ‰ œ bb b 4 J MIXED METERS Œ œ œ œ œœ b œ œ B m7 œ œ œ jŒ ‰ œœ œ œ E bm 7 œ ‰ œ J Œ œ œ œ œœ b œ œ B m7 œ œ œ . If you sing “who 5 parked the car?” for a jazz waltz.. Syncopation is not confined to a predetermined grouping or mixed meter. . and 4 4 8 . played by the Dave 5 Brubeck Quartet..81 Ostinato b 5 ... Herbie 7 7 11 1 5 21 come up with music in a variety of meters including 5 . œ˙ 4 œ œ œ ˙ ˙˙ œœ . and even 8 .. Jazz Theory Resources ..82 Bert Ligon: River Journey .. 2. The piece shifts 4 3 6 from this ostinato to other meters including: 3 4 and 4. 16 . Hank Levy. and others where the meters may shift at different structural points in the form.. The piece floats on an ostinato moving from 3 4 to 4 to 4 . What has endured more than the practice of improvising in mixed meters is the practice of playing in 3 4 and 4 4 which allows the soloist and the rhythm section the freedom to imply all combinations of mixed meters over the top. but the majority of the music played when jazz mu3 sicians get together is still in 4 Hancock. The 4 measure is much like a jazz waltz with an extra two beat answer. 2. œ œ œ œ œ j 4 œ . &3 4 . and others have 4 and 4 . One of the more famous odd time signature jazz compositions is Paul Desmond’s Take Five.Chapter 2 Rhythm in Jazz Performance 41 ODD METERS Odd meters have occasionally become fashionable. The ostinato could have 9 been written in 4 but the mixed meter notation assists visualizing the metric subdivision. This is more a reflection of their complexity and intricacy rather than any lack of musical merit. Œ ‰ œ œ œœ .

The first and alternating dotted quarter notes are replaced with three eighth notes creating a (1 + 1 + 1) + 3 rhythm in the fourth line.1 begins with a dotted quarter pulse imposed over two measures of 4 . Practicing and understanding the rhythms will help with visual and aural recognition. another may go with him and before they know it. tapping and correctly writing these rhythms will help insure success when confronted with complicated rhythms appearing on the page or in improvisations. transpose selected or all exercises to sixteenths and practice as before • • • • • • • 4 Exercise 2. Tap the lines with one hand and tap the negative space with another Tap your hands alternating RLRL and use accents to play the rhythm exercises Compose one-part rhythm pieces using excerpts from the rhythm exercises and have class perform Compose two-part rhythm pieces using excerpts from the rhythm exercises and have class perform Sing or tap the rhythms and have individuals improvise in the two measure rests Use the rhythm exercises for class dictation For understanding and recognizing sixteenth note rhythms. They occur naturally in the improvisation of most students. The first and alternating dotted quarter notes are replaced with an eighth and a quarter creating a (1 + 2) + 3 rhythm in the third line. I have heard several young rhythm sections experiment with polyrhythms intuitively and fail. Jazz Theory Resources . They should be practiced in several ways: • Read them in time with a metronome either tapping or singing “do” or “dot” with the figures. They should continue to experiment. Possibly a drummer will suggest the dotted quarter pulse over the quarter note. Practicing singing.42 Chapter 2 Rhythm in Jazz Performance RHYTHMIC READING & DICTATION EXERCISES Most of the rhythms discussed in this chapter probably sound familiar. however. Many beginning students have trouble notating and reading the notation of these complicated rhythms. The beginning student. The first and alternating dotted quarter notes are replaced with a quarter and eighth note creating a (2 + 1) + 3 rhythm in the second line. The following exercises look at a simple polyrhythms and their variations. will not be in control of the development of these rhythms or possibly even recognize their possibilities upon hearing them. but sometimes a little understanding. and help the musician reach the true meaning of the performance of the music. the have lost the fundamental pulse and cannot get back. knowledge and practice can greatly help the intuition.

‰ œ œ œ J J J J œ Œ Ó Exercise 2. œœ‰œ œ œœ J ∑ Œ œ œ œ. œ œ œ œ œ œ J J ‰ œ ‰ œ œ.Chapter 2 Rhythm in Jazz Performance 43 Exercise 2. œ œ œ œ œ.3: Exercise 2. œ Œ Ó J Ó œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ. ÷ ‰ œ. œ œ œ œ œ œ Œ Ó J Œ œ œ œ œ. œ Œ Ó J Jazz Theory Resources . J œ Œ Ó ÷ Ó œ œ ‰ œ œ œ œ ‰ œ. œ œ œ J ÷ œ œ ‰ œ œ œ œ ‰ œ.1 displaced by two eighth notes. œ. œ J J œ œ œ œ œ œ œ.1 ÷ c œ. œ œ ‰ œ J J œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ. J J œ Œ Ó Ó œ œ œ œ œ œ œ.1 displaced by a half note. œ ‰ œ œ œ œ ‰ œ œ Œ Ó J J J J J ‰ œ œ œ œ ‰ œ œ œ.2: Exercise 2. œ œ œ J œ œ. œ Œ Ó J J ÷ ‰ œ œ œ. œ.4: Exercise 2. ÷ c Œ œ œ œ. œ œ œ œ J Exercise 2.1 displaced by one eighth note. ÷Ó œ. J œ œ œ œ œ œ œ Exercise 2. œ. œ œ œ œ œ. œ œ œ œ Œ Ó J J ÷ Œ œ œ ‰ œ.

and the third. œ œ œ œ œ œ œ.44 Chapter 2 Rhythm in Jazz Performance Exercise 2.5 replaces the second dotted quarter value and every other one with another combination. J ∑ ∑ Exercise 2. œ Œ Ó ∑ ‰ œ. œ œ ‰ œ J œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ‰ œ.5 c œ. J œ Œ Ó ∑ ‰ œ.1 was based on replacing the first and every other dotted quarter by another combination equal to three.6: Exercise 2. œ œ œ œ J ‰ œ œ œ œ. the second 3 + (1 + 2). Exercise 2. J J ‰ œ œ J œ. c ‰ œ.5 displaced by one eighth note. œ J œ J œ J ∑ ∑ ∑ œ. J œ Œ Ó ∑ Jazz Theory Resources . The first line begins 3 + (2 + 1). 3 + (1 + 1+ 1). œ œ œ œ œ. Exercise 2. ∑ œ. œ ‰ œ œ J J œ œ J œ ‰ œ ‰ œ œ.

1. The second line is displaced by an eighth note and the third by a quarter note.Chapter 2 Rhythm in Jazz Performance 45 Exercise 2. Exercise 2. In this exercise every dotted quarter note is replaced by a combination of 2 + 1. the possible displacements on any beat or upbeat in the measure. Exercise 2.9 is also based on exercise 2.8 c œ œ œ ‰ œ œ J ‰ œ ‰ œ œ J J Œ œ œ œ œ œ ‰ œ œ J ‰ œ œ J œ œ œ ∑ ∑ œ Œ Ó ∑ ∑ ∑ œ œ ‰ œ J œ œ ‰ œ J œ œ ‰ œ œ J Exercise 2.5 displaced by two eighth notes. The second line is displaced by an eighth note and the third by a quarter note. J J œ œ œ œ. Familiarization with these exercises will help create rhythmic confidence and inspire more experimentation. and combinations with quarter note values create a nearly infinite number of rhythms. œ ‰ œ œ J J œ œ J œ œ œ Œ Ó ∑ Œ œ ∑ ∑ Exercise 2.8 is based on exercise 2. Jazz Theory Resources .7: Exercise 2.1. and 1 + 1 + 1). In this exercise every dotted quarter note is replaced by a combination of 1 + 2. 1 + 2. c Œ œ ‰ œ ‰ œ œ.9 c œ œ ‰ œ œ œ œ ‰ œ œ œ œ ‰ œ J J J ‰ œ œ J Œ œ œ ‰ œ œ J œ œ ‰ œ œ J œ œ œ Œ ∑ ∑ Ó ∑ ∑ ∑ œ œ ‰ œ œ J œ œ ‰ œ œ J The possible combinations of 3 for a dotted quarter note (2 +1.

46 Chapter 2 Rhythm in Jazz Performance These rhythms in exercise 2. œ œ Œ Much of the music written in pop. It is recommended that all of the previous rhythmic reading and dictation exercises be rewritten in their diminished form to facilitate the reading of sixteenth note subdivisions. œ œ œ œ ∑ ∑ Jazz Theory Resources .1. œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ. Exercise 2. œ œ œ œ œ. pop.10 are found in many funk. œ œ œ J ∑ ∑ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ. The eighth note pairs are placed every three beats. Exercise 2. funk and Latin styles is written with sixteenth note subdivision. Well rounded musicians need to be adept at reading and writing these rhythms.10 ˙. The three beat rhythm shown above the eighth note line is the augmentation of the dotted quarter notes in exercise 2.1. œ œ Ó ˙ Ó ˙ œ œ Œ Œ œ œ œ œ Œ ˙. œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ≈ œ. Exercise 2.11 is the rhythmic diminution of exercise 2.11 c œ. œ œ Œ Œ ∑ œ œ œ ˙. œ. œ c œ œ Œ Œ œ œ Œ ˙. œ œ Ó ∑ ˙. The dotted quarter superimposition becomes a dotted sixteenth in the following exercise. Latin and jazz tunes.

J œ œ ‰ œ œ œ œ Œ œ œ ‰ œ. The clave beat is another rhythm pattern to which combinations of 2 + 1. 1 + 2. Practice reading and recognizing the same rhythms written in any form. Take simple rhythms from speech patterns and notate. Take simple rhythms created with quarter and eighth notes and rewrite using eighth and sixteenth notes. J œ œ œ ‰ œ œ J Œ œ œ ‰ œ. J ÷Œ œ œ œ. Œ œ œ œ ‰ œ J œ œ ‰ œ œ J œ œ ÷ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ Œ œ œ œ œ. Analyze the combinations of twos and threes. J œ œ œ œ œ œ œ Œ œ œ œ ‰ œ œ œ œ ‰ œ œ J J OTHER SUGGESTED EXERCISES • Transcribe rhythms from jazz performances. Take the previous exercises and rewrite using sixteenths and eighth notes. Some variations are shown below. J œ œ œ œ œ ÷ Œ œ œ œ œ. and 1 + 1 + 1 can be substituted for the dotted quarter notes. Latin and pop music. ÷c œ œ œ œ œ Œ œ œ œ. Experiment with displacement by eighth notes and quarter notes. Exercise 2.12: Variations of the 3-2 & 2-3 clave. Experiment with displacement by eighth notes and quarter notes. • • • • Jazz Theory Resources .Chapter 2 Rhythm in Jazz Performance 47 The first set of exercises was based on the superimposition of dotted quarter notes over 4 4 time. Take the previous exercises and notate and practice reading the negative space rhythms.

2 c Œ ˙ œ ˙ œ œ œ. Œ œ œ ˙ œ œ ‰ œ J w ‰ œ Œ J œ. Reading Exercise 2. œ œ œ J ˙ œ Œ œ Œ œ ‰ œ ˙ J ∑ ˙. Try singing or tapping these rhythms while tapping a steady beat with your other hand or foot. Be sure to practice with the metronome and practice a variety of tempos.48 Chapter 2 Rhythm in Jazz Performance READING EXERCISES Here are several exercises using a mixture of rhythms. œ J Œ ˙ œ œ ˙ œ œ ‰ œ J œ œ ‰ œ œ J Œ œ œ ‰ œ œ J œ œ ‰ œ œ J Œ œ ‰ œ ˙ J Jazz Theory Resources . ‰ œ œ œ œ ‰ œ J J ˙. œ œ J œ œ ‰ œ ˙ J Œ ‰ œ. Œ ‰ œ. œ œ œ œ œ ‰ œ œ J œ œ œ ‰ œ J Œ œ. œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ ‰ œ ‰ œ œ J J Œ œ œ œ œ ˙. Œ ˙. œ J œ œ œ œ œ œ ∑ Reading Exercise 2.1 c Œ œ œ œ Œ œ.

3 c Œ œ œ œ Œ œ œ œ Œ œ ˙ œ œ œ ˙. . Œ Œ œ œ ‰ œ œ J ‰ œ Œ J œ œ ‰ œ. œ ˙ J œ Ó J œ œ ‰ œ œ J ‰ œ. Œ ‰ œ Œ J œ. Reading Exercise 2. œ Ó J Jazz Theory Resources œ œ Œ Ó œ œ Œ Œ œ œ ‰ œ. œ Ó J ‰ œ.Chapter 2 Rhythm in Jazz Performance 49 Reading Exercise 2.4 c ‰ œ œ J œ œ ‰ œ J œ œ ˙ ˙. ∑ œ. œ. œ œ œ ˙ œ œ ‰ œ J Œ œ œ ˙. œ. Œ œ Ó J œ Œ œ œ œ Œ œ. œ J Œ Œ œ œ œ Œ œ. Œ Œ œ œ ‰ œ ˙ J œ. œ. œ Œ J œ Ó J œ œ œ ˙. œ Ó J ‰ œ Œ J œ.

œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ≈ œ J J ÷˙ . œ.7 ÷c Ó ÷ œ œ. œ œ ≈ œ. œ œ œ œ ‰ œ œ J œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ∑ ∑ Reading Exercise 2. œ˙ ‰ œ œ œœ œ œœ J ≈ œ. œ œ œ œ œ ≈ œ œ J ‰ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œœ œ˙ J ‰ œœ≈œœ œœ œœ ‰ œœ≈œœ œ ≈œœ Jazz Theory Resources . ‰ œ œ J œ Œ œ œ Ó œ Œ Œ œ ˙ œ œ œ ˙ ‰ œ. œ œ œ œ œ œ. œ Ó J œ œ ˙ Œ œ œ œ.6 .50 Chapter 2 Rhythm in Jazz Performance Reading Exercise 2. œ Ó Reading Exercise 2. œ. œ J œ Œ œ ‰ œ. œ Ó ‰ œ œ J œ œ œ œ. œœ œœ ˙ ÷ c ‰ œ œ œ. œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ J ≈ œ œ œ œ. œ Œ ≈ œ. J ‰ œ. œ Œ ‰ œ. œ. œ. œ œ œ œ.5 c ‰ œ.

œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ J ∑ Jazz Theory Resources . œ. œ.8 ÷c ‰ œ œœ‰ œ œœ‰ œ œ œ œœ˙ J J ÷ œ. œ. œ Œ ‰ œ œ œ. œ œ œ œ J œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ≈ œ. œ. œ œ ‰ œ œ ≈ œ. œ. œ ‰ œ ˙ J J J ≈ œ. œ œ J œ œ ‰ ‰ œ œ Œ œ œ ‰ ‰ œ œ ≈ œ. œ ‰ œ ≈ œ. œ Œ ‰ œ œ œ. œ ≈ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ Œ ≈ œ. œ œ œ. œ Œ J Reading Exercise 2. œ Œ J Reading Exercise 2. J œ. œ. œ ‰ œ œ œ.Chapter 2 Rhythm in Jazz Performance 51 Reading Exercise 2.10 ÷ c ≈ œ. œ Œ Ó ≈ œ. œ Œ J ≈ œ.9 ÷ c ≈œœ œœ œ˙ ÷ ≈ œ. œ ≈ œ. œ œ œ ˙ J ‰ œ œ ≈ œ œ œ. œ œ. J J J J J J ÷œ ‰ œ œ œ J œ œ œ œ ≈ œ.

suggests the meter. The tonic is not always the first pitch sounded in the musical setting. the dominant pitch.1 Harmonic series TONALITY & ? ˙ 1 ˙ 2 ˙ ˙ 3 4 ˙ 5 ˙ bœ 6 7 ˙ 8 ˙ 9 ˙ #œ 10 11 ˙ 12 œ bœ n˙ 13 14 15 ˙ 16 œ = approximate pitch The tonic is established in the example below. occurs more often than the E. and the music—the aural experience. Here the two important notes occur every three beats. ˙ 3 3 Jazz Theory Resources . The meter is not determined by what is written on the staff. BASIC TONAL MATERIALS What is and what creates tonality? How can C major and A minor share the same pitches and what makes one hear C as the tonic of C major and A as the tonic of A minor? Tonality is created when one pitch sounds more important and more stable than all the surrounding pitches. but it will occur at significant rhythmic and structural points. The dominant is the third pitch of the harmonic series and the first pitch of the series that is not the fundamental pitch. & œ œ œœœœ œ œœœ . This pitch is called tonic. 3.52 Chapter 3 Basic Tonal Materials III. 3. is bordered above and below by the fundamental pitch. a perfect fifth above or perfect fourth below the tonic pitch is often used to establish the tonic as the primary center. This pitch. The rhythmic placement suggests a three beat meter. by the repeated B rising and falling to the E. which not only establishes its importance. but is often the last. but often occurs in a rhythmic position which points to the tonic pitch. may occur more often in the piece than the tonic. and within the series. how we experience the placement of the important notes determines how it is written on the staff. but also facilitates the establishment of meter. not just the notation. called the dominant. but rather. A second pitch. This dominant pitch is the second overtone or the third note of the harmonic series. but the E has a sense of finality and stability. The B. It may not be the pitch that occurs with the most frequency.2 Tonic established using Dominant pitch 3 œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ ˙. and its relationship to acoustics may be why the dominant–tonic relationship is universal and not limited to the European major/minor system. It is the center of the musical organization and the other pitches often seem to progress towards this pitch.

What are the three most important pitches? Students with some training in European harmonic theory are quick to inaccurately respond I. even though it begins and ends with C. referring to the triads on the first. The mediant is heard for the first time in the third measure establishing the modality as minor and not major. the underlying structure implied T-M-D-M-T. The three most important pitches are the tonic (the home pitch). either major or minor). reinforcing E as the primary pitch. and the mediant (which determines modality. Tonality. A piece may be tonal and not necessarily in the major/minor system. There are pieces that may be in other major and minor modes or highly chromatic implying major or minor. not because of key signatures or harmonic progressions. occurs three times in the second measure and begins the third. The G and D occur on weaker beats and for shorter durations. where one pitch is more stable than all the others. Tonality is established in the selection below by the initial dominant to tonic statement. one of the minor modes that will be discussed in chapter 12. 3. This melody is in an F major mode. or a written key signature. but a leading tone pitch is not present in all modes. a G major tonality was clearly indicated using strictly melodic principles. R œ D T T D D M T T D T C would not be heard as tonic in the first phrase of Amazing Grace. The meter (not shown) is clearly audible due to the placement of the tonic and dominant and their relative durations. No chords needed to hear E as the tonic. The reason may be related to the overtone series in that the fifth note of the series is a major third and is often heard even when absent. 1-3-5-3-1. In the first example. but because of placement of the three important pitches. chordal instrument. by definition. Below each melody are letters indicating the tonic. but is it E major or E minor? Most people tend to identify it as being in E major even though no pitch that would determine either major or minor has been sounded.4 Amazing Grace: first phrase & œ D ˙ T œ œ ˙ M M œ ˙ T œ ˙ D The three important pitches were placed in rhythmically significant places in these two examples from Charlie Parker. Tonal music existed long before any system of harmonic progression was developed. The first one used only diatonic notes the second included some chromatic passing tones. dominant and mediant. Some wrongly list a leading tone pitch. The four half notes in the example are the tonic.3 E as Tonic of a phrygian melody & œ ˙ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙. The melody itself suggests E as the tonal center. The establishment of F as tonic is reinforced by holding the F for two counts. E sounds like the home pitch because it is preceded by its dominant and it is held for a longer duration. and V. This melody is in the key of E phrygian. The first C sounds like a pickup note to the F. This example needs a third pitch to definitively establish the modality as either major or minor. indicates a hierarchy of pitches. 3. dominant and mediant pitches. In both. but still imply one pitch as the center of the musical structure. The pitch that determines the modality is the mediant. The E occurs two more times in the first full measure and begins the second measure. A glance at this melody with no sharps or flats might suggest C major or its relative minor A.Chapter 3 Basic Tonal Materials 53 Ex. or Do-Mi-So-Mi-Do. C to F is the dominant to tonic relationship and makes the F sound like the home pitch. This means that not all pitches have the same importance in a tonal musical setting. the dominant (a perfect fifth above the tonic). the middle note between dominant and tonic. shown below.2 established E as tonic. The line ends tonic-dominant-tonic. The A in the second measure indicates this melody is in a major mode. the dominant pitch. B. fourth and fifth degrees of a major scale. IV. Jazz Theory Resources . G was established without depending on a harmonic progression. 3.

S.6 j œœœœœœœœ œ œ œ D j œ œ œ œ œ T M D M D M T w 3 Diatonic and Chromatic tones 3 & œ œ #œ œ bœ nœ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ ˙ T M D M M D T T &c ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ w Here are two examples from Bach and one from Mozart to further illustrate how the rhythmic placement of the tonic. Preludio. Bach: Suite No. for solo violin T T T D T œ D D œœ D TD D M M M œ œ M T T D œ œ DT T #### 3 ‰ œœœœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œr & 4 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ 3.5 Diatonic notes & & 3. S. 1 in G major.9 Mozart: Eine Kleine Nachtmusik.54 Chapter 3 Basic Tonal Materials 3. dominant and mediant pitches aid the establishment of tonality and meter.7 J. for solo cello M œ œ œ D T œœœ œD r œ ?# c œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ 3. Bach: Sonata VI. 3.8 T M J. K. First Movement # & c œ ‰ œj œ ‰ œj œ œ œ œ œ Œ Jazz Theory Resources .525.

It is not always a perfect fifth below. All other diatonic pitches. The primary pitches will be the most prominent pitches in a line in both frequency of occurrence and rhythmic placement. SUBDOMINANT: The fourth note of a seven tone scale is a fifth below the tonic. The sixth and seventh are the connectors between the dominant and the tonic. Tertiary Level 5. It points back down to the tonic and may occur in passing between the tonic and mediant. a minor third above the tonic determines minor. Tonality. Jazz Theory Resources . DOMINANT: This pitch a perfect fifth above the tonic is the primary pointer to the tonic. Careful use of enharmonics may suggest ten chromatic tones. It often occurs connecting the mediant and the dominant in ascending and descending patterns.Chapter 3 Basic Tonal Materials 55 PITCH HIERARCHY There are twelve pitches available within the European tuning system. Here is a hierarchical list of the twelve pitches. SUPERTONIC: The second note of the seven tone scale is above the tonic. the five remaining chromatic tones are easily visualized by imagining the five black keys on the piano. but with enharmonic spelling there appears to be more. MEDIANT: If it is a major third above the tonic determines a major mode. There are five. SUBTONIC: Seventh scale tone. 3. These tones point to the seven tones above. The four remaining pitches in a typical seven note scale. sixth and seventh degrees. The five remaining chromatic tones. fourth. TONIC: the home pitch. They are defined by their relationship to the three pitches above. indicates that all twelve pitches are not of equal importance. by definition. all other pitches ultimately point back to tonic. a half step below the tonic. In tonal music. These would be the second. 2. a whole step below the tonic. The remaining chromatic tones depend on the original diatonic mode. For example: in the key of C major. Primary Level 1. SUBMEDIANT: The sixth degree is the middle note between the tonic and the subdominant. The secondary and tertiary pitches point back to the primary pitches and will often occur on weaker beats and with lesser durations. The seventh degree may be a half step or a whole step below the tonic. The pitch between C and D may be a C# when ascending (C-C#-D) or a Db when descending (D-Db-C). Learn the pitches in order of their importance and in relationship to tonic. LEADING TONE: Seventh scale tone. Trying to hear and understand tonal melodies will be easier knowing that the pitches are arranged naturally in a classifiable order. The most important reason to understand the pitch hierarchy is that it will aid in aural training and recognition. Secondary Level 4.

Begin to establish the C (or any tone) as tonic by singing the tonic and the dominant. Sing in order to learn the pitches and their relationships. then try to sing the exercises keeping the tonic pitch in memory and finding the others as they relate back to the tonic. listen intently and imagine what it looks like on the page. then it is a waste of time. then I support the process.” All intervals are described by numbers. If syllables or numbers are used to strengthen the comprehension of pitches. Practice making the connections between all three skills. if so much of theory discussion is based on numbers then it should be reinforced during ear training. &c œ œ ˙ œ œ ˙ œ œ œ œ ˙ Jazz Theory Resources . Occasionally in the beginning the notes should be checked until a reasonable amount of independent pitch retention is confirmed. write melodies by listening to an outside source or memory. identifying and writing the pitches on paper. and when playing.” of course. imagine how it sounds and how it physically feels to play it. and read and reproduce written music. The instructor lost the focus of the exercise by correcting the solfége syllables and not praising the accurately sung pitches. Writing simple melodies will help make the associations between the notation and the written that will aid with accurate reading in musical performance. These are the three areas that all musicians strive to master. The argument is. This solfége system keeps the half steps between Mi and Fa and Ti and Do for all circumstances. I once visited an ear training class where a student was asked to sight sing a particular passage.” I advocate using something simple to sing and while singing imagine the numerical relationships. He was told by his teacher that he performed incorrectly and the next student was called on.56 Chapter 3 Basic Tonal Materials EAR TRAINING Ear training can be accomplished with three tasks: singing. The solfége system is a tool to aid in the learning of the pitches. but stumbled trying to remember the solfége syllables. especially with the two syllable word “seven. writing. and for faster passages “Doo-be doo-be doo. Some advocate the use of solfége with a movable “DO” which for a major scale would be: Do Re Mi Fa So La Ti Do. and reading. If too much emphasis gets put on the learning of syllables and not the learning of pitch relations. The student actually sang the correct pitches. Writing the pitches down without the “hunting and pecking” at notes on your instrument requires that one really knows and recognizes the pitches. When looking at written music. The major drawback is that getting the syllables out can be cumbersome. and for a minor scale: La Ti Do Re Mi Fa So La.” I advocate the use of a movable “Doo. MAJOR KEYS Tonal ear training begins by identifying the tonic pitch. The important thing is to be able to hear the pitches correctly not whether you sing the proper syllable. Systematically singing of the pitches prepares one for melodic dictation. Scale degrees and diatonic scale chords are number in relationship to tonic which is labeled “one. Others prefer singing numbers.” using “Doo” for all pitches. There is always some discussion as to what syllables to sing. 1 & 5. Advocates of using numbers make a good point that in all other discussions of music theory we refer to numbers. BEGINNING SINGING EXERCISES: Sound the pitches on an instrument or pitch pipe. when hearing music imagine what it looks like on the page and how it would physically feel. So instead of a movable “DO.

&œ œ œ œ ˙ œ œœœ œœ˙ ˙ œ œ œ ˙ œ œ œ ˙ ˙ œœ œœœ˙ Be able to hear and sing the 5 & 3 above or below the tonic pitch. &˙ œ œ œ ˙ ˙ œ œ œ œ ˙ œ ˙ œ œ œ ˙ Find the supertonic (2) above the tonic: between the 1 & 3. &˙ ˙ ˙ œ œ ˙ ˙ œ œ ˙ œ œ ˙ MINOR KEYS Begin to establish the C (or any tone) as tonic by singing the tonic and the dominant.Chapter 3 Basic Tonal Materials 57 Sing the 3rd (major) along with 1 & 5. &c œ œ ˙ œ œ ˙ œ œ œ œ ˙ Jazz Theory Resources . and below 3. Sing scale passages from the tonic to the dominant and return. 1 & 5. &˙ ˙ œ ˙ ˙ ˙ œ ˙ ˙ œ œ œ ˙ œ ˙ œ œ œ ˙ Hear the 6 & 7 passing between the tonic and dominant. & ˙ œ ˙ ˙ œ ˙ œ ˙ ˙œ ˙œ˙œ ˙œ˙œ ˙œ˙ Find the submediant (6) as it relates to the 5th. &˙ œ ˙ ˙ œ ˙ œ ˙ ˙ œ ˙ ˙ œ ˙ œ ˙ Find the subdominant (4) above the 3: between the 3 & 5. Hear the 2 and 4 in the scale between 1 & 5.

&˙ œ ˙ ˙ œ b˙ œ ˙ b˙ œ b˙ b˙ œ ˙ œ b˙ Find the subdominant (4) above the 3: between the 3 & 5. and below 3. Hear the 2 and 4 in the scale between 1 & 5. & ˙ ˙ bœ ˙ ˙ ˙ bœ ˙ bœ ˙ œbœ œ ˙ œbœ œ ˙ ˙ Hear the 6 & 7 passing between the tonic and dominant. What are your initial instincts? Do you hear a different version when ascending and descending? Sing the way you hear it first and learn other patterns based on what you normally hear.58 Chapter 3 Basic Tonal Materials Sing the 3rd (minor) along with 1 & 5. &˙ ˙ ˙ nœ nœ ˙ ˙ bœ bœ ˙ nœ nœ ˙ Jazz Theory Resources . & œ bœ œ œ ˙ œ œb œ œ œb œ ˙ ˙ œ bœ œ ˙ œ bœ œ ˙ ˙ œ œbœ œbœ ˙ Be able to hear and sing the 5 & 3 above or below the tonic pitch. & b˙ œ b˙ b˙ œ ˙ œ b˙ ˙ œb˙ œ ˙ œb˙ œ ˙ œb˙ œ ˙ Find the submediant (b6) above the 5. Sing scale passages from the tonic to the dominant and return. & ˙ œ bœ œ ˙ ˙ œ œ œ bœ ˙ bœ ˙ bœ œ œ ˙ Find the supertonic (2) above the tonic: between the 1 & 3.

The list is comprised of folk. The choices are narrowed to four pitches. is probably is from the secondary level of pitches. Use your ears. The deductive reasoning will lead to familiarity. paper. but do not forget to use your intellect. Some think that hearing and thinking about the music are separate activities. diligent practice. Jazz Theory Resources . These exercises may seem simple.Chapter 3 Basic Tonal Materials 59 BEGINNING WRITING EXERCISES: As a complete musician you will be expected to be competent in three areas: to physical be able to play your instrument. Use some deductive reasoning. nation. When you are physically playing you should be connected to the aural recognition of what you play and be able to visually recognize or notate what you play. This is an activity you could do with colleagues or alone. the basic meter. Here is a list of tunes for transcription practice. dominant and mediant). It requires the command of all fundamental music skills. With practice. These are lifelong goals of musicians. Consult the National Endowment for the Arts “Songs of the Century” list for additional melodies. and until your skills get better. These beginning writing exercises will address the fundamental skills of recognizing the primary pitches (tonic. If the note sounds a little less stable or transient. so listen ahead and then work back. Process of elimination will reveal some pitches that are at first difficult to aurally identify. Develop a routine of writing melodies from memory or taking dictation from someone or a recording. Integrate these skills in your practice schedule. These skills can be developed separately. but at the same time the connections between these skills should be developed. childhood. You will need a pencil. the other notes are meaningless. and patriotic songs. three or four? Finish the melody listening to the intervals related to the tonic pitch in the piece. All of these skills interact. Work can be done anywhere without electrical devices or computers. You may have to sing with numbers up or down the scale until you identify the first pitch. Your work can be easily checked after writing by playing them on your instruments. an eraser. chances are it belongs to the primary level of pitches. Return to the beginning of the piece and determine if the first pitch is the tonic or another pitch. to be able to recognize the written symbols and understand the musical meaning behind them. holidays and childhood if they differ greatly from this list. Not all tunes begin on tonic. then the note in question must have been the sixth degree. aurally identify the tonic first. and to hear music and be able to write the appropriate symbols or be able to physically play your instrument recreating the music you hear. If any skill area is weak. you should be able to imagine the music for which the symbols stand. When listening to music you should be able to imagine what it feels like physically to play it and have the skills to accurately notate what you hear. these exercises provide some necessary drilling and training. For example: • • If a note sounds stable. That narrows the choice to one of three notes. and rhythmic vocabulary. What is difficult in the beginning will become easier with honest. These are tunes memorized from childhood so musical dictation from an outside source is not necessary. Another note or set of notes may cause you trouble. but you may be surprised at how much practice is needed to write these tunes quickly and accurately. Does the first note begin on the downbeat or does it begin with a pickup? Is the meter in two. If the note resolves down a step to the dominant. When you see music in the written form. The list is from my middle America background. These beginning level writing tunes usually begin on one of the three primary pitches and usually gravitate towards the tonic very soon. Without the tonic. This pitch probably moves to a pitch from the primary level. Stop and think about the possibilities. longer lines of transient and stable pitches will be easier to hear and notate. Since the most important pitch in tonal music is the tonic. the most important being recognition of tonic and basic meter. holiday. Some notes may come to you with ease and with little thought. You may want to amplify the list with tunes from your own region. Sing the melody until you can identify the tonic pitch.

4. 28. 29. 124. 20. 102. 127. 99. 22. Joyful Kumbaya Let It Snow Let Me Call You Sweetheart Lightly Row Little Pierrot Lo How a Rose Loch Lomond London Bridge is Falling Down Long Long Ago Man on the Flying Trapeze. 104. 51. 115. 46. 82. 148. Susanna Oh. 62. 73. 13. 154. 86. 122. 94. 125. 81. 152. 34.) America the Beautiful Angels We Have Heard on High Are You Sleeping? Auld Lang Syne Aura Lee Away in A Manger Baa! Baa! Black Sheep Battle Hymn of The Republic Bicycle Built For Two Billy Boy Blue Bells of Scotland Brahm ’ s Lullaby Bring a Torch Caissons Camptown Races Can Can Carry Me Back To Old Virginny Christmas Song Circus Song Clementine Columbia. 103. 55. 121. 35. 160. Funicula Go Down Moses Go Tell Aunt Rhodie Go Tell it on the Mountain 61. 143. there is plenty of recorded music to transcribe for ear training. 123. 14. 119. 146. 39. 65. 69. 48. 111. 76. 97. 10. 159. Find weaknesses and work out the problems. 6. 30. 57. Clifford Brown or Michael Brecker. 114. 136. 157. 25. Where. Make yourself work quickly and accurately when writing melodies. 155. 23. 166. 88. 165. 135. 38. God Rest Ye Merry Gentlemen Good King Wenceslas Good Night Ladies Greensleeves Happy Birthday Hark The Sound Hark! The Herald Angels Sing! Havanagila Have Yourself a Merry Little Christmas Holly & Ivy Home on the Range Hush Little Baby I Ain’t Gonna Study War No More I Dream of Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair I Love Lucy Theme Song I Saw Three Ships I’ll be Home for Christmas I ’ m Popeye Sailor Man I’ve Been Working On The Railroad In Southern Port of France It Came Upon a Midnight Clear Jesus Loves Me Jimmie Crack Corn Jingle Bells Jolly Old St. 67. 5. 89. 162. 33. 145. 84. 141. Oh. 118. What Can The Matter Be? O Hanukah O Holy Night O Little Town of Bethlehem O My Darlin ’ Clementine O What Beautiful Morning Ode To Joy (Theme From Beethoven ’ s Ninth) 116. 140. 149. 63. 98. 131. 31. 7. 15. Brother John?) Frog Went-a-Courtin ’ Funiculi. 164. 36. Oh Where Has My Little Dog Gone? Old MacDonald Had a Farm Old Rugged Cross On Top of Old Smokey Onward Christian Soldiers Polly Wolly Doodle Pop! Goes the Weasel! Puff The Magic Dragon Rain Barrel Rakes of Mallow Red River Valley Rock My Soul (In The Bosom of Abraham) Rock-A-Bye Baby Row. 87. The For He’s a Jolly Good Fellow Frere Jacques (Are You Sleeping. 109. 142. 50. 128. 80.. 126. BEGINNING TUNES for EAR TRAINING: 1. 58. 101. 158. 52. 2. 91. 167. 54. 105.60 Chapter 3 Basic Tonal Materials Practice writing and sight singing every day. Row. 32. 60. 47.. 8. A Deer (Sound of Music) Don’t Sit Under the Apple Tree Down by Mill Stream Down in The Valley Doxology Dradle Song (Hanukah) Edelweiss Eeensy Weensy Spider Eyes of Texas are Upon You Fairest Lord Jesus Faith of Our Fathers Farmer in the Dell First Noel First Noel. 144. 107. O Come Emmanuel O Dear. 138. 49. Nicholas Joshua Fit the Battle of Jericho Joy to the World Joyful. 150. 95. 9. 68. The Marine ’ s Hymn Mary Had a Little Lamb Merrily We Roll Along Mulberry Bush My Bonnie My Old Kentucky Home Nobody Knows the Trouble I ’ ve Seen O Christmas Tree O Come. 110. 117. Row. 132. 43. 151. These tunes are a much easier place to start than a five minute blistering improvisation by John Coltrane. 156. 161. 153. 70. 21. 96. 113. If these tunes are too easy. 45. 12. 163. 85. Twinkle Little Star Voluntary Wayfaring Stranger We Three Kings We Wish You a Merry Christmas What a Friend We Have in Jesus What Child Is This? When Irish Eyes are Smiling When Johnny Comes Marching Home When The Saints Go Marching In Where Has My Little Dog Gone? While Strolling Through The Park One Day White Christmas Winter Wonderland Yankee Doodle You Are My Sunshine Zip-A-Di-Doo-Dah Jazz Theory Resources . 19. 24. 120. 11. 169. 17. 64. 71. 18. 133. 66. The Gem of the Ocean Come Ye Thankful People Crusaders Hymn Daisy Danny Boy Dark Eyes Deck the Halls Deep in the Heart of Texas Dixie Do You Know the Muffin Man? Doe. 168. 79. 93. Swing Low. 77. 130. 129. 40. 83. Folk Songs (any) Holiday Music (any) Patriotic Songs (any) Religious Music (any) TV/Movie theme songs (any) Alouette Alphabet Song Amazing Grace America (My Country ‘tis of Thee. 72. 75. 100. 134. 112. 3. 108. Sweet Chariot Take Me Out to the Ballgame This Old Man Three Blind Mice Twinkle. 90. Your Boat Rudolf The Red-Nosed Reindeer Sail Navy Santa Claus is Coming to Town Scarborough Fair Scotland ’ s Burning Sentimental Journey Shall We Gather At The River She’ll Be Comin’ Round The Mountain Shoo Fly Shortnin ’ Bread Silent Night Skip To My Lou Sleigh Ride Star Spangled Banner Stars And Stripes Forever Streets of Laredo Swanee River Sweet Betsy From Pike. 44. 27. 42. 139. 137. 26. All Ye Faithful O Come. 78. 37. 41. 59. 16. 56. 106. 147. 53. 74. 92.

it sounds lower. but the rhythm is incorrectly notated. œ œ œ œ. Does the melody begin on the beat? How many beats in each measure? It begins with a quarter note pickup and the meter is three beats per measure. If it takes five minutes to pick out one of these simple tunes. œ œ. Do not concentrate on hearing the intervals between adjacent pitches. all notes related to the tonic. If the student is unable to hear and notate simple melodies they have sung all their lives. 3.” Looks around the class suggest they wonder how this connects to the study of jazz. but it is notated in the key of Bb major. 3. j œ œ œ œ œ œ œ Here are some common mistakes when getting started.11 Incorrect & b c œ œ. 1-5-1. The last pitch in this phrase feels like the tonic. regardless of what the key signature suggests. 3. œ œ. it suggests they will have trouble hearing more complicated jazz lines from the literature and from their own imaginations.10 Correct &b 3 4 œ œ.2 should be heard as a major 3rd above the tonic. major second. œ J Jazz Theory Resources . œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ This melody also sounds correct. A surprising number of music majors have trouble with these basic skills. minor third. then try starting at the tonic and sing down until you find the correct pitch: 1-7-6-5-6-7-1. If you have trouble immediately identifying the opening pitch as the dominant.Chapter 3 Basic Tonal Materials 61 Every semester I begin the first jazz theory class asking students to write a simple melody such as the one that is sung on birthdays or “O Tannenbaum. how long will it take to imagine four chorus of blues in Bb? How well equipped are they to transcribe from memory if the quarter note was around 240+? Here is an example of how the exercise might work if we picked “O Tannenbaum” as the first tune to transcribe and notate in the key of F major. The A in m. Sing the opening again.12 Incorrect &b 3 4 œ œbœ œ œ œ œ œ. not a second above the preceding note. Learn to hear the rest of the melody as intervals related to the tonic. Do not assume that all melodies start on the downbeat and have four beats per measure. Is it the same pitch? No. not as the intervals diminished fifth. œ œ œ œ. œ œ œ œ. The first guess is that the pickup note should be either the dominant or the mediant because they are the most common remaining primary pitches. Do not assume that all tunes begin on tonic. This version sounds correct if played. Sing the phrase through and identify the pitch that sounds like the stable home pitch. The last four notes should be heard as 4-7-2-1.

and play off those expectations. Which ones correspond to these tunes? These melodies use the major sixth interval from the dominant to the mediant. recognize its return after remote modulations. The student sang a G and then an E. then trying to hear melodies listening to the intervals related to adjacent pitches. As you will learn with many of these simple melodies. Some common tunes that are suggested to learn the perfect fourth interval are: “Here Comes the Bride” and “O Tannenbaum. Clearly the student heard the C as tonic. the tonic pitch status is established early before the melody moves away only to return at the end of the piece.” “My Bonnie. Composers expect a listener to remember a tonic center and play off of those expectations to tell their story or paint their picture. Which of these six perfect fourth intervals begin those tunes? Both of the tunes begin with the perfect fourth interval between the dominant and tonic. A. dividing the melody into unrelated pairs of pitches. The teacher wanted the student to sing C then a major sixth above. and recognize the second theme returning to the tonic key in the recapitulation. The teacher told him he was wrong with no explanation.” Within the major scale there are six different perfect fourth intervals. This is not the way tonal music works and trying to learn to hear this way will only cause frustration and waste time. and promptly and correctly sang the dominant and the mediant in the key of C. They use the stability of the primary pitches and the instability of the remaining pitches. remembered tunes for recalling a major sixth. These lists may help learn intervals by themselves but will not help with learning intervals in musical contexts. and went on to the next student. In large works. He had actually sung the correct interval according to the way he was taught and should have been rewarded. Perfect Fourth Intervals in C Major Scale: &˙ P4 P4 ˙ ˙ ˙ P4 ˙ ˙ ˙ P4 ˙ ˙ P4 ˙ ˙ P4 ˙ Everyone seems to remember the major sixth interval with “NBC. Intervals related to adjacent pitches. The student learned nothing. Jazz Theory Resources . 5 up to 3. Hearing a melody as intervals related to adjacent pitches calls for ignoring the tonic relationship. There are those who advocate learning intervals independently first. Those tunes do not help anyone to hear the other major sixth intervals found in the major scale. such as sonata allegro forms. This is not the way one usually experiences a melody.” or “Take the ‘A’ Train. I witnessed a teacher who played a C and asked a student to sing a major sixth interval. and anything unmusical should not be practiced.62 Chapter 3 Basic Tonal Materials There are two ways to analyze melodic intervals. How then are the other perfect fourth intervals learned? They are learned by hearing them as intervals related to the tonic. Major Sixth Intervals in C Major Scale: &˙ M6 ˙ M6 ˙ ˙ M6 ˙ ˙ ˙ M6 ˙ In another visit to an ear training class. It is unmusical.” There are four major sixth intervals within the major scale. Some educators have put together lists of tunes to expedite the learning of intervals. Intervals related to tonic. composers expected the audiences to remember the tonic key area. Tonal music is based on the premise that all pitches relate to tonic. It reasons that we should learn to hear melodies based on the same principle.

6 œ œ œ œ œ œ 7 7 7 7 6 7 œ. One would have to hear D major as the tonic key to find the perfect fourth interval at (d. It is no wonder that students have trouble with melodic dictation when trying to use this method.” Both of these tunes begin with the minor third interval between 5 and 3. It may be fun to make up a mnemonic list of tunes to remember the individual intervals. œ j œ 5 œ.” and “The Star Spangled Banner. Twinkle. Little Star” to find the perfect fifth. œ œ œ œ œ œj j œ. The numbers below each note represent the intervallic relationship to the tonic note C.) from 5 to 1. 2 1 6 g. the perfect fourth interval is from submediant to supertonic (6-2). 2 1 œ. D major and in G major. The B section begins with a perfect fourth followed by a minor third and another perfect fourth. but it would be more useful to remember how those intervals relate to the tonic.Chapter 3 Basic Tonal Materials 63 Examine the intervals in the familiar melody below.). Using the tunes as reference. The perfect fifth is often remembered from “Twinkle. f. 1 1 œ. 5 3 a. 6 5 œ. one would have to imagine C major.). To hear intervals between adjacent pitches in this very short and simple piece requires thinking not only in the actual key of C major. The melody begins with a major sixth interval (a. œ œ œ œ œ & 3 j œ œ 2 1 2 1 6 6 œ œ œ 2 2 j œ œ œ œ œ œ œ 5 6 2 1 7 6 7 5 d.13 &6 8 j œ . In order to imagine either of the helper tunes.). Great confusion can arise from trying to imagine the intervals between adjacent pitches independent of the tonic key. 6 œ J œ J 1 1 œ œ œ œ œ œ 7 7 7 7 6 7 œ J 2 œ. œ 1 1 1 2 & œ. c. and since this is one of the tunes used to illustrate that interval. it should be easy to hear. œ œ œ œ œ œ. 1 There are endless examples proving how ineffective trying to hear melodies by relating intervals between adjacent pitches. 5 3 2 1 1 7 ˙. 5 œ. but also in F major. Two tunes are commonly used to learn the descending minor third: “America the Beautiful. Twinkle. Jazz Theory Resources . 3 & œ. Little Star. the very music they are trying to master by the exercise. 5 e.” At (c. The descending minor third interval at (b. At (d. one would have to imagine F as the tonic in the middle of this passage in C major. œ œ œ œ b. It defies the logic of tonal music.) is between the tonic and the submediant. F major and D major in order to find the correct intervals if one is thinking only intervals between adjacent pitches. 3. All of the tunes used to remember a perfect fourth use the perfect fourth between tonic and dominant (5-1). one would have to hear G as tonic in order to sing “Twinkle.

The most general shapes are sketched out lightly. 3.14 Basic framework and melody to Wildwood &c Ó &c &˙ P5 œ M3 œ P4 ˙ P5 œ M6 œ T ˙ M3 œ P4 œ M3 ˙ M2 œ M3 œ M2 ˙ T œ M3 œ P4 ∑ w œ T w ˙ œ P4 w ˙ M2 w œ M2 œ M6 œ M3 œ M3 ˙ T œ M3 œ P5 M3 &w & & 0 w œ M3 w œ P5 w œ T ˙ M3 œ M2 ˙ w ˙ P5 T œ P5 ˙ M6 œ M6 ˙ P5 œ T œ T w w w œ M3 &˙ M3 œ M3 œ M3 œ P5 œ M3 ˙ M2 œ M2 ˙ T &w 4 w w w APPLICATION It is important to learn to apply the principles of tonal melodies to improvisations and composing. Have you seen an artist draw a portrait of someone? They do not begin with the intricate details of the eyelashes. the artist begins to fine tune and pay closer attention to the details and unique features. They plan the space first so that later they do not wish for a larger canvas or find they have 80% blank space left.64 Chapter 3 Basic Tonal Materials Here is a simple folk song that could have been included on the list. Before attempting to address the intricacies of melodic writing involving harmonic implications. Jazz Theory Resources . Inventing a melody can be a similar process to the portrait painting example. an oval for the face and simple lines for neck and shoulders. it would be beneficial to gain some expertise and confidence with simple melodies based on the tonic. Learn to hear the melody as intervals (as shown) related to the tonic pitch. dominant and mediant pitches. How long should the melody be? What are its high and low points and do they fit on the canvas (instrument)? What is the simplest framework for the line? How can the simple framework be elaborated to create an interesting melody. A series of decisions are made before beginning. The simple structure is shown on the bottom line. From this basic framework. The first decision is how big the canvas will be and how much space the face will cover on the canvas. It might be easier to hear just the downbeats and then fill in the other pitches that lead to the downbeats.

œ œ ˙ ˙. only two other pitches are used to create Amazing Grace. Civic. *Palindrome: A word. œ If the fundamental structure is strong then the results of melodically connecting the principal tones has a strong chance for musical success. creating a sense that while relatively stable. Radar. A man a plan a canal: Panama. ˙ ∑ œ ˙ ˙. œ œ ˙ ˙. The question of major or minor is settled by the third beat of the first measure. verse. phrase. This melody immediately makes F sound like tonic with the dominant note used as a pickup and the long rhythmic value given to F. or submediant) is used between the tonic and dominant. ˙ ˙ œ œ œ ˙ ˙. there is more to come. Madam I’m Adam. Lid off a Daffodil 3. The melody is shown on the top line in ex. At the halfway point. Rotator. In addition to the three primary pitches. or supertonic) is used in passing between tonic and the mediant. D (6. or sentence that reads the same backward or forward. The notes that make up the framework for this tune. the resting note is the dominant. All of the important notes have long rhythmic values.15 &b 3 4 &b 3 4 &b ˙ & b ˙. 5 & 6) in the harmonic series. œ ˙ ˙. The melody winds down to the lower dominant before resolving back to the tonic. Otto. Jazz Theory Resources . œ ˙ ˙. and so many others on the list above. ˙. ˙. There is no leading tone or fourth degree of the scale. 3. The line is sixteen measures long. occur on strong beats. Poor Dan is in a droop. These five tones make up one of the pentatonic scales. œ ˙ ˙. Able was ere I saw Elba. Ergo ogre. Mum. œ ˙ ˙.15 and a simple framework is shown on the bottom line. Deified. ˙. The general shape shown on the bottom line creates an interesting palindrome*.Chapter 3 Basic Tonal Materials 65 “Amazing Grace” is a simply constructed melody that can be used as a model for this discussion. It rises from the tonic to the dominant and returns in the same way in reverse: 1-3-1-5-1-3-5 then 5-3-1-5-1-3-1. 4. &b ˙ &b . Lewd did I live & evil did I dwel. dominant and mediant. For example: Ada. and consist of the three primary pitches: tonic. ˙ ˙. Live Devil. œ œ ˙ ˙. œ ˙ ˙. are adjacent pitches (3. œ œ œ œ ˙. G (2.

66 Chapter 3 Basic Tonal Materials Try composing your own melody based on the “Amazing Grace” three note structure. ˙.17 &b c &b c w &b &b w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w A simple structure like this would work if transposed to minor. ˙. ˙. Compose lines that have rhythmic character. It is perfectly musical to use the Db and Eb from the key signature. Compose a completely new version in a different meter: 3. ˙. ˙. ˙. try composing smooth motion throughout. When you compose in minor you have to decide the character of the fifth and sixth degrees of the scale. Use the other four diatonic pitches from the F major scale. ˙. Be aware of phrasing: do not write sixteen measures of notes with no points of repose. ˙. Compose versions in F minor in three and in four beats per measure. ˙. ˙. ˙. ˙. ˙. ˙.16 &b 3 4 &b 3 4 ˙. Jazz Theory Resources . Do you hear other pitches? Do they change depending on the direction of the melodic lines? Often the fifth and sixth degrees of the minor scale are raised when ascending between the dominant and the tonic and lowered when descending. In the beginning. With more experience. try some leaps and listen carefully to where the leaps want to resolve. 3. &b & b ˙. You may find that the leaps should happen after the main notes and that the main notes should be approached by steps from above or below.

˙. ˙. ˙.18 Framework in F minor: b & b bb 3 4 b & b bb 3 4 ˙.19 Framework in F minor: b & b bb c b & b bb c w b & b bb b & b bb w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w Jazz Theory Resources . ˙. ˙. ˙. ˙. ˙. ˙. ˙. 3. ˙. ˙. ˙. b & b bb b & b bb ˙ . ˙.Chapter 3 Basic Tonal Materials 67 3.

&b c ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ bbbb ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ Limit your lines to four or eight measures in length. Within the short phrase try to achieve a rise and fall with a logical conclusion. There are ten remaining chromatic pitches that can be added to the assignments as skills progress. These pitches are the 3-6 and 8th pitches in the harmonic series in the first measure. The primary melodic area should be within the perfect fifth between tonic and dominant. Work on the framework until the simple shape is as pleasing as it can be without the aid of any elaborations.68 Chapter 3 Basic Tonal Materials Compose several simple frameworks for melodies using only the three primary pitches as shown below. &b c œ ˙ œ ˙ œ ˙ ˙ œ œ ˙ œ bbbb œ ˙ œ ˙ œ ˙ ˙ œ œ ˙ œ Jazz Theory Resources . compose several short melodies four to eight measures in length. The higher tonic and the lower dominant then can be used for climactic or dramatic reaches above and below the bracketed areas. This is why the previous composing exercise was based on a proven framework from an existing melody. it is with a weak underlying structure that no amount of decoration can disguise. The second set has been transposed to the parallel minor. use only the diatonic pitches shown below. Often times the flaw is not with the embellishments. Many times when having difficulty composing melodies. In the beginning. composers try more notes and more exciting elaborate rhythms in attempting to make the pieces more interesting. Using the simple frameworks.

The diminished triad has a diminished fifth. These same notes are the primary melodic pitches in most traditional harmonic settings. but does not explain many kinds of triads available to composers from the twentieth century and beyond. resolved by the end of the phrase. In a tonal melody the tonic is established by placement on strong structural beats and relationship to the dominant pitch. Playing melodies that specifically Jazz Theory Resources . in a linear fashion. These vertical contradictions are rarely heard as intolerable dissonances because music is performed and heard in a linear form. moving away and returning to the stable tonic area. This is not very different from the function of a simple tonal melody. This definition works well for a great deal of music created in the nineteenth century and before. Any vertical contradiction will just be a part of the instability that ultimately is. Why does it work? The melodies and the harmonies function in similar manners by creating. A triad would be better defined as three simultaneously sounding pitches constructed using any variety of intervals. Many jazz improvisers use similar concepts basing improvisations on the primary triadic tones and sometimes ignore the exact harmonic implications. The notes of these two triads are the primary pitches that create tonality and define modality: the tonic. and then returns and re-establishes the primacy of the original tonic key area. There is a tendency with many jazz improvisation students and some jazz educators to overemphasize the vertical relationships of each melodic pitch to the specific chords. minor. In the last chapter these notes were used to create melodies that defined the tonal center and modality (major or minor) without consideration for harmonic conditions. TRIADIC GENERALIZATION This chapter will examine and analyze the use of the triad notes as linear melodic material that may be used over harmonic progressions in a way that generalizes the harmony rather than specifically addressing each chord. dominant and mediant. Only the major and minor triads have perfect fifths and are therefore the only two triads considered stable in the tonal system. Any vertical dissonances and contradictions tend to resolve through linear aspects of the melodic lines. In chapter 13. TRIADIC GENERALIZATION Jazz improvisers use these fundamental pitches to create melodies over the harmonic progressions even when many of the notes contradict the vertical alignment of the chords and melodies. The most common would be the triad whose adjacent intervals are separated by thirds called tertian triads. there is a discussion of quartal triads constructed using intervals of fourths. There are four types of tertian triads: major. augmented and diminished. The essence of a harmonic progression creates the stability of a tonal center. the augmented triad an augmented fifth. T ERTIAN T RIAD A triad is often defined as three pitches sounding simultaneously (a chord) with the adjacent intervals being separated by the interval of a major or minor third. moves away forming varying degrees of tension. The melody then moves away to less stable tones and ultimately returns to the tonic.Chapter 4 Triadic Generalization 69 IV.

Melodies can be harmonically specific or general. In the polyrhythmic settings common to jazz. In traditional music. C & ˙ œ ˙ œ ˙ œ œ ˙ ˙ #œ ˙ #œ ˙ ˙ #œ ˙ #œ ˙ #œ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ bœ ˙ bœ ˙ bœ ˙ ˙ bœ ˙ bœ ˙ Jazz Theory Resources . This is an unfortunate designation as these tones are essential to the creation of an interesting melody. The same hierarchy of pitches discussed in the previous chapter is relevant to this discussion. Flatted notes are lowered and therefore tend to resolve downward. They are also known as auxiliary tones or non-harmonic tones. Keep this principal in mind when writing music and the lines will be easier to read. Chromatically altered tones tend to continue in the direction in which they have been altered. Any diatonic tone can have a chromatic leading tone. passing tones are the diatonic notes between the chord members: C major triad = C (d) E (f) G (a b) C. The difference between C# and Db is the direction implied by the accidental. Auxiliary tones embellish the basic triadic tones and will be revisited in following chapters as they apply to embellishing harmonically specific lines.70 Chapter 4 Triadic Generalization address each chord in a harmonic progression is certainly a great part of jazz improvisation. ELABORATION DEVICES Triadic generalization does not mean that only three notes are being used. If a triadic melody is to include more than just the three triadic tones. some auxiliary tones may be labeled as accented or unaccented depending on their rhythmic placement on or off the downbeat. just that these three notes are more important than the other diatonic and chromatic pitches. The intricacies of harmonic progressions and the relationships to harmonically specific lines will be covered in detail in subsequent chapters. P ASSING T ONES Passing tones (PT) are the diatonic and chromatic steps between the essential tones. In a scale. The primary pitches of the tertian triad are commonly used for linear melodic material in a way that generalizes the harmony. the chromatic tones between the adjacent scale steps may be chromatic passing tones. After identifying the primary triad pitches.. or within a single phrase. C# is the chromatic leading tone to D and the chromatic passing tone between Cn and D. this distinction is unnecessary and may prove confusing. The chromatic scale is written two different ways to indicate the direction of the accidentals. a scale may be viewed as a triad with passing tones between the primary pitches and a chromatic scale may be viewed as a diatonic scale with chromatic passing tones. A chromatic passing tone can be placed between adjacent diatonic tones a whole step apart. Tones which elaborate the basic triadic tones are often called non-essential tones to distinguish them from the essential triadic tones. Sharps are used when ascending and flats when descending. some discussion of elaborating the basic three pitches is necessary. sharped notes are raised and tend to resolve upward. Harmonic specificity or harmonic generalization should not be chosen at the exclusion of the other. Both approaches may be found in a single improvisation. There are many terms for auxiliary tones. In a chord. Db is the chromatic passing tone between Dn and Cn. Both approaches are found throughout the history of jazz performance.

Chapter 4 Triadic Generalization 71 Passing tones between Tonic (1) and Mediant (3) of a C major triad: 1-3 Diatonic PT Diatonic and Chromatic PTs C C C &˙ 1 ˙ 3 œ 1 œ PT ˙ 3 œ œ #œ œ ˙ 1 PT PT 3 Passing tones between Mediant (3) and Dominant (5) of a C major triad: 3-5 Diatonic PT Diatonic and Chromatic PTs C C C &˙ 3 ˙ 5 œ 3 œ PT ˙ 5 œ œ #œ œ ˙ 3 PT PT 5 Passing tones between Dominant (5) and Tonic (1) of a C major triad: 5-1 Diatonic PTs C C &˙ 5 ˙ 1 œ 5 œ œ ˙ PT PT 1 Passing tones between Tonic (1) and Mediant (3) of a C Minor triad: 1-3 Diatonic PT Diatonic and Chromatic PTs Cm Cm Cm &˙ 1 b˙ 3 œ 1 œ b˙ PT 3 œ #œ œ bœ ˙ 1 PT PT 3 Passing tones between Mediant (3) and Dominant (5) of a C Minor triad: 3-5 Diatonic PT Diatonic and Chromatic PTs Cm Cm Cm & b˙ 3 ˙ 5 bœ 3 œ PT ˙ 5 bœ œ #œ œ ˙ 3 PT PT 5 Passing tones between Dominant (5) and Tonic (1) of a C Minor triad: 5-1 Diatonic PTs Diatonic PTs Cm Cm Cm &˙ 5 ˙ 1 œ bœ bœ ˙ 5 PT PT 1 œ nœ nœ ˙ 5 PT PT 1 Jazz Theory Resources .

the LNT may be labeled a chromatic leading tone (LT). The common practice in most music from the Baroque period to the present is to use the diatonic (from the scale or mode) upper neighbor tone (UNT) and the chromatic lower neighbor tone (LNT). The chromatic G# creates more pull to the chord tone An. A C major triad can be found as the tonic (I) in the key or C major.1 Diatonic passing tones # & c j œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ CT PT CT PT CT CT PT CT This excerpt from a Charlie Parker blues improvisation illustrates the combinations of diatonic and chromatic passing tones between adjacent chord tones. 4. not Gb is the LNT to Gn. The UNT may be harder to determine and will change depending on the key signature. The Gn is a diatonic passing tone between F and A. A#.72 Chapter 4 Triadic Generalization Diatonic passing tones can be illustrated in this excerpt from a Charlie Parker line. as the subdominant (IV) in the key of G major. It is easy to determine the LNT since it is chromatic. followed by the chromatic passing tone G#. mode or scale. The notes of the G triad are clearly delineated as they occur on the strong beats of the measure. A diatonic instead of chromatic LNT may be found in some folk and ethnic music which is often due to chromatic limitations of the instruments and not musical preferences. Jazz Theory Resources . The G# is not heard as a minor third of F (Ab). and as the dominant (V) in the key of F major or F minor. not Bb. The addition of the Bn reverses the tendency of the Bb to point down as an upper neighbor tone to the A. but as a raised pitch which wants to continue in the direction in which it has been altered. and propels the line up to the C. 4. The passing tones on the up beats move the line to the next chord tones. It should be written with a different letter name and with either a sharp or a natural sign. The Bb is a diatonic passing tone between An and C. is the LNT to Bn. F#.2 Chromatic passing tones & b c œ œ #œ œ œ nœ œ J CT PT PT CT PT PT CT N EIGHBOR T ONES Tones on either side of a primary pitch are called neighbor tones (NT). It will always be a half step below the tone to which it points. In some situations. A simple C major triad (C-E-G) will have different UNTs depending on the key signature and context.

F and Ab as UNTs to the C. The UNT to the tonic is a whole step above when C minor is a ii. C as I in C UNTs C LNTs C C as V in F UNTs C LNTs C &œ ˙ œ ˙ œ ˙ #œ ˙ nœ ˙ #œ ˙ &b œ ˙ œ ˙ œ ˙ #œ ˙ nœ ˙ #œ ˙ The LNTs for the C major triad remain chromatic in the key of G major.3 Chopin: Nocturne in Eb major. Jazz Theory Resources . 2 œ œ œ. E and G. the mediant (iii) in the key of Ab major. and as the submediant (vi) of Eb major or the tonic of C minor (i). Listen to how the penultimate Bb points down to and finally resolves to the Ab. Notice how the UNTs change according to the context. C C bœ œ œ œ œ b n œ & b b 12 8 nœ œbœ œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ ? b b 12 œ œ b 8 œ 4. C as V in F minor # C b & b bb bœ ˙ œ n˙ bœ ˙ #œ ˙ nœ ˙ #œ n˙ The distinction is evident in Chopin’s choice of UNTs in this excerpt. œ œ œ œ œ b œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ A C minor triad can be found as the supertonic chord (ii) in Bb major. The use of a Bb would have made the line want to move down to the Ab. No. but the UNT to E is an F# from the key signature. Op.Chapter 4 Triadic Generalization 73 A C major triad will have the same UNTs and LNTs in the key of C major or F major. C as IV in G UNTs LNTs C & œ ˙ #œ ˙ œ ˙ #œ ˙ nœ ˙ #œ ˙ If the C major triad is in the key of F minor. all of the diatonic UNTs are also chromatic. The C7 chord is the dominant of F minor and yields the Db. 9. Note how the Bn. points up to the Cn. a chromatic LT. vi or i chord.

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but as a iii chord the UNT is a half step above tonic. When C minor is a ii chord, the UNT to the G is An, a whole step above, but when C minor is a vi, i or iii chord, the UNT is Ab. Cm as ii in Bb
Cm Cm

Cm as vi in Eb or i in C minor
Cm Cm

b bb b & b œ ˙ œ b˙ nœ ˙ ˙ & # œ œ b˙ bœ ˙ #œ ˙ ˙ œ œ ˙ ˙ nœ nœ ˙ œ ˙
Cm as iii in Ab

b & b bb bœ ˙ œ b˙ bœ ˙ #œ ˙ nœ ˙ nœ ˙
N EIGHBOR T ONE C OMBINATIONS
Neighbor tones are often found in combinations. These combination neighbor tone patterns have been called double neighbor tones, changing tones, encircling, or enclosing tones. There are a limited number of possible patterns that involve the basic chord tone (CT) and both the upper neighbor tones (UNT) and lower neighbor tones (LNT). The possible combinations are: Combination UNT–LNT–CT CT–UNT–LNT–CT UNT–CT–LNT–CT UNT–LNT–CT
C

Cm

Cm

Inverse LNT–UNT–CT CT–LNT–UNT–CT LNT–CT–UNT–CT LNT–UNT–CT
C

œ ˙
Cm

œ #œ ˙

œ #œ ˙

#œ œ ˙
LNT–UNT–CT
Cm

#œ nœ ˙

œ nœ ˙

UNT–LNT–CT

nœ ˙
C

nœ œ b˙

bœ #œ ˙

#œ bœ ˙
CT–LNT–UNT–CT
C

œ nœ ˙

nœ œ ˙

CT–UNT–LNT–CT

&œ œ œ œ #œ ˙ œ ˙ œ œ #œ ˙

œ #œ œ ˙ œ #œ nœ ˙ œ œ nœ ˙

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CT–UNT–LNT–CT
Cm

CT–LNT–UNT–CT
Cm

&œ œ œ bœ #œ ˙ n œ b œ b ˙ œ ˙ nœ
UNT–CT–LNT–CT
C

œ #œ bœ ˙ bœ œ nœ b˙ œ nœ œ ˙
C

LNT–CT–UNT–CT

&œ œ œ œ #œ ˙ œ œ #œ ˙ ˙ œ
UNT–CT–LNT–CT
Cm

#œ œ œ ˙ #œ œ nœ ˙ œ œ nœ ˙
LNT–CT–UNT–CT
Cm

&œ œ nœ bœ œ b˙ bœ œ #œ ˙ ˙ nœ

#œ œ bœ ˙ œ bœ nœ b˙ nœ œ œ ˙

Charlie Parker and Oscar Peterson ignored the individual harmonic details and generalized the tonic triad in the following examples. The four note neighbor tone pattern follows the arpeggio. The first note of the pattern is the UNT followed by the chord tone (CT), the LNT and the CT again, then a jump is made to the next chord tone’s UNT. 4.4 Tonic triad encircled with UNT-CT-LNT-CT pattern
C A7 Dm7 G7 C

œ #œ œ œ œ # œ œ œ c ‰ œ & j œ œ #œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
4.5 Tonic triad encircled with UNT-CT-LNT-CT pattern

œ œ #œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ nœ œ b cœ œ œ b œ œ œ œ œ œ & œ œ nœ œ œ œ nœ œ

œ

As you can see from the following Beethoven example, this encircling idea is not new or unique to jazz. The pattern is the same one used by Parker and Peterson: UNT-CT-LNT-CT. 4.6 Beethoven: Symphony no. 9, third movement

b &b c

œ œ œœ œ œ nœ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ #œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ nœ Œ

Chopin’s Etude No. 2, Op. 25 is an excellent study in the use of neighbor tones over simple triads. Shown below are two short excerpts illustrating the simple F minor and Ab major triads embellished identically in parallel phrases. The circled notes indicate the pitches of the triad. The chord tones, even

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though surrounded by chromatic and diatonic neighbors are stressed due to their location on the strong beats, and because all surrounding notes point back directly to the chord tones. If all the neighbor tones were removed, what remains is a quarter note triplet melody of the chord tones: 5-5-5-3-3-3-1. 4.7 Chopin: Etude No. 2, Op. 25 (F minor)

b & b bb c
4.8

œ J œ J

j œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ n œ œ n œ œ b œ œ œ œ œj œ

Chopin: Etude No. 2, Op. 25 (Ab relative major to the F Minor)

b & b bb c

Mozart used the pattern found in the Beethoven, Parker and Peterson examples, but added a leap away to a chord tone and back to the original chord tone before continuing the sequence in the following two examples. Leaping away to another chord tone is called an arpeggiated tone.

œ nœ œ œ œ bœ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ 6 œ œ œ b ≈ n œ œ # œ œ œ œ œj & 8
4.9 Mozart: Piano Sonata in F major, K.332, Allegro Assai

. œ œ œ œ œ œ œ. œ œ œ œ œ œ 3 nœ œ . œ œ #œ œ œ œ &b 4 œ
Lee Morgan made this line interesting with the use of chromatic encircling of an F minor triad. Like the Chopin example, the chord tones 5-3-1 occur on the downbeats so that not only do the chromatic notes resolve to the chord tones, but do so at significant rhythmic locations. 4.11
Fm

4.10

Mozart: Sonata in F major, K.547a, Allegro

F minor triad with NTs

& c œ # œ œ b œ b œ œ œ œ n œj
Tete Montoliu displaced the rhythmic accent in this syncopated example. He used a three note pattern of UNT-LNT-CT.

œœœ œœ œ œ œ œ & b c œ œ #œ œ œ œ nœ œ
F
3 3 3 3

4.12

Triad with NTs on the Blues

œ œœ

Ó

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Tom Harrell makes a case for practicing in all twelve keys in the next two examples. These are from different tunes, different tempos and a half-step apart. The melodic material is identical with the exception of rhythmic displacement. These examples should inspire trying rhythmic displacement as a developmental tool in improvisation and practice. The encircling pattern is LNT-UNT-CT. Harrell encircled the third and root of the chords in two octaves, but played the fifth of the chords without any embellishment. 4.13 E minor triad with NT elaboration
Em 9 3 #œ œ œ #œ #œ œ œ J #œ œ œ #œ œ ˙

&c
4.14

&c

E m9

b

3 œ bœ bœ œ œ bœ bœ œ bœ bœ œ œ b˙ J œ

Eb minor triad with NT elaboration

Ó

Joe Pass often used encircling patterns. In the following excerpt, Pass began a scale in the first measure, but relied on the encircling pattern CT-LNT-UNT-CT for the rest of the passage. 4.15
Dm7

Encircling patterns
G7 C C7 F

& œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ #œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ bœ #œ œ

Ó

If the folk-ethnic sound is desired, then a combination of all diatonic neighbor tones may be called for as in this modal melody. 4.16 Diatonic upper and lower neighbor tones

& 12 8 ? 12 8
r #œ

œ Ó. Œ œ J bœ J
r . ˙ ˙ .. œ ˙ ˙. r #œ

œ œj œ œj œ j œj œ œ ˙ ˙ ..
r œ

j œ œj b œ œ ˙ .
r #œ

˙ ˙ ..

˙ ˙ ..

r œ

˙ ˙ ..

The same neighbor tone pattern (CT-LNT-UNT-CT) used in the previous melody is used by Gluck in this example using the notes from a major scale. 4.17 Gluck: Orfeo

&c

œ œ œ œœœœ œœœœœ œ œœœ œœ

j œ

œ

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A RPEGGIATED T ONES
A simple stepwise line may be elaborated by leaping to other chord tones. The leap disrupts the calm of the stepwise line providing angularity and dramatic interest. Arpeggiated tones can replace the upper or lower neighbor tones as shown below. 4.18 Simple melody: with PTs: with UNTs & PTs Arpeggiated tones replace UNTs:

&˙ ˙

˙

Ó

œœœœ ˙ Ó

œœœœœœœœ ˙ Ó

œœœœœœœœ ˙ Ó

CHROMATIC APPROACHES
Chromatic approaches involve a diatonic note and a chromatically altered note leading to an essential tone. It may begin with the diatonic tone followed by the chromatic tone as a passing tone into the essential tone, or it may begin with the chromatic tone then a diatonic neighbor tone leading to the essential tone. The chromaticism adds color to the lines and the additional pitches often add rhythmic interest. The essential chord tones often occur on strong beats in the measure and may be chromatically approached from above or below. 4.19 Notes of the C major Triad approached chromatically:

&

œ bœ ˙
4.20

œ #œ ˙

nœ #œ ˙

œ bœ ˙

Notes of the C minor Triad approached chromatically:

&

bœ nœ ˙

œ bœ ˙

#œ œ b˙

œ nœ b˙

œ #œ ˙

A chromatic approach may be used in conjunction with other devices. In the example below, the simple melodic fragment (G–E) can be elaborated with the F as a passing tone. The D# can be added after the passing tone to create a combination neighbor tone pattern. The chromatic approach (D–D#) can be added following the passing tone F to create one of the most common chromatic approaches. 4.21
C

Elaborated simple fragment

˙

œ

œ

˙

œ

œ #œ ˙

œ œ œ #œ ˙

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O CTAVE D ISPLACEMENT & LEAPS
One or more tones of a simple line can be transposed to another octave. The leaps disrupt the smooth line and can add a dramatic element. Sometimes octave displacement may be a result of the range limitations of an instrument. An improviser may leap to a lower or higher register as the melodic lines reach the extremities of the instrument. The example below shows how a descending line from chord tones changes when the target tone is transposed to the upper octave. The octave displacement involves skipping over a chord tone (shown with the “¿”). Leaps usually occur from a strong beat to a weak beat and rarely occur over a measure line or from a weak to a strong beat. 4.22

&

˙ ˙
3 1

˙ ˙ ¿
3 1

˙ ˙
5 3

˙ ˙ ¿
5 3

˙ ˙
1 5

˙ ¿ ˙
1 5

The simple triadic line shown in the first three measures may be transformed with octave displacement shown in the last three measures. The octave displacement adds range to the original idea and the leaps allow for more dramatic expression. 4.23

&c ˙
3

˙
1

˙
5

˙
3

˙
1

˙
3

˙
1

˙
5

˙
3

˙
1

Leaps and octave displacement may be accompanied by other devices. The line below was created using the triadic line from above with the octave displaced notes. The first chord tone is chromatically approached from below. The line jumps up to the upper octave for the second chord tone, leaps past it and is chromatically approached . The next chord tones, the fifth and the third, are approached using an identical pair of upper and lower neighbor tones. The octave displacement of basic pitches and the addition of several chromatic approaches and neighbor tones has created a much more elaborate line, but at the same time, the line retains an uncomplicated understructure. The reduction of the line shown below illustrates the pure diatonic step construction of the elaborate line. 4.24

&c &c

œ #œ œ œ nœ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ # œ œ #œ œ (œ) œ œ
3 1

œ

(œ) œ œ

5

œ

3

œœ

1

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P EDAL P OINT & PIVOT T ONES
Pedal point is traditionally the term for a sustained note in the lowest register (as in the pedals of an organ), usually the dominant setting up a return to the tonic. The motion against the pedal point is oblique as one part remains stationary and the other moves. Pedal point may occur internally with the structure of the music and may be termed a pivot note. The pivot note remains stationary while other notes move. A simple descending step line can take on a sawtooth appearance when interrupted by a pivot note. In the first example, the descending 5-4-3-2-1 line is made more angular by the pivot note C and the chromatic leading tone to the A.. The second example shows an ascending 3-4-5 line made angular and interesting using the tonic pitch as a pivot tone and using the B as chromatic passing tone leading to the C. 4.25
F

Simple line enhanced using pivot tones

&b c œ œ œ œ
4.26
F

˙

Ó

œ

œ #œ œ nœ œ œ œ

Simple line enhanced using pivot tones
F

&b c ˙

˙

˙

œ œ œ Œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ
3 3 3

TRIADIC MUSICAL EXAMPLES
Jazz improvisers do not limit themselves to one elaboration approach within their melodic lines. Here are some excerpts from selected jazz improvisations to illustrate some of the devices described above. Clifford Brown used passing tones and chord tones in the first two measures below. In the last complete measure, Brown used a combination of neighbor tones (UNT-LNT) to approach the root, and chromatic approaches to arrive at the third and finally the fifth of the Bb triad. 4.27 Chord tones and passing tones

b &b c

‰ ˙j œ œ ˙ ˙ œ ˙ œ œ ˙ œ œ ˙ œ # œ ˙ œ n œ ˙ ˙

Brown chromatically approached the third (D), encircled the fifth (F) and root (Bb) with upper and lower neighbor tones in this excerpt. The melodic fragment is based on the Bb major triad as Brown seemed to ignore the specifics of the harmony. It would be misleading to analyze these tones according to their vertical positions relating to the chords. The C# should not be analyzed as the raised root of Cm, and the En as the major seventh of the F7 chord. They are better described as two chromatic leading tones to the third and fifth of the Bb triad.

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4.28

Chromatic approaches to triad
Cm 7

b &b c Œ ‰

œ œ œ Œ œ œ n œ œ #œ œ

F7

Dm 7

G7

It is doubtful that Clifford Brown conceived of the notes in this line as pitches related vertically to the shown chords. Analyzing the tones vertically, the Bn and G# over a Gm, or a Bn over a C7 are senseless. It is more likely that Brown used the tones from an F major triad as a generalization of the harmony and approached each F major chord tone with its lower neighbor or leading tone. 4.29 Leading tones
C7 F

& b c nœ œ #œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ
Here are two more examples of Bb triad generalization. In the first, Charlie Parker used leading tones similarly to Brown’s previous example. In the second, Brown elaborated the triad with a few grace notes. 4.30 Triadic generalization with leading tones
Cm 7

Gm 7

Bb Gm7 œ #œ b n œ &b c Œ

œ

œ œ œ œ œ œ b ˙

F7

4.31

Triadic generalization
Cm7 œœœ Œ F7

b &b c Ó

Œ œ œ œ œ
j #œ

B

Charlie Parker used a number of elaborative devices on an F major triad in the following excerpt. At a., Parker used a lower neighbor tone which is mirrored at b. with the use of an upper neighbor tone. The primary pitches at c. and d. are the leap from C up to A. At c., the Cn was approached from its leading tone Bn. The leap took the line past the target A, and sounded the Bb and G#, encircled the A with its upper and lower neighbor tones. Passing tones were played at e. between the descending chord tones. 4.32 Triadic generalization with several elaborative devices c. d. a. b.

œ & b c œ n œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ‰ j œ œ # œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ n œ œj nœ

e.

Jazz Theory Resources

82

Chapter 4

Triadic Generalization

Kenny Dorham began this phrase using the Bb triad pitches to generalize the harmony. In a subsequent phrase, Dorham began with the identical pitches, but as the line continued, addressed more of the specific chord tones from the progression. It is important to note that there is rarely one single approach used by any individual throughout an improvisation.

b b &b c Ó
B

4.33

Harmonic Generalization
G7

œ nœ œ #œ œ œ œ # œ œ œ œ

Cm7

F7

Dm7

œ œ œ œ œ j œ. œ

3

G7

Cm 7

F7

˙

Ó

4.34

b &b b &b

Bb G7 Cm7 F7 Dm7 G7 b œ F7 œ œ Cm7 œ œ n œ b œ œ œ # œ n œ œ œ œ œ # œ œ œ œ c Ó œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ B b7 Eb E °7 Bb Cm 7 F7 3 b œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ nœ œ œ œ Œ œ œ bœ #œ œ œ

Harmonic Specificity

At the core of this line from a blues improvisation by Tete Montoliu is a simple line shown in the staff below the excerpt. Montoliu used F as a pivot tone in the first measure. The D is an upper neighbor to the C which was octave displacement in the second measure. The A in m.3 was preceded by its upper and lower neighbor tone. The A in m.4 was approached from above and below finally through the G#. 4.35
C7

F triadic Generalization
F

œ œ œ œ nœ œ &b c
6

œ. œ ˙

‰ ˙

œ œ bœ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ J
3

&b c

˙

˙

˙

˙

œ

œ

˙

Tete Montoliu encircled the primary pitches of the F triad in ex. 4.36 from a blues improvisation. In ex. 4.37 Montoliu ignored the specific implications of the C7 chord and concentrated on chord tones from the F triad. The A was chromatically approached from below, and after a descending F arpeggio, the A was preceded by its upper and lower neighbor tone, followed by the chromatic encircling of the C.

œœœ œœ œ œ œ œ & b c œ œ #œ œ œ œ nœ œ
F
3 3 3 3

4.36

F triadic Generalization

œ œœ

Ó

Jazz Theory Resources

Each group of chromatic tones points to a chord tone of the C triad. All twelve pitches are used.Chapter 4 Triadic Generalization 83 4. 4.37 F triadic Generalization &b c j œ #œ œ œ œ œ b œ œ œ #œ œ nœ œ. The first two bracketed groups have identical intervals and the third is an exact inversion. The chromatic clusters create tension on the weaker beats which is resolved before moving to the next chromatic cluster.38 C C Triad with chromatic embellishment 3 ↓ ↓ j n œ b œ œ ‰ #œ œ œ b œ œ nœ œ #œ œ #œ ↓ &c Ó Jazz Theory Resources . C7 3 F Examining this next example may lead one to conclude that anything goes since all twelve pitches are present in the line. Clarity exists from the metric placement of the triad pitches and from the symmetry of the bracketed notes. but the chromaticism is not random. Each chord tone of the C triad occurs in strong metric positions.

Upper neighbor tones are changed to lower neighbor tones.40 &b c œ œœ œ œœ œœ ˙ Listen to what happens when the direction is changed. The angular and smooth parts of the theme provide a contrast of musical ideas for development. Bach &b 3 4 œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙. 8. inverted in minor and in major. S. The descending arpeggio is transformed into a smoother line with the use of passing and upper neighbor tones. and works in major or when transposed to the parallel minor. Jazz Theory Resources . 4. Listen to the Coltrane/Bach idea inverted and in a major key: it begins to sound like the Shaker tune Simple Gifts.41 Opposite motion with LNTs In minor & c œ œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ ˙ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ bœ ˙ Arpeggio tones could be inserted in place of the UNT tones. 4. and the motive remains musical. The simple arpeggio below is hardly enough to make an interesting theme. but imaginative manipulation of the triad may make the melodic lines more interesting. Bach used this basic structure to create a memorable and workable theme for the Two-part Invention No. This idea is found in a John Coltrane improvisation. The line is still clear and musical.84 Chapter 4 Triadic Generalization TRIAD MOTIVE DEVELOPED The triad shape by itself may produce interesting melodic lines. 4.42 Bach theme with arpeggio tones: line with arpeggiated tones: œ œœœœœœ œ œ œœ œ &b 3 4 Ó &c œœœœœœœœ ˙ Ó If the idea works in major will it work in minor? Below are three more variations of the idea: the Coltrane line in minor. œ ‰ œj œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ Ó The last nine pitches of the Bach theme can be changed to eighth note values and would be useful to any jazz improviser: 4. The ascending arpeggio is transformed into a broken chord with the addition of the F as a pivot or pedal tone giving the first measure interesting angularity. With the addition of simple developmental devices.39 Simple arpeggio idea Transformed to a theme by J.

With the arpeggiated tones added to the Donaldson idea.) used chromatic passing tones to outline the F major triad in this excerpt from a blues improvisation. the result is a jazzy version of Simple Gifts. Lou Donaldson (b. adding only arpeggio tones. œ œ bœ nœ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ & c œ œ #œ œ bœ nœ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ # œ œ œ œ œ œ Shapes related to the Bach theme can be found in these Cannonball Adderley improvisation excerpts: 4.46 Gm 7 Ascending idea using LNTs œ & b c œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ The previous line echoes this familiar melody: 4. b.45 D7 Descending using UNTs and PTs G & c Œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œj 4.44 a.) used almost the exact Parker line. 4.47 Joshua Fought the Battle of Jerico b œœ œ˙ & b c œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ J J œ œ œ˙ J J œœ œœ Œ J J The following pages illustrate several of the many possible elaborations of the basic triad pitches referenced to the C major and C minor tonic triads.Chapter 4 Triadic Generalization 85 4. Jazz Theory Resources .43 in minor inverted in minor inverted in major & c œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ ˙ Ó œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ bœ ˙ Ó œ œ œ œ œ œ œbœ ˙ Ó Parker (a. The F major triad pitches occurred on the strong beats.

86 Chapter 4 Triadic Generalization TRIADIC EMBELLISHMENT of C MAJOR TRIAD: Tonic Mediant Dominant & w j œ ˙ j œ ˙ w j #œ ˙ j œ ˙ w j #œ ˙ j œ ˙ Leading tones (LT) and Lower Neighbor Tones (LNT) & Chord Tone (CT) & œ œ ˙ œ œ ˙ œ œ ˙ Upper Neighbor tones (UNT) & œ œ ˙ œ œ ˙ œ œ ˙ Encircled with UNT-LNT-CT patterns & œ œ ˙ œ œ ˙ œ #œ ˙ œ œ ˙ œ #œ ˙ œ œ ˙ Encircled with UNT-CT-LNT-CT & LNT-CT-UNT-CT patterns & œ œ œ ˙ & œ œ œ ˙ œ œ #œ ˙ #œ œ œ ˙ œ œ #œ ˙ #œ œ œ ˙ Encircled with CT-UNT-LNT-CT & CT-LNT-UNT-CT patterns œ œ œ ˙ œ œ œ ˙ œ œ #œ ˙ œ #œ œ ˙ œ œ #œ ˙ œ #œ œ ˙ Chromatic Approach from UNT or LNT through a Chromatic Passing Tone (PT) & œ bœ ˙ œ #œ ˙ nœ #œ ˙ œ bœ ˙ Encircled with combinations of UNTs. resolving in opposite direction of leap. & œ œ œ ˙ #œ ˙ œ #œ ˙ Jazz Theory Resources . LNTs & Chromatic PTs & œ œ bœ ˙ œ œ nœ bœ ˙ œ ˙ œ œ #œ ˙ œ œ œ nœ #œ ˙ œ ˙ #œ œ bœ ˙ œ œ œ #œ nœ bœ ˙ Approached with arpeggio leaping from other chord tones above or below & œ œ ˙ œ œ ˙ œ ˙ œ ˙ œ œ ˙ Using PTs to pass between two chord tones & ˙ œ œ ˙ ˙ œ œ ˙ ˙ ˙ œ œ ˙ œ œ ˙ œ ˙ ˙ œ œ œ œ ˙ Leaping from one chord tone to a note above or below another.

resolving in opposite direction of leap.Chapter 4 Triadic Generalization 87 TRIADIC EMBELLISHMENT of C MINOR TRIAD: Tonic Mediant Dominant & w j nœ ˙ j œ ˙ bw j œ b˙ j œ b˙ w j #œ ˙ j bœ ˙ Leading tones (LT) and Lower Neighbor Tones (LNT) & Chord Tone (CT) & œ nœ ˙ œ œ ˙ œ œ ˙ Upper Neighbor tones (UNT) & œ œ ˙ œ œ ˙ œ œ ˙ Encircled with UNT-LNT-CT patterns & œ nœ ˙ nœ œ ˙ œ œ b˙ œ œ ˙ bœ #œ ˙ œ œ ˙ Encircled with UNT-CT-LNT-CT & LNT-CT-UNT-CT patterns & œ œ nœ ˙ & nœ œ œ ˙ œ bœ œ b˙ nœ œ œ b˙ bœ œ #œ ˙ #œ œ œ ˙ Encircled with CT-UNT-LNT-CT & CT-LNT-UNT-CT patterns œ œ nœ ˙ œ nœ œ ˙ bœ œ œ b˙ bœ nœ œ b˙ œ bœ #œ ˙ œ #œ œ ˙ Chromatic Approach from UNT or LNT through a Chromatic Passing Tone (PT) & bœ nœ ˙ œ bœ ˙ #œ œ b˙ œ nœ b˙ œ #œ ˙ Encircled with combinations of UNTs. & œ œ bœ #œ ˙ œ œ b˙ Jazz Theory Resources . LNTs & Chromatic PTs & nœ œ bœ ˙ bœ nœ nœ bœ ˙ œ ˙ œ œ œ nœ b˙ #œ œ nœ nœ b˙ œ œ b˙ bœ œ #œ ˙ bœ œ œ bœ nœ #œ ˙ Approached with arpeggio leaping from other chord tones above or below & œ bœ ˙ œ œ b˙ ˙ œ bœ ˙ bœ bœ ˙ Using PTs to pass between two chord tones & ˙ œ bœ b˙ ˙ œ œ ˙ b˙ b˙ œ œ ˙ ˙ œ œ ˙ nœ ˙ ˙ bœ nœ nœ ˙ Leaping from one chord tone to a note above or below another.

48 F Major Pentatonic D Minor Pentatonic &b c ˙ œ ˙ ˙ œ ˙ ˙ ˙ œ ˙ œ ˙ There are many modes and applications of pentatonic scales that go beyond triadic generalization that are discussed in chapter 16. A blues improvisation by Parker. In the same way that major scales are related to minor scales. As the name implies. but the improvisations also draw on many other elements in the course of the improvisations. Clifford Brown or Wynton Kelly may contain elements of what could be labeled a blues scale. Also. The example below shows that an F minor blues scale is constructed from an F minor pentatonic scale with one added chromatic tone.88 Chapter 4 Triadic Generalization PENTATONIC SCALE One of the most common groups of notes or scales in universal music is the pentatonic scale. many phrases that we would without a doubt call a blues lick may not be constructed strictly using notes from the labeled blues scale. the major and minor pentatonic scales are related. 4. The most typical pentatonic scale is really nothing more than a major triad with two auxiliary tones. 4. This means the minor blues scale is just as useful as the minor pentatonic for use as triadic generalization material. BLUES SCALES Is there really a blues scale? They. What is commonly called the blues scale would be better labeled the minor blues scale. a pentatonic scale is a five tone scale. The major pentatonic scale is two notes shy of the major scale.49 F Minor Pentatonic F Minor Blues Scale b & b bb c ˙ ˙ bœ ˙ œ ˙ ˙ ˙ œ nœ ˙ œ ˙ Jazz Theory Resources . Amazing Grace contains only these five pitches: the tonic triad (primary pitches) and two additional tones (the second and sixth degrees). the tritone. An F major pentatonic shares the pitches with D minor pentatonic. the missing notes being the fourth and seventh degrees. Pentatonic melodies are often merely triadic melodies using only the two additional pitches for elaboration. like many aspects of music theory may be the result of academic labeling and codification. The relative consonance of the pentatonic scale may help to explain its ubiquitous melodic use. These blues licks would probably have elements found in blues scales and triadic generalization. Blues scales are another form of triadic generalization. the remaining five notes are quite consonant. With the absence of those two most dissonant notes of the major scale. There is a certain grain of truth to the existence of blues scales.

which is often resolved to the major triad notes.” and still be relying on the basic triads for the underlying structure of the improvisation.51 œ ˙ ˙ œ ˙ ˙ œ #œ ˙ ˙ œ ˙ D Minor Pentatonic D Minor Blues Scale &b c ˙ 4. They also begin to sense the missing major third. The imposition of the flatted third. An F major blues scale has the same notes as an D minor blues scale. but alas. so that in an F major tune. Knowing a major blues scale would help them play over F major blues. will sound like a minor third. The chromatic tone will sound like a chromatic approach tone to the major third.Chapter 4 Triadic Generalization 89 Every high school jazz band member seems to know the minor blues scale. the students intuitively begin to realize there is more to jazz than just the minor blues scale. gritty minor blues scale and the major blues scale with the “pretty notes. The major blues scale is nothing more than a major pentatonic with a chromatic tone added. Students are usually instructed to use this scale to improvise over Blues in F major. it is not in the scale given to them by their teacher.52 ˙ œ ˙ œ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ œ #œ ˙ œ ˙ F Minor Pentatonic F Minor Blues Scale b & b bb c ˙ 4. An F minor blues scale is related to an Ab major blues scale. notes often labeled “blue notes. Up to a point.” creates a nice tension over the major harmony. Aside from the obvious application (minor blues for minor tunes. F major or F minor blues scale may be heard. but it would be hard to find an example of major blues played in a minor key setting. major blues for major tunes) a minor blues scale can often be used in a major key. The two blues scales are related in the same way major and minor are related. This may be because many of their band directors know little else to teach them about jazz improvisation.53 ˙ bœ ˙ œ ˙ ˙ œ nœ ˙ œ ˙ A b Major Pentatonic A b Major Blues Scale b & b bb c ˙ œ ˙ ˙ œ ˙ ˙ œ nœ ˙ ˙ œ ˙ Jazz artists will use the major and minor blues scales as colors but will mix them in with other concepts and sounds.50 F Major Pentatonic F Major Blues Scale &b c ˙ 4. or in another context. In a major context both blues scales are often called upon. After playing the minor third and fourth over and over they are ready to hear it resolve to the major third. 4. students will have fun playing this over a major blues. but after a while. Jazz Theory Resources . F major and F minor are parallel. One can tell quite a good story just going back and forth between the woeful. flatted fifth and flatted seventh from the minor blues scale.

the intonation may vary by a few cents for expression. they may be bent tones finding the in-between pitches not available in European equal tempered twelve tone chromatic scales. in the right channel another guitarist played a C minor seventh chord with a minor third. are in either major or minor keys. The occurrence of a blue flatted third over the major chord creates a conflict with the major third that allows the expression of things not available with equal tempered scales. and many horn players can find the blue notes more easily than a pianist who is stuck with the twelve keys on the piano. Singers. and the singer sang a blue note third that was in between the major and minor third.57 F Lowered third and seventh Blue Notes & b c bœ .54 F 3-1 Blue note replacement F 3-2-1 F Blue note replacement F &b c ˙ ˙ bœ . The blue seventh and the blue third often point to the primary pitches tonic and dominant. You must listen to singers to understand the elastic quality of these pitches. 4.90 Chapter 4 Triadic Generalization BLUE NOTES Blue notes can be more than just chromatic altered tones. The easiest and most common definition for blue notes includes the flatted third. depending on your perspective.56 5-3 Fm Blue note replacement Fm 5-4-3 Fm Blue note replacement b & b bb c ˙ ˙ bœ . X j œ ˙ nœ œ ˙ bœ œ œ œ ˙ X The above example shown in the parallel key of F minor 4.55 Dm 5-3 Blue note replacement Dm 5-4-3 Dm Blue note replacement Dm &b c ˙ ˙ bœ . string players. F œ ˙ J bœ œ œ œ ˙ F F bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ Jazz Theory Resources . It often mirrors the kinds of motion of the blue third. guitarist. the blue notes in the following examples will be labeled as b3. 4. and #4 or b5. 4. b7. Limited by the notation system. One guitarist may have played a dominant seventh chord with a major third in the left channel. j œ ˙ bœ . the relative minor to F major. X j œ ˙ nœ œ ˙ X bœ œ œ œ ˙ Fm The flat seventh may be used over a major chord. A blue third may occur in place of a major third. The Ab is now the flatted fifth. X j œ ˙ nœ œ ˙ bœ œ œ œ ˙ X These same pitches occur in D minor. seventh and fifth tones of a major scale. There are some outstanding R& B recordings that. A blue note will not necessarily be a constant pitch: it may be approached and departed by a slide and when held.

61 and 4. In ex. the note is a raised second leading into the major third. the second time as the minor third (Ab). In ex. it sounds like a flatted third. In ex. 4. Add to this list from your own search and create some of your own triadic generalization lines based on these blues scales.62. MAJOR BLUES SCALE Below are several straight forward and familiar examples of the major blues scale used in compositions and improvisations.61 Major Blues Scale ‰ b œj œ ‰ œ J œ œ œ œ œ Œ œ Œ ‰ b œj œ ‰ œ J œ œ œ b &b c Ó 4.63 the same pitch is used twice in two different ways: the first as a leading tone (G#) to the third. but in performance with vocal inflections may be appropriately detuned. 4. The third note of the major blues scale can sound like a raised second or a lowered third depending on the context. œ b œ . b c œ n œ b œ bœ œ œ J & J J 3 bœ œ œ œ Ó X 3 œ bœ œ nœ œ œ œ œ Pianist may use grace notes to compensate for the inability of the piano to bend notes.58 Flatted fifth and raised fourth Blue Notes X X > > >. In this way they behave as chromatic passing or leading tones.59 Blue Grace notes œ œ J &b c nœ œ bœ œ bœ œ œ œ œ j #œ nœ œ œ BLUES SCALE MUSICAL EXAMPLES Here is a brief collection of major and minor blues scale ideas and a few examples with combinations of the two scales.60 Major Blues Scale b &b b c œ œ Œ œ Œ 4.62 F Œ #œ œ Ó œ ‰œ œ œ J œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ ˙ œ œ Major Blues Scale &b c œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ Jazz Theory Resources . 4. b œ .60.Chapter 4 Triadic Generalization 91 The flatted fifth can point down the third or as a raised fourth up to the fifth. 4. 4. 4.

4. nœ œ œ œ nœ b &b c ‰ œ J n œ 3b œ b nœ bœ &b ‰ 4. although different in character. 4.65 Minor Blues Scale &c œ œ bœ bœ j ‰ bJ œ nœ œ bœ bœ bœ œ œ œ b˙ bœ 3 3 3 Carl Fontana ignored the indicated chord progression and drove this minor blues scale through to an exciting conclusion in this improvisation.64 Minor Blues Scale bœ bœ œ 3 bœ bœ bœ œ œ B 7 b œ œ œ œ œ œb œ œ ‰ J bœ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ ‰ J œ bœ œ 3 bœ œ bœ nœ bœ bœ œ J Adderley also made the minor blues scale work over the Bb major blues progression. It would be better to recognize the strength of the melodic line through the use of the minor blues scale as a generalization. the minor third is finally resolved to a major third. can be used side by side for a expressive blues line.67 C Major & Minor Blues Scales 3 & c œ Œ ‰ œj œ œ œ œ œ Œ b œ œ b œ œ n œ œj Jazz Theory Resources F 3 C . Notice that at the end. and the use of a repeated sequential idea that led to a logical conclusion.66 D9 Minor Blues Scale C A7 Dm7 G7 Cmaj7 bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ ?c COMBINATIONS of MAJOR & MINOR BLUES SCALES These Charlie Parker and Wynton Kelly examples show how the two scales.92 Chapter 4 4. It would be foolish to analyze each note in relationship to the chords above them. both begin with a major and end with a minor blues scale idea. Both are from a blues in C. 4.63 Triadic Generalization Major Blues Scale 3 ‰ # œj œ œ œ œ Œ Œ œ F &b c œ œ bœ œ œ Œ ‰ J MINOR BLUES SCALE Wynton Kelly used the minor blues scale in this emphatic climax to this Bb major blues improvisation.

V7 . 4. Cm7 .I) is the most common progression in the key of Bb major. but it is important to recognize the difference between harmonically specific and general melodic lines and one should always be aware of the linear nature of music. Any vertical dissonances are resolved by logical linear conclusions. 5. 2. 5. There are those who analyze melodic lines like this where each note is shown with a number below it representing its relationship to each chord symbol. These next examples illustrate how a simple triad. The line is created generalizing the G minor triad.V7 . Jazz Theory Resources .F. 2. any vertical dissonances should be analyzed and by their linear relationships to the basic G minor triad pitches. 4.i).68 Major & Minor Blues Scales 3 Triadic Generalization 93 œ √ œ # œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ bœ œ œ # œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ &c bœ œ GENERALIZATION EXAMPLES APPLIED An improviser may approach any given harmonic context using harmonic specificity or harmonic generalization (or may choose to ignore the implications entirely). 3.69 Cm7 Triadic generalization over ii7 .V7 . 1. The primary pitches in this line are the root. There are times when analysis of direct chord-tone relationships is useful. embellished with only upper and lower neighbor tones can be used to create melodies over traditional harmonic progressions.D . third and fifth of the Bb triad: Bb . 3. As before. The En is not the major third of Cm7.F7 . The C# is not the raised root of Cm7. The progression in G minor is Aø7 . D is approached through its leading tone C# Bb is preceded by its lower and upper neighbor tones (A & Cn) F is sounded.D7 .Bb (ii7 . then its upper and lower neighbor tones (G & E). the third of Bb. The circled notes illustrate the primary target triad notes to which all of the other notes point. 4. then F returns D is approached by its upper neighbor tone (Eb) and chromatically from below through the chromatic passing tone C# Bb is preceded by its lower and upper neighbor tones (A & Cn) The same triadic generalization principles are can be effectivly applied when the progression is in a minor key. All of the secondary pitches should be analyzed by their linear relationship to the Bb triad and not their vertical relationship to the actual chords.Chapter 4 4.Gm (iiø7 .I progression F7 B b b & b c #œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ #œ œ nœ œ œ 1. but a lower neighbor tone to the F. but the leading tone pointing to D. The line below corresponds directly to the Bb major line above transposed to its relative minor.

2. 4. In your analysis of melodic material. A better strategy would be to conceive melodic shapes of single pitches with larger rhythmic units (basic triad pitches) and the tones that surround and point to those pitches (neighbor tones). 3.D.b13 . Triadic generalization as a tool for melodic invention requires the ability to recognize larger key areas aurally and by written chord symbols. 1.5th . but may be possible to generalize within each of the remote keys. Other tunes shift and modulate rapidly to remote keys areas before returning to the original key thus making generalization with a single triad impossible.i progression D7 Gm œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ b #œ œ œ œ nœ bœ #œ œ œ &b c 1.7th . Sometimes the linear and vertical analysis will agree. Be careful not to lose sight of the larger picture: if one looks too closely at the vertical structures. be prepared to encounter many types of melodic lines.V7 . then D returns Bb is approached by its lower neighbor tone (A) and from above through the chromatic passing tone Bn . This would be analogous to conceiving of a sentence thinking of individual syllables. This would mirror the creation of sentences out of noun and verb groups and their modifiers.3rd . the larger linear dimensions may be missed. Triads & Generalization.) G is preceded by its lower and upper neighbor tones (F# & A) 5. A study of harmonic progressions is necessary to understand its impact on harmonically specific melodic develop ment. 4. 5. third and fifth of the G minor triad: G . the previous was to a major third. then its upper and lower neighbor tones (Eb & C#). It would probably lead to incomprehensible results.PT or n13 . Bb is approached through its leading tone A G is preceded by its lower and upper neighbor tones (F# & A) D is sounded.70 A ø7 Triadic Generalization Triadic generalization over iiø7 . the analysis as tones related to the G minor triad proves more significant. It seems an impossible task to improvise melodic lines at any tempo by thinking of each individual pitch. Practice exercises and study examples found in Comprehensive Technique for Jazz Musicians. 3. Most of the notes in the second measure above could be labeled as chord tones of the D7 chord: Root . Analyze specific devices used to elaborate the simple triadic shapes. • • Jazz Theory Resources .Bb . But when examining the melodic line as a whole. The primary pitches in this line are the root. so the shapes must be inverted. (This approach is to a minor third. Transcribe examples of triadic generalization. Chapter 3. Apply to improvisation. 2. SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES • Return the simple triadic forms in Chapter 3 and create new melodies incorporating non-harmonic tones as illustrated in this chapter.5th. The chromatic approach is different here than in the preceding example.94 Chapter 4 4. Successful lines would be difficult to achieve. Many tunes used for improvisation by jazz musicians stay close enough to the tonic key area that very large sections may be generalized.

will be impractical. rearrange them in the order of thirds to produce FAC.1 C Triads and inversions &˙ ˙ ˙ Root ˙ ˙ ˙ 1st ˙ ˙ ˙ 2nd ˙ ˙ ˙ 1st ˙ ˙ ˙ 2nd Cm b˙ ˙ ˙ Root ˙ b˙ ˙ 1st b˙ ˙ ˙ 2nd ˙ ˙ b˙ 1st ˙ b˙ ˙ 2nd Jazz Theory Resources . In jazz and modern music.Chapter 5 Diatonic Harmony 95 V. The basic triad spellings are created using every other letter in the seven letter musical alphabet. the chord is usually extended beyond the triad by adding intervals of a third. the triad is in first inversion. DIATONIC HARMONY DIATONIC HARMONY: MAJOR There are only seven basic spellings for all tertian triads. the notes should be arranged as shown above. The seven pitches may be altered chromatically depending on the key signature. the triads are said to be inverted. All of these chords can theoretically be built on any degree of any scale. an F triad. If the pitches C. Often the triads will not have the root as the lowest tone. although some. a ninth chord is spelled 1-3-5-7-9. 5. as will be discovered. With the third in the bass. the triad is in second inversion. It is important to memorize them to correctly identify and notate the triads. ALL TERTIAN CHORD SPELLINGS TRIAD 1 3 5 A C E B D F C E G D F A E G B F A C G B D SEVENTH CHORD 1 3 5 7 A C E G B D F A C E G B D F A C E G B D F A C E G B D F EXTENDED 3 5 7 C E G D F A E G B F A C G B D A C E B D F TERTIAN 9 11 13 B D F C E G D F A E G B F A C G B D A C E 1 A B C D E F G INVERSIONS To determine the root of a tertian triad. When arranged with the third or fifth in the bass. a seventh chord adds a third beyond the fifth and is spelled 1-3-5-7. A tertian triad is spelled 1-3-5. extended to the limit using seven diatonic pitches: 1-3-5-7-9-11-13. A and F are found. with the fifth in the bass.

Most European music since the early Baroque has been based on a concept called the major/minor system. A C triad must contain the letters C. the tonic. This author prefers the custom of using upper case for chords with major thirds. and the “ti” sound from motion.Eb . the “o” sound from women.96 Chapter 5 Diatonic Harmony Seventh chords may be in third inversion where the seventh is in the bass. If chords built from major and minor scales are combined in harmonic progressions.” The triads below may sound like C minor chords. they typically progress towards the chord built on the tonic.G. and lower case for chords with minor thirds. 5.G. the harmony is said to function.D# . “Ghoti” would be more easily read if written as “Fish. but proper spellings should be adhered to. I call this the “Ghoti” principle. but they are confusing to read as they are misspelled. It might sound exactly the same with alternate spellings. This system depends on the tertian chords built on pitches from the major and harmonic minor scales in progressions of functional harmony. A misspelled chord in a melody line or harmony part will be harder to read and understand. E and G. The series of available seventh chords diatonic to the key of C major is shown below. A C minor triad should be spelled C . Roman numerals are associated with the seven different chords found in each key.3 Cm ? Violation of the “Ghoti” Principle & #˙ ˙˙ ˙ #˙ ˙ #˙ ˙˙ ˙ ˙ #˙ ˙ ˙ #˙ FUNCTIONAL HARMONY From the definition of tonal music. it is understood that melodic pitches tend to gravitate towards a single pitch. Functional harmony is the chords working together in a progression pointing towards the tonic. yet the sounds are commonly found in the English language. 5. It is doubtful that any two people would pronounce “Ghoti” the same way.4 Diatonic seventh chords in key of C & ? ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ I(maj7) ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ii7 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ iii7 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ IV(maj7) ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ V7 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ vi7 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ viiø7 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ Jazz Theory Resources . Pronounce “Ghoti” using the “gh” sound from enough.2 Seventh chords and inversions & b˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ Root ˙ b˙ ˙ ˙ 1st ˙ b ˙˙ ˙ 2nd ˙ ˙˙ b˙ 3rd It is extremely important to spell the triads correctly. When progression of this kind are present. which is the center of the musical organization. not C . 5.

There are only twelve pitches in the chromatic scale. place each accidental in front of notes to gain familiarity with the spelling of each chord. contradicts the no sharps or flats definition C major. Fill in the chart below in order to become more familiar with the specific chords in the thirteen major keys. and the other pitches of a dominant seventh chord point to the other pitches of a tonic triad. but the enharmonic equivalents Gb (6bs) and F# (6#s) are listed below.C. This cannot be a II7 chord in the key of C. so a dominant chord built on D must be from the key of G. Cmaj7 I (maj7) Dm7 ii7 Em7 iii7 Fmaj7 IV (maj7) G7 V7 Am7 vi7 Bø7 viiø 7 If the music is in the key of C. This can be determined by examining the chart above where the only scale degree that yields a dominant seventh chord is the fifth degree. A dominant seventh chord could be built on the second degree of the C major scale: D . The V7 chord in Db major will be Ab7. a chord built on the second degree is always a minor seventh chord. iii7 or vi7 chords.F# . and so on. but are different than what is shown above. or a vi7 chord in the key of Bb. The fifth degree of G is D. Just as the intervals of major scales. Minor seventh chords occur as ii7. A chord built on the first degree of any major scale is a major seventh chord. These are the most important pointer chords to the key area and the tonic chord. A C major seventh chord may function as the I chord in C major. and not with an incorrect enharmonic spelling. The Gm7 could be a ii7 chord in F. Do not write the key signatures at the beginning of each line. A minor seventh chord could be built on the fifth note of a C major scale. Be sure that the chords are spelled correctly.A .Chapter 5 Diatonic Harmony 97 The common shorthand method for labeling the chords from the key of C are shown below. The key can also be deduced by the F# from the key signature of G major. but this Gm7 chord could not be in the key of C as its third. This D7 chord would be from the key of G major. Chords on the second degree must be minor seventh chords (ii7). write out each of these chords in the thirteen major keys on staff paper. Bb. If other chords occur on the same C major scale degrees. The keys of Cb major (7bs) and C# major (7#s) have been omitted in favor of the enharmonic equivalents of B major (5# s) and Db major (5b s). the chords and their roman numerals remain constant when transposing to new keys. This makes perfect sense as the dominant pitch points to tonic. a iii7 chord in Eb. Jazz Theory Resources . not G#7. you will notice that several chords function differently depending on their key origins. KEY C F Bb Eb Ab Db Gb F# B E A D G Imaj7 Cmaj7 ii7 Dm7 iii7 Em7 IVmaj7 Fmaj7 V7 G7 vi7 Am7 viiø7 Bø7 Looking at the chart above. Dominant seventh chords can only be found on the dominant (V7) pitch in each key. instead. then the chords are spelled and sound as shown above. then they are not in the key of C. After filling out the chart. but also functions as the IV chord in the key of G. as it contradicts the no sharps or flats definition of C major. The V7 chord of Gb and F# should be spelled with different roots even though they sound the same.

a single key cannot be determined.m3 . If a chord is a major 7th. The dominant chord is the most useful for identification as there is only one per key. but common. the iii7 of F major or the vi7 of C major. The b5 also implies that this chord is somehow altered from its natural state.98 Chapter 5 Diatonic Harmony The half-diminished chord occurs only on the seventh degree of major keys. If it is a minor seventh.M3 . look first for the V7 of C (G7).m3 . and in Bb = Ebmaj7 (IV). A minor chord must have a perfect fifth in order to be minor. That leaves the keys of C and F. It could be either key as shown below.m3 . it is from one of three possible keys as a ii7. Without further chords. so it cannot be minor with a b5. the iii7 of Bb major or the vi7 of F major. the other surrounding chords will help. An F major 7 chord could be the I of F or the IV of C. the key will be easy to identify as they only occur on one degree of the scale. If the chord is a V7 or viiø7. the V7 of Bb (F7). An Am7 chord might be the ii7 of G major. This chord is sometimes called a minor 7 b5. so using “ø7” is redundant. Dm7 chord could be the ii7 of C major. Contrast the three types of chords built on E in these three keys. A Dm7 chord can be found as the ii7 chord of C major. All are distinctly different quality chords. To determine the function of the Dm7 chord. The “ø” symbol. it could be the I or IV from two possible keys. What if they are all in one progression? Which of these four keys (F. This is a terribly ambiguous designation. the iii7 of Bb major and the vi7 of F major. there will be other chords that will help identify the function and the indicated tonic. If they are not present. The key should be easily determined by the combination of the Dm7 and whatever E chord is present in the surrounding musical context. or vi7 V7 vii ø 7 This chart can be used to identify the key when examining a set of chords from music. meaning half-diminished. In C = Em7 (iii7). in a harmonic progression. Am7 vi7 iii7 Fmaj7 IV I Dm7 ii7 vi7 Key of C: Key of F: Jazz Theory Resources . and the V7 of F (C7) as they will clearly identify the key.M3 PLACE IN MAJOR KEY I or IV ii7. Chords occur by themselves only in theory classes. The Am7 and Fmaj7 rule out the key of Bb.M3 . in F = Eø7 (viiø7). The key can be determined when encountering major seventh or minor seventh chords by examining the chords that surround them. C.M3 . ii7. DETERMINING THE KEY There are four types of seventh chords available from any major scale: CHORD TYPE Major 7th Minor 7th Dominant 7th Half-Diminished 7th INTERVAL M3 m3 M3 M3 CONSTRUCTION . It is called half-diminished because the basic triad is diminished (m3-m3) but the seventh is the interval of a minor seventh and not a diminished seventh. iii7 or vi7. suggests the chord has a 7th. yet it is found quite naturally on the seventh degree of every major scale.m3 . Bb and G) is implied? The Fmaj7 and Dm7 chords rule out the key of G.

Em7 (iii). In the key of F those chords would be Bbmaj7 (IV). Practice the identification of chords by their relationship to home keys by quickly filling in the blanks in the following exercises. (solutions shown on pages 114-115) CHORD C #7 b E maj7 Eø7 Fm7 B b7 Fmaj7 A bm7 Cm7 FUNCTION ii7 V7 vii ø 7 V7 KEY F Bb G Db Eb G Gb A CHORD Dmaj7 A b7 Dm7 Dm7 Gm7 B bmaj7 C #7 b D maj7 FUNCTION V7 iii7 ii7 iii7 V7 IVmaj7 V7 ii7 KEY D C F Db Gb Bb Db Ab IVmaj7 iii7 Imaj7 vi7 CHORD D bmaj7 Dø7 A7 Fmaj7 F#ø7 Am7 Cmaj7 Cø7 FUNCTION ii7 vii ø 7 V7 iii7 vi7 vii ø 7 IVmaj7 V7 KEY Bb Ab CHORD F7 b A ma7 FUNCTION V7 Imaj7 ii7 KEY Eb Ab G A F C A F D Ab C C Db E7 Bm7 C7 Gmaj7 Bm7 Fm7 vi7 ii7 IVmaj7 ii7 iii7 Ab Jazz Theory Resources . G7 (V7). and the Bb in the key of F. What chords are different between the two keys of F and C major? The difference between the two keys is the Bn in the key of C. Anyone of these chords in combination with the three shown above would narrow the choice to only one key. CHORD IDENTIFICATION PRACTICE I. EGBD or CEGB. GBDF. Gm7 (ii7). One of the four seventh chords that contain a B is needed to make the determination: BDFA.Chapter 5 Diatonic Harmony 99 At least one more chord is needed in the progression to narrow the choice to just one key. and C7 (V7). In C they would be Bø7 (viiø7). and Cmaj7 (I). Eø7 (viiø7).

Bbm7 D bmaj7 .Bbmaj7 Gmaj7 .A7 Dm7 . Some combinations are written more than once because they could be from more than one key.Gm7 Ebmaj7 .Dmaj7 D bmaj7 .iii7 KEY C CHORDS Amaj7 .G#m7 Am7 .Dø7 Cm7 .Bø7 Ebmaj7 .F7 Gm7 .Gm7 FUNCTION ii7 .C7 FUNCTION KEY Jazz Theory Resources .100 Chapter 5 Diatonic Harmony CHORD Cmaj7 Em7 E bmaj7 Gm7 Fm7 B bmaj7 G bmaj7 F#m7 FUNCTION Imaj7 V7 ii7 Imaj7 vi7 I ii7 iii7 vi7 KEY Ab G F# Eb Ab A Db CHORD Em7 Am7 C7 G7 D7 Dm7 Gmaj7 Dmaj7 FUNCTION V7 ii7 V7 ii7 V7 ii7 V7 Imaj7 KEY D Bb F F Bb C D A II.Em7 F#m7 .Bbm7 Ebmaj7 .Dm7 Ebmaj7 . Identify the key that is home to the following combination of chords. CHORDS Dm7 .

These chords no longer would function to point to the tonic C minor. All of those chords do not function in the sense that they all do not point to the tonic minor. It does occur a great deal in contemporary compositions. the subtonic (seventh degree) of the natural minor scale must be raised to create a leading tone. sixth and seventh degrees of a major scale creates a parallel minor scale. fifth and seventh degrees of the scale would be: Ebmaj7. and therefore they cannot point to the tonic. These listed chords are derived from the harmonic minor scale only. it is also quite useful for melodic construction. is appropriately named the harmonic minor scale and allows for the creation of two very important harmonic pointers: the V7 and vii°7 chords. all of the chords would be identical to the chords in the relative key of Eb major. harmonic and melodic minor scales as sources. and Bb7. The Gm7 is not a dominant seventh chord and therefore points away from rather than towards C minor. The chord built on the third degree of the harmonic minor scale is not functional and is not used in the major/minor system.6 Diatonic chords in key of C Minor b &b b ? b bb n˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ i(maj7) ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ iiø7 n˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ( bIIImaj7 #5) ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ iv7 ˙ n˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ n˙ ˙ ˙ V7 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ bVI(maj7) ˙ ˙ n˙ ˙ vii°7 n˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ n˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ n˙ ˙ The common shorthand method for labeling the chords from the key of C minor is shown below. Cm maj7 i (maj7) Dø7 ii ø 7 (Ebmaj7#5) (bIIImaj7#5) Fm7 iv7 G7 V7 A bmaj7 bVImaj7 B°7 vii°7 Some theory books may list up to fifteen possible chords using the natural. Remember that functional chords point towards the tonic. The chords on the third. Without the leading tone. In order to create a major/minor seventh chord (M3-m3-m3) on the dominant scale degree. This creates an exotic sounding interval of an augmented second between the sixth and seventh degrees of the scale. The natural minor scale has no leading tone and is therefore not used to derive the minor harmony in the major/minor system. This does not mean that they are not musically useful.5 Natural or Pure Minor Harmonic Minor &˙ ?˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ b˙ b˙ ˙ b˙ b˙ ˙ ˙ A2 &˙ ?˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ b˙ A2 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ These chords are created from the C harmonic minor scale and are shown with the appropriate Roman numerals. 5. in fact they are useful for the purpose of ambiguity. with its raised seventh degree. This scale. and aeolian mode. Gm7. Though designed for harmonic reasons. This chord and many others may be ambiguous. The chord built on the third degree of the scale is shown in parentheses as it is not a functional chord. 5. This minor scale is known by several names including natural or pure minor.Chapter 5 Diatonic Harmony 101 DIATONIC HARMONY: MINOR Lowering the third. The Bb7 and Eb chords Jazz Theory Resources .

Since the tonic chord in minor is often a pivot chord to other keys. iii. There are fewer stable chords in minor keys than in major. In traditional music. only six chords will be discussed: 5. the Renaissance and Baroque practice of ending pieces in minor with a major third. and in some instances with melodic minor. The iiø7 and the vii°7 chords are not stable because of their diminished fifth and the III chord from harmonic minor is unstable because of its augmented fifth. When a minor progression resolves to a minor seventh chord. where unresolved dissonance is more common. a tonic chord cannot have a seventh. A bVI chord in minor becomes the IV chord in the relative major.Eb. In major. with viiø7 being unstable. For the purposes of discussing functional harmony in minor. In jazz. It could be argued that within the major/minor system. or Picardy third.7 Diatonic chords in key of C minor (harmonic minor) b &b b ˙ ˙ ˙ i ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ iiø7 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ iv7 ˙ n˙ ˙ ˙ V7 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ bVI(maj7) ˙ ˙ n˙ ˙ vii°7 Three chords shown above do not include the leading tone: the supertonic. The iv chord often begins a modulation to the relative major as in: Fm7 . V and vi are stable. as the major third is found in the harmonic series and not the minor third. Fm7. a seventh can be accepted. the relative major key to C minor. it too will often be treated with natural or pure minor. but more often. A iv7 chord is stable and often becomes a pivot chord in modulating to the relative major. The bVI chord is stable and often acts as a pivot chord between a minor key and its relative major. or has a minor seventh. it will sound less like a tonic chord and more like a ii7 or vi7 chord that signals a modulation to a new key. is also the ii7 of Eb. I. only major tonality is stable. The other chord affected by the raised leading tone is the tonic chord. The instability of the tonic minor chord was discussed above. There will be more examples of this when harmonic progressions and modulations are discussed. Other melodic substitutions will be discussed in chapter 14. it is either a simple triad with no seventh. IV. The minor/major seventh chord can be found in minor jazz progressions. Jazz Theory Resources . when the resolution to the tonic minor occurs. ii. A pivot chord is shared by two keys signatures and may function relative to each in a modulation A iv7 chord in C minor.Bb7 . subdominant and submediant. Melodically these chords are often treated using the notes of pure or natural minor to avoid the awkward augmented second degree. This may explain the tierce de Picardie. These chords point away from and so cannot function as pointers to C minor.102 Chapter 5 Diatonic Harmony will be heard as the dominant and tonic in the key of Eb.

chords that sound like dominant chords but do not function as dominant chords will be discussed. In later chapters dealing with substitutions. iii7. This chart lists thirteen keys again using the equivalents of Eb minor (6bs) and D# minor (6#s). Jazz Theory Resources . Chords available from the Major and Harmonic Minor Scales CHORD TYPE Major 7th Minor 7th Dominant 7th Half-diminished 7th Minor Major 7th Major 7th # 5 Diminished 7th PLACE IN MAJOR KEY Imaj7. All four of these chords found in major keys have a place in minor keys. IVmaj7 ii7. Groups of chords within the progression must be analyzed in order to determine the key for a particular passage. is on the dominant pitch. or iv). Be sure to use the correct spelling and not mix accidentals. minor/minor seventh.Chapter 5 Diatonic Harmony 103 Fill in the chart below in order to become more familiar with the specific chords in the thirteen minor keys. dominant chords: a G7 is the V7 of C major or C minor. The keys of Ab minor (7bs) and A# minor (7#s) have been omitted in favor of the enharmonic equivalents of G# minor (5#s) and Bb minor (5bs). That means that for now in this discussion. IV or bVI) or that a minor seventh chord is always a ii7 chord (it could be a ii. a D7 is the dominant of G major or G minor. vi. After filling out the chart. major/minor. This is why a major/minor seventh chord is called the dominant seventh chord. write out each of these chords on staff paper. all dominant chord symbols are. in fact. and half diminished seventh. These are listed in the same order of key signatures as the chart shown for major keys. But for now a V7 is a V7 of major or minor. KEY A minor D minor G minor C minor F minor B b minor E b minor D # minor G # minor C # minor F# minor B minor E minor i Am iiø7 Bø7 bIII maj 7 #5 Cmaj7 #5 iv7 Dm7 V7 E7 bVImaj7 Fmaj7 vii°7 G#°7 There were four types of seventh chords derived from the major scale: major/major seventh. iii. The chart above shows that the only occurrence of a major/minor seventh chord in major or minor keys. vi7 V7 vii ø 7 n/a n/a n/a PLACE IN MINOR KEY bVImaj7 iv7 V7 ii ø 7 i (major 7th) bIII major 7# 5 vii°7 It cannot be assumed that a major seventh chord is always a I chord (it could be a I. The harmonic minor scale adds three new seventh chords to the list: the minor/major seventh and the fully diminished seventh. These assumptions get many beginning improvisers into trouble.

Play these notes on the keyboard and they sound the same as a D°7. An Fmaj7 would mean the Bbmaj7 chord is a IV chord. The presence of an Eø7 could mean the Bbmaj7 chord is from F major or D minor. but let logic and simplicity prevail. and Ab°7 or G#°7. It is the chord sound that is most often violated by the “Ghoti” principle.D°7 . While most of us would prefer to see the Fn rather than E#. F°7 is the vii°7 of Gb minor which is the key of nine flats! The chord would be spelled F-Ab-Cbb-Ebb. In a passage like Cm . must be spelled: B-D-F-Ab in order to be from the key of C minor. B°7.Cm. the pitch difference between F major and D minor. It has been argued that this labeling is unnecessary as the D°7 and B°7 chords are enharmonically the same pitches. It would be more clearly labeled: Cm/Eb . The vii°7 chord. A D°7 is really the vii°7 of Eb minor suggesting six flats. and the bVI chord in the key of D minor (also the key of one flat. Trouble may arise if some of these chords are to be played in an inversion. The D°7 is the vii°7 of Eb minor and should be spelled D-F-Ab-Cb which corresponds to the key to which it points.B°7 . The E#°7 (E#-G#-B-D) is the vii°7 of F# minor. Using the same logic. C7. which with only three sharps. but it may be misleading as labeled. but in real world musical settings. Bbmaj7 is a I chord when an F7 is present. rather than Ab°7 (Ab-Cb-Ebb-Gbb) the vii°7 of Bbb minor with its twelve flats. the IV chord in the key of F (1b). so that Eø7 is more likely the iiø7 of D minor than the viiø7 of its relative F major. Any dominant chord will readily identify the key.Cm. but with the leading tone C#). MAJOR SEVENTH CHORDS To determine whether a Bbmaj7 chord is a I or IV in major or a bVI in minor. The half diminished chord is more often used as a iiø7 chord in minor than as a viiø7 in major. Jazz Theory Resources . It is often accurate to assume that a half diminished chord is a pointer to a minor key. The difference between one flat and two flats is the En or Eb.104 Chapter 5 Diatonic Harmony DETERMINING the KEY HALF DIMINISHED CHORDS A half diminished chord is found on the second degree (iiø7) of a harmonic minor scale and from the seventh degree (viiø7) of a major scale. It may take some deciphering to accurately identify the fully diminished seventh chord in some instances. If the passage asks that the chords be played with different bass notes (shown on the bottom of the slash with the chord on top) the diminished chord is often misspelled as : Cm/Eb . the surrounding chords must be taken into consideration. E# is the better choice for spelling this chord. so another chord would be needed to clarify the key. G#°7 (G#-B-D-F) is a better choice than Ab°7. It can be spelled in many different ways and still sound the same when heard out of context. The determination can be made by looking for chords that contain either a Cn or a C#. or A7. This is an often misunderstood chord. This chord is often used as the common or pivot chord when modulating from the major to its relative minor. is a much easier key to think about than nine flats. The fact that relative major and minor keys share the same half diminished chord is significant. F°7 or E#°7. Bbmaj7 is the I chord in the key of Bb (2b). The D°7 may sound like a B°7 in first inversion.Cm. FULLY DIMINISHED CHORDS The only place within the major/minor system that a fully diminished seventh chord can be found is on the seventh degree (vii°7) of harmonic minor. since G#°7 is the vii°7 of A minor. and a bVI chord when A7 is present. It will be easier to determine the key if the diminished seventh chords are labeled more accurately. with a no sharps or flats key signature. the function of the diminished chord is clear. be prepared for unusual spellings. All of these chords should be spelled differently according to their function. a IV chord when a C7 is present. Those chords are C#°7. The fully diminished chord may be used in inversion and this often leads to the spelling errors.B°7/D .

These lists of possibilities makes finding the correct key look more difficult than it actually is. Most pieces stay in or stay close to one key.Chapter 5 MINOR SEVENTH CHORDS Diatonic Harmony 105 Because a minor seventh chord can occur as a ii7. Jazz Theory Resources . the vi7 chord in the key of C major. More familiarity with the diatonic chords of keys makes them easier to recognize in groups and common progressions. C7. and the iv7 chord from the key of E minor (also the key of one sharp. The presence of a D7. look for chords which contain the difference pitches between the keys. but with the leading tone D#). These chords do not occur out of context. If the dominant chords are not present. vi7 in major and a iv7 in minor. Consider these possibilities: Am7 with chords that contain F# and Dn will be from the key of G: Am7 (Bm7 Gmaj7 D7) ii7 (iii7 Imaj7 V7) Am7 with chords that F# and D# will be from the key of E minor: Am7 (B7 D#°7) iv7 (V7 vii°7) Am7 with chords that contain Bn and Fn will be from C major: Am7 (B ø 7 G7) vi7 (vii ø 7 V7) Am7 with chords that contain Bb will be from F major: Am7 (B bmaj7 Gm7 Eø7 iii7 (IVmaj7 ii7 vii ø 7 C7) V7) Am7 with an F#ø7 could be in the key of G major or E minor. Dominant chords are the easiest indicators. Am7 with an Em7 or Cmaj7 could be in the key of G or C major. and there will almost always be enough information to make the correct decision regarding key signatures. Am7 with an Fmaj7 or Dm7 could be in the key of F or C major. so look for them first. the iii7 chord in the key of F (1b). iii7. it is a bit more difficult to make a determination of the correct key. G7 or A7 will establish the key. An Am7 chord could be the ii7 or G major (1#).

106 Chapter 5 Diatonic Harmony CHORD IDENTIFICATION PRACTICE SOLVED CHORD Gm7 C #7 b E maj7 Eø7 D7 Fm7 B b7 Fmaj7 Bm7 A bm7 Amaj7 Cm7 FUNCTION ii7 V7 IV vii ø 7 V7 iii7 V7 IVmaj7 iii7 ii7 Imaj7 vi7 KEY F F# Bb F G Db Eb C G Gb A Eb CHORD F7 A bma7 A bma7 Am7 E7 Bm7 C7 Dm7 Gmaj7 Bm7 Fm7 Cm7 FUNCTION V7 IV I ii7 V7 vi7 V7 ii7 IV ii7 ii7 iii7 KEY Bb Eb Ab G A D F C D A Eb Ab CHORD Cm7 D bmaj7 Dø7 A7 Fmaj7 F#m7 Fm7 F#ø7 Am7 Cmaj7 G7 Cø7 FUNCTION ii7 IV vii ø 7 V7 I iii7 vi7 vii ø 7 vi7 IVmaj7 V7 vii ø 7 KEY Bb Ab Eb D F D Ab G C G C Db CHORD Cmaj7 E b7 Em7 G#m7 E bmaj7 Gm7 Fm7 B bmaj7 B bm7 C #m7 G bmaj7 F#m7 FUNCTION I V7 vi7 ii7 I iii7 vi7 I ii7 iii7 IV vi7 KEY C Ab G F# Eb Eb Ab Bb Ab A Db A CHORD Dmaj7 A b7 Em7 Dm7 Ebm7 Dm7 D b7 Gm7 B bmaj7 C #7 b D maj7 B bm7 FUNCTION I V7 iii7 vi7 ii7 iii7 V7 vi7 IV V7 I ii7 KEY D Db C F Db Bb Gb Bb F F# Db Ab CHORD Em7 F7 Am7 C7 G7 Gm7 D7 Cm7 Dm7 A7 Gmaj7 Dmaj7 FUNCTION ii7 V7 ii7 V7 V7 ii7 V7 ii7 ii7 V7 I IV KEY D Bb G F C F G Bb C D G A Jazz Theory Resources .

IV IV .Bbm7 D bmaj7 .iii7 IV .Dm7 Ebmaj7 .Gm7 FUNCTION ii7 .V7 KEY A Db Ab Bb Eb Bb F Jazz Theory Resources .Gm7 Ebmaj7 .A7 Dm7 .viiø7 ii7 .IV I .viiø7 I .Dmaj7 D bmaj7 .Bbmaj7 Gmaj7 .Bø7 b E maj7 .Bbm7 Ebmaj7 .V7 ii7 .vi7 KEY C E F D C Eb Bb CHORDS Amaj7 .iii7 I .G#m7 Am7 .F7 Gm7 .V7 ii7 .Em7 F#m7 .iii7 ii7 .Dø7 Cm7 .vi7 IV .C7 FUNCTION I .Chapter 5 Diatonic Harmony 107 CHORDS Dm7 .ii7 IV .iii7 iii7 .

The inversion of these root movements are available.V7 . Remember to spell the chords correctly. the ii7 and V7 chords point to and are still derived from the key of I. is a perfect fifth above the fundamental. The second most common root movements are upward in seconds (type 2) and downward in thirds (type 3).V7 . but it unnecessarily difficult and one of the worst violations of the “Ghoti” principle I have encountered. Some interval motion and direction is more common than the others.I in major keys and iiø7 . HARMONIC PROGRESSIONS The root of chords can move by any interval to the root of the next chord.108 Chapter 6 Harmonic Progressions VI. The ii7 chord of F# major is G#m7. It was playable. the other hand had to think Ab . the V7 and I may be next. other than the octave.D#. While one hand was playing G# . and seconds and their inversion sevenths. movement up a perfect fourth from dominant to tonic.B .Eb. Even if the progression is not followed through to the I chord. When a ii7 chord is encountered. What is true for melodic motion is also true for root motion in harmonic progressions: the most common root movement is downward fifths (type 1). on a recording session.] COMMON ROOT MOVEMENT COMMON PROGRESSIONS in MAJOR KEY C F Bb Eb Ab Db Gb F# B E A D G ii7 Dm7 V7 G7 Imaj7 Cmaj7 Jazz Theory Resources . Fill out the two tables below and begin to memorize these chords as a group. The most powerful melodic motion is the downward fifth movement from the dominant to the tonic or its inversion. not Abm7. Root movement can be by fifths and their inversion fourths. The most common root movement of downward fifths is apparent in the most prevalent harmonic progression: ii7 .i in minor keys.Cb . a composer had written the melody in the key of six sharps. This progression occurs so often like a building block in major/minor system that it is imperative that they be memorized as any young student memorizes the multiplication tables. The power of this motion has been surmised to be due to its relationship to the overtone series: that the first interval in the series. Spelling correctly will save time and energy and earn respect from your peers. but less common. [Once. but wrote all the chord symbols in six flats. thirds and their inversion sixths.

I) and replaces it with a downward third movement (V7 . This progression is stronger because of the more frequent downward fifth movement. The following progression begins with type 3 root movement of downward thirds.I) is all type 1 downward fifth movement. The tonic inversion and the iii7 chord are often interchangeable and indistinguishable from each other. [Down 3rd] [Down 3rd] [Up 2nd] [Down 5th] Am7 |F G7 |C vi7 IV V7 I C I Type 1 movement can be inserted sooner using the ii7 chord in place of the IV chord. [Dn. followed by type 2 movement up in seconds and then the final movement to the tonic is type 1 movement of a downward fifth. 5th] [Dn.Chapter 6 Harmonic Progressions 109 COMMON PROGRESSIONS in MINOR KEY A minor D minor G minor C minor F minor B b minor E b minor D # minor G # minor C # minor F# minor B minor E minor iiø7 Bø7 V7 E7 i Am A harmonic progression will not always follow one type of root movement and is usually a mixture of several types.vi7 . 3rd] |C Am7 | Dm7 G7 |C Am7 | Dm7 G7 |C [Dn. and down a fifth.V7 . down a fifth. down a fifth. Another possibility is using the tonic chord in first inversion in place of the I or iii7 chord. but the continuation of the line (iii7 . [Down 3rd] [Down 5th] [Down 5th] [Down 5th] Am7 | Dm7 G7 |C vi7 ii7 V7 I C I This common progression is often repeated to make longer phrases. When repeated. 3rd] [Dn.ii7 . Root movement by seconds and thirds is used as a contrast before eventually returning to the strong. The roots move down a third. This removes the downward fifth movement (V7 . more common downward fifth movement. 5th] |C |C Am7 Am7 | Dm7 | Dm7 G7 G7 | Em7 Am7 | C/E Am7 | Dm7 | Dm7 G7 G7 |C |C Jazz Theory Resources .iii7). the second tonic chord is often replaced with a iii7 chord.

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These same progressions are logical and musical in the parallel minor key. Cm i Cm I A bmaj7 bVI7 A bmaj7 bVI7 | Fm7 iv7 | Dø7 ii ø 7 G7 V7 G7 V7 | Cm . . . i | Cm . . . i

The progression is often inverted, aiming for, rather than beginning with the tonic chord. | Dm7 ii7 | Dø7 iiø7 G7 V7 G7 V7 |C I | Cm i Am7 vi7 A bmaj7 bVI7 | Dm7 . . . ii7 | Dø7 . . . ii ø 7

APPLICATION of HARMONIC ANALYSIS
Recognizing that several chords are derived from one key allows an improviser to think in that one key for larger sections of a piece. In the following progression, the Roman Numeral Analysis (RNA) tells us that the source for all of these chords is the key of C (I). Two facts can be deduced from that: (1) if the chords were constructed from a C major scale, it follows that a C major scale is a source for melodic material over the chords; (2) If the chords are functioning to point to C as a tonic chord, it follows that a C major triad could be used for harmonic generalization over the passage. One scale works for all those chords because those chords were derived from the scale. Since all the chords are functioning to point to the C tonic triad, then melodies which generalize the tonic triad will function the same way on a different level. Any vertical dissonances are resolved as the line progresses towards its goal. Understanding RNA is more than assigning numbers to chords; it is directly related to melodic improvisation decisions. | Em7 iii7 | Am7 | Dm7 | G7 | Cmaj7 | Fmaj7 . . . vi7 ii7 V7 I IV7 Implications: (1) C major scale works for melodic generalization . . . (2) C major triad works for melodic generalization . . .

HIERARCHY of CHORDS
The harmonic progressions ii7 - V7 - I in major keys and iiø7 - V7 - i in minor keys also illustrate the hierarchy of chords. The tonic chord, as the tonic pitch, is by definition where all progressions point. When preceded by its dominant, the strongest cadence or conclusion is perceived. The ii7 chord is the most common of several chords that precede the dominant. The chart below classifies the most common pre-dominant., dominant, and tonic chords available from the major and harmonic minor scales. PRE-DOMINANT CHORDS IV ii7 ii ø 7 iv7 bVImaj7* DOMINANT CHORDS V7 viiø7 (rare) vii°7 TONIC CHORDS I i I6 or iii as substitute for I
(sometimes vi7 as substitute for I)

*bVI can be a predominant chord because of its similarity to iiø7 and iv7 and it can point to V7.

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From the chart, it is clear that a ii7 and iiø7 chords both function as pre-dominant chords. This concept can lead to modal mixture where chords from the parallel minor key are used in place of the corresponding diatonic chords from the major key. The progression may point to the same tonic, but will suggest a minor modality. These chords are said to be “borrowed” from the parallel minor key. | Dm7 ii7 G7 V7 |C I

with a borrowed supertonic chord would become: | Dø7 ii ø 7 & | C I Am7 vi7 | Dm7 ii7 G7 V7 |C I G7 V7 |C I

with borrowed submediant and supertonic chords would become: | C A bmaj7 | Dø7 G7 |C bVI7 iiø7 I V7 I When improvising through a passage of borrowed chords, remember that the source scale and tonic chord have changed. The harmonic minor scale and tonic minor triad may be used for melodic material through the chords borrowed from minor. The dominant seventh chords for both major and minor appear the same when using RNA. To determined the scale from which the V7 chord is derived, examine the preceding chords. If a V7 is preceded by pre-dominant chords from major (ii7 or IV) it is probably also derived from major. If a V7 chord is preceded by pre-dominant chords from harmonic minor (iiø7, iv7, bVI) then the dominant should continue as the V7 of a minor tonic. Examining the melody will provide clues. If notes from the minor key are in the melody, then the V7 chord is derived from the minor key. There is no difference between a G7 chord from C major and a G7 chord from C minor if the chord is only spelled to the seventh: they are both spelled G-B-D-F. The difference occurs when considering passing tones between the chord tones. The key of C contains En and An, while C minor contains Eb and A b. When upper tertian extensions are added, the difference also becomes apparent. The ninth of a G7 chord is An in the key of C major and Ab in the key of C minor. The thirteenth of a G7 chord is an En in the key of C and an Eb in the key of C minor. Learning to recognize these basic alterations will help identify the sound called for in chord notation. In the chords below that include a thirteenth, the fifth was eliminated. 6.1 Differences between V7 of C major and V7 of C minor

& ?

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙
G7

n9

n 13

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

bbb bbb

˙ n˙ ˙ ˙
G7

G9

G913

b˙ ˙ ˙ n˙ ˙ b G7 9 ˙

b9

˙

˙

13 b ˙ b ˙ ˙ n˙ b9 G7b 13 ˙

b

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Modal mixture and substituting more common root progressions can energize this simple progression. | F IV | Em7 iii7 | Dm7 ii7 |C I

The first stepwise progression has more forward motion when chords are added between the original chords which change the root movement to downward fifths. | F IV | Em7 iii7 Am7 vi7 | Dm7 ii7 G7 V7 |C I

Adding three chords (iv7, iiø7 and G7b9) from the parallel minor add another colorful dimension. | F IV Fm7 iv7 | Em7 iii7 Am7 vi7 | Dø7 iiø7 G7b9 V7 |C I

CLOSELY RELATED KEYS
Up to now this discussion has been confined to harmonic progressions that stay in one key center. Most compositions do not stay in one key, but temporarily modulate or tonicize keys that are closely related. Some progressions point away from the tonic almost immediately and go on long harmonic excursions before returning to the home key. While it is possible to find music that journeys to very remote keys, a great deal of music is created which moves in and out of closely related keys. Closely related keys are those whose key signatures are one accidental away from the tonic key. If the key of C is the home key, then related keys would be the relative minor which shares the same key signature (A minor), the key of 1b (F major and D minor), and the key of 1# (G major and E minor). Primary Closely Related Keys to C major 1b F D minor 0 #/0 b C
(home key)

1# G E minor

A minor

If these related keys are lined up alphabetically, it is apparent that the closely related keys are also the five other stable diatonic chords in the key of C major: (The chord on the seventh degree of major is an unstable chord because of its diminished fifth, and there is no diminished key.) The closely related keys have a Roman numeral listed below indicating their relationship to the original key. D minor is the key of ii, and so on. Home: C major I Closely Related Keys E minor F major G major iii IV V

D minor ii

A minor vi

Borrowed chords were discussed before as a way to get from a major key area to its parallel minor key. Jumping from the key of C with no sharps or flats to the key of three flats may appear to be remote, but considering that C major and C minor are parallel and they share the same dominant chord, then the jump is not so far. The closely related keys to parallel key of C minor (three flats) would be the keys of two flats and four flats. From the parallel move to C minor, the keys of Eb major, F minor, G minor, Ab major, and Bb major become available.

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Secondary Keys Available to C major through parallel C minor 4b F minor Ab major 3b C minor
(parallel home key)

2b G minor Bb major

Eb major

C minor is parallel to the home key of C major. F minor and G minor are parallel to the primary closely related keys of F and G major. The secondary closely related are shown with a Roman numeral listed below indicating their relationship to the original key. These Roman numerals do not indicate a chord function. Parallel Home: C minor i Secondary Keys from Modal Mixture: E b major F minor G minor A b major bIII bVI iv v B b major bVII

A third level of closely related keys are available through another modal mixture. C minor and C major are related as a parallel tonal centers but one is minor and the other major. The three primary closely related minor keys to C major are D minor, E minor and A minor; the keys of ii, iii and vi. Each of these primary closely related keys has a parallel major so that D major (II), E major (III), and A major (VI) are available from the key of C major through modal mixture of close diatonic chords. This chart illustrates several possible levels of modulation from the primary key of C major. Tertiary Keys from modal mixture PRIMARY KEYS D major (II) D minor (ii) F major (IV) A major (VI) A minor (vi) C major (I) (home key) ↓ C minor (i) Eb major (bIII) E major (III) E minor (iii) G major (V)

Secondary Keys from parallel minor

F minor (iv) A b major (bVI)

G minor (v) B b major (bVII)

The combined keys available for smooth modulation from the home key of C major are illustrated in the chart below. The keys are shown by the three levels: closely related diatonic keys with one accidental difference; keys closely related to the parallel minor; and keys available using modal mixture with the keys of second, third and sixth degrees of the home key. The Roman numerals in this case do not refer to chords, but to the new key in relationship to the home key. For example, the key of Bb is the major key on the bVII related to the key of C; does not refer to a chord built on the seventh degree of the C major scale. Closely Related Diatonic From Parallel Minor Using Modal Mixture I i ii II

bIII

iii III

IV iv

V v

bVI

vi VI

bVII

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SECONDARY DOMINANTS
The primary chords are built without alterations on diatonic scale degrees. There is only one dominant and its function is to point out the tonic chord. If other dominants occur in a progression other than the primary dominant, then some chord has been chromatically altered to create the new dominant and this new dominant will point to a key other than tonic. This new key is a secondary key from the original making the dominant chord a secondary dominant. The dominant chord is the most identifiable indicator in the harmonic progression because it occurs only on the dominant pitch in major and minor. Minor seventh chords that can occur as ii7, iii7, vi7 or iv7 do not point as conclusively. Modulations to the closely related and remote keys are usually accomplished with the use of a secondary dominant. In the key of C, expect modulations or temporary tonicizations, and look for the dominants of the closely related keys. If any dominant other than the primary dominant G7 is encountered, it is a secondary dominant pointing away from the primary key and to a secondary key. Look for the dominants pointing to the closely related keys of D, E and A minor and F and G major. An A7 points to the key of D minor. It cannot be considered a VI chord in the key of C: there is no C# available in the key of C; it must be a secondary dominant. The RNA for this chord is V7/ii. The “V7” defines its relationship to D minor; the “ii” defines the relationship of the secondary key to the home key of C. This symbol, V7/ii, means “A7 is the dominant (V7) of the D minor, the minor key on the second degree (ii) of C major.” It also suggests that individual pitches have been changed. The key of D minor has to have a C# leading tone in order to create the A7 chord, and a Bb by its key signature definition. These pitches are necessary in order to modulate from C major to D minor and define the difference between the two keys. The chromatically altered pitches want to resolve in the direction in which they have been altered. The C# points up to D and the Bb down to A. With D and A as targets, it is easy to see and hear how D minor is temporarily tonicized by the A7. The dominant for E minor is B7 and is shown with the symbol V7/iii. The key signature for E minor is one sharp plus the leading tone D# needed to create the dominant chord. The F# and D# are the pitches necessary to modulate from the key of C to the key of E minor. Both the F# and D# resolve up in the direction in which they have been altered to E and G, two primary pitches in the key of E minor. The dominant for F major, the key of IV, is a C7 chord. This is often erroneously labeled as I7. There cannot be a dominant chord on a pitch other than the dominant pitch and since there is no Bb in the key of C, this chord must be the V7/IV. The Bb is the defining difference between the keys of C and F major. The Bb wants to resolve down to the A, the note that defines the major quality in the key of F. D7 is the V7/V. The F# that is needed to create the D7 chord is the one sharp from the key signature of G. The Fn in the key of C usually points down to the En. The F# points up to G. C major and A minor share the same key signature but there must be a leading tone in the key of A minor in order to create a dominant chord. E7 is the V7/vi. The pitch G# distinguishes the keys of C major and A minor and creates the E7 dominant chord. The following chart reviews the closely related keys to the key of C major, their secondary dominants, RNA and lists the necessary accidentals needed to tonicize or modulate to the secondary keys. NEW KEY AREA TO TONICIZE ii: D minor iii: E minor IV: F major V: G major vi: A minor SECONDARY DOMINANT A7 (V7/ii) B7 (V7/iii) C7 (V7/IV) D7 (V7/V) E7 (V7/vi) NECESSARY ACCIDENTALS Bb and C# F# and D# Bb F# G#

Note that all twelve pitches are used in the chart above. The are seven pitches in the C major scale and the accidentals needed for modulation comprise the remaining five.

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Secondary dominants create more forward motion in a harmonic progression. The introduction of chromatic notes shifts the focus away from the tonic to secondary chords. The secondary chords then progress back to the tonic. Some of the basic progressions that were shown before using only chords from one key area can be enhanced using secondary dominants to point to diatonic chords. A tonic chord can move to any diatonic chord but this progression may be strengthened with the addition of the secondary dominant. The downward fifth motion and the addition of chromatic pitches temporarily removes the focus from the original key making the resolution to the diatonic chord stronger. C I C I C I C I C I A7 V7/ii B7 V7/iii C7 V7/IV D7 V7/V E7 V7/vi Dm7 ii Em7 iii F IV G V Am7 vi

The following progression to the ii7 chord includes just chords from the key of C major: C I Em7 iii7 Am7 vi7 Dm7 ii7

A secondary dominant can be added to both emphasize the pull away from the tonic and point towards other chords. A7 as the secondary dominant for D minor can replace Am7. Dm7 is still ii7, it has just been tonicized with its dominant. Em7 is still the iii7 chord in the key of C, not the ii7 chord in the key of D minor. Eø7 is the iiø7 chord in D minor. The basic melodic resources would come from the key of C major except for the A7 chord. The A7 chord, as the RNA implies, uses the D harmonic minor scale, with C# and Bb being the important distinguishing tones. C I Em7 iii7 A7 V7/ii Dm7 ii7

The progression to the A could be strengthened by using its dominant instead of the iii7 chord. The E7, V7/vi, points to A minor, but at the resolution, A minor is a dominant chord pointing to the key of D minor. When the progression arrives at Dm7, it is not actually in the key of D minor, as Dm7 is a ii7 chord in the original key of C major. The C and Dm7 chords are still derived from the C major scale, and the notes from that scale can be used as a melodic resource. The E7 is derived from the A harmonic minor scale and would use that scale as a melodic resource. C I E7 V7/vi A7 V7/ii Dm7 ii7

A7 is V7/ii only in the key of C. D minor may be the ii, iii, vi in major keys, or i and iv in minor keys, so its dominant can also be shown in relationship to other keys. For example, if A7 occurs in a passage in the key of Bb pointing to the iii7 chord, Dm7, the A7 would be the V7/iii. If A7 occurs in a passage in the key of F major, then A7 would be V7/vi. In the key of A minor, A7 points to the iv chord and would be

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labeled V7/iv. Everything is labeled relative to the tonic key. But in all of those cases, the melodic resource for the A7 chord is still the D harmonic minor scale. One of the most common progressions is I - vi7 - ii7 - V7. Secondary dominants are often used to increase the level of tension and forward motion. The most common substitution replaces the vi7 chord with a V7/ii. In the key of Bb, the original progression would be Bb - Gm7 - Cm7 - F7, often returning to the tonic chord. With the secondary dominant of Cm (G7 = V7/ii) in place of the Gm7, the progression would be Bb - G7 - Cm7 - F7. The pull away from the key of Bb is intensified by the G7 chord, as it has a Bn and an implied Ab from the C minor key signature. These two notes that changed the key from Bb to the key of C minor and are often the first notes played by experienced jazz musicians. Below are two examples from improvisations by Charlie Parker. In both of these examples Parker addressed the secondary dominant chords by immediately playing the pitches necessary to modulate or tonicize the secondary key. To tonicize C minor from the key of Bb, a Bn and Ab must be heard, and they are the first two notes Parker played over the G7 (V7/ii) in the first example. To get from the key of Ab ( four flats) to the key of ii, Bb minor, two accidentals are needed: the fifth flat (Gb) and the leading tone (An). These were also the first two pitches played by Parker in the second example. The examples are identical except for the octave displacement in the first one, which suggests that Parker had practiced these lines in all keys. 6.2
Bb

I - V7/ii - ii7

b & b c œ œ œ œ b œ œ œ œj ‰ nœ

b G7 9

Cm 7

b b F7 9 B bm7 b œ & b b b c œ œ œ n œ b œ œ œ œj ‰
A

I - V7/ii - ii7

Clifford Brown played exactly the same melodic figure in ex. 6.3 as Parker did in ex. 6.2. Brown began in G major. To modulate from G (1#) to the key of A minor (0#, 0b), the F# must become Fn, and the leading tone G# is needed. These were the first pitches sounded by Brown at the E7. Red Garland used many chromatic embellishments and approaches, but at the point of the G7, he played the Bn and Ab called for by the secondary dominant below. 6.3
Gmaj7

I - V7/ii - ii7
E7 9

# ~ & c œ œ œ œ # œ n œ œ œ œj ‰
~

b

I - V7/ii - ii7
Am 7 B

b bœ œ #œ œ œ nœ œ & b c œ œ œ #œ œ nœ n œ œ #œ

b

G7 9

b

Cm

In this Jimmy Guiffre example, the iii7 chord follows the V7, substituting for the I chord. This keeps the progression moving in downward fifths from the Em7 to the A7 (iii7 - V7/ii). As in examples above, Guiffre knows the tones necessary for modulation (Bb from the key signature of D minor and the leading tone, C#) and plays them immediately at the occurrence of the secondary dominant A7. 6.4
Dm 7

ii7 - V7 - iii7 (instead of I) - V7/ii - ii7
G7 Em 7 A7 9 Dm7

b

& c œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ

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Since a V7 chord is often preceded by the ii7 or iiø7, secondary ii7 and iiø7 chords may precede secondary dominant chords. The roots of the chords on the top line move in descending thirds. Before each new chord, a secondary dominant may be inserted with its corresponding ii7 or iiø7 chord. The cadences to Gm7, Ebmaj7 and Cm7 are strengthened by their preceding ii7 - V7 or iiø7 - V7 chords. Bb I Bb I [ Aø7 - D7 ] iiø7 - V7 vi Gm7 vi7 Gm7 vi7 [ Fm7 - Bb7 ] ii7 - V7 IV E bmaj7 IV E bmaj7 IV [ Dø7 - G7 ] iiø7 - V7 ii Cm7 vi7 Cm7 vi7

Review what each RNA symbol actually means to the sound. The Aø7 - D7 indicates a temporary modulation to the key of G minor with the necessary leading tone F#. The F# is the most important identifying note for the D7 chord. The Fm7 - Bb7 indicates a modulation to the key of Eb major and necessitates the addition of an Ab. The Ab is the most important identifying note for the Fm7 chord, and is the seventh of the Bb7 chord. The Ab resolves down to a Gn, the most important identifying note for the Eb major chord. The Dø7 - G7 indicates a modulation to the key of C minor, which demands an Ab and a Bn. The Bn is the most important identifying note for the G7 chord which points to C minor. RNA can help identify the most important tones that indicate the harmonic direction. If those tones are emphasized for melodic direction, then linear harmony, lines with strong harmonic implications, will be the result. In the following progression of roots moving upward in seconds, three possible sets of secondary chords are shown. All are possible and often occur interchangeably in jazz performances. The D7, F#°7, or Aø7 - D7 indicate the key change from F major to G minor, requiring an F# and an Eb. The E7, G#°7, or Bø7 - E7 chords indicate a key change to A minor, requiring an G# and an Bn. Notice how important those pitches are to the identification of the corresponding chords. F I F I F I F I D7 V7/ii F#°7 vii ° 7/ii Aø7 - D7 iiø7 V7 ii Gm7 ii7 Gm7 ii7 Gm7 ii7 Gm7 ii7 E7 V7/iii G#°7 vii ° 7/iii Bø7 - E7 iiø7 V7 iii Am7 iii7 Am7 iii7 Am7 iii7 Am7 iii7

The very simple progression shown below moves down in diatonic seconds and can be altered using secondary dominants. 6.5 Diatonic chords
Em7 Dm7 Cmaj7

˙ &c ˙ ˙ ?c ˙

Fm aj7

˙ ˙ ˙
iii7

˙ ˙ ˙
ii7

˙ ˙ ˙
I

IV

˙

˙

˙

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Preceding each diatonic chord with its dominant adds momentum to this progression. The root progression is made stronger moving down in fifths than in seconds. 6.6 With added secondary dominants

œ &œ œ ?œ

Fmaj7

œ #œ œ œ

B7

Em7

A7

Dm7

G7

Cmaj7

œ nœ œ
iii7

bœ #œ œ
V7/ii

œ nœ œ
ii7

œ œ œ
V7

˙ ˙ ˙
I

IV

V7/iii

œ

œ

œ

œ

˙

The progression initially began on the diatonic IV chord. By substituting the F# ø7, a secondary iiø7 chord from the key of Em, all the root movement is by descending perfect fifths. The G7 chord is borrowed from the parallel key C minor which yields the Ab, the b9 of G7.
F #ø 7 œ & œ œ

6.7

With added secondary dominants

œ #œ œ œ

B7

Em7

A7

Dm7

G7

Cmaj7

œ nœ œ
iii7

bœ #œ œ
V7/ii

œ nœ œ
ii7

bœ œ œ
V7/i

˙ ˙ ˙
I

? #œ

iiø7/iii

V7/iii

œ

œ

œ

œ

˙

There are many tunes that stay within one key signature for almost the entire form. The contrast between the two keys, major and relative minor, and their corresponding progressions provides enough interesting diversions. The following progression, shown in the key of no sharps or flats, is found in thousands of compositions from the Baroque era to current popular music and has been used by several jazz composers from Antonio Carlos Jobim to Chick Corea. Dm7 G7 Cmaj7 Fmaj7 Bø7 E7 Am7

Is this passage in the key of C major or A minor? The first few measures sound like the key of C major. The key of A minor is not heard or anticipated until at least the Bø7 chord. While the Bø7 chord is the viiø7 of C, it is more often heard as the iiø7 in minor. The E7 definitely points the progression to A minor. Is it in the key of C (I) and then modulates to A minor (vi), or in the key of A minor (i) and modulates from the Dm7 chord (iv7) to the relative key of C (I/bIII) and back again to A minor. How this is analyzed may depend on the larger context. Initially, most would hear the Dm7 as the ii7 in the key of C major, and not expect A minor until the more definitive pointers Bø7 and E7. Here is one analysis with the progression based in C major. The E7 is shown as the secondary dominant to A minor. It is possible to tonicize the Dm7 (ii7) with its dominant so that an A7 chord is inserted after the Am7 and before repeating the progression. Dm7 ii7 G7 V7 Cmaj7 I Fmaj7 IV Bø7 ii ø 7/vi E7 V7/vi Am7 vi7

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When it ends with an Am7. the Am7 feels like a vi7 chord even when preceded by its dominant. it sounds more like a progression in the key of C major starting on the vi7. Secondary Dominant Cycle No.V .V7/IV .ii .V7 .ii .V7/vi . Practice them at a keyboard in this key and others. Note that ending the progression with an A minor chord without a seventh makes it feel more like A minor is the ultimate destination of the progression.V7/V . Remember that minor harmony is derived from the harmonic minor scales in order to get the leading tone G#. The major area is so strong that it feels less like a departure than the A minor area.I Play at the keyboard: œ œ œ &cœ œ œ #œ œ nœ œ œœ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œœ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ # # œ œ œ #œ œ œ œœ œ #œ œ œ nœ œ œœ œ œ œ œ w w ww ? c œ œ #œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ w Secondary Dominant Cycle No. 1: DEVELOPING AURAL HARMONIC RECOGNITION Descending diatonic chords with secondary dominants: I . E7.iii .I Play the lower part on the keyboard and sing the upper part to master hearing the identifying tones necessary for tonicization: & c œœ œœ#œœ œœ œ œ œnœ#œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ ?c œ œ œ œ œœ œœ œœbœ œœ œœ#œœnœœ œœ œœ bœ œœ œœ œ œœ œ w #œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ w œ œ w œ œ œ Jazz Theory Resources .V7/vi .V7/iii .V7/ii .V7/IV .V . Dm7 iv7 G7 V7/bIII Cmaj7 I/bIII Fmaj7 bVI Bø7 ii ø 7 E7 V7 Am i Could the G be labeled bVII and the C bIII in the key of A minor? These would be diatonic chords derived from A natural minor.V7/iii . Even though the following progression starts with an Am7. Am7 vi7 Dm7 ii7 G7 V7 Cmaj7 I Fmaj7 IV Bø7 ii ø 7/vi E7 V7/vi Am7 vi7 These two cycles will help aural recognition of the secondary dominant related to diatonic chords.V7/ii .vi .IV . 1: DEVELOPING AURAL MELODIC RECOGNITION Descending diatonic chords with secondary dominants: I . G7 to C so convincingly suggests C as tonic that it is almost impossible to hear these chords as related to A minor. Here is another progression with roots descending in downward fifths.Chapter 6 Harmonic Progressions 119 The progression could be analyzed relating to the key of A minor.V7 .V7/V .iii .vi .IV .

I Play the lower part on the keyboard and sing the upper part to master hearing the identifying tones necessary for tonicization: & c œ . œ #œ œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ .V7/ii .iii . 2: DEVELOPING AURAL HARMONIC RECOGNITION Ascending diatonic chords with secondary dominants: I .V7/IV .V7/V .iii . œ #œ bœ œ œ œ .V7/V .V7/ii .ii . HOME KEY: C major NEW KEY AREA TO TONICIZE ii: D minor (1b) iii: E minor (1#) IV: F major (1b) V: G major (1#) vi: A minor PRIMARY KEY SIGNATURE: No #s or bs SECONDARY SECONDARY SUPERTONIC DOMINANT Eø7 (iiø7/ii) A7 (V7/ii) F #ø7 (iiø7/iii) B7 (V7/iii) Gm7 (ii7/IV) C7 (V7/IV) Am7 (ii7/V) D7 (V7/V) Bø7 (iiø7/vi) E7 (V7/vi) NECESSARY ACCIDENTALS Bb and (LT) C# F# and (LT) D# Bb F# (LT) G# Jazz Theory Resources .vi .IV .IV .V7/iii .V7 .V7/V . the necessary accidentals for modulations.ii . The charts will reinforce the memorization of secondary dominant relationships.V7/vi .V7 .vi .V . œ #œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ œ.I Play at the keyboard œ œ &c œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ? c œ #œ œ #œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ ˙ œ #œ œ #œ œ œ #œ ˙ œ Secondary Dominant Cycle No.V .V7/IV .V7/iii . 2: DEVELOPING MELODIC RECOGNITION Ascending diatonic chords with secondary dominants: I .V .V . and the proper chord spelling.V7/vi .120 Chapter 6 Harmonic Progressions Secondary Dominant Cycle No. œ œ œ œ œ b œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ ?c œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ It is useful to fill out a chart for each of the thirteen major keys (including F3 and Gb) like the one shown below for the key of C.V7/V .

Deception is the device that comedians. then the deceptive resolutions would have little emotional or dramatic impact on the music. Play the second or third example when the G chord resolves to the A minor or Ab major and the reaction will be laughs and raised eyebrows. Fortunately for composers. | C Am7 | Dm7 G7 V7 | Em7* iii7 Am7 | Dm7 G7 V7 |C I Jazz Theory Resources . then the listeners had no expectations. don’t forget Winona). reacting to some technical concept. They are reacting instinctively to the unexpected resolutions.Chapter 6 Harmonic Progressions 121 DECEPTIVE RESOLUTIONS The definition of functional harmony submits that dominant chords point towards tonic and that other chords progress to particular places that ultimately lead back to tonic. and if listeners universally did not anticipate these resolutions. On the other hand. anticipate the tonic chord. No one is reacting because from years of music theory study. The fact that deceptive resolutions are effective in music is proof of the functional harmony system. (I often call this the “Route 66” principle. magicians. If each chord always resolved as expected. The magician with one hand draws your attention away then pulls the coin out of your ear with his other hand. proving that what was expected was the tonic chord. musicians with training and even those without. Route 66 winds from Chicago to LA. if these chords were not expected to resolve certain ways. The resolution to Em7 is not a very deceptive resolution as Em7 can be a substitute for C or for C/E in first inversion. storytellers and musicians count on to work their craft. without changing the fact that Route 66 still points from Chicago to LA. Try this on a group of students of any age. Play the first measure and stop before resolving to the tonic chord. which implies they do listen and listen with certain expectations. G7 is the V7 in both instances. More Unexpected w œœ œœ &c œ œ œ œ œ œ œ w œ œ w œ ?c ˙ IV V w œ œœ œœ w œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ w œ IV œ œœ œœ bw w œ œ œ œ œ œ b œ œ w œ IV ˙ I w ˙ V ˙ vi w ˙ V ˙ b VI bw All would agree that the G chord is a V chord in the first example above as it functions properly resolving to the I chord.) In the following progression the G7 (V7 of C) resolves to Em7 once and to C later. Everyone. in musical situations. a certain possibility is anticipated. If the deceptions did not surprise to a degree. Is it still the V chord when it resolves to the vi or the bVI chords? A V chord means that it points in a specific direction. The playwright uses our sense of expectation to elicit a response to a unexpected dramatic turn. they do not always resolve as expected. music would be unbearably boring. Expected Resolution b. Composers use the natural tendencies of these harmonic progressions to manipulate a listener’s expectations. It is important to understand that while certain chords point clearly to a specific chord. it does not insist on a particular resolution. Arizona. In the two cases where the V chord resolved unexpectedly. Unexpected c.8 a. but one could stop or turn off anywhere along the road (Flagstaff. listeners do react to the unexpected. For a joke to work. Chords function to point to specific tonic chords whether they actually arrive where expected. 6. In all three cases the expectation was for the V chord to resolve to I: that is what makes it a V chord. the surprise is precisely because the G chord is the V of C and is expected to resolve accordingly. and then a surprise turn triggers the laugh.

When used in inversions. a long way from A minor. Dm7 ii7 A bmaj7 bVI G7 V7 DIMINISHED SEVENTH CHORDS & DECEPTIVE RESOLUTIONS Diminished seventh chords are the most often misunderstood and misspelled. B°7. Dm7 ii7 b. 6. and bVI chord may occur in other inversions. The deception is relative. This of course is an enharmonic spelling of the same pitches.11 are derived from the same scale (A harmonic minor).VI & ˙ ˙ #˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ #˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ #˙ ˙˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ #˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ #˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ #˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ Why is it important to name and spell the chords correctly? Ab°7. F°7 is the vii°7 of Gb minor. Listen in ex. The common deceptive resolution in minor is V7 .9 how the vii°7 resolves to i (G#°7 . Diminished seventh chords that resolve deceptively often get mislabeled and cause much confusion.). Each of the G#°7 chords in ex. it is often misspelled. A B°7 is the vii°7 of C minor which has nothing to do with these progressions in the key of A minor. does not change because of an irregular resolution.122 Chapter 6 Harmonic Progressions DOMINANT SEVENTH CHORDS & DECEPTIVE RESOLUTIONS The most common deceptive resolution is V7 resolving to vi (a. No one will hear these and be shocked. but the terms and concepts are useful. The vii°7 chord is still spelled G#-B-D-F. it may be a convenient but incorrect label.i 6. 6. A V7 in a major key is also effective in the deceptive resolution to bVI of the parallel minor key.10 6 vii°6 5. A pianist reading the B°7 may play the same enharmonic notes. The G#°7 chord in ex. If a diminished chord is from the seventh degree of a minor key. It is often labeled Ab°7. yet it makes no sense. G7 V7 Am7 vi7 Dø7 ii7 G7 V7 A bmaj7 bVI c. even when resolving deceptively. but the mislabeled chord confuses the function. The deceptive resolution is the same in the parallel minor (b. but chords still function.bVI deceptive resolution (G#°7 . then Ab is the seventh degree of Bbb minor. Diminished seventh chords sound and function as V7 chords in first inversion. a. The vii°7. 6.). F°7 or G#°7 may sound the sound the same. and spelling the chord correctly as a G#°7 makes Jazz Theory Resources . which is the key of twelve flats! The key of no sharps and flats is clearly preferable. The G#°7/B below is often spelled B°7 rather than G#°7. The V7 in first inversion is often replaced by the vii°7 chord which creates the vii°7 bVI deceptive resolution.bVI. Dominant seventh chords are often found in first inversion with the third in the bass. This diminished chord is one of the most misspelled chords. D°7.i4 b vii°6 5 .F).11 is often labeled F°7. as the V7 chords function above. Diminished seventh chords can only be found within the major/minor system as the vii°7 in minor. Because of the bass note. 6.9-6. 6. they are often involved in deceptive resolutions. just like the V7 chord and Route 66. The classification of a vii°7.Am) and then listen to the vii°7 .bVI6 6. In ex. i.9 vii°7 . the key of nine flats.11 b 6 vii°6 5 .10 the vii°7 chord is shown resolving to the i with both chords in first inversion.VI4 6 vii°6 5 . as it should be in the key of A minor. but will have completely different implications.i vii°7 . Since they are related to the dominant chords. The second measure shows the vii°7 chord in first inversion resolving to the bVI chord in second inversion. This element of surprise has been diminished because these deceptive resolutions have occurred with such frequency for the last few hundred years.

The second passage spells both diminished chords as G#°7 which facilitates the understanding of its function in both places as the vii°7 of A minor. A minor may be tonicized by it own dominant. Both assessments are correct and yet neither offer a strategy for playing through the passage. How can it be the V7 of Am if it does not resolve to A minor? It is the same with all deceptive resolutions. Consider the following progression from a standard jazz bossa nova. The Ab°7 and the F°7 spellings reflect the bass lines. the function of the diminished chord remains vii°7 of A minor.13b Am7 Typical printed version: ‘ ‘ A b° 7 Gm7 C7 F°7 Fmaj7 Accurate spellings indicate function: G#°7 Gm7 C7 G#°7/F Fmaj7 Jazz Theory Resources . The first version is how it appears in many printed versions. However. understanding their function would be less important. 6. Even more confusion is produced when the vii°7 (G#°7) chord is used in the place of the V7 chord. and it does pass between the A minor and G minor chords. It takes no more effort and time to correctly label a chord and it saves time on the interpretation of its function. 6.Chapter 6 Harmonic Progressions 123 it easier to comprehend. but it is vii°7 of A minor in both the first and third measure of ex.12 below. These diminished chords last for several beats in many settings and an improviser must understand their function in order to effectively create melodies over the harmonic passages. 6.12 & œ œ œ i œ œ œ vii°7 œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ i V7 w w w i œ œ œ œ i œ œ œ vii°7 bœ œ œ nœ œ œ œ œ w w w I/bVI ? c œ #œ œ w #œ ii7/bVI V7/bVI w If these diminished seventh chords and their deceptive resolutions were isolated instances or always confined to small rhythmic units. Labeling the chords “passing diminished” offers nothing in the way of melodic resources for dealing with the progression.13a Am7 6. The bass line from A to the G# to the G is very smooth.G. Am i E7 V7 Am i Gm7 ii7 C7 V7 F I bVI It is easy to see that E7 is the V7 of Am in the example above. But no matter the enharmonic spelling. Confusion arises when the E7 progresses directly to the G minor (ii7/bVI). it cannot be ignored. If the diminished chords are both derived from the A harmonic minor scale. and this is the reason this diminished chord is often spelled Ab°7. but how and what should be played over the chords? Some have explained the Ab°7 is a passing chord and that the F°7 is really just non-harmonic tones that resolve to the F major chord. A progression in A minor may move to the key of F using the secondary ii7 and V7 chords. then the A harmonic minor scale is a source for melodic material. A strategy should be available for addressing these diminished chords. it illustrates the “Route 66” principle in action. The key of bVI is a closely related key in minor. Any other spelling invites confusion. Some call this a passing diminished. The principle of chromatics suggests the bass line should be written A Ab . be prepared to see any number of enharmonic spellings in published and unpublished music. If the diminished chord lasts for two entire measures. It functions as vii°7 in both places even though resolving deceptively.

15 Typical incorrect spelling I6 ??? C/E & w w w E b° 7 ii7 Dm7 Correct spelling indicates function I6 vii ° 7/iii ii7 C/E w w bw bw w w w w w w w w w w w D #°7 w #w w #w w Dm7 w nw w nw w ?c w w Jazz Theory Resources . Popular Cadence &2 4 ?2 4 #œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ R &Ó ?Ó œ œ œ œ ##œ œ ˙ ˙ ###˙ ˙ ˙ w ˙ ˙ ˙ Consider the enharmonic spellings carefully when labeling diminished chords. but offers no clue to available melodic resources. Determining the functional relationship of the enharmonically spelled diminished chords will unlock melodic resources.14 a Mozart: Piano Sonata. The A#°7 chord could have easily resolved to a B minor chord.B°7 . In ex. K.13c Cm7 Transposed to Cm: ‘ B°7 B bm7 E b7 B ° 7/A b Abmaj7 A vii°7 chord is useful as a secondary leading tone chord to modulate from I to the key of iii. 6. This resolution is exactly the same kind as seen in sixth measure of ex. Chord symbols for this passage might have read G°7 . A similar example of non-harmonic tones creating a deceptive diminished chord resolving to I is often used in the beginning to Misty . the A#°7 resolves deceptively back to the G.G. which would have been incorrect and misleading. that would be an A#°7 pointing to B minor. The Eb°7 spelling correctly reflects the downward chromatic root movement and the internal line (G . 6.Cb°7 . 6.14a.Bbm7 or Cm . Diminished chords often occur that are misspelled vii°7 chords. 6. It may be sensible to label certain chords dictated by the logic of the bass line. Andante b. The following harmonic passage is found in many jazz standards. 545. which would you rather see: Cm . In Cm. But understanding their relationship to the harmonic minor source is important for identifying melodic material.Bbm7? The B°7 is related to the Cm and not to the Bbm 7 chord that follows.F). Spelling it as a vii°7 in the key of E minor suggests the E harmonic minor scale as a melodic resource. How can it be vii°7/iii if there is no E minor around? The D#°7 is derived from the E harmonic minor scale regardless of the resolution. 6.124 Chapter 6 Harmonic Progressions Transposing this progression to other keys may make it easier to understand. but this also may cause confusion. just as the G#°7 is related to the Am.Gb . It could be argued that these chords are not actually deceptive in that many would not expect them to resolve in these contexts to the minor key from which these chords were derived. This means the A# and C# act as leading tones or lower neighbor tones to the pitches from the G triad: B and D.13a-c. In G.

The vii°7/iii chord may follow or precede the iii chord. regardless of its resolution. Is it a vii°7/iii? If it is. 6.19 F Gm7 G °7 œ & b œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ nœ œ œ œ Œ Ó # F Jazz Theory Resources . the G#°7 was used to progress to the I chord and not the iii7 chord. When it follows the iii7 chord it may deceptively resolve to the ii7 chord in progressions like the following: In the first progression.F# .Chapter 6 Harmonic Progressions 125 The diminished chord in the second measure of ex.15 can be proven to be the vii°7/iii by examining it in context from different perspectives. When the ii7 V7 points back to the I chord and the iii7 chord is used in its place.C . These together suggests a B7 in first inversion. and the leading tone G#. The resulting scale? B .E . 6.A . Parker plays those necessary tones clearly and unambiguously.D# .? .F# .F# . then the notes necessary for modulation or tonicization would be the Bn to change the key signature to no sharps or flats.A.17b D#°7 (vii°7/iii) with typical and deceptive resolutions: Dm7 – D#°7 ii7 – vii°7/iii Em7 – D#°7 iii7 – vii°7/iii Dm7 – G7 ii7 – V7 Cmaj7 I D#°7 (vii°7/iii) with deceptive resolutions: Em7 – D#°7 iii7 – vii°7/iii Dm7 – G7 ii7 – V7 Cmaj7 I Cmaj7 – Dm7 I – ii7 The vii°7/iii is used in place of the V7 chord in this progression. then a D#°7 can be the vii°7/iii even when resolving to Dm7. The five pitches suggested by the melody and the chord symbol are two notes short of a scale: B . Take the chord tones (D# . but it is not the V7 of I.? . If a G7 that resolves deceptively to Am is still the V7 of C. so it is rational to conclude that it is the same chord when descending. all the notes of E harmonic minor. When ascending the D#°7 is the vii°7/iii. 6.C) and add the Bn found in the melody.A. If it were notated as a B7 it is doubtful anyone would question it being the V7 of E minor.16a Cmaj7 I 6. the iii7 chord can then be preceded by its dominant or dominant substitute. the D#°7 seems to clearly be the vii°7/iii as it resolves up to the Em7 chord.C .G .D# . In this excerpt from a Charlie Parker improvisation. 6. E7 (V7/iii) is the dominant of Am7 and G# °7 (vii°7/ii)i is a dominant substitute.18 Fmaj7 I Gm7 – C7 ii7 – V7 Am7 iii7 OR Fmaj7 I Gm7 – G#°7 ii7 – vii°7/iii Am7 iii7 This imposition of a vii°7/iii can be used whether or not the progression actually goes to the iii7 chord. What kind of an E and G would fit with the given five notes? Examining the surrounding chords leaves no doubt they should be E and Gn.

If the point is to label the chords. harmony that functions to point to a tonic chord or pitch. When Roman numerals are used correctly.126 Chapter 6 Harmonic Progressions VALUE & LIMITS of ROMAN NUMERAL ANALYSIS (RNA) RNA should identify what is heard. There cannot be F#ø7. should identify the keys. Knowing that the A7 chord is not just a dominant chord built on the sixth degree of the C major scale. Jazz Theory Resources . The F#ø7 . The symbols. and so RNA is the wrong tool for analysis. The symbol “#ivø7” indicates that the half-diminished chord is from the raised fourth of C major. A progression like the one below cannot be in one key. if used correctly. A hammer is inefficient with a screw and a screw driver will not drive a nail. These chords can be used to create music. and Bb from the key signature. additions and departures studied in the second part of the book will make more sense. then a system designed to describe how chords function to point to a tonal center will be of no use. With the foundation established. If a composer has deliberately used harmony to obscure the sense of a tonal center. It is not an abstract theoretical concept.e. there are limits to their use. The pitches necessary for modulation are the most important source for harmonic specific melodies. the key of ii. This progression cannot be from one key. the leading tone. then the RNA identifies the key signatures and the basic melodic materials. The numbers reflect the proper intervals related to the tonic pitch. RNA is not just labeling each chord with a Roman numeral.. If part of a progression includes chords from other keys. Resist the temptation to force square pegs into round holes. and the “VI7” is suggests the impossible C# in the key of C. Used incorrectly. 6. There is also a large body of music that was not conceived with functional harmony.V7 progressions. but are erroneous and misleading. E minor. two or more analytical tools may be needed. followed by a section where the harmony is quite traditional using ii7 .20 Cmaj7 I Incorrect RNA: F#ø7 – B7 #ivø7 – VII7 Em7 – A7 iii7 – VI7 Dm7 – G7 ii7 – V7 Cmaj7 I The symbols below disclose more useful information. Chords can also be built on many different scales and modes. because there is not one key that contains all these chords.B7 is identified as being from the key of iii. they are just numbers. i. they identify all the important pitches that imply the harmonic motion that may be used for melodic material. but they are not necessarily functioning in the major/minor system of which RNA is designed to define. and can be built using a wide variety and mixture of intervals. As with all tools. The first section of the book is concerned with establishing an understanding of the major/minor system which is used as a foundation for so much of the literature performed by jazz artists. This example shows an incorrect use of Roman numerals. RNA is more useful in the practice room than on the bandstand. D# and a F# then can be identified as the necessary tones needed to clarify this part of the progression. then modulation or tonicization has occurred and the RNA should identify those new keys and the pitches necessary for modulation. This imparts no helpful information. Some of these other sounds will be explored in later chapters. There are some compositions where there is a mixture of approaches: a section of the piece will have no relation to functional harmony relying on color harmony or modes. yields the necessary pitches C#. There is no raised fourth in C major! The “VII7” symbol suggests there is a D# and a F# in the key of C. RNA is useful when analyzing music within the major/minor system. then use chord symbols. RNA proves useful for a large body of music including most of the jazz standards. B7 or A7 chords built using tones from the C major scale. To dissect this music. but a tool explaining what is experienced musically. but is the dominant of D minor. When chords are arranged within functional harmony. the exceptions.

Jazz Theory Resources . dominant chords were found only on the dominant pitch of major or minor keys. A tritone substitution dominant chord is the substitution of a dominant chord a tritone away from the actual dominant which resolves down a half step in either major or minor keys. and the tritone still wants to resolve in contrary stepwise motion. Since these two dominants share the same tritone. TRITONE SUBSTITUTION The dissonant augmented fourth interval between the fourth and seventh scale tones of a major or a harmonic minor scale is called a tritone (from the three whole steps between the pitches). the pitches that determine the tonic key and the pitches that create modulations to remote keys.Chapter 6 6. the Db7 chord can substitute for the G7 chord. and the active tones of the chord. RNA can facilitate the understanding of these harmonic diversions. upon hearing the F#ø7. If the Cb is spelled as a Bn. There are three other types of chords that will be encountered in jazz that sound like dominant chords but do not function as a V7 in major or minor. B7 and A7 chords. rather than an augmented sixth chord as it may be spelled. 6. and listeners respond accordingly. the B pulls up to the tonic pitch C and the F resolves down to the major or minor third. an interval of an augmented sixth in created between the Db and the Bn. The tritone is the major third and minor seventh of the dominant chord. The tritone dissonance wants to resolve in contrary stepwise motion. They functioned to point down a fifth to those tonic chords regardless of actual resolution.21 Cmaj7 I Correct RNA: Harmonic Progressions 127 F#ø7 – B7 iiø7 – V7 iii Em7 – A7 iii7 – V7/ii Dm7 – G7 ii7 – V7 Cmaj7 I RNA is a tool used to explain the aural experience of harmony. The F is the third of Db7 and the seventh of G7. At (a). Leaving the home key is what makes the music interesting. Anyone listening to the progression above would know. as it sounds.22 G7 (a) C The tritone resolves in contrary stepwise motion: G7 Cm &˙ ˙ ? ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ Two dominant chords a tritone apart share the same tritone (b). DOMINANT CHORD EXCEPTIONS In the discussion of chord types and function. The most important part of understanding is being able to hear these progressions. A G7 and a Db7 have the same third and seventh. A backdoor dominant deceptively resolves up a whole step to major keys and is related to a plagal cadence. In jazz chord notation practice. although inverted and with an enharmonic spelling. A chord which sounds like and is labeled a dominant seventh chord built on the flatted sixth degree in minor and resolves to the dominant chord is related to the traditional augmented sixth chord. that the key of C had been left behind. this chord is labeled a dominant seventh. the Bn is the third of G7 and Cb is the seventh of Db7.

but tritone substitute dominants do not behave as augmented sixth chords.I.TT7 .23 Em7 A7 Tritone substitute dominants that contain the dominant pitch: Dm7 G7 Cm aj7 Em 7 E b7 Dm 7 D b7 Cm aj7 &œ œ œ #œ œ nœ œœ œ œ ?œ œ œ œ w w w w œ œ bœ œ œ bœ œœ œœ œ œ œ bœ A4 w w w w There is no traditional agreed upon RNA notation for a tritone substitution. Augmented sixth chords commonly substitute for a ii7 or a IV chord and resolve to a dominant chord so using the augmented sixth chord symbols here would be misleading.V7 .22 Dm 7 (c) Tritone Substitution: Db7 may substitute for the G7 G7 C Dm7 D b7 C &˙ ˙ ?˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ w w w ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ b˙ w w w The tritone substitute dominant chord will often contain the actual dominant pitch. It could be argued that the Db7 chord is actually an inverted G7 chord evidenced by the enharmonic spelling: G .128 Chapter 6 6. the symbol “TT7” will be used to indicate a tritone substitute dominant chord. (It is not used in the progression where the dominant moves to chords other than tonic). The tritone substitute dominant does not want to resolve down a perfect fifth. The Db7 in the example below contains the pitch “G. 6.22 G7 D b7 3 7 Harmonic Progressions (b) G7 and a Db7 share the same tritone. 6. The dominant pitch is critical in melodies as it helps extablish the tonality and its occurrence over the tritone substitute dominant supports this melodic function.B . D b7 7 3 D b7 C D b7 Cm &˙ ˙ ? ˙ b˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ ˙ b˙ A6 ˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ Any dominant chord may be replaced in a progression by the dominant chord a tritone away if its resolution is down a half step to the tonic chord. There are symbols for augmented sixth chords. The two progressions at (c) above would then be: ii7 . Jazz Theory Resources . This is called tritone substitution. and ii7 .Db . For the purposes of this book. It is doubtful that anyone listening to the passage would expect the Db7 to resolve to Gb major. The inclusion of the dominant tone in a tritone substitute dominant explains why it does not sound or function like a typical dominant.I.F.” which confirms its identity as the tritone substitute for the G7 chord.

a dominant chord was always a V7 pointing down a fifth to a tonic chord. It will be easy to determine the type of dominant by examining the context. Dominant chords substituting for V7 point down a half step to the chord of resolution. Adding to the confusion is that three geographical labels are often attached to these chords.Chapter 6 Harmonic Progressions 129 Knowing that dominant chords a tritone apart function in similar ways complicates the harmonic analysis process by only a small degree. An example from the key of C major is shown below. Jazz Theory Resources . TONIC KEY SECONDARY DOMINANT A7 B7 C7 D7 E7 TRITONE SUBSTITUTE DOMINANT E b7 F7 Gb7 A b7 B b7 NEW KEY C C C C C D E F G A minor minor major major minor Learn to recognize dominant chord paired with their tritone substitute chord and the home key to which they point. Any dominant chord may have a tritone substitution. The tritone substitution chord is usually spelled in the easiest to read enharmonic form. One exception in traditional music theory is the augmented sixth chord. The augmented sixth chord is usually found in first inversion. DOMINANT CHORD (V7) G7 C7 F7 B b7 E b7 D #7 A b7 G#7 D b7 C #7 F#7 B7 E7 A7 D7 TRITONE SUBSTITUTE DOMINANT (TT7) D b7 Gb7 B7 E7 A7 A7 D7 D7 G7 G7 C7 F7 B b7 E b7 A b7 TONIC KEY (I or i) major & C minor major & F minor major & Bb minor major & Eb minor A b major G # minor D b major C # minor G b major major & F# minor major & B minor major & E minor major & A minor major & D minor major & G minor C F Bb Eb F# B E A D G TRADITIONAL AUGMENTED SIXTH CHORDS Good music theory should always describe the way the music sounds. commonly avoiding chords like Fb7 and Bbb7. SECONDARY DOMINANTS & TRITONE SUBSTITUTION A piece of music may modulate to closely related keys using secondary dominants. It sounds like a dominant seventh but is labeled a sixth chord because its spelling includes the interval of an augmented sixth. Until now in this discussion.

” The “French sixth” at (b) is often preceded by a iiø7 chord in second inversion. the chord becomes a “German sixth” leading to the cadence to E minor. to a jazz musicians. resolving to an octave. This type of augmented sixth chord is commonly labeled the “Italian sixth.Eb. The interval between the two chromatic passing tones is an augmented sixth (as shown between the Ab and F#). the fourth scale degree may move up chromatically while the sixth degree moves chromatically down to the fifth degree. There are many examples in literature where all three of the defining notes are present melodically over the augmented sixth chord. The dominant seventh was not considered a chord at one time. Similar histories are true for most chords including the augmented sixth chord.C. it sounds like an Ab 7 chord with a b 5 or a # 11. creating the augmented sixth interval between the Ab and F#.C . The convergence of linear materials evolved into the recognition of certain vertical sonorities.Gb).Ab . The international labels are meaningless. Example (e) is a virtual “Tour of Europe Sixth” chord. it sounds like an Ab7 chord without the fifth (Ab C . As certain sonorities occurred with more frequency. Though the actual tertian spelling of the chord at (a) is F# . The resulting chord is spelled F# .F# . but with the Ab in the bass. An augmented sixth chord can occur following its sound-alike dominant seventh chord as in the modulation from C major to E minor shown at (d).Ab . When the IV chord (a) is in first inversion.C .Eb . The C moves to C7. The “German sixth” is often preceded by a iv7 chord in first inversion.24 (a) “Italian Sixth” (b) “French Sixth” &c ˙ ˙ ?c IV 6 (a) #˙ ˙ A6 A6 ˙ ˙ V n˙ ˙ V7 w w I bbb ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ b b b iiø 3 4 (b) #˙ ˙ A6 ˙ b˙ ˙ ˙ w ˙ ˙ A6 ˙ ˙ n˙ œ œ 6 V ˙4 V7 ˙ ˙ ˙ w w i w w b &b b c ˙ ˙ ˙ ? b c ˙ bb (c) “German Sixth” (c) #˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ A6 ˙ ˙ n˙ œ œ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ w w w w nnn ˙ ˙ bœ œ # œœ ˙ ˙ ˙ nnn ˙ œ A6 œ ˙ œ œ ˙ (d) “German sixth” (d) #˙ ˙ #˙ ˙ w w w w Jazz Theory Resources . the vertical sonority became the dominant seventh chord. but the voice leading circumstance of a dissonant passing tone (seventh) resolving to the third of the subsequent tonic triad.130 Chapter 6 Harmonic Progressions Historically. The tertian spelling of the chord is D . The fourth scale degree moves through a chromatic passing tone to the fifth. chords and finally harmonic progressions. As composers used the chord with more frequency and for longer durations. but with the enharmonic change of the Bb to A#. The fourth scale degree again progresses through a chromatic passing tone to the fifth. but with the Ab in the bass. 6.Gb).C. they became easier and necessary to name. sounds like an Ab7 chord (Ab . the entire concept of harmony came about as a result of melodic lines.Ab . the V7/IV. creating the augmented sixth interval. The augmented sixth chord was originally considered a circumstance of chromatic voice leading between the IV or iv chords and the V7 chord and not an independent chord.

usually avoiding chords like Bbb7 in favor of A7. or some symbol indicating the international names (#iv It. œ œ . . The augmented sixth chord could have presented simply as a dominant seventh chord that may resolve down a half step to the dominant chord. The concept of chord symbol notation is to aid musicians in quick reading of the chord symbols. ii7 and iiø7 as any augmented sixth chord. This chord is used in place of other pre-dominant chords like the IV. Augmented 6th chord sounding like a dominant chord on bVI F7 A b7 V7 E7 i A minor D minor G minor C minor F minor B b minor E b minor Augmented 6th chord sounding like a dominant chord on bVI G#7 V7 i D # minor G # minor C # minor F# minor B minor E minor A7 G7 Jazz Theory Resources . Since this chord behaves as a tritone substitute dominant resolving down a half step... The traditional notation of “A6” for augmented sixth. These symbols would only cause confusion in a jazz world.dominant resolving to minor progression. with the chord symbol shorthand notation. #ivGr ) are not used by jazz musicians. The augmented sixth chord is relevant to jazz and occurs often in compositions in minor keys. but it is important to understand the historical background and relationship of jazz music styles to those of other eras. œ # . all of the augmented sixth chords above (a-e) would be labeled as they sound: as Ab7 chords. Complete the table below showing the typical pre-dominant . ii7Fr . The “A6” might be confused with the A triad with an added F#. b œ œ ?6 8 ˙. this augmented sixth chord and the tritone dominant substitute are often identified with the easiest enharmonic spelling. for analysis the symbol “TT7” will be used for this book. ˙ ˙ .Chapter 6 Harmonic Progressions 131 (e) “Tour of Europe Sixth” Chord œ œ bœ œ œ 6 J &8 Gr/Fr/It œ . Jazz musicians.. label the chord as it sounds. iv7. ˙. For this reason. For jazz shorthand chord notation. not as it may be spelled in 17th and 18th century part writing. The sound of a dominant chord resolving down a half step is related to the half step resolution of the tritone substitute dominant chord which also has the augmented sixth interval.

The chords below are shown with more extended voicings. The major seventh of the IV chord is often retained in the backdoor dominant and anticipates the major third of the tonic chord. or IV . This chord then seems to resolve to the I chord from the backdoor. the symbol “BD7” will refer to this type of dominant chord. The Bb7 shown below will not sound like a V7 in the key of Eb because of the surrounding context of C major and the En occurring in the chord. Another plagal cadence is the progression iv .iv . This note is why the backdoor dominant typically resolves to major and not minor. 6. 6.#11 . The natural tendency for roots to descend in fifths suggests the natural evolution of the IV chord resolving to a chord on the lowered seventh degree at (c) in place of the iv chord. the Bb7 would be heard as the V7 or Eb and the Cm7 as vi7. The Bb7 chord in the second example is not a backdoor dominant.132 Chapter 6 Harmonic Progressions BACKDOOR DOMINANTS A backdoor dominant is a dominant chord that deceptively resolves up a whole step to major keys. The 9 .25 (a) F Plagal Cadences (b) C F Fm C (c) F B b9 Cmaj7 &˙ ˙ ˙ IV ?˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ I ˙ œ œ œ IV ˙ œ bœ œ iv ˙ ˙ ˙ I ˙ œ œ œ œ œœ bœ œ bœ ˙ ˙ ˙˙ ˙ The backdoor dominant chord may also contain the interval of an augmented fourth above the root.vi7 Deceptive Cadence Fm 9 B b13 Cm9 Cmaj7 œ œ œ œ ?œ œ & œ œ œœ bœ bœ A4 ˙ ˙ ˙˙ ˙ ˙ œ & bœ œ œ ? bœ œ œ œœ œ œ bœ ˙ ˙ ˙˙ ˙ ˙ Jazz Theory Resources . It may resolve to the iii7 or the I6 chords which often substitute for the I chord in the middle of a progression.I at (b). The Bb7 chord includes the 9 . Backdoor dominants point to major keys and not minor keys.#11 .E . A plagal cadence occurs when IV resolves to I as in “amen” shown at (a).I. In this typical deceptive cadence. It is often preceded by the IV chord. The F chord includes the major seventh and ninth.G) of the Bb7 chord are the primary pitches of the upcoming tonic chord “C.26 Backdoor Dominant with Extended Voicings Fm aj7 # B b9 11 V7 .” For the purposes of this book.13 (C .13.

6.29 Fmaj7 B b7 Em7 E b7 Dm7 D b7 Cm aj7 ˙ &˙ ˙˙ ?˙ IVmaj7 b˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ BD7 ˙ ˙ ˙˙ ˙ iii7 b˙ ˙˙ b˙ TT7/ii ˙ ˙˙ ˙ ii7 ˙ ˙ ˙ b˙ TT7 w w w w I maj7 b˙ Jazz Theory Resources .27 Basic step progression: IV . Fmaj7 Em7 Dm7 Cm aj7 w &w w ?w IVmaj7 w w w w iii7 w w w w ii7 w w w Imaj7 w A iv7 chord (Fm7) can be borrowed from the parallel minor. 6. but moves to the substituting iii7 chord. The Eb7 is the tritone substitution for the A7 and the Db7 for the G7.Imaj7.28 Fmaj7 Fm 7 Em7 A7 Dm7 G7 Cm aj7 ˙ &˙ ˙ ?˙ IVmaj7 ˙ bb˙ ˙ ˙ iv7 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ iii7 b˙ #˙ ˙ V7/ii ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ii7 ˙ ˙ ˙ V7 w w w w I maj7 ˙ ˙ The backdoor dominant (Bb7) can replace the borrowed iv7 chord. 6.Chapter 6 Harmonic Progressions 133 Simple harmonic passages can be energized by the addition of tritone substitutions and backdoor dominants.ii7 . The ii7 (Dm7) chord can be preceded by its secondary dominant (A7 = V7/ii) and the tonic chord by the primary dominant (G7 = V7). This backdoor dominant did not resolve to the I chord.iii7 .

The backdoor dominant is usually preceded by the IV or iv7 chord.134 Chapter 6 Harmonic Progressions The addition of these special dominant chords allows for several possible cadences to the tonic major or minor chord. A partial list of combinations follows this chart. This is a list of possible chords. Not all pre-dominant chords lead to all dominant chords. PRE-DOMINANT CHORDS IV ii7 ii ø 7 iv7 V7/V vii ° 7/v 6 vii° 5 /iii DOMINANT CHORDS V7 viiø7 (rare) vii°7 Augmented 6th chord on bII as tritone substitute dominant (TT7) Backdoor dominant on bVII as plagal cadence (BD7) TONIC CHORDS I i I6 or iii as substitute for I (sometimes vi7 as deceptive resolution) bVImaj7 Augmented 6th chord sounding like a dominant chord on bVI PARTIAL LIST of CADENTIAL COMBINATIONS Diatonic Chords: Dm7 ii7 Dø7 ii ø 7 With Borrowed iiø7: Dø7 ii ø 7 G7 V7 D b7 TT7 D b7 TT7 Cmaj7 I G7 V7 G7 V7 Cmaj7 I Cm i With Secondary Dominant (V7/V): D7 V7/V G7 V7 Cmaj7 I With Secondary Dominant (V7/V) & Tritone Substitution: D7 V7/V D b7 TT7 Cmaj7 I With Tritone Dominant Substitution for Secondary Dominant: A b7 TT7/V A b7 TT7/V G7 V7 G7 V7 Cmaj7 I Cm i With Tritone Dominant Substitution: Dm7 ii7 Dø7 ii ø 7 Cmaj7 I Cm i With Tritone Dominant Substitution & Borrowed iiø7 chord: Dø7 ii ø 7 D b7 TT7 Cmaj7 I With Tritone Dominant Substitution for Secondary Dominant & Dominant: A b7 TT7/V A b7 TT7/V D b7 TT7 D b7 TT7 Cmaj7 I Cm i Plagal Cadence with Backdoor Dominant: Fmaj7 IV B b7 BD7 Cmaj7 I Jazz Theory Resources .

ABA.Chapter 7 Harmonic Analysis 135 VII. Progressions are numbered from a list used with theory classes Titles are not shown due to copyright laws. How do these notes relate to the chords? Apply turnaround progressions in the last two measures of the forms when appropriate. 1 Am7 Dm7 Am7 Dm7 Dm7 G7 Dm7 G7 G7 Cmaj7 G7 Eø7 Cmaj7 A7 Cmaj7 A7 Fmaj7 Dm7 Fmaj7 Dm7 Bø7 G7 Bø7 G7 E7 Fm C E7 C Am7 A7 E7 Am7 A7 ‘ Progression no. PROGRESSIONS that MODULATE to CLOSELY RELATED KEYS Progression no. Next.). ABAB1. label secondary chords showing their relationship to those primary diatonic chords. Begin by labeling the diatonic chords of the primary key. Blues. List the necessary notes for modulation to the secondary keys. Label the form suggested by each progression (AABA. HARMONIC ANALYSIS: ROMAN NUMERAL ANALYSIS with COMMON JAZZ PROGRESSIONS Practice identifying key areas using Roman Numeral Analysis in the following progressions. 2 C Bø7 C F ‘ E7 E7 Am7 E7 Em7 ‘ ‘ ‘ A7 A7 D7 A7 Dm7 ‘ ‘ ‘ G7 Dm7 Dm7 Dm7 C ‘ G7 ‘ Fm ‘ ‘ Jazz Theory Resources . etc.

Moose the Mooche. Cottontail .Am7 C G7 .G7 A7 .G7 Dm7 .G7 Dm7 .Am7 Dm7 . 8 C . 5 Bb D7 C #° 7 D7 B b7 Eb Cm7 Eb Eb G7 F7 G7 C #° 7/E Cm7 Dm7 Cm7 B b/F G7 C #° 7 G7 G7 Cm7 Cm7 Cm7 Cm7 F7 F7 F7 F7 Dm7 Bb Fm7 TURNAROUND TUNES Progression no.Am7 C .G7 Gm7 . Jazz Theory Resources . 7 F F B bmaj7 F D7 D7 Abm7 .Am7 Fmaj7 .D7 Dm7 .Am7 Em7 .G7 C .G7 ‘ The harmonic progression from the Gershwin’s I Got Rhythm is used for hundreds of jazz compositions including Oleo .C7 Gm7 Cm7 G bmaj7 F C7 F7 Gm7 .D7 Dm7 .Db7 Gm7 .Am7 Dm7 .G7 C .G7 Em7 .G7 A7 .136 Chapter 7 Harmonic Analysis Progression no.E7 Em7 .C7 C .Bb7 Am7 Am7 Dmaj7 Am7 .Db7 D7 Gm7 Gm7 G bmaj7 Gm7 C7 C7 Em7 .G7 Dm7 .Am7 Fmaj7 .E7 Dm7 . Several versions of the harmonic possibilities for “rhythm changes” will be considered in chapter 8.D7 Dm7 Dm7 Abm7 .Am7 C .Am7 Dm7 .A7 C7 .G7 B7 .C7 C Dm7 .Am7 G7 . Anthropology and many others.C7 D7 .C7 ‘ Progression no.E7 C . is also based on a turnaround progression.

12 Fmaj7 Gm7 Eø7 .Bb7 Ebm7 Fm7 .Bb7 Eb Eb .Eb7 A bmaj7 A bmaj7 A bmaj7 A bmaj7 Abm7 . 140.Cm7 Fm7 .Eb7 E b7 Bbm7 .Bb7 Aø7 .Db7 Gm7 .Db7 E bmaj7 Progression no.C7 B bmaj7 Bbm7 .Cm7 Eb .C7 Fmaj7 Gø7 .F7 Fm7 .Db7 A bmaj7 Abm7 .Db7 See also progression no.Dm7 Cm7 . 11 Fmaj7 Fmaj7 Cm7 Fmaj7 Eø7 .Bb7 E b7 B b7 E b7 E bmaj7 A bmaj7 E bmaj7 A bmaj7 ‘ G7 Aø7 .A7 C7 Blues with “Pretty Chords” or “West Coast” Blues Dm7 .D7 G7 Gm7 .D7 Abm7 .G7 B bmaj7 Dm7 .F7 B bmaj7 Cm7 .Eb7 Am7 .Chapter 7 Harmonic Analysis 137 PROGRESSES TO IV with SECONDARY ii7/IV .F7 Cm7 . p.G7 Dm7 .D7 ‘ D b7 Jazz Theory Resources .A7 Dm7 .Eb7 Bbm7 . 10 under remote modulations.C7 Gø7 .Cm7 Gm7 . 13 ‘ D b7 Dø7 E bmaj7 Dø7 E bmaj7 G7 Cm7 Cm7 Cm7 E bmaj7 (F7) F7 (F7) Gø7 .V7/vi Progression no. 9 E bmaj7 E bmaj7 B bm7 E bmaj7 Bbm7 .Bb7 D7 Fm7 .C7 D bmaj7 Gm7 .Cm7 Aø7 Gm7 .Db7 Abm7 .Db7 Gm7 .Cm7 Fm7 .C7 B bm7 Fm7 B bm7 Fm7 .A7 F7 Eø7 . PROGRESSES to vi with SECONDARY iiø7/vi .V7/IV Progression no.Bb7 Fm7 .D7 A b7 Aø7 .Bb7 Gm7 .C7 Fmaj7 Progression no.D7 Aø7 .G7 F .G7 Cm7 .A7 Eø7 .F7 Gm7 .Bb7 Fm7 .Bb7 Eb Fm7 .

F#°7 F .G#°7 Am7 .D7 ‘ ‘ ‘ Gm ‘ ‘ ‘ Aø7 .A7 Bø7 .Eb7 Bbmaj7 .F7 Jazz Theory Resources .F7 Am7 .C7 Fmaj7 ‘ Progression no.D7 Gm7 .138 Chapter 7 Harmonic Analysis USES SECONDARY vii°7 CHORDS Progression no. 16 G7 F7 G7 Gm ‘ ‘ ‘ Aø7 .F7 Bbmaj7 .Eb7 Am7 .D7 F Dm7 F Gm7 B bmaj7 G7 B bmaj7 C7 Aø7 Gm7 Aø7 F D7 C7 D7 ‘ USES CYCLE of SECONDARY DOMINANTS Progression no.G#°7 Am7 .D7 G7 .F7 ‘ Bb ‘ Aø7 .Eb7 Am7 . 15 F Gm7 F Gm7 F#°7 E b7 Aø7 .F#°7 Gm7 .G#°7 Gm7 .Ab7 D bmaj7 B bm7 Gm7 F . 14 F .C7 Fmaj7 Bb7 D bmaj7 B bm7 Ebm7 .D7 Am7 .C7 A7 .F#°7 Gm7 .Bbm7 Ebm7 .D7 Gm7 .E7 Am7 .D7 D7 Bb ‘ G7 ‘ C7 .D7 C7 Bb C7 Bb ‘ Cm7 .Ab7 Fm7 .D7 E b7 Gm7 F Gm7 F G#°7 Eø7 .F7 Bbmaj7 .C7 Ebm7 A b7 C7 Gm7 .

B7 B7 .Dm7 F#m7 .E7 G#m7.G7 Dm7 .A7 C .D7 Am7 .B7 Dm7 .E7 Gm7 Amaj7 Aø7 Gm7 C7 Bm7 .Dm7 Dm7 G7 Am7 .Em7 .G7 D7 .D7 F#ø7 .G7 C Progression no.Fmaj7 C .Dm7 A7 .G7 C .Chapter 7 Harmonic Analysis 139 Progression no.G7 E .E7 D7 C7 Fmaj7 Amaj7 G7 Fmaj7 Fmaj7 C C7 ‘ D7 ‘ Jazz Theory Resources .Fmaj7 F#ø7 . 17 D7 .E b7 D7 .G7 E7 .D7 Dm7 . 20 Gø7 Gø7 Gm7 Gø7 C7 C7 C7 C7 Fmaj7 Fmaj7 Fmaj7 Am7 D7 Bø7 . 18 D7 B SECTION of RHYTHM CHANGES G7 ‘ ‘ C7 ‘ F7 ‘ CHORDS BORROWED from PARALLEL MINOR Progression no.Ebm7 .E7 B7 . 19 Gø7 Gø7 Cm7 Gø7 C7 C7 F7 C7 Fm Fm B bmaj7 Fm ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ Dø7 Dø7 A b7 Dø7 G7 G7 C C G7 C ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ G7 Progression no.A7 C .F‹°7 A7 .E7 A7 .B7 Dm7 G7 Dm7 G7 E .C#m7 Am7 .C#m7 C .Fmaj7 B7 .F#ø7-B7 Dm7 .

A partial list with their usual keys includes: Take the “A” Train (C & Ab).Common A section C ‘ D7 ‘ Dm7 G7 C ‘ MODULATES to REMOTE KEYS Progression no. 21. Progression no. 10 (F7) Fm7 C7 Fm7 C7 Bmaj7 Gmaj7 Fm7 C7 B b7 E bmaj7 Cm7 E bmaj7 Cm7 Bm7 Gm7 E bmaj7 Cm7 ‘ G7 A b7 Cm7 A b7 B bmaj7 Amaj7 Cm7 A b7 B bmaj7 ‘ F7 ‘ (F7) ‘ B b7 ‘ F7 E7 C7 ‘ ‘ ‘ F7 ‘ F#7 D7 (F7) ‘ ‘ ‘ B b7 ‘ F7 ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ Jazz Theory Resources . 22 Bb ‘ ‘ ‘ Aø7 Ebm7 Cø7 D7 A b7 F7 Gm7 D bmaj7 Dm7 C7 Fm7 C #m7 Cm7 B b7 F#7 F7 E bmaj7 Bmaj7 ‘ D b7 B bmaj7 B bmaj7 B bmaj7 B bmaj7 C #m7 Am7 B bmaj7 B bmaj7 Progression no. Girl from Ipanema (F & Db). O Pato (D).140 Chapter 7 Harmonic Analysis TUNES with SIMILAR A SECTIONS There are several tunes which share the same common A Section. and Watch What Happens (Eb & F). Lucky Southern (D).

23 in two other keys. Body & Soul (5bs. 4bs. & 0#s or bs).15 (iv . 3 #s. 1#. 4bs.G7 Aø7 . & 4#s).Chapter 7 Harmonic Analysis 141 Progression no. 3#s.I E7 V7/vi C I Am7 A7 vi7 V7/ii E7 V7/vi Am7 A7 vi7 V7/ii ‘ Jazz Theory Resources . and a Bb are needed to tonicize the key of ii in mm. 1#.1. The leading tone C#. & 1#).8. The form is ABAB1 . 5bs.I) requires at least an Ab and suggests an Eb for the first two beats.22-23. 23 Fm7 Cm7 Am7 Fm7 B bm7 B bm7 Fm7 D7 B bm7 E b7 E b7 B b7 Gmaj7 E b7 A bmaj7 A bmaj7 E bmaj7 D bmaj7 A bmaj7 F#ø7 D bmaj7 Dø7 . and 27-28. ‘Round Midnight (6bs. 1b. 6bs. 5#s. 3bs.D7 B7 Gb7 Cmaj7 Gmaj7 Emaj7 A b/ C ‘ ‘ C7 B°7 ‘ A bmaj7 (Gø7 . Cherokee (2bs. These five commonly called jazz tunes require knowledge of all twelve keys: All the Things You Are (4bs. It also is found in the Mozart excerpt in ex 7. 1 appears again in progression no. PROGRESSIONS SHOWN with RNA PROGRESSIONS that MODULATE to CLOSELY RELATED KEYS The leading tone of the key of vi (G#) is needed in mm. The first phrase of progression no. 2#s. 3#s. 16. & 4#s) and Joy Spring (1b.6-7 and mm. 0#s or bs. Progression no.C7) Five Common Tunes: All Twelve Keys A well prepared jazz musician can play in all twelve keys. The plagal cadence at m. & 3bs). 3bs. 1 Am7 vi7 Dm7 ii7 Am7 vi7 Dm7 ii7 Dm7 ii7 G7 V7 Dm7 ii7 G7 V7 G7 V7 Cmaj7 I G7 V7 Eø7 ii ø 7/ii Cmaj7 I A7 V7/ii Cmaj7 I A7 V7/ii Fmaj7 IV Dm7 ii7 Fmaj7 IV Dm7 ii7 Bø7 ii ø 7/vi G7 V7 Bø7 ii ø 7/vi G7 V7 E7 V7/vi Fm C iv .

Ebmaj7. The A7 chord in m. the melody note at this point in the piece is a Bn.Bn. C# ) Dm7 ii7 G7 V7 C I ‘ The form for progression no. The D7 in m. C# ) ‘ Dm7 ii7 ‘ Bø7 ii ø 7/vi C I E7 V7/vi (G# ) Am7 vi E7 V7/vi ‘ ‘ D7 V7/V (F # ) A7 V7/ii (Bb . The chord functions as the V7 in C minor. Since the bass moves down. which is D7 .IV in the relative Bb major. In G minor. although it never resolves to G. suggesting A7 is the dominant of D major and not D minor. the D7 chord is often labeled a D7#5.142 Chapter 7 7.5 is also often labeled G7#5 because of an Eb in the melody.1 Harmonic Analysis Mozart: Piano Sonata. However.28 would normally be labeled V7/ii. but to an A7. Progression no. The form is ABAC. 5 is ABAB1 .10 also causes much confusion. With Bb in the melody. Only one note changes: Fn to F#. 2 points to A minor and needs the G# . 5 is often misunderstood because of several deceptive resolutions. An augmented fifth wants to resolve up: A# . and the Eb melody note and the b13 chord designation reflect this.3 of progression no. the most common deceptive resolution is V bVI. instead changes to a minor 7 chord becoming the ii7.13 is the V7 of G. The C#°7 in m. it is V7/vi .An. the chord is often spelled Db°7. but A# is senseless in the context of G minor or Bb.2 is the V7/vi even though it resolves up the IV chord.bVI in G minor. it makes more sense to label the chord a G7b13.545. Db°7 would be the leading tone chord in the key of Ebb minor with Jazz Theory Resources . the V7 of D minor. which is where it actually resolves. C# ) ‘ ‘ Dm7 ii7 Dm7 ii7 G7 V7 ‘ ‘ F IV Fm iv Em7 iii7 A7 V7/II* (F# . The C# is a better choice than Db since the chord is the secondary leading tone chord in the key of D minor and calls for a C# and an En. needing an F#. but instead of V . the leading tone of A minor. and there is an Eb. the kind of resolution associated with a b13. but the melody moves down Bb . K. It does not resolve to the A minor. The D7 in m. Allegro &c ≈ ?c œ œœœœœœ œœ ii7 Œ ≈ œ œ œ œ œ œœœ Œ Œ I ≈ œ œ œ œ œœœœ Œ ≈œ œ œ# œ œ œœœ vi7 Œ ii vi7 V7 IV Œ & ≈ œœœœ œœ œ œ ≈ œœœ œ œœ œ œ ii 7/vi V7/vi œøœ œ œ œœ #œ œ Œ Œ ?≈ œœ ≈ œ œn œ œ œ ˙ The E7 in m. The G7 in m. Progression no. 2 C I ‘ E7 V7/vi (G # ) ‘ A7 V7/ii (Bb . This contradiction leads to confusion. These same two chords occur here. The A# (#5) and the Bb (b13) are same pitch with an enharmonic spelling. Since there is no D# in this context. The A7 requires a Bb from the key signature and C# leading tone.

or any suggestions for melodic resources. whether it occurs as a leading tone resolving traditionally. The third in the bass puts the vii°7 in first inversion.C# .5-6. the most typical setting of a vii°7 chord in traditional music. Dm moved to C#°7 just as the Cm moved to its dominant G7 in mm. An E°7 and a C#°7 share the same enharmonic pitches (E-G-Bb-Db/C#) but sound the same only when taken out of context.12 is still the dominant of Bb even though it resolves to Dm7. It is important to remember that these chords occur in a musical contexts and must be analyzed accordingly. reveals its function as vii°7/iii. The correct identification identifies the smoothest note choices. 28 is often spelled as E°7. The functional relationship of C#°7 to the Dm7 suggests the altered En and C# tones. For some. Another deceptive resolution is rarely questioned. B n) G7 V7/ii F7 F7 G7 V7/ii Cm7 ii7 Dm7 iii7 Cm7 ii7 G7 V7/ii C #° 7 vii ° 7/iii G7 V7/ii G7 V7/ii Cm7 ii7 Cm7 ii7 Cm7 ii7 Cm7 ii7 F7 V7 F7 F7 F7 V7 F7 V7 Dm7 iii7 Bb I Fm7 ii7/IV B b7 V7/IV D7 V7/vi Eb IV C #° 7/E vii ° 7/iii B b/F I Jazz Theory Resources . Understanding the value of RNA can save time. This is the “Route 66” principle again: a chord may resolve somewhere other than where it points. 11-12 the F7 resolves to a Dm7. but labeling it a passing diminished gives no information about its harmonic function. the chord is derived from the seventh degree of a harmonic minor scale. a closely related key to Bb.Chapter 7 Harmonic Analysis 143 a key signature of thirteen flats! Some argue that this chord is a passing diminished chord and does not function as a leading tone chord in D minor since it does not resolve to D minor. the chord symbol and the context together and you have the D harmonic minor scale (A . it is easier to accept deceptive dominant than deceptive diminished resolutions. A dominant chord usually points to. Learn to recognize the possible functions of diminished chord no matter how they are spelled and no matter where they resolve. or a diminished resolving deceptively. These five notes are two notes shy of a scale.G . A C#°7 is the vii°7 of Dm. but may cause confusion in the analysis.G . The diminished chord in m. Recognizing it as C#°7/E. Add the notes implied by the melody. No one questions whether F7 is the V7 chord in the key of Bb major even though in mm. It does pass between Dm and Cm. Every time a diminished chord is encountered a process of elimination could be applied to determine the logical melodic resources. as a passing diminished.En . a closely related secondary chord. The notes of the diminished chord added to the melody note form the notes of an A7b9 chord (A .C# . E°7 suggests vii°7/v. 8-9 and mm. 5 Bb I D7 V7/vi C #° 7 vii ° 7/iii (En. missing only some kind of a D and a F.A). and F minor. This makes the bass line easy to see. C#) (F#) E bmaj7 IV Cm7 ii7 Eb IV (Ab. but may follow a tonic chord. An An in the melody further illustrates the relationship of the C#°7 to the key of D minor.En . realizing that in most cases a diminished chord. necessary alterations. The F7 in m. Progression no.D . The logical choices to fill out the scale are Dn and Fn. with four flats is a very remote key and completely out of context.Bb). a diminished chord in first inversion.Bb . being in the key of Bb major and following a D minor chord.F .

G7 ii7 . 7 F I F I D7 V7/ii D7 V7/ii Gm7 ii7 Gm7 ii7 C7 V7 C7 V7 Em7 .V7.vi7 Em7 .E7 IV .C7 V7 .vi7 C I G7 .E7 V7/iii V7/vi Dm7 .Am7 I .2 &cŒ Œ œ œ œ œ œœ Œ œ œ œ œœ œ œœ œ œ œ œœ œ Œ Œ œ œ œ œœ œ ‰ j ‰ jœ œ ‰ j œ ‰ j œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ?c œ œ Œ œœ Œ œœ Œ Progression no. I .vi7 Dm7 . The form is AABA.vi7 Dm7 .G7 ii7 .Am7 iii7 .V7/vi C .vi7 G7 .Am7 I .V7 Dm7 . 8 is the one that every child in America seems to know on the piano and plays with this accompaniment.V7/ii .(D7 I .Am7 iii7 .G7 ii7 .vi7 Dm7 .144 Chapter 7 Harmonic Analysis TURNAROUND TUNES These tunes are based on the common cycle progression I .vi7 C .Bb7 V7 TT7/iii Abm7 . The challenge to the progression is the bridge which goes to the close key of IV (Bb).vi7 Fmaj7 .V7 Em7 .G7 ii7 .Db7 ii7-V7 bII D7 V7/ii G bmaj7 I/bII Gm7 ii7 C7 . 7.Am7 I . This progression is often used at the end of a form to turnaround back to the top of the form.Am7 I .G7 ii7 . and its most common variation. 8 C . Most of progression no.V7 G bmaj7 I/bII F . 7 to avoid having eight beats of F then repeating to the top of the form for another F chord.V7 A7 .D7 V7/ii V7/V Dm7 .V7 Gm7 .ii7 .G7 V7/V . and then to the remote keys of Gb and D.V7 Dm7 .E7 IV .V7 Dm7 .V7/IV C I Dm7 .C7 ii7 .D7 iii7 V7 ii Dm7 vi7 Dm7 vi7 Gm7 ii7 Cm7 ii7/IV C7 V7 F7 V7/IV Gm7 . Progression no.vi7 Fmaj7 .V7 A7 .V7 ‘ Jazz Theory Resources . The turnaround progression is shown in mm. 7 stays in the key of F utilizing the turnaround chords.G7 ii7 .Am7 I .V7 C .D7 V7/ii V7/V Dm7 .C7 ii7-V7 Gm7 .V7 C .vi7 .V7.V7/IV C .vi7 C .C7 ii7 .Db7 ii7-V7 bII Gm7 .G7 ii7 . This turnaround progression could be used in the last two measures of progression no.Am7 I .G7 ii7 .G7 ii7 .C7) ii7-V7) B bmaj7 IV F I Abm7 .ii7 .(V7/ii Progression no.G7 ii7 .V7/vi Em7 .Am7 iii7 .V7 IV D7 .C7 V7 .A7 ii7-V7 VI Am7 iii7 Am7 iii7 Dmaj7 I/VI Am7 . 31-32.Am7 I .V7 B7 .

There are two descending chromatic lines a tritone apart suggested by this progression. 1. the G# is required as the leading tone to Am.BD7 iii7 .Cm7 ‘ Abm7 .V7 D7 V7/iii Fm7 .Bb7 ii7 .3 E7 = V7/vi. a tonic chord substitute. Each dominant resolves to the correct root. C7 B7 E7 #˙ ˙ 5. the D# is from the key signature of E minor. 149. ˙ ˙ ˙ PROGRESSES to IV with SECONDARY ii7/IV .Bb7 ii7 . the Fn is from the key signature of C major.V7 Eb I Fm7 . but few seem to know the bridge. 10 under remote modulations. E7 = V7/vi.BD7 E bmaj7 Bbm7 . E7 A7 #˙ ˙ ˙ D7 n˙ ˙ ˙ G7 b˙ ˙ 4. E bmaj7 I E bmaj7 I B bm7 ii7/IV I Progression no. 4. 3. 6.BD7 Abm7 .Cm7 iii7 .vi7 Eb .vi7 Aø7 ii ø 7/iii Gm7 . 8.vi7 Eb .V7 Eb I Gm7 .Cm7 iii7 . G7 = V7.V7 Fm7 .Db7 iv7 .vi7 See also progression no. the Bb is from the key signature of F major.Cm7 Gm7 .V7 IV E b7 V7/IV A bmaj7 IV A bmaj7 IV A bmaj7 IV IV Abm7 .BD7 Gm7 . 7. D7 = V7/V. Jazz Theory Resources .V7 iii7 . ˙ & c #˙ ˙ n#˙ ?c ˙ 1.BD7 Fm7 .V7/IV The backdoor dominant in mm4 resolves to the iii7.Db7 I .V7 IV Bbm7 . B7 = V7/iii. The form is AABA.Bb7 ii7 .Db7 I . the F# is from the key signature of G major. 9 Bbm7 .vi7 Gm7 . C7 = V7/IV. the C# is the leading tone to D minor. 7. 5.Db7 iv7 .Db7 iv7 . n#˙ ˙ 7. the G# is required as the leading tone to Am. ˙ 2.Bb7 ii7 . There is an interesting cycle of dominants in the bridge that point to different closely related keys without actually getting to those keys.Eb7 ii7 . 6.Chapter 7 Harmonic Analysis 145 Every child knows the melody to the A section of progression no.Eb7 ii7 . but each chord quality is changed to a dominant which propels the progression forward.Eb7 ii7 .V7 IV A bmaj7 Fm7 . A7 = V7/ii. 3. p. 2.Cm7 iii7 .Bb7 ii7 .

V7 B bmaj7 IV Bbm7 .D7 iiø7 .F7 ii7-V7 IV Gm7 .V7 bIII Am7 .C7 iiø7 .C7 ii ø 7-V7/i Fmaj7 I Dm7 .A7 iiø7-V7 vi C7 V7 Blues with “Pretty Chords” or “West Coast” Blues Dm7 .F7 ii7-V7 IV B bmaj7 I/IV Fm7 .Db7 vi7 .V7 ii ‘ G7 V7/vi Aø7 .V7 iii ‘ D b7 BD7 A bmaj7 IV E bmaj7 I Dø7 ii ø 7/vi E bmaj7 I Fm7 .V7 Gø7 .G7 vi7 .V7 B bm7 ii7/IV E bmaj7 I E b7 V7/IV Jazz Theory Resources .V7/vi The form is AABA.V7 V B bmaj7 I/IV Cm7 . 12 Fmaj7 I Gm7 ii7 Eø7 .C7 ii7 .D7 iiø7-V7 ii A b7 V7/ bVI G7 V7/V Gm7 .Dm7 I .vi7 Cm7 .C7 iiø7-V7 i Fmaj7 I Gø7 .V7 V Dm7 .D7 iiø7-V7 ii Aø7 .Eb7 vi7 .G7 vi7 .Bb7 ii7-V7 bVII Aø7 . 13 B bm7 ii7/IV Fm7 ii7 E b7 V7/IV B b7 V7 ‘ D b7 BD7 A bmaj7 IV E bmaj7 I E bmaj7 I Dø7 ii ø 7/vi G7 V7/vi Cm7 vi7 Cm7 vi7 Cm7 vi7 (F7) (V7/v) F7 V7/V (F7) vi7 Gø7 .146 Chapter 7 Harmonic Analysis PROGRESSES to vi with SECONDARY iiø7/vi .F7 ii7-V7 IV Cm7 . E bmaj7 I Progression no.A7 iiø7-V7 vi Dm7 .Bb7 ii7-V7 bVII Fm7 .V7 D bmaj7 I/bVI Gm7 . Progression no.V7 bII The form is ABAB1 .A7 iiø7-V7 vi Eø7 .C7 ii7 .G7 vi7 .V7 V Cm7 . Progression no.Bb7 ii7-V7 bVII Ebm7 ii7/bVI Aø7 .C7 ii7 .D7 iiø7-V7 ii The form is twelve measure Blues. 11 Fmaj7 I Fmaj7 I Cm7 ii7/IV Fmaj7 I Eø7 .V7/ii Abm7 .D7 vi7 .G7 vi7 .F7 ii7-V7 IV Fm7 .A7 iiø7-V7 vi F7 V7/IV Eø7 .Bb7 ii7 .V7 V F .

A7 iiø7 . 15 F I Gm7 ii7 F I Gm7 ii7 F#°7 vii ° 7/ii E b7 BD7 Gm7 ii7 F I Gm7 ii7 F I G#°7 vii ° 7/iii Eø7 .V7/IV vii ° 7/iii Ebm7 .D7 iii7 .D7 V7/vi V7/ii G7 .V7/IV vii ° 7/iii Gm7 .Chapter 7 Harmonic Analysis 147 USES SECONDARY vii°7 CHORDS The form is AABA.vii°7/ii Gm7 .BD7 Bb .V7/IV Bb .V7 B bm7 vi7 bVI Gm7 .V7 vi Bø7 .Ab7 ii7 .V7 Gm7 .BD7 Ebm7 .F7 iii7 .V7 ii E b7 BD7 ‘ Jazz Theory Resources .F7 ii7 iii7 .G#°7 Am7 . bVI (Db.V Ebm7 .V7/ii I ‘ The form is ABAB1 .vi7 bVI Am7 .F#°7 I .C7 ii7 .vii°7/ii F .C7 V7/V .V7/ii D bmaj7 Gm7 .V7 bVI C7 V7 F .V7/ii Am7 . F .BD7 B bmaj7 - bVI Am7 .F#°7 I .Ab7 ii7 .vii°7/ii D bmaj7 B bm7 I .vi7 bVI Progression no.D7 iii7 .Ab7 ii7 .D7 iii7 .V7 bVI Fm7 B bm7 iii7 .V7 Fmaj7 Bb7 I .F#°7 I .G#°7 ii7 vii ° 7/iii E b7 IV . 5bs) is closely related to the parallel F minor (4bs). 14 Gm7 .D7 iii7 . Progression no.E7 iiø7 .D7 iiø7 .V7/ii B bmaj7 IV G7 V7/V B bmaj7 IV C7 V7 F I Dm7 vi7 F I Gm7 ii7 Aø7 ii ø 7/ii Gm7 ii7 Aø7 ii ø 7/ii F I D7 V7/ii C7 V7 D7 V7/ii Aø7 .Eb7 IV .Eb7 IV .C7 ii7 .V7 bVI Am7 .F7 ii7 iii7 .V7/bvii Gm7 ii7 Fmaj7 I A7 .C7 ii7 .V7 iii Am7 .G#°7 Am7 . The B section modulates the remote key of bVI.

18 D7 V7/VI B SECTION of RHYTHM CHANGES G7 V7/II ‘ ‘ C7 V7/V ‘ F7 V7 ‘ Jazz Theory Resources .TT7/ii C I Progression no.Eb7 ii7 .B7 Dm7 .E7 V7/iii V7/vi ii7-V7/III A7 .D7 ii7 .V7/V Am7 .V7/V V7/vi V7/ii Dm7 .V7/ii C .F‹°7 A7 . Progression no.D7 iiø7-V7 vi C7 V7/V Bb I ‘ Cm7 .Fmaj7 I .B7 Dm7 G7 ii7 .ii7/bII iii7 .A7 C .ii7 A7 .ii7 I-vi7 III Dm7 G7 ii7 .G7 I E7 .Dm7 V7/ii .E7 V7 G#m7.G7 V7/V .C#m7 Am7 .Dm7 V7 F#m7 .V7 Dm7 G7 I E .148 Chapter 7 Harmonic Analysis USES CYCLE of SECONDARY DOMINANTS The form is ABAC.V7 Dm7 .C#m7 C .G7 V7 E .Dm7 V7/ii .V7 iiø7-V7 iii Am7 .V7 The form is AABA The end of the second A section points to the closely related key of E minor.V7 Em7 .F7 V7/V .V7 ‘ Bb I ‘ Aø7 .B7 B7 .V7 D7 .E7 V7/iii V7/vi B7 .iiø7-V7 iii Dm7 Ebm7 - I-vi7 III D7 .F7 ii7 .D7 vi7 .G7 ii7 .A7 I .IV C .G7 ii7 .D7 iiø7-V7 vi ‘ ‘ ‘ Gm vi ‘ ‘ ‘ Aø7 . 16 G7 V7/II F7 V7 G7 V7/II Gm vi ‘ ‘ ‘ Aø7 .IV iii/III vii°7/#v B7 .Fmaj7 I .D7 iiø7-V7 vi D7 V7/vi Bb I C7 V7/V Bb I ‘ G7 V7/ii ‘ C7 . Progression no. but the B section is in E major.Fmaj7 V7 F#ø7 .D7 vi7 .G7 V7/V .F#ø7-B7 I .V7 F#ø7 . 17 D7 .V7 iiø7-V7 iii C .

E7 iiø7-V7 iii Gm7 ii7 Amaj7 I/III Aø7 ii ø 7/ii Gm7 ii7 C7 V7 Bm7 . 20 Gø7 ii ø 7/i Gø7 ii ø 7/i Gm7 ii7 Gø7 ii ø 7/i C7 V7/i C7 V7/i C7 V7 C7 V7/i Fmaj7 I Fmaj7 I Fmaj7 I Am7 iii7 D7 V7/ii Bø7 . 19 Gø7 ii ø 7 Gø7 ii ø 7 Cm7 ii7/bVII Gø7 ii ø 7 C7 V7/iv C7 V7/iv F7 V7/bVII C7 V7/iv Fm iv Fm iv ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ Dø7 ii ø 7/i Dø7 ii ø 7/i G7 V7/i G7 V7/i C I C I G7 V7/i C I ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ Bb I/bVII Fm iv A b7 TT7/V Dø7 ii ø 7/i ‘ G7 V7/i The form is ABCD. The B and D sections could be labeled variations of the A section. 21 C I Common A section D7 V7/V ‘ ‘ Dm7 ii7 G7 V7 C I ‘ MODULATES to REMOTE KEYS Twenty four measure cycle progression. 22 Bb I B b7 V7/IV ‘ ‘ ‘ E bmaj7 IV Bmaj7 I/bII Aø7 ii ø 7/vi Ebm7 ii7/bIII Cø7 ii ø 7/i A b7 V7/bIII F7 V7 D7 V7/vi D bmaj7 I/bIII Dm7 iii7 Gm7 vi7 C7 V7/V Fm7 ii7/IV C #m7 ii7/bII Cm7 ii7 ‘ D b7 TT7/ii F#7 V7/bII F7 V7 Jazz Theory Resources . Progression no.Chapter 7 Harmonic Analysis 149 CHORDS BORROWED from PARALLEL MINOR The form is AABA. Internal harmonic sequencing help establish form.E7 ii7-V7 III D7 V7/ii C7 V7 Fmaj7 I Amaj7 I/III G7 V7/V Fmaj7 I ‘ ‘ C7 V7 ‘ D7 V7/ii ‘ SIMILAR A SECTION Progression no. Progression no. Progression no.

B section wanders through several remote keys.D7 iiø7 .C7) iiø7 .V7 vi Aø7 .V7 vii B7 V7/ bVI Gb7 BD7 Cmaj7 I/VI Gmaj7 I/VII Emaj7 I/bVI A b/ C I ‘ ‘ C7 V7/vi B°7 vii ° 7/iii Fm7 ii7/V D7 V7/VII B bm7 ii7 E b7 V7 ‘ A bmaj7 I (Gø7 . The second A section is in a different key and the last A section is extended by four measures.G7 iiø7 . Progression no.150 Chapter 7 Harmonic Analysis The form is AABA. 23 Fm7 vi7 Cm7 vi7/V Am7 ii7/VII Fm7 vi7 B bm7 ii7 E b7 V7 B b7 V7/V Gmaj7 I/VII E b7 V7 A bmaj7 I E bmaj7 I/V D bmaj7 IV A bmaj7 IV/V F#ø7 iiø 7/ bVI D bmaj7 IV Dø7 . 10 (F7) (V7) Fm7 ii7/IV C7 V7/V Fm7 ii7/IV C7 V7/V Bmaj7 I/bII Gmaj7 I/VI Fm7 ii7/IV C7 V7/V B b7 V7/IV E bmaj7 IV Cm7 ii7 A b7 BD7 Cm7 ii7 ‘ G7 V7/ii ‘ F7 V7 ‘ (F7) (V7) ‘ B b7 V7/IV B bmaj7 I C #m7 ii7/bII E bmaj7 IV Cm7 ii7 Bm7 ii7/VII Gm7 ii7/V ‘ F7 V7 E7 V7/VII C7 V7/V ‘ F#7 V7/bII D7 V7/VI (F7) (V7) ‘ ‘ ‘ B b7 V7/IV B bmaj7 I Amaj7 I/VII Cm7 ii7 A b7 BD7 ‘ ‘ ‘ F7 V7 B bmaj7 I B bmaj7 I Am7 ii7/VI E bmaj7 IV Cm7 ii7 ‘ F7 V7 ‘ ‘ B bmaj7 I A b7 BD7 ‘ ‘ The form is AABA. B bmaj7 I B bmaj7 I B bmaj7 I Progression no.V7 vi B bm7 ii7 A bmaj7 I Jazz Theory Resources .

Assumptions about the “correct” set of chords to a particular piece are usually based on the first source experienced. banjo or ukulele above the top line. plus the two line staff easy piano arrangement. The differences may vary greatly depending on the artist and the arranger. and with a B in the bass in the cut off piano part would sound like a Bø7. Jazz Theory Resources . Working musicians expanded the sparse harmonic vocabulary in performances by inserting extra chords progressing from one primary point to another.G7 for the ukulele or guitar might have actually been Dm7 . The Dm6 shares the same notes as the Bø7. “Fake” books were made by cutting off the top melodic line of music with whatever limited chord symbols appeared. the harmony used as a developmental device for creating more or less tension in the course of the performance. experienced jazz performer will have a personal approach to many of these common progressions. First sources include old style lead sheets. illegal versions could be purchased from various sources. the most often played progressions. Many commonly performed jazz standard tunes have no agreed upon “correct” set of chords. Compare several legal copyrighted versions of standard jazz tunes today and a number of different of “correct” versions of the chord changes emerge. These tools include understanding formula progressions that can be applied to sections of standard jazz tunes and strategies for enhancing lead sheet progressions.” new substitutions were added and passed on either from new lead sheets. The creative approach of a single well-known artist may influence the harmonic choices for many. much of the original harmony was “improved. legal or illegal fake books. the D bass note having been cut off for the “fake” book version.” may have the most harmonic variations rather than having an authoritative agreed upon harmonic framework. There are other harmonic possibilities that can be addressed only after acquiring a thorough understanding of the major/minor system. Published sheet music typically had three lines: one for the melody and lyric. including blues and “rhythm changes. Harmonic preferences and even standard keys for some tunes change for different regions of the world usually determined by a influential group of local musicians. A jazz performer must have the tools to master the elastic state of jazz harmony.G7 in the piano part. Experienced artists may change the harmonic progression from chorus to chorus during a single performance. Before there were legal “fake” books.E7 in the banjo chords. Earlier sheet music might have included simplified chord symbols for guitar. All of the harmonic considerations in this chapter will be confined to the major/minor system. Several versions of the same progressions are compared below addressing practical applications of harmony. A iiø7 . These skeletal pieces were pasted two tunes to the page and put together into books used by working musicians. As musicians played these tunes over the years. Comparing several performances or recordings will reveal different harmonic progressions for the same tune. arrangements. or through the oral traditions.V7 to the key of A minor might appear as Dm6 .Chapter 8 Harmonic Substitutions & Turnarounds 151 VIII. A progression marked F . These principles will then be applied to the most common forms played by jazz musicians: the blues and rhythm changes. and recordings of a specific artists. Harmonic Substitutions & Turnarounds Harmonic progressions in a jazz performance are very liquid and pliable. Any creative. The progression may change within a single performance. The limitations of ukulele and banjo led to many omissions and some confusing looking chord symbols. shifting between complex and simple. Ironically.

as ii . The roots of a sequence of tritone substitutions may progress in downward fifths The bass line and the chromatic harmony create motion which points away and ultimately resolves back to the tonic chord. creates a chromatically ascending bass line which returns to the downward fifth motion with the ii7 . C I Am7 vi7 Dm7 ii7 G7 V7 C I Secondary dominant chords can replace diatonic chords.V7 . Secondary dominants produce more forward motion by introducing chromatic voices that briefly point away from the primary tonal center. Turnarounds to Tonic (I) Many progressions end with two measures of the tonic chord and begin again on the same tonic chord.152 Chapter 8 Harmonic Substitutions & Turnarounds TURNAROUND PROGRESSIONS I . C I C#°7 vii°7/ii Dm7 ii7 G7 V7 C I A dominant chord may be replaced by its tritone substitute dominant when the dominant chord is resolving down a fifth. C I E b7 TT sub for V7/ii A b7 TT sub for V7/V D b7 TT sub for V7 C I Jazz Theory Resources . Several other chords may be placed in this area which create motion to replace the static harmony.vi.V7 . the vii°7/ii. the ii7 chord can be replaced by the V7/V. The root motion of downward fifths is strong.I. This creates twelve or more beats of the same static sound. C I A7 V7/ii D7 V7/V G7 V7 C I A secondary leading tone chord can be used in place of a secondary dominant chord. Try to determine the accidentals necessary in these turnarounds.I. a tritone substitute dominant would not appropriate.G7) in the final measure. The C#°7. The tonic chord (C) at the top of the chart can be preceded with its diatonic ii7 and V7 (Dm7 . Static harmony: the last two measures of the form and the first measure all on the tonic chord begs for harmonic motion to replace the static harmony.V7 .ii7 . If the dominant chord is resolving deceptively. There are many tunes that are based on a variation of these turnaround progressions. The vi7 chord can be replaced by a V7/ii. C I Dm7 ii7 G7 V7 C I Backing up one more place in the progression allows the insertion of vi7 which creates a longer passage of downward fifth root motion: vi7 . The new progressions are called “turnarounds” as they turn the piece around the top of the form. C I C I Additional harmony is inserted in a passage by working backwards from the targeted resolution.

but is possible and may inspire an arrangement or composition. vi7 . The diatonic major chords.ii7 V7. B b7 TT sub for V7/vi A7 V7/ii A b7 TT sub for V7/V G7 V7 C I The vii°7/iii can be used deceptively in this turnaround. Em7 iii7 E b7 TT sub for V7/ii Dm7 ii7 D b7 TT sub for V7 C I E7 is the V7/vi and can also be inserted in the progression to avoid the tonic chord. they create colorful upper extensions (C= b13. The lowered third and sixth degrees of the C minor scale yield the b13 and b9 over the G7. If the tonic chord tones are sounded over the E7. B b7 TT sub for V7/vi E b7 TT sub for V7/ii A b7 TT sub for V7/V D b7 TT sub for V7 C I A chromatic bass line can be created using a combination of tritone substitution. E7 V7/vi E b7 TT sub for V7/ii D7 V7/V D b7 TT sub for V7 C I E7 can also have a tritone substitution. A descending chromatic bass line can be created by substituting iii7 for I. A descending chromatic bass line is shown below using all dominant chords. and using the tritone substitutes for V7/ii and V7 as shown below. Jazz Theory Resources . E = Root. In a four chorus improvisation on a jazz standard progression in Bb major. Keith Jarrett used three different turnarounds. G = #9 of E7). The iii7 chord leads well to the vi7 or V7/ii7 chords with descending fifth root motion. Different turnarounds may be chosen for different emotional or structural moments in the solo. secondary dominants and the dominant. G = 13 of Bb7). The resolution to the tonic chord in those final two measures can be avoided by using the iii7 chord or the I6 chord as a substitute for I. The fundamental G7 chord will sound the same but would have different upper extensions. Cmaj7 I Am7 vi7 Fmaj7 or Fm7 IV or iv/i B b7 Backdoor deceptive resolution C I An artist may use a different turnaround progression within the performance of a tune.Chapter 8 Harmonic Substitutions & Turnarounds 153 Progression in countless thirty-two measure forms and the blues resolve back to the tonic chord in the last two measures and begin again on the same tonic chord. Cmaj7 or Em7 I or iii7 D#°7 vii°7/iii Dm7 ii7 G7 V7 C I Chords from the parallel minor can be used for a color change. but it may sound interesting as the C triad over the Bb7 chord yields other colorful upper extensions (C = 9. The iii7 chord leads chromatically to the tritone substitute for V7/ii. are replaced by corresponding chords from the parallel minor. Bb7 may be a long way from the tonic chord. Cmaj7 I A bmaj7 bVI/i Dø7 iiø7/i G7 (b13 b9) V7/i C I This is not a commonly used turnaround. The progression below has a bass line of descending fifths using all tritone substitute dominants. E = #11.

Jarrett changed only the second chord. B bmaj7 I G7 V7/ii Cm7 ii7 F7 V7 Bb I The last turnaround set up the end of the solo and Jarrett returned to the diatonic progression and slowed the rhythmic activity of the melodic material to help the improvisation come to a close. Cmaj7 I Fmaj7 IV Eø7 iiø7/ii A7 V7/ii Dm ii A diatonic iii7 chord can be used instead of the iiø7/ii. Turnarounds to Supertonic (ii) Pieces may end with a tonic chord in the last two measures of the form and may begin on the ii7 chord. The half-step resolution from IV to iiø7/ii is strong. B bmaj7/F Over dominant pedal C bmaj7/F Bb I At the end of the second chorus he used this diatonic progression: B bmaj7 I Gm7 vi7 Cm7 ii7 F7 V7 Bb I As the solo built to the more climactic third chorus. Any chord can be preceded by its dominant and its ii7 or iiø7 chord. The root motion is strong utilizing descending fifths. B bmaj7 I Gm7 vi7 Cm7 ii7 F7 V7 Bb I I I . This restrained the forward motion for a moment before releasing it at the top of the second form. Cmaj7 I B7 V7/iii Em7 iii7 A7 V7/ii Dm ii A chromatic bass line can be created by using a series of secondary tritone substitute dominants.ii7 progression. Cmaj7 I B7 V7/iii B b9 TT sub for V7/vi A7 V7/ii Dm ii Jazz Theory Resources . The insertion of these chords introduces chromatic pitches which point away from the tonic chord and point the progression towards the ii7 chord. Jarrett’s melodic material over this turnaround was a flurry of sixteenth notes. This delays pointing to the ii7 chord (V7/ii) until the last moment in this progression. The iii7 chord may be preceded by its dominant. Cmaj7 I Eø7 iiø7/ii A7 V7/ii Dm ii The strong downward fifth root movement from I to IV can precede the iiø7/ii . The following progressions are possible for that temporary modulation. The F chord is a common chord between the key of C (as IV) and the key of D minor (as bVI).154 Chapter 8 Harmonic Substitutions & Turnarounds At the end of the first chorus Jarrett played only two chords over the dominant pedal note F.V7/ii . Many compositions will at some point modulate from the key of I to the key of ii.

Italian. a bass line of descending fifths can be created that resolves down a half-step to the vi chord.(ii7/bV) Gm7 ii7/IV C7 V7/IV F IV Jazz Theory Resources .V7/IV. Here are typical turnaround modulating from the key of I to the key of IV. The downward fifth motion continues from IV to iiø7/vi and is still strong even though F to Bn is a diminished fifth. Cmaj7 I Fmaj7 IV Bø7 iiø7/vi E7 V7/vi Am vi The IV chord can be made into a dominant chord. Cmaj7 I Gm7 ii7/IV C7 V7/IV F IV Sliding chromatically to the ii7/IV. F9 TT sub for V7/iii B b9 TT sub for V7/vi E b9 TT sub for V7/ii Dm ii Turnarounds to Submediant (vi) Pieces may end with a tonic chord in the last two measures of the form and may begin on the vi7 chord.V7/vi. German). There are several tunes whose bridge or middle sections modulate to the key of vi. This chord occurs countless times in traditional music and might then be labeled an augmented sixth chord with any number of international titles (French. F9 TT sub for V7/iii B b9 TT sub for V7/vi Am vi Turnarounds to Subdominant (IV) While rarely found at the beginning of tunes. The chromatic Ab m7 chord is not as much functional as it is a chromatic passing chord. Cmaj7 I Bø7 iiø7/vi E7 V7/vi Am vi The strong downward fifth movement from I to IV often precedes the iiø7/vi . The most common approach is to precede the vi7 chord with its iiø7 and V7.Chapter 8 Harmonic Substitutions & Turnarounds 155 A strong downward fifth bass line through a series of tritone substitutions finally resolves to the ii7 chord in the following turnaround progression. which makes it a tritone substitute for the V7/iii. Cmaj7 I IV. but would probably sound like the ii7/bV. Cmaj7 I III. The following progressions modulate from the key of I to the key of vi. many tunes modulate to the IV chord at significant points in the form.(Abm7) vi . Cmaj7 I F9 TT sub for V7/iii E7 V7/vi Am vi By using the tritone substitute for the V7/vi. Cmaj7 I Am7 . Key changed by inserting the ii7/IV .

Jazz Theory Resources . Figure out what can and cannot change within a tune before getting carried away with substitutions. For instance. does not show at all in the recent versions.156 Chapter 8 Harmonic Substitutions & Turnarounds A chromatic bass line can be created using tritone substitute and secondary dominants. some kind of chord built on the fourth degree is expected in m. Do not force harmony onto a piece that does not serve the melody. and (2) does it sound good. Cmaj7 I Cmaj7 I IV. The second and third lines are from different recently published versions. Turnarounds to mediant Tunes rarely begin on a iii chord. Cmaj7 I Am7 vi F#ø7 iiø7/iii B7 V7/iii Em iii A b7 TT sub for V7/v G7 V7/IV D b7 TT sub for V7/IV Gb7 TT sub for V7/IV C7 V7/IV F IV F IV The tonic chord could change to a dominant quality and then progress to the V7/iii as shown below. but as an augmented sixth chord or a tritone substitute for the V7/vii. The following progressions modulate from the key of I to the key of iii. so that the C triad (C-E-G) becomes the 3-5-7 of the Am7 chord. I have added the Bb7 chord (acting as a TT7/vi). Keep in mind what the focus should be at any given moment in the piece before altering the harmony.V7/iii points the iii chord.5 of the blues. There is no good reason to impose incompatible harmony onto a melody. Certain additions or deductions of harmony will alter the mood. Root movement down in thirds produces a smooth transition as adjacent chords share three pitches. principles for reharmonization would include: • The harmony supports the melody. which was probably in first inversion with Bb in the bass in the original sheet music. the A minor triad (A-C-E) becomes the 3-5-7 of the F# ø7 chord. The top line is straight from very old lead sheet. Cmaj7 I C7 Augmented 6th chord or TT sub for V/vii B7 V7/iii Em iii APPLICATION to STANDARD PROGRESSIONS There are only two rules in music theory: (1) Does it sound good. In this instance. With those rules in mind. I witnessed a pianist trying to get a singer to change the melody notes of an old standard to fit a reharmonization. • • The standard progression is shown below with four different harmonic settings. no matter how interesting the progression. There are certain significant junctures that may be expected within the form of a standard tune. The last line is how I personally might play it. but many tunes modulate to the key of iii at the bridge or other sections. The iiø7/iii . the C7 does not function as the V7/IV. The passing Gm chord. The simple triad (1-3-5) becomes the 3-5-7 of the next.

is the most logical label.3 are similar sounding and work to progress to the iii7 chord in m.5 was probably a Dm7 chord with a D in the bass of the piano arrangement. The F chord in m. Progression no. but that part was cut off to make the fake books.5. the vii°7 of iii. Eb°7 Eb°7 D#°7 ’ ’ ’ ’ F ’ ’ ’ ’ G7 G7 G7 G7 ’ ’ ’ ’ C C C C ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ A7 A7 A7 ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ G7 G7 ’ ’ Dm7 Dm7 Dm7 G7 G/F Jazz Theory Resources . In the bottom line there is a descending bass line to the root of the iii7 chord. Progression no. and Eb°7.9. D#°7. The Fmaj7 and the Dm7 chords in m. All of the modern versions feature some kind of a turnaround to get to the ii7 chord coming up in m. The tonic chord has been replaced by the iii7 chord in two versions.2 relying on the unaltered ii7 chord. None of the recent versions use the V7/V in m.4. ’ A7 ’ ’ ’ ’ A7 ’ Cmaj7 Bb7 A7 ’ 1 A7 ’ (or D#°7) The F chord in the original lead sheet at m. 31 F ’ G7 ’ Dm7 Dm7 Dm7 17 C Em7 Em7 Em7 ’ ’ ’ ’ C dim. A7 (V7/ii). 31 Cmaj7 Gm A7 ’ Cmaj7 Cmaj7 D7 Dm7 Dm7 Dm7 ’ ’ ’ ’ G7 G7 G7 G7 ’ ’ ’ ’ C C C C ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ Fmaj7 Dm7 Fmaj7 ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ Em7 Em7 Em7 ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ A7 A7 C dim. All versions used typical turnaround progressions to get back to the tonic chord that begins the repeat of the A section in m. The D#°7 is labeled by two other names: C dim. Progression no. 31 Fmaj7 ’ ’ Dm7 Dm7 Dm7 5 ’ ’ ’ ’ G7 G7 G7 G7 ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ G/F ’ ’ ’ ’ C Em7 C Em7 ’ ’ ’ ’ A7 A7 A7 A7 ’ ’ ’ ’ F Dm7 Dm7 Dm7 ’ ’ ’ ’ G7 G7 G7 G7 ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ The biggest harmonic differences between the versions occur in the bridge of the tune.17 is commonly replaced by Dm7.Chapter 8 Harmonic Substitutions & Turnarounds 157 which enhances the bass motion down to the A7. The three modern versions use Dm7 in place of the F at the beginning of the next phrase and prepare for it with the secondary dominant.

In progression no. pointing to the key of A or A minor.5 in the lower staff. There are three choices for arriving at the Am7. The F chord. G7 and the C in the second phrase. neither the G#°7 nor the Bm7 .V7/iii. but creates a chromatic side-slipping passage from the Am7 to Abm7 and finally the Gm7.E7 point to the Gm7. D7. The Abm7 and The G#°7 share the ’ E7 ’ Gm7 same root and third. but the Abm7 and Db7 chords are from the key of Gb. strong because of the descending fifths in the bass line. the vii°7/iii. 33. The Abm7 . 32 chords from sheet music Am ’ ’ ’ Em ’ ’ ’ 5 D7 D7 ’ ’ Am Am/G F#ø7 B7 Em7 ’ A7 ’ ’ ’ D#°7 ’ G7 Em7 ’ A7 ’ ’ C Dm7 G7 C A common substitution in jazz performance is to use a iiø7 . 33 G#°7 ’ ’ ’ Gm7 ’ Bm7 C7 ’ Fmaj7 ’ ’ ’ Eø7 ’ A7 ’ Dmaj7 ’ C7 ’ Fmaj7 ’Bbmaj7 ’ Eø7 ’ A7 ’ Dmaj7 In progressions no.V7 or a ii7 . Progression no.V7/iii progression. The Bm7 . then it can be tonicized by the iiø7/iii . The reharmonization approaches the Dm7 by descending fifths. Em7. Progression no. The first and third versions use the deceptive V7 . 34. The bottom version uses a chromatic bass line moving from the G7 (V7) to the G#°7 (vii°7/vi). Many performers considered the diminished seventh chord to be old fashioned compared with the “new and improved bebop ii7 . a half step above F. If Em7 is used in place of I. and the iii7 . the G#°7 is replaced with a change of quality. shares the same third. The Bbmaj7 keeps the bass moving down in fifths.E7 functions the same a G#°7. Both versions begin on F and land on the Dm7 chord in m.V7 in place of the vii°7 from old published versions. A7 is the secondary dominant (V7/ii) which suggests using Em7 (iii7) or I in first inversion instead of the I chord. The lower version has more motion with the added iiø7/iii . as IV in the key of C. but have different qualities because of the difference between the perfect fifth of the Abm7 and the diminished fifth of the G#°7.V7/vi.ii7 .V7 leading back to the tonic chord. 31 F ’ G7 ’ Dm7 Dm7 Dm7 21 Am Am7 Am7 Am7 ’ ’ ’ ’ C Am/G Am/G Am/G ’ ’ ’ ’ B7 F#m7 F#m7 F#ø7 ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ B7 B7 B7 ’ ’ ’ ’ E ’ G7 ’ ’ ’ ’ Bø7 E7 G7 G7 ’ G#°7 ’ G7 ’ Emaj7 C#m7 Dm7 G7 Emaj7 Emaj7 ’ Dm7 G7 The following compares the bridge from a sheet music version to a possible reharmonization. fifth and seventh with the F#ø7 so the only change between those chords is in the bass line. Progression no. The chords slip down by half step.V7/ii .21.V7” progression. is often found resolving to a ii7 chord.158 Chapter 8 Harmonic Substitutions & Turnarounds The modern versions use a Dm7 in place of the F at m.Db7 does not point the same place as the G #°7. the V7/ii. 32 chords from sheet music F ’ ’ ’ C ’ C#°7 1 ’ ’ Dm7 Dm7 ’ ’ G7 G7 ’ ’ C C ’ ’ ’ ’ F ’ F#ø7 B7 Em7 ’ A7 Bø7 E7 Listen to the descending bass line in m. The second version uses the iiø7/vi7 .vi7 cadence with no preparation for the A minor area. Progression no. Jazz Theory Resources . the vii°7/iii. Both versions agree at the Am7. This G#°7.3.

Chapter 8 Harmonic Substitutions & Turnarounds 159 Progression no. The use of the iii7 (or a I chord in inversion) saves the return to tonic for the next phrase. instead of resolving to the iii7 chord Bm7. 35 has the tonic chord lasting for two measures before moving to the ii7 chord. If the return to tonic has been averted by using other chords. again in the fifth. tonicizations and substitutions. the impact of the tonic chord will be lessened. then when the music finally returns to tonic it will be all the more potent. The Cø7 is a borrowed chord from the parallel key of Bb minor and adds another dimension of color to the progression. Progression no.5 of progression no. Instead of the ambiguous A diminished. the original sheet music called for a return to the tonic chord. The lowered pitches suggested by the borrowed iiø7/i chord create a darker sound which will make the ultimate resolution to major sound brighter than it would have coming from the diatonic ii7 .ii7. the iiø7/iii . The Db9 chord is a tritone substitute to for the V7/ii (G7) and points to the Cm7 chord. Setting up a cadence to Bb minor is another way of strengthening the resolution to major in the second eight measure phrase. The original version of progression no.F#7 point to the iii7 chord Bm7. Progression no.9. The A#°7 or the C#ø7 .V7/ii .V7/iii chords are commonly used in the fourth measure and point to a Dm7 (iii7) chord in m. At m.V7 point to a minor key and can be used interchangeably.IV . Imagine a trip around the block: how much would you miss home if gone only a few minutes? Weeks on the road will make someone long for home again. These extra chords create more motion and add color.V7 chords Cm7 . Sometimes. It retains more of its strength from not being overused. 15 Gmaj7 ’ ’ ’ G#°7 Gmaj7 ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ E7 Am7 Am7 ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ A#°7 C#ø7 ’ ’ ’ ’ F#7 Bm7 Bm7 ’ ’ Bø7 ’ ’ Jazz performers often reharmonize simple passages from the original published versions of jazz standards. Progression no. This common passage may be thought of in either of the two ways shown or both ways simultaneously. 35.E7 point to the ii7 chord Am7. The D7 is a secondary dominant which points to the vi7 chord. Eø7/A ’ ’ ’ A7 ’ ’ ’ Ebmaj7 ’ ’ Cm7 In order to keep the progression moving and sustain the dissonance. You must depart in order to return. it becomes commonplace. and again at the repeat of the first section at m. In an actual performance there may be no way to tell the difference. 35 Bb ’ ’ ’ 5 Gm7 Gm7 ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ Db9 Cm7 Cm7 ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ F7 Cø7/Gb ’ ’ ’ ’ F7 Dm7 ’ D7 ’ ’ Jazz Theory Resources .F7. 35 Bb ’ ’ Bbmaj7 1 ’ Dm7 ‘ ’ G7 Cm7 ’ ’ G7 Cm/Bb ’ ’ A dim. 34 B bmaj7 ‘ B bmaj7 B bm7 B bm7 E b7 E b7 Fmaj7 Am7 ‘ ‘ G#°7 A bm7 D b7 ‘ Gm7 Gm7 ‘ A diminished seventh chord and a iiø7 . If the progression leads back to the tonic chord too soon or too often. the I chord G major in first inversion may occur in this passage as a deceptive resolution of the F#7. If the I chord is heard in the first measure. The soloist may be thinking one progression and the bass player another as both sets of chords share the same pitches and those pitches point to the same minor key. A more commonly performed version utilizes a turnaround progression to the ii7 chord: I . The G#°7 or the Bø7 .5. the I chord is often avoided in the middle of a progression.iii7 .

to the ii7 chord provides chromatic color and satisfies the Bn in the melody.13-16 of progression no.160 Chapter 8 Harmonic Substitutions & Turnarounds Many passages lend themselves to multiple reharmonizations. Working backwards. There are times when the use of an inversion can create interest in a harmonic progression that supports the melody. Cm7. 35 Gm ’ ’ ’ 13 C7 Gm7 Gm7 ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ C7 C7 A7 F7 Cm7 Dm7 Dm7 ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ G7 G7 G7 F7 ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ F7 F7 F7 Gm Gm Gm ’ ’ ’ D7 D7 ’ ’ ’ ’ C#°7 ’ ’ ’ ’ Cm7 Cm7 Cm7 ’ ’ ’ Gm/F Eø7 Sometimes an old lead sheet version is so simple it not only allows.I and ii7 .G7 . as it often does.V7. it will sound like a B7b9 in first inversion.V7 leading back to the I chord. the V7/ii? The melody must always be considered when reharmonizing. The bass lines have been considered with emphasis on the typical downward fifth progressions like V7 . The I chord in progression 36 below lasts four measures and then the vi7 chord appears suddenly without preparation. Progression no.ii7 . the Dm7 (iii) is tonicized sooner by the Eø7 and A7 than it was in the third line. With Bn in the melody over the D#°7. as the V7 in the key of D minor suggests the key of one flat (Bb). the other three are from published or performance variations.I. The third line path is the same as the second line until the C7. The diatonic ii7 . The fourth line begins with a descending bass line to the Eø7.Cm7 in mm.V7 . the E7.13 by using its dominant D7. it demands reharmonization. The V7/V. the dominant which prepares the return to tonic. This is the end of the B section that leads back to the A section and the tonic Bb chord. The Cm7 .2 that contraindicates the use of an A7. In the second measure.D7 . The top line is from an old lead sheet version. iii . Progression no. setting up the last two measure turnaround iii7 . The C7 points to the key of F (1b) and then the C#°7 points to the key of D minor (1b plus the leading tone C#). the vii°7/iii. A few moving chords can create motion to keep the progression alive. but instead changes chord quality from a dominant to a minor 7 and becomes the diatonic ii7 chord.IV . Four versions are shown below for mm. Cm7.Gm7. is then followed by the F7. V7/vi prepares the Am7 chord. at slow and medium tempos the lack of motion can impair the momentum of the piece (and may be interpreted by some to be a bad musical joke at the expense of a beautiful composition). The second line reinforces the Gm7 in m.V7 of iii. How can that point to Dm7? It does not point to Dm7. The C7 and the C#°7 share the same third. The C7 moves to a C#°7. fifth and seventh so only the bass note changes. Most of the progressions dealt with so far have had chords only in root position. Why then is the D#°7 used instead of the A7.V7 chords can anticipate the short return of tonic in the fourth measure. The second concern should be with the bass line and its relationship to the melody.V7/ii and then the ii7 . To prepare the ii7 chord a typical I . the V7/V. but are quite different in between. The vii°7/iii resolving deceptively. The commonly played Jazz Theory Resources .15-16 mirrors the earlier passage Gm7 . The A7.iii7 V7/ii could be considered. The last three measures utilizes a circle of fifth root progression with iiø7 .V7/ii . The ii7 chord. All four begin with Gm and end with F7. but is logical as a chord following the Em. While there is nothing wrong with this. C7 never resolves to F. 35. There is a Bn in the melody in the second half of m. 36 C ’ ’ ’ 1 ‘ Em7 ‘ Dm7 ‘ ’ C Am ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ Cmaj7 ’ Fmaj7 ’ (Dm7) ’ D#°7 ’ ’ G7 ’ E7 ’ Am The melody is the most important factor when consideration any harmonic setting.

(A) . and if so. The F bass note easily moves down a step to the Eø7. The lower version uses two chords over a pedal F. the dominant of Bb in m. The Am7 could be a substitute for the I chord in the middle of repeating the progression. but dissonances will resolve in a linear manner.A. F ’ ’ ’ D7 ’ Gm7 ’ ’ ’ C7 ’ Am7 ’ With Am7 as the goal. the G# and the Bn. The A7 chord interrupts the step line briefly but resolves to Dm7. The chords and lines are working on different levels to point to a particular place. For example. Progression no. the next note in the descending line. Things may not always agree vertically between the improvised line and the rhythm section. Both progressions arrive at the Aø7 but by different paths. the C7 (V7) could be replaced by G#°7 (vii°7 of iii). to keep the bass line moving down in steps.C . 6 Bb ’ ’ ’ 9 Eø7 Eø7 ’ ’ A7 A7 Aø7 Aø7 ’ ’ Dm7 Dm7 ’ ’ D7 D7 ’ ’ ’ ’ Bbm7 Dbmaj7 ’Eb7 ’ ’ ’ ’ Cb/F Bb/F Fmaj7 13 ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ Gb/C F/C Gm7 ’ C7 C/Bb (Eø7 ’ A7 ’) G/B ’ Gø7/Bb ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ G7 G7 ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ Not all harmonic substitutions are interchangeable. The Dbmaj7 is related to the Bbm7 chord (and may be heard as a Bbm in first inversion) and moves easily to the F chord in second inversion. The C bass note moves to the Bn and Bb. rhythm changes. The Dm7 moves to Dbmaj7. The lower version has a descending step line in the bass: F . being sensitive to each role and the overall character of the music. However. Many basic substitutions will cause little conflict. These work as linear substitutions. The rhythm section may not have had time to adjust or predict the G#°7 chord.B .9. The two chromatic tones suggested by the G#°7. then some consultation should occur before the performance.Chapter 8 Harmonic Substitutions & Turnarounds 161 version on the top line of progression no.Bb . and many other tunes.Db . only for short episodes. the band as a unit should be listening to each other for subtle changes and alterations. will resolve to the A and C whether chord is an F or Am7. If there are to be major departures from the normal progressions. F ’ ’ ’ D7 ’ Gm7 ’ ’ ’ G#°7 ’ Am7 ’ The progression could return to the F in first inversion instead of the Am7 and would still sound good. The F/C mirrors the Bb/F chord in m. 6 serves the melody and is itself interesting enough. This is a typical turnaround progression found in blues. creating two different quality G chords (G major and Gø7) and then steps down chromatically to the Aø7. F ’ ’ ’ D7 ’ Gm7 ’ ’ ’ G#°7 ’ F/A ’ Charlie Parker used the harmonic substitution from above in the following excerpt from a blues improvisation.E .D . The bass player Jazz Theory Resources . A pianist cannot assume the bass player will imagine all of his inventive substitutions and the soloist cannot assume the piano player will know or hear what unusual substitutions he has practiced. there is no real difference between a V7/ii and a vii°7/ii. There are times when the soloist will impose substitute harmony over a progression with or without the rhythm section.9 and continues the step line.

The above passage works well in slow settings. Progression no. The subtleties may be lost at faster tempos. These chords alone satisfactorily ornament the original simple progression. E bmaj7 A bmaj7 A °7 B bm9 E b13 A bmaj7 & bbb Fm7 Gm7 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ œ œ bœ œ œ ˙ b˙ ˙ # #n ˙ ˙ ˙ E13 n˙ n bn ˙ ˙ ˙ ##˙ ˙ n˙ ˙ ˙ n˙ A13 n bn w w w w bw ? b œ #œ bb œ ˙ nœ ˙ bœ œ œ œ œ nœ ˙ œ #n ˙ œ ˙ ˙ Tempo and the overall mood and character of the piece should be considered when adding or subtracting harmonic content. Even very slow ballads can benefit from the simplification of harmonic motion. G #° 7 œ & b œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ nœ œ œ œ &b w w ˙ ˙ #n˙ ˙ w w F Gm7 F A similar linear substitution occurs in this example from Dexter Gordon. There are two chromatic voices suggested by this passage which are shown below the melodic line. which as ii7/IV signals the change to the key of IV. The chromatic inner voice in the first two measures changes the focus from plodding chords to dramatic linear motion. too. 37 Ebmaj7 ’ ’ ’ ‘ Bbm7 ’ ’ ’ Eb7 ’ ’ ’ Abmaj7 ’ ’ ’ The passage is transformed with the additions below. The passage below is a common I . In the last beat of m. iii7.I (F7 to Bb) or is it A7 or C#°7 pointing to Dm7 or pointing to Bb in first inversion? b &b c Bb Gm7 Cm 7 F7 œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ Bb 3 Adding more harmonic movement can add life to static passages.ii7/IV .162 Chapter 8 Harmonic Substitutions & Turnarounds could have played a C7 and resolved to Am7 and the lines still work. Is the last part of this progression V7 . Jazz Theory Resources .2 the vii°7/v prepares for the change to Bbm7. The diatonic ii7. The relation of the bass note to the melody is an important consideration.V7/IV . but remember that inner voices can create motion. and IV chords have been added in the first two measures. The chord symbols on the top line below do not tell the whole story.IV progression. Preceding the Eb 7 and the Ab maj7 chords are tritone substitutions dominants. Do not assume that slow passages must have added harmony to be interesting.

. 23. . . The dominant pitch holding in the bass creates a restlessness after the moving passages. One device is to use fewer chords in the progression.vi7 . After a few choruses of the following progression. The harmonic motion is constant with chords changing every two beats and then every beat. . . . . ) Am7/D D7 Gmaj7/D ‘ F#ø 7/B B7 Emaj7/B C7 ’’’’ ’’’’ ’’’’ ’’’’ ’’’’ ’’’’ ’’’’ ’’’’ B bm7 E b7 A bmaj7 D bmaj7 Gb7 A b/ C B°7 Pedal released: motion returns Fm7 ’’’’ ’’’’ ’’’’ ’’’’ ’’’’ ’’’’ ’’’’ ’’’’ ’’’’ ’’’’ ’’’’ ’’’’ E b7 A bmaj7 (Gø7 . . . . . dominant pedals through the B section might be welcome. . . . . . . .D7 Gmaj7 B b7 E bmaj7 A bmaj7 (D pedal . . . gives a forward thrust to the next section. Fm7 B bm7 E b7 A bmaj7 D bmaj7 ‘ ’’’’ ’’’’ ’’’’ ’’’’ ’’’’ ’’’’ ’’’’ ’’’’ Dø7 .G7 Cmaj7 Cm7 ‘ ’’’’ ’’’’ ’’’’ ’’’’ ’’’’ ’’’’ ’’’’ ’’’’ Fm7 Aø7 . The vi7 and V7 chords have been removed and the I and ii7 chords are placed over a Bb pedal below. . . E bmaj7/B b ’ ’ ’ ’ Fm7/B b ’ ’ ’ ’ Pedals can be effective at any tempo. . . . ) (B pedal . They can save a long performance of an up tempo piece by giving the listener (and the bass player) a reprieve from the constant four beat swing feel. .Chapter 8 Harmonic Substitutions & Turnarounds 163 After a passage with half-note harmonic rhythm. . the B section continues with more half note harmonic rhythm using the I . . . . . E bmaj7 E bmaj7 ’ ’ ’ ’ C7 ’ ’ ’ ’ Fm7 ’ ’ ’ ’ B b7 ’ ’ ’ ’ Ebmaj7 Db7 Cm7 Gb7 ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ F7 ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ B b7 C b 7 Bb 7 A b7 D bmaj7 Gø7 C7 F7 C b7 Fm7/B b After the active A section. . . E bmaj7 ’ ’ Cm7 ’ ’ Fm7 ’ ’ B b7 ’ ’ Using two devices in conjunction slows the pace. There are two ways to achieve less motion.V7 progression below. . . . . . . . . . . Progression no. the other is to use a pedal point in the bass while the chords continue moving. . . . . . . . it might be effective to slow the motion down rather than add more. .C7) B bm7 Jazz Theory Resources . . . and when the bass releases the pedal. . . . The progression below is an A section to a beautiful ballad.ii7 . The break in the harmonic rhythm allows the soloist or singer some freedom and will give the music a boost when the pedal is released. . . .

In most jazz performances.164 Chapter 8 Harmonic Substitutions & Turnarounds The backdoor dominant chord is a variation of a plagal IV . 38 F ’ ’ ’ 1 E7 Bm7 Bbm7 Bbm7 ’ ’ ’ E7 ’ ’ ’ ’ F ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ Cm7 Cm7 Gm7 ’ ’ F7 F7 ’ ’ ’ ’ Fmaj7 ’ Bbmaj7 5 ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ Fmaj7 ’ F ’ ’ ’ Eb7 ’ Eb7 ’ C7 ’ C7 Bbmaj7 Am7 ’ Dm7 b (A maj7’ ’ ’ ’) Gm7 Two progressions are played more often than any others in jazz performances: the twelve measure blues and “Rhythm Changes. To avoid an anticlimactic return to the home tonic chord too soon.V7. the IV chord (Bb) is followed by the iv (Bbm7) then the backdoor dominant Eb7 resolves to the I chord. Am7 can replace the I chord as shown in the second line. but in the context of F major. rock. The barest jazz version of the blues progression is shown below. Blues may occur in all major and minor keys and Rhythm Changes may occur in any major key. The most important structural points are: • • • • Usually begins on some chord built on tonic degree. The tonic chord will not necessarily be a part of that turnaround as iii7 and other chords may substitute for I. HARMONIC SUBSTITUTIONS for BLUES in F Major Jazz musicians rarely use the three chord blues common to rock ‘n’ roll or country. and in this case.IV (country. Progression no. It may be a modal chord and not necessarily a I chord in the major/minor traditional sense m.7: F. In the second phrase of progression no.V7 progression is used.5 almost always includes a chord built on the fourth scale degree m. or V7/V . Am7 and Abmaj7.11-12 may have some kind of a turnaround to return to I at the top of the form. Here are the some basic harmonic progressions for blues in F major and minor and for Rhythm Changes in Bb major with common substitutions.iv . The variety of progressions can fit any number of moods.9 followed by a IV chord in m. These progressions should be transposed and studied for other commonly performed keys. the iii7 chord. They both lend themselves to numerous harmonic possibilities. the characteristic resolution of Eb7 would have been to the F or Am7. tempos and rhythmic settings.10. The use of the bIII chord creates a situation where the Eb7 to Abmaj7 is a surprise deceptive cadence! The A bmaj7 chord is not far removed from the parallel key of F minor.9-10 is a dominant area with either a V .” The forms for these two tunes allow for much freedom of expression with tempo and style. ii7 . the ii7 . the melody note C fits all of the possible chords m. Cannonball Adderley recorded a tune with this progression and replaced the iii chord with a major chord on the bIII. A rock ‘n’ roll or country version of the basic blues would have a V chord in m. F. The most prevalent keys for both are Bb and F major.I resolution.V7 or other variations MM. Jazz Theory Resources . 38. In another context anyone would have expected the Abmaj7 to follow Bbm7 and Eb7. simple jazz versions).

4 setting up the chord in m.V7 returning to the top of the form. The Dm7 chord is set up by the iiø7/vi - Jazz Theory Resources .V7/ii .G#°7 . The most common turnaround occurs in the last two measures: I . The Gm7 .2. A G#°7 in first inversion moves the bass note from Bb to Bn and then to the C with the F chord in inversion in m.5. The destination of all harmonic activity in the first four measures points to a chord built on the fourth degree occurring in m.2 provides another variation of the slight departure from the I chord: F7 1 ’ ’ ’ Gm7 ’ C7 ’ F7 ’ ’ ’ Cm7 ’ F7 ’ B b7 5 Sometimes the tritone substitute dominant can occur in m.4 prepare the Bb in m. A secondary V7/IV may occur in m. A tritone substitute dominant may also occur in m.5.ii7 .Am7 elaborates the tonic F area. a secondary dominant chord D7 (V7/ii) prepares the coming ii7 chord.4: F7 1 ’ ’ ’ Gb7 ’ ’ ’ F7 ’ ’ ’ Cm7 ’ Cb7 ’ B b7 5 Here is a progression that Charlie Parker suggested in a example shown earlier.7. The diminished chord in m.5.V7/IV (Cm7 . In m. There is typically a departure in m.6 is often labeled a B°7.V7/IV in m. The Cm7 is tonicized by its dominant G7. and the G7 can be preceded by the iii7 chord.3.8. BASIC JAZZ BLUES with COMMON HARMONIC ADDITIONS F Bb7 1 5 ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ Bb7 ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ F F/C F ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ D7 ’ ’ ’ F7 D7 Gm7 ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ C7 ’ ’ ’ G#°7/B C7 Gm7 9 Measures 1-4 A common addition is the ii7/IV .4: F7 1 ’ ’ ’ Bb7 ’ ’ ’ F7 ’ ’ ’ Cm7 ’ F7 ’ B b7 5 A ii7 . F7 1 ’ ’ ’ Gm7 ’ G#°7 ’ Am7 ’ ’ ’ Cm7 ’ F7 ’ B b7 5 Sometimes a logical progression can be created by backing up from the destination. The ii7/IV .2 to some chord built on the fourth degree.Chapter 8 Harmonic Substitutions & Turnarounds 165 BARE MINIMUM JAZZ BLUES F Bb7 1 5 ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ C7 ‘ ‘ ’ ’ ’ F F ‘ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ F7 ’ ’ ‘ ‘ ’ Gm7 9 The progression below is a more common version for improvisation in jazz performance.F7) in m. Dm7 in m.V7 in m.

the V7/vi. F#7 1 ’ B7 ’ E7 ’ A7 ’ D7 ’ G7 ’ C7 ’ F7 ’ B b7 5 Measures 5-8 This common version of the second phrase suggests an ascending bass line: Bb . Bb7 5 ’ ’ ’ G#°7/B ’ ’ ’ F/C ’ A7/C# ’ D7 ’ ’ ’ Gm7 9 A more bebop style setting may include a series of chromatic ii7 . These changes are considered “pretty” chords and would not be the best choice if trying to create “down ‘n’ dirty” blues. the V7 of D. (It would be possible to use B°7 in this context or other colorations. Jazz Theory Resources .7 before the V7/ii.) Bb7 5 ’ ’ ’ G#°7/B ’ ’ ’ F7/C ’ ’ ’ D7 ’ ’ ’ Gm7 9 It is possible to precede the V7/ii with the iiø7/ii in m. The first dominant chord is a half-step above the expected F7.6-8. F 1 ’ (Bbmaj7) ’ Eø7 ’ A7 ’ Dm7 ’ G7 ’ Cm7 ’ F7 ’ B b7 5 The concept of backing up from a destination is taken to the extreme in this example.166 Chapter 8 Harmonic Substitutions & Turnarounds V7/vi. This set of changes creates a great deal of melodic and harmonic tension. This cycle is similar to the cycle that began on F#7 shown for the first four measures. After a few choruses. The strong bass line of descending fifths begins the progression with the I .1.D then resolves down a fifth to the ii7 chord. and if the bass player chooses to play the F chord in first inversion.Bn . this idea can wake up the entire band. The A7 points to D minor. Bb7 5 ’ ’ ’ ‘ Aø7 ’ ’ ’ D7 ’ ’ ’ Gm7 9 The secondary dominant A7.IV in m. The Eb7 is a tritone substitute for the A7.8. The D7 is the V7/ii. Aø7.7-8.8: Bb7 5 ’ ’ ’ G#°7/B ’ ’ ’ F7/C ’ ’ ’ Aø7 ’ D7 ’ Gm7 9 The iiø7/ii. Labeling the chord as G#°7/B makes the distinction. a much more remote key to the key of F. can be used to set up the D chord.2. It might be hard to distinguish the Aø7 from an F9 chord as they share four pitches. Bb 5 ’ ’ ’ Bbm7 ’ Eb7 ’ Am7 ’ D7 ’ Abm7 ’ Db7 ’ Gm7 9 A series of descending dominant chords may be used in mm.5.C . The E7 points to the A chord which could have been used in place of the Eb7. and may not be a good choice for a first or second chorus. D7 in m. Each dominant chord points down a fifth to the next and ultimately resolves to the expected Bb chord in m. which becomes D7 in m. a key that is closely related to the key of F. it will sound like an Aø7. The B°7 is the vii°7 of C minor. Eø7 . but vii°7/iii is the path of least resistance.A7 in m. The A7 chord in first inversion continues the ascending step progression as shown before by adding the chromatic C#. can occur in m. Why not call the G#°7/B a B°7? The G#°7 is the vii°7 of Am. The A7 chord is more common in slower gospel style blues. consider the desired results and context.8.V7 chords often inserted in mm. As with all harmonic possibilities.

A iiø7/i and V7/I suggest the key of four flats: Gø7 9 ’ ’ ’ C7 ’ ’ ’ F 11 A Db7 chord is the tritone substitute for the G7. the V7/V: Db7 9 ’ ’ ’ C7 ’ ’ ’ F 11 A Gb7. the tritone substitute dominant can replace the C7: Gm7 9 ’ ’ ’ Gb7 ’ ’ ’ F 11 Measures 11-12: The Turnaround back to the top The most common turnaround is I .9-10 is the ii7 . they progress to their destination in downward half steps by using tritone substitutions. Bb7 5 ’ ’ ’ ‘ F7 ’ E7 ’ Eb7 ’ D7 ’ Gm7 9 Measures 9-10 The most typical progression in mm.V7/ii – ii7 – V7: F7 11 ’ D7 ’ Gm7 ’ C7 ’ F 1 The I chord may be avoided in m.V7: Gm7 9 ’ ’ ’ C7 ’ ’ ’ F 11 A V7/V may replace the ii7 chord: G7 9 ’ ’ ’ C7 ’ ’ ’ F 11 Chords may be borrowed from the parallel minor key of F minor.11 by using the iii7: Am7 11 ’ D7 ’ Gm7 ’ C7 ’ F 1 The iiø7/ii can precede the V7/ii and replace the I or iii7 chord.Chapter 8 Harmonic Substitutions & Turnarounds 167 Instead of the dominants progressing in downward fifths. The Aø7 chord is very similar to the F9 chord and is indistinguishable from an F7 chord in first inversion. Aø7 11 ’ D7 ’ Gm7 ’ C7 ’ F 1 Jazz Theory Resources .

This creates a descending chromatic line in the bass. F7 11 ’ Ab7 ’ Db7 ’ Gb7 ’ F 1 Measures 9-12 Tritone Substitution Implications from bass lines The tritone substitutions may be implied by the nature of a walking bass line. the viiø7 of F. The D7. The IV chord moves down a diatonic fifth to the Eø7. The I chord moves down a fifth to the IV chord. which suggest the tritone substitutions as shown.5. b˙ ˙.. Eb7 11 ’ D7 ’ Db7 ’ C7 ’ F 1 Using the tritone substitutes for D7. The Dm7 is the vi7 and naturally moves to the V7/v.9.V7/IV set up the Bb m. &b ˙ ˙ . but functioning as the iiø7/vi moving to the V7/vi. Gm7 nœ œ D b7 œ œ bœ . This progression may occur for the whole form if agreed upon ahead of time.V7 in the key of F in m.168 Chapter 8 Harmonic Substitutions & Turnarounds An A7 can be used to point to the D7. G7 and C7 creates a cycle of tritone substitute dominants and a bass line of descending fifths that finally resolves down a half step to the F. C7 and F7 chords are preceded by chromatic upper neighbor tones. The last four measures are usually played without too much alteration from the common blues progression. A7 11 ’ Ab7 ’ Gm7 ’ Gb7 ’ F 1 Eb7 and Db7 are tritone substitutes for the A7 and G7. F Bb 1 5 ’ ’ (Bbmaj7) ’ ’ Eø7 Bbm7 C7 ’ ’ ’ A7 Eb7 ’ ’ ’ Dm7 Am7 F7 ’ ’ G7 ’ Cm7 Abm7 ’ ’ ’ F7 Db7 C7 ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ D7 D7 ’ ’ Gm7 9 ’ ’ Gm7 ’ Jazz Theory Resources .V7 progressions finally reaching the ii7 . C7 bœ œ #˙ ˙ A7 E 7 D7 A 7 ?b 9 œ œ œ œ œ 10 11 b b œ bœ œ bœ #n˙ ˙ nn˙ ˙ G7 D 7 C7 G 7 b b˙ ˙ b bœ œ F7 œ bœ œ bœ 12 13 œ “WEST COAST” or “PRETTY” BLUES The blues progression below is sometimes called the “pretty” or “West Coast” blues. ii/IV . The Ab7 and Gb7 chords are tritone substitutes for the D7 and C7. It can sometimes be used as the last chorus or two of a longer solo ending with a more elaborate chord progression. The second phrase is a series of descending chromatic ii7 . This creates another descending chromatic line in the bass. G7. The Cm7 F7.

5. Common Minor Blues Progression including a secondary iiø7/iv . as an augmented sixth chord pointing to the V7.6 is a tritone substitute dominant preparing the return of the Fm chord in m.9-10.11. The V7 sets up the return of the Fm chord in m.V7 departure in m.5 being built on the fourth degree and dominant area in mm. Fm Bbm7 1 5 ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ Db/F Eb7 C7 ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ Fm6 ’ (D ø 7/F) Abmaj7 ’ Fm ’ ’ Ab9 ’ ’ ’ F7 ’ ’ ’ C7 ’ ’ ’ ’ Dbmaj7 Db9 Gø7 9 ’ ’ Jazz Theory Resources . The F7 in m. through the V7/bIII . The chords are usually drawn from diatonic chords of minor keys. but is often notated as Fm#5.2 sounds like a VI chord in first inversion.IV/bIII. The Gb7 in m. Fm Bbm7 1 ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ Gø7 Bbm7 C7 ’ ’ ’ C7 Gb7 ’ ’ ’ Fm Fm Fm ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ Ab9 ’ ’ ’ (Cø7) ’ F7 ’ ‘ Db9 Db9 5 9 ’ ’ C7 ’ This minor blues progression remains on the tonic pitch for the first few measures and suggests an inner chromatic voice: C – Db – D – Eb. Db7 is a tritone substitute dominant functioning in the traditional sense.4 prepares the iv7 chord in m. The iv7 is also the ii7 chord in the relative Ab major (bIII) and continues to cycle in the key of Ab.I/bIII . The turnaround includes the tritone substitute dominants Ab7 and Db7. but the Fm#5 shorthand in this context may help suggest the chromatic moving voice.2 instead of the iv7 chord.V7/iv in m. Minor blues share similar characteristics with major blues including the chord in m. The Gø7. Obviously.Chapter 8 Harmonic Substitutions & Turnarounds 169 HARMONIC SUBSTITUTIONS for BLUES in F Minor There are a number of harmonic variations for minor blues. even though shared by the two keys of F minor and Ab major signals the return to F minor. a minor chord by definition has a perfect and not an augmented fifth.7.4: Fm Bbm7 1 5 ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ Bbm7 ’ ’ ’ ‘ ’ ’ ’ Fm Fm Fm ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ (Cø7) ’ F7 ’ ‘ Gø7 Gø7 9 C7 ’ C7 ’ This minor blues progression includes iiø7 . The chord in m.

V7 .Bb7. In performances of this piece. Other improvised choruses use one of the standard minor blues progressions.5.Cbmaj7 are the iv7 . Bb 1 ’ ’ ’ Gm7 ’ Cm7 ’ ’ ’ F7 ’ Bb ’ ’ ’ G7 ’ Cm7 ’ ’ ’ F7 ’ ’ 5 Bb Jazz Theory Resources .V7.1. The Abm7 .V7 to Eb minor. The Bbm7 and A7 act as a ii7 and tritone substitute V7 to the key of Ab. Things change quickly from m. These harmonic progressions are for specific tunes and not standard blues substitutions. but it is a twelve measure form that moves to a chord built on the fourth degree in m. the improvisers use these changes for the melody and only the last few choruses of each improvisation. never inserting traditional blues progressions. Order seems restored with the Fø7 . There are numerous possibilities for harmonic variations. and substitutes the secondary V7/ii chord G7 in m.5. A SECTION Measures 1-4 This basic pattern for the first four measures uses the diatonic vi7 chord Gm7 in m.6. Cm7 1 ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ D7 Abm7 Fø7 ’ ’ ’ G7 Bb7 Bb7 ’ ’ ’ Cm7 Cbmaj7 Ebm7 ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ C7 Bbm7 D7 ’ ’ ’ ’ A7 G7 ’ ’ ’ Fm9 5 Absus7 9 HARMONIC SUBSTITUTIONS for RHYTHM CHANGES The form for Rhythm changes is AABA. In a performance of the piece from which this progression was extracted. A few of the more common variations and substitutions are examined below. Some may argue this is not a blues progression. This first progression could be considered a blues progression that wanders to remote keys and back in the short twelve measure form.170 Chapter 8 Harmonic Substitutions & Turnarounds The boundaries of the blues have been stretched very far as evidenced by these next two examples.Bb7 . but the Ab chord is a suspended dominant in the key of Db. but wait.3. phrase by phrase. Cmmaj7 1 ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ Ebm7 ‘ ‘ ’ Ab7 Gm7 Fm7 ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ C7 Bb7 Dø7 ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ G7 ’ ’ ’ Fmaj7 Ebmaj7 5 9 ’ Dbmaj7 The first five measures of the following blues progression behave as a typical blues. All the chords cycle back to the tonic chord Bb. improvisers use only this progression. the iiø7 . establishing the tonic key area first and then moving towards the iv7 chord in m.and VImaj7 chords from the remote key of Ebm. isn’t this blues is in C minor? The last measure brings it back around to the top and the tonic key with the V7/V .

Gb7 and Cb7 are tritone substitutes in the first two measures. The secondary vii°7 chords create the same ascending bass line as the example above with inverted secondary dominants.3-5. Bb 1 ’ ’ ’ G7/B ’ Cm7 ’ ’ ’ A7/C # ’ Dm7 ’ ’ ’ G7 ’ Cm7 ’ ’ ’ F7 ’ ’ 5 Bb There is little difference between the use of secondary dominants or secondary vii°7 chords when pointing to minor keys. Bb 1 ’ ’ ’ D b7 ’ C7 ’ ’ ’ C b7 ’ Bb ’ ’ ’ G7 ’ Gb7 ’ ’ ’ F7 ’ ’ 5 Bb Clifford Brown used this progression for a composition. Bb 1 ’ ’ ’ B°7 ’ Cm7 ’ ’ ’ C #° 7 ’ Dm7 ’ ’ ’ G7 ’ Cm7 ’ ’ ’ F7 ’ ’ 5 Bb This passage contains secondary dominants and tritone substitutions. Bb 1 ’ ’ ’ G7 ’ C7 ’ ’ ’ F7 ’ Dm7 ’ ’ ’ G7 ’ Cm7 ’ ’ ’ F7 ’ ’ 5 Bb Occasionally. The C#m7 pitches. The G7 is V7/ii. The Cb7 is the tritone substitute for the F7 and points back to Bb. E. The Db7. G# and B may sound like the #11. Jazz Theory Resources . The second two measures reverses the secondary dominants and the tritone substitutions. Bb 1 ’ ’ ’ G7 ’ Cm7 ’ ’ ’ F7 ’ B b/ D ’ ’ ’ G7 ’ Cm7 ’ ’ ’ F7 ’ ’ 5 Bb The iii7 chord functions in the same way the first inversion tonic chord did in the previous example. Because of the inversion. the roots descend in fifths in mm.Chapter 8 Harmonic Substitutions & Turnarounds 171 A strong cadence to the tonic chord is avoided in m. b9 and major third of the G7 chord whose place it takes. the iii7 chord will chromatically pass through a C#m7 chord resolving to Cm7. After the ascending chromatic line Bb-Bn-C-C#. It avoids the strong immediate return to tonic and keeps the root progression in fifths. and an A7 or C#°7 points to Dm7.3 by using the tonic chord in first inversion. C#. the roots again move in descending fifths back to the tonic chord. The Gb7 substitutes for the C7 and points to the F7. A G7 or B°7 points to Cm7. 13. The Db7 stands in the place of G7. This chord happens quickly and may sound like a brief allusion to B major as C# m7 is the ii7 of B. The C7 is the V7/V and points to the F7 chord. The A7 is the V7/iii and points to the Dm7 chord standing in place of the original tonic chord Bb. Bb 1 ’ ’ ’ G7 ’ Cm7 ’ ’ ’ F7 ’ Dm7 ’ ’ ’ C #m7 ’ Cm7 ’ ’ ’ F7 ’ ’ 5 Bb An interesting bass line can be created using secondary dominants in inversion. Even if the rhythm section plays the G7 the dissonant notes will resolve themselves in a linear fashion. The second phrase features descending dominants.

F: Bb 5 ’ ’ ’ B b7/A b ’ Eb/G ’ ’ ’ Ebm/G b ’ B b/F ’ ’ ’ G7 ’ Cm7 ’ ’ ’ F7 ’ ’ 9 Bb A ii7/IV .7-8. Fm7 5 ’ ’ ’ B b7 ’ Eb ’ ’ ’ A b7 ’ B b/ D ’ ’ ’ G7 ’ Cm7 ’ ’ ’ F7 ’ ’ 9 Bb Jazz Theory Resources .Ab . a backdoor dominant. like the similar example in the blues progressions. This progression points to remote rather than closely related keys. Bb 5 ’ ’ ’ B b7/D ’ Eb ’ ’ ’ C #° 7/E ’ B b/F ’ ’ ’ G7 ’ Cm7 ’ ’ ’ F7 ’ ’ 9 Bb This version of mm. The tonic chord changes quality and becomes the V7/IV which anticipates the Eb in m.En . the progression modulates to Gb and D. The second chord in m. The bass line ascends to En but the chord is labeled a C #°7 as the vii°7/iii7. Coltrane modulated to keys that divided the octave into major thirds.5 is often in first inversion creating the ascending bass line: Bb .6.172 Chapter 8 Harmonic Substitutions & Turnarounds Bb 1 ’ ’ ’ D b7 ’ Gb7 ’ ’ ’ C b7 ’ B b7 ’ ’ ’ A b7 ’ Gb7 ’ ’ ’ F7 ’ ’ 5 Bb It is possible to work backwards from the Bb in m.V7/IV could be used in m. This. starts the progression on a chord very remote from the key signature. From the home key of Bb.G . 24). Closely related keys are one accidental removed from the home key. can be used in m.6. The Bb chord in m.F.5 to the IV chord in m.Gb .5-8 features a descending bass line: Bb . This can be effective later in an improvisation.5 and Ab7. The basic turnaround figure returns in mm.D .5 and to find a cycle of dominants.Eb .6. F#7 1 ’ ’ ’ B7 ’ E7 ’ ’ ’ A7 ’ D7 ’ ’ ’ G7 ’ C7 ’ ’ ’ F7 ’ ’ 5 Bb It is possible to impose a progression similar Coltrane’s Giant Steps harmonic cycle (progression no.7 could just as easily be a Dm7 which helps explain the C#° 7. but is usually not used in the first chorus. Bb 1 ’ ’ ’ D b7 ’ Gb ’ ’ ’ A7 ’ D ’ ’ ’ F7 ’ Bb ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ 5 Bb Measures 5-8 There is usually a modulation in m.

7-9 to return the progression to the tonic chord at the beginning of the second A section.5: A tritone substitute dominant may be preceded by a V7/IV: B b7 5 or the ii7/IV: Eb 6 ’ ’ ’ E7 ’ ’ Fm7 5 ’ ’ ’ E7 ’ Eb 6 ’ Measures 7-9 Any variation of the basic turnaround figure may occur in mm. Diatonic chords: Bb 7 ’ ’ ’ Gm7 ’ Cm7 ’ ’ ’ F7 ’ Bb 9 ’ The first inversion of the tonic chord followed by the V7/ii: B b/ D 7 ’ ’ ’ G7 ’ Cm7 ’ ’ ’ F7 ’ Bb 9 ’ The secondary chords iiø7/ii and V7/ii point to the ii7: Dø7 7 ’ ’ ’ G7 ’ Cm7 ’ ’ ’ F7 ’ Bb 9 ’ Tritone substitute dominants in place of G7 and F7: Bb 7 ’ ’ ’ D b7 ’ C7 ’ ’ ’ C b7 ’ Bb 9 ’ Jazz Theory Resources .Chapter 8 Harmonic Substitutions & Turnarounds 173 Measures 5-6 Any combination of chords which point to IV may be used in m.

it is normally the V7/vi pointing to the relative G minor. the identical chords for the basic B section. D7 17 ’’’’ ‘ ’’’’ G7 ’’’’ ‘ ’’’’ C7 ’’’’ ‘ ’’’’ F7 ’’’’ ‘ ’’’’ Any dominant chord may be paired with a ii7 chord.Cm7 .F7. In the A sections the chords occur with a half note harmonic rhythm. are different than the end of the first A section.Cm7 .C7 . in the B section each chord lasts for eight beats. D7 17 ’’’’ ‘ ’’’’ D b7 ’’’’ ‘ ’’’’ C7 ’’’’ ‘ ’’’’ C b7 ’’’’ ‘ ’’’’ Jazz Theory Resources . With the iii7 chord in place of the Bb chord it would be Dm7 .F7. It is possible to mix modes making the D7 the V7 of G (V7/VI) and the G7 the V7 of C (V7/II.174 Chapter 8 Harmonic Substitutions & Turnarounds Measures 15-17 The last two measures of the second A section.16 and before moving to the B section.V7/II . Am7 17 ’’’’ D7 ’’’’ Dm7 ’’’’ G7 ’’’’ Gm7 ’’’’ C7 ’’’’ Cm7 ’’’’ F7 ’’’’ The G7 is replaced by the tritone substitute dominant Db7 and the F7 replace by the tritone substitute dominant Cb7 creating a descending chromatic line in the bass in the example below. mm. The basic bridge : V7/VI .V7/V . Using all secondary dominants would be D7 .). This part of the progression resolves back to the tonic chord in m.V7. An improviser may choose any number of combinations using these dominant chords to point to major or minor secondary keys.G7 .Gm7 . F7 15 ’ ’ ’ F7 ’ Bb ’ ’ ’ ’ D7 17 ’ B b/F 15 ’ ’ ’ ’ Bb ’ ’ ’ ’ D7 17 ’ B SECTION: Measures 5-8 The bridge is a variation of the traditional turnaround chords with longer harmonic values. The G7 would be assumed to be the V7/ii pointing to the Cm7 chord.Gm7 . When encountering a D7 in the key of Bb. The most basic turnaround progression is Bb .F7.15-17.

B b7 17 ’’’’ ‘ ’’’’ Eb ’’’’ ‘ ’’’’ C7 ’’’’ ‘ ’’’’ F7 ’’’’ ‘ ’’’’ Jazz Theory Resources .Chapter 8 Harmonic Substitutions & Turnarounds 175 The D7 is replaced by the tritone substitute dominant Ab7 and the C7 replace by the tritone substitute dominant Gb7 creating a different descending chromatic line in the bass in the following example . and E major. and F. After descending through the keys of G. Gb. Ebm7 ’’’’ 17 ii7/bIII A b7 ’’’’ V7/bIII Dm7 ’’’’ ii7/II G7 ’’’’ V7/II C #m7 ’’’’ ii7/bII F#7 ’’’’ V7/bII Cm7 ’’’’ ii7 F7 ’’’’ V7 Another set of chromatically descending dominants may be preceded by ii7 chords creating this descending chromatic progression. It is ironic how jam-packed chords the progression in the B section can become. Bm7 17 ’’’’ E7 ’’’’ B bm7 ’’’’ E b7 ’’’’ Am7 D7 ’’’’ Abm7 Db7 ’’’’ Gm7 C7 ’’’’ F#m7 B7 ’’’’ There are a few tunes that have a different sort of eight measure B section that begins with the V7/IV and moves to the IV. fast harmonic rhythm of the A section. This creates a descending chromatic progression in three keys (bIII. the B7 can act as a tritone substitute dominant pointing back to the tonic key of Bb. F. and goes through Ab. The original B section changes were a reprieve from the crowded. Bb. Again the B7 chord in m. It begins in A. Am7 17 ’’’’ ii7/VI D7 ’’’’ V7/VI A bm7 ’’’’ ii7/bVI D b7 ’’’’ V7/ bVI Gm7 ’’’’ ii7/V C7 ’’’’ V7/V F#m7 ’’’’ ii7/ b V B7 ’’’’ V7/ bV This is a less common.V7 progressions. and bII) leading back to the tonic key of I.24 acts as a tritone substitute dominant pointing back to the tonic key of Bb. The harmonic progression is rhythmically compressed as the progression moves forward. A b7 17 ’’’’ ‘ ’’’’ G7 ’’’’ ‘ ’’’’ Gb7 ’’’’ ‘ ’’’’ F7 ’’’’ ‘ ’’’’ The cycle of dominants with tritone substitutions from the above example can be preceded by ii7 chords. II. the V7/V and V7 chord before returning to the tonic chord at the beginning of the last A section. but possible B section progression that utilizes a series of descending chromatic ii7 . Gb.

This is not THE version.176 Chapter 8 Harmonic Substitutions & Turnarounds COMPLETE RHYTHM CHANGES PROGRESSION Here is a possible set of chord changes for the entire progression. only one of many possible variations. Bb 1 ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ E7 G7 B b7 B°7 B b7/D G7 Cm7 Eb ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ C #° 7/E F7 C #° 7/E C #° 7 A b7 F7 Dm7 ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ F7 G7 F7 G7 D b7 G7 Cm7 ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ F7 F7 F7 F7 Bb 5 Dm7 Cm7 Bb 9 Cm7 Eb Dm7 B b/F Cm7 Bb Fm7 13 Am7 17 D7 Dm7 G7 Gm7 21 C7 Cm7 F7 Bb 25 Cm7 Eb D7 C7 Bb Fm7 29 B b/F Jazz Theory Resources .

39 Bb ________ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ________ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ________ Cm7 ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ________ ________ ________ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ________ 1 Cm7 5 ________* F7 ________* B b ________ ________ Gm7 9 ________‡ Cm7 Bb ________ ________ Cm7 17 ________* F7 ’ ’ ________* ________ ________ Jazz Theory Resources . and vi7 as shown below. Progression no. The basic diatonic chords are I. At the *. ii7. Fill in the blanks using typical harmonic progressions pointing to the given destinations.Chapter 8 Harmonic Substitutions & Turnarounds 177 STANDARD TUNE APPLICATION Here is a very simple progression from a tune performed by everyone from Bobby Darrin to Sonny Rollins. V7. use a deceptive diminished chord from half step above. use a tritone substitute and at the ‡.

working back from a specific harmonic point. B bmaj7 E bmaj7 Dø7 G7 ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ G b 9* IV G b 9* ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ C #° 7 ‡ ’ ’ C b 9* V7/ii C b 9* Cm7 Bb ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ IV E bmaj7 Dø7 ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ V7 V7/ii F7 V7/vi G7 V7/ii D7 G7 1 Cm7 5 ii ø 7/ii F7 ii ø 7/ii Aø7 Gm7 9 Cm7 Bb ’ ’ ’ ’ V7/ii G7 ii ø 7/vi Dø7 ii ø 7/ii Cm7 ii7 Cm7 17 F7 ’ ’ ’ ’ SUGGESTED EXERCISES • Augment other common harmonic progressions using secondary dominants. Was the improviser adhering to all the harmonic implications? Were sections being generalized? Were certain chords ignored? Were other harmonic substitutions suggested by the lines? • • • • • Jazz Theory Resources . Find recordings and compare the harmonic structures with other recordings of the same music Compare different published versions of the same music How do recorded performances compare with published versions of the harmony? Compare the harmonic vocabulary between different improvisers on the same recording of a tune? Does the same improviser approach similar sections with the same harmonic progressions? Do all the improvisers approach the music using the same harmonic progressions? Examine melodic transcriptions and compare the relationship of the melodies to the underlying harmony.178 Chapter 8 Harmonic Substitutions & Turnarounds Progression no. 39 with harmonic additions.

were approached by the seventh of the chords that preceded them. If the line was played without accompaniment.Chapter 9 Harmonic Specificity 179 IX. The tonic triad and scale may be elaborated with chromatic embellishment. suggested by the G7. and the C#°7 was clearly outlined. the seventh of G7. and comply with voice leading principles are considered to be harmonically specific. It began as exactly as the last line. These thirds occurred directly on the downbeat. These two examples will help illustrate the distinction between harmonic general and harmonic specific melodic approaches. None of the individual chords were arpeggiated. the V7 of C minor. Harmonic generalization is only one approach to improvisation. The Eb chord was arpeggiated. Dorham used a 3-5-7-9 arpeggio again in the fifth measure for the Bb7 chord. œ 3 G7 Cm7 ˙ F7 This second line from the same improvisation specifically addressed individual chords in the progression. and used the note Ab. Dorham shifted to a more specific approach in the third measure. were played. Melodies that ignore the specific implications of the harmony and use the primary pitches of the tonic triad with some diatonic and chromatic embellishment are considered to be harmonically general. Dorham played a 3-5-7-b9 arpeggio over the G7 chord and came down the scale to the F. it is unlikely that any harmonic progression would be inferred by the listener. These notes were not available from the key of Bb. necessary for modulating to Eb. HARMONIC SPECIFICITY SPECIFICITY & GENERALIZATION Melodies that utilize the identifying pitches of individual chords as guide tones. The F resolved in the next measure to the third of Cm7 and the line continued down the scale landing on the third of F7 and the third of Bb. Another approach is to specifically address the harmony where the melodic material correlates with the harmonic material. ignoring the implications of the G7 and Cm7. It would likely sound like Bb major for the entire phrase. rhythm changes and other tunes that stay in closely related keys allow improvisers to generalize using the tonic triad or notes of the tonic key for melodic material. Bn and Ab. The line Jazz Theory Resources . the V7/IV. The two notes. With a good understanding of individual chord structures and the tones necessary to modulate from one key to the next. Bb b &b c Ó 9. All of the melodic material in the first example from an improvisation by Kenny Dorham was based on the Bb major triad notes (circled) elaborate in various ways. The G7 as V7 of ii calls for an Ab (from the key signature for C minor) and an Bn leading tone. yet the melodic line ignored these implications. arpeggiate the chords. Expressive melodies may be created using this generalization technique and the melodic material may or may not align exactly with the harmonic material.1 Harmonic Generalization G7 F7 œ œ nœ n œ œ # œ œ # œ œ œ œ Cm7 Dm7 œ œ œ œ œ j œ. an improviser can create expressive melodies that use the dramatic elements of functional harmony as a guide for melodic material. This turnaround progression from rhythm changes stays in or close to Bb major for the entire phrase allowing for harmonic generalization. Forms like the blues. the melody line was directly related to the indicated harmony.

Great melodies can exist independent of harmonic implications. a minor third indicates a minor chord. Harmonically specific lines clarify the major and minor qualities of chords. so often taught as strictly a vertical entity. Most melodies create a balance between a line that follows the expected resolutions dictated by voice leading principles and a line that departs and is independent from those expectations. it is because of the major third in the melody. is historically a result of melodic lines. The use of both general and specific approaches is one of the elements that makes this an interesting improvisation. The ability to understand and hear the lines suggested by individual notes of the harmony is a necessary skill in order to successfully negotiate the harmonic progressions in jazz literature. They are also aware that the audience will respond to these principles intuitively whether or not the audience is musically educated. If a major chord can be distinguished from a minor chord it is because of one pitch: the mediant. GUIDE TONES Guide tones are an underlying simple structure from which lines of greater complexity may be created. there is a linear expectation connected with that note. it is these significant guide tones that reveal those qualities. It is the minor third in the melody line that makes Greensleeves sound minor. If it sounds major. Harmony. Sing the melody to Three Blind Mice. The only way a musical surprise works is that the listener on some level has an expectation about where notes should resolve. If the quality of the chords can be identified when listening to a melody. the chord is major. Musicians who understand the expectations can manipulate them for interesting improvisations or compositions.2 Harmonic Specificity arpeggio Harmonic specific melodies may incorporate all variety of embellishing tones while addressing the pitches that identify the harmony.180 Chapter 9 Harmonic Specificity ended with another 3-5-7-9 arpeggio over the Bbmaj7 chord. Melodies do not always have to continue to follow their expected harmonic path. If a major third is heard. For every chord there is often one single pitch that when sounded over a bass line in context clarifies the quality of the chord. The composers and improvisers will give the listener at times what is expected and at other times set them up for a surprise. they are the very notes which guide the listener and the performer through a piece. If one harmonic progression can be aurally distinguished from another it is because of these tones. The premise of voice leading is that the individual voices lead somewhere: each voice has a linear implication. The guide tones are the dots in the dot-to-dot drawings and the melody connecting them reveals the whole picture. but melody and harmony are often are inextricably related. Composers and improvisers are aware of the natural tendencies and expectations connected to voice leading. Jazz Theory Resources . b G7 Cm 7 F7 Dm7 G7 Cm 7 F7 b œ 3 3 3 œ nœ œ œ bœ nœ œ œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ b c Ó œ œ # œ b œ & œ œ œ œ œ arpeggio B b7 Eb C #°7/E Bb 3 arpeggio arpeggio 3 b œ œ # œ œ bœ nœ œ ∑ œœ œ Œ & b œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ B 9. To use guide tones is to use the identifying pitches of the harmonic progression. As soon as a line begins or stresses a chord tone. The third can be used in a melodic line to clarify the chord quality. or all melodies would be so predictable that no one would listen. Guide tones are not just a theoretical discussion. They are tones that specifically identify the chords and the notes that point to those chord tones.

6. but often quickly return providing a strong foundation for the rest of the ensemble. this pattern can save a fatigued bassist. Five . 5. The constant stream of steps and leap may be interrupted by a pattern using the upper neighbor tones. . ) Jazz Theory Resources . Bass lines can be found that stray from the clear harmonic path. 8. . The most basic pattern is the descending scale. Repeated notes can also provide a reprieve from constant motion. No chromatic notes are needed. May slightly accent beats two and four which correspond with the hi-hat pattern played by the drummer in a swing feel. . . Another basic pattern moves up the scale and may use a chromatic passing tone (CPT) to lead to the root of the next chord. 1. skipping over one tone to reach the next. . The bass at its most basic level plays the chord roots (the guide tones) on the downbeats signified by the chord symbols. The primary goal should be rhythmic and harmonic clarity. Fills in notes that adhere to the chord quality and key signature to take the line to the next root. This simple pattern should not be avoided. here’s the joke: How many bass players does it take to change a light bulb? One . . OK. 2. If the line does not move in steps. 7. The ascending scale pattern may leap over the goal note and step into it from its upper neighbor tone (UNT). Five . A well constructed bass line: • • • • Arrives on the roots of chords at the times signified by chord symbol placement in the music. • • After addressing the first principles. These examples are shown over a ii7 . (OK. then improvises three notes to get to the next chord. . The bass does not wander aimlessly randomly generalizing the key area. One . The arpeggio allows for harmonic clarity and some larger intervals than steps. The leap down creates more interest following measures of just step motion. Guide tone melodic lines involving other voices will be easier to understand after examining bass line construction. The role of the bass is to accompany.Chapter 9 Harmonic Specificity 181 BASS LINES as GUIDE TONE LINES The simplest example of a using guide tones to create larger lines is the bass line in four beat swing feel. After the ascending arpeggio. The arpeggio may be inverted. it may approach the next root through a chromatic passing tone. 3. It can be diatonic or chromatic from above or below.) 9. Precedes the roots with notes that are usually a step away. (From personal experience at faster tempos. 10. The arpeggio may also be inverted or broken. Descending arpeggios may be followed by a chromatic passing tone into the next root. then it may move in leaps. It can prove very useful and effective musically. . Plays chord tones typically on the stronger beats one and three. FUNDAMENTAL BASS LINE PATTERNS The fundamental bass line patterns on the following page can be used to create bass lines with rhythmic and harmonic clarity. other characteristic rhythmic elements may be added. The bass line is expected to be harmonically specific. 4.V7 in the key of Bb major. Roots and fifths are the bass players primary tools.

Repeated Notes Cm7 œ ? bb c œ œ œ œ 10. Descending Arpeggio + CPT Cm7 F7 ? bb c 7. Inverted Arpeggio + CPT Cm7 6.182 Chapter 9 Harmonic Specificity TEN BASIC PATTERNS for BASS LINES 1. Up Scale + CPT Cm7 F7 ? bb c œ œ œ œ 3. Root & Fifth F7 œ ? bb c œ œ œ œ F7 œ ? bb c œ œ œ œ Cm7 F7 œ Jazz Theory Resources . Down Scale Cm7 F7 2. œ Ascending Arpeggio + CPT Cm7 F7 ? bb c œ œ œ œ F7 œ ? bb c œ œ œ bœ œ 5. œ œ œ bœ F7 œ ? bb c œ œ œ nœ 8. UNT Cm7 œ Inverted Arpeggio + CPT Cm7 F7 ? bb c œ œ œ nœ 9. Up Scale + UNT Cm7 œ ? bb c œ œ œ nœ 4.

Here is possible solution: 9. This subdivision corresponds to the ride patterns played by the drums..000.. These notes are not exactly articulated and may be ghosted and played percussively. Avoid repeating the same pattern too many times in a row. Write out a few possibilities for this progression in C and other common keys. œ Cmaj7 œ œ #œ œ bœ œ œ Dm7 œ œ œ #œ œ œ #œ œ . and Eb. The progression can be inverted so that it starts on the ii7 chord. 9.3 9.7 Pattern nos. F.6 Pattern nos. 5 8 A7 6 2 G7 ? c . Try occasionally substituting an Em7 for the C chord Bass players should write and learn to play several versions for at least the common keys of C. Here is possible solution: 9.. or 104 equals 10.5 ? bb œ œ œ œ œ nœ Cm7 3 F7 œ At least ten thousand different lines can be played over the common turnaround pattern below using the ten fundamental bass patterns shown previously. These notes may be ghosted or muffled in a way that makes them more percussive. write out a few possibilities for the progression below.4 F7 ? bb c œ œ ¿ œ nœ ¿ œ Cm7 ? bb œ Cm7 œ ¿ œ ¿ bœ F7 œ Rapidly played arpeggios can add some interest to a bass line.) For practice.. Jazz Theory Resources .Chapter 9 Harmonic Specificity 183 Bass players can add rhythmic and textural interest to a line by adding notes in between the downbeats. (Each measure could have one of the ten patterns so that 10 x 10 x 10 x 10. 3 1 4 10 ? c . These notes are shown as “¿” in the following examples. 9. œ Dm7 œ œ bœ G7 œ œ œ œ Cm aj7 œ œ œ #œ A7 œ œ œ œ . Bb.

Jazz Theory Resources .140. 4 is used in m. and F may be preceded by Eb. This is not to suggest that any bass player creates lines by imagining a charts like these. The last two measures have a half note harmonic rhythm and the roots are preceded from above and then below by half step motion.5 and pattern no.140. Any one of the five possible patterns in a given measure can move to any of the five patterns in the measure that follows. the possibilities are 5 x 5 x 5 x 5 x 5 x 5 x 5 x 5 x 5 x 5 x 5 x 5 or 512 which equals 244. Each of the twelve measures for the blues form is shown with five possible bass line patterns. Another chord tone can be played on the downbeat of the second measure. To create a twelve measure bass line. The roots for the following turnaround progression should be played on the downbeats as shown.2. The optional notes allow for octave displacement or chord inversions to make smooth connecting lines. choose any of the five patterns for m. and the turnaround chords change every two beats.6 for the chords with a whole note harmonic rhythm.625. Several measures are shown with optional notes. Bn. A or Ab. There are many more possibilities than shown here. The chart is meant as a tool for creating bass lines. Always choose to step from the note on beat four to the note on beat one. There are up to four pitches available in between each root: each root may be preceded from above or below with its chromatic or diatonic neighbor.625 bass lines for blues in Bb and F major. F#. The C and D last for eight beats. except with twelve columns. the root is played then the line jumps to the note above or below the next root.184 Chapter 9 Harmonic Specificity The previous examples were based on a harmonic rhythm of whole notes. 9. 9. When the harmonic rhythm is half notes. Pattern no. It is similar to a menu where you pick one from column A then one from column B.140. Since there are five patterns to choose from for every measure. En.625 BASS LINES for BLUES The following pages show 244. The fifth of the chord is played in the second measure for both the C and the D7 chords. For chords that last for two measures it is not necessary to land on the root in the second measure. Chords occur in the following progression with three different rhythmic values. but these patterns should get a bass player or an arranger started creating harmonically clear bass lines. 5 is used in m. the Dm7 and G7 for four beats. a Bb.9 ?c œ R C œ œ #œ G7 œ 5 œ œ bœ Em7 A7 D7 œ R œ #œ Dm7 œ G7 œ 5 œ œ #œ C ?œ Dm7 œ œ bœ œ œ œ #œ œ bœ œ #œ œ bœ œ nœ œ 244.8 Roots on Downbeats With Added Approach Tones Cm7 F7 ? bb c œ Dm7 G7 œ œ œ ? bb c œ bœ œ nœ Dm7 G7 Cm7 œ œ œ F7 There are progressions where the chords occur in a variety of rhythmic values. The G could be preceded by F. then pick any pattern from m. G or Gb. and continue through the form. D or Db could lead to the C.1.

Chapter 9 244.10 B b7 ? b c œ #œ œ œ b ? b c œ œ œ nœ b ? b c œ œ œ nœ b ? b c œ bœ œ œ b ? b c œ œ œ nœ b 1 E b7 œ bœ ? b bœ œ b ? b bœ bœ œ bœ b ? b bœ œ bœ nœ b ? b bœ nœ œ b œ œ bœ ? b bœ œ b 2 C #°7/E E b7 ? b œ œ œ bœ b œ ? b œ b œ œ œ nœ bœ œ bœ ? b œ b œ nœ ? b œ b œ œ nœ œ bœ ? b œ b œ nœ 3 B b7 ? b œ bœ œ nœ b Fm7 B b7 ? b œ bœ œ œ b ? b œ bœ œ nœ b œ œ ? b œ œ b ? b œ bœ œ œ b 4 ? b bœ œ œ œ b ? b bœ œ œ œ b ? b bœ œ bœ œ b œ ? b bœ œ œ b œ œ ? b bœ œ œ b 5 ? b nœ œ œ œ b œ bœ ? b nœ œ b ? b nœ œ bœ œ b œ ? b nœ œ œ b #œ ? b nœ œ œ b 6 œ ? b œ œ œ #œ b nœ œ œ œ œ bœ ? b œ b œ œ œ #œ ? b œ b œ œ œ œ #œ ? b œ b œ œ œ œ #œ ? b œ b 7 B b7 B b7 œ bœ ? b œ nœ b G7 ? b œ bœ œ bœ b ? b œ œ œ œ b ? b œ nœ œ bœ b œ ? b œ bœ nœ b 8 C7 F7 b œ ? b œ œ b œ œ œ ? b œ nœ œ œ b ? b œ b œ œ œ nœ Cm7 ? b œ œ #œ œ b œ bœ ? b œ œ b ? b œ œ œ œ b ? b œ œ œ œ b ? b œ b œ œ bœ 10 F7 bœ œ bœ ? b œ b œ G7 ? b œ œ œ bœ b œ ? b œ œ œ bœ b œ ? b œ œ œ œ b œ ? b œ #œ œ bœ b 9 #œ œ nœ ? b œ b œ bœ œ ? b œ nœ b œ ( D ø7 ) ? b œ œ œ bœ b ( D ø7 ) ? b œ bœ œ nœ b 11 œ bœ ? b œ bœ œ b œ ? b œ œ œ bœ b œ bœ ? b œ bœ œ b 12 Jazz Theory Resources .140.625 Bass lines for Blues in Bb: Harmonic Specificity 185 9.

625 Bass lines for Blues in F: ? c b œ œ #œ œ ? c œ œ nœ b œ ? c œ œ nœ b œ ? c œ bœ œ œ b ? c b œ œ œ nœ 1 B b7 ? œ bœ b bœ œ B b7 ? œ b œ œ œ bœ ? œ b œ œ œ nœ ? œ bœ œ bœ b œ ? œ b œ œ nœ nœ ? œ nœ œ bœ b œ 3 F7 ? œ bœ œ nœ b ? œ bœ œ b œ ? œ b bœ œ nœ ? œ œ œ b œ ? œ bœ œ b œ 4 D7 Cm7 F7 ? bœ b bœ œ bœ ? bœ œ bœ nœ b ? bœ nœ œ b œ ? bœ œ œ bœ b 2 B °7 ? œ œ b bœ œ ? b nœ œ œ œ ? œ œ b œ nœ œ #œ œ bœ œ ? œ b œ œ œ ? œ b œ œ œ #œ œ ? œ b œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ #œ ? œ b œ 7 F7 ? œ #œ œ bœ b ? œ bœ œ b bœ ? œ œ œ b œ ? œ b #œ œ bœ ? œ bœ #œ œ b 8 ? bœ œ œ œ b ? bœ b œ bœ œ ? bœ œ œ œ b ? bœ œ œ œ b œ 5 ? nœ œ œ bœ b ? nœ b œ bœ œ ? nœ œ œ œ b ? nœ œ œ #œ b 6 ? œ b œ œ œ nœ ? b œ œ œ bœ Gm7 ? œ œ #œ œ b ? œ œ œ bœ b ? œ œ b œ œ ? œ œ œ œ b ? œ b œ œ bœ 10 C7 ? œ bœ œ b œ bœ ? œ #œ œ b œ #œ ? œ bœ œ b œ #œ ( A ø7 ) ? b œ œ œ bœ ( A ø7 ) #œ ? b œ bœ œ 11 F7 D7 ? œ bœ œ b œ œ ? œ nœ œ œ b œ ? œ bœ œ bœ b œ ? œ œ œ b œ bœ ? œ bœ œ bœ b œ 12 Gm7 C7 ? œ œ œ bœ b œ ? œ œ œ œ b œ ? œ #œ œ bœ b œ 9 Jazz Theory Resources .186 Chapter 9 Harmonic Specificity 9.11 F7 244.140.

(I have done the first five. that leaves only 244.) 9.12 Bb E b7 Bb B b7 ? b b c . No two corresponding measures are the same.140.Chapter 9 Harmonic Specificity 187 Five Chorus Blues Bass Line in Bb Here is a five chorus bass line for Bb blues using only patterns from the previous pages. œ 1 œ œ nœ œ œ nœ œ bœ œ C #°7/E œ bœ B b7 œ bœ œ bœ œ #œ Fm7 œ œ œ œ ? bb œ 5 E b7 œ œ bœ œ œ œ bœ bœ b G7 9 œ bœ œ bœ F7 ? bb œ nœ 9 Cm7 œ nœ F7 B b7 G7 œ bœ œ Bb œ bœ Cm7 œ bœ Fm7 œ bœ B b7 ? bb œ 13 Bb œ œ nœ œ bœ bœ nœ F7 E °7 E b7 œ bœ œ œ œ œ nœ œ bœ œ #œ G7 œ bœ œ œ œ œ ? bb œ 17 E b7 œ bœ œ œ B b7 œ nœ b G7 9 œ nœ œ F7 ? bb œ 21 Cm7 œ bœ œ nœ #œ B b7 œ bœ œ Cm7 nœ œ œ bœ œ ? bb œ 25 Bb E b7 œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ nœ E °7 œ bœ œ œ œ bœ Bb œ œ nœ œ œ Fm7 œ bœ œ nœ B b7 œ nœ œ bœ ? bb bœ 29 E b7 B b7 œ œ #œ G7 b G7 9 ? bb œ 33 Cm7 œ bœ F7 œ nœ œ D ø7 œ œ bœ Cm7 œ nœ F7 œ œ Jazz Theory Resources ..620 for you to do. it uses each of the sixty patterns once.

Melody lines can follow guide tones lines in the same way aiming for a consonant note and moving towards a dissonant note which resolves to a consonant note. the root. The root. and the level of dissonance. but more liberty is allowed with the rhythmic placement of melodic guide tones: a guide tone note may occur on the down beat in time with the root in the bass line.188 Chapter 9 Bb Harmonic Specificity E b7 Bb B b7 ? bb œ 37 œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ œ bœ nœ nœ F7 E °7 œ œ œ œ B b7 œ œ œ œ nœ œ bœ G7 Fm7 œ bœ œ nœ œ ? bb bœ 41 E b7 œ bœ œ œ bœ œ b G7 9 œ bœ nœ œ F7 ? bb 45 Cm7 œ œ B b7 œ #œ Bb Cm7 nœ œ Fm7 œ bœ œ ? bb œ 49 Bb œ œ œ nœ œ œ bœ nœ F7 E b7 œ bœ nœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ G7 œ bœ œ #œ œ nœ œ bœ œ B b7 œ ? bb œ 53 E b7 E °7 B b7 b G7 9 nœ F7 œ bœ œ bœ . their harmonic relations must be analyzed horizontally and not always vertically. or delayed into the subsequent measure. There is a wide range of consonance and sure. There are always twelve pitches available for melodic of pitches. but they are used with respect to the hierarchy dissonance that may change from measure to meaare the most consonant. A bass line begins a measure on a consonant note. A bass line is in constant motion with consistent rhythms while a melody line stops and starts. it may be delayed by two beats or more. and moves to the more dissonant note at the end of the measure.. the other four diatonic five remaining chromatic tones represent another Jazz Theory Resources . contrasting short and long phrases separated by all important silence. Because of the rhythmic latitude allowed melodies. ? bb œ #œ 57 Cm7 œ bœ œ D ø7 œ bœ Cm7 œ bœ GUIDE TONES APPLIED to MELODIC LINES A melodic line and a bass line both follow guide tones but a melody line has more rhythmic and melodic freedom. third and fifth of any given chord pitches represent one level of dissonance. The dissonant note resolves to the next root on the following downbeat. use. The bass line is expected to arrive on the downbeat. it may be anticipated arriving on the upbeat of four or on beat four.

Mobley landed on the third of Gm (Bb ) and Cm7 (Eb ) without any preparation. The voices that lead to the next voice follow certain principles. so using the root in the melody would reveal nothing new. and the third of Cm (Eb) was delayed until beat three.13 &cw ?c w C Cm bw w When improvisers wish to be clear about the harmonic progression. 9. Hank Mobley aimed for thirds in the example below. The fifth of the chord certainly helps to establish the tonality. A player who is “making the changes” addresses the notes that identifies the chords (consonant notes: usually thirds) and finds the notes that move one chord to the next (dissonant notes that often pull towards the consonant thirds). The guide tone lines are easy to hear and listeners intuitively follow them with a set of ex- Jazz Theory Resources . the root and the third can convey a complete sounding chord quality. it must address the notes that change. The third when played over the root in the bass provides an immediately recognizable chord quality. Melodic lines can emphasize the notes that stay the same or the notes that change. If a melodic line is to create the sense of harmonic motion.Chapter 9 Harmonic Specificity 189 Assume a bass plays the root of a chord and an improviser plays one single melodic pitch over the bass note. What single pitch will provide the most harmonic clarity? The five chromatic pitches not in the present key can be eliminated first. Chord changes in the truest theoretical and aural sense refers to the notes that change between two chords. the fifth does nothing to reveal the quality of the chord. the root of the chord is covered by the bass. (The fifth would be heard as a result of the physics of the harmonic series anyway). It is for this reason that the thirds are the most important guide tones. they aim for the thirds over the roots played in the bass lines. Harmonic clarity provided by a single pitch over a the root in the bass: 9. The third of the Dm7 (F) was approached from an upper neighbor. Guide tone lines may be created by following the given voice leading lines implicated by the harmonic progressions. The chord tones are the obvious choice for clarity. but by itself over the root in the bass. The third of G (Bn) was delayed until beat four. In any progression. some notes change between two adjacent chords and some pitches stay the same.14 Bb œ Œ b &b c Gm7 j œ ˙ Cm7 F7 Dm7 G7 Cm 7 œ œ œ œœ Œ ‰ J œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ nœ œ œ œ J LINEAR IMPLICATIONS of HARMONY What is meant by the term “chord changes?” It usually refers to a given chord progression or the written chords symbols. Two pitches. The third of F (A) was approach by ascending scale steps. Of the remaining seven. Any pitch that is played over a harmonic progression has linear implications.

The Ab and Bb pitches shown below could be from the key of C minor. the #11 or b5. Then the A and F of the G9 move to the G and E of the Cmaj9 while the D and B remain stationary.15 Dm 7 G7 C Dm7 G7 C Dm7 G7 C Dm7 G7 Thirds resolve to sevenths Sevenths resolve to thirds Fifths resolve to ninths Ninths resolve to fifths &c ˙ ˙ 3 7 w 3 ˙ ˙ 5 9 w 5 ˙ 7 ˙ 3 w 7 ˙ ˙ 9 5 C w 9 There may be some variants on dominant chords. Dominant Variants • 9. • The ninths may be altered. it suggests specific voice leading principles. The E and C of the Dm9 move to the D and B of the G9 chord while the A and F remain stationary. and playful departure from these paths. Alternating pairs of voices resolve down stepwise. so the n9. three flats. The b9 and #9 pitches are associated with minor keys though they are freely used in major keys to create more tension. the most common root movement. When the roots of chords in a progression move in descending fifths.16 #9 or b9 for n9 Dm 7 G7 C n13 for n5 Dm7 G7 b13 for n5 C #11/b5 for n5 C & c ˙ bœ bœ w ˙ ˙ w Dm7 G7 ˙ b˙ w Dm7 G7 ˙ #˙ C w Not all voices change between chords. Any of the three ninths would still resolve to the fifth of the subsequent chord as shown below. When ninth chords are moving in a typical cycle of fifths progression. Jazz Theory Resources . The b13 is associated with a V7 in minor as the b13 is the minor third of the key. Melodic inventiveness is a result of manipulation. rhythmic enhancement. Any of these substitute pitches behave as a fifth and resolve to the ninth of the subsequent chord. three flats. The voice leading principles can be stated simply: • • • • 9. elaboration. the roots in the bass change for each chord.190 Chapter 9 Harmonic Specificity pectations. b9 or #9 (usually shown as its enharmonic equivalent) may be used. The fifth of a dominant chord may be replaced by a n13 or a b13. The Eb below could be from the key of C minor.

In this ii7 . 9.19 follows the basic guide tone line shown from ex. Harmony can be supplied as counterpoint between the single note bass against the single note melodic line. Jazz Theory Resources .I progression. the step motion continues down the scale. The E and the G on beat four point to the F of the G7 measure. This can be accomplished by aiming for a consonant melodic pitch.V7 . The F is approached using scale tones. The last four notes preceding the E are a broken arpeggio of a G7 chord. the dissonant seventh. the consonant note F.19 More elaborate line based on Guide tone line: &c œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ Dm7 G7 Cm aj7 Ó To create a guide tone line with more motion.18 Basic Guide tone line beginning on third: G7 C C &cw ?c w 3 Dm7 w 7 w 3 w w w w The more elaborate melodic line in ex. is saved for last to propel the line towards the E. then resolves down to the consonant third of C major. becomes the dissonant note over the G7. Each measure begins with a stable tone. The high and low points of the Dm7 measure are chord tones with G as a passing tone. moves to a dissonant tone and resolves over the measure line to a stable tone again. 9.18. that clarifies the chord quality and then moving to a dissonant note that creates motion by wanting to resolve to the consonant pitch for the next chord. After a large leap from F to E.Chapter 9 9. the third of C.17 Pairs of voices alternating motion G9 Cm aj9 Harmonic Specificity 191 ˙ &c ˙ ˙ ?c ˙ ˙ Dm9 9 moves to 5 5 becomes 9 3 becomes 7 7 moves to 3 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ 5 becomes 9 9 moves to 5 7 moves to 3 3 becomes 9 w w w w w An experienced improviser need not depend on a rhythm section accompanist to supply the harmonic foundation (or the time). The seventh needs to resolve down. 9. 9. The seventh of the G7 chord resolves to the third of the C major. the third of the D minor. which is a step disguised by octave displacement. and when it does and the bass moving down by fifths. The chord tone that most often generates the motion to the next chord is the seventh. the third may move to the seventh of the D minor chord which will resolve to the third of the G7 chord. usually the major or minor third. This is a basic guide tone line. then the seventh will resolve to the third of the next chord. The F.

If one can tell that a tune has modulated or temporarily tonicized another key area. What pitch creates the most motion from the C7 chord which will point to the Fmaj7 chord? Bb. Harrell played the seventh of G7 which resolved to the E on the downbeat of the Cmaj7 measure. so to avoid reaching the Bn too early. The progression in ex.22. Ab.IV. What is the most consonant pitch that will identify the G minor chord? Bb. Harrell approached the B from below using a chromatic passing tone (A . occurred just before beat four. The C.A#). which should be committed to memory.23 is I . the dissonant seventh. the D was surrounded by its upper and lower neighbors. There is more freedom in the development of melodic lines from their guide tones: the range of rhythmic variations is endless. 9.21 the F did not occur on the downbeat and was approached from above. The Gb did not sound like an F #. the major third of D. the line can be embellished with many more diatonic and chromatic notes. As long as the identifying pitches happen at significant places in the measure they will serve their function in the melodic line. it sounded like a chromatic passing tone. After playing notes borrowed from the parallel key of C minor (Eb.20 Harmonic Specificity &c˙ 3 Dm7 G7 C C ˙ 7 ˙ 3 ˙ 7 w 3 w w ?c w w w A bass line follows a guide tone line of roots in a fairly strict fashion: using quarter note rhythms and landing on roots on the beat one of a measure. In ex. 9. and the guide tones are not restricted to the downbeats of measures. will now be helpful in determining guide tone lines and melodic pitches. The C resolved to the B which Harrell placed on the strong first and third beats separated by chromatic and diatonic passing tones.V7/IV . the consonant third and identifying pitch of F major. The line continued down the diatonic scale with the dissonant F resolving to the E over the bar line.192 Chapter 9 9. In ex. What important pitch should be the guide tone to lead to the key of F over these chords? Bb. it is because somewhere in the music the accidentals necessary Jazz Theory Resources . A B b is needed to modulate from the key of C to the key of F major.22 œ œ # œ œ œ œ n œ œ œ3 # œ œ n œ œ œ œ c & œ œ œj Dm 7 G7 Cm aj7 The necessary notes for modulation. œ ˙ & 9. followed by a leap past and then back to the dissonant C.ii7/IV . The two lines below were improvised by Tom Harrell and followed the guide tones shown above. and Bb). the necessary accidental. Harrell approached the F from below using scale steps. 9. Both of these examples illustrate how flexible a line can be and still incorporate the guide tones.21 Dm 7 Improvised lines that follow guide tone lines: G7 Cm aj7 œ bœ œ œ œ œ j c œ #œ œ œ bœ œ bœ bœ œ œ œ . 9. the seventh of C7 which points to the A. the third of Gm7.

w & b nw 9. Sing these lines over a blues bass line and the harmonic progression can be heard. These should be transposed to any key in which the blues may be played. 9. They are not hearing the guide tones. the second one includes more secondary dominants and a typical turnaround. The progression will be heard because the counterpoint of the two lines. Guide Tone Line for more complex F major Blues F & b c . The guide tones lead the listener to the new key area.. GUIDE TONES for F Major BLUES At the heart of the jazz blues harmonic progression are these guide tone lines. F bw œ w #˙ D7 B b7 nw ˙ Gm7 F Cm 7 F7 Bb G #°7/B bw C7 w ˙ F D7 #w Gm7 C7 w˙ ˙ w ˙ wœ œ # œ œ wœ œ œ œ . The first set of guide tone lines follow a simple blues progression. Knowing where these tones are. how they sound in the context.2 and in mm. suggests the notes that identify and change the chords in the progression.. An An may sound terrible in m.24 Guide Tone Line for Simple F major Blues F B b7 Bb B b7 & b c . Jazz Theory Resources . the guide tone lines composed of thirds and sevenths over the bass line following roots. and when they create motion and when they are at rest will help with composing and improvising good melodic lines.Chapter 9 Harmonic Specificity 193 for modulation have been used to point away from the tonic key. w & b w˙ ..5-6 because we expect the Ab.23 &cw ?c w C Gm7 b˙ ˙ C7 ˙ ˙ Fm aj7 w w If one can tell that a tune has modulated or temporarily tonicized another key area. The guide tones lead the listener to the new key area. Listen to a beginning improvisation class and hear how often there are clashes between the harmonic progression and their lines. 9.25 F bw w nw Gm7 F F7 bw C7 w F bw w w w w . it is because somewhere in the music accidentals necessary for modulation have been used to point away from the tonic key.. The progression will be heard not because some harmonic instrument like a piano or guitar is supplying the chords.

In the skeleton outlines shown in ex.24 -25.194 Chapter 9 Harmonic Specificity Guide tone notes may occur before. from which this was extracted. includes eleven of the twelve chromatic pitches. on or after the beat.6 and the An in m.26 Guide tone lines in blues progression b j œ ‰ b œ ‰ œ ‰ j œ ‰n œ ‰ œ ‰ j œ ‰ œ ‰ &b c Ó Œ ‰ œ œ J J J J J œ J œ b &b c ∑ Bb w bw E b7 nw Bb The guide tones in this line from Thelonious Monk are delayed: they land on the upbeat of two. Brown clearly distinguished between the Ab in m. Jazz Theory Resources .7 and both were approached in a similar way and occurred on the downbeat. Melodic notes may be anticipated and delayed. The seventh of F (Eb) arrived a bit early in m. Each is approached using chromatic notes. The guide tones arrived on the downbeat in the first two measures.27 Guide tone lines in blues progression & b c Ó Œ ‰ œj œ œ # œ œ ‰ œj œ n œ # œ œ œ b œ œ ‰ œj œ œ # œ n œ &b c ∑ F w bw B b7 nw F Clifford Brown placed the guide tones in a variety of rhythmic places in ex.5. the guide tone line is shown with whole notes referring to harmonic rhythm and not necessarily a required rhythmic placement. Each of the guide tone notes are anticipated on the upbeat of four giving the line more forward motion and rhythmic drive. Knowing that the third is a target note on the downbeat does not mean that it must be played on the downbeat. The Eb finally resolved to the D on the upbeat of one in m. 9.3. 9.28. 9. 9. but the peaks and important goals of the lines followed the guide tone lines of thirds and sevenths. The entire twelve measure line. Below is an excerpt from Sonny Rollins.

29 Guide tone lines in blues progression 3 3 bœ œ œ œ œ œ Œ ‰ œ œ œœ œ œ bœbœ œ œ œ œ œ Ó œ œ Œ ‰ b c œ œ œ œ . The secondary dominant D7 was suggested by the F# and the Eb. was sounded again in the Gm7 measure and resolved to Bb. The Ab. F œ #w ˙ D7 ˙ Gm7 w˙ C7 ˙ w ˙ ˙ F w The guide tones may occur in any register as shown in the following excerpts from a blues improvisation by Tete Montoliu. the dissonant seventh of the D7 chord. 9. and the syncopated ending.2 resolved to C.29 is from mm. and moved down the scale to the E. œ J bw B b7 nw F bw r & b œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ &b w Bb bw B b7 nw F Ex. The Bb was reinforced over the C7. There was a great variety of rhythmic activity within this short excerpt: the simple idea in the first measure. œ œ œ & œ œ œ # œ œ J J œ & b c w˙ . the third.Eb arpeggio is the 3-5-7-b9 of D7. Parker arpeggiated the C7 chord from the third. 9.Chapter 9 9. œ J Œ œ œ œ bœ ‰ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ Œ &b c w F Ó F7 œ.28 Guide tone lines in blues progression 3 3 Harmonic Specificity 195 j & b c œ. Gm. Parker began this phrase with the identical notes that Brown played in ex. from the key signature. the guide tone for the Bb7 chord behaved as a G# leading back to the A in the final measure. the triplet turns.7-11 of the blues form. The non-chord tones always resolved back to chord tones. but the rhythmic character was as important as the notes.A .C . borrowed the Db and Eb from the parallel F minor and finally moved down the scale to the target note A. Db and Bn in m. 9. Jazz Theory Resources . Parker clearly delineated the harmonic progression with his note choices. The D. the fifth of the F chord.28. Charlie Parker suggested a more complex blues progression by his choice of guide tone notes. The F# . The two Bb pitches in the first measure resolved back to the guide tone A. displaced resolutions. and the leading tone F#. The notes necessary to modulate from F major to the key of ii. thirty-second note pick-up notes. are Eb. The C. creating a 4-3 suspension.

The Db suggested that the Bb major became Bb minor which created a traditional church sounding plagal cadence back to F: IV .32 Guide tone lines in blues progression 3 3 œ œ œ œ b œ œ œ b œ œ ‰ j œ #3œ œ b œ œ3b œ n œ œ œ b c œ œ œ œ œ œbœ œ œ œ œ œ œ & j œ œ œ œ bœ œ. jœ œ œ œ œ bœ nœ œ œ œ b œ œ œ ‰ b œ œ bœ #œnœ œ b œ œ 3 F7 Bb Guide tone lines in blues progression j œ nw F bw w 5 bw B b7 The Bb resolved back to the guide tone A.2 with the Dn moving to Db.196 Chapter 9 9.iv . The guide tone Eb was followed by the chromatic C# which encircled and created more tension pointing to the guide tone D.30 Harmonic Specificity œœ &b c & b c nw F œœ œ œ œ j œ. 9.I. 9. The harmonic motion in this passage was clear and was created by the harmonically specific melodic lines. F B b7 F F7 Bb b ˙ ˙ (b˙ ) ˙ n˙ &b c ˙ bw w Jazz Theory Resources .31 Guide tone lines in blues progression &b c Ó &b c œ bœ #œ ‰ œ œ œ ‰ j‰ œ œ ‰ j Œ ‰J ‰ œ J œ bœ œ J J J ∑ nw F F7 Bb bw 5 w Montoliu suggested additional chromatic motion in m.

simple blues etude based on guide tone lines. but returns to it for the second A section at m. Borrow and steal from the examples here and others you may acquire from jazz artists. This is a case of the note changing its status from consonant Jazz Theory Resources . try beginning on the third of the first chord. The line below begins on the third of the tonic Eb chord. As an example. the original chord will be heard again at the top of the form or at the second A section. To determine a guide tone line for a harmonic progression. When chords occur that modulate. but the third is the most definitive note. It is not necessary to move the F for the G7 chord. The first half is shown below. The G moves down a step to the third of the Dø7 chord. Many progressions will loop so that after a series of harmonic excursions. Try to move only when necessary. the guide tone lines should lead back to the starting pitch. Dissonant notes should resolve across the measure line to a consonant note. 13 is a thirty-two measure ABAC form. œ ‰ j œ œ b œ œ œ œ Œ œ œ œ œ # œ œ n œ œ b œ ‰ J J œ ∑ F w bw B b7 nw F Cm7 bw F7 & b œ œ œ bœ Ó &b w B b7 ‰ œ J œ œ bœ œ œ #œ nœ œ Œ Ó G #°7/B ‰ œ œ œ œ #œ bœ œ œ œ #w ˙ D7 #w w˙. F ˙ & b œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ b œ œ œ œ œ œ # œ œ œ ‰ œj n œ œ Ó & b w˙ Gm7 C7 ˙ w ˙ ˙ F wœ œ #œ œ D7 Gm7 wœ C7 œ œ GUIDE TONE LINE APPLICATIONS to STANDARD PROGRESSIONS Guide tones can be extremely helpful for creating lines through any progression.33 &b c &b c œ œ œ bœ œ œ #œ ‰ œj œ # œ œ . the guide tone notes will often prove to be the notes necessary for modulation and will be important chord tones. CREATING a GUIDE TONE LINE A guide tone line could begin on any pitch. progression no. All of the harmony moves away from the tonic Eb chord. writing down and learning several blues choruses of your own. Try inventing. Often a standard harmonic progression will lend itself to a guide tone line that moves only in steps. finding a smooth path through the progression. 9.17. This establishes the foundation from which the progression and the line will depart.Chapter 9 Harmonic Specificity 197 BLUES ETUDE: GUIDE TONES Here is a short. In this way.

the third of Eb and the cycle is complete. w ˙ GUIDE TONE LINES in PERFORMANCES These next several examples are from a live performance of Lou Donaldson and Clifford Brown.198 Chapter 9 Harmonic Specificity to dissonant by the movement in the bass. easy to hear and sing. and was composed of mostly thirds and sevenths. the Bb can then move smoothly to the next guide tone. and therefore must have a Cb. When the line returns to the third of next chord. descended the scale. the iv chord in a plagal cadence. one less than the key of Eb. The F is now the unstable seventh of G which resolves to the third of Cm. and after an arpeggio that suggested the 3-5-7-9 of Cm7. with the one exception. Why is An the appropriate guide tone for the F7 chord? F7 is the V7 of Bb. a melody line can venture far away and include a great deal of leaps and chromaticism. Lou Donaldson landed on a Dn over the Bbm7 chord. The Fm7 . The Db is chosen because it is the third of Bbm7. 9.. came back to the An surrounding it with its upper and lower neighbor tones. w & bbb A bmaj7 b G7 9 ˙ n˙ Cm7 B bm7 E b7 w D b9 E bmaj7 w w w nw F9 w w w bw Fm 7 ˙ ˙ w bw w bw B b7 w ˙ . the fifth of Eb. Any pitch tends to resolve in the direction in which it has been altered. Ab is also the third of the Fm7 chord and the seventh of the Bb7 chord which resolves down to the G. the Db is chosen as the required accidental to move from the key of Eb (3bs) to Ab (4bs). The Db7 is a backdoor dominant and standing in for an Abm. The guide tone line is smooth. 13 E bmaj7 D ø7 b & b b c . which removes any remaining harmonic ambiguity. a 3-5-7-9 arpeggio often follows. Bb has the key signature of two flats. but is a good choice for this chord in the middle of the progression for at least two reasons: (1).34 Progression no. The An is the note that must change and it is also the third of F7. and (2). there is a secondary seventh to third guide tone line which may be suggested and is shown below with smaller notes. the third of Ab major. The vehicle used for improvisation was a tune based on progression no. Bb is not the third or seventh of Eb.. 13. the Cb required the downward resolution.7.35 B bm 7 E b7 A bmaj7 3-5-7-9 arpeggio 3 D b9 b &b b c nœ Œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ bœ bœ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ Donaldson began the F7 measure with the An. The Db is the third of Bbm7 and is the logical choice for the continuation of the line as it moves down a step from the Eb.Bb7 signals the return to the key of Eb and that necessitates the addition of Ab. or since Bbm7 . In m. Eb. 9. so Cb wants to resolve to Bb over the Eb chord. When the roots move down in fifths.Eb7 modulates to Ab. Jazz Theory Resources . but quickly came back to capture the Db. clarifying the minor chord quality. The Db as the seventh of Eb7 resolves to the consonant pitch C over the Ab major which must become Cb over the Db7 chord. Donaldson used this principle over the Abmaj7. went to the upper neighbor tone. The Db is also the last note he played in the Eb7 measure and led to the C. After establishing the stability with the third of the chord. An. harmonically very specific.

When Brown reached the third of Abmaj7 he used the principle of arpeggiating the 3-5-7-9 of the chord. Brown used an Ab paired with Fn to Donaldson’s Ab and F# to point to the G.D n from below. The last three notes of the arpeggio were octave displaced.36 Harmonic Specificity 199 b & b b c nœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ #œ œ œ Œ 3 F9 Ex. Donaldson changed the An to an Ab to accommodate the Fm7 chord pointing back to the key of Eb. Again.Chapter 9 9. 9. The Dn in the third measure over the Eb7 chord is not an error.37 Fm 7 B b7 E bm aj7 j b & b b c Œ ‰ œj œ b œ œ œ n œ œ b œ # œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ The guide tone thirds appeared on the downbeats for the Cm7 and Bbm7 chords. Both lines began on the Db and encircled the Bb with neighbor tones. When the line reached the Dn. and then moved up. 9. Two chromatic lines were suggested that pointed to the guide tone Dn : F-En -E b -D n from above and C. after encircling the Eb with neighbor tones.38 Cm7 B bm7 E b7 A bmaj7 3-5-7-9 Arpeggio Arpeggio 3 b & b b c œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœœ œ œ n œ œ œ n œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ nœ Donaldson began this phrase on the guide tone Db. Donaldson used the 3-5-7-9 arpeggio principle that cleared up the harmonic ambiguity of the first half of the measure. when arriving at the third of the Abmaj7 chord. Another arpeggio occurred after arriving at the third of Abmaj7. It would not be heard as the major seventh of the Eb7 chord but as the chromatic lower neighbor to the Eb note that followed.37 immediately followed 9.C #. The line continued down to the guide tone note G.39 B bm7 E b7 A bm aj7 3 bb c ‰ bœ œ œ nœ œ œ bœ b œ œ & œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ Œ 3-5-7-9 Arpeggio 7 3 3 Clifford Brown played a very similar line to the Donaldson above. There was a great deal of chromatic ambiguity over the Bb7 chord which created a desirable instability over the chord that leads to the tonic. the third of Bb.36 in the Donaldson improvisation. but octave displaced the last three notes. Donaldson used an arpeggio. to the G in the upper octave. 9. The Ab was approached by an arpeggiation of the F minor triad. Brown used notes borrowed from the parallel enharmonic minor key of G# minor that created more tension when pointing to the Abmaj7. 9. Jazz Theory Resources . then suggested the seventh to third guide tones Ab to G between the Bbm7 and Eb7 chord.

œ œ œ œ œ b œ œ œ & 4 œ œ nœ œ œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ c œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ 3 F7 9 Arpeggio b B bm7 Arpeggio G ø7 C7 Fm 7 B bm 7 Contemporary improvisers are also aware of and use guide tones to identify and connect chords. The 3-57-9 arpeggio may be found in ascending form or inverted where the last three notes. to create the dominant chord G7. Tom Harrell sequenced this device in the following examples.200 Chapter 9 9.42. The 3-5-7-9 arpeggios are marked with brackets.42 b G7 9 3 Cm 7 œ b & b bbb 3 4 nœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ The guide tone notes are circled in this excerpt from Tom Harrell. but are always prepared and approached in a logical way. 9. are octave displaced. Jazz Theory Resources . The Bb7 chord is a secondary dominant chord and points away from the key of Db (5bs) to the key of Eb minor (6bs plus a leading tone). These are the first two pitches Scofield played over the Bb7 chord. and let the seventh resolve to the third of Ab7. The F7 arpeggio was inverted and the arpeggio for the Bbm7 ascended in ex. John Scofield aimed for the third and seventh of all the chords in the following progression. Harrell made the sequence work in the last two measures even with the meter change on the Bbm7 chord. the leading tone. the key of C minor needs a Bn.41 D ø7 3 œ œœœœ œ b Ó nœ #œ nœ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ &b b c œ œ 3-5-7-9 Arpeggio 3 7 3 7 3 The use of a 3-5-7-9 arpeggio as a way of elaborating a guide tone line is a universal jazz device. 9. using a Bb instead of the C.40 Harmonic Specificity #œ nœ #œ œ œ bœ œ nœ œ b & b b c bœ nœ œ œ œ bœ œ œ Œ œ œ bœ 3-5-7-9 Arpeggio B bm 7 E b7 A bm aj7 Brown supplied the third of every chord on the downbeat in this progression. Brown played it on the downbeat and followed it with an inverted 3-5-7-9 arpeggio.43 3 bbb 3 œ . While C minor and Eb major share the same key signature. 9. They do not always occur on the downbeat. 5-7-9. He almost used the 3-5-7-9 arpeggio over the Db chord. but stopped before reaching the ninth. Scofield arpeggiated the Ebm7 chord 3-5-7. The leading tone is Dn and the sixth flat is Cb. 9.

This is because the lines themselves incorporate the important chord tones as guide tones. this time as part of an encircling of the G before moving down to the Fn which did finally resolve to E. What can be learned from the study of Clifford Brown and Charlie Parker can be learned from even older masters of melodic invention. There are several melodic lines implied in this Menuet from Suite no. to compose a new composition. chords and harmonic progressions evolved from the convergence of linear melodies. The melodies were implicating the harmony before harmony existed. The line continued down the scale sounding the seventh of C7 before resolving smoothly over the measure line to the consonant third of F. from a tune published in 1947. Jazz Theory Resources . Listen to the strength of the single line against another single line in two-part inventions.Chapter 9 9. not just anywhere. the seventh of Gm7 resolve to a En. The six suites for cello solo and the solo sonatas and partitas for violin are excellent material for harmonically specific lines. 1 for cello solo. There is no chordal accompaniments and yet the harmonic motion is crystal clear. b œ œ . usually borrowed from or similar to popular show tunes. J J nœ bœ œ œ œ œ ¿ œ œ ˙ 3 3 3 7 œ 7 7 3 E bm 7 . the third of C. 7. They always looked puzzled and sadly. the entire concept of harmony came about as a result of melodic lines. Stern played an F#. A b7 Db . resolved over the measure line to the consonant third of Gm7. No double stops are used to indicate the harmonic motion. At the C7 measure. few of them took me seriously. and works of other time tested geniuses of melody. The D7 chord was arpeggiated and its seventh. b œ œ œ œ œ nœ nœ œ bœ œ œ œ œ &b b b œ œ œ J œ 3 7 œ œ 7 œ nœ œ 3 Standard jazz progressions are still attractive to contemporary jazz performers. This is a very common idea. Mozart. the restless dissonant tone C. but on the strong third beat. but here. Stern aimed for the coherent tones of each chord with at least one unexpected turn. Many of the compositions from the early bop era were newly composed pieces based on established harmonic progressions. I always suggested Bach. only the single note melody line implying up to three separate voices. The concepts of vertical sonorities. Sometimes they offer a contemporary player an opportunity to improvise lines that contradict the underlying harmonic implications. There is something that is still interesting and challenging about these traditional progressions.45 Fmaj7 D7 b B b7 9 &b c ˙ ˙ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ nœ œ œ œœ œ 3 7 3 3 7 Gm7 C7 Fmaj7 3 The idea that melody lines can implicate and outline the harmonic motion should not be difficult to imagine. a listener might expect to hear the Fn. 9. Mike Stern used progression no. The F# in the second measure informed the listener that F major was left behind.44 Db Harmonic Specificity 201 b œ ‰ œ œ œ Œ & b bbb c œ œ œ ¿ œ œ œ . Many years ago students asked me for book recommendations for melodic ideas. The Bb was encircled by upper and lower neighbor tones before continuing down the scale. Historically.

Parker and Harrell used arpeggios from the thirds of chords. S. a descending step line at the interval of a third and an octave over the bass line G .F#. 1 for Cello Solo. The chart below shows the implied harmonic progression and below details the melodic devices used to implicate the harmony. Bach: Suite No. not Bb major 3rds Root Jazz Theory Resources . Brown.202 Chapter 9 9.F .. The F#. What about Bach? Examine the second part of the Menuet II.A .Eb . Menuet II œœœ œ œ ? bb 3 œœœ 4 œ 1 ? bb œ #œ œ œ œ 7 œ #˙ nœ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œœœœ œœœ œœœœœ œ œ œ # œ œœ . 13 19 The primary line in mm.1-4 suggests Bb .46 Harmonic Specificity J..G . #œ œ . œ œ nœ œ œœœ œ œ œœ ? bb œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ ? bb œœœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙. leading tone in m.D.4 and m. .8 is the third of the implied D7 chord and is approached from above and again made it clear that this piece is in G minor and not Bb major.. The Bb over the G in the first measure left no doubt that the piece is in a minor key. Implied harmony for second part of Menuet II: D7 9 Gm 10 C7 11 F 12 Bb 13 Eb 14 F7 Bb F7 15 Bb 16 Arpeggio F# and E b point to Gm Encircled 3rd Arpeggio En points to key of F Encircled 3rd Eb points to key of B b Arpeggio lack of F# also points to B b Arpeggio Thirds Fn indicates Bb and not Gm Arpeggio G7 17 Cm 18 F7 19 Bb 20 D7 21 Gm 22 Aø7 D7 23 Gm 24 Arpeggio 3-5-7-9 arpeggio with 7th -3rd resolution Bn and A b point to Cm Arpeggio 3-5-7-9 arpeggio with 7th -3rd resolution Fn indicates Bb and not Gm Arpeggio 3-5-7-9 arpeggio with 7th -3rd resolution Return of F # indicates G minor.

Allegro. The first four measures of the Menuet II followed a step progression. the Mozart line can be transformed into a jazzy sounding line.iii . 9. This guide tone line is a harmonically specific step progression that begins and eventually returns to G after sixteen measures.Chapter 9 Harmonic Specificity 203 STEP PROGRESSION Many times the harmonic guide tones will suggest a simple step line over several chords.48 Mozart: Sonata in C major. 9.49 Fmaj7 œ œ œ œ œbœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ bœ œ œ œœœ œ œ œ œ c œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œbœ œ œ ˙ & œ Em 7 Dm7 B7b 13 #9 b A7 9 b G7 9 Cmaj7 A step progression can be created using the primary guide tones over progression no.I shows the bass and the guide tone thirds following simple downward step progressions.47 Step Progression &cw ?c w w w w w w w Mozart used this same step progression to create these longer florid lines. 9. IV . Jazz Theory Resources . 13. KV 545 œœ & c œœœœ ?c œ Œ œ œ œœœœœ Œ œ œ œ œœ œœœœœœœ œœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœœœœœœœœ œ œ Œ Œ œ œ œ œ Œ Œ œ œ œ œ Œ Œ œ œ Using some basic harmonic substitutions. The example below. Mozart used ascending and descending diatonic scales to accentuate the guide tone step progression line in two octaves.ii .

13 E bmaj7 D ø7 b & b b c . the C# and the A# pointed up to the chord tones D and B. The step line was interrupted with neighbor tones. This illustrates the dual nature of some notes. an inverted 3-5-7-9 arpeggio. w ˙ Clifford Brown used an extended step progression in this excerpt. the third of Bbm. The G# in m. Brown leapt from the harmonically clear third up to the ninth before descending again. Not matter which analysis and term is used. the Eb is a dissonant note wanting to resolve to the Db. The Eb over the F7 is the seventh and points to the Db. Brown’s line incorporated the harmonically clear thirds in almost every measure. and was the anticipated third of B7.7 clarified the key of E major.51 B bm 7 E b7 b & b bb 3 4 b & b bb 3 4 A bmaj7 3 j œ œ œ œ nœ œ j bœ nœ œ bœ œ œ œ Œ J œ œ œ nœ œ nœ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ Cm7 F7 3 œ œ 3 œ œ 7 œ nœ B bm7 3 7 bœ œ 3 œ œœœ œ œ 7 3 œ œ7 œ b & b bb œ Œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ bœ œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ nœ ˙ 3 b b œ &b b 3 F7 3 3 3 3 œ nœ 3 bœ 7 3 œ œ œ Ex.3 suspensions. 9. and octave displacement. Some of the sevenths were delayed and resolved as 4 . Jazz Theory Resources .50 Harmonic Specificity Progression no. w & bbb A bmaj7 b G7 9 ˙ n˙ Cm7 B bm7 E b7 w D b9 E bmaj7 w w w nw F9 w w w bw Fm 7 ˙ ˙ w bw w bw B b7 w ˙ . The step line was twice interrupted by octave displacement. but never at random. The simplified step progression is shown on the bottom line. In both cases of octave displacement. All chromatic tones were resolved in predictable ways.3.5 indicated a shift to the key of E minor. The E b is both the seventh of F7 and the upper neighbor to the Eb.52 is another step progression example from Clifford Brown. All twelve of the chromatic pitches were used. The line pointed to the third of every chord in the progression and moved toward the seventh which resolved to the third of the subsequent chord.204 Chapter 9 9. in both roles. The Gn in the last measure verifies the return to the key of G. The Db was a chromatic passing tone between D and C in the pick-up measure. In m.. The D# in m.. 9.

Learning to hear progressions usually involves being able to hear the one voice that indicates the change. The Dn must become the Db to accommodate the Eb7 chord. The Eb is the note that points to the Bb chord and resolves to the harmonically clear third of Bb. What devices were used to create this melody out of a simple descending scale? 9.Chapter 9 9. The C is the natural choice for the first inversion F chord for two reasons: (1) it is the logical resolution of the Db. but it is the basis for one of the most familiar melodies of the twentieth century.53 &c ˙ ˙ w w w w w w w A step line is often suggested by any harmonic progression. Judy Garland sang it in an early disaster film about tornadoes. The root of the F chord may not at first seem like the best choice to begin the step line below until examining the rest of the line.52 Harmonic Specificity 205 # c & # & c F #m 7 nœ œ bœ Œ œ #œ nœ œ nœ œ ‰bœ œ ‰J ‰J œ œ #œ œ ‰ j œ œ œ œ œ J #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ 3 9 bœ œ œ nœ œ œ œœœ œ œœ B7 Emaj7 Am 7 D7 Am7 D7 Gmaj7 & œ œ œ # œ Œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ # œ œ # œ œ œ # œ œ ‰ n œj œ n œ œ œ Œ 3 9 # œ œ œ œ œ & œ œ œ #œ œ #œ nœ œ 3 # This simple step progression framework may not seem like enough for an interesting piece of music. 9.54 ˙ &b c ?b c ˙ F b˙ F7/A Bb ˙ ˙ b˙ b˙ E b7 F/A D7 Gm7 C7 F ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ bœ ˙ œ œ œ ˙ Jazz Theory Resources . and (2) is a third above the bass note. the Dn. Play the simple framework below while singing the complete melody.

15 and 16. third. GUIDE TONE LINE BEGINNING on the THIRD Thirds resolve to sevenths when chords are separated by a fifth. 9. The notes on the downbeats of mm.54. fifth. and some other guide tone linear implications may be found. the guide tone is elaborated by movement up and down the diatonic scale returning to the guide tone. and therefore harmonically specific. The guide tone line never moves more than a whole step.. 3-5-7-9 arpeggios are found in mm. they may not be as clear as the third in establishing the quality of the chord. Because it is preceded by a backdoor dominant. Many other notes are used in addition to the guide tones. Progression no.2-3 are anticipated giving a rhythmic push to the line.11-12 keeps the line in the staff. Beginning with the third insures the line will build dramatic intensity as it moves away from the consonant third. 9. 1. Jazz Theory Resources . 1: Progression no. The third is often approached by the seventh of the previous chord which descends step wise from the dissonance to the consonance. Lines may begin on chord tones other than the third. In the first few measures. 9. There is more angularity created using arpeggios over the D7 and Gm7 chords. 9. 13 with line beginning on the third D ø7 E bmaj7 b & b b c .56 Guide Tone Line No. the guide tone for the Ebmaj7 chord is the fifth. Ninth chords are common in jazz. All of these notes have linear harmonic implications. Bb. 9. The octave displacement in mm. The Bb resolves down a half step to the essential tone An. the third of the F7 chord.206 Chapter 9 Harmonic Specificity Ex. w & bbb A bmaj7 3 b G7 9 Cm7 F7 B bm7 E b7 w D b9 E bmaj7 w 3 w 7 w 3 w 7 bw 3 w B b7 7 w 3 bw 7 w w nw 3 F9 w Fm 7 bw 3 w 7 . which makes it possible to have five separate voice leading lines occurring at once using the root. seventh and ninth of the chord as beginning pitches.55 is a embellished version of the simple framework in ex..55 3 3 j œ b œ œ œ œ b œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ ‰ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ bœ œ & b c #œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œœ F F7/A Bb E b7 F/A D7 Gm7 C7 F OTHER VOICES as GUIDE TONES The third often proves to be the clearest note to begin a guide tone line. 13 suggests a harmonically specific guide tone step progression that begins on the third and eventually returns to the same pitch after sixteen measures. This etude follows guide tone line no. While these other pitches may be chord tones.

F of the guide tone line above.Chapter 9 9.56. and preceded by its lower neighbor. 2.59 follows the above guide tone line no. the C . G#. There are two lines suggested in mm. Jazz Theory Resources . œ ‰ œj œ bœ œ œ œ J œ bœ œ b b B bm 7 E b7 A bmaj7 D 9 E maj7 j œ ‰ nœ bœ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ ˙ . w & bbb A bm aj7 7 w D b9 D ø7 w 7 b G7 9 nw 3 Cm 7 bw 7 nw 3 F7 B bm7 bw 7 E b7 w B b7 3 E bmaj7 F9 w 7 w 3 w 9 w w 7 w 7 Fm7 w 7 w 3 . This guide tone lines reverses the location of sevenths and thirds from the guide tone line shown in ex. ‰ n œj œ œ b œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ GUIDE TONE LINE BEGINNING on the SEVENTH The seventh is a dissonant tone and creates motion to the third of the next chord.Bb suggests the parallel measures in guide tone line no... 9. 9. Thirds lead to sevenths and sevenths lead to thirds.Eb7. œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ & & & bbb bbb bbb Cm 7 E bmaj7 D ø7 G7 j j ‰ œ œ œ œ ‰ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ nœ œ œ œ b9 j œ ‰ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ F7 œ œ œ œ #œ œ . F9 Fm 7 Œ B b7 ‰ j œœœœ œ œœ nœ œ nœ œ œ œ œ Ó b œ œ œ œ # œ . 1. Beginning on the seventh creates an initial dissonance note which alternates with consonant notes as the previous line. which is also the seventh of the Cm7 chord. 13 with line beginning on the seventh E bmaj7 b & b b c .57 ETUDE based on Guide Tone Line No. 2: Progression no.9-11: the top of the line follows the G . Bb.58 Guide Tone Line No. The first guide tone line began with thirds that moved to sevenths. The etude shown in ex.G .. The third of F7 is preceded by its upper neighbor. 9.. This idea is sequenced over Bbm7 . 1: Harmonic Specificity 207 b & b b c .Cb .

. 3. bœ B b7 9 E bmaj7 w 5 w 9 w 7 w F9 w w 5 Fm7 w 5 ˙ .208 Chapter 9 9. b œ . The first line begins with and leads up to a Bb guide tone. the loss of harmonic clarity by not using the fundamental thirds and sevenths is exchanged for the available color combinations of altered ninths fifths and thirteenths available on the dominant chords. w & bbb A bm aj7 5 w D b9 D ø7 w 5 b G7 9 w 9 Cm7 F7 w 5 ˙. 9 (13) This etude follows guide tone line no. Both major and minor chords have a perfect fifth.59 Harmonic Specificity ETUDE based on Guide Tone Line No. B b7 GUIDE TONE LINE BEGINNING on the FIFTH Playing the consonant fifth alone over the root in the bass reveals nothing of the chord quality. Half diminished chords have diminished fifths. This does not prohibit using a chromatic leading tone to the fifth. The fifth of the Dø7 becomes the b9 of the G7 which resolves to the fifth of the Cm and so on. Cm 7 F7 A bm aj7 D b9 j œ Ó Œ ‰ œ œ œ #œ œ ˙ .. œ b & b b ‰ œj ‰ œj œ œ œ œ œ œ œ Œ F9 Fm7 ‰ œj œ œ œ œ œ # œ œ . after sounding the guide tone fifth. 3: Progression no. the line will reach towards the third for harmonic clarity. J E bmaj7 Œ j œ Ó œ Ó J . but emphasizes the third in the second measure which clarifies the major chord quality. and the quality will remain unconfirmed until a third has been sounded.. Fifths must be perfect on major and minor chords. The thirteenth or flatted thirteenth may substitute for the fifth in a dominant chord. œ & b b c . J B bm7 E b7 E bmaj7 b9 b j & b b Œ ‰ œ œ œ #œ nœ œ . Creating lines using the fifths and ninths will require the use of thirds and sevenths elsewhere in the line or will depend on outside accompaniment to verify the quality of individual chords. 2: D ø7 G7 œ œ œ n œ œ b œ b œ œ œ b œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ‰ nœ œ œ œ Ó ‰ œ. fifths can be lowered or raised. 9. In several measures. When using a guide tone line of fifths and ninths. 13 with line beginning on the fifth E bmaj7 b & b b c . The harmonic implications of a guide tone line beginning on the fifth will be vague. b j & b b ‰ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ .. As thirds lead to sevenths and sevenths to thirds. On dominant chord. the fifth resolves to a ninth. Jazz Theory Resources . 9 B bm7 E b7 œ w 5 ˙ .60 Guide Tone Line No.

The b13 can resolve down to the fifth of G7. The ambiguous and colorful ninths and fifths may require the clarity of thirds and sevenths to be included in the line or in a separate accompaniment. Guide tone line no. 4 begins on the ninth. ‰ J Œ . GUIDE TONE LINE BEGINNING on the NINTH As fifths resolve to ninths. 13 with line beginning on the seventh E bmaj7 w b & b b c . The melody line suggested a seventh to third resolution from the Dø7 to the G7. b &b b w 9 w D b9 D ø7 w 9 b G7 9 13 ˙ ˙ 5 Cm7 w 9 F7 ˙ b˙ B bm7 w 9 E b7 ˙ b˙ . 4: Progression no. A bm aj7 9 ˙ ˙ 5 E bmaj7 13 F9 w 3 w w 9 w Fm7 w 9 B b7 13 ˙ b˙ 13 13 This etude follows guide tone line no... This guide tone line leads to the third for the Eb chord in m. 3: D ø7 Harmonic Specificity 209 b & b b c . as relief from the obscure harmonic information provided by the ninths and fifths. The very dissonant ninth (Eb) of the Dø7 chord could resolve to the fifth of G (Dn) or remain as the b13 (Eb) of the G7. and the ninths resolve to fifths when the chords are separated by fifths. Jazz Theory Resources .11. The fifth of G7 then becomes the ninth of the Cm7 and so on.62 Guide Tone Line No. 9. ninths resolve to fifths. 4.61 ETUDE based on Guide Tone Line No.. Œ ‰ j œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ n œ b ˙ œ & & & bbb bbb bbb Cm 7 E bmaj7 œ œ œ œ Œ ‰ œj œ œ œ # œ E b7 b G7 9 j œ œ œ œ œ ‰ œ ˙ œ F7 ‰ œj b œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ nœ œ ˙ D b9 B bm7 ‰ n œj bœ nœ ∑ B b7 A bm aj7 ‰ œj œ n œ b œ œ ‰ œ ..Chapter 9 9. ‰ j œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ Fm7 E bmaj7 F9 œ œ nœ œ œ œ Œ n œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ b˙ .

to learn to think of the harmony as a consequence of the lines and not a separate unrelated vertical entity. F9 j œ Ó Fm 7 œ œ œ œ œ œ ‰ # œj œ œ b œ ˙ 3 B b7 FIVE GUIDE TONE LINES at ONE TIME If all four of the guide tone lines occur at once then five part harmony is the result..210 Chapter 9 9. It is important... 4: b b c .. w w w ? b c . GUIDE TONE LINES with DECEPTIVE RESOLUTIONS The first four guide tone lines should have been easy to hear. D b9 E bmaj7 B bm 7 E b7 b & b b ‰ œj œ œ œ œ œ œ œ n œ b œ œ œ œ # œ œ œ n œ œ œ œ œ b & b b ‰ œj œ # œ œ œ œ œ œ .64 E bm aj7 w b & b b c . After mastering the expected.63 Harmonic Specificity ETUDE based on Guide Tone Line No.. there were no surprises. Œ œ œ œ œ ˙ b & b &b b œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ Cm 7 A bm aj7 F7 E bmaj7 œ œ œ ‰ œ J D ø7 œ œ œ œ nœ ˙ b G7 9 œ œ ‰ J œ Œ ∑ . 9. Since these lines and their voice leading are common and anticipated by most listeners. bœ ‰ œ J nœ œ bœ œ bœ œ œ œ bœ ˙ . w w . w bb b &b b w w w ? b w bb w A bm aj7 w w w w w ˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ bw w D b9 D ø7 w w w w w b G7 9 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ Cm7 w w w F7 ˙ b˙ ˙ ˙b ˙ ˙ B bm 7 w bw w ˙ bb˙ b˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ w w B b7 E b7 nw w F9 bw w w w nw w w nw w w nw w w w bw w Fm7 E bm aj7 w w w w w w w w w bw w w w ˙ b˙ ˙ b ˙ ˙ ˙ . The resolutions that occurred were what most would expect. as an improviser or composer of melodic lines. it is important to learn what they are and how they work before trying to do the unexpected.. one has a better chance to understand and effectively Jazz Theory Resources .

The Bb had previously at this point in the progression moved down to the An. or F b. If it resolves up. the seventh of Dø7. a dissonant note to the Bbm7. which begs to resolve back down to Eb. as the seventh of Dø7 points down the Bn.60). a relatively calm dissonance. The Bn moves up to the consonant fifth (Cn) of Fm7 and then to the #9 (C#) of Bb. That most step progressions and guide tone lines descend and the fact that this line ascends contributes to the sense of mounting urgency. but here moves up to the Bn. The tension that the ascending guide tone lines create can be an effective tool in constructing a dramatic improvisation or composition. but contradictory to expectations. There is a great deal of tension created by the following ascending guide tone lines. The C. but also the dominant of the new key of Ab. 5: Progression no. the Bb moves up to the C. Jazz Theory Resources . 9. The D moves up to the Eb.65 Guide Tone Line No. the dissonance is compounded by the unexpected ascension and the resolution to the very dissonant #11 of the G7. 13 with ascending line D ø7 E bmaj7 b & b b c . It defies gravity again moving to the F over the Ab. The C# dissonance is appeased somewhat by the resolution to the relatively less dissonant Dn. the flat ninth of Eb. The Eb moves up to En.Chapter 9 Harmonic Specificity 211 use the unexpected resolution. the unexpected An occurs before resolving to the Bb. 3 (9. A guide tone line like this generates tension partly because of the unexpected resolutions. the #11 of F7. the fifth of the next chord. The G and Ab are comparatively relaxed over the Db7 and seem to point up to the Bb. & bbb A bm aj7 b G7 9 Cm7 F7 B bm7 E b7 w D b9 w ˙ ˙ nw w E bm aj7 #w w nw F9 w w nw w w Fm7 nw #w B b7 w . Instead. The motion is still smooth.. Instead of the Bb resolving down to the fifth of Dø7 and then becoming the ninth of G7 as it did in guide tone line no. Here are a few possible guide tone lines which move against expectations. Ab. the ninth of Cm. 9. a ninth to a fifth. Since most of the voice leading lines tend to fall (a seventh resolves down to a third. a suspended fourth resolves down to the third) then it is not surprising that the unexpected lines move upward.65 begins on the fifth of Eb.. The line in ex. the third of G7.

An Eb would be the expected pitch in this context where Dø7 is either the viiø7 of Eb major or the iiø7 of C minor. is approached from a chromatic passing tone.67 begins on F. The En could easily resolve down to an Eb. The An points to the Bb and finally moves to it over the Abmaj7. w b &b b w A bm aj7 b G7 9 Cm 7 F7 B bm7 ˙ ˙ bw D b9 E bmaj7 nw w w ˙ . the seventh.66 Harmonic Specificity ETUDE based on Guide Tone Line No. the thirteenth of F7. 6: Progression no. The En brightens the typically dark half-diminished chord. The Dn.. but moves up to the very dissonant F#. but instead moves up to the F. Jazz Theory Resources . moves up to the relatively consonant Cn over the Eb chord. the third of Cm. The Dn moves up to the seventh of Fm7. The G moves smoothly up to the Ab. ‰ œ Jœ œ œ œ œ œ The guide tone line in ex. The F# points to and finally resolves as a leading tone to the G. the seventh of B bm7. #œ w F9 #˙ ˙ w w w w nw nw B b7 E b7 Fm7 . It resolves down to the ninth of Dø7. œ œ œ ‰ #œ J b G7 9 œ Cm 7 œ œ œ Ó b &b b œ A bm aj7 Ó 3 E b7 œ bœ œ œ œ n œ œ œ b œ œ œ œ œ œ n œ œ œ œ B bm7 b œ .212 Chapter 9 9. the ninth of Eb. ˙ . 5: b & b b c . Eb.. but to a En rather than an Eb.. 9. The unexpected resolutions continue as the Eb moves to En rather than the anticipated Dn. but does not resolve down to the expected third of Eb. 13 with ascending line D ø7 E bmaj7 b & b b c . C#. the b13 of the G7 chord. 9. F7 D ø7 j ˙. resolving up instead to the dissonant An. The dissonant En points up to the F and brings the progression back to its starting point. The F could resolve as expected to the Eb. but in keeping with this example.. E bmaj7 œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ . The Cb over the Db7 points back down to the Bb.67 Guide Tone Line No. nœ bœ œ Œ &b b J F9 3 D b9 œ œ œ œ n˙ Œ ‰ bœ J Fm7 E bmaj7 œ œ nœ bœ ˙ B b7 œ œ nœ ‰ J œ œœœœ œ 3 b ‰ œ œ nœ œ œ Ó &b b œ b œ œ b œ b œ œ .

œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ B b7 œ J Ó . Cantata No. The line on the top is the more active. 9.69 J. S. with some of the best known found in Bach’s compositions for solo cello and solo violin. Often one of the implied lines will be more active and the other more passive. the one on the bottom more passive. There are excellent examples from all style periods. Ruft Uns Die Stimme (1731) b &b b c b &b b c Œ œœœ j œœœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ w w œ œ œ œ ˙ ˙ Jazz Theory Resources . Any smaller interval between them and it will be difficult to distinguish two independent lines. The following examples are single line melodies which imply more than one independent melody line. In order to distinguish two independent lines within a single line. Wachet Auf.. the two lines should be separated by an interval larger than a third. MULTIPLE GUIDE TONE LINES: COMPOUND MELODIES Single lines may be created which suggest two or more individual lines. 140. 6: D ø7 Harmonic Specificity 213 b Ó & b b c . Choral. Œ ‰ œj œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ n œ œ œ œ n œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ bb ‰ j 3 b & #œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ n˙ Cm 7 F7 A bm aj7 D b9 E bmaj7 B bm 7 E b7 E bmaj7 b G7 9 œ œœ œ b ‰ œj # œ # œ # œ & b b œ ‰ œj œ œ œ b œ œ œ b œ œ œ œ n œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ b œ œ Ó & b b œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ F9 3 Fm7 3 œ nœ . Bach: IV. The reduction of the two lines is shown below. In this beautiful example.. Bach suggested two melodies separated by the interval of a sixth.68 ETUDE based on Guide Tone Line No.Chapter 9 9.

The range between the two contrary step lines begins as sixth apart and moves to a unison.V7/V .214 Chapter 9 Harmonic Specificity Bach’s single line could have been easily adapted for two instruments as shown below. œœ œ œœ œ J Here is a familiar line from Gershwin.72 illustrates the two suggested guide tone lines. œ œ œ. œ. 9. ˙.70 b &b b c j œ œ œ œ. The voice leading suggests the progression: IV . Jazz Theory Resources . but both were relatively simple as this was the beginning of an improvisation. œ œ œ œ œ œ. œœœ œ œ œ Œ œ œ œ œ ˙. 9. Œ. The top line was the more active.V7 I in the key of G. 9.72 Home on the Range # 6 j & 8œ # & 6 8‰ œ œ œ .I . ˙ œ. ˙.iv . œ œ œ. œ œ œ œ Œ. 9. œ.71 # cœ œ & œ œ b œj œ # . The simplicity of the individual lines prevented the entire melodic line from being cluttered. j œ ‰ Keith Jarrett played this long passage that suggested two independent lines. The bottom staff in ex. & c˙ Œ œ b˙ ‰ J œ œ œ J bœ œ #œ bœ nœ œ œ œ ˙ ˙ bœ #œ œ nœ w w w ( œ Œ Ó œ Œ Ó œ) Compound lines also have a home in folk music. œ œ ˙. Œ. The bottom staff illustrates the two suggested step progression guide tone lines.

S. b13. œ œ . Jazz Theory Resources . ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ . The independent lines cannot be too complicated or the clarity of the whole may be lost.75 J. with the line beginning on D as a secondary line.. ˙ ˙. The lines in the Menuet example are separated by a sixth and a fifth which helps the listener discern the separate parts. The ninths of dominant chords may be n9. Any of these substitute pitches behave as a fifth and resolve to the ninth of the subsequent chord. ˙. sevenths to thirds. 1 for Cello Solo. ?2 2 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ 2.. Menuet II œ œ œ œ ? bb 3 œ œ 4 ˙ . Although played by the cello solo.74 J. b9 or #9. Each entrance of the compound melody from this Bourrée is separated by a large interval to ease the perception of the independent nature of the lines. œ œ œ œ œ USING LINEAR IMPLICATIONS of HARMONIC VOICE LEADING to CREATE COMPOUND MELODIES Review the basic voice leading principles: thirds resolve to sevenths. Two voices usually remain stationary (3 & 5 become the 7 & 9 ) and two voices move down a step (9-5 and 7-3). Bach: Suite No. 9. Bach: Suite No. The top line beginning on Bb is the primary line. œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ 2. S. the line could easily be orchestrated for three separate instruments grouped as shown. 1. 1. The fifth of a dominant chord may be replaced by a n13. fifths to ninths. 3. Bourrée I 3. 9. œ œ œ œ ‰ J‰ J b &b œ œ œ œ œ B b/D Gm7 Cm 7 F7 Bb Bb Gm7 Cm 7 ‰ œj œ œ œ œ œ œ . œj œ œ œ F7 œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ Three lines may be suggested as shown in the following examples from Bach. ? bb 3 4˙ ˙.Chapter 9 9. 3 for Cello Solo. The third line on the bottom suggests the bass movement.73 Harmonic Specificity 215 ‰ b œj b j & b c ˙ œ bœ ˙ œ œ œ . but they still resolve to the fifths. #11 or b5. œ œ #œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ J œ ˙ #˙ . and ninths resolve to fifths.

The repetition of the ii7 . 25. A note that may be consonant over one chord becomes dissonant over the next. and this may be why it is the most commonly used pair. while the second line suggests 7 . as the Eb changed its classification from the Cm7 to the F7. Compound melodies can be created by following two of these implicit lines in one single melodic line.An is the first voice that moves the line to the next chord. The motion is then answered in the primary voice resolving the dissonant (over the F7) Eb to the Dn. The most harmonically specific pair of lines follows the third and seventh.3. The Bb . There are six possible pairing combinations. The voices do not move at the same time but alternate.7.I progression down a whole step lends itself to the use of sequences as a developmental tool. the seventh of Cm7 is the dissonant note that must change in order to arrive at the F7. Referring to the example above. The seventh is the primary note of dissonance which moves one chord to the next: the seventh usually resolves down to the next third.77 Cm7 Guide tone line suggesting two independent lines beginning on the 3rd & 7th F7 b˙ bœ &c Œ 7 3 Œ ˙ Bb B bm 7 E b7 œ 7 3 w w 7 b˙ bœ Œ 7 3 Œ ˙ Ab œ 7 w w 3 3 3 7 Jazz Theory Resources . The lines are sequenced in the final two measures. The third is stable and provides the harmonic clarity of chord quality (major or minor).216 Chapter 9 9.7 . 9. The pair of guide tone lines could begin on the: • • • • • • 3rd 3rd 3rd 5th 5th 7th & & & & & & 5th 7th 9th 7th 9th 9th parallel oblique oblique oblique oblique parallel motion motion motion motion motion motion Melodic frameworks based on the guide tone pairs and short melodic examples are illustrated below using each of the six pairs over an excerpt from progression no. a voice pair may move parallel at the same time or in oblique motion where one voice is stationary and the other moves. and ninth. fifth. Two lines that move obliquely are easier to manipulate since they are active at opposite times in the progression.76 Harmonic Specificity Pairs of voices alternating motion G9 Cm aj9 ˙ &c ˙ ˙ ?c ˙ ˙ Dm9 9 moves to 5 5 becomes 9 3 becomes 7 7 moves to 3 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ 5 becomes 9 9 moves to 5 7 moves to 3 3 becomes 9 w w w w w A single melodic line can be a compound melody by following two distinct guide tone lines implied from the harmony.V7 . The Eb is the third of Cm7. is the most consonant note and does not need to change for the F7. Guide tone lines that follow voice leading may begin on four possible notes (apart from the root played by the bass): the third. seventh. The top line begins on the third and suggests the voice leading 3 . The Bb.3 .

The lines are sequenced in the final two measures. 9. The lines are sequenced in the final two measures. suggests a chromatic line (G . This pair of voices wants to move at the same time.81 uses the ambiguous and colorful line beginning on the fifth and the harmonically clear line that begins on the seventh. The independent lines are easier to hear when separated by the interval of a sixth rather than separated by a third. If they are separated by only a third they will be too close to hear the separate voice leading.78 Cm7 Harmonic Specificity 217 Possible melodic line from guide tones F7 Bb B bm7 E b7 Ab bœ bœ œ œ #œ œ œ œ bœ œ bœ œ bœ œ œ w &c #œ œ œ ‰ œ #œ J The pair that follows the third and fifth is also harmonically clear because of the presence of the third. 9. Using the Gb. It can lead to a colorful line as it resolves to the ninth of the next chord. It does not reveal the chord quality.Gb .81 Cm7 Guide tone line suggesting two independent lines beginning on the 5th & 7th F7 ˙ c bœ & Œ 7 5 Œ bœ ˙ b9 Bb B bm7 E b7 5 w w ˙ bœ Œ 7 3 5 Œ bœ ˙ b9 Ab bw w 7 5 3 7 Jazz Theory Resources . a Gb can be used to create the chromatic line G .F) and creates motion where there was none.80 Cm7 Possible melodic line from guide tones F7 Bb bœ ‰ j œ ‰ œ œ . The voice pair in ex. The G as the fifth of Cm becomes the ninth of F7. The Eb and the G are chord tones of Cm7 and neither voice has to move anywhere for the F7. A good compound line can be created using this pair of voices as they resolve at different rhythmic points in the progression. &c œ bœ J j œ ˙ B bm 7 bœ E b7 œ bœ bœ œ œ œ w Ab The fifth of a chord by itself can be ambiguous.Chapter 9 9.79 Cm7 Guide tone line suggesting two independent lines beginning on the 3rd & 5th b˙ &c Œ 3 Œ œ b˙ 5 F7 Bb B bm 7 œ 7 3 w w 5 b˙ Œ 3 Œ œ b˙ 5 E b7 Ab œ 7 w bw 5 3 b9 b9 9. 9. the b9 of F7.F. These two pitches should be separated by the interval of a sixth and not a third if the line is to be perceived as compound.Gb . as G is the ninth of F7 and Eb is the 7th. As above.

C#. Db. is often erroneously labeled a #5.D. No sense of independence would be perceived if they were separated by only a step. 9.C over the Cm7 . 9. a C#. These two voices alternate their motion. These two voices alternate their motion. Using the b13th creates the chromatic line: D .84 Cm7 3 3 Possible melodic line from guide tones F7 Bb B bm 7 & c bœ œbœ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ Œ ‰ j œbœ œbœ œ bœ bœ ˙ bœ œ œ bœ œ 3 E b7 Ab The pair of lines following the ninth and fifth assumes the fundamental chord tones. In this case it must be a b13 following the rule that an altered note wants to continue in the direction in which it has been altered.F7 . The b13 of F7.218 Chapter 9 9. a b13th was used. If it was a #5. which it does not.F. the thirds and sevenths. To soften the harshness of the interval between the third and ninth.82 Harmonic Specificity Possible melodic line from guide tones &c œ bœ œ œ . creating two chromatic lines: D . œ œ œ œ œbœ w œ œ œ bœ ‰ bœ Œ ‰ J b œ œ œ J J #œ œ Cm 7 F7 Bb B bm 7 E b7 Ab The voice pair that follows the third and the ninth must be separated by the interval of a seventh.85 Cm 7 Guide tone line suggesting two independent lines beginning on the 9th & 5th &c ˙ Œ 9 Œ bœ œ b˙ 5 b9 F7 b13( #5) Bb B bm7 w w 9 ˙ Œ 9 Œ œ b˙ bœ 5 b9 E b7 b13( #5) Ab 9 bbw w 5 5 Jazz Theory Resources .83 Guide tone line suggesting two independent lines beginning on the 3rd & 9th 9 b13( #5) F7 Bb B bm 7 E b7 Ab Œ c & b˙ Cm7 œ b˙ Œ œ 7 w w 9 Œ b˙ œ b˙ Œ 9 b13( #5) œ 7 bw w 3 9 3 9. . will be supplied elsewhere in the accompaniment or inferred by the listener.C and G . although the starkness of the large interval can be appealing. The line beginning on the third provides the stability and the line from the ninth provides color.Bb. Instead of the fifth over the dominant chords. A b13 and a b9 are used over the dominant chords below. The Gb (b9) and Db (b13) notes over the F7 chord are obviously borrowed from the parallel key of Bb minor. Both levels of the compound line will be colorful especially when using the possible alterations over the dominant chords.Db .Gb . it may be filled in by an arpeggio. it would suggest the chromatic line C . There are several familiar jazz standards which use this pairing in developing the melody.Db .

The top part moves C to Bb while the second voice remains on F in the first two measures. These pitches. Without rhythmic context or melodic movement this example has no suggested style. The guide tone lines establish the harmony. Œ bœ œ bœ bœ œ œ œ ˙ . The arranger must determine which line the primary melody follows and then determine the best path for the secondary line.F. but is possible. The alternate motion will help keep the parts rhythmically independent. or Latin. there is no pressing need for guitar or piano to play chords in order for the listener to discern the harmonic progression. The lines must be separated by a sixth and not a third to maintain their independence.Bb. This alternation continues to the end of the phrase. By adding idiomatic melodic and rhythmic figures to the lines they can be transformed into any style setting: Baroque.Chapter 9 9. seem to suggest a compound line using the third and seventh of Gm7 . Any three instruments could play the parts. The line may sound like it is in the wrong key. swing. If the primary line begins on the third. œ Ó J B bm 7 œ œ bœ œ nœ œ bœ œ œ ‰ J nœ bœ ˙ 3 E b7 Ab This pairing is rarely if ever used with much success. The second voice move F to E while the top voice remains on Bb in the second two measures.87 Cm7 Guide tone line suggesting two independent lines beginning on the 7th & 9th 7 & c b˙ Œ 9.86 Possible melodic line from guide tones Cm7 F7 Bb Harmonic Specificity 219 & c œ œ œ b œ b œ ‰ œj œ . 9. as it puts the colorful ninth below the fundamental seventh. then the improvised or arranged secondary line could begin on the seventh. classical. The root cycle of progression no. The melodies to many popular jazz standards follow the harmonic guide lines previously discussed.88 Cm7 Œ œ b˙ 9 F7 Bb B bm 7 E b7 3 7 7 œ w w 9 b˙ Œ Œ Ab 3 7 œ b˙ 9 b13( #5) œ w bw 9 b13( #5) Possible melodic line from guide tones F7 Bb B bm7 E b7 Ab & c bœ œ œ bœ œ œ œ ˙ . Jazz Theory Resources . rather than suggesting Cm7 . 1 make it an excellent vehicle for this demonstration. To prevent the secondary melody line from being active at the same time as the primary line choose a secondary guide line that is stationary when the primary line moves and moves when the primary line is stationary.F7 . Three guide tones lines are shown below.C7 . This separation is part of why the pairing is weak. Œ GUIDE TONES in ARRANGING and COUNTERPOINT Guide tone lines are helpful to arrangers and to musicians on the job who are “faking” arrangements. The top and middle voice move in alternate measures.

9.90 Dm7 Three-part guide tone framework in light swing jazz style. 7 3 ˙ œ œ œ œ w 7 3 &b œ œ œ œ ˙ ?b 3 ˙ œ œ œ œ œ œ ‰ j œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ w 7 3 œ œ w œ œ œ œ Jazz Theory Resources . The lines are rhythmically independent: when one moves the other is stationary creating dialog between the upper voices. The melodic rhythms anticipate downbeats. putting the guide tone notes on the upbeats. The bass line walks quarter notes making sure each new root is approached stepwise. The two lines take turns moving the music forward.89 Harmonic Specificity Three-part guide tone framework without “style” Gm 7 &b &b Dm7 w 7 w 3 C7 w 7 Fm aj7 B bmaj7 E ø7 A7 Dm w 3 w 7 w 3 w 7 w 3 w 3 w 7 w 3 w 7 w 3 w w 7 #w 3 w w 7 ?b c w w w w w w Adding characteristic stylistic elements can make this framework swing. Only diatonic scale notes are used for elaboration. includes rhythmic anticipation & diatonic embellishments Gm7 j ‰ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ Œ 7 3 &b Ó C7 Ó ‰ œj œ œ œ œ œ œ Ó 7 3 Fm aj7 &b œ œ œ œ ˙ ?b œ &b Ó B bmaj7 3 3 ˙ œ œ œ ‰ œj ‰ œj œ œ œ œ ˙ œ 7 3 ˙ œ œ œ Dm ‰ œj œ œ 7 3 œ œ œ œ œ A7 3 œ œ œ E ø7 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œj œ .220 Chapter 9 9.

rather it insists they must be able to identify consonant and dissonant notes. 9. When the seventh of one chord is held into the next measure it becomes the dissonant fourth.Chapter 9 Harmonic Specificity 221 AVOID NOTES? The guide tones have all been shown with whole and half notes as if they must occur on a downbeat. The rhythmic activity moves from one voice to the next and only in the last two measures are they active at the same time. This was just for illustration. Given the opportunity. This creates the ancient device known as a suspension. The students know the notes are dissonant. these “avoid” notes actually propel the music forward. or how the gravitational force of a planet can be used to help catapult a spacecraft like a slingshot. When they are delayed. think of them as paths pointing towards the consonant notes. they may be just the ones to aim for in order to achieve forward linear motion. The musical examples have shown that there is much flexibility about where the guide tones occur in actual melodic settings. So rather than “avoid” notes that are dissonant. Avoid notes are taken to the limit in this next setting based on the framework illustrated in ex. the “avoid” note that pulls to the harmonically clear third. Are there notes to avoid? This list of “avoid” notes usually includes the fourth degree over a major chord. the classification of a note may change. The guide tones are often anticipated in a jazz swing style. This scenario was probably what led many educators to the term “avoid” notes. but are not yet adept at finding the note in real time. So rather than avoid those notes. as illustrated in ex. A book could be filled with common examples of improvisations and compositions that prove this wrong. some dissonant (related diatonic pitches) and others even more dissonant (the remaining chromatic pitches). but not equally. Panic usually wins and the “wrong” note is left hanging in the air. The bass pattern helps create a Bossa style. First learn the tones that clarify the harmonic setting and then learn the notes which create tension and motion that point back to those consonant tones. Visit a beginning improvisation class and you will hear many lines that stop on these “avoid” notes. The resolution to each guide tone note is delayed because the upper neighbor tones to the guide tones occur on the downbeat.90. The tensions they create are like the tension of a bow that propels the arrow. There is a 4-3 suspension in every measure. the pitches that may occur on downbeats are often what some jazz educators have called “avoid” notes. The dissonance on each downbeat propels the music forward. they usually can sing or play the correct resolution. they can hear the harmonic conflict. It would not be desirable to leave arbitrary dissonances scattered around like dirty laundry on a dorm room floor. they are just too inexperienced to know which way to go to resolve them and so they stop. Jazz Theory Resources . 9. some are consonant (chord tones). Because of the pitch hierarchy.89. The third of a major chord must be recognized as the consonant goal note for harmonic clarity and that chromatic pitches a half step above (the “avoid” note fourth) and the chromatic note below (the leading tone) are dissonances that can be used as pointers. But the use of these dissonance. This does not excuse the improviser or composer from any responsibility. and they may also be delayed. The dissonant tones are pointers that propel the music forward to the consonant tones. and realize that as the harmony progresses. It would be better and more accurate with actual performance practice to explain that all twelve pitches work at any time.

œj ˙ ?b &b ˙ B bm aj7 ∑ (4) œ. Since Bb is in the bass and D is in the top voice.D . The third of the F would not be a good choice in the second measure: it would necessitate a leap from the D. A Bb triad includes the notes Bb . œ œ œ. ‰ œj œ œ œ.222 Chapter 9 9. Guide tone lines can be found when the chords move in ways other than cycles of fifths. The top line follows the bass line at the interval of a third.92 Three-part guide tone framework without “style” F/A Bb E bmaj7 & bb b w w w Gm 7 w Dm/F G7 Cm w w w w w w w nw ˙ ˙ w w w w w w &b w w w w ? b c w b Jazz Theory Resources . œ œ J E ø7 3 œ ‰ jœ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ œ (7) (4) 3 j œ œ œ. œ (4) ˙ œ œ. œ J ˙ A7 ˙ œ œ. The step motion continues the for the entire top guide tone line. œ œ (7) (4) j #œ ˙ j œ œ 3 œ œ œ ˙ œ œ. The Dn over the Bb establishes the major triad. Dm ‰ jœ œ œ j œ œ j œ ˙ 3 (7) 3 œ ‰ jœ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ œ 3 (7) (4) 3 œ &b œ œœœ˙ ?b . F is the logical choice to begin the middle voice.F. The middle voice does finally arrive at the same pitch as the bass line at the conclusion of the phrase. This progression includes several types of root motion and chord inversions. (7) (4) œ œ œ œ œ œ. œ ˙ J j œ œ 3 j œ œ œ œ. œ ˙ œ J (7) (4) 3 Gm7 C7 ˙ ‰ jœ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ œ 3 3 (7) (4) Fm aj7 & b Ó ‰ œj œ œ œ . The middle voice does not need to move between the first and second and third and fourth measures.91 Harmonic Specificity Three-part guide tone framework in bossa style. 9. includes rhythmic delays creating 4-3 suspensions &b ∑ Dm7 Ó ‰ j œ œ œ. and it would be redundant to double the bass note. The logical resolution of the D is to the Cn because of the smooth stepwise motion. Singing the second line illustrates why it must end the way it does as the Bn points up to the C. The middle voice can be deduced by finding what notes remain after the top and bottom lines have been determined.

Write out. These lines will be musically effective with any combination of instruments. œ œ J œ ? b c b E bm aj7 œ. Using the guide tone lines write out elaborated versions over selected progressions. sing and play guide tone lines over new tunes as part of practice. Both of these important identifying pitches occur in the melodic material. The guide tones are rhythmically anticipated as one would expect in a jazz style. œ œ œ J b j &b Œ ‰ œ œ œ œ œ &b b ˙. The rhythmic activity of the two lines alternate. œ œ œ J G7 ‰ œj œ œ œ w œ. The F is held from the G7 measure in the top voice creating a 4-3 suspension.92 can be brought to life by adding musical stylistic elements as shown below. • • • • Write out. œ œ J ‰ j œ œ œ œ œœ œ. Use the guide tone lines as vehicle for improvisation over selected progressions.93 Three-part guide tone framework in light swing jazz style. The Bn is held over in the middle voice delaying its resolution to C. The bass line suggests a light two-beat swing that develops into a four beat swing. Save the complicated ideas for the development of the guide tone lines. Defining the consonant notes will also help determine the dissonant notes. requires the Ab from the key signature of C minor and the leading tone Bn. The last two resolutions are delayed until the final measure. œ Cm œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ ˙ œ œ œ œ w nœ œ w œ w ? b œ œ b œ œ nw œ œ œ ‰ j nœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES When writing out a guide tone lines the most basic line may be the best. sing and play guide tone lines over standard progressions like those in chapter 7. Jazz Theory Resources . 9. Bb & bb b Œ œ œœ w œ œ #œ ˙ F/A Gm7 Œ œœœœœœ w Dm/F &b œœ w œ. Strive for step progression and harmonic clarity. The D is surrounded by its diatonic upper neighbor tone and chromatic lower neighbor tone.Chapter 9 Harmonic Specificity 223 The framework in ex. 9. as V7/ii. The G7. The F is approached with its upper neighbor tone.

The outlines are also part of the collective musical vocabulary that carries a sociological identification: being conversant with the outlines helps identify one as knowing the language. Sometimes several students would bring in almost identical lines from musicians playing different instruments from different time style periods. On the contrary. we would extract basic principles of music from the examples. all of the examples seem to fit into three categories or shapes based on the same three basic skeletal frameworks. Hundreds of musical examples can have the same basic outlines and still retain their individual musical identity. The outlines are a given over any harmonic progression. 1. Melodic lines can address the voice leading principles and (vertical) harmony will be experienced as a result of linear melodic motion. and yet can express many diverse ideas. Musicians can stamp the outlines with their unique personality. Many sentences share the same structure and parts of speech. The structural simplicity of the outlines allows the improviser/composer much room for developing them in their own personal way. The outlines are obviously not the only valuable material available as building blocks for constructing musical lines. I asked students to bring in short jazz transcription examples. Thousands of musical lines based on the same basic outlines can each sound completely unique because different types of musical devices can be used in their development. While it is valuable to understand chords in this way. we experience music as it happens over time as a linear phenomenon. Chords are spelled up from the bass or voiced down from the soprano. They are the linear equivalent of knowing the chords to a piece.224 Chapter 10 Common Melodic Outlines X. Outlines are plentiful in the be-bop jazz vocabulary. I call these skeletal frameworks outlines . Outlines are harmonically specific lines which connect chords through guide tones. They are excellent tools for teaching beginning improvisers for several reasons: LINEAR HARMONY Jazz Theory Resources . This is comparable to discovering that thousands of doors and windows are rectangular. When melodic lines address the important chord tones (the tones that identify the chord qualities) and then move towards dissonant tones (the tones that move one chord to the next like sevenths and ninths) the result is linear harmony. There are entire solos by Clifford Brown based on nothing but outline no. Examples of outlines can be found in any musical style period that uses traditional harmonic progressions. All of them followed the principles of linear harmony: consonant notes (usually thirds) in rhythmically significant places leading to dissonances (sevenths) which resolved to consonant notes again. In one of my first teaching experiences with an improvisation class. After a very short time. Knowing them gives a sense of harmonic direction to improvised or composed melodies. trimmed and decorated in many styles from simple to ornate. knowing them should inspire creativity. These three simple melodic frameworks that occur so often deserve their own section in this book. but can be finished. Knowing the outlines should not in any way stifle creativity. usually over the measure line. As a class. COMMON MELODIC OUTLINES Harmony is often explained as a vertical entity.

gives students another vehicle to learn their instruments. Comprehensive Technique for Jazz Musicians. adding notes. composing and improvising. This includes rhythmic displacement. augmentation. and suggest ways to incorporate them into ear-training. Thinking about each individual chord and scale leads to the opposite: thinking about where they are and not where they are going. and Billy’s dotted line represents the improvised embellished jazz line that does not want to miss out on any of the best things. their construction. For those who want more on the subject. We can imagine as their walk continues. passing tones. explanations and exercises in my book on outlines. This cartoon may help to visualize the concept of outlines. Outlines enhance the learning process by adding the dimension of melodic direction students can learn and apply all types of devices for melodic invention and embellishment using the outlines as a point of departure.Chapter 10 Common Melodic Outlines 225 • • • • • • • students learn melodic patterns. If the entrance and exit to the park represent the single guide tones. Billy’s line and his grandmother’s line intersect and the entrance and exit to the park and may intersect at places within the park. It is not hard to translate these scenarios into musical terms. that there will be times that Billy reaches a rendezvous point ahead of his grandmother and at other times may be late and have to run to catch up. chromatic approaches. Practicing scales and arpeggios is absolutely necessary for students to learn their instruments. sequencing. offer examples from many artists and style periods. and hundreds of exercises and applications in my book. the large dotted-line (grandmother’s path) represents the basic unembellished outline that connects them. octave displacement. fragmentation and other musical developmental techniques. not just scales and arpeggios students learn the connections between the chords students move away from thinking root to root approaches to harmony students hear the harmony by isolating the tones that clearly define the chords and the tones that clearly define the motion from one chord to the next students learn to think about where the lines are going rather than just where their lines are. neighbor tones. Connecting Chords With Linear Harmony. there are hundreds of examples. diminution. (used by permission) This section will explain outlines. Jazz Theory Resources . arpeggiated tones.

Outline no. 3 is also often followed by outline no. consonant notes. 3 G7 Ó D ø7 œ n˙ œ œ œ Ó D ø7 G7 œ œ œ œ n˙ Ó Outlines may occur over any chords whose root movement follows the cycle of fifths. Outline no. a dissonant tone. 3 &c œ œ œ œ ˙ G7 Ó G7 C œ ˙ œ œ œ Ó G7 œ œ œ œ ˙ C Ó Jazz Theory Resources . 2 Outline no. 1 which begins on the third. The seventh resolves as expected to the third of the chord that follows. and then adds the dissonant seventh. 1 Outline no. outline no.226 Chapter 10 Common Melodic Outlines CONSTRUCTING the THREE BASIC OUTLINES Outline no. 3 is shown below connecting the ii7 to the V7 chord in C major and the iiø7 to the V7 chord in C minor. Outline no. and then adds the dissonant seventh. Because the seventh resolves to the next third.V7 in MAJOR Outline no. resolves to the third of the next chord. Outline no. or by a 3-5-7-9 arpeggio. Because the seventh resolves to the next third. The seventh resolves as expected to the third of the chord that follows. 1 begins on the third of a chord and moves down the scale to the seventh. 2 C Outline no. The seventh. OUTLINES OVER V . OUTLINES OVER ii7 . outline no.I Outline no.V7 in MINOR Outline no. 2 is often followed by outline no. 2 begins with the 1-3-5 arpeggio. Outline no. 3 G7 Ó Dm7 œ ˙ œ œ œ Ó Dm7 G7 œ œ œ œ ˙ Ó OUTLINES OVER iiø7 . 1 G7 œ œ œ œ ˙ &c Dm 7 Outline no. 2 is shown below connecting the ii7 to the V7 chord in C major and the iiø7 to the V7 chord in C minor. Outline no. 2 Outline no. 1 which begins on the third. consonant notes. 1 can be sequenced through a progression where chord roots continue to move down in fifths. 3 begins with the descending arpeggio 5-3-1. 1 D ø7 G7 œ b œ œ œ n˙ &b b c Outline no. 1 is shown below connecting the ii7 to the V7 chord in C major and the iiø7 to the V7 chord in C minor.

V7 in D major! They may look the same. 3 Am7 Ó OUTLINES OVER vi7 .Chapter 10 Common Melodic Outlines 227 OUTLINES OVER I . OUTLINES OVER iii7 . Outline no. 2 Am 7 &c œ œ œ œ ˙ Ó œ ˙ œ œ œ Dm7 Ó œ œ œ œ ˙ Dm7 Ó Outlines work when connecting diatonic chords with secondary dominants.ii7 or i . 3 A7 Em 7 A7 & c œ œ œ œ #˙ Ó œ #˙ œ œ œ Ó œ œ œ œ #˙ Ó Jazz Theory Resources . 1 Fmaj7 B ø7 Outline no.IV Outline no. 1 Cmaj7 Outline no. 2 Em7 Outline no. Fn would be the expected passing tone between G and E.V7/ii Do not confuse this Em7 . 1 Em7 A7 Outline no.iiø7/vi) Outline no. 2 Fmaj7 Cm aj7 Fmaj7 Outline no. 3 Cm aj7 &c œ œ œ œ ˙ Ó œ ˙ œ œ œ Outline no. With Em7 as a iii7 chord in C major. an F# would be expected.viiø7 (IV .V7/ii) in C major with the ii7 . Not all minor seventh chords are ii7 chords even if followed by a dominant. In D major. 3 B ø7 Fm aj7 B ø7 Fmaj7 &c œ œ œ œ ˙ Ó œ ˙ œ œ œ Ó œ œ œ œ ˙ Ó OUTLINES OVER iii7 . 2 Ó œ œ œ œ ˙ Fm aj7 Ó OUTLINES OVER IV . 1 Am 7 Dm 7 Ó œ ˙ œ œ œ Ó œ œ œ œ ˙ Outline no. 3 Am 7 Em 7 Am 7 &c œ œ œ œ ˙ Outline no. 1 Em7 Am7 Outline no.iv7 Outline no. 2 Em7 Outline no.vi7 Outline no.A7 (iii7 . but will create completely different expectations.

3 Cm aj7 (Em7) Am 7 &c œ œ œ œ ˙ Ó œ ˙ œ œ œ Ó œ œ œ œ ˙ Ó Imagine the Am7 as a Cmaj7 to change the root progression to downward fifths and then apply the outlines. the same principles can apply: imagine a chord that changes the root progression to descending fifths. 2 Cm aj7 (Em7) Am 7 Outline no. 2 F G7 (Dm7) Outline no. 1 Cmaj7 (Em7) Am7 Outline no. 1 F (Dm7) G7 Outline no.V Outline no. Jazz Theory Resources . Em7 is not that different than C major. C to Am7 could be Em7 to Am7 and then the outlines are easy to apply.V7/iii Outline no. 1 Fmaj7 B7 Outline no. OUTLINES OVER I . 2 Fmaj7 Outline no. OUTLINES OVER IV . a IV . 2 Am 7 Outline no.V progression does not follow the cycle of fifths progression. The notes of a Cmaj7 chord are the 3-5-7-9 notes of Am.228 Chapter 10 Common Melodic Outlines The root progression from IV to the V7/iii is down a diminished fifth but still follows the cycle of fifths. OUTLINES OVER IV . 3 B7 Fm aj7 B7 & c œ œ œ œ #˙ Ó œ #˙ œ œ œ Ó œ œ œ œ #˙ Ó OUTLINES OVER vi7 . Imagining a Dm7 (ii7) instead of the F (IV) allows the insertion of the outlines. F to G.vi Outline no. 1 Am 7 D7 Outline no. 3 F G7 (Dm7) &c œ œ œ œ ˙ Ó œ ˙ œ œ œ Ó œ œ œ œ ˙ Ó When the progression moves down in thirds. Dm7 and F are clearly related and this substitution will sound good. 3 D7 Am7 & c œ œ œ œ #˙ Ó œ œ #˙ œ œ Ó œ œ œ œ #˙ D7 Ó Will the outlines work if the chords do not follow the cycle of fifths? Often they work if a chord is imagined that would make the progression follow the cycle of fifths.V7/V Outline no. in fact the notes of Em7 are the 3-5-7-9 of the C major seventh chord.

but this one from Charlie Parker. including pages of exercises and applications.V7 Outline no. Make sure that all necessary accidentals are addressed in the basic structure and in any embellishment of the outline. There is also a chapter devoted to outlines in the book. but it remains a useful vehicle for connecting the chords. 10. 1 D7 G7 Outline no.V7 . SIMPLE SETTINGS Tom Harrell used outline no. The excerpts begin with simple and move to more complex examples.IV or i . 1 Outline no. 3 Am7 (Cmaj7) œ &c œ œ œ ˙ Am 7 (Cmaj7) Ó œ ˙ œ œ œ Ó œ œ œ œ ˙ Fm aj7 Ó Alterations of chords including chains of secondary dominant chords do not change the principles of outlines construction. 2 Fm aj7 Am7 (Cmaj7) Fm aj7 Common Melodic Outlines 229 Outline no.2. 1 Outline no. Connecting Chords With Linear Harmony. 1 over ii7 . There are hundreds of other outline examples shown in the book. 10. 1 begins on the third of a chord and moves down the scale to the seventh.VI Outline no. 3 D7 G7 & c #œ œ œ œ ˙ OUTLINE EXAMPLES Ó œ ˙ œ # œ œ Ó œ #œ œ œ ˙ Ó Here are several examples of outlines extracted from the improvisations of great jazz musicians. The following examples are models for linear melodic development techniques. The third of the Gm7 chord is chromatically approached from above through the chromatic passing tone Bn. is in the parallel key of F minor. Comprehensive Technique for Jazz Musicians. En. Jazz Theory Resources . The notes necessary for establishing the key are all present: Ab and Db from the key signature. OUTLINES OVER V7/V . with more exercises and applications. 2 D7 G7 Outline no. resolves to the third of the next chord.Chapter 10 OUTLINES OVER vi . &b c œ nœ Gm7 bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ C7 F The same simple outline is used in ex.I in F major. The seventh. and the leading tone. The half note harmonic rhythm leaves little time to embellish the bare outline by adding notes. a dissonant tone.1 Simple outline no. EXAMPLES of OUTLINE NO. 1 to connect the ii7 to the V7 and the V7 to the I chord in the following example.

propelled the line downward. The F# is not the major seventh over a G7.iii7 . After connecting to the G7 chord.ii7 in the key of F major. The line is embellished with diatonic notes that lead to the Eb and back down the to F#. Land arpeggiated 3-5-7-b9. Ab. 10. but occurred at the top and bottom of the line. 1 connected the Dm7 to the G7 and is followed by a 3-5-7-9 arpeggio. The bare descending outline (B .V7/ii . The progression is iiø7/ii V7/ii .ii7 in the key of F major.i in F minor. Outline no. 10. Fm b œ b œ œ œ C7 œ b œ œ b œ b œj c & The same simple outline occurred in this improvisation by Jeff Andrews.E) was embellished by the inverted 3-5-7-9 arpeggio and the chromatic leading tone. 10. 1 over iiø7/ii . 1 example from Harold Land. After resolving the seventh of D7 to the third of Gm7 (C to Bb). The two notes necessary for modulation.V7 . Garner played a 3-5-7-9 arpeggio.230 Chapter 10 10.2 G ø7 Common Melodic Outlines Simple outline no. The C# and Bb are necessary in order to tonicize the key of D minor. 1 in ex.V7/ii .ii7 in the key of F major. 1 over ii7 . 1 connected G7 to C. Eb and F#.F .ii G7 Em7 A7 Dm7 & c œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ bœ œ œ œ œ Œ Ó œ Diatonic scale notes were used to embellish this outline no.4 A ø7 Diatonic scales embellish outline no. 1 over iiø7/ii .V7/ii . The Eb and F# are necessary in order to modulate to the key of G minor.3 Simple outline no.5 Dm7 Sequence of outline no.V7 . D7 Gm7 œœ b œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ J b c œ œ ‰ œ œ œ œ #œ & J œ There was a sequence of outline no. but a leading tone that points back to the G before finally descending to the third of C major through the Fn. Jazz Theory Resources . 10. and they signaled the modulation at the secondary dominant A7. were not hidden.5 from a tune named for four “brothers” of the tenor sax. 1 connected the Em7 to the A7 and to the Dm7.Ab . The lowered note. There was a delayed resolution to the Dm caused by the addition of the arpeggiated En. Outline no. The Em7 is NOT the ii7 or the iiø7 of D minor or D major: it is the iii7 of C major and called for the Fn. Errol Garner had more time to embellish the bare outline. borrowing the b9 from the parallel key of C minor. 1 over iiø7 . &b c œ ‰ œ œ œ #œ ‰ J bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ J A ø7 D7 Gm7 Since the harmonic rhythm is whole notes in ex. Outline no.G . the V7 of ii.4. 10. Andrews anticipated the Aø7 and suggested a 3-5-7-9 arpeggio over the Gm7.

1 over EXTENDED HARMONIC PROGRESSIONS The harmonic rhythm changed from half notes to whole notes and Clifford Brown used outline no.V7 . 1.V7/iii .7 Outline no.8 Bm7 Outline no. 10. 1 over ii7 . 10. 1 throughout the phrase in ex.iiø7/ii G ø7 C7 F ø7 œ n œ œ nœ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ b & b bbb c œ nœ œ œ œ J OUTLINE NO. Over the half note harmonic rhythm. C œ œ œ œ œ œ œ G7 œ j œ œ bœ ‰ #œ œ nœ œ œ œ &c œ The Bb. 10. then it is easy to apply outline no. 1 with octave displacement over iiø7/iii . In this instance. The G# and Fn over the E7 are the necessary tones that tonicize the ii7 chord Am. the third of Gø7. Jazz Theory Resources . Mike Stern played a very simple outline down to the third of D7. He leapt away from the F# and arpeggiated the D7 chord with the seventh resolving to the third of Gm7.Chapter 10 10. The C was octave displaced and Brown surrounded the A (bracket) with its upper and lower neighbor tones (B and G#) before connecting to the third of D7. The F# and A are the upper and lower neighbor tones to the following G (b. If an Am7 is imagined over the F. Brown used a turn to suggest an upper neighbor tone. Dorham chose to resolve to the Cb.) before moving down the scale. The line resolved to the consonant third of G. The Bb over the C7 usually would resolve to the third of F major or F minor. the important identifying pitch of a Fø7.D7). Brown leapt away from the F# and suggested a 35-7-9 inverted arpeggio over the D7 before continuing down the scale to the Bn. The outline continued uninterrupted down to the third of C7 (resolution delayed by the neighbor tone figures) and finally down to the third of F.). 10. 1 with different harmonic rhythms E7 # & c œ œ œ œ #œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ bœ nœ œ œ œ j ‰ Œ Ó œ œ 3 T T Am7 T D7 G This progression begins with the root moving down a third (Fmaj7 .I in the key of C major. was surrounded by its upper and lower neighbor tones in ex.6 Dm7 Common Melodic Outlines 231 Embellished outline no. the Ab is octave displaced to a higher register using scale tones. The F# over the C7 interrupted the downward motion. The outline from Gm7 to C7 to F is more elaborate.8. After sounding the Bb.7 from Kenny Dorham. The Eb and Fn are borrowed tones from the parallel key of G minor and are the b9 and #9 of the D7. The Bb was surrounded by its upper and lower neighbor tones (a.

1 to connect all the chords in the following progression. The chromatic tones will not be heard as chord tones but as chromatic passing tones between diatonic pitches. octave displacement. Bach used outline no. with the Db as evidence. 1 in this pas- Jazz Theory Resources . but they were also used by some of the greatest improvisers and composers in history. Brown played an inverted 3-5-7-9 arpeggio over the F7 both times. The A# over the G7 will not be mistaken for a Bb. leaping from the third of the chord to the ninth. G minor. Gm7 C7 Fm aj7 Red Garland used the simple step progression of outline no. The Bn is the leading tone to C. the V7/V.V7/ii . The octave displacement leap usually occurs from a strong beat to a weak beat and rarely over a measure line.11 Outline no. C major. The C# over the D7 will not sound like a major seventh.I D7 &b c ˙ (Am7) ˙ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ nœ œ œ œœ œ a. the minor third. The D7 and the G7 have delayed resolutions. Garland played the upper and lower neighbor tone where the F# was expected resolving to the D7 chord on beat two. Brown used octave displacement over the Bbm7 and the Eb7. B bm7 b & b bb 3 4 Ó bb &b b œ E b7 œ œ Œ j nœ Cm7 œ n œ œ œ n œj b œ œ n œ œœœ b œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ 3 3 F7 œ bœ œ œ 3 Ab F7 3 3 3 Œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ bœ œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ nœ ˙ B bm7 3 Outlines can be found in jazz improvisations used by traditional and modern musicians. None of the chords below are diatonic to the home key of F major.10 A ø7 Outline no.V7 .ii7 .V7/V progression œ &b c œ œ œ bœ œ œ #œ œ bœ œ #œ œ nœ œ #œ nœ Œ D7 G7 Clifford Brown used outline no. The Cm7 is not a ii7 chord. The second time Brown used eighth note triplets over the F7 in order to add the extra neighbor tone embellishments. 1. 1 for the following extended progression. b.232 Chapter 10 10. The Bn created the G7 that pointed to the key of V.9 Fm aj7 Common Melodic Outlines Outline no. inverted 3-5-7-9 arpeggio. 10. The chromatic tones should be labeled using linear. and to play more notes in the same space requires moving faster with smaller rhythmic subdivisions. The Aø7 and D7 pointed to the key of ii. Below. Bach used outline no. it sounds like a leading tone to the major third Bn. The F# and Eb pointed to G minor. 1 over turnaround progression I . 11. but a iii7 chord in Ab major. but resolved instead to G7. 10. The An and Gb that create the F7b 9 chord are the necessary tones for modulating from the key of Ab to the key of Bb minor. 1 over iiø7/ii . Garland addressed all of necessary accidentals suggested by the secondary chords. 1 to modulate to all the closely related keys in Invention No.V7/ii . The rhythmic activity over the first F7 is eighth notes. it sounds like the chromatic passing tone pointing up to the D. To cover more ground in the same amount of time requires more speed. and not by vertical analysis. with leading tones. The Bn arrives on beat three having been encircled from above and approached chromatically from below.

but melodic chromatic approach tones that lead to the unambiguous minor third. Bach: English Suite No. But these notes are not heard vertically: melodies are linear.14 is from Clifford Brown and 10. These notes are not the b9 and the major third of a minor chord. Both of these excerpts followed the ambiguous chromatic portion with strictly diatonic lines. Bach: Sinfonia No.Chapter 10 Common Melodic Outlines 233 sage over an extended diatonic progression.V7 . Ex. 1 with double chromatic approach to the third of the ii7 chord A7 D ## c Ó nœ #œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ Œ Ó & Jazz Theory Resources . S. Notice the leap occurred from the downbeat to the upbeat.iiø7 .15 Em7 Outline no.i. Brown used a inverted Cm7 3-5-7-9 arpeggio that extended over the measure line and managed to land on the third of F7 and Bb on the downbeats.Bb .I .vi or ii7/bIII V7/bIII . 1 with CHROMATIC APPROACHES These next two examples contain double chromatic approaches to the third. The F# signals the change from Bb major to G minor.Eb . The progression suggests Cm7 .14 Cm7 Outline no. ## 2 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ R & 4œ œ œ œ ? ## 2 4 œ œ J 10. 1 with double chromatic approach to the third of the ii7 chord F7 Bb b c Œ #œ œ œ nœbœ œ œ œ œ b œ œ œ œ œj & œ 10. 3 OUTLINE NO.Aø7 .iiø7/vi .D7 .Gm = ii7 .15 is from Sonny Rollins. 10. 10. 10.V7/vi .V7 .IV . S.12 J. there could not be more ambiguous or incorrect sounding “avoid” notes over Cm7 than the C# and the En or the F and Ab over the Em7. Prelude œœœœ œ œ b œ œ œ œ œ œ &b 3 8 œ J ‰ ‰ ‰ J œ J œœœœœœ œœœœœ ? bb 3 œ 8 œ œ œœœœœœ œ œ œ œ œ J ‰ ‰ ‰ J œ J œ œœœœ œœœœœœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ # œ œ œ J ‰ ‰ ‰ J J œ œ œ œ #œ nœ œ œ œ œœœ j œ œ J r œ Bach used outline no.VI . If melodic pitches were analyzed vertically.13 J. 1 in this passage with octave displacement.I/bIII . Brown began on beat two and Rollins on beat three.F7 . III. Play this with jazz articulations and it swings.

G7 In ex.19 œ œ ˙ œ œ œ œ œ œ c œ & œ œ a. is a borrowed note from the parallel key of F minor. the ninth of G7.16 Dm7 Outline no. The G was preceded by its lower then upper neighbor tones. and followed the outline down to the third of Eb using diatonic pitches.21. Red Garland used the inverted arpeggio over the V7/iii . 1 The simple outline no. The first arpeggio occurred over the Dm7 was inverted and included the G# leading tone to A. The En was approached and encircled from above and below. The C# below is a leading tone that points to the D. Dexter Gordon.) down a sixth before ascending. 10. The outline in its simple form then led to the third of F. the b9 of C7. Following voice leading principles. in ex. 1 with chromatic approach to the third G7 œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ Ó œ #œ œ &c A 3-5-7-9 arpeggio led to the high Bb which began outline no. resolved to the fifth of C. 1 with 3-5-7-9 arpeggio.iii7 progression. 10. b. F# and A. 10. and borrowed b9 C7 F 3 œ œ œ #œ œ œ j œ œ # œ œ b œ œ œ œj & b c ‰ œ œœ Any diatonic tone may have a leading tone. The Db. chromatic approach tones. landing on beat three.18 Dm7 &c œ #œ œ œ œ œ œœ J œ œ œ n œ œ ‰Œ Ó œ œ #œ œ G7 C 3-5-7-9 ARPEGGIOS APPLIED to OUTLINE NO. 1 is often embellished by using a 3-5-7-9 arpeggio after arriving at the third of a chord.) or be inverted (b. Dm7 G7 Dm7 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ b. The leaps to the leading tones. which are both resolved to chord tones gave this line angularity.20. Notice that the necessary accidentals (F# & An) to get from Eb (3bs) to the key of G minor (2bs) were unambiguously placed. 1 in this excerpt from Roger Pemberton.17 Gm7 Outline no. used a triplet rhythmic figure when arpeggiating the Fm7. the A. The 3-5-7-9 arpeggio may ascend in thirds (a. Sonny Rollins used two 3-5-7-9 arpeggios.234 Chapter 10 Common Melodic Outlines The third of Dm7 was chromatically approached from a whole step above and the third of G7 was chromatically approached from a whole step below in this example from Sonny Stitt. a. 10. the second was clearly stated over the G7. 10. Stitt played a 3-57-9 arpeggio over the G7. and the G # a leading tone that points to the A. 10. Jazz Theory Resources .

1 using 3-5-7-9 arpeggios: 3 œ & c ‰ œj œ œ œ œ Œ G7 C 3 œœœœ œœ œ b œ œ œ œ œ # œ œ œ œ 3 The basic structure of ex.22 in its use of 3-5-7-9 arpeggios. Jazz Theory Resources . Garland’s arpeggio over the Dm7 mirrors the one used by Roger Pemberton in ex. 10. 10. œ œ œ œ bœ b & œ J œ 3 3 Eb Red Garland used 3-5-7-9 arpeggios to embellish each chord in ex. an inverted one over the G7. 1 using 3-5-7-9 arpeggios G7 3 œ œ #œ œ bœ œ #œ œ œ œ œ bœ bœ œ œ #œ œ œ œ #œ œ c œ œ & J 3 C The melodic shape Garland used to get from G7 to C in ex. and an ascending one over the Cmaj7.23 as shown below. the expected 3-5-7-9 arpeggio occurred. After arriving at the third (F #).20 Simple versions of outline no. Garland then used a 3-5-7-9 arpeggio over the Cmaj7. The line descended from G through the Fn and resolved to the En on beat two. Garland played an inverted 3-5-7-9 arpeggio with the borrowed b9.20 and 10. 10.21 Fm7 B b7 b c bœ œ œ ‰ œ œ œ œ .22 Dm7 Outline no.23 is similar to the 10.Chapter 10 10. In this excerpt the directions were reversed: the first measure had the inverted and the second measure the ascending arpeggios. 10.22. inverted this time. 10. 10.22 is identical to the shape he used to get from D7 to G7 in ex. Garland aimed for the third of D7 by encircling the F# with its upper and lower neighbor tones. but the F# changed the direction of the line: the F# had to ascend to the G on the following downbeat. Outline no.17. 10.23 D7 Outline no. 1 using 3-5-7-9 arpeggio: D7 Gm7 Common Melodic Outlines 235 bb c #œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ b & J 10. The Fn on beat four of the G7 measure pointed down to the third of C. 1 is still evident and is shown with the circled notes. Garland played an ascending 3-5-7-9 arpeggio over the Dm7. Is this fourth an “avoid” note? After arriving at the Bn. Notice in the previous example the arpeggio for the first measure was ascending and in the second measure was inverted. The resolution to the G7 was delayed until beat two by the suspended fourth degree. Garland used a b9 over the D7 borrowed from G minor and a b9 over the G7 borrowed from C minor.

26a from Charlie Parker was based on outline no. This very exciting and complex line in ex.A). The Gb. On the downbeat of the F7 measure. but before resolving to Fn. and the resolution on beat two added to the rhythmic syncopation.C# .23 Several devices make this Red Garland outline no. Parker leapt below and approached the F chromatically from Eb and En. 1 example interesting. It is difficult to imagine that Parker was able to spontaneously invent this melodic line at 300 bpm with out having. 1 Complex melodic ideas are easier to create and hear when they are based on simple structures like the outlines. The An was approached by two chromatic lines: one from above (C .Bb . An interesting sawtooth shape was created on beats three and four of m.A) and one from below (G .236 Chapter 10 10.22 From ex.25 Am7 Outline no. 10.24 Common Melodic Outlines Similar treatment using 3-5-7-9 arpeggios G7 C &c &c œ œ œ b œ œ œ œ œ # œ œ œ œ D7 G7 3 œbœ #œ œ bœ œ #œ œ nœ œ œ J œ nœ 3 From ex.D).20 and 10. 10.Eb . 1 with multiple chromatic tones (simple outline shown on lower staff) > > > > > > œ œ b œ œ œ œ nœ œ bœ #œ œ bœ Œ &b c œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ b œ œœ bœ œ bœ &b c œ œ œ Jazz Theory Resources . and it was approached from above (F . The chromatic triplets between the root and third of the Am7 energized the line and generated forward motion. at much slower tempos in the practice room.2 by pivoting between the stationary A pedal tone and the moving notes D to C. 1.C .Bb . 10. 10. Parker played the upper and lower neighbor tones rather than the expected A.D) and below (A . Parker leapt away to the chord tone A after reaching the Fn. 1 and 3-5-7-9 arpeggios D7 Gm7 œ œ nœ œ œ bœ œ bœ œ œ #œ 3 œ œ b œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ &b c 3 3 MORE COMPLEX EXAMPLES of OUTLINE NO. the third of Bb. isolated individual elements. the b9 borrowed from Bb minor. The final goal note was the D n.G# . pulled toward the Fn.Bn .26a Outline no. The leap created by the inverted 3-5-7-9 arpeggio on the D7 is a welcome change from the preceding tight chromatic movement. 10. Parker began as if to play the outline without elaboration and then repeated the first three notes. The repetition set up a syncopation that continued throughout the excerpt.

The line began with D. he delayed the resolution to F7 by an eighth note. Three significant pitches are approached with these wedges in ex.26b Polyrhythms implied by the melodic line Common Melodic Outlines 237 œ. ˙ b œ œ & b c œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ #œ œ bœ œ nœ œ Œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ When a single pitch is approached from two directions it suggests a wedge. 10. The step from Bb to Ab was interrupted by the chromatic En to F. the third of Bb7. 10. 1 with octave displacement and melodic wedges b & b bbb c b & b bbb c j ‰ œj œ b œ ‰ œ Œ œ nœ œ nœ œ ∫œ œ (n œ ) nœ bœ œ nœ œ œ ˙ b B b7 9 E bm7 Red Garland used a complex embellished version of outline no. 10. Not all of the target notes arrived where the chord symbols indicate on the downbeats. 1 was disguised by John Scofield using octave displacement and melodic wedges in ex.28. œ.26c b & b c œ nœ œ bœ #œ ˙ bœ œ nœ ˙ œ œ œ œ œ #œ ˙ The simple descending step progression of outline no. The Gb was approached stepwise from above (Cb . after resolving the two lines to the Gb. œ œ ˙ œ. 10. 1026a.Chapter 10 10.Ab . and finally anticipated the Cm7 by a sixteenth note. 1 in the double-time passage shown in ex. then the Cb was octave displaced. Jazz Theory Resources . suddenly jumped to the Bbb implying an Ebø7 rather than an Ebm.Gb) and chromatically from below (E F . The En is the lower neighbor tone to the F.27. œ. delayed the resolution to Bb by a quarter note.Bb . the fifth of the Bb7 chord. The angularity of the line continued to the end when Scofield. arrived on the beat for G7. the target note of the Ebm 7 chord. Garland aimed for the third of each chord.27 Outline no. The Cb resolved step wise to the Bb. He began on the third of Cm7 on the downbeat. The simple outline is shown with the circled notes.Gb). These tones ultimate resolved up to the Gb.

29 D ø7 Outline no.238 Chapter 10 Common Melodic Outlines 10. Garland used a recurring melodic figure that gave the line a sense of unity. or in order to displace the meter Garland added additional chromatic notes. Bn and G were all approached by the same chromatic four note figure shown by the brackets. The notes A. Gb. 1: rhythmic displaced and chromatically approached thirds G7 C œ bœ œ bœ œ #œ œ nœ œ #œ œ œ œ bœ œ #œ œ nœ œ #œ œ œ & The melodic line played by Red Garland from ex. Garland played an inverted 3-5-7-9 arpeggio (in box) which included the b9. 10. Bn. The brackets show the four-note chromatic figure. 10.29 with a chromatic approach to the third of the Dø7.30 Outline no. F. 10. The target thirds did not occur on the downbeats: the thirds of Dø7 and G7 occurred on beat two and the third of Cmaj7 was delayed until beat three.28: an upper neighbor tone and chromatically from a whole step below (shown by upper brackets).29 with out the rhythmic displacement &c œ bœ œ bœ œ #œ œ nœ œ #œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ #œ œ œ D ø7 G7 C Outlines are often used over modal tunes to suggest harmonic progressions where there are none. Garland played the 3-5-7-9 arpeggio of G7 in the middle of the measure. 10. The line would still interesting even without the metric contradiction due to the chromatic additions. D. The displaced target thirds create an interesting contradiction to the meter.C7 progression over this passage in G dorian.28a Double-time step-progression b œ bœ œ #œ œ œ nœ œ & b c œ #œ œ œ bœ œ œ nœ #œ œ œ œ bœ œ nœ œ œ œ #œ œ nœ n œ œ #œ b œ œ œœ œ bœ bœ &b c œ œœ œœ œ œ nœ Cm7 F7 Bb G7 Cm7 After arriving at the third of F7. The D. The Gb directed the momentum to the Fn.29 could be played with the target thirds arriving on the downbeats. There are two ways of explaining the results: either the addition of the chromatic notes delayed the resolution to the thirds which created a sense of displaced meter. 10. Randy Brecker implied a Gm7 . but Garland leapt past the F and approached it from below. 1: 10.28b Bb b œ bœ œ #œ œ œ nœ œ & b c œ #œ œ œ bœ œ œ nœ #œ œ œ œ bœ œ nœ œ œ œ #œ œ nœ œ #œ nœ Cm7 F7 3-5-7-9 G7 Cm7 Red Garland began the line in ex. G and E were all approached using the exact four note figure from ex. The F# and A are neighbor tones Jazz Theory Resources . 10.

Using the minor iiø7 .32 Outline no.Bb . 10. There was a wedge that points to the En from above (Bb . 2 to connect the Gm7 to the C7. 1 suggested in modal setting G Dorian & b c œ œ #œ œ œ œ nœ #œ œ œ œ œ EXAMPLES of OUTLINE NO. Jazz Theory Resources . and approached the E chromatically from below. 2 with common chromatic approach C7 &b c ‰ j œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ The end of the first phrase of progression no. Here is one of the occurrences as it appears in the piece contrasted with an interpretation by Wes Montgomery. 2 over that part of the progression shown in ex. Typically a iiø7 . Montgomery used the fifth of the Ebm7 chord as a pick up note.G . 10. Jeff Andrews used outline no. I to iii). When arriving at the Cmaj7 chord. 2 begins with the 1-3-5 arpeggio and then adds the dissonant seventh.V7 makes a smoother transition because C minor is a closely related key to Ab (4bs to 3bs.31 Outline no. The arpeggio.34. E . suggested the 3-5-7-9 of a C7 chord.D# .33 Gm 7 Outline no. Jimmy Heath played this simple version of outline no. 23 modulates from Ab to C major.V7 of C minor is used that would resolve to C major.E).Chapter 10 Common Melodic Outlines 239 that surround the G. 2 could be called the ‘Round Midnight outline as it occurs twice in the melody to the Thelonious Monk piece by that name.E) and below (D . SIMPLE SETTINGS Outline no. 2 Outline no.A . played the arpeggio to the seventh and then used a chromatic approach to the C.F . he arpeggiated 3-5-7-9 which cleared the musical air of any feeling of Ab major and established C as the new (temporary) tonal center. The seventh resolves as expected to the third of the chord that follows. 10. 10. 2 simple form E bm7 A b7 E bm7 A b7 b & b bbb c Œ œ œ œ œ ˙ ‰. The use of sixteenth note triplets adds rhythmic drive to the simple outline.D. r œ œ œ œ œ nœ ˙ œ 6 Over a blues progression in F.G .

2 variation D œ œ # œ œ j œ # œ b c ‰ n œ J & #œ œ Em 7 A7 3 It is a common practice to use melodic sequences over sequential harmonic passages.35b. After playing a 3-5-7-9 arpeggio. The seventh of Em7 resolves to the third of A in both cases.V7 resolving to major I G7 C Œ & c œ œ bœ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ The first note of outline no. Red Garland used outline no. why not call it a scale? It may be better to think of the chord tones being connected by passing tones to expedite the understanding of harmonic specificity.35a. 10. the ninth of A7 resolves to the fifth of D in 10. b j bœ bœ bœ œ b c ‰ bœ & A m7 3 10. 10.34 D ø7 Common Melodic Outlines Outline no. This is illustrated below over a ii7 . With the passing tones added to the arpeggio.35b Outline no. Why? That passing tone is the pitch to which the line points: it is the third of the chord that follows.36 b Outline no. The passing tone between the fifth and seventh is never used. 2 over iiø7 . 2 with available passing tones G7 & c œ œ œœ œ¿ œ ˙ Jazz Theory Resources . Voice leading is adhered to in both examples.35a Outline no.240 Chapter 10 10. 2 in sequence D 7 Gm7 Œ 3 ‰ œj œ œ œ œ C7 œ œ œ J ‰ F PASSING TONES Outline no. Sounding it ahead of time diminishes the impact of the final resolution. These lines begin with a chromatic leading tone to the third of the first chord. The seventh of A7 resolves to the third of D in 10. 2 is omitted in the next two examples from Mike Stern. 2 over these chromatically sequenced ii7 V7 chords in ex. The general shape and character of the outline is retained. 2 begins with an arpeggio.V7 in the key of C.36. The E and G are available as passing tones. but the Bn between A and C is not used over the Dm7 in order to save it for the G7. 2 variation 10. The main chord tones of the outline typically land on the strong beats with the passing tones on the weaker beats which allows the basic shape of the outline to be heard as an arpeggio with passing tones. The skips between the chord tones of an arpeggio lends itself to the use of passing tones. Outlines are ideal vehicles for sequential material. The third of the second chord has a stronger sense resolution when preceded by the seventh of the first chord. œ œ nœ œ œ # œ J b c n œ & #œ œ Em7 A7 D 10.37 Dm7 Outline no.

2 with LTs followed by outline no. They belong to the C7 chord. and a chromatic approach to the anticipated third of the C7 chord. Brown delayed the start of the outline and did not get to the Bn. It would be foolish to analyze the E-G-Bb-Db as notes vertically related to the F chord. 10. as lowered tones create a downward pull and help the line move back down to the En. and created a delayed resolution to F. The E-G-BbD b arpeggio in the final measure were unresolved notes of the C7 chord.C7. and resolves to the En. This F# did not harmonically suggest a G minor chord with a major seventh. He then descended using outline no. 10. Parker continued sequencing the chromatic passing tone idea. In neither example was the third of the second chord prematurely played. with an Fn on the top.38 Gm7 Outline no. In ex. 2 with passing tones C7 œ œ Œ Ó &b c Œ œ œ œ œ œ 10. The borrowed tones. 1 for Gm7 . 1 C7 F 3 œ œ & b c ‰ # œj œ œ œ œ # œ œ # œ œ n œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ b œ œ œ Œ 3-5-7-9 ARPEGGIOS A leading tone can become a lower neighbor tone when preceded and followed by the chord tone. Note that Bn was not used as a passing tone over the Dm7 between the A and C. Ab and Bb. the b9 and b9 of the G7 chord. but saved for the G7 chord.39. 10. 2 with LNT inverted 3-5-7-9 arpeggio and borrowed tones G7 3 C & c œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ bœ œ œ œ œ Œ Ó Jazz Theory Resources . Parker suggested outline no.Chapter 10 Common Melodic Outlines 241 These two excerpts from improvisations by Clifford Brown illustrate the use of passing tones and outline no.40 Gm7 Outline no. Outline no. the logical end of the outline no. At the second bracket. 2 with passing tones followed by outline no.39 Dm7 Outline no. it functioned melodically as a leading tone. After arriving at the Bn. the identifying note of the G7 chord until beat two. 10. Clifford Brown embellished outline no. Charlie Parker began this line with a leading tone to the G. 2 followed with the Gm7 arpeggio. 2 using a lower neighbor tone and passing tones. 2. 1 and chromatically approached the third of C.41 Dm7 Outline no. 1 idea. Brown played an inverted 3-5-7-9 arpeggio borrowing the Ab and Bb from the parallel key of C minor. 1 G7 C &c Ó œ œ œ œ bœ œ Œ Ó œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ LOWER NEIGHBOR TONE (LNT) or LEADING TONE (LT) CHROMATICISM Chromatic notes can add interest to any melodic line.

it is not. 1. 1 over iii7 . 2 followed by outline no. The G. The D7 is the V7 of G minor. 2 leads to the starting note of outline no. An A# leading tone precedes the Bn. 2 followed by outline no. The Am7 is not a ii7 of G. anticipated G7 by a beat and played the Cmaj7 on time. 10. and that is where Garland began his line. not G major. 1 is a natural choice to follow outline no.V7 . There was an interesting contradiction in harmonic rhythm between what the chords indicated and what Garland played in ex. The C# is not a major seventh over a dominant chord.G and D . Outline no. 1 connected C7 to Fm7.V7/V progression D7 G7 3 œ œ #œ bœ œ #œ œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ b c œ n œ œ œ œ & œ #œ œ Garland again used outline no.E. The proof is in the chosen melodic notes.F .43. 2 followed by outline no. E and Cn were approached from below through chromatic leading tones.V7/V. 10. The Cn is the dissonant seventh of D7 that points to the third of G. The C7 and Fm7 were anticipated and Garland played a 3-5-7-9 arpeggio over both chords after landing on the third.G . and the G7 chord is anticipated by one beat.V7/ii . The characteristic 3-57-9 inverted arpeggio begins outline no. Garland illustrates this in the following example. Garland also used a 3-5-7-9 arpeggio on the Cmaj7 chord. It is important to understand that while this may look like a ii7 . 2 in this Red Garland excerpt. but a linear melodic chromatic tone leading to the D. 1 in the following examples. as evidenced by the Eb. The A began outline no. five beats of G7 and then back to four for Cmaj7. 10.D# . Garland began Dm7 late on beat two. Outline no. The outlines are indicated by the two brackets. the upper neighbor tone to A is B b. 10. the chromatic approach figures F . Garland implied the harmonic rhythm of two beats of Dm7. 1 including 3-5-7-9 arpeggios G7 C 3 & c Œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ bœ œ #œ œ nœ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ Garland again used outline no. by the use of the Bn.V7/ii .42. The inverted 3-5-7-9 arpeggio. 2 followed by outline no. The A was approached above and below through the chromatic leading tone G#. Outline no. In F. 2. an En was added which allowed the F# to land on the downbeat.42 Dm7 3 Outline no.242 Chapter 10 Common Melodic Outlines Outline no. 1 from G7 to C. The Bn was preceded by its leading tone and began Jazz Theory Resources .43 Am7 Outline no. which instead of being a Gm7 chord.F# .I in G. 2 connected Gm7 to C7 and outline no.E all help the listener hear the simple outline by pointing out the step progression on the top of the line.44 Gm 7 Outline no.Ab . 2 is simply stated in the first measure. 1 in ex. The chord symbols implied a harmonic rhythm of whole notes: four beats per chord. The progression is iii7 . the V7 of C. 1 is the step line Bn . 10. is made a G7. but a iii7 from the key of F. 2 since no. 1 including 3-5-7-9 arpeggios C7 Fm 3 & œ #œ œ bœ œ œ #œ œ bœ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ j b œ n œ b œ œ bœ œ nœ œ œ bœ bœ ‰ bœ œ The third of Dø7 was approached chromatically from above and then the line moved down to the root to begin outline no. 2 followed by outline no.

in order to change the direction of the line. the third of F.) C7 & œ bœ 10.S. 2 was suggested even though the triad arpeggio descended rather than ascended.S. or chromatic elaboration of static harmony. and could be credited to thousands of artists.H is in this Sonny Rollins line. 3 Outline no.E. and used outline no.H. 2 to connect Gm7 to C7. This chromatic line begins on the root of the ii7 chord and moves chromatically through the major and minor seventh resolving to the third of the V7 chord. 1047 from Errol Garner. because there is little time for embellishment. Outline no.E. 2 and common chromatic line & j ‰ œ nœ ‰ œ ‰ œ J J œ bœ œ bœ œ #œ œ Cm7 F7 EXAMPLES of OUTLINE NO. Garner suggested outline no. 1 to clearly connect C7 to F.48 Outline no.H.S. patterns. Garner suggested a commonly used chromatic line to get from G to E. This is the most common of many possible C.46 Gm 7 Outline no. Jerry Coker calls this movement a C. 2 followed by outline no. used the F# to pull back up to the G before going down the Fn which pointed and resolved to the E. 3 begins with the descending arpeggio 5-3-1 and then adds the dissonant seventh. 10.E. Improvisers often rely on the basic outlines when the harmonic rhythm is half notes.H. This kind of chromatic motion can be found on tunes ranging from My Funny Valentine to Led Zeppelin’s Stairway to Heaven. Within the outlines.47 œ œ ˙ Gm7 Ó ˙ #œ nœ C7 ˙ Ó Combination of outlines and common chromatic line F Gm 7 C7 œ #œ œ n œ œ j œ œ œ œœ œ œ ‰ #œ œ œ œ #œ nœ œ &b c A similar chromatic line or C. 10.E. 10. the dissonant notes over the Cm7 were resolved to the A. SIMPLE SETTINGS This line is ubiquitous. The seventh resolves as expected to the third of the chord that follows.Chapter 10 Common Melodic Outlines 243 the seemingly obligatory 3-5-7-9 arpeggio. 1 including a 3-5-7-9 arpeggio G7 Cm aj7 3 œ bœ œ #œ œ nœ œ œ ‰ j œ œ Œ œ œ c œ & œ bœ œ bœ œ œ bœ #œ œ Two ideas were combined in ex. Garland. Jazz Theory Resources .S.45 D ø7 Outline no. Regardless of the direction of the arpeggio. 2 Common Chromatic line (C.

1 in G 10. he used outline no. which keys should be left out of practice routines? CHROMATIC APPROACHES Chromatic notes can be added to outline no.50c and 10.50b from a line by Tom Harrell. 10.50c Outline no. Three of the keys are on the dark side of the circle of fifths (Db = 5bs. To play this music well.50a is from a composition by Jimmy Guiffre. & Gb = 6bs or F# = 6#s).51 Outline no. delayed resolution. students must play in all twelve keys. Ex. John Scofield played the same line over a vi7 .49a Outline no. 10. 10.244 Chapter 10 Common Melodic Outlines Coltrane played ex. 3 & 3-5-7-9 arpeggio in D Gm7 C7 F 10.50a Outline no.49b. 3 followed by 3-5-7-9 arpeggio in B 10. After reaching the third of D7. Parker clarified the Bb chord by playing a 3-57-9 arpeggio. 3 with chromatic approach. The Ab and Gb are the altered ninths of F7 and are borrowed from Bb minor.49a in his improvisation on progression no. If not. 10. 3 when the harmonic rhythm allows time. 3 & outline no. 3 & 3-5-7-9 arpeggio in F & #### C #m7 F #7 B # œœ œœœœœœ œ œ D b7 Gb & b œ œ œ œ œ œ œbœ œ œ 10. 10. 3 followed by outline no.49b Outline no. 3. & 3-5-7-9 arpeggio F7 B bmaj7 3 œ. 24. 3 & 3-5-7-9 arpeggio in Gb A bm7 &b bœ bœ bœ ∫œ bœ bœ œ œ œ J nœ œ œ œ œ œ œ # œ &b Em 7 A7 The six above examples are in six different keys. B = 5#s. 10.V7/V . They all used 3-5-7-9 arpeggios after playing outline no. Dark because it is so rarely visited in many practice rooms. 1 in Db # œ bœ œ & c œœœœ œœ J Am7 D7 G b & b bbb c B bm7 œœœ bœ œ œ œ œœJ E b7 A b7 The next four examples are identical except for the key. and dark because of the number of sharps and flats in the key signatures. the target note for Bb. encircling the root and playing the triad arpeggio again. but Parker reached below and approached F with a chromatic passing tone En. Charlie Parker managed to get extra notes in with half note harmonic rhythm which delayed the Bb resolution to beat two. After the delayed resolution. 1 to connect D7 to G.50d Outline no. 10. Ex.V7 in a turnaround in the key shown in ex. Ó b œ œ b c œ œ bœ bœ œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ œ J & œœœ œ œ Cm 7 Jazz Theory Resources .50b Outline no.50d are from Mike Stern. then the F and Eb led to the Dn. altered ninths. The Gb pointed to the F. 10.

H.S.H. Jazz Theory Resources . 3 with a C.S.54 Gm 7 Ó œ œ œ œ #œ #œ nœ ˙ C7 Ó A C.. J J J œ œ J œ œ. 10.E. 10.H. 10. Sometimes the addition of the chromatic device will delay the resolution to the V7 chord.52 Gm 7 Outline no. &b cœ ?b c œ.56b and 10.H. Hubbard used outline no. 3 with C.E..Chapter 10 C. 10. 1 to connect the C7 to F with a 3-5-7-9 arpeggio and altered ninths. is evident in this typical figure. Ex. 3. 3 lends itself to the C.H. One added chromatic note creates the C.S. 3 with added chromatic note C7 & b c œ œ œ # œ )n œ ( ˙ Ó The fifth of the ii7 chord is often used as a pivot note below the chromatic motion to create an angular sawtooth motion..56a is from a piece with traditional changes.G7 progression over a modal G mixolydian setting in ex.S.E. j œ œ œ .53 Gm 7 With pivot note C7 Pivot note & chromatic approach Gm7 & b c œ œ œ œ #œ œ nœ ˙ 10. œ œ #œ ‰ œ œ ‰ n œj ‰ œ œ ‰ œj ‰ œ œ ‰ # œj .E. Cannonball implied a Dm7 . The lower note may altered to approach the third of the V7 chord creating a double chromatic approach.H.55 Gm7 Outline no. 10.E. Common Melodic Outlines 245 The step motion between the root of the first chord to the third of the second chord in outline no.S. a lower pivot note and a chromatic approach are present in this line from Freddie Hubbard.E. C7 Outline no. C7 3 œ b œ b œ œ œ œ œj & b c œ œ ¿ #œ ¿ nœ #¿ œ œ œ œ Fm aj7 Cannonball Adderley was fond of the chromatic approaches applied to outline no.56c.S.

56b B bm 7 3 3 E b7 œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ œ bœ #œ œ œ ˙ j œ œœ œ # œ n œ œ œ œ œ 3 G Mixolydian &6 4 10. The bottom of the line suggested the common chromatic motion E . encircled the Bb and the G.E. Stitt began with an ascending arpeggio but by the second measure Stitt played the unaltered outline no.D# Dn . but the chromaticism caused a delayed resolution to the Bb7.57 Fm 7 Two different settings of outline no.S. 3 with the descending arpeggio followed by a 3-5-7-b9 arpeggio over the A7. 3 with C.246 Chapter 10 Common Melodic Outlines 10. Each is set in very different ways by Keith Jarrett. F Jazz Theory Resources . 3. 3 has no chromatic elaboration and connects the Bb7 to the E b.Bb . œ œ # œ œ n œ œ œ œ œ œ There are two occurrences of outline no. 10. 10. 3.H. The changing pace of melodic lines is a stylistic trademark of Jarrett and his trio. 10. Roger Pemberton used outline no. impled a C. b & b bb c 10.H. The second setting of outline no.56c G Mixolydian &6 4 œ œ œ j œ.E.56a Outline no. The longer values occurring on the downbeats relaxed the forward motion. before landing on the third of C7 and used a 3-5-7-#9-b9 arpeggio.S.A.C#.58 Gm 7 Stop & go rhythms with outline no. The long note Ab followed by a rest relaxes the previous compression and the quarter note triplet changes the pace one more time. 3 in ex.59. The top of the line suggested a chromatic Bn . 10.57. 3 B 7 œ œ œ œ œ œ 3 b œ nœ œ bœ œ œ œ œ b˙ b c œ b & b Eb œ œ Œ œ œ œ 3 The rhythms below illustrate another way to get a stop and go feeling to a line. and the sixteenths are a diminution of the outline that seems to push the line early to the Eb chord. 3 C7 3 bœ j & b c œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ ‰ nœ œ œ œ bœ œ A compound melody was suggested in the Sonny Stitt line shown in ex. Rhythm plays a key part in this example. The Fm7 is connected to the Bb7 using outline no. The triplet speeds up the line in order to reach the goal note over the Bb.

Jazz Theory Resources . 2 sequenced & outline no. Outline no. 10. 1 G7 Dm7 G7 œ n œ œ œ œ b œ œ œ nœ œ œ nœ b &b c Œ œ J Dm7 Outline no. is suggested.S. The resolution to C7 was delayed to beat three.E. 3 was suggested by John Scofield in the two excerpts shown below. C #m 7 F #7 B Bm7 Em7 & Œ #œ œ œ #œ œ j nœ œ #œ #œ œ #œ ‰ œj j #œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ # œ #œ œ œ #œ E7 A COMBINATION of OUTLINES Outlines are often used sequentially and in combinations with other outlines. encircled the root. An unembellished outline no. and ended encircling the third of A.63. 2 to connect Gm7 to C7. 2 & outline no. 1 connected the C7 to F.62 Outline no. Outline no. 1. 1 followed with an octave displacement leap to the b9 that descended to the third of B. After encircling the Bb and the G with upper and lower neighbor tones.H. the third of F#7. and played just the guide tone notes (3-7-3) in the second measure.S. however Scofield skipped over the root of the C#m7 chord jumping to the leading tone Cn (B#). Stern played outline no.61 Outline no. Outline no. 10.E.H. 3 with C. The chromatic C. SIMPLE SETTINGS Hank Mobley squeezed three outlines into three measures.Chapter 10 10. 1 connected D7 to Gm7 in the Mike Stern line in ex. 2 connected the Am7 to the D7 and was sequenced with diminution connecting the Dm7 to the G7. 10. 1 3 D7 Dm7 Dm7 G7 œ nG7 œ j œ œ œ œ œ b œ œ # œ œ œ b nœ nœ œ œ nœ Œ Œ œ & b c œ nœ œ J Am 7 In the same improvisation. The second example began as the first with the augmented arpeggio 5-3-maj7. & compound melodic voice leading A7 Dmaj7 Common Melodic Outlines 247 ## c & œ œ œ #œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ Outline no. 3. The arpeggio was repeated leaping to the m7 (Bn) which resolved to A#.E. The 5-3-maj7 created an augmented triad arpeggio.H. Mobley played a similar combination of outline no. 1 followed connecting the next Dm7 to G7.60 Outline no. 10. C.59 Outline no. 2 and outline no.S.

but so are many other musical ideas including triadic generalization. 1. 1 œ œ œ œ #œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ bœ œ œ ˙ & Em 7 A7 Dm 7 G7 C Outline no. 2 & no. 1 & outline no. 1 & outline no. 3 Em 7 A7 Dm 7 G7 C Em 7 A7 Dm 7 G7 C & œ œ œ œ #œ bœ œ #œ œ œ œ nœ bœ œ #œ ˙ nœ Outline no. 3 were used in this turnaround line from Charlie Parker. 1 and outline no.64 Outline no. 1 D7 Gm7 C7 F bœ œ ‰ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ & b c Ó Œ œ œ #œ ‰ J œ œ #œ J œ Outline no. 3 Cm7 F7 B m7 E 7 A b œ œ b œ œ œ n œ b œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ & b bb c œ œ œ nœ b b b Turnaround progressions. all of the outline combinations may be possible. 10.248 Chapter 10 10. 1 & outline no. 2 & œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ bœ œ œ ˙ Outline no. like those in the two previous examples.I. no. In an actual performance.65 Turnaround with Nine Possible Outline Combinations Outline no. 1 œ & œ œ œ œ #œ bœ œ œ œ œ nœ nœ bœ œ œ ˙ Em 7 A7 Dm 7 G7 C Jazz Theory Resources .V7 . 1 & outline no. occur in hundreds of standard jazz progressions. 10.V7/ii . Good practice time should be spent learning various combinations of outlines to negotiate the harmonic turnaround progressions. Remember that practice is to prepare for an actual performance. There are nine possible combinations of outlines over the turnaround which are shown below in the key of C.ii7 . and the very important concept: silent space. 2 & outline no. The common turnaround progression is: I (or iii7) . The chromatic motion over the dominant chords was sequenced.63 Am7 Common Melodic Outlines Outlines no.

1. The C# in the second measure was approached chromatically from above (E . 3 in two octaves. Adding passing tones to outline no. 1 or no.Chapter 10 Outline no.Dn . 3 Em 7 A7 Dm 7 G7 C Em 7 A7 Dm 7 G7 C & œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ nœ œ œ bœ ˙ nœ MORE COMPLEX EXAMPLES of OUTLINE NO. 3 Em 7 A7 Dm 7 G7 C & œ œ œ œ #œ bœ œ #œ œ œ œ nœ bœ œ œ ˙ nœ Outline no. 3 & outline no. 3 & & ## ## # & # Jazz Theory Resources .D# . 2 Common Melodic Outlines 249 & œ œ œ œ #œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ nœ nœ bœ œ œ ˙ Outline no. 3 œœ œ nœ œ œœ bœ œ c œ nœ #œ Em7 Outline no. 1 Em 7 A7 Dm 7 G7 C bœ œ œ ˙ œ œ n œ œ b œ n œ œ œ œ & œ œ œ #œ Em 7 A7 Dm 7 G7 C Outline no. 1 or no.C#). 3 & outline no. 3 This melodic line from Hank Jones is either outline no. 3 makes it difficult to distinguish from outline no. 2 & œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ nœ bœ œ œ ˙ Outline no. œ nœ œ bœ œ c œ œ œ nœ #œ Outline No. œ Outline 1 œ œ No. 2 & outline no.Cn . 3 & outline no. 10.C#) and below (B . Jones accentuated the important pitches and resolved voices as expected. 2 & outline no. Either way.66 D 3 3 œ œ œ œ œ œ # œ n œ œ œ œ œ A7 œ ≈ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œœ œ œ œ bœ œ c #œ œ nœnœ #œ œ œ.

The outlines offer a linear way of dealing directly with the harmonic motion of the progression.69 Am7 Outline no. 1 C7 œ œ œ n œ œ œ œj & b c #œ œ œ œ œ ‰ J Œ ‰ #œ J 10. 10. The first phrase of progression no. Playing unembellished outlines over the progression helps train the ear to hear the linear connections between chords. 10. mentally and aurally internalizing harmonic progressions.67. 10. the V7 of vi.68. In ex. 1. he was very specific about each chord. 1 applied to progression no. Make sure that all accidentals agree with the key signature and agree with any secondary chords that may occur. Errol Garner approached this progression in two different ways in the same improvisation. Dm7 G7 Cmaj7 Fmaj7 B ø7 E7 Am œ & c œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ Œ Ó Jazz Theory Resources . Learning and applying them in the practice room over a progression gives an improviser a fighting chance to create intelligent lines in a musical setting in real time. 2 with LT followed by outline no.250 Chapter 10 Common Melodic Outlines TRIAD GENERALIZATION REMINDER It is easy to get caught up in the details and challenges of harmonic specificity and forget that there are other approaches. In ex. but it is best to limit practice to one concept at a time. 1 is shown below using outline no.67 Harmonic Specificity: Outline no. Garner primarily used the F triad flavored with the upper and lower neighbor tones to the A.68 Harmonic Generalization: Gm 7 Gm7 F &b c &b c F œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ C7 œ # œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ #œ œ œ Œ ‰ #J œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ OUTLINE APPLICATIONS APPLICATIONS to STANDARD PROGRESSIONS Learning the outlines is an important part of the process of physically. 1. using two different outlines and an arpeggio of the Gm7 chord. Practice singing and playing this phrase. 10. All the notes are from the key signature with the G# is suggested by the secondary dominant E7. An improvisation may not follow one single outline for the entire form of a piece. Begin by writing down each outline separately through an entire progression.

attempt to add some rhythmic. 1 Dm7 G7 Cmaj7 Fmaj7 B ø7 &c ˙ Ó œ ˙ œ œ œ Ó œ ˙ œœœ Ó œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ œ Ó Apply embellishment devices to the basic outlines throughout the progression. Allegro œœ Œ ≈ œ œ œ œ œ œœœ Œ Œ ≈ œ œ œ œ œœœœ Œ ? ≈œ Œ œ œ œ œœ ≈œ œ #œ œ œ# œ œ Œ œœœ Œ Œ & ≈œœœœœœ œ œ ≈ œœ œ œœ œ œ œ œœ ≈ œ œn œ œ œ ˙ After playing and memorizing outline no. 2 connecting all even measures to odd over progression no. There have been others who have used the same progression with outline no.Chapter 10 Common Melodic Outlines 251 One popular tune used progression no. 1. &c ≈ ?c œ œœœœœœ 10. 1 &c Ó ‰ œ œ b œ œ ‰ œ œ œ œ b œ œj œ . K. 10.70 Mozart: Piano Sonata. 1 including. apply outline no. diatonic and chromatic elaboration to the basic line.74 is embellished using diatonic scale notes and chromatically approaching the third of Dm7 and Cmaj7. The line below includes a chromatic encircling of the third of each chord. 2 connecting all odd measures to even over progression no. 10. œ œ œ # œ œ n œ œ œ J œ #œ ˙ J Am7 Dm7 G7 Cmaj7 Ó Having practiced outline no. 1 to connect each chord in contrapuntal imitation below.71 Possible embellishment using outline no. 1 and also used outline no. 1 in the melody to connect every other measure. 2 is in ex.74 Am7 Possible embellishment using outline no.72 Am7 Outline no.73 Am7 Ó œ ˙ œ œ œ Cmaj7 Fmaj7 Ó œ ˙ œœ œ B ø7 E7 Am Ó œ ˙ œ #œ œ E7 Am Ó Outline no. Mozart who used outline no. 10. 1 Dm7 G7 œœ ˙ œ c œ & 10. 2 Dm7 G7 œ bœ œ ˙ œ œ œ c œ œ & Ó œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ #œ ˙ Cmaj7 Ó Jazz Theory Resources .545. 2 to the entire progression. Sequences are an excellent tool for developing single musical ideas. 10. Outline no. 1 through the entire progression.

23 is similar to progression no. To modulate to C minor (3bs) two notes are necessary: Dn from the key signature.78 Outline no. 10. The outlines are still very useful tools.76 Ó 3-5-7-9 arpeggio in all even measures/Outline no. 3 to the entire progression. 10. 3 Dm7 G7 Cmaj7 &c œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ‰ œ œ ‰ j œ œ œ œ Œ œ œ œ œ œ ‰ œ J ‰ œ J J œ œ œ Progression no. 23 Outline no. so use this as an opportunity to practice them. 23 B bm7 E b7 A bmaj7 D bmaj7 G7 C œ œ œ nw œ œ œ œ œ œ b œ œ b œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ &b b c œ 10.77 Am7 Ó Possible diatonic embellishment of outline no. 1 Dm7 G7 Cmaj7 Fmaj7 B ø7 E7 Am &c œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ ˙ 10. 3 applied to last cadence Fm7 b & b bb c œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ nw D bmaj7 G7 C b & b bb c œ œ œ œ nœ œ bœ ˙ n˙ nœ D bmaj7 G7 C Jazz Theory Resources . 3 in all odd measures/3-5-7-9 arpeggio in all even measures over progression no. The G7 suggests the progression is moving to C minor. but modulates from the key of Ab (I) to the key of C (III) at the end of the first phrase. 1.75 Am7 Outline no.79 Outlines over progression no.252 Chapter 10 Common Melodic Outlines Apply outline no. and Bn. A 3-5-7-9 arpeggio often follows outline no. 2 applied to last cadence Outline no. After suggesting the key of C minor. 1 Dm7 G7 Cmaj7 Fmaj7 B ø7 E7 Am Am7 &c œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ ˙ 10. 1 for the first phrase of progression no. as the iii chord in Ab. the leading tone. 3 in all odd measures over progression no. resolving to the En will clarify the surprise resolution to the major key. 3.

V7 I progressions in the three keys from progression no. 24. 24 . œ #œ œ œ #˙ F #7 B Œ Jazz Theory Resources .. 24 B b7 Eb Am7 & c œbœ œbœ œ œ œ œ ˙ .81 B œ ‰ bœ bœ œ bœ œ œ bœ œ ˙ . #œ D7 G Œ Outline no. œ œ & œ #œ #œ œ #˙ . B b7 Eb D7 G & #˙ . 1 applied to progression no. 2 applied to beginning of progression no. 24 D7 G &c œ œ œ œ œ œ œbœ ˙ . b œj # œ . Œ œœœ D7 œ #œ œ œ œ ˙.80 Outline no. J ˙ J B b7 Eb F #7 B D7 G B b7 Eb œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ‰ J #œ œ ‰ bœ bœ œ œ bœ œ bœ œ J ‰ # œj œ # œ # œ œ # œ # œ # œ œ n œ # œ # œ œ # œ # œ # œ œ . 10. G C #m7 Œ #œ œ #œ œ . ‰ bœ J C #m7 F #7 C #m7 F #7 Fm7 B b7 Am7 D7 œ œ b œ b œ .82 Fm7 Outline no.V7 I progressions in the three keys from progression no. 2 applied to the ii7 . 3 applied to the ii7 . 10. J Eb & ˙.Chapter 10 Common Melodic Outlines 253 Outlines useful for tunes that modulate to unorthodox key relationships like progression no. & c #œ G B œ #œ œ nœ œ œ . 3 applied to beginning of progression no. & c #œ b b œœœ œ ‰ œ œ #œ œ œ œ J Am7 10. 10. œ œ ˙ œ D7 G B Œ œ #œ œ #œ œ # œ œ #˙ . J Fm7 B b7 Eb Outline no. 24 D7 G B 7 E œ # œ # œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ œ œbœbœ ˙ . 24 Am7 bœ & c œbœ œ œ œbœ œ ˙ . B œ ‰ J Am7 œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ ˙ . œ œ œ bœ bœ .83 B Œ œ #œ œ œ œ . # œ œ # œ n œ œ bœ B b7 Eb œ ‰ bœ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ J Am7 D7 G C #m7 F #7 10.84 Fm7 Outline no.

Coltrane played a simple statement of outline no. 10. œ #œ Tom Harrell used the same outline no. Charlie Parker and Clifford Brown from decades ago. 2 simple F #7 B j & c #œ œ #œ œ #œ . 3 in all keys. Listen to the first line improvised by Coltrane on progression no. 10. Connecting Chords with Linear Harmony.87 Am7 Outline no. 10. 2 with passing tones F #7 B & c #œ #œ œ #œ #œ œ #œ œ #œ Coltrane probably practiced outline no. 2 in his solo over the same progression. Usually. 3 & outline no. 1 D7 G œ bœ & c œ œ œ #œ œ œ ˙ Ó Jazz Theory Resources .86 C #m7 Outline no. what gets practiced surfaces in performances.254 Chapter 10 Common Melodic Outlines Students often ask if real jazz musicians practice these things.85 C #m7 Outline no. Harrell adds passing tones (D# and F#) but the effect is the same. These common lines were not labeled outlines until my book. and contemporary musicians such as Mike Stern and John Scofield. but they occurred in improvisations and compositions by Bach and Mozart centuries ago. so it reasons that what shows up in performances was probably practiced. Outlines are one of the many tools practiced by jazz artists. 24. 2.

Includes b13. begin to apply some musical. Review the list and examples and be able to recognize them in their aural and written forms. Begin simply by using some rhythmic displacement ideas with some diatonic embellishments. and upper and lower neighbor tones. Progress to the use of many chromatic tones including leading tones. 1 over a ii7 .88 Cm7 Outline No. 10. • • • Rhythmic displacement Passing tones Neighbor tones — Upper diatonic — Lower chromatic leading tone or lower neighbor tone — Combinations that encircle or surround primary pitches — Chromatic approaches involving combinations of diatonic and chromatic tones above and or below target pitch C.H.V7 .S. unadorned outlines.Chapter 10 Common Melodic Outlines 255 OUTLINE EMBELLISHMENT & DEVELOPMENT IDEAS This is a list of melodic embellishment devices that have been applied to the previous outline examples. ‰ œj œ > œ œ œ. Patterns Octave displacement Arpeggios from the third (3-5-7-9) ascending or inverted Anticipation Delayed resolution Arpeggiated tones — Pivot tone or pedal tone resulting in sawtooth shape Iteration or repeated notes Borrowed tones from the minor key over dominant chords. > bœ œ œ ˙ œ > œ b œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ &b c ‰ J œ #œ œ Cm7 Outline No. approach tones. Sequencing • • • • • • • • • Once a new progression has been practiced with simple. 1 with simple rhythmic displacement F7 > > . developmental ideas to the outlines. b9 and # 9 over dominant chords.89 Cm7 Cm7 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ w œ B maj7 F7 B maj7 b Outline No. 1 with thirds surrounded by neighbor tones ∑ Jazz Theory Resources . Try creating many other melodic lines with outlines using the devices listed below.I progression F7 B maj7 b b œ &b c œ œ œ œ œ œ œ w 10.j œ Ó ∑ F7 B bmaj7 > > . b . Be careful not to blur the clarity of the outlines with random.E. unresolved chromaticism. œ œ b œ œ œ œ œ œ &b c 10.90 . chromatic passing.

2 with simple rhythmic displacement ^ >j F7 . œ œ œ ‰J œœ œ J Ó ∑ Jazz Theory Resources . A. borrowed tones and chromatic approaches ∑ b 10. The Eb.91 Cm7 Common Melodic Outlines Outline No.92 Outline No. F7 B bmaj7 > > > > > > > œ œ b œ œ œ œ œ œ b c n œ b œ œ œ & œ #œ bœ œ œ nœ œ œ bœ œ œ œ ˙ Ó 10. b b .V7 .256 Chapter 10 10.96 Outline No. 10. 1 with more chromaticism.97 Outline No. œœœœ> œœ œœœœœœ œ œ œ . 2 over a ii7 . and F are surrounded with neighbor tones. C.95 Cm7 œ ˙ œ œ œ Ó F7 B bmaj7 > > > > > > b & b c ‰ j œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ bœ œ nœ œ nœ œ œ œ œ #œ ˙ Outline No. 2 with chromatic leading tones.V7 .93 Outline No.94 Cm7 F7 >j > ‰ j œ œ œ œ œ. 2 with simple diatonic embellishment B maj7 j b &b c œ œ œ œ œ œ ‰ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ 10.I progression F7 B maj7 b &b c Cm7 b Cm7 œ œ œ œ œ w œ œ œ Cm7 œ œ w œ œ œ œ œ œ B maj7 F7 B maj7 b 10.j œ Ó ∑ Outline No. b & b c œ ‰ œj œ œ ‰ œ œ . 3 over a ii7 . 3 with diatonic and rhythmic embellishment b &b c Cm7 F7 B bmaj7 > > > > .I progression F7 B maj7 b &b c Cm7 œ œ œ œ w œ œ œ œ b Cm7 œ œ œ œ œ œ w œ œ F7 B maj7 10.

98 Common Melodic Outlines 257 Outline No. common chromatic approach to E. Gm7 C7 F ∑ 10. borrowed tones and rhythmic embellishment b &b c 10. œ J Ó B maj7 b ∑ Outline no. Thirds surrounded by neighbor tones F7 B bmaj7 . 2: UNT-CT-LNT-CT pattern Gm7 C7 F œ #œ œ œ ∑ œ œ & b œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ nœ œ œ ˙ Gm7 C7 F œ œ #œ œ ∑ 10. œ œ b œ œ œ œ & œ #œ œ œ Gm7 C7 F œ #œ œ Œ Ó Jazz Theory Resources . 1: CT-LNT-UNT-CT pattern & b œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ nœ œ #œ œ œ œ œ ˙ 10. 2: CT-UNT-LNT-CT pattern œ œ #œ œ œ bœ ˙ . 1: UNT-LNT-CT pattern over Gm and F triads.103 Outline no. These same patterns can be applied to the three outlines.99 œ #œ œ . 3 with chromatic leading tones.102 Outline no. The three basic patterns are: Combination UNT–LNT–CT CT–UNT–LNT–CT UNT–CT–LNT–CT Inverse LNT–UNT–CT CT–LNT–UNT–CT LNT–CT–UNT–CT 10.Chapter 10 10. œ œ #œ œ œ œ bœ œ . 3rd of C7 &b c j œ œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ nœ œ #œ œ œ nœ œ œ #œ œ .101 Outline no. 3 with highly chromatic treatment.100 Outline no. > œ œ > œ ‰ œ J J Cm7 F7 . > > > œœœ> b œ > > > # œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ bœ #œ œ œ #œ œ œ Œ ‰J Cm7 b &b c ∑ Three neighbor tone combination patterns and their inversions were illustrated in Chapter 4.

apply them to standard progressions. Apply them over specific points in the piece.105 Outline no. 3: LNT-UNT-CT pattern & b œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ nœ œ #œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ nœ œ 10.106 Outline no. Practicing constructing an improvisation will help prepare for spontaneous construction on the band stand.104 Outline no. Entire “improvisations” can be written out and practiced as etudes.258 Chapter 10 Common Melodic Outlines 10. 3: LT & LNT-UNT-CT pattern Gm7 C7 F ∑ & b #œ œ œ nœ œ #œ œ œ œ nœ œ #œ œ œ œ bœ nœ œ #œ bœ œ œ nœ œ Gm7 C7 F ∑ After practicing specific embellishment techniques. 2: UNT-LNT-CT pattern F œ œ œ bœ nœ œ œ œ #œ œ œ nœ Œ Ó & b Œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ Gm7 C7 10. Jazz Theory Resources .

Examine each outline and try to identify the development devices that were used. 1 D ø7 G ø7 no. 10.13-14.2 occurs again transposed to the key of C minor in mm. 19 1 œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ bœ bœ œ œ œ œ b˙ & ‰ bJ no. 1 Bb Œ œ #œ Œ ∑ Ó & œ bœ bœ ˙ 21 A b7 ˙ C7 œ bœ œ œ no. 2 in the second. 1 C j œ Ó 13 bœ bœ nœ œ bœ œ #œ œ b œ bœ œ ˙ & œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ no. Since the form is AABA and has three occurrences of the A section.1 to m. 1 D ø7 G7 G ø7 C7 no. no. 1 in the first A section. & ‰ œj n œ œ œ b œ œ œ œ œ nœ no.Chapter 10 Common Melodic Outlines 259 OUTLINE ETUDE Here is a sample etude using outlines. 1 G7 29 Jazz Theory Resources . 3 in the last. 1 n˙ . 25 j & Œ bœ œ bœ œ œ œ œ ‰ œ bœ bœ œ œ bœ œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ no. 1 Fm ‰ jœ œ nœ ∑ 5 œ œ œ œ Ó & ‰ n œj œ œ b œ œ œ œ b œ b œ œ œ œ œ # œ œ œ Œ Œ ‰ J œ no. 3 no. The basic outlines are elaborated using several of the approaches previously discussed in this chapter. Fm G7 bœ œ ˙. 1 Fm ∑ ∑ 9 no. Gø7 is connected to C7 using outline no. 1 C b œ œ œ œ œ # œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ ˙ b œ œ œ œ œ œ & œ nœ œ bœ œ no. 2 F7 17 no. 1 C no. Use this approach to create exercises that will develop improvisation and melodic development skills. a different combination of the outlines was used each time. 3 œ #œ œ œ bœ bœ œ b œ j bœ œ œ œ œ ‰ b œ & #œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ no. The exact line connecting m. 1 Cm 7 D ø7 G7 G ø7 C7 no. 2 bœ œ œ œ #œ œ . Each outline is labeled.107 Outline Etude based on progression no. and no.

D7 Bø7 . identify the harmonic motion. Daily practice is required to master any skill like this.A7 F#ø7 . Sing the outlines for ear training practice over all modulations to closely related keys.C7 Am7 .E7 NECESSARY ACCIDENTALS Bb and C# F# and D# Bb F# G# Practice singing these modulations from the tonic key of C to closely related keys and then returning to the key of C using outline no.260 Chapter 10 Common Melodic Outlines EAR TRAINING The outlines are excellent tools for ear training. their secondary supertonic and dominant chords. Learn to hear them without your instrument. OUTLINE No. 1. NEW KEY AREA TO TONICIZE ii: D minor iii: E minor IV: F major V: G major vi: A minor SECONDARY SUPERTONIC & DOMINANT Eø7 . Certain modulations will be easier than others. The following chart reviews the closely related keys to the key of C major. The outlines address all of the important guide tones. Practice the ones that are more difficult more often and they will not be as difficult. A pitch pipe can confirm if the modulations have brought the lines back to the tonic key. and resolve the dissonant to the consonant notes. Utilize driving time or walking time as ear training time.B7 Gm7 . and lists the necessary accidentals needed for modulation. All accidentals necessary for modulating from a key to its closely related keys are addressed by the outlines. 1 Modulate from C major (I) to the key of D minor (ii) C E ø7 A7 Dm Dm7 G7 C &c ˙ C bœ œ œ œ œ ˙ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ F #ø7 B7 Em œ œ œ nœ nœ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ Dm7 G7 C Modulate from C major (I) to the key of E minor (iii) &c ˙ C œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ ˙ #œ œ Gm7 C7 F nœ œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ Dm7 G7 C Modulate from C major (I) to the key of F major (IV) &c ˙ C œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ œ œ Am7 D7 G œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ Dm7 G7 C Modulate from C major (I) to the key of G major (V) &c ˙ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ œ œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ Jazz Theory Resources .

OUTLINE No.Chapter 10 Modulate from C major (I) to the key of A minor (vi) C B ø7 E7 Am Dm7 Common Melodic Outlines 261 G7 C &c ˙ œ ‰ œj œ œ œ # œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ ˙ Practice singing these modulations from the tonic key of C to closely related keys and then returning to the key of C using outline no. 2. 2 Modulate from C major (I) to the key of D minor (ii) C E ø7 A7 Dm Dm7 G7 C &c ˙ C œ #œ œ œ œ b œ œ nœ nœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ F #ø7 B7 Em Dm7 G7 C Modulate from C major (I) to the key of E minor (iii) &c ˙ C œ œ #œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ #œ ˙ œ Gm7 C7 F œœœœœ œ n œ œ œ ˙ nœ Dm7 G7 C Modulate from C major (I) to the key of F major (IV) &c ˙ C œ œ œbœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ œ œ Am7 D7 G œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ œ œ œ Dm7 G7 C Modulate from C major (I) to the key of G major (V) &c ˙ C œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ B ø7 E7 Am œœ œœœ œ œ ˙ œ nœ œ Dm7 G7 C Modulate from C major (I) to the key of A minor (vi) &c ˙ œ ˙ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ ˙ œœ œ Jazz Theory Resources .

262 Chapter 10 Common Melodic Outlines Practice singing these modulations from the tonic key of C to closely related keys and then returning to the key of C using outline no. 3. OUTLINE No. 3 Modulate from C major (I) to the key of D minor (ii) C E ø7 A7 Dm Dm7 G7 C &c ˙ C Œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ ˙ F #ø7 B7 Em œœœ œ nœ nœ œ œ œ œ ˙ Dm7 G7 C Modulate from C major (I) to the key of E minor (iii) &c ˙ C ‰ œj œ œ œ œ # œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ #œ Gm7 C7 F œ nœ nœ Dm7 œ œœ œœ œ œ ˙ G7 C Modulate from C major (I) to the key of F major (IV) &c ˙ C œ œ œ œ œ ‰ œ ˙ J bœ œ œ œ œ œ Am7 D7 G œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ œ ˙ Dm7 G7 C Modulate from C major (I) to the key of G major (V) &c ˙ C œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ ˙ œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ Dm7 G7 C Modulate from C major (I) to the key of A minor (vi) B ø7 E7 Am &c ˙ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ œœœ œ œœœœ œ œ ˙ Jazz Theory Resources .

i progressions using the outlines.5-8 mm. etc. no. Practice standard progressions using agendas suggesting the use of specific outlines for different phrases.17-20 mm. Apply newly created lines over specific points in standard progressions. no.V7 .I in all major keys Practice singing and playing all three outlines over iiø7 .V7 . 1 3 2 3 2 1 3 1 Add other musical approaches to agendas including blues material and other triadic generalization ideas. no.21-24 mm. Jazz Theory Resources .29-32 • outline outline outline outline outline outline outline outline no.13-16 mm.25-28 mm. melodic paraphrasing.9-12 mm.V7 . Write out solo etudes over standard progressions using outline embellishment ideas. mm. no. no.V7 .i in all minor keys Write out the outlines for progression on which to improvise Locate and identify other outline examples in improvisations.I and iiø7 . no. Identify the techniques used to embellish the basic outlines.1-4 mm. no.Chapter 10 Common Melodic Outlines 263 SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES • • • • • • • • Practice singing and playing all three outlines over ii7 . Example for any 32 measure form. Create new lines over typical ii .

vi to the relative minor. If a type II leads to a type I. F. The fifth of a dominant chord may be replaced by a n13 or a b13. The basics of four and five part harmony will be discussed and illustrated followed by a piano overview. Either a fifth or a ninth must be omitted.264 Chapter 11 Harmony: Overview of Voicings XI. the fifth is the third. It is useful to think of the harmonic voicings as vertical alignments of notes sounding simultaneously. Voicings are shown below in ex. but must concede to the third and seventh when the fifth of the chord is called for by voice leading. so the third pitch must be C. All voice leading principles from Chapter 9 apply to the interaction between adjacent chords. Any ninths would still resolve to the fifth of the subsequent chord. the C moves down to the B while the A and F remain. When four or five melodic voices occur at once. the ninth. 11. Both of these chord types has one of the two essential tones on the bottom. This chord resolves to a G chord constructed from the top: 9-7-3. The E. The voicing in ex. or the root could have been used. 11. Since the G9 chord is a type II. Jazz Theory Resources . 11. Following basic voice leading principles. The ninth may add color.1b illustrates the progression to the relative minor. HARMONY: OVERVIEW of VOICINGS Two or more melodic voices can suggest all of the harmonic framework over standard harmonic progressions by their juxtaposition and adherence to fundamental voice leading principles. with a third on the bottom a type II chord. The chord type with the seventh on the bottom will be labeled a type I chord. Review the fundamental voice leading principles when chords have downward fifth root progressions.” as it would be the line played by the thumb when playing these chords on piano.1c-d. The b9 and #9 pitches are associated with minor keys though they are freely used in major keys to create more tension. Any of these pitches that substitute for a fifth behave as a fifth and resolve to the ninth of the subsequent chord. Thirds resolve to sevenths. sevenths resolve to thirds. fifths resolve to ninths and ninths resolve to fifths. Ex. 11. and a brief look at arranging voicings for big band.1a-d for the most common progressions: ii7 . The ninths and fifths may be modified on dominant chords. The voice below A. The essential tones that identify the chords are the third and seventh.V7/vi . Type I chords resolve to type II chords. The line suggested by the third voice of these two chord types is often called the “thumb-line. harmony is created. The n13 is associated with a V7 in major and the b13 is associated with a V7 in minor because the n13 or b13 of a dominant chord is the third of the tonic chord and therefore the pitch which identifies major or minor. but important to realize that each voice is a result of a linear melodic activity.I in major and iiø7/vi . b9 or #9 (usually shown as the enharmonic equivalent b10) may be used. A n9. The limitations of four voices necessitates omission of one voice. either the third or the seventh. FOUR PART VOICE LEADING Three voices added to a root line creates four voice harmony. The fifth is often redundant as it is heard as a result of the physics of the overtone series. but the Dm7 would have been without the essential seventh. it resolves to a Cmaj7 type I chord. vocal and string groups. The upper part of the D chord is constructed from the top: 5-3-7.V7 . the #11 or b5.1a was created by placing the next available chord tones below the A. then the same progressions can be inverted to begin with a type II resolving to a type I and back to a type II as illustrated in ex.

II . 11.II . Instead of the ninth.I I Major d.1a.I I Major d. the ninth of Bø7 is not used. The addition of tones does not change the chord types since the new tones do not effect the lower voice. The additional tones are illustrated in the inverted progression in ex. 11. II .Chapter 11 Harmony: Overview of Voicings 265 11. the ninth is used over the Bø7 chord. II . II .2a. the third or the root may be doubled.I Minor c.1 a I . 11.I Minor c.I . The ninth (E) can be added to the Dm7 chord from ex.2b.II .II . 11.2d.1 can be transformed to five voice harmony with the addition of the previously omitted tones.I . 11.I . The ninth is still quite dissonant.2 a I . 11. 11.I Major Dm7 G9 Cm aj7 B ø7 b E7 9 Am7 b. The ninth. in this case over the ø7. blurs the distinction of the chord quality.I Major Dm7 G9 Cmaj7 B ø7 b E7 9 Am 7 b.I . I . In ex. II . In ex. I .I I Minor B ø7 &c œ œ œ ?c œ œ œ œ œ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ œ œ ˙ œ œ #œ œ n˙ ˙ œ œ ˙ œ &cœ œ ?c œ Dm7 G9 Cmaj7 b E7 9 Am 7 œ œ œ œ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ œ œ n˙ œ œ ˙ œ #œ ˙ œ œ ˙ I 5 3 7 – – – – II 9 7 3 – – – – VOICE LEADING with FOUR VOICES I II – – 5 9 – 3 7 – 7 3 I 5 3 7 – – – – II 9 7 3 FIVE PART VOICE LEADING The chords from ex.2c-d. The ninth (E) would resolve to the fifth of G9 (D) and finally to the ninth of Cmaj9 (D) as shown in ex. but voicing it in a higher register lessens the negative effect.I I Minor B ø7 &c œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ ˙ ˙˙ ˙ œ œ œœ œ œ ˙˙ œ #œ œ n˙ ˙ œ ˙ œ œ &cœ œ ?c œ Dm7 G9 Cmaj7 b E7 9 Am 7 œ œ œœ œ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ œ œœ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ n˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ?c œ Jazz Theory Resources .

OPEN VOICINGS When the upper voices are not within the range of an octave they are called open voicings. The Dm9 close type II (with the third as the lowest voice) chord in Ex. A common method to change a close voicing into an open voicing is to drop the second voice from the top down an octave.3a becomes a type I (with the seventh as the lowest voice) open chord. Ex. The chord type changes when converting a close chord to an open chord. 11. The open voicings help the listener hear the individual inner voices. II Dm 9 “Drop 2” Voicings b. The voices do not need to be static. This open voicing is commonly called a “drop 2” voicing.3 illustrates the conversion of close voicings to open voicings by dropping the second voice from the top. 11. 114d. The “2” only refers to the second voice from the top and not to a part of the chord. Close voicings have all the upper voices within the range of an octave. The close position voicings of ex. The b13 (C) of the E7 resolves to the fifth (B) before resolving to the ninth of Am9 (B) in ex. I Dm9 I Dm 9 II Dm9 ˙ ˙ &c˙ ˙ ?c ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ Harmonic passages using open position voicings should continue in open positions in order for the voices to lead properly. 11. 11.4.266 Chapter 11 Harmony: Overview of Voicings I 5 3 9 7 – – – – – II 9 7 5 3 – – – – – VOICE LEADING with FIVE VOICES I II – – 5 9 – 3 7 – 9 5 – 7 3 I 5 3 9 7 – – – – – II 9 7 5 3 CLOSE VOICING The upper voices of the previous examples were examples of close voicing. The second voice from the top becomes the lowest voice above the root in the bass. Jazz Theory Resources . 11.3 a.2 are shown in open “drop 2” position in ex. Play through the examples and sing the individual lines to internalize the sound of each voice.

which yields twelve possible different dominants (4 × 3). Some of the other alterations may suggest scales discussed in chapter 14. or its enharmonic equivalent the #11. I .4 a II . n5.1. a G7b9 or G7b9/b13 suggests a resolution to C minor. Using the fifth may be redundant if it can already be heard. b13/#5. A G7#9 will probably be spelled with a Bb rather than an A#.111).” The third and seventh.I I Minor &c œ œ œ ?c œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ œ œ œ œ œ b9 E7 b 13 c.I I Major Dm9 G13 Cm aj9 B ø7 b. p. Each of these dominants below is shown in “drop 2” open position. (See ex 6. A perfect fifth can make a dominant chord seem heavy.I Minor œ œ ˙ œ ˙ œ ˙ n˙ ˙ Am9 œ #œ œ œ ALTERATIONS & SUBSTITUTIONS for 5th & 9th Many colorful substitutions are available for dominant chords. each has a combination of one of the four possible notes for the fifth and one of the three ninths. The fifth is often omitted. must be present in order for the chord to sound like a dominant leaving the fifths and ninths available for alterations or substitutions. the tritone. its substitute or alteration which in turn will resolve back to any fifth. Add three flats to yield the C minor key signature and the G7 would yield the n5. and a #9. a b9 (minor ninth above the root).I . its substitute or alteration. and a n9. II . the b13 or its enharmonic equivalent the #5. A G9. n13. A ninth can occur as a n9 (major ninth above the root). b13) 3 – – – – 5 3 9 7 The primary dominants are those derived from the major scale and the minor scale (harmonic). The #9 is often spelled enharmonically as a b3 or b10. This is a phenomenon is known to all rock musicians who call the two note chord made of the root and fifth chord the “powerchord. Substitutions or alterations to the ninth or fifth do not change basic voice leading tendencies.I Major Am 9 Dm9 œ #œ œ œ œ ˙ n˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ œ œ œ œ œ G13 Cmaj9 œ œ œ œ œ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ B ø7 œ œ œ b9 E7 b 13 d. Any fifth.II . The fifth may be omitted to lighten the sound of a voicing. but a chord may be encountered that is labeled G7b10. or G13 suggests a resolution to C major. b9. A G7 derived from C major yields a n5. Jazz Theory Resources .Chapter 11 Harmony: Overview of Voicings 267 11. I .I . meaning what would commonly be called a G7#9). Other notes that may substitute for the fifth in a dominant chord include the b 5. The fifth may be heard even when absent due to the physics of the overtone series. #9) 7 5 (b5/#11. There are four pitches that may stand in for the fifth and three different possible ninths. b9 and #9.II . (It is rare. Knowing this helps determine the appropriate sound. Alterations may be encountered that are arbitrary or due to linear concerns. and the n13. b13. 9 (n9. its substitute or alteration wants to resolve to any ninth. but does not rule out a resolution to major.

5 G9 Twelve possible dominant chords &c w w w ?c w w w w w w w b G7 9 bw w w w w b G13 9 bw w w w w # G7 9 bw w w w w # G13 9 bw w w w w G13 9 &w w w ?w w b G9 13 w w w w w bw w w w w G7 b 13 bw w w w w nbw w w w w G7 b 13 bnw w w w w b9 #9 & bnw w w ? w w # G9 11 nbw w w w w bbw w w w w b9 G7 b 5 bbw w w w w bbw w w w w #9 G7 b 5 bbw w w w w & # ww w ? w w #w w w w w bbw w w w w bbw w w w w bw bw w w w bbw w w w w Jazz Theory Resources .268 Chapter 11 Harmony: Overview of Voicings 11.

8 Different secondary dominants replace ii7. Sing the individual lines to hear the resolutions of the colorful ninths and fifths. n5 — n9 — n5 n9 — n5 — n9 D9 G9 Cmaj9 D13 n13 — n9 — n5 n9 — n13 — n9 G13 Cmaj9 D7b 13 b9 b13 — b9 — n5 b9 — b13 — n9 b9 G7b 13 Cmaj9 & c #œ œ œœ ?c œ nœ œ œ œ œ ˙ ˙ ˙˙ ˙ #œ œ œœ œ nœ œ œœ œ ˙ ˙ ˙˙ ˙ b œœ #bbœ œ œœ b n n œ œ œ œ n˙ ˙ ˙˙ ˙ 11. Voice leading remains constant with these open position chords n5 — n9 — n5 n9 — n5 — n9 D9 G9 Cmaj9 D13 n13 — n9 — n5 n9 — n13 — n9 G13 Cmaj9 D7b 13 b9 b13 — b9 — n5 b9 — b13 — n9 b9 G7b 13 Cmaj9 &c œ œ œ ? c #œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ bbœ œ œ #œ œ b bn œ œ œ nœ œ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ Jazz Theory Resources .Chapter 11 Harmony: Overview of Voicings 269 Any of the above dominants will work between the Dm9 and the Cmaj7 and several will work between a Dø7 and a Cm9.7 Different secondary dominants replace ii7. Voice leading remains constant with these close position chords. 11. 11.6 w &w w ?w w Dm 9 bbw w w #9 G7 b 13 Colorful Dominants added to Common Cadence Cm aj7 w w w bbw w w w w D ø7 bbw w w #9 G7 b 13 Cm 9 w bw w Dm9 #9 G7 b 13 Cmaj7 w w w w w bbw w w w w nw w w w w w w w w nw w bw w Voice leading principles remain uniform when using secondary dominants and whether the voicings are in open or close positions.

thirds resolve to thirds.V7 .vi in Eb major or iiø7 .9 ii7 . the chords will alternate from type I to type II and each voice should move smoothly by step to the next. Since they are parallel chords.270 Chapter 11 Harmony: Overview of Voicings EXERCISES Writing. Jazz Theory Resources . 11. The first voicing is given. The Ab7 chord has a n9 and used the n13 as a substitute for the fifth. If the voice leading principles are obeyed. fifths and their substitutes to fifths.i in C minor. sevenths to sevenths.10 iiø7/vi . Learn the basics first and later you may wish to season the dominants creatively. œ b œ &b b c œ œ ? b cœ bb D ø7 G7b 13 Cm9 œ œ œ b9 œ œ œœ œ ˙ œ œ ˙ œœ œ œ œ œ ˙ œ ˙ œ œ A b substitutes for D7 and moves parallel to the G7. Be careful with accidentals when the G7 chord resolves to a Cmaj7 and not Cm9. In these exercises. singing and playing the following exercises will aid the understanding and retention of the voice leading principles. 11. choose appropriate ninths and fifths or fifth substitutes based on the key signatures and whether the dominants point to major or minor.V7/vi .I in Bb major b œ &b cœ œ œ Cm9 œ œ œ œ ˙ œ œ œ ˙ œ œ œœ œ œ ˙ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ ? b cœ b Specific dominant colors are requested in this exercise. and ninths to ninths.V7 .

13 Fm 9 B b13 ˙ E bmaj9 ˙ A bmaj9 ˙ ˙ D ø7 G7b 13 b9 ˙ Cm 9 w Open position key center cycle in Eb major bb c ˙ ˙ b ˙ & ˙ ? b c ˙ bb 11.11 &c ?c bbœ œ œœ A b13 b9 G7b 13 Cmaj9 bœ œ œ bœ bœ œ ˙ œœ bbœ œ bœ œ ˙ œ bbœ œ bœ œ œ ˙ bœ 11.12 œ ˙ Close position key center cycle in Eb major ˙ bb c ˙ ˙ b ˙ & ? b c˙ bb 11.14 Fm9 B b13 ˙ E bmaj9 A bmaj9 ˙ ˙ D ø7 G7b 13 b9 ˙ ˙ Cm 9 w Close position key center cycle in Eb major b ˙ &b b c ˙ ˙˙ ? b c˙ bb Fm 9 B b13 ˙ E bmaj9 ˙ A bmaj9 ˙ ˙ D ø7 G7b 13 b9 ˙ Cm 9 w Jazz Theory Resources .Chapter 11 Harmony: Overview of Voicings 271 11.

16 Four voice exercise with secondary keys w &b cw w ?b c w 11. Follow the RNA and be careful with accidentals suggested by the key signature of the secondary keys.18 Five voice exercise with secondary keys # cw w & w I ?# c w ˙ iiø7/vi V7/vi ˙ ˙ vi7 V7/v ˙ ˙ ii7/IV V7/IV IV ˙ w Jazz Theory Resources . 11.17 I w w w ˙ iiø7/vi V7/vi ˙ ˙ vi7 V7/v ˙ ˙ ii7/IV V7/IV IV ˙ w Five voice exercise with secondary keys &c w w w w I iiø7/vi V7/vi ?c w ˙ ˙ vi7 V7/v ˙ ˙ ii7/IV V7/IV ˙ ˙ IV w 11.15 b &b b c ˙ ˙ ˙ ? bb c ˙ ˙ b Fm 9 B b13 E bmaj9 ˙ ˙ A bmaj9 ˙ ˙ D ø7 G7b 13 b9 Cm 9 ˙ w The next three exercises use secondary keys.272 Chapter 11 Harmony: Overview of Voicings Open position key center cycle in Eb major 11.

Chapter 11 Harmony: Overview of Voicings 273 EXERCISES 11.12 b9 G7b 13 Solved Cmaj9 bœ bœ œ œ b nœ œ bœ bœ œ œ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ œ b œœ ˙ b bœ œœ n b œ ˙ œ n˙ ˙ bœ œ ˙ œ bœ ˙ b bœ œb œ œ n˙ ˙ bœ œ œ œ ˙ ˙ œ ˙ Solved ˙ bb c ˙ ˙ b ˙ & ? b c˙ bb Fm 9 ˙ ˙˙ ˙ B b13 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ E bmaj9 ˙ ˙˙ ˙ A bmaj9 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ D ø7 n ˙˙ ˙ ˙ G7b 13 ˙ ˙ ˙ b9 w w w w Cm 9 ˙ w Jazz Theory Resources .9 Solved b œ &b cœ œ œ Cm9 œ œ œœ F9 B bmaj9 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œœ œ ˙ ˙ ˙˙ ˙ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ? b cœ b 11.18 SOLVED 11.11 A b13 D ø7 G7b 13 Cm9 œ œ œ œ œ œ b9 ˙ ˙ ˙ œ œœ ˙˙ œ œœ n œ œ b˙ ˙ œ œ ˙ œœ œ ˙ œ nœ œ b˙ ˙ œ œ œ œ ˙ ˙ œ ˙ œ nœ b˙ œ œ ˙ b œœ n n ˙˙ & c bbœ œ œœ b n œ œ ˙ ˙ ?c bœ 11.9-11.10 œ Solved œ œ b ˙ n œ œ &b b c œ ˙ œ œ œ b˙ ˙ ? b cœ bb 11.

13 Solved B b13 bb c ˙ ˙ b ˙ & ˙ ? bb c ˙ b 11.15 Fm 9 G7b 13 b9 Cm 9 ˙ ˙ ˙˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙˙ ˙ ˙˙ n˙ ˙ ˙ ww bw w w Solved b &b b c ˙ ˙ ˙ ? bb c ˙ ˙ b 11.14 Fm9 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ E bmaj9 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ A bmaj9 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ D ø7 G7b 13 b9 ˙ ˙ ˙ w w w bw w Cm 9 n˙ ˙ Solved B b13 E bmaj9 A bmaj9 D ø7 b &b b c ˙ ˙ ˙˙ ? bb c ˙ b 11.274 Chapter 11 Harmony: Overview of Voicings 11.16 Fm 9 ˙ ˙ ˙ B b13 ˙ ˙ ˙ E bmaj9 ˙ ˙ ˙ A bmaj9 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ D ø7 ˙ n˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ G7b 13 b9 w bw w w w Cm 9 Solved w &b cw w ?b c w I ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ #˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ n˙ ˙ ˙ vi7 b˙ n˙ ˙ V7/v ˙ bbn˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ w w w IV iiø7/vi V7/vi ii7/IVV7/IV ˙ w Jazz Theory Resources .

18 # cw w & w I w ?# c w ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ #˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ vi7 ˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ n# ˙ V7/v ˙ n˙ ˙ n˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ w w w IV iiø7/vi V7/vi ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ii7/IV V7/IV w w Jazz Theory Resources .17 Solved &c w w w w I ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ Solved #˙ ˙ ˙˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ vi7 #bb˙ ˙ ˙˙ V7/v ˙ ˙ bn˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙˙ ˙ w w w w IV ?c w iiø7/vi V7/vi ˙ ˙ ii7/IV V7/IV w 11.Chapter 11 Harmony: Overview of Voicings 275 11.

i cadence will be played if this exercise is played in all twelve keys. Jazz Theory Resources .20 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ B bmaj9 ˙ ˙ ˙˙ ˙ œœ #œ œ ˙ œ œ œ œ ˙˙ n˙ ˙ ˙ œ œœ œ . .V7 . ..276 Chapter 11 Harmony: Overview of Voicings PIANO OVERVIEW There are several books on voicings for piano and arranging which take the time to go into great detail. Every ii7 .I and iiø7 ... close position voicings C9 ˙˙ & b c .. Use these examples as a point of departure and add to this base information gathered from other books and transcriptions.V7 . ˙ Dm9 Dm9 ˙ ˙ ˙˙ ˙ Cmaj9 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ Fmaj9 ˙ ˙ ˙˙ ˙ B ø7 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ E7b 13 b9 #œ œ œœ ˙ b E7 9 Am9 b A7b 13 A7 9 b9 œ œ œœ n˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ Am 9 b œœ #œ œ ˙ œ b # œœ œ ˙ b9 A7b 13 œ œ œ œ G9 Cmaj9 Fmaj9 B ø7 b9 E7b 13 b A7 9 & n˙ ˙ ˙˙ ? ˙ 11. Guitarists cannot play these close position chords. but they work well on vibraphone and piano.19 Key center cycle.. close position voicings G9 ˙ ˙ & c . Playing key signature cycles in close positions helps visualization of the basic step motion of each line. This chapter would not be complete without an overview some of the basic principles for piano and arranging voicings. 11.. ˙ ˙ ? c . Key center cycle.. n ˙ ˙ ? b c . ˙ Gm 9 Gm 9 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ Fmaj9 ˙ ˙ ˙˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ E ø7 A7b 13 b9 Dm9 b D7b 13 D7 9 b9 ˙ ˙ ˙˙ ˙ œ œ #œ œ ˙ A7b 13 œ œ œ œ œ ˙ œœ ˙ # ˙ œ b n˙ œœ œ œ ˙ ˙ bœ # œœ œ ˙ b D7b 13 D7 9 b9 C9 Fmaj9 B bmaj9 b9 E ø7 b A7 9 Dm9 &b ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ?b ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ #œ œ œœ ˙ œ œ œœ n˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ œ œ œ œ ..

#˙ ˙ Spice up the cycle with some altered dominants.. The left hand plays the root and third which resolves to the root and seventh of the subsequent chord.a are effective left hand chords that include roots. 11.Chapter 11 Harmony: Overview of Voicings 277 The top four voices of these open position voicings are excellent guitar and vibraphone voicings.. b9 and b13 points to F minor.... open position voicings ˙ & b c . the root is often omitted and only the inner voices may be played.21 Key center cycle. Many useful left hand voicings can be derived from the voicings shown earlier in this chapter..22 Key center cycle. . 11. Jazz Theory Resources . ˙ Gm 9 bœ bbœ œ œ œ œ ˙ ˙ C7b 13 C7b 13 #9 b9 Fmaj9 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ B bmaj9 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ E ø7 A7b 13 b9 Dm9 b D7b 13 D7 9 b9 ˙˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ œ #œ œ ˙ ˙ A7b 13 œ œ œ ˙ n˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ bœ œ œ #˙ ˙ b9 œ œ œ Gm 9 C7b 13 C7b 13 #9 b9 Fmaj9 B bmaj9 b9 E ø7 b A7 9 Dm9 b D7b 13 D7 9 &b ˙ ˙ ˙ ? b n˙ ˙ œ bbœ œ œ bœ œ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ œ œ œ #˙ ˙ œ œ œ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ bœ #œ œ ˙ ˙ œ œ œ . LEFT HAND VOICINGS There are many different kinds of left hand voicings used by a pianist. If the pianist is playing unaccompanied.. If playing in a trio setting with a bass player.4. ˙ ˙ ?c & n˙ ˙ ˙ ? ˙ ˙ ˙ . the left hand may play large and small chords that would often include the root. ˙ Dm 9 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ Cmaj9 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ Fmaj9 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ B ø7 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ E7b 13 b9 œ œ œ b E7 9 Am9 b A7b 13 A7 9 b9 œ œ œ ˙ ˙ ˙ n˙ ˙ Am9 bœ #œ œ ˙ ˙ A7b 13 œ œ œ #˙ ˙ E7b 13 b9 b9 Dm9 G9 Cmaj9 Fmaj9 B ø7 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ œ #œ œ ˙ ˙ œ œ œ ˙ n˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ bœ œ œ b A7 9 œ œ œ . open position voicings G9 ˙ & c .. The notes in the bass clef of example 11. . n ˙ ˙ ˙ ? b c . but is interesting when used to resolve to F major. A C7 with a #9.

26 illustrates how changing the chord pattern to a I . If the II . The chord pattern is type II .24 Left hand chords with roots G13 ˙ &c ˙ ˙ ?c ˙ ˙ Dm9 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ Cmaj9 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ Dm 9 G13 Cmaj9 ’ ’ ’ ’ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ’ ’ ’ ’ w w Pianist tend to leave off the root when playing with a bass player. The dark notes in the first measure below are extracted for the left hand. 11. These rootless voicings assume the listener hears or can imagine the roots of the chords. 11. 11. These are the opposite of those in ex.II pattern.4a.278 Chapter 11 11.25 Left hand chords without roots: II . The solution is to keep the voicings centered between Eb in the bass clef and G above the staff.1c.I .II pattern were transposed up an octave for the key of F. This is not a hard and fast rule. 11.I . but a good rule of thumb for thumb-lines. The left hand plays the root and seventh which resolves to the root and third of the subsequent chord.23 Dm9 Harmony: Overview of Voicings Left hand chords with roots G13 Cmaj9 Dm 9 G13 Cmaj9 &c ˙ ˙ ˙ ?c ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ’ ’ ’ ’ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ’ ’ ’ ’ w w The notes in the bass clef of example 11. If it were transposed an octave lower.4.II . Ex. The bass player is free to play a bass line and the right hand is available to solo or add more to the voicings. These three note chords make excellent voicings on the inner strings of the guitar.I .23. 11. it would be muddy sounding and difficult to distinguish the chord roots. These voicings were introduced an octave up and in the right hand in ex. the top notes might enter the right hand range. 11.I .II pattern G13 Cmaj9 Dm 9 G13 Cmaj9 &c ˙ œ œ ?c œ ˙ Dm9 ˙ œ œ œ ˙ ˙ œ œ œ ˙ ’ ’ ’ ’ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ’ ’ ’ ’ ˙ ˙ ˙ Transposing to other keys will not always mean using the same II .c are also useful left hand chords that include roots.I keeps the left hand in the ideal range.II. Jazz Theory Resources . A basic left hand shell can be derived from ex.

œ œ .27 illustrates the voicings from ex. The piano can sound like a big band by emphatically playing these voicings.28 Four note left hand rootless chords œ c & œ œ œ ?c œ œ Dm9 œ ‰ œ J œ œ œ œ ‰ J G13 œ bœ œ bœ œ œœ œ Œ Cmaj7 œ.. There is very little motion from one chord to the next. j œ Ó œ œ œ J Ó Gm9 C13 Fm aj7 b ‰ œ. The top line may be an independent line or may be a voice not played by the lower voices as shown below... œ œ Ó J œ œœ œ J Ó œ. the E moves a half step up to F.Chapter 11 11. œ œ œ b ‰ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ‰ J w w w w The right hand may play octaves over the left hand shell. . the Bn down a half step to Bb. œ . .I pattern C13 Fmaj9 Gm 9 C13 Fmaj9 &b c ˙ œ œ ?b c œ ˙ ˙ œ œ œ ˙ ˙ œ œ œ ˙ ’ ’ ’ ’ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ’ ’ ’ ’ w w w The right hand may play a single note over the top of the three note piano shells. 11.27 Dm9 Right hand added to left hand rootless chords &c œ œ ?c œ œ ‰ œj œ b œ œ ˙ œ œ ˙ ˙ ‰ J G13 Cm aj7 œ. Gm9 C13 œ bœ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ ‰ J Fm aj7 w w œ œœ œ w ww w Jazz Theory Resources . 11.. œ. œ . 11.. The interesting motion may be in the improvised line above these chords.II . Extra notes may be added to the three note shell to make them four notes shells. The voice leading is smooth even between the Cmaj7 and the Gm9 chords: the D is retained. 11.26 Gm9 Harmony: Overview of Voicings 279 Left hand chords without roots: I .. b ‰ œ.. œ œ œ .25-26 in a typical swing setting. Ex. œ œ œ œ b ‰ .

30 Dm9 Clusters and triads in the right hand over left hand chords G7b 13 j œ b œ œ œ . At the heart of the chords below can be found the basic shapes and voice leading principles from earlier examples. œ bœ œ w . œ Ó & c . œ œ œ Œ Gm9 b C13 9 C7b 13 #9 œ bbœ nœ œ #œ œ œ œ n bœ œ œ œ Fmaj7 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ œ .. 9 and 11 of the Gm9.30. œœ œ J Ó œ w œ . root and #9 over the D7 11. The notes of the F triad are the 7. b9 and 3 of the C7 chord.. . The notes of the A major triad are the 13.. b . œ œ œœ œ œ œ .. Œ œ œ œœ ˙˙ Jazz Theory Resources ... D7b 13 #9 bœ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ ˙ œ œ .. Notes may also be omitted to create a more stark or sparse accompaniment.. 7 and 9 of the F major chord..29 Dm 9 Thick clusters and sparse left hand rootless chords G13 Cmaj7 &c œ œ œ œ œ ?c œ bœ œ bœ J ˙ œ ˙ b b b b œœ ˙ œ ˙ œ ˙ ‰ J ‰ œ.... . œ œ œ ‰ # œ . œ ‰ b œœ œ . j œ Ó Gm9 C13 Fm aj7 b ‰ œ.. ‰ A7b 13 #9 œ . The notes of the Ab major triad are the b13... The Bb triad supplies the b13. The triads are constructed of upper structures and color tones. œœ œ œœ œ œ w ‰ J w b ‰ Rich clusters of notes from may be added to both right hand and left hand chords as shown in ex. The notes of the C triad are the 5.. root and #9 of the C7 chord. 11. 11.. œ œ Œ # œœ œ œ œ ‰ œ œ J Ó #9 Cm aj7 ..3-4. triads are played by the right had over left hand shells. œ b œœ œ . œ œ ‰ œ . In mm. b ... œœ Œ b b œœ œ œ œœ œ ‰ nnœ œœ œ b œ œœ œ œ œ ? c .280 Chapter 11 Harmony: Overview of Voicings Two or more notes can be added to the three note left hand shell creating a richer foundation.. .

Chapter 11

Harmony: Overview of Voicings

281

Ex. 11.31 illustrates a blues progression with right hand octaves over basic three note left hand voicings. 11.31
F13

Blues chorus
B b9 F13

œ. b c & œ. œ .. ? b c bœ œ.
B b9

œ &b œ œ ? b bœ œ ˙. & b ˙. ˙ ... ?b ˙ ˙
Gm 9

bœ . Œ bœ . .. b bn œ œ . Œ œ #œ #œ œ bœ œ

F7b 13
9

œ Ó œ J œ œ œ Jb Ó

œ. œ. .. bœ œ œ.
B b13

œ Ó œ J œ œ œ Ó J

œ œ J œ bœ œ J

w w w w w
#9
F13

b˙ œ. ‰ œ Œ b˙ œ œ. J b˙ œ œ .. ˙ œ œ n ˙ b œ b œ . ‰ J Œ b9 F9 E b9 D7b 13 œ . bœ ˙ œ œ ˙ œ Œ œ . bJ ‰ J ˙ .. œ bœ œ bœ œ œ œ œ ˙ ˙ ‰ J Œ œ . bJ bœ ‰ bœ Œ J œ œ b œ Œ ‰ J
D7b 5

C7b 13

#9

F13

œ ‰ bœ . œ bœ . J œ b œ .. œ œ ‰ œ œ. J #œ Œ #œ œ œ Œ bœ
C7sus

F7b 13

b9

œ œ œ œ œ

œ œ œ œ œ

Gm 9 C7b 13

#9

œ . bœ œ œ . bœ Œ ‰ œ Œ J J b œ œ . œ œ œ .. œ œ Œ ‰ bœ œ J Œ J

œ œ œ ‰ œ Œ ‰ J J œ nbœ œ œ œ œ ‰ J Œ ‰ J

G7b 13

#9

œ bœ œ œ bœ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ

C7 F13

ACCOMPANIMENT CLASSIFICATIONS
The right hand and the left hand were shown in the examples above to always be acting in concert as one unit. The two hands can behave separately like two sections in a band or orchestra, with the left hand accompanying the right hand. All accompaniment patterns can be classified into one of three categories: dialog, independent, and simultaneous. It might seem there should be more than three, but the melody and accompaniment can either be playing at different times, playing at the same time but independently, or playing at the same time. A bop line in ex. 11.32-34 shows examples of the three categories of accompaniment patterns. DIALOG A dialog is created between the primary and secondary material when the melody is played alone and the accompaniment answers filling in the spaces between the phrases. The answers can be in the form of lines or rhythmic jabs punctuating the previous phrase or anticipating the next. INDEPENDENT The melody and accompaniment may be independent from each other, both pursuing musical goals that may or may not always rhythmically and harmonically agree. Independent accompaniment pat-

Jazz Theory Resources

282

Chapter 11

Harmony: Overview of Voicings

terns include the Alberti bass patterns, ostinato figures, and repeated rhythmic patterns that establish a groove including the “Charleston Rhythm,” clave beats or montunos. SIMULTANEOUS The melody and the accompaniment may act in concert, simultaneously playing exactly the same rhythms or accenting the significant points of the melody. This accompaniment category can be very emphatic and useful for climactic phrases and sections of a piece. 11.32 illustrates a type of dialog. The left hand plays primarily in rhythmic places where the melody rests. The chords jab and sharply punctuate the bop line propelling it forward. Any of these examples could easily be orchestrated for an ensemble as it is written for the piano. The top line could be played by one group of instruments (trumpet and alto saxophone) while the accompaniment could be played by another group (trombones). 11.32 Bop line with Dialog accompaniment pattern
Gm 7 C7 Gm7 C7

&b c ?b c
F
3

œ œ œ œ ‰ J

j j œ j ‰œ ‰œ‰œ ‰ # œj œ œ œ œ n œ œ œ Œ ‰ œ ‰ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ J J œ bœ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œŒ Ó ∑ Œ ‰ JÓ ‰ JŒ Ó ‰ J
3

&b œ œ œœœ œ ?b Ó

œ œ ‰J

B b7

œ ‰ œ œ œ nœ œ ‰ J J

G #°7

3

Am7

j ‰ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ Ó Ó Ó

D7

œ œ œŒ ‰J

œ n œœ œ b œ # œÓ ‰ œ‰ J J

œ œ œŒ œ ‰ J

bœ œ œ œ œ œ n œ ‰# ‰ œ
J

J

There are times when the accompaniment is used to set up a groove or rhythmic bed for the primary material. An ostinato bass line, specific Latin grooves based on the clave beat, or a montuno are examples. In a jazz style, the rhythmic pattern may be the Charleston beat or a variation where the chords anticipate each downbeat. The European conception of where these chords occur would be on the downbeat of beats one and three. In Ex. 11.33, each chord is anticipated, arriving on the upbeats of beats four and two, coming right after the backbeats. Practice playing the left hand groove with the metronome on two and four. Imagine the metronome is a swinging hi-hat playing the backbeats. The chords should sound right after the backbeats. When this groove is established, try adding the melody and playing other independent lines while keeping the upbeat groove constant. There are great examples of this groove in passages by Wynton Kelly, Red Garland and others. A pianist who learns this pattern develops rhythmic independence.

Jazz Theory Resources

Chapter 11 11.33 Bop line with Independent accompaniment pattern
Gm 7

Harmony: Overview of Voicings

283

&b c ?b c
F
3

œ œ œ œ ‰ J

j j œ j ‰œ ‰œ‰œ ‰ # œj œ œ œ œ n œ œ œ Œ ‰ œ ‰ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ J J œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ b œœ b œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ Œ ‰JŒ ‰J Œ ‰ JŒ ‰J Œ ‰ J Œ ‰ J Œ ‰J Œ ‰J
3

C7

Gm7

C7

&b œ œ œœœ œ ?b Œ œ œ œ Œ ‰ œJ

œ œ ‰ œ œ œ nœ œ ‰J J‰Jœ œ œ œ n œœ œ b œ œ Œ # œ œ n œ ‰œ Œ ‰ JŒ ‰ J J

B b7

G #° 7

3

Am 7

j ‰ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ Ó œ œ œ Œ œ ‰J œ œ œ Œ œ ‰J bœ œ œ # œŒ ‰J œ œœ n œ ‰ J

D7

The emphatic quality of the simultaneous accompaniment pattern lends itself to climactic phrases. It can be overbearing if used to often, and seeks the release of its unrelenting energy. Excellent examples of this accompaniment concept can be heard in improvisations by Bill Evans and others. 11.34
Gm 7

Bop line with Simultaneous accompaniment pattern
3 œ j œ œ ‰ œj ‰ œ‰œ œ œœœ œ œ œ nœ œ œ Œ ‰ J bœ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œŒ ‰ œŒ ‰ JŒ œ œ ‰ œ œ J J ‰

C7

Gm7

C7

& b c ‰ # œj œ œ œ œ œœ ? b c ‰ œœ œ ‰ œ œ J J
F
3

œ œœ œ

œ ‰ œj J œ œ œ œ‰œ œ J J

œ &b œ œ œœ œ œ ‰ J œ œœ œ ? b œœ œ œœ œ‰ œ œ
3

˙ ˙˙ ˙

œ ‰ œ œ œ nœ œ ‰ J J œ œ œ #nœ œ œ œ œ b œœ œ œŒ ‰ J‰J

B b7

G #° 7

3

Am7

œ ‰ œj œ œ # œ œ œ œ œ œ Ó œ œ œ Œ œ ‰ J œ œ œœ œ œœ # œÓ ‰ J

D7

œ œ Œ œœ

Using a variety of different accompaniment patterns can help generate the excitement and drama of an improvisation or arrangement. During his improvisation on Freddie Freeloader, Wynton Kelly employs each of the accompaniment pattern. (Kelly’s entire improvisation is shown in chapter 18). In the first chorus he employed the dialog approach, answering phrases with almost inaudible two or three note rootless shells. As the solo buily, he began playing his left hand chords independently on the upbeats of four and two. At the climatic point, he played the authoritative passage shown in Ex. 11.35. The left hand chords supported almost every note played by the right hand. The right hand line was strengthened by the octave doubling of several notes. He did not continue playing this style for long, changing back to the independent Charleston rhythm in the last measure. It is easy to imagine this powerful passage being played by a big band as orchestrated.

Jazz Theory Resources

284

Chapter 11 11.35

Harmony: Overview of Voicings Climactic section of blues improvisation
3

b &b c ? b c b b &b ‰ ? bb Œ

# A b9 11

œ nœ bœ bœ œ > > œ nœ bœ bœ œ > ‰ œ œ œ œ œ Œ J J J .. œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ b œ œ œ œ . œ b œ œ œ œ œ ‰ J J ‰ J 3 3 3 n œ bœ bœ œ bœ œ œ b œ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ bœ J œ bœ œ ‰ nœ bœ bJ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ nœ œ œ œ bœ œ ∑

3 œ œ bœ œ

œ œ œ

œ œ œ œ œ œb œ œ ‰ J bœ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ Œ nœ bœ
B b7

3 œ n œ œ œ bœ œ nœ œ ¿ Œ œœ n¿ ¿ œ œ bœ ‰ œ Ó J

ARRANGING VOICINGS in BRIEF
When students begin an arrangement for big band, their first concern is usually big voicings. Students will sit and search for the ultimate chord for each individual note of a piece. The flaw in this conception is that instead of thinking horizontally, they are thinking vertically. The music will eventually be heard horizontally. One student, after hearing his arrangement played, and asked why it seemed so heavy and sluggish. The sluggishness was not because of a tempo beyond the reach of the band. The sluggishness was a result of too much emphasis on voicing and not enough on linear development. Each melody note of the piece was thickly voiced from the top to the bottom. On the bottom of each voicing was a bass trombone, a baritone saxophone and the bass playing roots. It is no wonder that the piece felt sluggish carrying all that weight. This section will discuss big band voicings for the individual sections and combinations of sections, with a warning to remember that melodic lines propel the piece, not voicings. One of the best voicings for any section is unison. Listen to eighteen first violins playing a melody in unison, or five saxes, or two trumpets and two altos saxophones, or a guitar, alto saxophone and flute playing in three octaves and decide if voicings are needed at all.

SAX SOLI VOICINGS
A common device for a saxophone section is to have them play a harmonized soli. Voice leading principles are not always relevant in this case. All the voices should move parallel in order to focus on the melodic contour. Identify the chord tones of the line first, then deal with the non-harmonic tones. Voicing is done from the top down from the melody note. FIVE PART BLOCK Five note block voicings are usually conceived within an octave finding chord tones from the top melodic note down. The top voice is usually doubled in the bottom voice an octave lower. These chords are agile and can move swiftly and lightly with saxophone sections. The five note block may be opened up using “drop 2” voicings where the second voice from the top is transposed down and octave. “Drop 2” voicings are usually chosen for range considerations when a line may get too high for the baritone saxophone to blend well. The melody note will still be doubled by the tenor 2 instead of the baritone.

Jazz Theory Resources

Chapter 11

Harmony: Overview of Voicings

285

11.36 shows a Gm7 chord with a Bb melodic note. The chord tones for a Gm7 are G, Bb, D, and F. The ninth, A, would not be a good choice in this case as it may distract from the Bb melody note. Begin with the melody note and find the next chord tones below. In m.2, a close position chord is shown where the alto 1 will play the Bb, the alto 2 the G, tenor 1 the F, tenor 2 the D and the Bb melody note will be doubled an octave lower by the baritone. A “drop 2” voicing is shown where the tenor 2 has the melodic doubling at the octave. These block voicings are common in traditional arrangements. A voicing that incorporates extra color tones is shown in m.3 of Ex. 11.36. Instead of just the Gm7 chord tones, a Cn has been added for color. The chord is comprised of the G minor pentatonic scale. It is shown in close and open positions. This type of voicing may produce a more modern sound and was often used by Thad Jones and others. These colorful voicings work beautifully, but they can detract from the melody for two reasons: the extra note eliminates the melodic doubling at the octave and the extra color tones may struggle with the melody for attention. 11.36 Saxophone voicings Traditional Close
Gm7 Gm7

With extra color note Open
Gm7

Close
Gm7

Open
Gm7

&b c w

w w w w w

w w w w w

w w w ww

w w w ww

The Fmaj7 chord in ex. 11.37 is shown with C in the melody. The chord tones of a Fma7 are F, A, C, E and possibly G as the ninth. Close and open position voicings are shown in m.2 using just the 1-3-5-7 of the Fmaj7 chord. The root is usually covered by the bass, so it may be redundant in the saxophone section. Not having to use the root allows for a more colorful voicing to be used utilizing the upper 3-5-7-9 structure of the chord. The root can be replaced by the ninth (G). The ninth in no way conflicts with the melody note, and in fact may provide enhanced support at the interval of a fifth. Close and open position voicings without the root are shown in m.3. The melody is not doubled at the octave in m.4, instead opting for the extra color tone D. The voicing includes all the pitches of a C major pentatonic scale used as a voicing over the Fmaj7. This is a more colorful chord, but comes with the same warning as the one shown in ex. 11.36: it does not have the doubled melody and the color tones may compete with the melody for attention. 11.37 Saxophone voicings Traditional with root Close
Fm aj7 Fmaj7

Traditional without root With extra color note Close
Fm aj7

Open

Open

Close
Fm aj7

Open

&b c w

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙˙

˙˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙˙

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

Here are a number of different voicings for the Gm7 and Fmaj7 chord tones. The chords marked with an ‘*’ have no root in the chord using only the upper structure. The ninth was not used in the voicing if the melody note was the root or the third as the ninth may detract from the melodic clarity.

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286

Chapter 11 11.38
Gm 7

Harmony: Overview of Voicings Saxophone voicings for Gm7 chord tones
Gm 7 * * œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ * Gm7

œ œ b œ œ & œ ?b
11.39
Fm aj7

œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ

*

œ œ œ œ œ

* * œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ

Gm7

œ œœ œ œ

œ œ œ œ œ

œ œ œ œ œ

œ œ œœ œœ œ œ œ œ

Saxophone voicings for Fmaj7 chord tones
Fmaj7 * œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ * * Fm aj7

œ œ œ b & œ œ ?b

œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
*

*

* œ œ œ œ œ

Fm aj7

œ œ œ œ œ

œ œœ œ œ

œ œ œ œ œ

*

* œ œœ œ œ

* œ œœ

œ œ

There are more voicings available for a dominant chord due to the numerous combinations of alterations and substitutions for the ninths and fifths of a dominant chord. Ex. 11.40 is not exhaustive, but lists several possible voicings for C dominant seventh chords. The voicings are shown in close position. Dropping the second voice from the top would create open position voicings. 11.40
C9

Saxophone section voicings for C7 chord tones

& b œœ œ œ œœ œ ?b œ œ œ

œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ

œ œ œ œ œ

b C7 9

bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ b œ œ œ b œœ b œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ

C7b 13

b9

b œœ œ œ b œ b b œ œ œ œ bœ b œ œ b œ b œœ bœ œ b œœ œ

bœ œ œ bœ œ

NON-HARMONIC TONES
Identify the chord tones to begin harmonizing a melody. Determine the best voicing for the chord tones before attempting to harmonize the non-harmonic tones. Non-harmonic tones may be harmonized in three ways: diatonic parallel motion, chromatic parallel motion, or tonicization by inserting a dominant or leading tone chord or a string of dominant chords before the resolution to a chord tone. DIATONIC PARALLEL The C is not a chord member of the Gm7 but occurs between the two chord tones Bb and D. The first and third chords in ex. 11.41 are voiced as Gm7 or Gm9, the chord in between moves parallel using diatonic tones. The second chord is an Am7, but is heard on the weaker beat between two Gm7 chords and does nothing to confuse the harmonic passage. The chords are shown in close and open positions.

Jazz Theory Resources

Chapter 11 11.41 Diatonic parallel passing chords

Harmony: Overview of Voicings

287

Gm 7 X Gm 7

&b cœ œ ˙ ?b c ∑

œ ˙ œ œœ œœ ˙˙ œ ˙ œ ˙ œ œ

˙ œ œ œ œ ˙ œ œ ˙ œ ˙ œ ˙ œ œ

The Bb is not a chord tone of Fmaj7 but occurs between the chord tones A and F. The chords in ex. 11.42 move parallel using diatonic tones. The passing chord is a Gm7 between two Fmaj7 voicings. The chords are shown in close and open positions. 11.42 Diatonic parallel passing chords

Fmaj7 X Fmaj7

&b cœ œ ˙ ?b c ∑

˙ œ œœ ˙˙ œœ œ œ ˙ œ ˙ œ œ

˙ œ œ ˙ œ œ ˙ œ œ œ ˙ œ ˙ œ œ

CHROMATIC PARALLEL The notes marked with an “¿ ” are not chord tones, but chromatically lead to chord tones of Gm7. Determine the type of voicing desired for the Gm7 chord tones and approach each voice of the chord from a half step below. Every Gm7 chord is preceded by an F#m7 chord. The chords are shown in traditional close position voicings and open position voicings with an added tone. 11.43
X

Parallel chromatic chords
Gm7 Gm 7 Gm7 X X

j œ # œ # œ & b c ‰ J œ œ # œ œ ‰ # œœ #œ œ ?b c ∑ ‰ J

œ œœ # œ œœ œœ n n œ œ œ œ œ œ œ

j œ # œ ‰ œ œœ œ œ #œ nœ œœ # œ œ n œœ n œœ ##œ œœ n œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ n œ œ œ #œ œ ‰ J #œ œ œ œ œ nbœ

The line in ex. 11.44 is a sequence of ex. 11.43 for Fmaj7. Voicings should be first determined for the Fmaj9 chords and approached chromatically. Every Fmaj9 chord is preceded by an Emaj9 chord. The chords are shown in traditional close position voicings and open position voicings with an added tone.

Jazz Theory Resources

288

Chapter 11 11.44

Harmony: Overview of Voicings Parallel chromatic chords
Fm aj7 Fmaj7 F X X X

j œ œ b c ‰ n œ ‰ n œ œ & J # œ œ œ # # œœ n œœ # # œ œœ œ #œ n#œ œ œ œ ?b c ∑ ‰ J
DOMINANT or LEADING TONE

j ‰ n œ œ n œœ n # œ œ œœ # # œ œœ n n œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ‰ ##J œ œ

œ œ œ œ ##œ œœ n œœ n œ œœ œœ n n œ œ œ # œœ n œœ œ nœ œ nœ

Non-harmonic tones often belong to the dominant of the primary chord. In ex. 11.45, all of the nonharmonic tones could belong to a D7b9 (V7 of Gm), or a F#°7 (vii°7 of Gm). Pitches marked with “↓” are chord tones of Gm7 and anticipate the downbeats of one and three. All other voicings use the 3-5-7-9 of the D7b9, or the 1-3-5-7 of the F#°7: F# - A - C - Eb. The Gm7 voicing on the upbeat of beat four includes the root. The ninth might have been a more colorful choice, but the alto 2 would repeat the A. Having the alto move to the G retains the contour of the line which is more important than individual chords. 11.45 Functional dominant & leading tone chords

&b c Ó ?b c

œ œœœ↓ œ bœ ↓ ‰J œ œ #œ œ œ Ó ∑ ∑ Ó

Gm 7

j bœ ↓ œ œ ‰ #œ œ b œ œ n œœ bœ œ œ œ œ œ ‰ J

Gm7

œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ #œ œ # œœ n œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ b œœ œ œ œ œ n œœ

In ex. 11.46 all of the non-harmonic tones are chord tones of a C7b9 (V7 of F minor), or a E°7 (vii°7 of F minor). The F chord tones marked “↓” are preceded by E°7 chords. 11.46 Functional dominant & leading tone chords
Fmaj7 ↓ ↓ ‰ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ Ó J ↓

&b c Ó ?b c

Ó

j ‰ œœ b œ œ bœ œ bœ œ œ œ ‰ J

↓ Fm aj7

œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ

œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ b œœ œ œ nœ œ

Functional diminished chords may have tones added that are usually a whole step above one of the chord tones These tones are derived from a symmetrical diminished and not the harmonic minor scale. Ex. 11.47 uses several diminished chords to voice non-harmonic tones. The passing tone between Bb and G is voiced as an F#°7 without added tones. The F is voiced as a B°7 with an added Db and moves chromatically down to a C7b9. All of the melody notes spell out the E°7 chord and are voiced with extra notes a whole step above one of the chord tones. The extra notes include a C, Eb, F#, and A.

Jazz Theory Resources

Chapter 11 11.47
Gm 7

Harmony: Overview of Voicings

289

Diminished chords with added tones

b C7 9

Fmaj7

Gm7

b C7 9

Fmaj7

& b c œ œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ ˙ ?b c ∑

Ó ∑

œ œ œ œ œ

bœ œ œ œ œ œœ œ # œ bœ œ œœ n b œ œ bnœ œœ b œœ n œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ #œ œ nœ œ bœ œ œ bœ

˙ ˙ ˙ n˙ ˙

Ó Ó

Not all lines need to or should be voiced. Some lines are stronger in unison or octaves. A line may move from unison or octaves to being voiced at the top or ends of phrases. 11.48 Unison lines ending with harmony

b &b c ? b c b

œ œ ‰ j œ œ œ bœ œ #nœ œ œ œ œ #œ n œœ œœ œ b œ œ n œœ j œ œ œ œ œ ‰ #œ œ

B b7

œ bœ œ œ #œ nœ # œn œ œ bœ œ œ nœ bœ #nœ œ nbœ œ

Some lines lend themselves for the treatment illustrated in ex. 11.49. The line begins in unison, splits in contrary motion. The top line rises while the lower line descends creating an expanding wedge which produces a sense of growth to the passage. The widest spread between the outer voices occurs at the climax of the line. 11.49 Unison lines spread in contrary motion to voicings at high point

&c Ó ?c Ó

œ ‰ j œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ # œ # œ n œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ #œ nœ bœ œ œ bœ œ œ ‰ J bœ œ

w w w w w

Many non-harmonic tones lend themselves to several harmonization choices. The melody note at (a.) in ex. 11.50 could be voiced using a functional F#°7 or a parallel chromatic F#m7 chord. The F (b.) is a chord tone of Gm7 or the secondary dominant G7 and its tritone substitute Db. In the first setting, an F#°7 is used at (a.) and a Gm7 at (b.). The second setting uses the chromatic F#m7 at point (a.). At (b.) a D b7 chord is used which is both a chromatic parallel voicing and a functional tritone substitute dominant.

Jazz Theory Resources

) secondary dominant: Gb9 as a tritone substitute dominant for C7 resolving to Fmaj9. ‰ # œj œ œ œ œ œ # œ œ œ b œ œ a. Functional dominant or leading tone: Gm7 preceded by a D7b9 or F#°7. Jazz Theory Resources . The three non-harmonic tones (a. Parallel chromatic: B7 moving up to C7.51b illustrates all parallel motion using “drop 2” four part voicings with the melody doubled an octave lower by the tenor 2. Secondary dominant: C7 or tritone substitute dominant Gb7. (1) (2) (1) (2) (1) (2) Parallel chromatic: F#m7 moving up to Gm7. 11. resolving to Fmaj7. Secondary dominant: G7 or tritone substitute dominant. 3 Gm 7 C7 F c.. it would be useful to examine a number of options for a common line. b.50 Harmony: Overview of Voicings Functional F#°7 a. C7 Gm7 &b œ œ œ ? b œœ ‰ œj œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ‰ #J œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ Gm7 ∑ ∑ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ ‰ œj œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ bbœ œ œ œ # œ ‰ J ∑ ∑ MELODIC LINE SHOWN with OPTIONS Since there many harmonization possibilities. C7 Parallel chromatic F#m7 a. Non-harmonic tone treatment: (a. c. resolving to C. Non-harmonic tone treatment: (a. and (c. b. This melody could be harmonized with four voice blocked with the melody doubled at the octave or five voices with added color tones in the style of Thad Jones.) secondary dominant: Db9 as a tritone substitute for G7 resolving to C13.) parallel chromatic motion: F#m7 up to Gm7.290 Chapter 11 11.. b. (b.) parallel chromatic motion: B7 up to C7. Parallel chromatic: Gbmaj7 moving down to Fmaj7. Db7. 11.) functional vii°7/ii: F#°7 to Gm7.) could be treated in the following methods: a. and c. 11. (b.51c illustrates all dominant functions using “drop 2” four part voicings with the melody doubled an octave lower by the tenor 2. and (c.) parallel chromatic motion: Gbmaj7 down to Fmaj7.51a Basic line &b Ó b. b.

(b. œ œœ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ C7 œ bœ nœ j œ œœ œ œ œ œ œb œ œ Ó ‰ #œ œœ œ œ nœ œ œ c. œ œœ œ bbœ œ œ œ C7 œ bœ œ œb œ œ c.51d “Drop 2” four voice using parallel chromatic motion 11.51b and 11. 11.Chapter 11 11. œ œ œ œ bœ œ Ó œ ‰ # œj œ n œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ 3 œ a. œœ ? b c Ó ‰ # œœ n œœ œ J 3 Gm7 œ #œ œœ œ œ œ ##œ œ b.) functional vii°7/ii: F#°7 to Gm7.) parallel chromatic motion: B7 up to C7. 11. 11. and (c. 11.51f is quite useful.51e harmonizes the passage using the same principles as shown in ex. 11. 11.51. œ œ œœ C7 œ bœ nœ œ œ œ œb œ œ Ó c.51f Single line with harmonic accompaniment 3 ‰ # œj œ œ œ œ œ # œ œ œ b œ œ G m7 C7 F &b Ó ?b ∑ œ œ œ œ bœ œ ‰ œ œ J œ œ œ œ œ ‰ œ œ œ J Is there much difference in the previous settings that the listener will be able to discern? Maybe not. œœ œ n œœ œ J Gm7 œ bœ nœ œ bœ œ œœ œ œ œn œ œ b nœ œ œ œb œ œ œ œ c. b. 3 œ œ œ bœ œ nœ œ Ó ‰ b # œa. The setting in ex. œ b œ œœ œ œ b b œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ C7 F There is a slight difference between ex. Non-harmonic tone treatment: (a. incredibly “hip” voicing on the upbeat of two screaming by at 288 on the metronome. e. The listener may only remember the top line rather than some dense. œ œ œ œ œ œ b œ ‰ J 3 Gm7 bœ nnœ œœ œœ œ œb œ œ œ œ b.51d uses five distinct voices.51c “Drop 2” four voice using °7 & dominant substitutes F 3 j œ œœ & b c Ó ‰ ##œ œ œœ œ œ nœ œ œ 3 œ a. œ œ œ bœ F œ œ œ œ œ In the search for the best setting for a line.) parallel chromatic motion: F#m7 up to Gm7.51e “Drop 2” five voice using °7 & dominant substitutes F &b Ó ?b Ó œ ‰ # œj œ n œ œ œ œ œ # n œœ n œ œ 3 œ a. The melody is set as a single line over four voices providing a harmonic foundation. 11.d. (b. œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ‰ J 3 Gm7 œ œ œœ œœ œ œ œ ## œ #œ œ œ œœ œ # b.51b “Drop 2” four voice using parallel chromatic motion Harmony: Overview of Voicings 291 11. If the listener only comprehends the top melody Jazz Theory Resources .) secondary dominant: Db9 as a tritone substitute for G7 resolving to C13.51c but eliminates the melodic doubling in favor of a fifth voice. Ex. and (c. Non-harmonic tone treatment: (a.51b uses four distinct voices with the melody doubled at the octave.) parallel chromatic motion: Gbmaj7 down to Fmaj7. do not rule out simplicity for the sake of dense harmony.) secondary dominant: Gb9 as a tritone substitute dominant for C7 resolving to Fmaj9. 11.

. The Eb was chosen to help visualize its relationship as the ninth of Db9. That is the important thing to remember: place the melody in the best setting and only do things that enhance and nothing that detracts from the melody. an Eb is in the melody resolving up to the En. A more contemporary sound may have them playing independent parts of the chord. Inner parts that are too awkward may detract from the melody and the forward flow. the following things may be considered: • • • • The forward flow and melodic integrity: Does the setting enhance the primary lines? Does it help or hinder the forward flow? Where does it occur in the arrangement: Nearer the beginning may need to be simpler and towards the end may want to gradually become more complex. d. The root may be used in the lowest trombone as at f. Some harmonization concepts may be applied to several notes in the passage. The chords c.). then they have perceived the most important part of the piece.) would sound bland for a jazz chart. The chromatic tones are shown below according to vertical chord spellings. but is best suited for the end of a phrase.292 Chapter 11 Harmony: Overview of Voicings line. enharmonic spellings should adhere to linear considerations.51g Extended chromatic and dominant devices F #m 7 D b7 C7 D b7 C7 B b7 &b c Ó ?b c Ó ‰ # œj œ n œ œ # œ œ œ œ œ 3 œ œ œ nœ œ ‰ # œJ Gm 7 3 œ nœ œ œ bbœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ bbœ œ bœ nœ œ œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ## œ œ œ œ œ nœ #œ œ œ œ œb œ B 7 C7 E7 A7 D7 G7 C7 F7 œ œ œ nbœ bœ b nœ œ nœ œ œœ # # œ œ nœ œ b nœ œ bœ œ nœ œ œ œ #nœ œ nnœ œ #bœ œ nœ œ nbœ œ bnœ œ BRASS VOICINGS Brass voicings are constructed from the top melodic pitch down as were saxophone voicings. The chord at (a. some inner voices may cross as indicated by the lines in m. which is both parallel chromatic motion and a functional dominant substitute.3 is preceded chromatically by a Bb7 and a B7. The last chord is F so the preceding dominant must be C7. It should be written as a concert D# leading to En in the individual part. In beat two of the second measure below.2. Begin a harmonization like this from the destination chord and work backwards to the beginning point. 11. and h. The C7 in m. The line from ex. illustrate matching voicings played by both sections..51 below is extended by a measure and uses extended chromatic parallel motion and dominant cycles. the can be easily played by a saxophone section. Using roots voiced low can be powerful during emphatic jabs. To make a decision about the best setting for a line. Some of the simpler combinations are shown in Ex. A more traditional approach is for the trombones to play an octave lower exactly the same thing as the trumpets.52. The last six chords all point to the F7 through a series of dominants. and e. g. The C7 is twice preceded by a Db7 chord. and while they may be a bit difficult to sing. 11.. If this passage was copied out for individual instruments. The dominant of C is G7. Context: How will a particular setting blend or contrast with what came before and what comes next? Inner parts: Which settings lend themselves to the smoothest voice leading. The Gm7 is chromatically preceded by the F#m7 chord. 11. There are two basic styles for combining the trumpets and the trombones. Jazz Theory Resources . The dominant of D is A whose dominant is E7.. It can be improved by opening the chord up and adding a thirteenth as at (b. All of the inner voices move smoothly.. but can make the line feel sluggish if used too often. In order to avoid awkward repeated tones. so it must be preceded by a D7.

Triads resonate well because of the physics laws of the overtone series.) yields the #9 and b13 over a C7 chord. and h. g. The first three illustrate again the idea of the trombones mimicking the trumpets at the octave. w w # b w & w TROMBONES: bw nbbw w w bw w w w #w ###w w w bw w w w #w w w w nw w w w w #w w w bw w w w bw nbbw w w w b b ww w #w ###w w w w b b ww w #w w w w w ww w bw ?b w w w Tighter. f.Chapter 11 11. and e. The Ab major triad (b.52 a. d. the last two for the culmination of a phrase. close position voicings are more agile. and this is true even when the superimposed triad does not agree with the underlying structure. TRUMPETS: Brass voicings for C7 using triad superimposition b. #11. The first three voicings would be useful during more rapidly moving lines. d. A D major triad (d. Voicings with large spreads do not move briskly. 11. e. Notice that the fifth is often not used in the trombones so as not to disagree with the #5. c.53 a. TRUMPETS: Harmony: Overview of Voicings 293 Brass voicings for C7 b. g. The root is not included in the first three voicings. h. but are quite effective as punctuation during and at the end of phrases or sections. and f.) creates a C9#11. These chords are Fmaj9 constructed of the 3-5-7-9 of the chord. c. 13 or b13. An A major triad (a. i.54 TRUMPETS: Brass voicings for Fmaj7 w &b w ww TROMBONES: w ? b ww w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w ww w w w w w w w w w w w w Jazz Theory Resources . h. and g. e. 11. j. w &b w w w TROMBONES: w ? b ww w w w ww w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w ww w w ww w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w One method for creating more interesting combinations and colorful chords is to voice the trumpets in various triads over the traditional chords in the trombones. f.) over a C7 chord creates a C13b9.) creates a C7 with a b5 or #11 and a b9. since it would appear in the bass part. An F# major triad (c.

h.54 shows the triadic superimposition formulas over a turnaround in the style of Thad Jones.56 TRUMPETS: Dm 7 b c œ b œ & œœ TROMBONES: œ œ ? b c œœ b œ BASS: #˙ ˙ n # ˙ Œ ˙ Œ ˙ ˙ nn˙ ˙ ˙ # G9 11 ˙ bb˙ ˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ n˙ ˙ ˙ C7b 13 #9 # F9 11 nœ . are suitable for moving lines and assertive statements. and h. are almost the same. Jazz Theory Resources . Chords b....294 Chapter 11 Harmony: Overview of Voicings Several voicings are shown below for Gm7. Chords a. The A over a G7 creates a G9#11. 11.. œ B b7b 13 #9 The chords moved parallel up a half step to harmonize the upper neighbor tone in ex. The first Dm7 chord is voiced identically in the trumpets and trombones.-f. This was sequenced for Cm7 . The widest spread voicings with the lowest notes were the ones at the end of the eighth note lines. Chords d. Stacking triads and color tones over a dominant chord works best when the tritone is on the bottom helping identify the basic dominant chord quality. # n œ œ œ œ bœ œ. g. 11. f. The two chords are sequenced creating an F9#11 and a Bb7 (b9/b13). f. The F triad over the Dm7 yielded the primary chord tones 3-5-7. When the F triad moved down a half-step to E over the G7 it created a colorful G13b9 chord. 11.57 from Thad Jones.. c. instead of doubling the root. The Ab over the C becomes a C7 (b9/b13). and h. Chords g.G7 . illustrate the use of a triad voiced in the trumpets over the fundamental chord in the trombones. He managed to keep the trumpet triads moving in half-steps when the chord moved to the dominant. b œ œ œ. The basic progression was Dm7 . b b œ œ œ œ nœ . b bœ œ J j .. &b w w ww TROMBONES: w ww w w w ww w w ww w ww w w ? b ww w w w w w w w w w w w w w w ww w w w w w w w ww w w w w w w ww w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w 11.55 a. are better for the conclusion of lines or bold jabs.F7 in the second measure. The next four chords all feature parallel triads over the fundamental voicings in the trombones. The F triad creates a Gm11 chord. d.Cm7 . e. and c. The bass and fifth trombone are playing the roots. has the ninth. TRUMPETS: Brass voicings for Gm7 b. except c.F7. e. a more colorful note. due to the wide range of the voicings and the root on the bottom. The next two lowest notes on the four dominant chords were the third and seventh..

59 is composed of two fully diminished seventh chords. The original harmony might call for a basic ii7 . Ab over the C7 creates a C7 b9/b13.57 Harmony: Overview of Voicings 295 œ bœ œ œ b œ œ œ œ bœ TROMBONES: œœ b b œœ œ ? b œ œ b TRUMPETS: Dm 7 b &b œ œ bnœ œ n#œ œ Œ ‰ nn#œ œ n#œ œ bnœ œ œ b œ œ n œ b œ n #œ œ #œ nœ #œ nœ œ J n œœ œ b b n œœ nœ b œœ n # œœ œ nnœ œ n œ b œ n œ œ œ œ Œ ‰ œ #œ nœ œ œ J b G13 9 Cm 7 b F13 9 #œ œ Ó #œ œ œ œ œ Ó œ Triads are used in this turnaround leading to F.”] It is often used at the end of big sections or the end of the piece. and a n13. #9.59 TRUMPETS: ^ œ œ b n œ & b # œœ Œ Ó œ bœ ? b b b œœ Œ Ó œ B b7 TROMBONES: The concept of using dominants and dominant cycles of can be illustrate beginning with this simple line. Jazz Theory Resources . 11.V7 progression leading to the Bb7. one for the trumpets and one for the trombones. This chord is sometimes called the “Duke” chord [and jokingly referred to as Bb “fully demolished. Bb triad over the Ab7 creates an Ab9#11.58 A7b 13 TRUMPETS: #9 &b ?b ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ # A b9 11 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ G7b 13 #9 b˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ C7b 13 b9 b˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ # F9 11 w nw w w TROMBONES: b˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ b˙ nb˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ w bw w w The chord shown in ex. The result is a Bb7 with a b9. b5. 11. and the G over the F7 creates an F9#11. Eb triad over the G7 creates a G7 b9/b13. An F triad is imposed over an A7 to create an A7b9/b13. 11.Chapter 11 11.

œ F7 œ œ ‰ nœ w J The A7 could be preceded by its dominant E7.V7 B b7 .C7 .F7 . J ‰ ‰ J F7 Cm 7 . nœ œ .V7 harmony . The F7 and Cm7 can be preceded by their dominants or by the tritone substitution. b œ b & Cm7 .Eb7 . œ F7 B b7 œ œ ‰ nœ w J Using the method of working back from the final chord. Cm7 G7 Cm7 G b7 11.60a Simple line over ii7 . b œ b & Cm7 . nœ œ . œ œ #œ œ œ . œ .Bb7. œ œ #œ œ œ .ii7 .60d are: E b triad A b triad D triad C triad F triad B b triad E b triad A b triad D b triad C triad over G7 over Gb7 over F7 over E7 over Eb7 over Ab7 over G7 over C7 over F7 over Bb7 creates creates creates creates creates creates creates creates creates creates G7 #9 b13 Gb9#11 F13b9 E7 #9 b13 Eb9#11 Ab9#11 G7 #9 b13 C7 #9 b13 F7 #9 b13 Bb9#11 Jazz Theory Resources .Ab7 .A7 .60c . 11.60c. 11. Many combinations of descending half-step or fifth motion would work: Bb7 . 11.G7 .2 to the end. J J ‰ ‰ F7 A7 Dm7 G7 Cm7 . The ii7 and iii7 chords could be changed to dominants. A cycle of fifths pattern would work: E7 .G7 . œ .iii7 . a series of functional chords may be added.60b Enhanced with V7/iii .Gb7 . nœ œ . b œ b & .V7/ii . An E7 points to A7 which is replaced by its tritone substitute (Eb9).A7 . œ F7 B b7 œ œ ‰ nœ w J This passage works well voicing the trumpets with superimposed triads over the basic trombone chords.Cb7 . The triadic superimposition formulas used to create the complex chords in ex.Gb7 .F7 .Bb7. The final example will be based on the chords shown in ex. œ .Ab7 . Any number of bass lines are possible from the E7 in m. œ œ #œ œ œ . It begins with the original ii7 chord Cm7 which is followed by its dominant which points back to Cm7.Bb7.D7 . Their tritone substitutes would also work: Bb7 . J ‰ ‰ J F7 E7 A7 Dm7 G7 Cm7 .Db7 .296 Chapter 11 Harmony: Overview of Voicings 11. The dominant cycle continues through the C7 and F7 leading finally to the Bb7. Ab9 is substituted for the D7 which points to the G7. A secondary dominant (C7) is replaced by its tritone substitute (Gb9) which points to the original F7. and any of the other dominant chords may be changed to a tritone substitution.

The triplet works better with the band in unison and octaves leading to the last three dominant chords.. Jazz Theory Resources . The trumpet 1 melody is doubled down an octave by trumpet 4 and alto 1. .V7 sequence shown in ex. œ œ œ œ .. The saxophone and brass sections should sound complete independent of the other. 11. Each section should be approached as demonstrated earlier.. J E7b 13 #9 #9 #9 # E b9 11 A b9# 11 G7b 13 C7b 13 F7b 13 . 11. œ œ bœ bœ . The melody is played by trumpet 1 and doubled by trumpet 4 and alto 1. œ œ œ œ. œ n œ nœ œ œ œ œ ‰ œ . nœ œ œ œ #9 bœ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ bœ b œ n œ œ œ bœ œ j B b9 11 w œ w ‰ nn œ œ œ w w j œ w œ b ‰ œ w w œ w # BRASS & SAXOPHONE COMBINATION VOICINGS There are times when an arrangement calls for the saxophones and brass to play large voicings as a combined ensemble. œ œ œ œ œ œ b n œœ n œ ? b c œœ œ bœ œ n œ œ b œ ‰ b J Cm7 G7b 13 #9 # G b9 11 b F13 9 .60d Voiced for eight brass TRUMPETS: Harmony: Overview of Voicings 297 7b œ .F7... œ b œ n#œ œ ‰ nbœ œ .. œ œ œ .Chapter 11 11.bœ > œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ n#œ nbbœ œ œ nœ œ œ œ œ # œ œ #œ œ . The brass and saxophone sections are independently harmonically clear.62. Two parallel chromatic chords precede the F7 on the upbeat of two.61 Brass & saxophone combination &b c Ó SAXOPHONES: ^ Œ œ ^ Œ œ ^ Œ œ ^ Œ œ ?b c Ó &b c Ó TRUMPETS: TROMBONES: ?b c Ó j >j nœ ‰ ##œ ‰ nnœ œ bœ œ œ # œ œ œ œ # b œ œ œ # œ n œ # œ œ b> œ œ ‰ nœ bœ œ œ n#œ œ œ ‰ œ b œ œ J J j >j #œ nœ œ œ n œ ‰ œ ‰ b œ b œ œ b œ n œ # œ n œ œ œ bœ nœ #œ nœ œ bœ bœ nœ œ œ œ n> œ œ n œ œ œ b œ œ # œ œ ‰ n# bœ œ nœ œ #œ ‰ n œ œ b œ œ J J 3 > œ b œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ nœ œ bbœ œ œ œ > 3 œ œœ œ œ œ bœ # œ œ œ œ œ 3 . The melody in the passage below is played by at least three instruments at any moment.C7 . . œ œ œ œ . œ TROMBONES: . G7 ..bœ > œ œ œ n œ b œ œ n œ œ œ b œ œ œ Œ œ œ œ w w w w w w w w w w w w w The trumpets are voiced with triads exclusively in the iiø7 .. Cm œ #nœ œ œ œ b œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ b c ‰ b œ n œ œ œ & œ œ J bœ nœ . A tritone substitute dominant resolves to the Bb7 on the upbeat of four. J œ œ . œ .

63 Brass & saxophone combination G7b 13 #9 b &b Ó SAXOPHONES: # Cm 9 G b9 11 ‰ œ . œ œ . ˙ ˙ ˙. œ . ‰ œ œ.. ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ .. ˙ . 11. . . œ ‰ œ œ . The last chord is a Bb7 with a b9. Œ Œ Œ Œ b> œ œ œ œ œ œ œ b œ œ œ œ b œ œ œ œ œ œ b> œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ In ex. . b5.. the G7 is the V7/ii and points to the Cm9. and a n13 created by voicing a C#°7 in the trumpets over a B°7 in the trombones (over the Bb in the rhythm section).298 Chapter 11 11. the A13 chord moves parallel up to the Bb7..63.. .. The Gb9 is the tritone substitute for the V7/V (C7)... bœ œ œ œ. œ .. 11. ˙ ˙ ˙. nœ œ . This example ends with the eight tone chord created by stacking a fully diminished chord over another.. nœ œ œ œ.. Rather than approach the final chord with its dominant... #9. ? bb Ó TRUMPETS: b &b Ó ? b Ó b TROMBONES: bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ ##nœ œ œ œ bœ œ bœ œ bœ œ bœ œ F7b 13 #9 A13 B b13 œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ # n œœ œ œ #nœ œ œ n œœ œ # n œœ œ n œ œ b œ œ Jazz Theory Resources . >j œ b nœ œ >j œ œ > œ bœ œ œ J > nœ œ œ œ J G7 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ^ bœ œ œ ^ œ œ ^ œ œ bb œ bœ ^ œ œ œ œ C ø7 > bœ œ œ œ œ œ b œ œ bœ œ œ > œ œ œ œ œ œ F7 œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ n##œ œ œ œ œ œ > nœ œ œ > œ œ œ n> œ œ œ > nœ œ œ œ # B bm aj7 11 . nœ œ.... œ n œ b œ. ‰ œ.62 E ø7 Harmony: Overview of Voicings Brass & saxophone combination A7 b ‰ jŒ ^ œ b & #œ œ n œ b œ œ œ ? bb ‰ nœ œ Œ ^ œ J TRUMPETS: ^ œ œ œ # œ n œ b œ œ ‰ b Œ œ & J ^ TROMBONES: œ œ # œ œ œ ? b ‰ nœ Œ œ b œ J SAXOPHONES: ^ œ œ œ ^ œ œ ^ œ œ œ œ ^ œ œ œ œ D ø7 . ˙ ˙ .

11. ˙ ˙ b bn ˙ ˙. b F13 9 # B bm aj7 11 ˙ ˙ ˙˙ .Chapter 11 Harmony: Overview of Voicings 299 SPECIAL CASE & CLUSTERS VOICINGS Contemporary settings may lend themselves to dense voicings using non-traditional structures.. Jazz Theory Resources ..66.. but the combinations are complex... Several of the chords are symmetrical built of alternating thirds and seconds. The harmonic passage in ex.65. n˙ ˙ ˙˙ ..V7 .I... ˙ ˙ ˙ . These voicings occurred over an ostinato bass line in A phrygian. Each of these muted brass voicings has many levels of tension. The chosen voicings were more random so as not to suggest a traditional harmonic progression. The melody was conceived unrelated to a harmonic progression. 11. 11. 11. ˙ . and quartal voicings. b˙ . clusters. BASS: Cm9 œ œ œœ œœ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œœ .. ˙.66 TRUMPETS: Bert Ligon: Dancer bœ &3 4 œ œ œ œ b œ œ b œœ TROMBONES: œ œœ b œœ œ b ?3 œ 4 œ œ nœ œ bœ œ œ œ œ b œœ b b œœ œ œ n#œ œ œœ œ bœ œ bœ œ œ b œ œ œ œ b œœ œ n b œœ œ # œ œ # œ œ œ œœ b b b œ œ bœ œ œ bœ bbœ œ œ b œœ b œœ œ . ˙. There are more examples of non-traditional approaches to harmony in Chapter 19. The chords played by each section are simple.. 11.65 TRUMPETS: Bert Ligon: excerpt from Arches œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ &b c œ œ œ œ œ œ œ TROMBONES: œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ? b c œœ œ A Phrygian w w ww w ww w Cluster voicings were used to harmonize this simple melodic line in ex.64 TRUMPETS: Voicings emphasizing clusters b œœ œ &b 3 4 œ TROMBONES: œœ œœ ? bb 3 4 ˙.. The line includes a variety of structures including traditional tertian voicings. A modal piece might suggest parallel planing of voicings as in ex. 11.64 is a traditional ii7 . . b#n˙ ˙ ˙˙ . but the voicings emphasize colorful clusters rather than tertian chords.

11. More players on each individual part creates a richer sound. 11. The saxophone holds down a key. The open position voicings in ex. and baritone saxophone). When the top line is at rest. saxophones. Jazz Theory Resources . but the example below works well in a vocal group. Copyrighted tunes are not available for examples in this book. Care must be taken to prepare dissonances with vocal groups more so than with other instrumental sections. using “drop 2” voicings. the inner voices may advance the music as shown in mm.68 Em7 Close voicings for string section A7b 13 #9 Dm 9 G7b 13 b9 Cmaj7 &c ˙ ˙ ˙˙ ˙ ˙ #˙ ˙ ˙ ˙˙ n˙ ˙ ˙ bœ ˙ b b˙œ ˙ ˙ w w ww w ?c ˙ Open voicings. allow the listener to better distinguish the individual lines. but a singer has to produce the note from within. vocals or a combination of horns (trumpet. Any of the lines may move a bit more freely depending on the lyric. Many odd interval leaps in the inner voices can be difficult to hear and perform for a vocal group. tenor saxophone. If enough players are on a part. Consult with other sources and individual players before writing double and triple stops in a section. The inner parts should move very smoothly and logically. If more than a quintet of strings are available. then sections may be divided or play divisi. 11. The close position passage in ex. as does the pianist. 11.68 would work well for a quintet of strings. trombone. the upper part may be doubled up an octave by a first violin.3-4. Any reference point or help given by the arranger is prudent.69 work well for strings over a bass or several combinations of instruments or voices.300 Chapter 11 Harmony: Overview of Voicings VOCAL VOICINGS Vocal harmony follows the voice leading principles that apply to any instrument. alto saxophone.67 b ˙ &b b c ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ ? b c ˙ ˙ bb ˙ Doo ooo vocal n˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ n˙ ˙ nb˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ œ œ œ œb˙ ˙ ˙ œ œ nœ œ ˙ ˙ ˙ bn˙ ˙ ˙ 3 ˙ ˙˙ w bbw w bw w nw w w w w ˙ b˙ n˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ 3 ˙ ˙˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ STRING ENSEMBLE VOICINGS A string ensemble will sound good using any of the voicings shown above.

The listeners remember the melody and the lyrics. It is difficult for a group of horns to achieve a blend with a voicing this wide. and the pianist will usually remember the chords of a piece. Jazz Theory Resources . Many school libraries have scores to classic big band charts.” In order to voice the passage evenly over two octaves in ex. Listen for attractive places in a chart and formulate questions regarding the effect. A drummer will speak of the beat. The second voice (G) was dropped two octaves and the third voice (E) was dropped one octave. If there are enough on a part.70 Wide open voicings for string section Em7 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ c & ?c ˙ Em7 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ Em7 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ A7b 13 #9 ˙ #˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ Dm9 G7b 13 b9 ˙ n˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ bœ bœ b˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ Cmaj7 w w w w w There are numerous scores available for closer and further study. Listen to the listeners and how they describe or remember a piece. This passage works better with several strings on a part. a contrapuntal treatment? What was the voicing? Did the voicing use mixed sections or standard sections? Were there doubles (flutes. 11. quotes. two voices were moved to lower registers. and sketches for new works.69 Em 7 Harmony: Overview of Voicings 301 Open voicings for string section A7b 13 #9 Dm9 G7b 13 b9 Cm aj7 &c ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ?c ˙ ˙ #˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ n˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ bœ b bœ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ w w w w w A larger string group can effectively use voicings with a wider range than “drop 2. It may sound a bit empty and separated with only one player per line. The trumpet would be in a very high register and the trombone and others in medium registers making the blend difficult due to the contrast of sound character. the first and second violins could play divisi doubling the melody down an octave lower.70. excerpts. clarinets) or mutes in the brass? What was the musical effect and how was it achieved? Where in the piece did it occur and why? What were the extreme ranges and how did the instruments sound at those points? What other devices were employed to make one section stand out against another? File these away in your memory for use later when arranging. The best writers (of prose and of music) keep notebooks of ideas. What made it interesting? Was it a voicing. vocal jazz charts and small combo charts. a line. LINES MOTIVATE MUSIC Voicings can enhance a piece but rarely are they the main focus.Chapter 11 11. a bassist will remember some bass line. The are many great arrangements that rely on individual lines to propel the piece where the melody is in one or more voices over a bass and a counter line follows using an important guide tone or thumb line. Study the interesting arrangers. 11.

Stravinsky. what could be done over eight or sixteen measures? Relief from one set of responsibilities only creates a new ones. not even the most common modes. modal music is quite old in the history of music. and Miles Davis confirms that no one was aimlessly running scales. The beginning of the end for the major/minor system could be dated 1859 with Wagner’s highly chromatic and tonally ambiguous Prelude. Wagner’s progressions obscured any sense that one pitch was the central pitch to which all others pointed. While a bop tune may have one of two chords per measure. The modal improviser may not have to be concerned with harmonic progressions. It has been written that this modal approach was in response to the fast tempos and overloaded harmonic palette of bebop. Bill Evans described the tune So What as “a simple figure based on 16 measures of one scale. ironically. Treatise on Harmony). Since modal music is a departure from the traditional structures. The form is AABA. tertian har- Jazz Theory Resources . J. The form of these modal tunes often mirrored the thirty two measure forms of show tunes. A form used by Miles Davis. If something can be done with a Dm7 chord that lasts two beats. If the major/minor system was a European convention for the brief time between the early seventeenth and the twentieth century then what came before and what types of music were occurring in other parts of the world? Much of it was monophonic created using single scales or modes. While new to the jazz language in the middle of the twentieth century. J. The move away from the strict tyrant of the major/minor system to the many facets of contemporary jazz is significant for two reasons: the move mirrors the European classical tradition of destroying the old systems to build many new ones. The harmonic progressions in a major/minor system function to point to the tonic as the primary pitch. Are the chords Dm7 and Ebm7? They could be. guide tones and established voice leading principles. Part of the attraction to an improviser in a modal setting is that there is much more time to develop lines without concern for a predetermined harmonic progression. but the improviser must find other ways to conceive and construct sensible improvisations.302 Chapter 12 Modal Jazz XII. History since that time produced Debussy. Some tunes may be based entirely on one mode. The origins of the new modal music is often traced to the Kind of Blue recordings of Miles Davis. Schoenberg. and countless others who each contributed uniquely to the obliteration of the major/minor harmonic system. The bebop vocabulary was not avoided or abandoned and was often used in modal passages suggesting harmonic progressions where there were none. John Coltrane. it also looked to the distant past. and chromatic tones occurred that did not deter from the modal clarity. Johnson and others is shown below. In the liner notes from the Kind of Blue recording session. MODES & MODAL FRAMEWORKS Some of the music of the late 1950’s and early 1960’s became a new modern sound through the use of modal frameworks rather than the tin-pan alley harmonic frameworks favored by bebop. from Tristan and Isolde. a modal piece may have one chord or mode that lasts eight to sixteen measures or more. The modes that correspond to the major scale (ionian) and the natural minor (aeolian) are. John Coltrane. and many of the new systems are based on even older traditions using modes. Wagner’s harmonic approaches were the antithesis of the major/minor system. As much as this new modal sound was looking to the future. or the tones that modulate one key to the next. The only change is the D dorian mode modulating up to Eb dorian for the B and back again for the last A section. 8 of another and 8 more of the first.” Were melodies replaced by “scale running?” Were chromatic tones eliminated in favor of strict heptatonic (seven tone) scales? A quick listen to the improvisations of Cannonball Adderley. The major/minor harmonic system is a uniquely European concept that began to develop in the early Baroque period. One of the first theory books explaining the system was published in 1722 (JeanPhilippe Rameau.

2 Scale is identical to natural or pure minor. their construction by intervals related to the tonic. Lining up the 1 with any new letter indicates a new tonic. but the streets go east-west. no fence posts. Sixteen measures of D dorian (no sharps and no flats) to a beginner is often inhibiting. A piece with a harmonic framework may be like dropping them somewhere in Manhattan. These modes can and should be learned just as major and minor scales are learned. its own key signature and may be transposed. A major scale has seven scale steps. as major and minor scales. no celestial guides. A modal piece for a beginner must seem like being dropped in a Nebraska field in a blizzard and asked to find their way home.” A scale could be constructed on any of the other six scale steps which would yield six differently constructed scales or modes. The modes primarily used by jazz improvisers are related to the ancient Greek and Church modes. and uptown and downtown are meaningful directions. by their relationship to a major scale. There are no visible boundaries. Each mode has characteristic identifying pitches. Jazz Theory Resources . MAJOR SCALE DEGREE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 MODE NAME IONIAN 1 DORIAN PHRYGIAN LYDIAN MIXOLYDIAN AEOLIAN 2 LOCRIAN INTERVALS RELATED to TONIC M2 – M3 – P4 – P5 – M6 – M7 M2 – m3 – P4 – P5 – M6 – m7 m2 – m3 – P4 – P5 – m6 – m7 M2 – M3 – A4 – P5 – M6 – M7 M2 – M3 – P4 – P5 – M6 – m7 M2 – m3 – P4 – P5 – m6 – m7 m2 – m3 – P4 – d5 – M6 – m7 INTERVALS BETWEEN ADJACENT PITCHES W-W-1/2-W-W-W-1/2 W-1/2-W-W-W-1/2-W 1/2-W-W-W-1/2-W-W W-W-W-1/2-W-W-1/2 W-W-1/2-W-W-1/2-W W-1/2-W-W-1/2-W-W 1/2-W-W-1/2-W-W-W 1 Scale is identical to the major scale. The chart below shows the modes by name. the avenues north-south. It may be helpful to imagine a slide rule where one side has the musical alphabet and the other has the numbers 1-7. they would have different intervals in relationship to their tonic pitch. Listen to the accompaniment and solo of Bill Evans on So What for cluster chords and sounds not defined by major/minor chord systems. Methods for constructing forms for improvising and developing melodies we be discussed later in this chapter.Chapter 12 Modal Jazz 303 mony (chords built from stacking intervals of thirds) is often abandoned for chords built on combinations of other intervals like fourths and seconds. 12.1 D dorian D dorian E b dorian D dorian Common AABA form for Modal Composition ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ Students are often assigned modal tunes such as So What for their first improvisational vehicles. These students do not always agree about the ease and often ask. “So What do I do now?” They often have more trouble inventing lines without the restrictions and guide posts that are available in a harmonic progression. nothing but a sea of white notes. the logic being the less complicated modal frameworks would be easier for a beginning improvisers. and their constructions by the intervals between adjacent pitches. presenting too much freedom of choice when they are at the least inventive state in their development. to other pitch centers. The basic modes can be found using the familiar major scale as a starting point. The tonic of the major scale would be numbered “1. While all of these scales share the same key signature. It can be also be frightening.

fourth mode of G major. fifth mode of F. The following does the opposite. used in tonal music because it lacks the requisite perfect fifth. F lydian. 12. one sharp. relating all the modes to one tonic. E phrygian. 12. The relative modes that share the key signature of no sharps and no flats are: C ionian.2 illustrated modes related to a C major scale. 12. Bb is the tonic of Bb and C is the tonic of C. Many confused students think that the modes are constructed only from the C major scale so dorian can only be D dorian. How well do you know your key signatures? Take some time to review the circle of fifths remembering that each key signature represents a major key and a minor key. G mixolydian. and locrian.2 illustrates the previous chart related to the key of C major.2 all share the same key signature and are also relatives of C major. the third mode of the relative Ab major. 12. Remember the rules for establishing tonality: the tonic is the primary pitch and is pointed to by the dominant. three flats. but can be confusing. one flat. so the key signature for C dorian must also be two flats. The modes in ex. a perfect fifth is necessary. and B locrian. C dorian is in the key of two flats. the other pitches may vary depending on the mode. 12. misleading. Notice that the locrian mode has a diminished fifth. aeolian. sixth mode of Eb. and neglects some of the most important characteristics about modes. C mixolydian. five flats. C dorian is not in the key of Bb major. It may be helpful at first.2 Modes relative to C major Dorian Lydian Aeolian & w Ionian w w w w w w w w w w w w Phrygian Mixolydian The chart and staff examples likes the ones above are often the only way modes are presented in theory books and classes. C major and A minor are relatives as they share the same key signature. A aeolian. if ever. If C is the tonic for a dorian mode it must be related to the second degree of a Bb major scale. C lydian. The modes can be transposed to any pitch degree as with any scale. and it also represents seven distinct related modes.304 Chapter 12 Modal Jazz Ex. the seventh of Db. D dorian. Ex.3 C Dorian Modes shown with C as Tonic C Phrygian & bw w w w w b w w w w bw w w w w w w C Mixolydian bw w b w w w b w w bw bw bw w w w b w w w C Lydian w w w w # w w w w bw bw w b w w b w b w w C Aeolian (“Pure” Minor) C Locrian & Understanding the relationships of modes to a major scale does not mean that the modes are in that major key. Jazz Theory Resources . The key signature for modes with C as tonic are clear from the illustration below: C phrygian. Locrian is rarely. To establish C as tonic. is in four flats.

3). and distinguishes it from ionian. Ionian has a perfect fourth. one of the minor modes would be chosen. 0b 1b 2b 3b 4b 5b MAJOR MODES MINOR MODES [DIMINISHED] Lydian Ionian (Major) Mixolydian Dorian Aeolian (Minor) Phrygian [Locrian]* *Locrian mode is named and classified. a major or minor third has divided the modes into two groups. and the mode sounds like F phrygian. If the recognizable augmented Jazz Theory Resources . If a darker mood is desired. but is not used in tonal music as it is without a perfect fifth. MODE NAME Relation to Major Scale 4th 1st 5th 2nd 6th 3rd 7th Mode Mode Mode Mode Mode Mode Mode Significant Identifying tones A4 P4. This chart helps aurally identify modes. The last column indicates the key signature for each mode with C as tonic. The minor seventh of mixolydian makes it the darkest of the major modes. The first significant identifying tone in the following chart identifies the pitch that distinguishes it from the mode above it. The third most important pitch in tonal music. 12. Modes can usually be identified by two or three pitches. There is always one pitch that distinguishes one mode from an adjacent mode in the chart below. Lydian mode is the brightest of the major modes due to the augmented fourth interval. that narrows the choices to three modes. 12. The lines below indicate the significant pitches that identify each mode and distinguish one mode from the next. If the mode is identified as major. P5 d5 Key signature for C 1# 0#. Listen first for the major or minor quality. rather than pointing to C. The Gb. M3 m3. so a major interval is brighter than a minor. M6 m6. major 7 m7.4 & c #w w w Lydian nw w w Ionian bw w w Mixolydian bw w w Dorian bw w w Aeolian Phrygian bw ww A chart that shows the modes relative brightness and darkness is more useful than one indicating the modes relationships to notes of a major scale. The major modes and minor modes can be classified by using other intervals to determine the relative brightness and darkness. The mediant. an augmented brighter than a perfect. The modes can be classified in order of brightness and darkness.2) and by their relationship to a single tonic pitch (ex. determines major or minor modality. but should also be classified by their distinct sound if they are to be used musically. the mediant. The chart lists the modes with reference to musical qualities. 12. a perfect brighter than a diminished. The major modes are shown as brighter than the minor modes. its significant identifying tone. One does not have to listen for seven distinct pitches to aurally identifying a mode. making it one shade darker than lydian mode. The interval between the significant tones is always a tritone. Try playing a melody and tonicizing the tonic of a C locrian mode.Chapter 12 Modal Jazz 305 MODES: BRIGHT to DARK Modes can be identified by their relationship to a major scale (as in ex. The next step is to identify the fourth or seventh degrees. M2 m2. The six modes with a perfect fifth can be grouped into three major modes and three minor modes. That in conjunction with the C makes F sound like the tonic. seems to point down to F. Intervals get brighter with size. the second the pitch distinguishes it from the mode below it. This chart will be helpful when creating modal music. The augmented fourth is the significant identifying tone for the lydian mode.

it can only be lydian mode. beginning and ending in the same mode. there is no codified system of chordal progression. While there are popular melodies whose pitches all remain within major scale (Joy to the World. A minor second can only mean phrygian. The numbers indicate the important identifying pitches for each mode. and so requires the leading tone added to the minor scale changing it to harmonic minor. D mixolydian and D lydian. 12. The melodies are in the key of D dorian.. How can we tell if ex. Modal music might never modulate.306 Chapter 12 Modal Jazz fourth is heard. If the minor seventh is recognized. MINOR or MODAL? How is music in ionian mode different from music in a major key. 12. Irish Folk Song in D Dorian mode M6 5 1 m3 3 1 6 œ œ œj j œ œ œ œ œœœœœ œ œ &C œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œj œ œ œ œœœœœœœœ J & J 1 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ 5 œ œ œ œ œ J & J . My Romance ). If the mode is determined to be minor. or music in aeolian different from music in a minor key? Music in the major/minor system implies functional harmony based on the tertian triads. the minor third and major sixth identify the mode as dorian. and no patterns of modulation. no functional harmonic relationships. D aeolian.5 is in D dorian and not C major? The tonic and dominant pitches (1 & 5) are rhythmically and structurally placed to establish D as the tonic. yet none of them are in the key of D major or D minor in the European harmonic system.5 The Walls of Limerick. Modal melodies have been set in the major/minor system framework with varying degrees of success. The brighter major sixth indicates dorian. While there may be chords in modal music. MAJOR. they are set in the major/minor system framework. The following four examples are all in the key of D. it can only be mixolydian. then listen for seconds and sixths to further narrow the choice. œ J 11 Jazz Theory Resources .

The final cadence firmly establishes the D as tonic. œ œ. œ œ .6 and the minor third and minor sixth identify the mode as aeolian. The key signature is not for the key of A major or F# minor. œ œ . œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ &b ˙ 9 œœ œ œ &b ˙ 13 œ œ œ œ.7 The Blackird. œ œ œ .2 confirms D is the tonic. The tonic may be in question at the beginning. œ œ œ . œ . œ. Jazz Theory Resources . Irish Folk Song in D Mixolydian mode 1 # C & 1 œ. The 1-5-1 at the end of m. 12. but the number of dominant and tonic pitches on downbeats increases as the piece progresses. M3 œ œ. œ œ.Chapter 12 Modal Jazz 307 The dominant and tonic are established early in ex. 12. œ. Sing or play the melody and it is clear that D is the tonic pitch. œ œ & 1 # œ. œ œ œ . œ œj œ . 12. œ ˙. œ œ. It is interesting that this very bright melody is from a place called land the Land of the Midnight Sun. œ œ . œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ Ex.7 has a major third and a minor seventh establishing the mixolydian mode. & œ œ œ œœ œ. 5 œ œ. but accurately reflects D lydian.6 Slow Errigal McCreigh. Irish Folk Song in D Aeolian mode 5 1 &b 3 4 1 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ m3 œ œ œ œ œœœœ œ œ œ ˙ 5 m6 œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ &b ˙ 5 œ œ œ. 12. œ œ m7 œ. œ œ. The major quality is revealed by the second note (F#) and the G# reveals the lydian quality by the third note. M3 œ œ œ. 7 Pa Snei is a simple Norwegian folk song in lydian mode. œ 4 M3 # œ. œ œ. .

If ambiguity is your goal.. ˙ ˙. ˙ ˙ ˙. œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœœ œ œ œœœ œœœ œ Œ œ œ œ œ 1 M3 1 5 M3 A4 ### c & & ### j œ œ œ œ. The following excerpts were composed for the book or drawn from existing original compositions and are shown here to illustrate melodies using different modes. Norwegian Folk Song in D Lydian mode 1 5 j œ œ œ. In this case. ˙ ˙ ˙. ## ‰ . just that the placement of those tones in relation to the tonic is what distinguishes one mode from the others. Sometimes this C# can be a leading tone to D. œ œ J œ .10. In order to accurately communicate a mode.9 G Lydian melody: Jazz Waltz # & # 3 4œ ˙. œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ MODAL MELODIC EXAMPLES Copyright restrictions prevent the use of modal examples from contemporary Jazz composers. 12. the tonic must be established. . not functioning as a leading to D. œ. and the other identifying tones must be present to distinguish which minor or major mode is present. In the melody shown in ex. This does not mean that a melody should begin or even include the interval of a tritone. ˙ ˙ ˙.8 Modal Jazz Pa Snei.3. œ œ œ œ. and it may be. ? ## 3 . the mediant must identify the piece as major or minor.. This melody is clearly in the key of Bb mixolydian and not the key of Eb major. œ œ ‰ J ˙ . ˙ ˙. . . & œ . 4˙ ˙. the C# moves down the scale. . ˙. but as the fourth scale degree of lydian mode. ˙ ˙ ˙. G is immediately established as the tonic by the dominant to tonic movement...308 Chapter 12 12. . Lydian mode is confirmed by the C#. ˙ ˙. œ œ ‰ J ˙. Jazz Theory Resources . a tritone away from the tonic.2 and the Dn occurs on the downbeat of m. 12. then the identifying tones must be avoided. The placement of the tritone interval in relation to the tonic is what identifies the mode.. the Ab anticipates m. not necessarily confirming a lydian mode. . 3 j œ œ ‰ J œ. . Œ B b mixolydian must have a major third and minor seventh to distinguish it from ionian and dorian. ? ## ˙ ˙ ˙. Tonic is confirmed by the dominant to tonic motion at the beginning of the first and third phrases and the final two pitches.

. . J ‰ œ œ ˙ ˙ J . œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œœ œœ œœ ..11 F Dorian melody: Medium Swing b &b b c Ó ? b c bb . Œ w ˙ œ w ˙ œ œ ˙.Chapter 12 12. œ œ œ Œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙. 12. ? b cœ bb œ j Œ ‰ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ Ó œ œ œ œ w w Ó j ‰ œ Œ œ ˙ ˙ œ. Œ œ ∑ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ‰ œj ˙ œ ˙ . b œ &b b œ œœ . . ‰ œj ˙ œ œ œ ˙ . œ œœ œœ . but the melody on the top reveals the dorian quality. œ œ œ œ Œ œ œ œœ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ . ˙ ˙. jÓ œ œ œ Ó J œ œ J ‰ œ œ ˙ ˙ J b œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ &b b Œ œ œ ‰ J œ ? b bb .10 Bb Mixolydian melody: Fast Swing Modal Jazz 309 b &b b c œ œ Œ . œ œ œœ . ∑ œ œ . . j œ œ œ œ . ? b œ bb œ .. ‰ œj ˙ . œ œ. j . j . œ œ œœ Jazz Theory Resources .. œ œ . Parts of this melody are voiced for four instruments. Œ w ˙ œ w ˙ œ œ ˙. œ œœ œ œœ œ . ‰ œ œ ˙ ˙.. The major sixth (Dn) and the minor third (Ab) rule out all other modes but dorian.. ‰ œj ˙ .

j ‰ œj œ œ ˙ ... j j ‰ j ‰ œ œ œ œ œ œ. œœ ˙˙ .310 Chapter 12 Modal Jazz F # aeolian must. The lowered second (Db) and the perfect fifth (G) are the two pitches that distinguish phrygian from the brighter aeolian and the darker locrian mode. j œ ˙ ∑ œ. in addition to a minor third. j œ œ.13 C Phrygian melody: Morocco. 12. œ. œ œ œœ . j œ ˙ ˙ . j œ ˙ Œ . The B section ventures away from the C phrygian through remote harmonic passages and returns to the modal A section. œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ ww b & œ œ œ œ œ w œ w ? bb b b œ. ˙ ˙ ˙.2. bbb Œ ‰ j . 12. ? ### 3 4 œ. œ.12.. œ. j ‰ œj . and a major second (G#) to distinguish it from F# phrygian. œ œ œ. and the two modal identification tones occur in m. The minor quality is established in the first measure of ex.. ˙ ˙ ˙ œ ˙ ˙ ˙ j œ œ œ œ Œ Œ œ.. ### & œ. have a minor sixth (Dn) to distinguish it from F# dorian. œ ? ### ˙ œ œ ˙. j œ ˙ j œ ˙ œ.12 F# Aeolian melody: Jazz Waltz ### 3 & 4 œ. j œ ˙ œ. œ œ œ œ Jazz Theory Resources . ‰ œj ˙˙ . 12. œ. ˙ œ J œ œ œ ˙ ˙ œ œ. ˙ ˙ This is the modal A section from a piece called Morocco . jazz samba œ b & b b b Ó Œ ‰ œj œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ‰ œj œ ˙˙ œ ˙ ˙ œœ ? bb b b œ.

Melodies do not have to have clearly defined modes.14 C dorian or C mixolydian? œ b œ Œ ‰ œj œ œ œ œ & c ‰ œ. Here are examples of modal melodies that do not contain a third from completely different cultures. ambiguity may be desirable. Which third do you imagine? 12. Pentatonic scales usually omit the tritone so the mode of a pentatonic melody cannot be absolutely identified.18 is A.16 C major pentatonic # or n n or b C minor pentatonic &w w w ¿ w w ¿ w n or b n or b w ¿ bw w w ¿ bw w Melodies may be constructed with omitted thirds. œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ ∑ From which of the three minor modes is this melody constructed? Phrygian can be ruled out as there is a major second degree. then the identifying pitches must be avoided. Since there is no sixth. but the missing mediant makes positive identification impossible. aeolian and phrygian are missing. The second and sixth. 12. 12. but modes in order to be clearly defined must have their identifying pitches. If a certain ambiguity is desired regarding the modes. A major pentatonic scale consists of the scale steps 1-2-3-5-6. the tonic of 12. the notes which distinguish dorian. This mode could be dorian or mixolydian. j œ ˙ Jazz Theory Resources . However. ionian and mixolydian are missing. All necessary notes were included in the melodies. it could be dorian or aeolian. 12. the notes which distinguish lydian. The fourth and seventh.Chapter 12 Modal Jazz 311 The modes were identifiable in the previous melodic examples. The tonic of ex.17 Japanese National Anthem: Kimi Ga Yo &c œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ 1 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ ˙ œ œ ˙ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ œ œ œ ˙ &œ œ œ œ 7 œ. The melody may still be interesting.15 C dorian or C aeolian? j & bœ œ œ œ œ ‰ œ œ œ bœ Ó œ ‰ b œj œ œ œ œ œ œ ∑ There are many examples of melodies that do not contain all of the notes of a scale or mode. A minor pentatonic scale consists of the scale steps 1-b3-4-5-b7. 12.17 is D.

œ. ‰ j #œ œ œ bœ œ nœ #œ œ ˙ . Does anyone hear this passage with three different tonics? C is the tonic. The Gb will not be heard as a major third (F#) indicating a major mode. œ j œ œ. 12. œ.C is in the key of no sharps and flats. but will be heard as a chromatic passing tone between the G and F.19 identifies the passage as D dorian. D dorian indicates D is the tonic and D would never sound like the tonic in this setting. The proof is in the hearing. with the minor third and the major sixth. Using the same logic. The first measure in ex. The tonic is the primary pitch. but it might be helpful to think of the mathematics.18 Modal Jazz Barrick Hill: Irish melody # 6œ & 8 1 j œ œ œ œ j œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ J œ œ œ œ J œ œ œ œ œ J œ J œ. it is helpful to describe certain chords and sounds by their modal names so that an Fmaj7 (IV) may be described as a lydian sound to distinguish it from a major scale sound (I). Œ WHEN is it MODAL & WHEN is it FUNCTIONAL HARMONY? A piece that begins with the progression Dm7 . The G# will be heard as a passing tone between the G and A.I progression. Jazz Theory Resources . œ J œ.G7 . which would indicate a phrygian mode.19 & c œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙. but will be heard as a leading tone to the En. However.V7 . œ œ. 12. The tones that identify a particular mode must be clear and distinguishable from the chromatic embellishment. G mixolydian followed by C ionian produces more confusion. it would be misleading to suggest that a modal piece in D dorian is really in the key of C. It is terribly misleading when the Dm7 is labeled as dorian.312 Chapter 12 12. œ œ œ œ œ J œ J œ J j œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ J œ J œ J œ. Labeling the passage as D dorian. and clearly the passage reflects the major/minor system with the functional ii7 . and 2 cannot be 1. œ. with just the ii7 chord sounding. The D# in the second measure will not be mistaken for an Eb. It cannot be D dorian as C is the tonic indicated by the traditional harmonic progression. Tonic is 1 and supertonic is 2. & 5 # œ # œ # œ & 9 œ œ œ œ J œ œ œ œ J & 13 Chromatic embellishment is possible in modal music as with any tonal music. in contemporary compositions that have mixtures of modal and functional harmony. there cannot be two primary pitches.

aeolian or phrygian.” “C lydian. and C7susb9.V7 Bb E7 V7 A minor Jazz Theory Resources . Joe Henderson. could only be dorian. as the B section of So What planes up a half-step to Eb dorian. TUNES with MODAL & FUNCTIONAL HARMONY COMBINATIONS The form below illustrates the blending of modal and functional harmony. Look for a wide variety of modal influenced compositions from Herbie Hancock. Modal compositions may be constructed on a single mode similar to an old folk song. Db/C. A modal composition may move from one mode to another mode sometimes planing (moving symmetrically to a different tonal plane) up or down by certain intervals. It begins as a dorian piece with A as the tonic. F7. Modal jazz forms often echo the forms of standard songs.F7 ii7 . Cm9b6 clearly verifies aeolian. The few forms and chord progressions that will be discussed are from very common jazz compositions. Maiden Voyage and other classic jazz modal tunes. and Cm6. indicating an An over the Cm.V7 Ab ‘ ‘ A bmaj7 I Ab ‘ ‘ Abm7.Eb7 ii7 . the F# brings it back to dorian mode.1. C Phrygian is often indicated by Gø7/C.” or “C mixolydian.E7. Sometimes the chord symbol alone is ambiguous in the identification the mode. major b6). 12. but when the melody enters again at m.” Copyright laws restrict the use of copyrighted material for even brief examples. the Cm7 becomes the ii7 chord in Bb major leading to the V7. John Coltrane and others. CHORD SYMBOLS & MODES Chord symbols in modal piece often are carried over from traditional settings.V7 in the key of A minor. C7sus. Chord symbols that indicate C mixolydian include: Gm7/C. Wayne Shorter. like the AABA form for So What. A Cm7 could be dorian.C7 ii7 .V7 Gb Cm7 C dorian G bmaj7 I Gb ‘ ‘ Gm7. Miles Davis. The melody may reveal the necessary pitches which identify the specific mode. The dorian mode is planed up a minor third to C dorian. passages will be labeled by the tonic or root and the mode name as in “C dorian.Chapter 12 Modal Jazz 313 MODAL TUNES in JAZZ PRACTICE Experiments with modal music in jazz composition often combine modal techniques with concepts from the major/minor system.I in descending steps ending with the cadence F .20 Am7 A dorian B bmaj7 I Bb Modal Passages & Functional Harmony ‘ ‘ Bbm7. The second half of the piece sequences ii7 . Cmaj7 could be lydian or ionian. other exotic modes. but chord progressions and standard forms cannot be copyrighted. and Cmaj7#11 could only be lydian. It can be found in the melody of the piece from which this form is borrowed. At the end of the phrase. The chord symbol does not reveal the requisite F# that identifies the mode as dorian. Bbm/C. In many situations. The traditional Greek modes may be mixed with modes from other scales (melodic minor. Bbmaj7. It will be easy to find written copies for further independent study. Bb/C. and mixed with passages of colorful. The key of A minor would indicate an Fn.V7 .Db7 ii7 . Modal passages may be linked to passages using functional harmonic progressions. but non-functional harmony.V7 F ‘ ‘ Fmaj7 I F Cm7 . A Cm9 symbol eliminates phrygian as a possibility but leaves it to the melody to supply an Ab or An indicating aeolian or dorian. a VI . Chick Corea.

5. It begins that way with the Eb mixolydian. The form below illustrates the use of a structured set of modes over a form. imagine a sixteen measure form. then dorian or mixolydian would be appropriate choices for the first phrase.21 F Mixolydian 2b F Dorian 3b Modes over a Pedal F ‘ ‘ F Aeolian 4b F Phrygian 5b ‘ ‘ F Locrian 6b F Aeolian 4b ‘ E b Mixolydian 4b F Ionian 1b F Aeolian 4b ‘ Db Mixolydian 6b MODAL PLANING The following progression had its beginning as background music in a television commercial for a men’s cologne before becoming a jazz classic. The form is AABA.22 Am7/D Am7/D B bm7/E b Am7/D Modal Planing ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ Cm7/F Cm7/F C#m13 Cm7/F ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ MODAL PROGRESSIONS Modal progression sounds like an oxymoron since the nature of most modal music is the absence of harmonic progression. but instead of moving up to the F# mixolydian. Note the use of locrian in m. A switch to phrygian signals a very dramatic downturn. The C# dorian and the F# mixolydian share the same key signature (5#). where each four measure phrase uses a different mode. 12. Combining modes can tell a story. crops and children are healthy and growing. If the second phrase shifts to a darker mode like aeolian. The six ancient modes offer a range from very bright (lydian) to very dark (phrygian). is one of them. from a piece called Moss . An invading army of giants has been spotted coming toward the kingdom. The kingdom is happy. but the dorian sound is the result of the bass playing a C# rather than an F#. a structured predetermined series of modes can used. so the perception remains that F is tonic. I have only encountered two instances of locrian working in a tonal setting and this one. the locrian mode is surrounded by tonal modes (modes with perfect fifths). In this instance. 12. The B section looks like it could be just like the A section transposed up a half-step. If the story begins with relative calm. or an unstructured set of modes may be employed at the discretion of the improvisers. so the notes are the same. Each different mode shades the story line. it moves down to a C# dorian. A single mode can be used over the whole form. then something has changed the stability of the story. Yes. The F remains the tonic but the color of the piece changes with the modes. The A sections use a D mixolydian mode than planes up a minor third to an F mixolydian mode. For an example.314 Chapter 12 Modal Jazz TUNES with MODAL MIXTURE Jazz improvisers may use modes over a pedal tone in three different ways. Interesting and expressive music can be created using the modes as a palette of colors to shape construct dramatic contours for a composition This is a departure from the ancient concept of modal melodies. they have entered the Jazz Theory Resources . Modal progression indicates a series of different modes.

changing the mode to G phrygian.25 G Aeolian 2b dark ‘ ‘ ‘ Bb Mixolydian 3b brighter ‘ ‘ ‘ This progression could be extended to create the sixteen measure form below. Dorian is a dark mode because of the minor third. the effect is brighter. and that takes precedence over the effect of the key signature. 12. If G is kept as tonic. A battle ensues between the knights and the giants.24 G Aeolian 2b dark ‘ ‘ ‘ G Phrygian 3b darker ‘ ‘ ‘ Will the third flat make it darker if the tonic is changed from G to another pitch? If the mode changes to Bb mixolydian. marries the prince who saved her. The momentum may be lost by staying with tonic G for too long. 12. it will be darker. Mixolydian is brighter than aeolian. Music does not ever have to follow a concrete or ridiculous story line. The form uses five different modes. but only three different key signatures. Adding one flat will change the G dorian to G aeolian. A composition form or improvisational framework can be created using the concepts of mixing modes into a type of modal progression. The progression below begins with G dorian mode (key of 1b). 12. and they live happily-ever-after in infinite bliss signified by the raised fourth degree of the lydian mode. The D phrygian is darker than the Bb mixolydian even though the third flat has been removed. G aeolian and D phrygian share the key signature of two flats and yet have a completely different character. but the brightest of the minor modes because of the major sixth. 12. the minor sixth making the second phrase a darker setting.Chapter 12 Modal Jazz 315 kingdom and kidnapped the princess-to-be.23 G Dorian 1b ‘ ‘ ‘ G Aeolian 2b darker ‘ ‘ ‘ It reasons that if another flat is added it will be darker still. but it is useful here for demonstration.26 G Dorian 1b medium dark/bright Bb Mixolydian 3b brighter Modal Form: Progression of Modes ‘ ‘ ‘ G Aeolian 2b darker ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ D Phrygian 2b Darker ‘ Ab Lydian 3b Very Bright ‘ Jazz Theory Resources . It ends with the very bright lydian mode. The final phrase shifts to lydian which indicates the maiden has been saved. The same is true for Bb mixolydian and Ab lydian which share the key signature of three flats.

. Phrygian is confirmed by the chord on the upbeat of two which contains the Eb. 12. indicating the shift to Bb mixolydian. . 12. Since an En has not sounded. Ex.. œ œ œ œ. 12. The melodic motive is rhythmically displaced and transposed to reveal the Eb which signals the change to aeolian. jazz waltz. The melody clearly indicates the modes by using the identifying pitches. bossa. a very bright mode. Keeping the same key signature and changing the tonic to C changes the context to C lydian. Ab. This is a possible composition using a similar form. œ œ œœ j œ ˙˙ œ œœ ˙ ˙ Œ Endless modal forms are possible. œ œœ ∑ G A eolian b &b Ó 5 œ œ œ œ j‰ j ‰ œ œ œ œ œœ ww œ œœ œ œ w The third phrase begins with the added flat. The A aeolian is a moderately dark minor mode..316 Chapter 12 Modal Jazz This form could be used in any number of ways.0b very bright ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ Jazz Theory Resources . ˙ ˙˙ . The An indicates the mode change to Eb Lydian. D phrygian is implied by the context as it follows Eb lydian. The form ends changing to another lydian mode. The progression could be played with any kind of feel: swing.27 Medium Swing . En and Bb clarify the dorian mode in the first phrase.29 is another form that contrast dark with bright. jÓ œœ ‰ œ œ J œ œ œœ œœ .28 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ . œ œ w œ œ œ œ b c œ œ & œ œœ ww 1 G Dorian . The duration for each mode could be doubled to create a thirty-two measure form. 13 j œ œœ ˙ ˙˙ ‰ œj œ œ œ œ . An extreme change occurs when the brightest mode changes to the darkest mode at the G phrygian. ballad. œ b œ œ œ œ ‰ œj œ &b b Œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œœ œ 9 B b Mixolydian 12. Œ œ œ E b Lydian D Phrygian b . & b nœ œ œ ..29 E Aeolian 1# dark G Phrygian 3b very dark ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ C Lydian 1# very bright F Lydian 0# . nothing contradicts the Eb and so it lingers in the ear..

n &nn w F Lydian œ œ œ œ ‰ j ˙. œ œ. 12.31 Even eight note continued b .2 verifies aeolian mode. j œ œ. œ. œ ? b b b œ ‰ œj œ œ ˙. 12. The F# in m. &b b œ G Phrygian œ œ œ J œ œ œ ˙ ‰ œj œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ n œ œ œ œ ‰ œj œ œ œ œ ˙ U ˙. the major second. œ œ. j j œ œ œ œ œ.30 Even eighth notes # . j œ œ.29 could be treated with an even eighth note feel as shown below in ex..1. 12. E Aeolian ˙ ‰ œj œ œ ˙ ‰ j œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ j œ œ œ œ œ. J J J œ œ œ The Eb in the first measure below immediately rules out G dorian and the Ab verifies this passage is in G phrygian mode. C Lydian # ‰ œj œ & Ó œ œ œ j œ œ. ‰ J œ œ œ j œ œ. Separate chords in common progressions were sometimes viewed as having individual scales. ‰ j œ œ œ œ œ ‰ j w œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ . œj œ . ? n n n œ. J œ œ. œ œ œ Playing in modal settings influenced the way jazz artists composed new material and affected their approach on tunes with traditional harmonic structures. ‰ j œ ˙. ? # œ. This may in part led to the practice of imposing other Jazz Theory Resources . 12. & .Chapter 12 Modal Jazz 317 The form from ex. The third phrase suggests motives from the first phrase. œ œ (œ œ) . j œ œ. identifies this passage as either aeolian or dorian and not phrygian. The last phrase echoes motives from the first and the prominent placement of Bn establishes the mode as F lydian.30. œ œ œ . . The F# now identifies the mode as C lydian. J j œ œ œ œ œ . The Cn in m... j œ œ œ œ j ? # .

A motive is not separated from a rhythmic context. improvisations were found to be based on the theme or paraphrasing the melody. They can be inverted using exact intervals or generally. There are tones which identify the specific modes. Augmentation : To augment is to make something larger. Sequencing: Transposing to other pitch levels in a repeating series. There are several devices for developing a motive once it has been stated. What follows is a list and an example of each device applied to a musical idea. Addition or interpolation: The opposite of fragmentation. This is not perceived by the casual observer but is a useful develomental device. Displacement: May be applied to rhythms or pitches. Compositional Devices for Motivic Development Repetition: The theme must recur for it to be a theme. Retrograde inversion: the original can occur upside down and backwards. Pitches may be displaced by moving them up or down an octave. Diminution : To diminish is to reduce something.) Other longer harmonic passages in traditional tunes were reduced and trimmed down to resemble modal sections. MOTIVIC DEVELOPMENT In a traditional harmonic settings. Material is added to the motive. Another approach to compositional structure in improvisation is through the use of motivic development. A motive may be rhythmically displaced to a different part of the phrase earlier or later than might be expected Jazz Theory Resources . the intervals and even the orchestration. Inversion : The intervals of the original idea can be turned upside down. Many significant musical works have been created using motivic development. Embellish or ornament: This differs from the addition of notes before or after as it involves the elaboration of the original note using neighbor tones while still following the general contour of the original idea. Retrograde: The motive is played with the pitches in reverse order.318 Chapter 12 Modal Jazz modes and scales over the existing basic harmonies of traditional progressions. following the diatonic intervals. This can apply to rhythmic units. Can running up and down the appropriate scales be the improvisational basis? It often is the foundation for many beginning students. The absence of harmonic structure as a mechanism for propelling music makes motivic development a particularly helpful tool for developing ideas in modal settings . A motive (or motif) is a short musical idea or theme for development and may be newly invented or derived from the written melodic material. Motivic development is certainly not limited to modal settings. The new material can occur before. sometimes in a general way and other times many specific ways. This is also not always recognizable to the casual observer. Many of the devices which are listed below may be combined with other devices. Musically this can apply to the rhythmic units. they do not have to be independently applied to a musical idea. based on the harmony. (These other scales will be discussed in chapter 14. or in the middle of the original motive which is usually intact and recognizable. It is often repeated soon after its initial statement so as to familiarize the listener (and the improviser) with the material to be developed. and often the rhythmic context is as important or more important than the pitch structure of the theme or motive. the intervals and the orchestration. Fragmentation: Using a smaller portion of the initial idea. What is the foundation for an improvisation in a modal setting? There are no guide tones to suggest motion from one functional chord to the next. after. The first and most important device is repetition: the motive must recur or it is not a motive.

33 &c œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ Chromatic Sequence: Here the motive is repeated in series exactly following the intervallic structure of the originals motive.1. Repetition: A motive (bracketed) is repeated with rhythmic displacement: 12.Chapter 12 Modal Jazz 319 Mode Change: The motive might be set in other modes. The second occurrence of the motive is an exact transposition up major second. For example. The third occurrence moves the motive up and sacrifices the exact intervals for diatonic intervals. Diatonic Sequence 12. all intervals within the motive match exactly and are within the D dorian mode. Iteration: Repetition. There is a brilliant example of reducing the theme in Beethoven’s firth symphony in the first movement. Jazz Theory Resources . then only the first two notes and then the first three.34 œ & c œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ bœ œ bœ œ œ œ bœ bœ œ œ œ œ Ó Fragmentation : The original motive is stated in m. and these single notes are heard as fragments of the original. All devices may be combined. Doing so introduces several notes outside of D dorian which may or may not be the desired result. Making a simple rhythm more active by repeating melodic pitches. 12. At one point he reduces the second theme to two notes and then to one note. the retrograde inversion can be sequenced in augmented form with octave and rhythmic displacement. The original intervals of the motive are followed generally not specifically. moving ↑m2 — ↓m3 — ↓M3.32 &c œ œ œ œ ˙ Ó œ œ œ œ Sequence : The motive is sequenced by transposing to other pitch levels using diatonic intervals. The original motive moves up a major second—down a major third—down a minor third (↑ M2 — ↓ M3 — ↓ m3).

36 &c œ œ œ œ ˙ #œ œ nœ œ ˙ Augmentation and Diminution of the rhythmic values: The original values have been expanded freely in m. œ œ Elaborating or Embellishing : The original theme is stated with an augmented rhythm in the first bracket. œ œ œ ˙. the lower and upper neighbors (E & G) to F. Œ Ó œœœœŒ Addition: The original motive is still intact in the example below. Jazz Theory Resources . F & D) occur at exactly the same rhythmic spots and the A is displaced by an eighth note.39 & c œ œ Œ œ œ œ ˙. 12. The second statement is embellished by the leading tone (G#) to A. Three of original pitches (G.2.320 Chapter 12 12. and the lower and upper neighbors (C# & E) to D.38 &c Ó ‰ j œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ Addition or Interpolation: Two notes of the original motive occur followed by newly added material before the last two notes of the original occur.37 &c ˙ .35 Modal Jazz &c œ œ œ œ ˙ Œ œ œ Ó ‰ œj œ œ Augmentation and Diminution of the intervals: Each interval of the original motive (↑ M2 — ↓ M3 — ↓m3) is augmented to become ↑m3 — ↓P4 — ↓P4 in the first measure and the intervals reduce to become ↑m2 — ↓M2 — ↓M2 in the second. 12. but opening and closing notes have been added to make it a longer phrase.1 and diminished exactly in half in m. 12. 12.

There is an excellent example of extreme octave displacement of a very familiar melody in Stravinsky’s Greeting Prelude. Listen to how octave displacement makes it difficult for many to recognize a tune that everyone knows.” and “Poor Dan is in a droop.43 Original Inversion Retrograde Retrograde Inversion &w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w A palindrome is a word. j Ó œ Œ œ #œ œ œ nœ œ #œ œ œ Octave Displacement: The last two pitches of the original motive have been transposed up an octave. The motive moves forward and then retraces its steps back to the first note. Musical palindromes are possible when the original and the retrograde are placed next to each other.” are palindromes. The phrases “Madam. and in retrograde inversion with the intervals upside down and backwards. I’m Adam. Even the general framework for Amazing Grace is a palindrome. 12.41 œ œ Ó &c œ œ Rhythmic Displacement: This is a typical jazz syncopation where the motive occurs every three beats with a meter of four. sentence or numerical sequence that is the same forwards and backwards. 12. 12. and rotator are palindromes.42 &c œ œ œ œ Œ œ œ œ œ Œ œ œ œ œ Some very mathematical and seemingly contrived devices can and do occur naturally in improvised music. The character of a motive can be drastically changed by octave displacement as the overall contour changes. radar. A motive can recur in inversion with its intervals reversed or backwards. Jazz Theory Resources . in retrograde with its intervals sounding in reverse or upside down.Chapter 12 12. deified.40 Modal Jazz 321 &c Ó Œ œ ˙ œ. The words civic.

Try inventing a form for improvisation or composition with an emotional curve dictated by a progression of modes. (2) determine if the mode is bright or dark. but the iteration of each note yields an eighth note subdivision.322 Chapter 12 Modal Jazz 12.45 &c Œ œ œ œ œ Œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ MOTIVIC DEVELOPMENT in MODAL IMPROVISATION The two chorus improvisation by Miles Davis over the modal tune So What from the Kind of Blue recording offers an opportunity to examine the application of some compositional devices in the context of a modal piece. play melodic modal fragments and identify the correct mode. (1) listen for the major or minor quality. How do the rhythmic settings change the melodic approaches? Try developing simple motives while improvising on the newly created forms rather than endless scale motion. (3) listen for the important identifying pitches. Establish the tonic and incorporate the necessary identification tones within the melody. This solo is shown and analyzed in chapter 18. SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES • • • • • • With a partner. Listen and study the forms or the pieces. chord symbol or melodic content? Listen to recordings and evaluate the melodic approaches used by the performers. What techniques of melodic development did they use? Transcribe improvisations over modal frameworks. 12. Is it constructed of more than one mode? How where the modes put together? Does the melody clearly identify the mode or is it ambiguous? Are the modes labeled or implied by the key signature. The motive’s melodic value in the second measure is quarter notes. What approaches did the artist use to develop the improvisation? Were the modes clearly defined? Was there chromatic embellishment or strict adherence to the diatonic modes? Were there echoes of bebop or other vocabulary in the improvisation? What kinds of ideas can you take from this improvisation to add to your playing? • Jazz Theory Resources .44 Retrograde + Original Original + Retrograde &c œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ Ó œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ Ó Iteration: The rhythmic character of a line can be enhanced by repeated notes. Invent some unaccompanied. Can you play a short motive. Try shifting the tonal centers and varying the color of the modes from bright to dark. Try improvising and composing over the newly created forms using different rhythmic settings. stop and listen and develop it using the devices listed in this chapter? Learn and improvise over common jazz modal pieces. simple modal melodic phrases.

etc. Many jazz musicians are drawn to the open ambiguous qualities of chords constructed in fourths. All of these diatonic triads contain at least one interval of a perfect fourth. 13.1 shows several quartal chords available from the key of no sharps or flats based using only perfect fourth intervals. Ex. A triad built with thirds is a tertian triad.Chapter 13 Quartal Harmony 323 XIII.2 “So what” chords &w w w ?w w w w w w w Diatonic triads in a major scale are constructed using every other tone from the scale (1-3-5.P4 . The quartal triad or extended quartal structures are not labeled with any conventional shorthand chord notation. Diatonic triads of a pentatonic scale can be created by skipping a tone in that scale.1 Quartal structures using only perfect fourths w &c w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w The most familiar quartal voicing in jazz literature is from So What. 2-4-6. The second diatonic chord is a first inversion D minor triad. and Jazz Theory Resources . Triad really means a group of three. Quartal chords are primarily constructed of perfect fourths. Diatonic chords from a D minor pentatonic are shown below in ex. These voicings (ex.3. 13.2) are often referred to as the “So What” voicings. Quartal chords may be extended beyond the triad just as can tertian chords.P4 . Applied to chords. a distinction must be made as to the intervals from which the triads are constructed. third and fourth chords are constructed using just perfect fourths. QUARTAL HARMONY Many music dictionaries define triads as three note chords constructed of consecutive intervals of thirds.) which creates all tertian triads. 13.2 is constructed using all the notes of a pentatonic scale. Each chord in ex. Jazz and non-jazz composers in the twentieth century have experimented with chord structures based on intervals other than thirds. The first. but may include other intervals such as an augmented fourth and a major third as part of its extended structure. 3-5-7. They are primarily constructed with perfect fourths with a major third on the top: (from bottom to top) P4 .M3. 13. a triad built with fourths would be a quartal triad. This definition reveals a nineteenth century bias when most of the European art music was based on chords built in thirds. from the Kind of Blue recording. 13. 13.

built on A. 13. it creates an ambiguous suspended chord. Over D. The tritone. between those two pitches is the only interval of a fourth in this mode that is not the interval of a perfect fourth. The two inverted tertian triads show why this scale is called D minor or F major pentatonic.3 P4 – P4 Diatonic triads of D minor or F major pentatonic M3 – P4 P4 – P4 P4 – P4 P4 – M3 w ¿ w w ¿ w ¿ w w ¿ w w ¿ w ¿ w &w ¿ w ¿ w ¿ w ¿ w The quartal chords can be extended to include all five notes of the pentatonic scale. The chord below is shown with four different bass notes.6 derived from the aeolian mode in A. The first chord over the A in the bass creates an Am7 or A minor pentatonic sound. The first chord is the original “so what” chord. 13. is constructed of all perfect fourth intervals. it could either be a D suspended dominant or a D minor ninth chord with a missing third. 13. Only the fourth chord. an augmented fourth.324 Chapter 13 Quartal Harmony the fifth is the second inversion of an F major triad. the others are inversions. 13. The quartal character of these diatonic chords illustrates the link between quartal sounds pentatonic scales. Four of the five chords below have at least one interval of a major third.4 Extended quartal chords from D minor or F major pentatonic M3-P4-P4-P4 P4-P4-M3-P4 P4-P4-P4-P4 P4-M3-P4-P4 P4-P4-P4-M3 &w w w ?w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w The “so what” chord can be used in other contexts. Every chord below Jazz Theory Resources . All seven diatonic five note quartal chords are shown below in ex. Fn and Bn are the two tones that distinguish A aeolian from A dorian and A phrygian.5 Am7 Extended quartal chords from D minor or F major pentatonic Fmaj9 D7sus or Dm9 Bbmaj7#11 w &w w w ?w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w bw Quartal chords can be extracted from any mode or scale. A bright lydian sound is suggested with Bb in the bass. The same notes over an F in the bass creates an Fmaj7 with a ninth and thirteenth.

With G on the bottom. 13. Passages similar to the one in ex. like a tertian triad.8 Quartal triad and inversions w &w w ww w ww w The inversions of quartal triads have a different characteristic sound since they include the interval of a second. Chord (3) contains notes not found in C minor. The first chord. 13.7 Quartal triads in parallel motion (1) (2) (3) (2) (1) &Ó ? w w .9. With C on the bottom the second inversion is constructed M2 . The inversions may work in a setting by themselves or can be mixed with quartal chords in root position as in ex. Chord (2) would be ambiguous without the context of the chord (1).M2. Only the notes of a C minor pentatonic are used in the first two measures.Chapter 13 Quartal Harmony 325 that contains Fn and Bn will include the augmented fourth mixed with intervals of a perfect fourth.6 ↓ Five note quartal chords from A aeolian ↓ ↓ w &w w w w ?w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w Quartal chords move nicely in parallel motion. The three chords below contain the pitches D. œ bb bœ œ Œ .P4. slipping back down to chord (2) and then to (1) in the last measure. 13.. may be inverted. with D on the bottom is a quartal triad using only perfect fourths. œ œ œ. 13. œ bbœ œ ‰ œj w œ œ w w w w Ó w w . The quartal chord (1) verifies Cm7 with the Bb and Eb. Jazz Theory Resources .7 are prevalent in jazz performances and compositions and are often used to establish the rhythmic setting. w w j b œ ˙ bœ œ ˙ ˙ The individual pitches of a quartal triad. the original chord is inverted and the construction is P4 . The chords marked with an “↓” are constructed exclusively using intervals of a perfect fourth. but acts as an upper neighbor chord. 13. G. and C.

j b œ ˙ bb œ œ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙˙ w w w w w w w #œ œ œ j ‰ bœ b œ œ ? ‰ œj Œ œ &˙ ˙ ˙ ? ‰ œj Œ œ j ‰ œ œ Œ j w ‰ œ œ w œ w j ‰ œ œ w w The diatonic chords of a pentatonic scale may be inverted. & œœ œ . and one of their inversions will be a root position tertian chord.10 Mixture of quartal & tertian triads with inversions over G pedal . ? w w œœ œ œœ œ J . œ œ j ‰ œœ ww œ w j ‰ œ œ w w ˙ ˙˙ ˙ ˙ Ó Ó Quartal triads...326 Chapter 13 13.10 over a G pedal.. j #œ ˙ # œ œ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ j . The chord at the end of the first line is a quartal chord in root position but the upper interval is an augmented fourth. 13. œ œœ . Common to all the voicings below is the interval of a perfect fourth as the lower interval.9 Quartal Harmony Inversions of quartal triads used over pedal A .11 m Diatonic chords from A minor & C major pentatonic M m M m M &w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w ww w w w w w ww w w w w w w w ww w w w w w w w w w Jazz Theory Resources . bœ œ œ . # œ œ ˙ bœ œ œ œ ˙ ˙ w w ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ . Two of the triads are tertian inversions to begin with. 13. their inversions and other tertian chords and their inversions may be mixed. & œœ œ .. œ œ . begins with a quartal triad in first inversion and chromatically moves to a tertian triad in second inversion. œ œœ . 13. The last four chords in the passage are quartal triads in root position constructed with perfect fourths. The passage in ex.. œ œ œ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ .

The passage ended with a quartal chord built with perfect fourths the first time. ‰ œj ˙ . The C major or A minor pentatonic chords suggest Am7 over an A in the bass. the An has been lowered to Ab. Over the F bass. ‰ œj ˙ . and for the Fmmaj7.Chapter 13 Quartal Harmony 327 These pentatonic quartal triads may be used over different bass notes as voicings creating a variety of chords. and its tritone substitute Bb9#11.12 “So what” chords with alterations w & bw w w ? w w Gm 7 w w w w w bw w w w w # B b9 11 bw w w w w w w w bw w E7b 13 #9 bw w w w w w w w w bw w Fm maj 7 w w w bw 13. vi7 in C. Œ œ œ œ . ˙. 13. or A aeolian. In the remaining measures. œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ. creating an augmented fourth interval on the bottom of the chord.. œ &4 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ. The original “so what” voicings are shown for Gm7 in the first measure in ex. . 13. ˙ ˙ .. . . Œ bbœ œ œ œ Guitarist Steve Mazokowski used combinations of quartal and tertian inversions in these two excerpts from his composition What It Was. ˙ ˙ . j . 13. 3 œ Œ Œ œ . . . iii7 in F.. A Bb in the bass suggests Bb lydian or Bbma7 as a IV chord.. ˙. Œ œ œ œ . the chords become an Fma7 as I or IV. œ œ œ œ œ œ œ. . they are useful for an ambiguous Dm7. ˙ ˙ œ . œ .11 Am 7 Diatonic chords of A minor/C major pentatonic over other Bass Notes Fmaj7 w w w w w w &w w w w w w w w w ?w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w Dm7 w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w # B bmaj7 11 w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w bw w bw bw bw bw Individual pitches of the “so what” chord may be altered to create completely different sounds. The Am7 could be a ii7 in G. with the absence of any third. ?3 4 ˙ ˙ .12. ˙. j œ Œ œ . Jazz Theory Resources .. Scandal in Bohemia. œ œ œ Œ ‰ œj ˙ .. the bottom two voices were lowered for a completely different quartal sound.13 Bert Ligon: Ending to Scandal in Bohemia bw w w This ending to an original composition. uses parallel diatonic quartal chords. œ . œ œ. and on a later repetition. œ œ œ . With D in the bass. This altered “so what” chord pair works well for the E7 alt.. œ œ .

. œ bbœ œœ œ œ . Floating two note quartal chords & melody over F pedal œ œbœ .. œ œ . guitar and flute play the melody.328 Chapter 13 Ex.. .. Arches . b b œ œ œ œ nœ . œ œ . b b œ œ œ œ ∑ & œ bœ œ ≈ bœ bœ œ œ œ œ œ & . w w ww œ ˙.. b b œ œ . 13. b b œ œ œ œ Jazz Theory Resources . #œ œ œ œ œ œbœ . ˙ & ‰ J & bbœ œ œ œ bb˙ ˙ ˙ Œ ‰ œ bœ bœ bœ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ j œ œ nnœ œ . Œ ‰ œ bœ bœ bœ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ j œ œ nnœ œ .14 Quartal Harmony Mixture of inverted quartal & tertian triads &c ?c œ œ œœ # # œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ n œ œ œ œ j œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ j œ ˙ œ ‰œ œ œ œ ˙ œ œ œ œ # œ ˙ œ# œ œœ œ œ œ œœœ œ œœœœ w w w œ w w w œ œœœœœœœ œœœœœœœ & ? œœ # # œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ n œ œ œ œ j œ œ œ œ j œ ˙ œ ‰bbœ œ œ œ ˙ œ œ œ œ # œ ˙ œ# œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ The first section of an original composition. Woodwinds softly play a descending floating pair of notes a perfect fourth apart over the F pedal while flugelhorn...... ˙ & ‰ J & bbœ œ œ œ bb˙ ˙ . 13. ˙ ˙ . ∑ w w ww Œ Œ œ œ .. bœ œ ˙. œ ˙ œ ˙ b œ ˙ œ . b b œ œ . ˙ ˙ .. b b œ œ œ œ œ ˙. Œ Œ œ œ . œ ˙. occurs over an F pedal. œ bbœ œœ œ œ .15 Bert Ligon: Arches. bbœ œ œ œ ˙ .

. Œ #œ œ œ b œ œœ œœ œœ n b œœ œ œœ b b ˙ ˙˙ . œ œ œ œ œ bœ . .16 Bert Ligon: Arches. #œ œ bbœ œ . ˙ ‰ j≈ j œ œ œ œ . ˙ j j . ˙ œ bœ bœ bœ ? c bw œ bœ bœ bœ w Quartal voicings have found their way into traditional harmonic settings. œ œ œ œ œ bbœ œ œ œ œ ‰ œ œ J œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ ‰ J w w w w w w Jazz Theory Resources . œ œ œ .. . 13. cont. 13. # œ œ œ œ b œ.bbœ œ œ œ ‰ bœ œ bœ œ œ ˙ . 13.. œ œ œ . œ œ . Reduction: two-note chords + melody note = quartal triads w & bbw w ? w w b b w w w w n bn w w w w b bn w w w w n #n w w w ww bbw w w w w w Stevie Wonder has written some very jazz sounding pop songs and has occasionally used quartal chords to achieve a contemporary sound. œ œ bœ œ ˙ & . These inverted quartal chords occur a Gb pedal in the introduction to a piece. Quartal Harmony 329 & œ bœ œ ≈ bœ bœ œ œ œ œ ... The augmented fourth interval which makes the chords dominant seventh chords. œ œ The reduction shown in ex. shows how the two-note floating quartal chords and the melody combine to make different quartal triads over the F pedal.18 Dominant chords with quartal voicings b &b Ó ? b Ó b . œ œ . 13. are on the bottom of each voicing.Chapter 13 Arches.18 are stacked quartal chords moving parallel. The dominant chords in ex.16 from Arches. #œ œ œ œ . bœ œ œ œ œ œ . œ œ œ œ . Œ #œ œ œ b œ œœ œœ œœ n b œœ œ œœ b b ˙ ˙˙ . œ œ ˙ ˙ ‰ œj ≈ œj . 13. œ œ bœ .17 Quartal Triads over a Pedal & j j . ˙ ˙ bœ .

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The inversion of a quartal chord shown in ex. 13.19 is attractive with the top melodic pitch doubled an octave lower. It can be used in a number of musical settings. It is shown below over an Ab lydian sound. Pat Metheny has used a similar idea at the end of tunes.

# A bm aj7 11

13.19

Quartal Chords over Lydian

& œœ œ œœ b b œ œ œ œ œ œ b œ b œ œ œ œ

œ œ bbb œœ œ œ œ bœ

œ b œœ œ œœ b b œ œ

w w w w

The quartal chord with an augmented fourth on the bottom is useful for a dominant chord. The Ab - D G chord is useful for a Bb13 chord (7-3-13) or for the tritone substitute dominant E7 (3-7-#9). The chord may also be used for Fm, Dø7, and G7susb9 chords. The inversion of this chord is very dissonant with the minor second clash in the middle, however, that may be the very reason to use it. Guitarist John Scofield uses these chords and inversions in many contexts. 13.20

& w bw w

bw ww

b ww w

A listening list for other artists using quartal harmonies must include McCoy Tyner, especially with the John Coltrane Quartet and Blue Note recordings from the 1960’s, and Herbie Hancock with Miles Davis and Wayne Shorter.

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XIV .

OTHER SCALES & COLORS

The focus of this book has primarily been the relationship of jazz to the major/minor system. Melodic material has been shown as it relates to the major or harmonic minor scale with chromatic elaboration. Searching for other expressive colors, jazz musicians have found other scales for harmonic and melodic material. The major/minor system is not tossed aside, rather it is used as a platform or foundation on which other colors are placed. Experimentation with other scales and chords inspired jazz composers to create music whose harmonic and melodic vocabulary specifically calls for sounds not available from the major and harmonic minor scales. Five other scales and their modes will be introduced in this chapter: melodic minor, major b 6 (sometimes called harmonic major), symmetrical diminished (sometimes called octatonic), whole tone, and augmented. The relationship of each mode to a specific chord and harmonic and melodic applications will be discussed. These scales may be utilized in two different ways: to colorfully enhance traditional progressions; and to effectively negotiate the harmony of contemporary compositions that demand very specific harmonic sounds. One of the goals in writing this book was to discuss many aspects of jazz improvisation beyond the discussion of chord/scale relationships. The notion that jazz improvisation is a matter of plugging in the correct scale for each individual chord is a common misconception among young improvisers and even many educators. This leads to unnecessary confusion for some students and overlooks the historical significance of major/minor system and the many others techniques of developing musical ideas. However, it is important to understand the relationships of specific chords to specific scales and their applications to contemporary and traditional musical settings Anyone who understands traditional theory will recognize that the three chords below belong to the key of C major, and that they represent the functional chords: ii7 - V7 - I. In many chord/scale theory discussions, each of the chords is assigned a different scale: Dm7 is labeled D dorian; G7 as G mixolydian; and Cmaj7 as C ionian. Describing this passage as three different modes or scales is misleading and unnecessarily complicated. It is doubtful that anyone hears three different tonics in this passage as is suggested by the three modes. All of these chords were derived from the C major scale, and that one scale best describes the passage. 14.1
Dm 7

Three different modes or united in the key of C major?
G7 Cmaj7

www w w w w c w w w w www & wwww w w w w w w
A student illustrated the worst case scenario of chord/scale misunderstanding He had learned scales and their relationship to chords and played the passage below. He knew it did not sound like jazz but could not figure out why as he had applied a “correct” scale for each chord. As these new scales are introduced, remember that they represent distinct colors and not a method for improvisation. All previously discussed concepts of voice leading and melodic construction are still applicable even with the introduction of new scale colors.

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Chapter 14 14.2

Other Scales & Colors Not Jazz

&c

Cmaj7

bœ œ œ œ b œ œ œ b œ œ n œ b œ œ œ œ b œ œ œ œ nœ nœ œ œ œœ œœ œ œ bœ œ bœ bœ
Dm7

A7 b 13

#9

G7 b 13

#9

There are several “exotic” scales that can be constructed and have been cataloged in other books, but the most commonly used scales for application in jazz improvisation and composition are modes of melodic minor, major b6, diminished, whole tone, and augmented scales. SCALES for JAZZ IMPROVISATION SCALES Major Harmonic Minor Melodic Minor Major with a b6 (Harmonic Major) Diminished Diminished Whole Tone Augmented 14.3 1. Scales shown with C as Root: 2. FORMULA W - W - 1/2 - W - W - W - 1/2 W - 1/2 - W - W - 1/2 - A2 - 1/2 W - 1/2 - W - W - W - W - 1/2 W - W - 1/2 - W - 1/2 - A2 - 1/2 (1/2 - W) (W - 1/2) W-W-W-W-W-W m3 - 1/2 - m3 - 1/2 - m3

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

3.

& ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙
4.

& ˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ ˙ b˙ n˙ ˙
5.

& ˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ ˙ n˙ n˙ ˙
6.

& ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ ˙
7.

& ˙ b˙ b˙ n˙ #˙ n˙ ˙ b˙ ˙
8.

& ˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ #˙ #˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

& ˙ ˙ ˙ #˙ #˙ b˙ ˙
CHORD/SCALE EQUIVALENCY

& ˙ #˙ ˙ ˙ b˙ n˙ ˙

There are two common ways of describing a group of seven notes: as a scale (1-2-3-4-5-6-7-1): and spelled in thirds as a triad with upper extensions (1-3-5-7-9-11-13). The scale and the chord represent the same pitches so that a chord = scale and a scale = chord. Scale positions will be referred to by the numbers 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 and chord tones by the numbers 1-3-5-7-9-11-13. Scales tones 2-4-6 are the same as chord tones 9-11-13.

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MODES of the MELODIC MINOR SCALE
The chords derived from the melodic minor scale do not function the way that chords function in major and minor. The chords could be labeled with Roman numerals corresponding to scale degrees, but they would be meaningless in the traditional sense of identifying function, and therefore would confuse more than enlighten. Historically the melodic minor was often used for melodies, as is suggested by its name. It is constructed by raising the sixth and seventh degrees of a natural minor scale when ascending and lowering them when descending. These steps are easier to sing than the harmonic minor scale which includes the awkward augmented second. Altered notes tend to continue in the direction in which they have been altered. A minor sixth and minor seventh point down to the dominant. A major sixth and major seventh point more easily to the tonic. This is usually the scale a student will naturally sing when asked to sing a minor scale. The melodic minor that is used in jazz is only the ascending version as the descending scale is natural minor or aeolian mode. The melodic minor that ascends and descends with the raised sixth and seventh is sometimes called jazz minor. FIRST MODE of MELODIC MINOR Other Names: Melodic Minor, Jazz Minor Applications: Chord How to find relative Symbol Melodic Minor: Substitution tonic chord m maj7 First mode of melodic minor. in minor key m maj9 Melodic minor on root of chord. m 6/9maj7

Effect: Brighter than a natural minor or harmonic minor due to the raised sixth and seventh degrees.

The first mode of melodic minor is one note different from a major scale and one note different from harmonic minor. A major scale can be changed to melodic minor by changing the major third to a minor third. A natural minor scale is made into harmonic minor by raising the leading tone. Raising one more pitch, the sixth, creates melodic minor. The melodic minor scale is one note brighter than the harmonic minor scale and one note darker than a major scale. Three chords are shown below that can be derived from melodic minor. The chord symbols Cmmaj 7 or Cmmaj 9 could call for the first mode of harmonic minor or melodic minor. The last chord shown can only be derived from the melodic minor as it includes both the raised sixth and seventh. 14.4 Melodic Minor
Cm maj 7 Cm maj 9

& w w bw w w nw nw w bnw w w ? w w bw w w nw nw w w

w bw w nw w

maj Cm 6 9 7

nw w w

bnw w w

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SEVENTH MODE of MELODIC MINOR Other Names: Superlocrian, Diminished-Whole Tone, Altered Scale Applications: Chord How to find relative Effect: Symbol Melodic Minor: V7 in minor and can 7 Alt. Seventh mode of melodic minor. Darker than dominants resolve to major. 7 with b13, Count the root of the V7 as 7 and available from fifth b9, #9, b5 go up to 1. modes of major or harmonic minor. The seventh mode of melodic minor is also called superlocrian, diminished whole tone, and the altered scale. It contains four possible alterations for a dominant chord: b9, #9, b5 (#11), and b13 (#5). This is a darker sound than the dominant chord scale from the fifth mode in major or harmonic minor. The dominant in major has a n13, n5 and a n9. A dominant chord derived from the fifth mode of harmonic minor has a b13, n5 and a b9. The altered notes in the superlocrian suggest a dominant that resolves to a minor key. The B7, shown below built on the seventh mode of C melodic minor, has a Gn (b13)and a Cn ( b13) suggesting a dominant of E minor. Superlocrian is not the only choice for resolution to minor. There are times when the b5 will sound dissonant, and the fifth mode of harmonic minor or third mode of major b6 would be better choices. Any dominant that points to a minor key may also resolve to major key. The inverse is rarely if ever true.

w w w w b w w w &w ?

14.5

Superlocrian

B7b 13

# 9b 9

w w w

B7b 13b 5

w w w w

#9b9
B7alt.

w w aw w w b w w w w w w

aw w w

This excerpt is from a recently written tune by Mike Stern using traditional harmonic progressions with contemporary concepts. The Cm7 in m.1 connected to the F7 with outline no. 2 (considering the arpeggio with the Bb resolving to the A over the measure line), or outline no. 1 (beginning on the Eb and descending to the A over the measure line). Superlocrian was used over the F7, and still managed to connect to the Bb chord using outline no. 1 (An down the scale to D). Superlocrian is the seventh mode of a harmonic minor scale. F is the seventh degree of Gb or F# melodic minor. To find the related melodic minor scale for a dominant chord, count the root as 7 and go up to 1. All of the notes of the F# melodic minor occurred in m.2, although some are enharmonically spelled. The dark superlocrian sound resolved to Bb major even thought the Db (C#), and the Gb suggested a resolution to Bb minor. 14.6
Cm 7

Superlocrian used over dominant chord
3

bœ & c ‰ œj b œ œ b œ œ œ œ œ œ # œ œ œ b œ b œ œ b œ œj
3

F7

B bmaj7

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FOURTH MODE of MELODIC MINOR Other Names: Lydian Dominant, Lydian b7 Applications: Chord How to find relative Symbol Melodic Minor: # (1) As tritone substitute for a dominant 9 11 Seventh mode of melodic minor. pointing to minor key down a half-step. 13#11 Count the root as 4 and count back to 1. May resolve down a half-step to major. (2) As backdoor dominant pointing up to a major key a whole step above. A chord built on the fourth degree of a melodic minor scale is a dominant sound that does not function as dominant. If the B7 built on the seventh degree of C melodic minor pointed to E minor, then this F7 is the tritone substitute for the B7. They both share exactly the same notes as separate modes of a C melodic minor scale. Normally an F7 would point to Bb major or minor, but the Bn in the both the scale and the chord contradicts a resolution to Bb major. This F7 also occurs as a backdoor dominant to G major. The backdoor dominant usually follows the IV chord as it progresses back to the I chord as part of an extended plagal cadence. A plagal cadence is when IV resolves to I. A plagal cadence can also include the borrowed iv chord as in: IV - iv - I. The iv chord is often replaced by a backdoor dominant. In the key of G the plagal cadence is: C - G; an extended plagal cadence: C - Cm - G. Using seventh chords and a backdoor dominant the cadence would be: Cmaj7 - F9#11 - Gmaj7. A backdoor dominant may also be preceded by a ii7 chord as: Am7 - F9#11 Gmaj7. The F lydian dominant scale includes the notes of a G triad (G - B - D), which explains its pull towards G major and not Bb major or Bb minor. Examples of backdoor dominants where this scale is applicable can be found in Chapter 7 in progression no. 9 (mm.4, 15), no. 10 (mm.7-8), no. 13 (m.10). The #11 and n9 indicate a lydian dominant sound. Lydian dominant is built on the fourth degree of a melodic minor scale. To find the related melodic minor for a lydian dominant chord, count the root as 4 and count back to 1. 14.7 Lydian dominant

w bw w w &w w w w w bw w bw w w w w w w ?w w w

# F9 11

# F13 11

w w bw w

w w

Charlie Parker used lydian dominant on the B section of rhythm changes in ex. 14.8 below. The connection to A melodic minor is clear as he arpeggiated an A minor 1-3-5-7-9 over the D7. Wynton Kelly suggested the upper structures 7-9-#11-13 of the Ab7 and Eb7 chords in ex. 14.9 and 14.10 and Tete Montoliu chose to play the entire descending scale over the B7 in ex. 14.11.
3 # 3 & c ‰ j œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ

14.8

D Lydian dominant outlines upper structure: 5-7-9-#11-13

D9 11

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Chapter 14 14.9

Other Scales & Colors Lydian dominant upper structure 7-9-#11-13

b &b c
14.10

b# ‰ œ nœ nœ œ bœ . J J
A 9 11

˙

# E b9 11 b & b c ‰ b œj œ œ œ œ œ œ b œ R
14.11

Lydian dominant upper structure 7-9-#11-13

#œ #œ œ œ #œ B7 #œ #œ #œ #œ œ œ #œ#œ #œ #œ &c #œ œ
The lydian dominant scale is sometimes called the overtone scale as the tones can be derived from the first twelve tones of the harmonic series (see page 52). In some parts of the world as different and geographically separate as Brazil and Hungary, the lydian dominant scale is used in folk music. Béla Bartók is a composer who used this sound (ex. 14.12) in the earlier part of the twentieth century. 14.12 A b Lydian Dominant

Lydian dominant scale passage

&3 4 ‰ j œbœ œbœbœ œ œbœ œ œ bœ œ bœ œ œ bœ œ œ œ bœ b œ œ œ œ b œ b œ bœ bœ bœ bœ bœ
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN 7TH & 4TH MODES of MELODIC MINOR:
All of the modes of a melodic minor scale are related by sharing the same pitches. The superlocrian and lydian dominant scales are linked by their sharing of the same tritone and are interchangeable as dominants pointing to minor. An altered dominant points to the minor key a perfect fifth below, and the tritone substitute dominant wants to resolve down a half-step to the same minor key. The third and seventh of B7 are the enharmonically spelled seventh and third of the F7. The B7 and the F7 point to the key of E minor. The Cn and Gn that indicate a resolution to E minor do not prohibit either of these dominant chords from resolving to E major. The notes of the C melodic minor scale are shown in relation to the B7 alt. chord and the F9#11 chord in the example below. 14.13
B7 alt.

B superlocrian & F lydian dominant derived from C melodic minor
F9 11

#

&

w
R

w
b9

w bw
#9
3

w

w

w
7

w
R

#11/b5 b13/#5

#11

w

w
5

w bw
13 7

w
R

w
9

w w
3

#11

? #w w w

bw w w

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Melodic lines that work for one chord will also work with the other: 14.14 Melodic Minor lines resolving to E minor
B7alt. Em bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ w

Em bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ & w

# F13 11

? w w

w w

w w

w w

SIXTH MODE of MELODIC MINOR Other Name: Locrian #2 Applications: Chord How to find relative Symbol Melodic Minor: Substitution for ii7 and ø7 #2 Built on 6th degree of melodic minor. iiø7. Count the root of the ø7#2 chord as 6 and count to 1.

Effect: Dark as substitute for ii7 Bright as substitute for iiø7.

Play and listen to the chords below. Are they bright or dark? By themselves they could be either: dark because of the diminished triad, and bright because of the major ninth interval. An aural test like this is inconclusive because these sounds do not occur in isolation; they occur in some musical context. The locrian #2 sound often substitutes for a ii7 or a iiø7 chord. If the Aø7#2 shown below is used in place of Am7, the ii7 chord in G major, it will sound dark because the expected En is lowered to an Eb. If the Aø7#2 is used in place of Aø7, the iiø7 chord in G minor, it will sound bright because the expected Bb is raised to a Bn. Locrian #2 is not necessarily a better choice for a iiø7 chord in minor as some jazz theorists suggest. It is a choice that brightens an expectation, but the traditional iiø7 sound in minor should not be neglected for the sake of sounding modern. To find the related melodic minor scale count the root of the iiø7#2 chord as 6 and count up to 1. The #2 is actually the ninth of the chord, yet it is labeled a 2. It could have been labeled a n9, indicating a major ninth above the root. This can be confusing, as the iiø7 chord in its natural setting has a minor ninth above the root. It could be labeled a #9, indicating raising the Bb to Bn. This is confusing as the #9 in the case of dominants is usually notated as its enharmonic (minor tenth) above the root. A minor tenth above the An would be a Cn, which would not add the desired pitch. The #2 is the most common compromise shorthand for this chord notation. 14.15 Locrian #2
A ø7 2 w w w b w w &w w w w bw w

#

# A ø7 2

w w bw w

?

w w w b w w w w w

w w

w w

The ø7#2 is often followed by an altered dominant, so that two different modes of melodic minor occur side by side.

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Chapter 14

Other Scales & Colors

Bill Evans used an Fø7 (locrian #2, sixth mode of Ab melodic minor) followed by a Bb7 (superlocrian, seventh mode of B melodic minor). The line ascended an arpeggio over the Fø7 and descended over the Bb7. The last four notes of the Bb7 were the #9-b9-R-7 of the chord, and pointed to Eb minor.
3 B b7# œ b œ N œ œ bœ ‰ J #œ œ #œ œ bœ bœ & c bœ œ bœ œ bœ

14.16
F ø7

Locrian #2 followed by Superlocrian

This line, from the same Evans improvisation, is very similar to the line in ex. 14.16, but is in C minor. The exact notes Evan’s used for the Bb7 in the ex. 14.16 were transposed for the G7 chord in ex. 14.17. Evans used locrian #2 (sixth mode of F melodic minor) for the Dø7, and suggested the superlocrian (seventh mode of Ab melodic minor) for the G7. 14.17
D ø7

Locrian #2 followed by Superlocrian

G7 Cm9 b œ b œ œ bœ œ bœ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ & c bœ œ bœ œ œ

The raised second degree and altered ninths are not just modern jazz inventions. Clifford Brown used Gø7 (locrian #2, sixth mode of Bb melodic minor) and suggested C7 (superlocrian, seventh mode of C# melodic minor) in the ex. 14.18.

œ œ b œ œ œ C7 œ œ Fm j œ j œ b œ b œ b œ œ bœ bœ b œ & c ‰ œ bœ œ œ nœ œ œ 3
G ø7
3 3

14.18

Locrian #2 followed by Superlocrian

FIFTH MODE of MELODIC MINOR Other Name: Mixolydian b6 Applications: Chord How to find relative Symbol Melodic Minor: V7 in major or minor 9 b13 Built on 5th degree of melodic minor. Count the root of the V7 chord as 5 and count to 1.

Effect: Ambiguous dominant. n9 is bright & b13 is dark

This dominant is ambiguous as to its destination. Does it point to major or minor? The b13 of G7 (Eb) makes a case for C minor, but the An argues for C major. It is not used as often as other melodic minor modes. To find the related melodic minor scale, count the root of the chord as 5 and count up to 1.

Jazz Theory Resources

# Cm aj7 5 Cm aj7 œ & c œ #œ #œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ 14. a Bb7 b9 chord resolves to an Ebmaj7 chord. If the b9 of the Bb7 (Cb or enharmonic Bn) is suspended into the Eb chord.21 Lydian augmented 3 Cm aj7 5 # ˙ ‰ # œj œ œ œ Cm aj7 Jazz Theory Resources . In those instances.19 Mixolydian b6 Other Scales & Colors 339 G9 w w bw b w w w &w w w w w b 13 ? bw w w w w w w w w w THIRD MODE of MELODIC MINOR Other Name: Lydian Augmented Applications: Chord How to find relative Symbol Melodic Minor: Substitute for maj7 maj7#5 Built on 3rd degree of melodic minor. the augmented fifth may be resolved up to the sixth degree or down to the n5 to gain a sense of stability. This augmented major seventh chord is often used in contemporary compositions for an unsettling effect. chords Count the root of the chord as 3 and count to 1 Effect: Ambiguous major 7 Bright #5 Augmented chords are ambiguous as they are missing a perfect fifth. and so the chord is often written shorthand as E/C. This causes confusion because the ear wants to make the third sound like the root of the chord because of the perfect fifth above. 14.Chapter 14 14. meaning an E major triad over a C bass note. Augmented chords built on the third of a harmonic minor scale often sound like an augmented dominant chord in some inversion. Substituting for a Imaj7 or a IVmaj7 will eliminate the typical sense of resolution associated with major seventh chords. the Bn would sound like the augmented fifth of the Eb chord. For instance. The augmented fifth may be heard as unresolved dissonances from a preceding dominant chord. The addition of a major seventh to the chord intensifies the ambiguity because it creates a perfect fifth in the chord between the third and the seventh. The 3-5-7 tones of the Cmaj7#5 chord form an E major triad.20 Lydian augmented bw w w & bw w w w w w w w w bw ? bw w w w w w bw # E bmaj7 5 G/E b w w w bw Tom Harrell used the lydian augmented sound in these two examples which ultimately resolved to C major.

The b9 of the dominant is the same pitch as the lowered sixth degree of the major scale: the b9 of G7 (Ab) is the lowered sixth of C major scale. it retains the significant b2. This mode is called dorian b2. but bright because of the n13. it is rarely used as a substitute for a minor seventh chord. This chord is darker than a traditional dominant because of the b9. but it includes other changes not indicated by the 13b9 chord symbol. 14. The b2 makes it a closer relative to phrygian. Brighter than phrygian. Although a minor seventh chord can be built from the root of this scale. Count the root as 2 go back to 1 A ø 7 #2/D Effect: n13 is brighter and b3 is darker than fifth mode of harmonic minor. This dominant chord wants to resolve to major on the strength of the n13 which is the major third of the tonic chord. but does not sound like and is rarely used to substitute for dorian mode. then this scale is appropriate.340 Chapter 14 Other Scales & Colors SECOND MODE of MELODIC MINOR Other Name: Dorian b2 Applications: Chord How to find relative Symbol Melodic Minor: b b Substitute for 7sus 9 D7sus 9 Built on 2nd degree of Substitute for phrygian E bmaj7 #5/D melodic minor. When this mode is used to substitute for a D phrygian mode. n13 is bright When a dominant chord in a major key indicates a b9 and a n13. The D dorian b2 sound below is a shade brighter than G harmonic minor because of the Bn. but a shade darker without the F#. FIFTH MODE of MAJOR SCALE with 6 Other Name: Mixolydian b2 Applications: Chord How to find relative Symbol Major Scale with b6: b Substitute for V7 in 13 9 Built on 5th degree of major scale major with b6. Count the root as 5 go back to 1 b Effect: b9 is darker. There will be another scale discussed later that will satisfy this sound.22 Dorian b2 w w & w bw w w w w w w bw w w ? w bw w w w w w w b D7sus 9 b D7sus 9 w bw w w w w b D7sus 9 w w bw w w w w MODES of the MAJOR SCALE with b6 A major scale with a lowered sixth degree is sometimes called harmonic major as the upper four notes are identical to harmonic minor and include the augmented second associated with harmonic minor. Jazz Theory Resources . where the seventh is in the bass as: Ebmaj7#5/D. The usual sound associated with a D7susb9 would be the fifth mode of G harmonic minor. and a ø7#2 a fifth above the bass note as: Aø7#2/D. but is brighter because of the Bn. A chord symbol that is associated with this scale includes a maj7#5 in third inversion. It can be used as a substitute for a 7susb9.

23 Fifth mode of major b6 Other Scales & Colors 341 G13 w w w w bw & w bw w w w w b9 ? w w w w w w w bw w w b THIRD MODE of MAJOR SCALE with 6 Other Name: no common pseudonyms Applications: Chord How to find relative Effect: Symbol Major Scale with b6: Substitute for V7 V7 with Similar to V7 in minor Built on 3rd degree of major scale b9. The fourth note is the enharmonic spelling of a major third. When changing from one chord to the next. the listener tends to retain notes until changed by the next harmonic setting.Chapter 14 14. An E7 is usually preceded by a Bm7 or a Bø7 chord and may be followed by an Am7 or an Amaj7.24 Third mode of major b6 w w nw w w & c w w w bw w w w w #w w ? c w w w bw w w w #9 E7 b 13 Jazz Theory Resources . Superlocrian has a b5 and this scale has a n5. #9. the third mode of major scale with a b6 is a better choice than superlocrian based on the path of least resistance. #9. All of the chords that typically surround the E7 usually have a Bn. Using an E superlocrian with the Bb can be disruptive while the E third mode of C major b6 retains the Bn and still supplies the b9. Only one note differentiates this scale from superlocrian (7th mode of melodic minor). This sound is an excellent choice for altered dominants as it includes the b9. resolve to major Count the root as 3 go back to 1 Brighter than Superlocrian with the n5 The third mode of major with a b6 yields an altered dominant scale. and b13. #9. The E7 chord below is created using the Ab to sound like a G#. #9. For most situations when a dominant chord has the b9. and b13 alterations. 14. and b13. may Darker than V7 in major with b6. b13 Points to minor.

Jazz Theory Resources . the sound is darker because the lowered fifth of the scale changes the minor chord to diminished. b Effect: Dark as substitute for ii7 This is another scale that may be used as a substitute for ii7 chords. go back to 1.342 Chapter 14 14. the sixth mode of melodic minor. it may be difficult to determine whether the improviser or composer suggested one sound or the other as they may have avoided using the one pitch that determines the difference. Dø7#2. This is a misleading. suggests a minor chord with the contradictory lowered fifth. The only note that is different is the sixth degree. not because of a dissonance. but because the Bn is usually reserved for the upcoming chord as it identifies the G7 chord. A Dø7 chord usually precedes a G7 chord and improvisers tend to avoid any kind of a B over the Dø7 chord. as locrian #2 is based on the F melodic minor scale and has a Bb as the sixth degree. The contrast between the darker Gb (from the parallel key of Bb minor) and the brighter Dn (suggesting B b major) was carried over to the F7 chord. as the second mode of major b6 has a Bn as the sixth degree. It retains the bright major ninth.26 Second mode of C major b6 w bw w w & w w w w bw w w w w ? w w w w bw w w w # D ø7 2 Cannonball Adderley used the Cø7#2 in the place of the Cm9 chord in the key of Bb major in ex. A minor chord must have a perfect fifth to be minor. 14. For this reason. The second mode of major b6 is almost indistinguishable from locrian #2. but not uncommon shorthand. the chord symbol m9[b5]. Both the Cø7 and the F7 chords could have been derived from Bb major b6 as no other changes are suggested.25 Other Scales & Colors Comparison of Superlocrian and 3rd mode of C major b6 for E7 3rd mode of C major b6 &w R w b9 w #9 bw (3) w n5 w b13 w 7 w R Superlocrian: 7th mode of F melodic minor &w R w b9 w #9 bw (3) bw b5 w b13 w 7 w R SECOND MODE of MAJOR SCALE with 6 Other Name: no common pseudonyms Applications: Chord How to find relative Symbol Major Scale with b6: Substitute for ii7 ø7 #2 Built on 2nd degree of major b6 b (Dm9 [ 5]) Count the root of the ø7#2 chord as 2. When substituting for a ii7 chord. 14. Dø7#2. The chord symbol sometimes appears as a m9[b5].27.

œ œ bœ w FIRST MODE of MAJOR SCALE with 6 Other Name: Harmonic Major Applications: Chord How to find relative Symbol Major Scale with b6: Possible substitute for I maj7b6 Begin the scale on the root of the in major and for maj7#5 chord major7 #5 chords E/C Effect: Darker than major scale by b6 Jazz Theory Resources . The Fmmaj9 #11 is spelled like a polychord Em over an Fm.29 Fourth mode of C major b6 &c Ó Œ œ œ n œ ‰ œj ‰ œj ‰ b œj œj œ. melodic minor is a fraction brighter with its major sixth. 14. b Effect: Bright as substitute for i or iv A minor chord with a major seventh (mmaj7) can be derived from the fourth mode of major b6. b # Fm maj 9 11 . This is the third scale available for a minor major seventh chord. 14. Harmonic minor is the darkest as it has a lowered sixth degree. but is a useful scale for melodic material when appropriate or called for by the composition. This is not a typical substitution for i or iv. fourth mode of major b6 is brighter still as it has a raised fourth degree which can be the #11 of the chord.Chapter 14 14.27 Cø7#2 arpeggio Other Scales & Colors 343 b œ œ b œ j b œj œ . the others being the first modes of harmonic and melodic minor.28 Fourth mode of C major b6 Fm maj 7 Fm maj 9 w w w & w w bw w w w w w w bw w w w b w ?w w w # Fm maj 7 11 w w w bw w Nw w w w bw w The melodic material and the chord symbol suggest the fourth mode of major b6 as the correct sound for this passage. go mmaj7#11 back to 1. & c bœ bœ bœ J œ C ø7 2 F13 9 # FOURTH MODE of MAJOR SCALE with 6 Other Name: no common pseudonyms Applications: Chord How to find relative Symbol Major Scale with b6: Possible substitute for i m maj7 Built on 4th degree of major b6 maj or iv chords in minor m 9 Count the root of the chord as 4.

a diminished major seventh chord (°maj7) can be constructed. 14. The lowered sixth degree of a major b6 scale does not necessarily change the character of this chord. and what changes is the passing tone between the fifth and seventh. go added tones up to 1. Jazz Theory Resources . 14. A very dense augmented major seventh chord with a #9 can also be constructed. Two chords can be generated from the sixth mode of major scale with a b6. The diminished major seventh chord may appear as a triad over a bass note: G/Ab. Using it as such.31 Sixth mode of C major b6 w wbw w w w w & bw ? # A bm aj7 5 #9 # b A maj7 5 G/A b A b°maj7 w w w w w w w bw b w w w bw w w w bw wbw w w w w bw bw w SEVENTH MODE of MAJOR SCALE with 6 Other Name: no common pseudonyms Applications: Chord How to find relative Symbol Major Scale with b6: Substitute for vii°7 °7 Built on 6th degree of major b6 °7 with Count the root of the chord as 7.344 Chapter 14 Other Scales & Colors A major seventh chord an be built on the first degree of the major b6 scale. This scale may be used for augmented major seventh chords with the enharmonic b 6 acting as the # 5.30 C Major b6 (Harmonic major) & w w w w w bw w w w ww bw ? w w w w w bw w w w b b Cmaj7 6 # Cmaj7 5 E/C #w w w w #w w w w SIXTH MODE of MAJOR SCALE with 6 Other Name: no common pseudonyms Applications: Chord Symbol Augmented major seven or diminished maj7#5 major seven chords ° maj7 How to find relative Major Scale with b6: Built on b6th degree of major b6 Count the root of the chord as 6. A Cmaj7b6 chord may sound like it has a suspension from dominant chord that proceeds it: The Ab from a G7b9 might suspend over the Cmaj7 before resolving. This scale can be superimposed over a I chord in major. it can create a scale for augmented major seventh chords (maj7# 5). Effect: Brighter than the seventh mode of harmonic minor. go up to 1. The first interval of the scale is an augmented second which sounds like a minor third. Constructing with conventional thirds.

32 Seventh mode of major b6 B °7 (add E) b w w B °7 w w w w bw &w w w ? bw w w w w w w w w w w # ww w w w B °7 (add G) nw w w bw w w APPLICATIONS of MAJOR SCALE with a b6 in a COMPOSITION The composition View from the Bridge. °maj7 °7 The sixth mode can be used for two types of chords and will both appear in the composition.) and (e. Hemiola 2 over the 4 . b13. The first two 3 measures are in 3 is implied in mm. MAJOR with a b6 (Harmonic Major) 1st 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 6th 7th CHORD TYPE Major 7 Major 7 b6 ii ø 7 Dominant 7 (#9.).) in m.) before resolving to C major in m. n5) Minor (major 7) Dominant 7 (b9. (An extended arrangement of this composition can be found on the University of North Texas CD. This rhythmic interplay continues throughout the composition. so the Ebmaj7 #5 works like a functional dominant seventh chord in first inversion resolving to the Em. The chart below show the modes of major b6 and corresponding chord types. This B°7 diminished chord seems to point to major since the En is in the scale. This scale and chord sounds like an inversion of the G7b9 built on the fifth mode of major b6. utilizes all seven modes of a major b6 scale. The second and fifth modes of C major b6 appear at (d.). n13) Major 7 #5 °7. The Eb major b6 is used for the first three measures with its second mode at (a. fifth mode at (b. LAB ’88).Chapter 14 Other Scales & Colors 345 A half diminished chord can be built on the seventh degree of a major scale.). Lowering the sixth of the major scale allows for a fully diminished chord on the seventh degree. The rhythm of this first phrase may be more interesting than the colorful scale choices. the rhythm implying a 3 4. The implied meter 6 change in mm.7. 14.3-4. Jazz Theory Resources . The same G major b6 over a B7 would create a dominant that points to Em. b9. The sixth mode of G major b6 is implied for the Ebmaj7#5 at (f.9.5-6 is 8 with the three eighth note groupings and dotted quarter notes. and the first mode at (c.

The sixth mode of C major b6 could be applied to Abmaj7 #5 at (p. In that sense. so that the only note that changes is the C # to Cn and back. Em aj7 h. #œ œ J j œ #œ . The Ab major b6 scale works well in the measures surrounding the F minor.).) an E major b6 scale is suggested.27 could be labeled an E°7 in first inversion functioning as the vii°7 of F minor.) can also use the Ab major b6 scale.) is the fourth mode. the G°7 and the Eb/E function like a C7 pointing to the Fm. 3 &4 ˙ bœ bœ ‰ œj œ œ e. and the same four flats are in the Ab major b6 scale.33a Bert Ligon: View from the Bridge Fø7 B 13 9 b b E m aj7 6 b b a. Two scales. ˙. F ø7 # b9 B7 b 13 Em aj7 F ø 7/B # 3 & ‰ j œ #œ œ œ œ Em aj7 g. E major and E major b6. ˙. i. œ. Cm aj7/E j œ Œ Dø7 G13 9 Cm aj7 &œ E m aj7 5 d. The G# could be retained so that at (h. This is the second chord type in the piece that used the sixth mode.23-24 using the second mode at (k. h. b. Em 9 ˙ Fm aj7 b # f. A dominant sound associated with Ab major b6 is built on the third mode of the scale and that C7 points to F minor. C 13 9 Em aj7 Am m aj 7 # # b &Œ 1 ‰ # œj œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ k. bœ .346 Chapter 14 Other Scales & Colors 14. n˙ b ‰ œ J c.) is the fifth. F minor aeolian is the key of four flats.). œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙. and (j. ˙ Œ &Œ 7 j œ #œ Am m aj 7/E œ J j. ‰ & b œj œ œ œ œ œ œ. F# major b6 applies in mm. The sixth mode of Ab major b6 could be used at (n. alternate from mm.) over a B7 creating a dominant sound that points to E minor. bœ . j œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙.15-18. but resolves to E major. (h.). The third mode of G major b6 returns at (g. The modes name is determined by the bass note so that (i. cont.) and the fifth at (l.33b Bert Ligon: View from the Bridge. œ œ # œ œ œ #˙ #œ œ ‰ #œ œ The G°7 chord in m. G ø7 F ø 7/B # œ. The Eb triad over the E in the bass at (o. l. j bœ œ E m aj7 b œ œ œ. The Jazz Theory Resources .) is the first mode. 14.

) uses the same scale. G m aj7 b G m aj7/B b b n. (t.36 and ends on a polychord: a G minor over an Ab minor.33-35. as a D7 that points to G minor. B/A Gm A m ˙ t.) uses the fifth mode and the G/Ab at (r. b ˙. # F ø 7/B G m aj7 5 q. The fourth mode of Eb major b6 applies for this sound. 14. n˙ ‰ œ J bœ bœ ˙ ‰ b œj b œ œ œ b œ The last phrase of the piece moves between the Gm9 and its quasi-dominant chord. 14. at m. but the polychord may be the easier designation.9. The hemiola rhythm returns in mm. ˙. œ bœ œ .33c Bert Ligon: View from the Bridge. p. ˙.41-42. The ending restates the melodic material from m. 1 bœ J F/F œ F /E s. Gm 9 s. Earlier in the piece. Œ ENDING ONLY: # # B /E b &Œ 5 œ bœ œ œ bœ ˙.33d Bert Ligon: View from the Bridge. A label could be forced on this chord naming it an Abm maj9 #11. The Fø7/Bb at (q.) uses the fourth mode of Eb major b6. Bb major b6. ‰ b j bœ bœ bœ œ œ # Gm 9 G m aj7 5 b G m aj7 5 & œ. all other notes remain the same. cont. &˙ 7 s. &œ 3 bœ bœ r. a maj7#5 chord was used to imitate a dominant chord in first inversion. b b D /B j bœ ˙ . # ˙. Jazz Theory Resources . The one note that changes between the sixth mode of Bb major b6 and G aeolian is the Gb to Gn in the bass. Gm 9 G m aj7 5 b # Gm 9 G m aj7 5 b # .Chapter 14 Other Scales & Colors 347 short return of the first phrase is set in different inversions of the same chords in mm. bœ bœ & b œj b œ b œ b œ b œ œj b œ œ N œj b œ 5 G °7 Fm 7 œ j œ bœ bœ A m aj7 5 ‰ œ bœ E /E b &˙ 9 o. the Gbmaj7#5.). The Gbmaj7#5 at (s. ‰ b œj b D /E b b Dm 9 b # ˙ G/A ‰ b j œ b œ E m aj7/G œ œ œ b s. cont.

14.Eb. The jazz community usually calls the scale half-whole or whole-half distinguishing the modes by their intervallic construction. Substituting an E whole-half yields these notes: E . an E°7 is the vii°7 of F minor and would contain the notes: E .34 Whole-half diminished scales w & w w bw w #w #w w w w #w#w w #w w w bw w #w w w w w bw bw nw #w w bw w #w bw bw nw #w w w w w w ? w w bw w #w #w w w # w w w w #w#w The diminished scale lends itself to some very colorful chords that go beyond what is available from functional vii°7 chords. The C diminished is the same as Eb. G.Ab . and is transposed up to C# and D.Db. The whole-half diminished scale is associated with diminished chords and is often used as a substitute for functioning vii°7 chords and non-functioning diminished chords.348 Chapter 14 Other Scales & Colors SCALES of LIMITED TRANSPOSITION All of the scales and modes studied above can be transposed to any twelve pitch levels with a unique set of pitches.34. The whole-half introduces conflicting information to the functional framework when applied over a functioning vii°7 chord. A whole-half scale is shown beginning on C in the first measure of ex. Two fully diminished seventh chord as whole step apart can be derived from any diminished scale so that a chord may have added tones that are a whole step above members of the chord. A few are shown in 14. Three of these scales are frequently used in jazz improvisation: the diminished. The scale could be viewed as a fully diminished chord with leading tones to each of its chord members. and B diminished scales all share the same pitches. There are symmetrical scales that can be transposed a limited number times before repeating the same set of pitches. The whole-half scale satisfies the chord tones for any diminished chord. the F# and the An.C . D. and A diminished. Diminished scales can be transposed twice before reaching a scale with identical tones.G . so there are only three unique diminished scales. Ab. Several of the notes agree with the F minor sound. Each measure represents four possible roots due to the limits of transposition. For instance. F#. The diminished scale is brighter than the seventh mode of harmonic minor associated with functioning vii°7 chords.F# .F G . but the scale should be used understanding the effect and arbitrary use should be avoided. The eight tones in the scale necessitates enharmonic spellings.An . whole tone and augmented scales. yet two notes. the C# whole-half is the same scale as E. Half-Whole The diminished scale is symmetrically constructed of alternating whole-steps and half-steps. F.Bb .C .35 over a D°7. Jazz Theory Resources . Transposing to Eb yields a scale with the identical pitches as a scale starting on C.Bb . An E-G-Bb-Db diminished seventh chord may have F#-A-C-E b as added tones. It is sometimes known as the octatonic scale as is contains eight pitches. SYMMETRICAL DIMINISHED SCALE Other Name: Octatonic. Whole-Half. 14. but should not arbitrarily replace the seventh mode of harmonic minor when playing functional vii°7 chords.Db . and Bb. Whole-half diminished scales are shown below. contradict the Fn and Ab of F minor. This can be a very desirable result.

and n13.35 D °7 Other Scales & Colors 349 Colorful chords derived from D whole-half diminished D °7(add C # ) D °7(add E ) & # ww w ? w ##w ww w w w # ww w w D °m aj7(add E ) w #n#w ww w w D °7(add G) D °7(add B b) nw w w #w ww bw w w #w w w The half-whole diminished scale is associated with dominant chords. working as a tritone substitution or a backdoor dominant. and A half-whole diminished scales.38. 14. #9.37 Colorful dominant chords available from half-whole diminished scale C7b 9 b C7 9 # 11 C7# 9 # 11 C13# 11 b9 # C7 9 C13# 11 b9 #9 & w bbw w bb#w w w w w #b#w w w w w w bb#w w w w w b#w w w w w # w # w w bbw w w w w ?c w w Another attractive feature of diminished scales is that melodic shapes can be transposed and sequences to three other pitch levels within scale. The half-whole dominant scale is ambiguous and can found substituting for any kind of dominant. The #11 (F#) suggests the C7 is either a tritone substitute for F#7 pointing to B minor or a backdoor dominant moving up to D major. A C half-whole is the same scale as Eb. 14. The presence of the b9 and #9 (Db and Eb) suggests the C7 points to F minor.Chapter 14 14. The ambiguity is part of the attraction to the half-whole diminished scale as a dominant substitute.36 Half-Whole dominant scales w & w b w b w n w # w w w b w w # w w w w w b w b w n w # w wb w w # w # w w w w w ? w b w b w n w # w w w b w w # w w w w w b w b w n w # w wb w w # w # w w w w Many scales available for dominant substitutions have clear functions. The n13 (An) indicates F major as the goal. The alterations and upper extensions available are numerous and often contradictory. Two three-note motives are sequenced at the interval of a minor third in ex. Transposition works the same for half-whole as with whole-half. 14. F#. pointing to either major or minor. The C7 shown below has the following alterations and extensions: b9. #11. Jazz Theory Resources .

F C7 Œ ≈ b œb œ œ œ b œ# œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ b œbœ œ ˙ . For instance. even though the #5 and b13 are enharmonically identical.Bb7 . The dominant chord tends to want to resolve to major. There is a slight difference between a C9#5 and C9b13. resolves to a major third. When two or more dominants separated by a whole-step are present in a progression. 14. It is not widely used. a repeating progression of C7 .Ab7 . The whole tone scale is associated with augmented triads and dominant chords with augmented fifths. when it resolves up in the direction in which it has been altered.39 Whole Tone Scale &w ?w # C7 5 w w 14. The diminished scale could be con- Jazz Theory Resources . The n9 indicates major and the #5. F Œ WHOLE TONE SCALE Other Name: no common pseudonym The whole tone scale can only be transposed once. It is constructed with the alternating intervals: m3-m2-m3-m2-m3-m2. the third of F major.Bb7 could use the same whole tone scale. Improvisers and composers who use this scale and sonorities from this scale may superimpose it over traditional settings for effect or create new music suited for these sounds.38 C7 Other Scales & Colors &c œ# œœ œ œbœ # œ œ # œ œ #œ b œ œb œ œ ˙ . The unusual construction limits its use in traditional settings. the b13 moves down to the ninth. resolves up to an An. The #5 (G#) of the C9#5 chord below. the whole tone scale may be used to connect them.40 w #w #w w #w #w bw bw w w bw bw bw bw w w w w w w w bw w bw Chords available from the Whole Tone Scale b C7 5 # C9 5 ## C9 5 11 & #w w bw w bw w #w w w bw w #w #w w w bw w ? c bw w AUGMENTED Other Name: no common pseudonym The augmented scale is an unusual scale of limited transposition. The difference is revealed by the resolutions: The #5 wants to resolve up to the third of the next chord. There are only two mutually exclusive six note scales constructed by whole-step intervals.350 Chapter 14 14. but can be an effective color.

44 Em maj 7 Chords derived from the C. The augmented scale is similarly constructed by adding leading tones to an augmented chord. G. & A D. 14.42 œ b˙ 11 œ #˙ #œ ˙ œ ˙ œ ˙ #œ ˙ œ b˙ œ ˙ Augmented Scale &3 4 œ œ nœ œ bœ œ # œ b œ n œ œ œ œ b œ n œ œ # œ 11 œ œ nœ œ bœ œ œ Because of its symmetry there are only two modes of the augmented scale. Three major triads derived from the augmented scale are used over the C7 in the line in Jazz Theory Resources . & Ab Augmented Scale Cm maj 7 A bm maj 7 # Em aj7 5 # Cmaj7 5 # A bmaj7 5 #9 # Cmaj7 5 & c #w w w ?c w bw w w w w bbw w bw bnbw w w nw n#w w w w w w w bw #nw w w #w w w The augmented scale is sometimes used over conventional chords for effect even though there are conflicting tones. The colorful scale has been used by many composers of the twentieth century including Béla Bartók as shown in ex. 14. Some unusual chords may be created that may be difficult and misleading for traditional names. & Bb Eb. & Ab Augmented Scales: Db.41 Diminished Scale = Augmented Scale = Augmented chord with leading tones °7 chord with leading tones & œ ˙ 14.Chapter 14 Other Scales & Colors 351 structed by adding a leading tone to the four diminished chord tones.43 C. The last chord below might be better labeled a B augmented triad over a C augmented triad. E. F. F#. E. & B ˙ ˙ b˙ & ˙ #˙ ˙ ˙ #˙ ˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ ˙ #˙ ˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ ˙ #˙ ˙ b˙ #˙ b˙ b˙ n˙ b˙ n˙ b˙ b˙ #˙ ˙ b˙ b˙ n˙ b˙ n˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ ˙ # ˙ ? ˙ #˙ ˙ ˙ #˙ ˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ ˙ #˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ The most common chords derived from the augmented scale are a major 7 chord with a #5 and a minor chord with a major seventh.42. 14. The scale can only be transposed to four unique pitch sets as shown below. 14.

and g. Four augmented scales occur in the following example. all four of the augmented scales are used over a C pedal. The C triad obviously has no conflicts with C7. C augmented scale: (c.45 Augmented scale over a Dominant chord &c Ó bœ œ œ œ bœ œ œ bœ œ œ #œ œ nœ Œ ‰ J œ œ œ bœ œ .). which contradicts the dominant seventh of C7.. symmetry and linear motion are more important to the melodic success.47 C Pedal Augmented scales over a C pedal &c bœ . 14. each giving different color to the passage. C# augmented scale: (b. and adds a spice to the line. and i. and D augmented scale: (e. but the line is held together more from motivic relationships that tones related to a tonic pitch. k. œ ‰ nœ #œ nœ œ bœ œ J œ œ œ bœ Œ ‰ bJ œ & œ .. # œj œ & ‰ j #œ œ œ #œ œ bœ œ bœ nœ ˙ œ bœ Ó & œ #œ nœ œ #œ œ œ bœ nœ bœ œ bœ . Em and Abm. h. œ ˙ J œ œ œ œ œ bœ ‰ bJ œ b œ . There are notes in ex. f. ‰ j ‰ j œ œ bœ ˙ œ bœ b˙ j ‰ œj # œ œ œ ‰ b œ œ œ b œ ‰ œj # œ b œ Œ #œ œ #œ bœ œ nœ bœ œ œ b œ œ œ œ #œ Jazz Theory Resources . 14. d..). The three major triads when inverted become Cm.47. (C) (A b) (E) C7 F j œ Ó The inversion of the line can be used over a minor chord. 14.)..46 Cm (Cm) (Em) Augmented scale over a Minor chord (A bm) (Cm) œ b œ œ œ c ‰ œ œ œ & œ œ œ bœ j œ œ bœ œ nœ Œ Ó The best use for an augmented scale may be to depart from the traditional sounds. Eb augmented scale (a. 14.46 that momentarily contradict the Cm. In the ex.). The E triad contains the Bn. b œj ˙ . 14. and j.45. The Ab suggests the b13 (Ab) and the #9 (Eb).352 Chapter 14 Other Scales & Colors ex. but as in the previous example. 14. All of the scales contain some tones that may related to C. and l.

4th mode Major 6th mode Harmonic Minor Major with a b6 Augmented CHARACTERISTICS n4. 6. 5. b9. 7. 3rd mode Major b6. b9. n13) Major 7 #5 °7. 3. #11 b6 or b13 Maj/Min3. 1st mode Major Lydian. and then sorted by chord type. #11) CHORD TYPE °7. 9. 10.) MAJOR with a b6 (Harmonic Major) 1st 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 6th 7th 1/2W DIMINISHED CHORD TYPE Major 7 Major 7 b6 iiø7 #2 Dominant 7 (#9. b5. LIST of SCALES with POSSIBLE DERIVED CHORDS: MAJOR SCALE 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th HARMONIC MINOR 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th MELODIC MINOR 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th CHORD TYPE Major 7 Minor 7 Minor 7 Major 7 Dominant 7 Minor 7 ø7 CHORD TYPE Minor (major 7) ø7 Major 7 #5 Minor 7 Dominant 7 Major 7 °7 CHORD TYPE Minor (major 7) Minor 7 (b9) Major 7 #5 Dominant 9 #11 Lydian dominant Dominant 9 b13 ø7 #2 Dominant 7 (#9. 4. 2nd mode Melodic b2 Minor Jazz Theory Resources . n5) Minor (major 7) #11 Dominant 7 (b9. b13. b6 Phrygian. 2nd mode Major Major 6. 2. #5 or b6 1. °7 with added notes CHORD TYPE Dominant 7 (9. 7 #11 #9.Chapter 14 Other Scales & Colors 353 CHORD/SCALE RELATIONSHIPS REVIEW The following charts catalog all of the previously discussed chord/scale relationships sorted by scales. n13. 6th mode Major #4 4th mode Harmonic Minor Dorian b 2. 8. #9. 5. °maj7 °7 CHORD TYPE Dominant 7 (b9. b3 Aeolian. CHORD TYPE Minor 7 Minor 7 Minor 7 Minor 7 Minor 7 SCALE SOURCE CHARACTERISTICS Dorian. b13. #5) CHORD TYPE Major 7 #5 Major 7 minor (major 7) W1/2 DIMINISHED WHOLE TONE AUGMENTED LIST of CHORDS with POSSIBLE SCALE SOURCES: CHORD TYPE Major 7 Major 7 Major 7 Major 7 Major 7 SCALE SOURCE Ionian. m3 b2.

33. 26. 30. #9. 7th mode Major b5. 5th mode Major 5th mode Harmonic Minor Lydian b 7. 12. function as a tritone substitute dominant resolving down a half-step to a major or minor key. 5. 20. The nine possible dominant sounds for C7 are shown below. n5. CHORD TYPE Major 7 #5 Major 7 #5 Major 7 #5 Major 7 b6 or b13 Major 7 #5 Major 7 #5 SCALE SOURCE 3rd mode Harmonic Minor 3rd mode Melodic Minor Major with a b6 6th mode Major with a b6 Augmented CHARACTERISTICS #5. 13 b9. These dominants may point to the major or minor key a perfect fifth below. b2 Locrian. Each has specific alterations that imply several possible resolutions. 22. CHORD TYPE ø7 ø7 ø7 ø7 SCALE SOURCE CHARACTERISTICS b5. #5 There are nine individual scale sounds for a dominant chord. 21. 27. 6th mode of Melodic #2 Minor #2 2nd mode Major with a b6 15. 18. #9. CHORD TYPE Dominant 7 Dominant 7 Dominant 7 Dominant 7 Dominant 7 Dominant Dominant Dominant Dominant 7 7 7 7 SCALE SOURCE Mixolydian. n13 9. 16. 5th mode Melodic Minor 5th mode Major with a b6 3rd mode Major with a b6 Diminished 1/2 W Whole Tone CHARACTERISTICS n9. n4 #5. 14. #5 19. #11 Maj/Min3. #9. b13 #5. or act as a backdoor dominant resolving up a whole-step to a major key. #9. b13 13 b9 b9. b2 2nd mode Harmonic Minor # Locrian 2. 23. #5 24. #11 n5. 5. 4th mode Melodic Minor Super locrian. b13. n5 b9. 13 b9. 7th mode Melodic Minor Mixolydian b6. CHORD TYPE Diminished 7 Diminished 7 Diminished 7 Diminished 7 SCALE SOURCE 7th mode Harmonic Minor Diminished W 1/2 7th mode Major with a b6 6th mode Major with a b6 CHARACTERISTICS Traditional sound Tones whole step above each chord member available 28. 35. 37. The destination of some dominants may be unclear because of certain ambiguous chord tones. 17. 13. Jazz Theory Resources . b5 9. 36. 25. b13. 29. b13 9. 32. #11. #11. CHORD TYPE Minor/Major 7 Minor/Major 7 Minor/Major 7 Minor/Major 7 SCALE SOURCE 1st mode Harmonic Minor 1st mode Melodic Minor 4th mode Major with a b6 Augmented CHARACTERISTICS b6 n6 #11 Maj/Min3. 39.354 Chapter 14 Other Scales & Colors 11.

b13 and b9. points to F minor. The n9 (Dn) points to F major. 14.48 5th mode of F Major Scale: points to F major C13 & w w w w w w bw w w bw w ? w w w w w w bw w w w A C7 built on the dominant of F harmonic minor points to F minor. n13 and n9. The chord may have a n5. The context surrounding the C7 will help determine the expected resolution. but with an Ab and Db. 14. The chord may have a n5. This sound may resolve to F major.49 5th mode of F Harmonic Minor: points to F minor C7b 13 b9 & w bw w w w bw bw w bbw w bw ? w bw w w w bw bw w w w A C7 built on the fifth mode of F melodic minor may point to F major or F minor. the b13 (Ab) points to F minor. 14.Chapter 14 Other Scales & Colors 355 A C7 built on the dominant of F major scale will obviously point to the key of F major.50 5th mode of F Melodic minor: points to F major or F minor & w w w w w bw bw w bw w bw ? w w w w w bw bw w w w b C9 13 Jazz Theory Resources .

Ab and Bb. #9. suggest a resolution to F minor. Eb. It points many places and definitively to no single place. bw & w bw bw bw bw bw bw w bbw bw w ? w bw bw bw bw bw bw w w w A C7 constructed from the fifth mode of F major b 6 suggests a resolution to F major. n13 of C7. and the additional altered tone Gb.51 3rd mode of Ab major b6: points to F minor C7b 13 #9 & w bw bw bw w bw bw w bbw bw w ? w bw bw bw w bw bw w w w A C7 chord built from the seventh mode of Db melodic minor contains the same tones that pointed to F minor as the Ab major b6. but the An exerts the strongest force indicating a resolution to F major. Eb. Any dominant sound that points to minor may resolve to major. The An is the strongest indicator as the n13 of C7 and the major third of F. points to F major. The F# suggests the chord may be a tritone substitute for F#7 pointing to B minor (because of the Gn and A n) or to B major (the enharmonic Eb = D#. its ambiguity being one of the attractive characteristics of this sound. The Db may suggest F minor.356 Chapter 14 Other Scales & Colors A C7 built on the third mode of Ab major b6 points to the key of F minor. 14. 14. The Db and Eb. 14. The Db. A case can be made for several resolutions.52 7th mode of Melodic Minor: points to F minor C7alt. This sound may resolve to F major even though it points to F minor. and b13.9 and #9 of C7. Jazz Theory Resources . the major third of B) The F# also suggests the possibility of the C7 chord being a backdoor dominant to D major.53 5th mode of F major b6: points to F major & w bw w w w w bw w bw w b w ? w bw w w w w bw w w w b C13 9 A C7 constructed from a half-whole diminished scale is an ambiguous pointer. Db. The An. the b. Ab and Bb are all tones common to F minor and offer these alterations for the C7: b9.

14. & w w w #w #w bw w #w w b w ? w w w #w #w bw w w w # C9 5 Difference between a #5 & b13? A C9b13 and a C9#5 sound exactly the same when played out of any musical context.56 C9 with #5 or b13: context determines difference # C9 5 #w ww b w w w w w bw w b C9 13 bw bw ww w # C9 5 w w w w w w ww bw w # ww b w w w w w w w w The C7 built from the fourth mode of G harmonic minor does not point to F major or F minor. as all dominants that point to minor may resolve to major. The scale does not contain the major third of F.54 Other Scales & Colors 357 Half-Whole Diminished: could point to F major or minor. Jazz Theory Resources . The Dn (n9) suggests the key of F major. and the G# wants to resolve up to the third. These same pitches over an F#7 would be called superlocrian. The Dn and Gn suggest that the C7 as a tritone substitute chord for F#7 is pointing to B minor and not B major.55 Whole-Tone Scale: points to F major. Is there a difference? The difference can be determined only in a musical context.C9# 11 Dmaj7.Chapter 14 14. The F# suggests that this sound may be a tritone substitute dominant for F#7. This chord/scale sound may occur in this progression: Gmaj7 . a pitch that typically resolves up to an An. & bw bw ww ? w b C9 13 14. Notes tend to continue in the direction in which they have been altered so a b13 wants to resolve down to the ninth of F. B major or minor. It could be used to resolve to B major. but contains a G#. the seventh mode of G melodic minor. where the C7 is acting as a backdoor dominant pointing to D major. D major C13# 11 b9 & w bw bw nw #w w w bw w b #w w b w w ? w bw bw nw #w w w bw w w w # C13 9 bw w w bw w #w w bbw w w w w bw w The C7 constructed from the whole tone scale points to F major. which explains whey this sound over C7 points to B minor.

Another option is to use a hexatonic scale (six tones) which omits G. C7 with #9 and b13 could be derived from 3rd mode of Ab major b6 or 7th mode of Db melodic minor.57 Other Scales & Colors 4th mode of G Melodic Minor: points to B minor or D major & w w w #w w w bw w #w w b w w ? w w w #w w w bw w w w HEXATONIC OPTIONS # C13 11 Some of the scale choices are very similar with only one note difference between two scales.59 Locrian #2 (6th of Eb melodic minor): 2nd of Bb major b6: Hexatonic scale without A: & w Nw bw w bw bw bw w w Nw bw w bw Nw bw w w Nw bw w bw ? w Nw bw w bw bw bw w w Nw bw w bw Nw bw w w Nw bw w bw bw w bw w Jazz Theory Resources . 14. An option is to use a hexatonic scale eliminating any type of A. The seventh mode of Db melodic minor contains Gb and the third mode of Ab major b6 contains Gn. The one note distinguished the two scales is the A or Ab.58 Superlocrian (7th Db melodic minor): 3rd mode of Ab major b6: Hexatonic Scale without a G: & w bw bw Nw w bw bw w w bw bw Nw bw bw bw w w bw bw Nw ? w bw bw Nw w bw bw w w bw bw Nw bw bw bw w w bw bw Nw bw bw w bw bw w A Cø7#2 could be derived from the sixth mode of Eb melodic minor or from the second mode of Bb major b6.358 Chapter 14 14. 14.

Eb. and voice. Information is provided by the chord symbol. F#m7 and Dmaj7) or Cn (Cmaj7. third. An Eb9 chord suggests the key signature of four flats with a Gn and Db. A responsible improviser does not pick a favorite sound for a ii7 chord or a favorite sound for a dominant chord and use it for all situations. There are times when the chord symbols are quite specific and others when the chords do not clearly identify upper extensions or a complete scale. CHORD SYMBOL & CONTEXT A chord symbol may suggest four. A responsible improviser or composer would not arbitrarily pick from the previous charts and plug in sounds at random any more than a writer would compose sentences by picking from lists of possible parts of speech. Melodic material in the context may include one or more of these pitches. and the key signature of three flats. the performers must decide which of the many available sounds are the most appropriate.C . and the context in which the chord occurs. Context refers to the preceding music. four and five flats. The most important aspect of chord/scale relationships is not their relationship to each other. A responsible improviser usually determines the expected sound before choosing to impose substitute or alternative sounds.Ab . and the choices are determined by melodic implications. Cm9 that might precede the Fm7 chord has Gn as the fifth and Dn as the ninth and therefore suggests the key of three flats for the Fm7 chord. the melodic implications. but to actual musical environments. seventh or ninth. Am7. Look for chords that precede the Fm7 whose chord tones include a G or D as the root. the B would be Bb in any of those contexts. If a dominant seventh chord is the only symbol. Fm7 could be from the keys of three. Fm7 preceded by a Dbmaj7 and Gbmaj7 suggest Gb and Db. five and even seven notes of the scale. B. so the G could be Gn or Gb. F#ø7 and D7). Three notes are left to be determined: some kind of a G. The choice should not be made arbitrarily. The other remaining scale tones can be decided from the context and melodic implications. The two remaining tones can be decided by the melodic material or the context. Two notes of the scale not given by the chord symbol (C or C# and E) can be determined by the melodic material or context. The chord symbol “C13#11” discloses seven pitches. person. these are the sounds that the listeners (listeners includes the musicians) have just heard. with only two scale tones left to be determined of the seven tone scale. tense. MELODIC IMPLICATIONS & CHORD SYMBOL Compositions reveal specific chord and scale sounds in a combination of chord symbols and melodic content. chord symbols and context. A seventh chord Jazz Theory Resources . and no extensions or even the ninth are identified. A7. and these tones remain with the listener until something in the music changes those expectations. The seven pitches can be described as a chord (CE-G-Bb-D-F#-A) or a scale (C-D-E-F#-G-A-Bb). Ebmaj7 or Gm7 suggest Gn and a Dn. Look for some chords that precede the Gmaj7 that include either a C# (C#ø7. and D. The symbol for a ninth chord supplies five tones. By understanding the musical expectations. Chord/scales must be understood in a musical context. A Gmaj9 suggests five notes of a scale: G-B-D-F#-A. Chords that preceded the Fm7 will likely reveal the identities of the remaining three notes. Most musical settings provide enough information to accurately determine the appropriate chord/scale sound. and the D could be Dn or Db. Choosing the correct form of a verb is determined by mood. number. Choosing the appropriate chord/scale is the musical analog of verb conjugation. a musician can better choose alternative elements and sounds to play against or support those expectations.Chapter 14 Other Scales & Colors 359 DETERMINING the APPROPRIATE SOUND Chords have been inventoried by scales and modes. fifth. The chord symbol “Fm7” reveals four notes of a seven note scale: F . and the key signature of five flats. and scales cataloged by chord types in the preceding sections.

60 could be derived from the key of three flats as IV and iii in the key of Eb. œ ‰ J œ œ œ œ œ œ ‰ bœ & c bœ J J A bmaj7 Jazz Theory Resources . Both appropriate sounds are determined by melodic implications. A C9 would typically be the V7 of F major. A C7 with An and Dn in the melody does not suggest some exotic dominant scale with alterations. 14. The composer or arranger may assume the performer can determine the appropriate sound and scale choice from the context and melodic implications. 14.60 A bm aj7 œ œ bœ œ œ bœ œ n˙ . The most appropriate choice is G aeolian as the change from three flats to two flats is the path of least resistance: the listener retains the Eb suggested in the previous measure and nothing has occurred in the Gm7 measure to change that expectation. but the strong presence of the En in the melody indicates that this must a be G dorian sound. The Gm7 chord cannot be a iii7 chord in Eb because of the melody note An. two completely different expectations than F major.360 Chapter 14 Other Scales & Colors only suggests four notes of a seven note scale. then the composer has made the choice for the performer.iii in the key of Eb. A single pitch determines major and minor triads or distinguishes mixolydian from dorian. A C7 chord may be labeled with the alterations #9 and b13. but C7 as the V7 of F major. If the melody contains a Db combined with an F# and An. which is the key of one flat. The Abmaj7 is confirmed to be a lydian sound with Dn in the melody. Ab lydian is determined by melodic implications. Two scales are possible with those alterations: superlocrian (seventh mode of Db melodic minor with a Gb) or the third mode of Ab major b6 (with a G n).61 with different results. The Abmaj7 and the Gm7 chord in ex. If there is a Gn in the melody.Fm7. There will be instances that the composer has included notes in the melody to contradict expectations. the Gm7 aeolian by melodic implications and context. The Dn in the melody confirms that Abmaj7 is not a I chord. A C7 in the progression Gø7 .61 Gm7 œ n œ œ . If F# is significantly present in the melody. 14. There is no A of any kind in the melody to contradict the Ab that precedes it. Another C7 with An. The context may be overruled by the melody. A single note can make the difference between one sound and another. The Gm7 chord must be from the key signature of one flat (dorian) or two flats (aeolian). the tritone substitute dominant to B minor or the backdoor dominant to D major. even without any indicated alterations. using the F major scale. would be assumed to have a b13 and b9 in the context of F minor and the key of four flats.C7 . then the C9 chord is a C9#11. 14. then the composer has suggested the half-whole diminished scale rather than the expected fifth mode of harmonic minor. &c Gm7 Œ The same two chords occur in ex. Major seventh chords typically function as I or IV and call for a major or lydian sound even in settings out of the major/minor traditions. One significant pitch in the melody can indicate enormous differences in musical expectations. The Abmaj7 .Gm7 cannot be IV . Dn and the additional tone F# suggests the very specific C lydian dominant scale.

and the third mode of C major b6. Œ A major seventh chord that begins a progression will probably sound like a I chord unless somehow contradicted. An Aø7 chord follows.Chapter 14 Other Scales & Colors 361 The Dn in the melody in ex. so the best choice for clarity is the third mode of C major b6. The contradiction could be a raised fourth degree in the melody or other harmonic pointers. &c ˙ Cm 7 œ bœ Am 9 ˙. There is no Bb to indicate a superlocrian sound. Looking for the path of least resistance confirms the choice. There are no clues within the measure to rule out one sound in favor of the other. so the appropriate sound for Am9 is aeolian (no #s and no bs). One note changes from third mode of C major b6 to A aeolian: the Ab to An. There are no notes in the melody over the Gm7 that contradict the key of three flats so the Gm7 and Ab chords could be bracketed in the key of three flats or as an Ab lydian sound followed by a G phrygian sound. Two scales have a #9. Two notes would have to change from E superlocrian to A aeolian: the Ab and Bb up to An and Bn. 14.62 A bm aj7 bœ . the sixth mode of C melodic minor. This could simply be a I chord followed by a iiø7 of G minor if judging by the chord symbols. The Dn over the Cm7 eliminates a phrygian sound and leaves a choice between C dorian (2b) or C aeolian (3b).65 must be an aeolian sound indicated by the context of the Fn in the preceding measure and the Bn in the melody. 14. The melody reveals a Bn over the Aø7 which indicates an A locrian #2 sound.63 . The Am7 in ex. The Ebmaj7 in ex. If the first scale is C dorian. 14.64 E bm aj7 & c œ bœ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ n˙ . 14. & c œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ ˙ Gm7 Œ These two chords cannot be bracketed by one sound since no key signature contains a Cm7 and an Am7 chord.64 would probably be interpreted as a major or ionian sound since there is no An to contradict that sound. A Bn is indicated by the Am9 chord symbol and an Fn can be retained from C dorian or aeolian. which contains an An that anticipates the Am9. Is the E7 based on the harmonic minor scale? The E7 has a Gn (#9). then only two pitches change from the first to the second measure: the Eb and Bb change to Bn and En. A ø7 Jazz Theory Resources . 14. b9 and n13: the superlocrian (seventh mode of F melodic minor). 14. but the context that matters in making scale selections concerns sounds that precede the chord/scale in question. Fn (b9) and Cn (n13).62 again confirms the lydian sound (three flats) for the Abmaj7 chord.

F . so it must be aeolian. An E superlocrian might sound odd with a Bb since the two preceding measures and the final measure contain a Bn. 14. The E7. The Am7 follows an E7 with a b 9 (Fn) and with Bn in the melody.C) plus the F7 (F . 14. Jazz Theory Resources .B . œ œ ‰J Dm 7 Œ A D7 with a b9 in the melody might indicate the fifth mode of harmonic minor. with the b13 and b9 could be the fifth mode of harmonic minor or the third mode of C major b6. B and F#) create the scale: D . œ œ œ ‰ œ ˙ J J E7 œ œ.) Another alternative is to bracket the D7 and F7 with a halfwhole diminished scale which is suggested by the two chord symbols and the melodic material. The chord symbol and melody indicate lydian dominant (fourth mode of Db melodic minor) for the Gb9#11.67. Two scales have a b9 and n13: half-whole diminished and the fifth mode of G major b6. 14.A .362 Chapter 14 14. œÓ J The D7 in ex. Both chords can be bracketed with the key signature of no sharps and no flats.F# . 14. F aeolian can be inferred from the context and the melody: the Db in the previous measures rules out F dorian. The Dm7 must be dorian with the Bn in the previous measure and the En in the melody.F# .66 could be a lydian dominant sound (fourth mode of A melodic minor) with the n13 and #11 in the melody.67 &c ˙ Fmaj7 œ ˙.69. so G major b6 is the logical choice. None of the more unusual alterations associated with half-whole are present.G# .C .C . and there is no Eb in that measure.A . 14. The Gmaj7 should be G major scale: no listener would expect the Eb to carry over.68 œ ˙. œœ‰J Am 7 j œÓ The Bn in the melody indicates the Fmaj7 is a IV chord or a lydian sound (no sharps and no flats) and not a I chord in ex 14.Eb . The D7 (D . but the Bn suggests some other sound may be more appropriate.Eb) plus the melody notes (G#.A . The F7 has the same chord tones in the melody and could also be lydian dominant (fourth mode of C melodic mode. & c ‰ œjb œ œ œ œ ‰ J D7 Gm aj7 Œ The chord symbol and melody identify Db lydian augmented (third mode of Bb melodic minor) as the scale sound for Dbmaj7#5 in ex.65 Other Scales & Colors œ œ &c œ œ ‰ J E7 Am 7 œ œ œ.66 & c œ.D. and the Gn in the melody rules out phrygian. D7 F7 j œ œ #œ œ ‰ J œ .

Other options for the D7 chord include the third mode of Bb major b6 which has the A n which anticipates the D7 measure. The An. Jazz Theory Resources . a scale tone of E dorian.72 must be lydian with the An melodic note. 14. they can logically be grouped into the same key signature of one flat.70 could be aeolian or dorian as there is no Bn or Bb to make a determination. The Dbmaj7 should be treated with as lydian (4b) as there have been Gns in the preceding measures. is not canceled so Eb lydian (2b) is the logical choice for the second measure. A Gm7/C chord symbol always indicates mixolydian (a ii7 chord over a dominant bass note).72 E bm aj7 &c Œ bœ œ œ œ œ Gm 7/C œ ˙ Fmaj7 œ œ ˙ Ó When Ebmaj7 is followed by Abmaj7. The Ebmaj7 must be lydian (2bs) in the context of chords and melodic line containing An. The second Dm7 with the 9 (E) in the chord symbol and the Bb in the previous measure suggests D aeolian (1b) and so that may be the best choice retrospectively for the first Dm7.71. as in ex.Chapter 14 14. The Cn in the melody and the F# implied by the chord symbol indicates E aeolian in the first measure of ex. 14. Since C mixolydian precedes the Fmaj7. 14. The D7 to Gm7 could be treated traditionally like a V7/vi to vi so that the D7 could be the fifth mode of harmonic minor. 14.69 Other Scales & Colors 363 &3 4œ # D bm aj7 5 bœ œ # G b9 11 œ bœ bœ Fm 7 bœ n˙ The first Dm7 in ex 14. 14.71 &c œ Em9 ˙.70 E maj7 j 3 œ & 4 œ œ ‰ J ‰ œ b˙ Dm 7 b Dm9 œ ˙ œ D bm aj7 ˙. œ œ ‰ œ ‰ œ J J E bmaj7 The Eb chord in the first measure of ex. or D superlocrian (seventh mode of Eb melodic minor) which retains the Ab from the previous measure.73 they sound like the I and IV chords in the key of Eb. 14.

This sixteen measure phrase used four different melodic minor scales: C. the Bb chord over the A bass note must be A phrygian. ‰ nœ bœ Gm7 #œ . The C7susb9 could be a phrygian mode or retaining the An from the previous two measures. . Fmmaj 7. The Bb has canceled the Bn.12-14 A aeolian. œ C7b 9 b5 &‰ œ 5 œ œ ‰ œj b˙ # B b9 11 bœ . calls for C superlocrian (seventh mode of Db melodic minor) in m. The Am9 chord symbol and the previous Fn makes mm. &œ 13 œ œ œ j œ ˙. # E bmaj7 5 14. The chord symbol.74a Bert Ligon: First section of Silhouette # D ø7 2 &3 4 œ 1 œ bœ œ œ J bœ ˙ œ œ œ. F melodic minor continues through mm.9. so this must be the sixth mode of D harmonic minor. C7 with the b5 and b9. and En in the melody indicate F melodic minor in m. The chord symbol. In this context. Db melodic minor. œ J œ Fm maj 7 &œ 9 bœ œ œ Am9 ˙ ˙ ‰ ‰ œ œ œ œ ‰ œj ‰ œj œ B bm aj7/A œ Ó . This is because C#7. The D harmonic minor continues through the Eø7/A chord. Jazz Theory Resources . The D melodic minor will not work for the Fmaj7#5/Bb chord. The Ebmaj7#5 and Dbmaj7#5 chords are Lydian augmented (third mode of C and Bb melodic minor) with the augmented fourth and fifth degrees present in the melody. Bb.11-12 over the Bb9#11 lydian dominant chord. the dominant of F# minor and its altered sound. b C7sus 9 # D bm aj7 5 j œ œ ‰ j œ ˙. continue the Bb melodic minor making that measure C dorian b2. The Fmaj7# 5 chord sounds convincing as a chord pointing to F#m. superlocrian.8. F. The chord that follows the next Fmaj7#5 chord is Dmmaj7 so the D melodic minor carries through both measures. œ ˙ The following composition utilizes several sounds not available from the major or harmonic minor scales. is a relative of Fmaj7#5 sharing the same D melodic minor scale.73 Other Scales & Colors Bert Ligon: Excerpt from Ouzel Falls A bmaj7 &3 4œ E bm aj7 bœ œ œ bœ j D7. which leads to F# m7 aeolian. The Dø7#2 is locrian #2 (sixth mode of F melodic minor).364 Chapter 14 14. œ The B section of Silhouette begins with an Fmaj7#5 chord indicating F lydian augmented (third mode of D melodic minor).

V7 . 14. œ # F9 11 C/G &œ 29 œ œ œ œ. The following is a typical progression in the key of Bb major.74b Bert Ligon: Second section of Silhouette Other Scales & Colors 365 & 17 ˙.Chapter 14 14. All the chords are derived from the major minor system. With some experience. &˙ 25 Cm maj 7 œ œ j œ ˙.IV . œ E ø7/A #œ ‰ œ œ œ bœ # Fm aj7 5 # Fm aj7 5/B b & 21 œ #œ œ œ # A bm aj7 5 œ. œ 4 ˙.I Dm7 b &b cw w w ? b cw w b b &b w w w ? b w b w Cm7 w w w b G7 9 w w w w w B bmaj7 bw nw w w w w w w w w w w F13 w w w w w w w w w w Jazz Theory Resources . The G7 is a secondary dominant of C minor.ii7 .75 B bmaj7 Traditional progression: E bm aj7 I .V7/ii . œ # Fm aj7 5 œ Dm maj 7 œ #œ 4 F #m 9 œ j œ ˙. This progression will be used as a simple framework over which other colorful sounds will be applied. but all other chords are from the Bb major scale. personal choices from the long list of possibilities may be imposed over traditional frameworks.iii7 . calling for C harmonic minor. œ Œ œ ˙. # A b9 11 ˙ œ D ø7/G . IMPOSITIONS over TRADITIONAL FRAMEWORKS Conscientious improvisers develop the skills to identify and accurately reproduce what the composer and musical situation calls for.

The G7 still points to the ii7 chord Cm7. 14. The F7 chord suggests third mode of Db major b6 or superlocrian (seventh mode of Gb melodic minor) which mirrors the G7.76.366 Chapter 14 Other Scales & Colors In ex. the IV has been replaced by an Eb lydian dominant (fourth mode of Bb melodic minor) which changes it to a tritone substitute dominant pointing to the iii7 chord Dm7. The iii7 chord.76 b &b w w w ? b w b w bb B bm aj7 # E b9 11 w bw w D ø7 bw w w w w G7b 13 #9 ˙ n˙ ˙ G7b 13 b9 b˙ ˙ ˙ w w F7b 13 w w #9 Cm9 & w bw w bb˙ ˙ ˙ F7b 13 b9 B bmaj7 b˙ ˙ ˙ w w w w w w w w w w ? bb w w w w Ex. and continued to do so through to the F7. The D7 could be half-whole diminished or the third mode of Bb major b6. The A triad over the Bb bass.77 begins and ends in Bb major with many substitute colors in between. The A7 chord with a 13 and #11 suggests halfwhole diminished or the fifth mode of D major b6. Jazz Theory Resources . The G7 chord suggests the slightly more colorful third mode of Eb major b6 or superlocrian (seventh mode of Ab melodic minor) instead of the fifth mode of harmonic minor. which makes the resolution back to the key of Bb major more powerful. An A7 chord is in place of the IV chord Eb acting as the dominant pointing to iii7. The C# and the En are non-harmonic tones that resolve up to the chord tones D and F. The sequential treatment means that the G7 is either half-whole diminished or the fifth mode of C major b6. with the C# and the En indicate the sixth mode of D harmonic minor. a secondary dominant pointing to G. Dm7 has been replaced by a D7#9. not Bb major. 14. The top four voices of the A7 moved chromatically down the D7. The Dm7 has been replace by a Dø7 (iiø7/ii) which creates a stronger pull to the G7 chord. the C7 is either half-whole diminished or the fifth mode of Ab major b6. This altered F7 points to Bb minor. 14. but D harmonic minor is the implied scale sound. and the F7 is either half-whole diminished or the fifth mode of Bb major b6.

B9#11. The Dm7 has been changed to a secondary dominant that points to G minor.78 begins with Bb as a I chord. dominant for which it substitutes. but there is no Ab indicated by the chord symbol or the previous context. Eb9 #11 calls for lydian dominant (fourth mode of Bb melodic minor) as would the A7 alt. indicating Bb lydian rather than the expected Bb major. With the b13 and #9. Bb major b6 is indicated. F7 has been replaced by its tritone substitute dominant.78 b &b w w ww ? b b w b & b bw w w w ? bb bw bw B bmaj7 # E b9 11 w w bw w D7b 13 #9 w w w # D b9 11 w w bw w bw w w w # B9 11 #w w # B bmaj7 11 # G b9 11 ww ##nw # nn w w w w nw w w w w w w w w w w w w Jazz Theory Resources . The IV chord has been changed to the tritone substitute dominant pointing to Dm. and either dominant calls for Db melodic minor. 14.77 Other Scales & Colors 367 b &b w w w ? b w b w bb B bm aj7 w b #w w w w # A13 11 # D7 9 w nw w # G13 11 w n bn w w nw w #w w A/B b # C7 9 # F13 11 B bmaj7 & w bw w bw w w w w #nw w w w w w w w w w ? bb nw w The version in ex.Chapter 14 14. Gb9 #11 is the tritone substitute dominant for C7. The original G7 has been replaced by its tritone substitute dominant Db9#11. A D superlocrian might be used. and calls for F# melodic minor. 14. indicating Db lydian dominant (fourth mode of A b lydian dominant). The final resolution has been brightened with the addition of the En.

dominant .) G7 (5th C m.V7/i .m.I.V/iii7 .m. with the 13 and #11 are half-whole diminished.) G7 (5th of C major b6) G7 (3rd of Eb major b6) G7 (7th of Ab m.m.m.) D7 as Secondary dominant (5th of G major or G minor) D7 as Secondary dominant (3rd of Bb major b6) D7 as Secondary dominant (7th of Eb m.V7/ii .) Db7 (4th of Ab m.368 Chapter 14 Other Scales & Colors The progression in ex.tonic progression. The final chord is the brighter Bb lydian.) Jazz Theory Resources .) TONIC Cmaj7 (C major) Cmaj7 #11 (Lydian) Cmaj7 #11 #9 (6th of E h. 14.79 b & b #w w w w ? b nw b w bb # E ø7 2 # A13 11 w bbw w #w w w # D ø7 2 # G13 11 w nw w bw w w # B bmaj7 11 w n##w w nw w w w w w w w w # C ø7 2 # F13 11 & nw w w ? bb bw w w w n#w w w w w w nw w w w w A number of different possibilities are shown below that may be combined over a traditional pre-dominant .m. the Bb9 #11 as backdoor dominant is typically preceded by a IV (Fmaj7) or a ii7 (Dm7).) G7 or Db7 (1/2W) G9#5 (WT) b # B 9 11 as backdoor dominant (4th of F m. PRE-DOMINANT Dm7 (2nd of C major) Dø7#2 (2nd of C major b6) Dø7#2 (6th of F m.m. The chords in column one do not necessarily connect to all the chords in column two.79 is a sequence: iiø7/iii . For instance.) b A 7 as tritone substitute dominant (7th of Eb m.iiø7/i . Each dominant. and rarely if at all preceded by the secondary V7 chord D7. 14.m.iiø7/ii .m.) D7 or Ab7 (1/2W) Fmaj7 (4th of C major) Fm7 (borrowed iv chord) DOMINANT G7 (5th of C major) G7 (5th of C h.m. Each of the iiø7 chords have the # 2 added indicating locrian # 2 (sixth mode of melodic minor).

thoughtless application.Chapter 14 Other Scales & Colors 369 WARNINGS These modes and scales will provide a number of different colors available for chords in common progressions. so use the new sound according to the desired consequence. They do not necessarily replace the traditional sounds. Even though a different scale sound can be applied to each chord in a succession of chords. Voices derived from substitute scales will follow traditional voice-leading principles and have melodic implications. it makes little sense to use superlocrian or half-whole exclusively. There are many more examples and pages of exercises for many of these scale and chord sounds in the book. then its chance of surprising a listener is reduced. Find the one or two notes that change and aim for those connections between the chords. Find the connections. Avoid the temptation to always use any one sound for a specific chord. Emphasize tones in common. If the diminished scale is used in all possible places. remember to consider a musical context when applying the sound. but remember that their effect can be diminished by overuse. Use colorful substitute sounds to surprise the listener. Avoid the temptation to use a new sound in every opportunity. Any new scale will brighten or darken the musical context. avoid compartmentalizing each separate chord. “hipper” or more jazz-like. Avoid arbitrary. Strive for a balance between a number of different approaches from traditional key center generalization and specificity and the use of special colorful scales. Jazz Theory Resources . As new sounds are learned. nor are they inherently better. Comprehensive Technique for Jazz Musicians. With nine possible sounds for a dominant. They only enlarge the tonal palette.

The horizontal line indicates that the lower note represents a triad or complete chord itself and not just a bass note. and 1-3-5-7-9-11-13. The result can be confusing and messy on the page. An CEG chord above an ACE chord becomes the seventh chord ACEG. Care should be taken on handwritten music if this distinction is to be understood. EXTENDED TERTIAN STRUCTURES & TRIADIC SUPERIMPOSITION The tertian triad has been the building block for harmony and melodic invention for most of the history of tonal music. a GBD above an ACE chord becomes an eleventh chord ACEGBD. and as a extended tertian chord (1-3-5-7-9-11-13). There are two ways of expressing the same seven notes: as a scale (1-2-3-4-5-6-7-1). This means that a scale and a chord represent the same thing: chord = scale. NOTATION SHORTHAND All chord symbols used in pop music and jazz are shorthand in place of the written notes on a staff. The normal slash indicates a chord over just the bass note.370 Chapter 15 Extended Tertian Structures & Triadic Superimposition XV . scale = chord. 1-3-5-7-9-11. but a tertian triad is built in consecutive thirds. scale positions will be referred to by the numbers 1-2-34-5-6-7. Most formal theory classes deal principally with the tertian triad and discuss the seventh chord which adds one more extension of a third. In a way. CHORD SHORTHAND F/G Dm7/G F# G Em Fm MEANING F major triad over a G bass note Dm7 chord over a G bass note # F major triad over a G major triad E minor triad over a F minor triad Slash chords Polychords using horizontal lines Jazz Theory Resources . A triad can be any three notes. Extended tertian structures are sometimes referred to as triadic superimposition. These extended tertian structures have been around for a long time in contemporary music and jazz and should be discussed as we enter the twenty first century. and so on. Scale tones 2-4-6 correspond to chord tones 9-11-13. Many texts acknowledge that chords could theoretically be built by extended thirds past the triad to include the chords like 1-3-5-7-9. The resulting chords constructed by superimposing triads may be better understood as a polychord and will often be labeled as one chord over the other separated by a horizontal line. The addition of superimposed triads and extensions can lead to a string of alterations following the basic chord symbol. These chords are often dismissed as dubious and irrelevant. The shorthand version is no longer short. all extended tertian structures are made up of triads added to triads. chord tones will be referred to by the numbers 1-3-5-7-9-11-13. When discussing the notes. The chart below indicates the difference in the slash and the horizontal line.

Chapter 15 Extended Tertian Structures & Triadic Superimposition 371 To find the upper tertian extensions of any chord. Improvisers will often maintain the density introduced by these upper extensions by linking the upper structure of one chord to the upper structures of the next. The connections of upper tertian extensions should be examined through harmonic progressions. Not all upper extensions are musically useful in every situation. and while it may sound musical in some settings. The B. This chord is actually a C major seventh in first inversion. with the tonic triad superimposed. several examples from improvisations will illustrate the linear connections of these extended structures. the I chord may be superimposed over the iii7.2 Dm Extended supertonic ii7 chord Dm13 &w w w w w w 1 3 5 w w w w w w w w w w w w w w 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 Dm + C w w w w w w = Dm9 w w w w w w A iii7 chord often is replacing or substituting for a tonic I6 chord in a progression. The common triadic superimposition formula is to add a major triad on the seventh degree (C) to the basic minor triad (Dm). The upper tertian extensions often follow voice leading principles discussed in earlier chapters. The thirteenth. 15. 15. The ninth chord sound may be created by adding a major triad off the fifth degree (in this case G) to the triad built on the root (C) of the scale. the following extended tertian chords are possible. continue adding thirds within the key signature. The dissonant ninth of a iii7 chord is often avoided as it blurs the distinction of the sound Since the iii7 substitutes for the I chord. Extended tertian melodies are more colorful. at the very least. A tonic I chord is seldom extended past the ninth. The half-step dissonance in a ii7 chord is between the minor third and the ninth. In a iii7 chord. is often not used over a ii7 chord. Experimentation and listening will help determine the best usage. The eleventh is a dissonant note. Tertian extensions must be added to the aural and theoretical vocabulary of a jazz student. Over a Dm7 (ii7) chord. may diminish the impact of resolving to G7. The examples below will illustrate several possible extended tertian structures. With C as a tonic chord.3 Em Limited extension for a iii7 chord Cmaj7/E &w w w w w w 1 3 5 w w w w w w Jazz Theory Resources . the half-step dissonance is between the fifth and the minor sixth degrees. 15. their sources. possible formulas and applications. the thirteenth (B) can make the chord sound like a G7 (V7) chord since B is the note that identifies the G7. After outlining the individual possibilities.1 C Extended tonic I chords Cmaj9 & w w w w 1 w 3 w 5 w w w w w w 1 w 3 w 5 w 7 w 9 C + G w w w w w w = Cm aj9 w w w w w A ii7 chord may be extended entirely without any real conflicting dissonance. though possible. it prevents the chord from sounding like a tonic chord.

7 œ bbw w w w w w G7b 9 b 13 œ bw b w w w w w 1 3 5 7 b9 11 b 13 b G + D ° = G7 9 G7susb 9 bw bw w w w w w w w w w bw w bw w w b w w bw w w w w w The Ab triad over a G7 may seem a dissonant choice. or an Ab major triad over the G suggests a suspended dominant with a b9. A G triad placed over an F major triad with the G in the bass creates the last chord in the example below. can be extended to the thirteenth without encountering any dissonance which prohibits chord identification. an F major. 15. but creates a suspension which may be desirable. There are those who say the major third should not be used if the suspended fourth degree is present. like the supertonic. A diminished triad from the fifth degree added to the root triad creates a dominant chord with a b9. it can create a vague and dissonant sonority. Imposing an Fm. a Dø7. The upper structures are very bright and colorful. 15. it can brighten the suspended sound.5 G Dominant extensions for V7 in major G13 & w w w w w w 1 3 5 w œ w w w w w w œ w w w w w 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 G + Dm = G9 G9sus w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w A dominant chord in a minor key will necessarily have different upper extensions than a dominant chord in a major key. bœ œ œ & c œ bœ œ œ œ A b triad b G7 9 G triad Cm b˙ Ó Jazz Theory Resources . Two triads may be imposed on the basic subdominant triad: one built on the fifth degree. The only caveat concerns the fourth degree of the scale or the natural eleventh of the chord. When the two notes are adjacent or when the third is placed below the fourth.372 Chapter 15 Extended Tertian Structures & Triadic Superimposition The subdominant chord. 15. If the third is place well above the fourth.4 F Extended subdominant IV chord Fmaj13 11 # w &w w w w w 1 3 5 w w w w w w w w w w w w w w 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 F + C w w w w w w = Fmaj9 w w w w w Fmaj9+ G = Fmaj13 w w w w w w w w w w w w w w # 11 The V7 chord may be extended to outer extreme. but can used for very expressive melodic lines. This note is dissonant against the major third.6 G Dominant extensions for V7 in minor & w w w w w w 1 3 5 15. To create a suspended dominant (as in a 4-3 suspension). Dm7 or Fmaj7 chord may be imposed over the G bass note as shown. and one built on the second degree of the scale. A minor triad built on the fifth degree yields a ninth chord. This can be achieved by superimposing two triads over the root of the chord.

The notes of the Db triad are actually just diatonic upper neighbors to the C triad. The four triads can be imposed over a dominant seventh chord. 15. Op.9 b G7 9 bœ œ bœ œ œ bœ Cmaj7 ˙. Imposing the Db triad over the G7 generates a G with a b5 and b9. Jazz Theory Resources . œ œ œ œ œ œ œ b œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ The altered dominant (G7) and the tritone substitute dominant (Db7) are derived from Ab melodic minor. A Bb chord includes the fifth and the seventh and adds the Bb. an Eb generates a G7 with a #9 and b13. Knowing triadic superimposition formulas will assist the soloist or accompanist in producing accurate alterations. 2 b b 12 œ n œ œ b œ œ œ n œ b & 8 nœ œ œ œ œ ? b 12 œ bb 8 œ œ œbœ œ œ œ . or notated as customary with the alterations listed.10 Extended tertian structures for G7 superlocrian (altered) & Db7 lydian dominant: Db G7 Eb G7 A bm G7 b˙ ˙ ˙ œ bœ bb ˙ b ˙ b œ ˙ b ˙ b œ b ˙ b ˙ b œ b ˙ & b˙ œ ˙ ˙ bœ (R) 3 5 7 9 #11 13 b5 b œ bœ bw b œ b œ bw w bœ œ bœ w w b5 7 b9 (3) b13 (R) #9 G7 9 #9 b w bbw w w w w G7 13 bb 9 bbbw w w w w w G7 13 Four different major triads can be extracted from the half-whole symmetrical diminished scale. 15. Knowing triadic superimposition formulas will assist the soloist or accompanist in producing accurate alterations.9.Chapter 15 Extended Tertian Structures & Triadic Superimposition 373 Ex. Chopin used a similar technique with the Db and C triads over the C7 shown in ex. and an Ab minor generates a G7 with a b9 and a b13. 15. The Db triad provides the b5 and the b9 over a G7. Two major triads (Db and Eb) and one minor triad (Ab minor) can be found in the Ab melodic minor scale. No.8 Bert Ligon: View from the Bridge A b triad j œ nœ bœ 3 ‰ b œ &4 œ G triad 15. 15.8 illustrates another use of Ab and G triads over a G7 chord. An E triad includes the third but adds a b9 and a n13 over a G7. the #9 over G7. These chords may occur in one of two forms of musical shorthand: shown as polychords. 9. The G triad over a G7 adds no new color. Chopin: Nocturne in Eb major.

The chord symbol indicates a Gø7 (iiø7 of F) but Harrell seems to have outlined a Dbmaj7 chord. In the second example.14 ‰ œ J b C7 9 Fm œ b œ b œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ bœ œ j bœ bœ œ bœ bœ b œ œ & c #œ œ nœ œ œ #œ Fm aj7 Fmaj7 (bVI) or Bø7(iiø7)? E7 9 œ œ ˙ œ œ œ œ œ Am Jazz Theory Resources .374 Chapter 15 15. The Dø7#2 is shown as a combination of C major triad over a D° triad. 1 or no. The D b-F-Ab-C could be considered the upper extensions of the Gø7 chord or an example of a substitution. 15. the chord symbol indicates an Fmaj7. but the melodic line suggests outline no.12 D ø7 Extensions of iiø7 chords D ø7 A bmaj7 w w b w b w w w &b w w w w w bw w b w w w bw b w w w w w n w n w w w bw w w w w bw # D ø7 2 w w w bw w w # D ° + C = D ø7 2 w w bw w w w Two examples from improvisations by Tom Harrell illustrate the interchangeable iiø7 and bVI in minor. 3 over a Bø7.13 Gø7 (iiø7) or Dbmaj7 (bVI)? G ø7 &c 15.11 Extended Tertian Structures & Triadic Superimposition Major triads from the symmetrical diminished scale superimposed over G7: G G7 Bb G7 E G7 Db G7 G7b 9 w w w w # w b w n w b w &w G7 w w w w w w # G7 9 w bw w nw w w b G13 9 b5 #w w w w w w bbw w w w w The upper extensions of a iiø7 chord resemble a bVImaj7 chord in minor. The C major triad emphasizes the bright raised second degree and the eleventh. 15. The Abmaj7 and Dø7 both point to the V7 (G7) of C minor and are often interchangeable in traditional progressions.

15 F ø7 Eb + F° = Fø7#2 œ bœ b œ b œ c b œ œ & œ bœ #9 D ø7 G7b 13 Cm b œ bœ bœ œ œ œ œ b œ b œ b œ œ œ œj c b œ œ & œ bœ 15. shown by the brackets in the second example.16 The whole-half symmetrical diminished scale yields four major triads that may be superimposed over diminished chords. The B triad yields the major seventh and #11. The B triad over the F#°7 may sound wildly inappropriate in the context of G minor. The bracket indicates the Eb major triad superimposed over the Fø7. The C triad over the Dø7 creates a Dø7# 2. 15. Jazz Theory Resources .17 Major triads from the symmetrical diminished scale and superimposed over F#°7: D F#°7 F#°7 F Ab F#°7 B F#°7 C + D° = Dø7# 2 Ab minor over G7 & w w bw w #w #w w w w ? w w bw w #w #w w w w #w w w bw w #w w w w w bw w #w w w bbw w bw w #w w w ##w w bw w #w w Some interesting extended chords can be generated from the fourth mode of a major scale with a b6. Take care when applying these triad superimposition (and all other impositions) as some of the extra color tones may clash with the surrounding harmonic environment. The root of each of these major triads adds a color tone that is a whole step above one of the fundamental diminished chord tones. creating a Fø7#2 in the first example. The B minor triad over the C minor is a haunting sound unique to this scale yielding a major seventh. 15. ninth and a #11. The full tertian extension from this scale creates an enigmatic Cmmaj 13 #11. A D triad adds the n13. then it may be the perfect choice.Chapter 15 Extended Tertian Structures & Triadic Superimposition 375 Two excerpts from improvisations by Bill Evans illustrate the upper extensions of a iiø7 chord. Many of these specialty chords may not be on the fingertips of all players so for successful performances and rehearsals it may be useful to write the desired voicings on the staff and/or provide some polychordal shorthand notation as a formula. The G major triad over the C minor creates a Cmmaj 7 that could also have been derived from the melodic or harmonic minor scale. Another bracket shows the Ab minor imposed over the G7 that supplies the b13 and b9. The fourth mode of G major b6 is shown below with possible upper triadic extensions. and enharmonically duplicates the minor third. unless surprise is the goal.

The sixth mode of E harmonic minor is shown below. Rite of Spring Built using all the tones of the Ab harmonic minor scale Eb7 over Fb chord: b &b b 2 4 b œœ œ œ ? bb 2 bœ b 4 bbœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ bb œ œ œ bœ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ n˙ b˙ b ˙ b ˙ b ˙ b ˙ b˙ b˙ Jazz Theory Resources . It is interesting that one of the more modern chords of the twentieth century used all the notes from an old-fashioned Ab harmonic minor scale. Rite of Spring.19 Extended chord derived from the sixth mode of harmonic minor: Cmaj7 #9 #11 or B C E harmonic minor & w #w w #w w w w w ##w w w w ? w #w w #w w w w w w w This major seven chord with a # 9 and # 11 can be heard at the end of the common introduction to ’Round Midnight as a D triad over an Eb.18 Extended Tertian Structures & Triadic Superimposition Extended chords derived from the fourth mode of G major b6: Cm maj7 Bm Cm B Cm D Cm Bm7 Cm Fourth mode of G major b6: w & w w bw #w w w w w w w ? w w bw #w w w w w bw w w #w w w bw w w ##w w w bw w w #w w w bw w w #w w w w bw w w A major seventh chord can be built on the sixth degree of harmonic minor.20 Stravinsky. If the upper extensions from harmonic minor are used a major triad is available from the major seventh of that VI chord. 15.376 Chapter 15 15. Another version of this chord dates to 1913 from the infamous Stravinsky ballet. 15. notes more common over chords with a dominant seventh. The B major triad over the C major creates a C major seventh chord with the unusual #9 and #11.

This chromatic motion followed voice leading principles assuming the first half of the measure is Dm9. Jazz Theory Resources . Sonny Rollins is known for his use of motivic development in his improvisations. 15. chapter 10 (Extensions and Connections) and chapter 14 (Developing Jazz Exercises). 15. The E is the ninth of Dm9 and resolved to the b13 of G. More examples and exercises for developing the understanding and use of these extensions can be found in Comprehensive Technique for Jazz Musicians in chapter 8 (Triadic superimposition). When one is placed above the other it creates a chord best labeled as a polychord. the resolution to G was stressed by the chromatic approach from above (A-Ab-G) and below (F-F#-G). Jazz improvisers create lines that link one chord to the next maintaining the colorful density of the upper tertian extensions.22. the C to B. but it is doubtful that a performer would easily arrive at this desired chord. C aug. If a chord like this is desired. It is one thing to know formulas for arriving at certain sounds. but is more important to develop the skills to apply them in context of creating melodic lines. The chord could be labeled a Cmaj7 (#5 #9 n5).” Aaron Copland “Melody is the very essence of music. the b9 of G (5-9).Chapter 15 Extended Tertian Structures & Triadic Superimposition 377 The six tone augmented scale is actually an augmented triad plus the leading tones to each chord tone. the chords are rarely isolated as shown in the previous section.” Mozart In real musical settings. as Dm9 over a G creates a suspended dominant. a substitute for the fifth (9-5). the C is the seventh of Dm7 and resolved to the third of G (7-3). Rollins moved the three top voices down chromatically: the E to Eb. This section will present excerpts from the improvisations of well-known artists illustrating some ways of using and connecting the upper extensions of basic chords.21 Polychord created from augmented scale B aug. but Rollins implied much more. By using the F#.1 implied either the 3-5-7-9 of Dm9 or the 7-9-11-13 of the G7. and the A as the fifth of Dm resolved to the Ab. In most of these examples. The chord symbol indicated simply a G7 for the first measure. The F would be expected to remain and ultimately resolve down to the E over the C chord. the lines follow voice leading principles outlined in chapter 11. but displays understanding of voice leading and upper extensions in ex. the A to Ab. it may be best to label it as a polychord as shown or write the notes on the staff. & w #w w w bw w w ? w #w w w bw w w bw w w #w w w “Melody is what the piece is about. The F-A-C-E in m. The harmony implied by this line is shown to the right of the example. and most often follow close position voicings. so the augmented scale contains two adjacent augmented triads. The B augmented chord is spelled enharmonically to avoid the F double sharp. but Rollins moved the F up to F#.

third and b13. The A.26 C7 F7 B & c œ œ bœ œ bœ œ bœ bœ œ b b˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ bb b˙ ˙˙ w w w w Jazz Theory Resources . The connection between a dominant and the tritone substitute dominant is clear from this example. The Ab minor triad over the G7 (b9-3-b13) would be the chord tones 5-7-9 of the Db7. The resolution of D to Db implied a similar structure for the F7 as was used for the G7.C9 . Is it easier to hear and think of the second chord as F7 or B7? b & c œ bœ œ œ bœ bœ œ bœ œ C7 F7 B 15. These pitches may be easier as the 3-5-7-9 of Db7. the second is the inversion from Joe Pass. Mobley played the triad pitches for the Dm7. The chords to the right show voicings implied by these passages. two chords separated by a tritone and yet the connection is smooth. and Ab to G (95).22 Extended Tertian Structures & Triadic Superimposition œ bœ œ bœ &c œ œ œ #œ œ œ G7 C ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ b b ˙˙ ˙ w w w w The upper structures were arpeggiated in this excerpt from Hank Mobley.Bb.25 b˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ bb b˙ ˙˙ w w w w 15. 15. the tritone substitute for G7.23 bœ & c œ œ œ œ bœ bœ œ œbœ œbœ b˙ Dm 7 G7 Cm7 F7 ˙ b˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ b ˙˙ ˙ ˙ b˙ b ˙ ˙ b b˙ ˙ ˙˙ w w w w Kenny Dorham clearly arpeggiated each chord in the following excerpts.378 Chapter 15 15. fifth of Dm. the implied harmony is Bb . Dorham alternated ascending and descending arpeggios through the passage. The first is from Kenny Dorham. with the Db9 and the B9 as tritone substitutes for G7 and F7. The upper three voices resolved down chromatically predictably: Eb to D (b13 for 5-9). resolved to the b9 of G. The chords to the right show voicings implied by this passage. b G7 C7 F7 Bb œ bœ & c bœ œ œ bœbœ œ œbœ œ œ œbœbœ œ bœ œ B 15. It is interesting that the Dm triad is followed by an Ab minor triad. Cb or B to Bb (3-7).Db9 . and then Mobley arpeggiated an Ab minor triad over the G7 which yielded the b9.24 n b b ˙˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ b˙ w b ˙ ˙ b w b ˙ ˙ ˙˙ w w These two fragments are mirror images.B9 . The F-Ab-Cb-Eb over the G7 are the 7-b9-3-b13. the tritone substitute for G7. Because the arpeggios moved down chromatically. All the voices resolve logically.

˙ b˙ ˙ ˙ ¿ . as a tritone substitution. Extending the Cmaj7 chord to the #11 brightens the sound beyond a normal resolution to major. Whether Evans was thinking Cmaj7 as a substitute for F#ø7 or utilizing the upper tertian structure of the F#ø7 chord is irrelevant as either can point to the B7 chord. A descending line was implied at the top of the line shown by the circled notes. 15..iii7 .V7 . # œ œ B7 œ œ b œ 3 œ œ Em7œ # œ 3 œ œ œ œ œ ‰ J œœ &3 4 œœ 15.29. All of the inner voices move smoothly either remaining on the same pitch. the third of Ab. #˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ¿ . . arpeggio fragments and implying individual voices from these passages.27 b & b bb B m7 b b A bm aj7 œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ E 7 w w w w w w w n #n w w w bbw w Kenny Barron used the descending arpeggios of these chords and symmetrical rhythms which made the voice leading easy to see and hear in this excerpt.. The F#ø7 chord will not sound like a iiø7 of Em with addition of the #2 (G#).3 cannot be a iii7 chord in the key of C. Knowing these upper structures and being able to hear the chromatic and step motion between each voice will assist the creation of interesting lines through these progressions. Lines can easily be created using large arpeggios. 15. especially following the dark altered G7 chord. 3 3 3 A b7 D bmaj7 œ œ b n œ œ œ œ œœœ œ nœ #œ œœœœ œ œ & b bbb c œ 15. 2. ˙ ˙ ˙ ¿ .. and 6. or moving by step down to the next pitch. Only one note changed in m. 15.3 utilizing the 5-7-9-11 upper structure of the Em9. Extensive colorization has been added. The addition of the bright F# means the Em in m.V7/ii . The four voices moved down a step for the arpeggio in m.V7/iii . the enharmonic spelling of the third of B7. Play the passage several times on the piano singing each voice to hear its individual pathway.. The chords to the right show voicings implied by this passage. This passage works melodically with any combination of these chords: F#ø7 or Cmaj7 — B7 or F9#11 — Em9. In the mm. Listen to the chromatic resolution of the top three voices.29 F ø7 ˙ ... There are several common harmonic cycles that lead back to the tonic as shown in ex. 15. then the line incorporated the 57-9-11 of each chord in the passage as shown below on the right. Other voices resolved internally: the Ab to the G (7-3). The G and C supplied the b13 and b9 of the B7 chord.I.Chapter 15 Extended Tertian Structures & Triadic Superimposition 379 The Bbm7. The altered G7 implies a V7 of C minor with the b13 (Eb) and b9 (Ab). then the Bbm7 chord tones occurred again over the Eb7 (3-5-7-9 of Bbm7).ii .28 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ n #n ˙ ˙ ˙ w b bn w w w The chord symbol in m. The upper structures mimic the voice leading from the Evans example in ex..2: the E (seventh of F#ø 7) resolved to Eb. . was arpeggiated 1-3-5-7-9-11. in ex.1 is F#ø7. 4. This excerpt implied the voicings shown to the right. Bill Evans arpeggiated what appears to be a Cmaj9 chord. the Jazz Theory Resources .30-31 with extended tertian structures. This progression is based on iiø7/iii .. The line then arpeggiated the 3-5-7-9 of the Ab chord.. If the B7 is considered an F7.27 from one of the better known bebop melodies. the F to Eb to Db which finally resolved to C.

32 E ø7 œ œ œ œ #œ œ # œ n œ œ œ b œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ Œ & c Œ œ #œ œ # F #ø7 2 #9 B7 b 13 #2 The following melodic excerpts are based on the following harmonic framework. 15. 15. 15.30 #w w w w & w ? #w # F #ø7 2 w bnw w w w #9 B7 b 13 Em 9 #w w w w w w w bbnw w w w #9 A7 b 13 Dm9 w w w w w w w bbbw w w w #9 G7 b 13 # Cm aj 7 11 #w w w w w w ˙ n˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ b˙ This passage is similar to the one above with some additional colorizations.31 #w w w w & w ? #w # F #ø7 2 w w bnb w bw w nw Fm 9 w # w b w w w w # E ø7 2 w bbnw w w w #9 A7 b 13 # D ø7 2 w w bw w w w w bbbw w w w #9 G7 b 13 # Cmaj 7 11 #w w w w w w ˙ b˙ ˙ b˙ Melodic lines like the previous Evans example and the line below can be sequenced through the two previous harmonic cycles.380 Chapter 15 Extended Tertian Structures & Triadic Superimposition dominant bass note is changed to the tritone substitute note on the third beat. Is there a profound difference? The extensions of the tritone substitute dominant chords are more easily labeled: 3-5-7-9-#11. 15. or its tritone substitution Gb9 (3-5-7-9-#11).33 w &c w w bw w Gm7 w ww bnb bw w C7 Fmaj7 w w w w w Jazz Theory Resources . The second chord is not the V7 of iii7 but a borrowed iv7 chord and Eø7#2 and Dø7#2 are used instead of Em9 and Dm9. The second chord may be considered C7 with a b13 and a b9.

Montoliu played a descending Gm9 arpeggio and then an extended arpeggio over C7. 15.34 œ œ bœ œ œ bœ œ &c œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ C7 œ œ b œ œ œ #œ œ F œ œœ œ œ j œ œ œ œ c ‰ œ b œ œ œ œœœ œ œ & Gm 7 3 3 3 3 3 3 Gm 7 C7 F 15. The resolution to the E7 (or Bb7) did not occur until beat three of the second measure.38 Bm 9 Practicing arpeggios like this can lead to lines like 15.35 from a blues improvisation. 15. The notes in the final measure are the b7. the tritone substitute dominant for C7. 15. Evans matched the voice leading of ex.36 Do not assume that these wide ranging extended arpeggiated lines from the previous examples are only suitable for pianists. but in a more melodic and less predictable fashion. Harrell played 1-3-5-7-9-11 arpeggio in the first and again in the second in two different octaves.39 E7 b 13 #9 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ & œ #œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ nœ bœ nœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ w or # B b9 11 Am 9 Jazz Theory Resources .37 &c Ó Gm7 œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ bœ 3 œ œ œ œ œ Œ œ œ œ bœ œ &c œ œ bœ œ Gm7 3 Practicing a passage like this using extended arpeggios helps prepare a musician to play. The A resolved to Ab suggesting a C7b13. pianist Tete Montoliu played the ascending 3-5-7-9-11 Gm arpeggio into the C7 measure. 15.38.Chapter 15 Extended Tertian Structures & Triadic Superimposition 381 In ex. Inventiveness may lead to the creation of lines like the ex. Tom Harrell used a wide range of the trumpet over Gm7 in these two fragments.36. 15. The use of extended arpeggios lifts the melodic line into higher registers. b9.39 from Bill Evans. 15. œ bœ œ œ C7 œ œœ b œ bœ œ œ œ œ bœ bœ nœ &c Gm 7 3 3 15.35 In ex. 3. hear and understand these structures. The Ab resolved to the G over the F.34 and 15. 15. b13 root and #9 of C7 but may be easier to hear and understand labeled as the 3-5-7-9-#11-13 of a Gb9#11.

column three indicates the superimposed triad. Playing an Eb major triad without accompaniment will attune the ears to the familiar sound. Major triad shapes can be superimposed as extensions and upper structures to chords supplying essential color tones and alterations.39 Bm 7 Extended Tertian Structures & Triadic Superimposition Practicing arpeggios like 15. folk songs. Just as importantly. & bœ œ bœ œ œ ˙ b13 #9 #9 G7 b 13 15. which may be related to the presence of the major triad in the overtones series. Inexperienced improvisers often have trouble hearing an altered dominant sound when it is introduced as a scale. patriotic and religious holiday music. but the performer.40 Eb triad shapes over a G7 Cm Ó #9 G7 b 13 b13 bœ œ œ bœ bœ œ œ œ b˙ b9 #9 Cm Ó The chart on the following page reviews some of the possible major triads that may be superimposed over common chords. b9 and #9 over the G7 and resolves to the third of Cm. Since listeners have been inundated with triadic melodies from childhood. Column one indicates the fundamental chord types shown with C as the root. The familiarity with triads can be used to acquaint students with more complex sounds. column two the interval above the root on which the superimposed major triad is built. Jazz Theory Resources . they are often more receptive to melodies using these familiar sounds. They can usually hear a major triad.382 Chapter 15 15. The same triad can be played in the context shown below over a G7 to Cm progression. This familiar material based on a major triad yields the colorful b13. The central concept from chapter four was using the tonic triad to generalize the harmony for larger sections of the piece. and column four shows the color tones provided by the superimposed major triad.38 can lead to lines this E7 Am œ & c ‰ œj # œ œ # œ œ œ œ œ œ # œ œ # œ n œ n œ b œ œ œ œ œ œœœ 3 3 w w ##w w w w bw w w w w w w w w TRIADIC SUPERIMPOSITIONS: FORMULAS & EXAMPLES Music worldwide is based on triadic shapes. these musical shapes provide a bridge to something familiar not only for the listener. The melodic shape is familiar and not difficult to play or hear. The passage can be filled in with passing tones between the Eb major chord tones without technical or conceptual difficulty.

The most common progression is the ii7 .I.V7 . A mounting tension is Jazz Theory Resources . The line ends using an F triad over the A7 chord. which illustrates how musical concepts sometimes overlap and converge. Six different major triads may be superimposed over the G7 chord. which are also chord tones of C major. 15.I .V7/ii E B Cmaj7 C (Em) F A7 b 13 œ œ œ œ &c œ œ œ œ #œ œ ˙ b G13 9 #9 ‰ j #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ Œ œ #œ The progression from ex. In the key of C major. and the dissonant tones D# and F# resolve to the E minor chord tones E and G. The B chord sounds like the V7 of Em.V7 .41 Triads: Dm 7 Progression: ii7 . Individual sounds should be extracted from the chart and learned in the context of typical progressions. 15. tones which point back to the D minor chord. As a deceptive resolution. The example below uses an E triad that over a G7 chord yields a n13.41 is transposed to the key of F major below and uses a different set of triads for superimposition. the iii7 chord of C. A B major triad is superimposed over the C major. the ii7 chord could have a C triad superimposed yielding the 7-9-11 of Dm7. Using the C triad over Dm7 could sound like triadic generalization. suggesting C minor. and a b9. which points to C major. supplying the # 9 and b13.Chapter 15 Extended Tertian Structures & Triadic Superimposition 383 BASIC CHORD C major C major C major C major C minor C minor C minor C minor C minor C half diminished C diminished C diminished C diminished C diminished C dominant C dominant C dominant C dominant C dominant C dominant C dominant INTERVAL ABOVE ROOT for SUPERIMPOSED TRIAD P5 M2 M3 M7 m3 P4 P5 m7 M7 m7 M2 P4 m6 M7 m2 M2 m3 d5 m6 M6 m7 MAJOR TRIAD G D E B Eb F G Bb B Bb D F Ab B Db D Eb Gb Ab A Bb YIELDS 5 – M7 – 9 9 – #11 – 13 3 – #5 – M7 M7 – #9 – #11 m3 – 5 – m7 11 – 13 – R 5 – M7 – 9 m7 – 9 – 11 M7 – (3) – #11 m7 – #2 (or 9) – 11 9 – #11 – 13 11 – 13 – R b13 – R – b3 M7 – m3 – #11 b9 – sus4 – b13 9 – #11 – 13 #9 – 5 – m7 b5 (or #11) – m7 – b9 b13 (or #5) – R – #9 13 – b9 – M3 m7 – 9 – sus4 This chart is for reference only. The four superimposed triads chromatically ascend.

The G over the F creates a bright lydian sound with the #11 instead of the tonic major sound. The Ab over D7 echoes the Gb over C7 with the b5 and b9 chord tones.V7 . A C major triad over the Dø7 brightens the iiø7 chord in this context. œ œ œ œ œ ˙ b œ b œ œ œ Œ Ó œ A Bb triad marks the 3-5-7 of the Gm7 chord below.i progression in C minor. The same material can be sequenced up a minor third superimposing an Eb major triad over the G7 emphasizing the b13 and # 9.384 Chapter 15 Extended Tertian Structures & Triadic Superimposition caused by the alterations supplied by the superimposed triads and by the ascension of the voicings rather than the more typical descending voice leading. œ # D ø7 2 #9 G7 b 13 Cm maj 7 Œ Jazz Theory Resources . The F over Gm7 furnishes the 7-9-11. The En disputes the key of C minor as an Eb would be expected. 15. The Gb over C supplies the colorful b5 and b9 chord tones. The Bb triad can move down a half-step to an A over the C7 providing the colorful n13 and b9.V7 .V7/ii Gb C7 F Gn Fm aj7 Ab D7b 9 b5 j & c œ .V7 .44 are used over a iiø7 .I . 15. and resolves to tones of A minor over the F. 15. A G triad over the C minor stresses the major seventh and ninth.43 Triads: Bb Progression: ii7 .i Eb G 3 j & c ‰ œ nœ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ bœ œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ . 15. 1541. œj œ œ b œ œ b œ b œ b œ b œ œ n œ œ . or like the previous example may be considered triadic generalization.V7 .I A C7 Gm7 E Fmaj7 (Am) œ œ & c b œ œ œ œ œ œ # œ œ œ # œ œ ‰ œj œ œ œ œ # œ n œ œ ˙ Gm7 Three different triads in ex.44 Triads: C Progression: iiø7 .42 Triads: Gm 7 Progression: ii7 . There is a certain symmetry that the three triads used over this progression in C minor are C. Eb and G. The E over the F triad is a similar deceptive resolution to the B over C shown before in ex.

Two triads a tritone apart accentuate the tritone substitute relationship. If the tritone substitution was used instead of the dominant C7.46 Triads: Progression: D & Ab Gm7 V7/ii7 . & c ‰ œj # œ œ b œ œ œ ˙ b D7 9 Œ b C7 9 ‰ j œ œ bœ bœ bœ œ ˙ . œ Fm aj7 Œ Triads a tritone apart is not a new idea.Chapter 15 Extended Tertian Structures & Triadic Superimposition 385 Three triads could be used over this ii7 .Dm resolution superimposed over the Bb.47 Stravinsky: Petrouchka.I D A A/B b (Dm) B bmaj7 n œ œ œ œ œ ˙. enharmonically a Gb and the b13. Triads a tritone apart. root. The fundamental chord tones provided by the basic triad contrast with the alterations (b5 and b9) offered by the tritone substitute triad. suggest a resolution to F minor. 3 &2 4Œ ‰ ‰ œ œ œ ˙ 3 &2 4Œ ‰ ‰ 3 œ œ œ œ œ œbœbœ œ œ bœ bœ bœ 3 b˙ The triads built on the b5 and b13 of the dominant chord suggest a superlocrian scale. 15. and b9. suggests Bb major. 7. more than one triad at a time will be superimposed over a dominant. The D triad over the F presents conflicting alterations: the D. The Bb triad over the Cm7 stresses both the 7-9-11 of Cm and the tonic Bb triad. the F#. Stravinsky used the tritone pair of C and Gb in the ballet Petrouchka. A sequence is created below by using the D and Ab triads over the D7 and the C and Gb triads over the C7. Below.45 Triads: Bb Progression: ii7 . The A over the Bb delays the resolution suggesting a V7/iii . and # 9) over the C7 altered chord. Jazz Theory Resources . particularly the b13 and altered ninths.I progression in Bb. the chord would be a Gb9#11. The triad pair of A b and Gb furnishes all the alterations (Gb = b5.V7 . Ab = b13. n13.V7 . b œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ œ # œ b ‰ œ & #œ J Cm 9 b F13 9 Œ Several different triads work over a dominant chord. The number of alterations. 15.I C & Gb bœ . Often.iii or A7 .V7 . 15. suggests Bb minor. Clarinets: C triad over Gb. This sound can just as easily resolve to major. the resolution with a G major over the F suggests an even brighter resolution to an F lydian sound.ii .

I Triads: A b & Gb G Fmaj7 bœ & c bœ bœ bœ bœ bœ œ œ bœ bœ bœ bœ bœ œ nœ œ nœ nœ ˙ œ C7 alt. and n13 over the G7. #2 and the 11th. and the Bb triad over the Gb supplies all the important chord tones. 15. an altered dominant and a augmented major seventh chord.49 Triads: Progression: V7 . The four triads derived from the half-whole diminished can all be superimposed over a dominant.I A Bb A triad & c #œ œ #œ œ #˙ F # triad # G #ø7 2 C #7 b 13 #9 ‰ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ bœ œ œ œ B b triad # G bmaj7 5 More examples and exercises for developing the understanding and use of these extensions can be found in Comprehensive Technique for Jazz Musicians in chapter 8 (Triadic superimposition). chapter 10 (Extensions and Connections) and chapter 14 (Developing Jazz Exercises). Bb. and E triads imply the #9. 15. Superimposed triads will supply the required additions to these chords. the augmented fifth and the major seventh. the major third. The progression below specifies a ø7#2.48 Extended Tertian Structures & Triadic Superimposition Progression: V7 . The G.I G — Bb — Db — E Cm aj7 & c ‰ j œ œ œ bœ œ bœ œ #œ œ nœ œ œ ˙ œ œ bœ b G7 9 Ó Many contemporary compositions call for specific alterations. The altered ninths suggest a resolution to C minor.386 Chapter 15 15. b9.50 Triads: F# 3 Progression: ii7 . An A major triad over the C#7 supplies both the #9 and the b13. Jazz Theory Resources . and the n13 implies a resolution to C major. This excerpt from an improvisation by Tom Harrell illustrates how the triadic superimpositions can satisfy the demands of the very specific chord symbols.V7 . b5. An F# triad over the G#ø7 supplies the 7th. Db.

Compose new music using triadic superimposition as a springboard for melodic and harmonic material. and exercises found in Comprehensive Technique for Jazz Musicians over standard progressions. What triads did they use? How did they contrast the triadic superimposition with more traditional approaches? Look for contemporary compositions with very specific chord symbols and determine what triads may supply the required alterations. Listen for recorded examples of contemporary players who might use triadic superimpositions.Chapter 15 Extended Tertian Structures & Triadic Superimposition 387 SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES • • Invent simple triadic lines using the charts and example above. • • Jazz Theory Resources .

and any others are considered alterations. (Another instance of major scale bias). A study of world music might prove that the most widely used scale is not the major. There are many kinds of pentatonic scales.2 C major pentatonic shown with its parallel C minor & w w w w w w w bw w w bw w Jazz Theory Resources . Closely associated with the use of pentatonic scales in jazz performance is the use of motivic devices to develop melodies from simple pentatonic scale patterns.1 C major pentatonic shown with its relative A minor & w w w w w w w w w w w w 16. Modern jazz improvisers and composers used pentatonic scales as a basis for melodies superimposed over traditional harmonies and over modal and pedal structures. 16. 3 & 5) and use the remaining tones (2 & 6) as auxiliary tones that move to the primary pitches. but the pentatonic scale. These scales can be formed by taking the major and natural minor scales and removing the tritone (B & F). the minor pentatonic includes the 1-b3-4-5. Intervals in the major scale are considered the normal.388 Chapter 16 Pentatonic Applications XVI . Use of the pentatonic scale did not begin in the twentieth century with Debussy and others. Many forms of pentatonic scales have been used in other cultures for melodic material for centuries. Sing through a pentatonic melody such as Amazing Grace and notice how all points of rest on strong beats are the primary triadic tones. The most common pentatonic scale is the one shown below in the form of C major and A minor. All other scales are described in their relationship to the major scale. The two forms share the same pitches as do a major and natural minor scale. PENTATONIC APPLICATIONS PENTATONIC APPLICATIONS The major scale is considered the building block for music in the European western art music tradition. Many tunes based on pentatonic scales come to rest on the triadic tones (1. The triad is an important part of these scales.b7 of the natural minor scale. Any five tones could be called a pentatonic scale. The pentatonic scale is sometimes called the gapped scale as it is missing two notes of the major scale. The major pentatonic includes the 12-3-5-6 of a major scale.

9 . The A minor pentatonic scale over a Dm7 is ambiguous because it does not contain and F.9 . Placing a major pentatonic on the diminished fifth of a dominant chord supplies all of the alterations associated with a dominant scale. and will work with I or IV chords.7 . A major pentatonic built on the root supplies chord tones associated with dominants pointing to major keys: R .11. but does not include the third or the root of the chord.3. vi7.9 .13.5 .13 . R . Dm7 is the iii7 chord in the key of Bb. vi or iv w &w w w w w 1 Dm7 w w w w w w 5 ii or iv Dm7 w w w w w w 9 11 5 b3 4(11) 5 b7 1 b7 R 9 11 5 n13 R 9 Two major pentatonic chords may be superimposed over a dominant chord. A slightly more colorful sound is achieved by superimposing an A minor pentatonic scale over a Dm7.Maj7.n13 .3 . Colorful chord tones can be emphasized by isolating simple melodic shapes and patterns from pentatonic scales. An even more vague and colorful sound is created superimposing an E minor pentatonic scale over a Dm7.3 . Jazz Theory Resources . but may resolve to major and very effectively to lydian. or a iv7. iii7.3 . A G major pentatonic superimposed over a Cmaj7 furnishes more colorful tones. The En and the Bn work with a Dm7 as a ii7 or iv7. A C major pentatonic over a Cmaj7 as a I or IV supplies fundamental tones of the chord.9 . 16. vi7 or iv7. but not as a iii7 or vi7. will not work in that context. 16.6 or 13 . iii. A D major pentatonic works over a Cmaj7 as a IV or a lydian sound providing the most colorful tones.5 . The altered sounds typically want to resolve to minor. so an A minor pentatonic with the En. the minor third of Dm. yielding the chord tones: 9 11 . Three different major pentatonic scales may be used over a major seventh chord.3 Major pentatonic scales over Major 7 chords I or IV Cmaj7 C major 7 as I or IV IV Cm aj7 & w w w w w w 1 2 3 5 6(13) 1 Cm aj7 w w w w w w 5 6(13) M7 9 3 5 w w w # w w w 9 3 #11 13 M7 9 Three different minor pentatonic scales may be superimposed over a minor seventh chord.5 . and will work with a Dm7 functioning as a ii7. 5 . 9 . The D minor pentatonic scale supplies the fundamental chord tones and the fourth or eleventh over a Dm7 chord functioning as a ii7.Chapter 16 Pentatonic Applications 389 PENTATONIC SUPERIMPOSITION FORMULAS Patterns and melodic material derived from pentatonic scales can be superimposed over traditional harmonic progressions.R .R. It supplies the chord tones 5 . Using this can create some tension that begs for release.6 or 13.4 Minor pentatonic scales over Minor 7 chords ii.#11 .Maj7 . vi or iv Dm7 D minor 7 as ii.

since it is related to the melodic minor scale. 16. Aø7. bw b5 bw b13 w 7 bw b9 bw #9 bw b5 There are other pentatonic scales used throughout the world to create melodies. B7(#9. b9. 16.7. Five are shown below.5 Pentatonic Applications Major pentatonic scales over Dominant 7 chords G dominant 7 fully altered G dominant 7 G7 &w R w 9 w 3 w 5 w 13 w R G7 alt. b13).7 Kumoi pentatonic scales over Dø7 & G7 altered dominant chords Ab Kumoi over G7 G7 as V7 in minor F Kumoi over Dø7 Dø7 as iiø7 in minor D ø7 &w 3 w 11 bw b5 w 7 w R w 3 G7 bw b9 bw #9 bw (M3) bw b13 w 7 bw b9 Jazz Theory Resources . PENTATONIC SCALE C Kumoi C Hirajoshi C major b6 C pelog All tones flatted RELATED SCALE C melodic minor. can be applied to many colorful chords associated with modes of that scale.b13 . b13). A Kumoi pentatonic scale starting on the b9 of a dominant will supply the colorful alterations: b9 . C dorian C aeolian F melodic minor C phrygian A b mixolydian USED for TRADITIONAL CHORDS Cm6/9. F9.#9 . b9. Abmaj7 and Dbmaj7 A b7 The Kumoi scale. A melodic minor scale built on the b9 of a dominant chord creates an altered scale. An F Kumoi may be used over a Dø7 and will supply all of the fundamental chord tones plus the eleventh. Not all of these scales have common names. E7(#9.390 Chapter 16 16. A ø7#2 chord (locrian #2) can use the sound of a melodic minor scale built on the third. Dø7#2. so it can also use a Kumoi pentatonic scale built on the same pitch.6 Kumoi Hirajoshi Major b6 Pelog All tones flatted (Ab sounds like tonic) & w w w w w w b w b w b w b w w w w w b w b w b w w b w b w ww ww ww w bw w bw The following chart illustrates how these five pentatonic scales may be used over traditional chords. Bb9. & Abmaj7#5 Fm7. and Ebmaj7#11 Cm and Abmaj7#11 Fm6/9. These scales may be used to create unaccompanied melodies or superimposed over existing harmonic structures.M3 .

V7 .Db . The resolution to the C major is made brighter by the use of the D major pentatonic which supplies the #11.D. C Pentatonic/Dm7 Dm 7 œ œ œ œ œ œ # œ œ œ b œ œ b œ œ œ œ bœ bœ œ œ œ œ ˙. In the example below. is somewhat bright.8 Kumoi pentatonic scale superimpositions shown for C chords: Eb Kumoi over C: C ø7 C Kumoi over C: Cm 6 9 G Kumoi over C: C9 Db Kumoi over C: Cm aj7 11 w w # w b w w w w b w w w w bw w w & wbw w w w wbw bw wbwbw b wb w b wb w w #9 C7 b 13 A Kumoi over C: # Several different combinations of pentatonic scales can be used over a ii7 . creating a lydian sound. emphasizing the ninth and eleventh and with the absence of the third. The pentatonic scales move up in half-steps: C . over the roots of the chords moving in descending fifths.10 Three pentatonic scales superimposed over traditional harmonic progression: F Kumoi/Dø7 D ø7 bœ bœ œ œ ˙ & c bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ bœ bœ œ #9 G7 b 13 Ab Kumoi/G7 C Kumoi/Cm Cm œ œ œ œ œ nœ ‰ bJ œ ˙ Jazz Theory Resources . An F Kumoi is used over the Dø7.V7 . #9. œ œ œ &c # Cmaj7 11 D pentatonic/Cmaj7 Œ Different Kumoi pentatonic scales may be used over a iiø7 . with the C major pentatonic material.i progression. The Db pentatonic over the G7 is very dark and includes all of the altered tones (b9. 16. The Dm7. and b5). a C major/A minor pentatonic mode used over the Dm7. and a D major over the C. a Db major over the G7. 16.I progression.Chapter 16 Pentatonic Applications 391 The Kumoi pentatonic is shown below superimposed over various types of chords built on C. b13. an Ab Kumoi over the G7 and a C Kumoi over the Cm. Interesting sequences can be created by playing a melodic shape and repeating it for each of the superimposed modes or pentatonic scales.9 Three pentatonic scales superimposed over traditional harmonic progression: D b pentatonic/G7 G7 alt. 16.

œ œ &Œ G phrygian œ œ œ œ œ ‰ b œj œ œ b œ œ ˙ ‰ J Jazz Theory Resources . Heads Up. & bbbb B bm7 j œ ˙ j œ ˙ Cm 7/F Cm7/F B bm 7 ‰ œj œ œ œ œ œ œ œ. One Day Old.392 Chapter 16 Pentatonic Applications An Eb major/C minor pentatonic scale is used for the melody in this section of an original composition. j œ Ó œ œ œ œ ˙. 16. B m7 Cm7/F œ œ œ œœ ˙ ‰ œj œ œ œ œ œ 3 b ˙. 16. Cm7/F Cm7/F B bm7 j œ ˙ Cm7/F B bm7 ˙. and F Kumoi over G creates G phrygian.12 A phrygian Bert Ligon: Heads Up œ œ œ œ ˙. B bm 7 Œ Œ B bm 7 œ. The melody below is the first theme from an original composition. œ œ & c œ bœ A phrygian œ ‰ J Œ G phrygian œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ . A Kumoi pentatonic scale can also be used to create a phrygian sound A G Kumoi over an A bass creates A phrygian.11 Bert Ligon: One Day Old B bm7 b & b bb c œ . The melody is distant and seems to float above the underlying Bb dorian. This may be because the Eb major/C minor pentatonic scale does not include the third or seventh of the Bbm7.

iii7.13 .R .7 . b13) maj7#11 6th 13 .11 Second degree Brightest.3 . Jazz Theory Resources .R PENTATONIC SUPERIMPOSITIONS FORMULAS Major Pentatonic scale SOUND built on Scale Degree: Root Simple major Diminished Fifth degree Dark.Maj7 PENTATONIC SUPERIMPOSITIONS FORMULAS for MINOR SEVENTH CHORDS Minor Pentatonic scale SOUND FUNCTION CHORD TONES built on Scale Degree: Root Simple minor ii7. 9 5th 5 .11 .9 .R Dom.b9 .b13 .9 .7 Dom. all alterations for DOMINANT SEVENTH CHORDS FUNCTION CHORD TONES V7 to major V7 to minor R .Chapter 16 Pentatonic Applications 393 PENTATONIC SUPERIMPOSITIONS FORMULAS These charts illustrate various formulas available for superimposing pentatonic scales over traditional chords. or a iv7 1 . or a iv7 5 .4 .b7 Fifth degree Brighter.7 . no third ii7.b7 .b5 .9 .#11 .3 .n13 .#9 .b13 . vi7.5 .13 .M7 . no third ii7 or a iv7 9 .5 .#11 For exercises to develop the use of the many melodic fragments and their applications.11 .3 b9th b9 .n13 b5 .13 .9 .3 .2 .3 Second degree Lydian IV or Lydian 9 .3 .5 .Maj7 . vi7. PENTATONIC SUPERIMPOSITIONS FORMULAS for MAJOR SEVENTH CHORDS Major Pentatonic scale SOUND FUNCTION CHORD TONES built on Scale Degree: Root Simple major I or IV R-9-3-5-6 Fifth degree Brighter major ninth I or IV 5 .b3 .b3 .5 . 7 (#9.R . see chapter 6 of Comprehensive Technique for Jazz Musicians.7 . b9.6 ø7 3rd 3 .#9 KUMOI PENTATONIC SUPERIMPOSITIONS FORMULAS Chord Symbol Built on Scale Degree Chord Tones m6/9 R 1 .

Early jazz improvisation was based on elaborated melody. I would never recommend teaching beginning students to play “outside” of the key — most are equipped with the ability to play those notes when they enter the beginning improvisation classes. the Sonata Form. the second in either the dominant or relative major — the exposition features variations of the main theme in different keys — and the recapitulation restores order restating the original themes in the tonic key. or coloring outside the lines. so a line that moves IN . Centuries ago a seventh was considered the extremes of dissonance. Playing outside usually follows the established pattern discussed above: IN (order established by playing within the key area) — OUT (order disrupted by playing outside of the key area) — IN (a return to the key area). COLORING “OUTSIDE” the LINES & BEYOND APPROACHES to COLORING OUTSIDE the LINES Most stories are constructed with a variation of the same form: in the beginning there is relative calm — something comes along which disrupts the calm — in the end something happens to restore the order. Music history could be traced by the relative degrees of dissonance that was fashionable. many students may be interested in pursuing improvisations that go against the grain.394 Chapter 17 Coloring “Outside” the Lines & Beyond XVII. the levels of dissonance were expanded. As jazz developed. A number of jazz artists are attracted to these “other” notes as a way of creating the tension necessary in the structure of their improvisations. was a variation on this same story form: the exposition establishes order with the main theme group.I. Functional harmonic systems offered other ways of following this form: a tonic triad established form by its relationship to the dominant chord — chords progress away from the tonic chords to other chords of relative dissonance (to other diatonic chords or modulations to close or remote keys) — and the return to re-establish tonic at the end. One development in this search is the concept of playing against the established tonal center. The IN establishes order like a tonic chord. the OUT behaves like a dominant.IN is much like a progression that moves I . The grand architectonic framework of the classical composition. If the tonal spectrum is established with a mode or a key which asserts that seven tones are the boundaries (as the seven notes of a major scale or a typical mode) then five notes remain that are outside of that realm. the first in the tonic key. the primitive sounds in Stravinsky’s Rite of Spring no longer shock. After exploring and mastering to a high level the ability to play within the established frameworks. Chords with more extensions. and compositions with out any chord systems became part of the jazz language.V7 . progressions that obliterated the sense of tonic. Musicians looked for other ways of creating the dissonances necessary for good story telling.OUT . Now. then grew to include some triadic generalization. Jazz Theory Resources . Melodies throughout history often follow the same form: the initial order is established by the dominant to tonic relationship — pitches other than the tonic triad (diatonic and/or chromatic) create some degree of dissonance — order is restored by the return to tonic at the end.

1 œ œ bœ œ œ nœ nœ #œ #œ & c œ œ bœ œ œ ‰ J Superimposition of Functional Harmony Gm 7 (D7 half-whole) Gm7 nœ œ bœ œ œ œ nœ œ ˙ . With side-slipping.Ebm7) D dorian.2 Dm 7 Dm7 ) œ œ bœ œ œ œ ˙ .Bm7) D dorian. or D dorian (F#m7 B bm7) D dorian. 17. In common practice each leading tone is resolved before moving to a another non-harmonic tone. The inserted chords could be any chord type and for any mixture of intervals as in: D dorian (Abmaj7#5 . Each note of a motive has a leading tone. Four notes from D dorian are shown in ex. The chords could be symmetrical divisions of the octave as in: D dorian (Fm7 . This idea dates back centuries. This device is still quite useful especially with the variety of dominant sounds available to the contemporary improviser. Œ Other harmonic progressions beyond just the dominant may be superimposed over phrases.” This includes infinite possibilities. &c œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ b œ œ bœ œ bœ œ ( B b9# 11 #9 A7 b 13 Œ Superimposition of Random Non-Functional Harmony Any number of assorted chords may be inserted randomly into a progression.Bbmaj7#5 . it appears to have slipped to one side or the other. There are several approaches that can be categorized which may help direct attempts at outside playing.Abm7 . A Bb9 and A7 are implied in two measures breaking up a four measure phrase of Dm7. 17. In this G dorian setting a D7 half-whole is implied in the second measure and returns to the Gm7. These basic approaches include: • • • • • • • Tonicization Superimposition of Functional Harmony Superimposition of Random Non-Functional Harmony Side-Slipping Planing & Chromatic Motivic Development Pentatonic & Quartal Approaches Superimposition of exotic or unusual scales Tonicization A dominant chord may be inserted into any progression to tonicize any chord. 17.Chapter 17 Coloring “Outside” the Lines & Beyond 395 Anytime improvisers move away from playing inside the established tonal center or chord progression they are playing “outside. This is related to the fact that all tones have upper and lower neighbors. Side-Slipping When a motive or a line plays a whole-step or half-step away from the tonal center. it may appear as if all the leading tones are played before the chord tones.3 with their Jazz Theory Resources .

Planing & Chromatic Motivic Development Lines that side-slip move as if shifting to other geometric or musical planes just above or below the tonal center. 17. four minor third intervals. &c w #œ w œ w #œ w #œ ‰ j œ #œ #œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ Side-slipping may appear in two forms: a line could begin in the tonal area.3 a.5 is transposed up by minor thirds beginning in D minor and moving through F minor. six whole steps.5 Planing by transposing motive up by minor thirds &Œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ nœ œ œ œ ˙ œ # œ n œ œ # œ b œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ Jazz Theory Resources . One more repetition of the motive occurs up a perfect fourth. but what he knew. Many improvisers avoid this by planing motives with a mixture of intervals. The two examples below illustrate how this may work. move up or down and then return. A four-note motive is played over D dorian and sequenced down major thirds through Bb and F# before returning to D dorian. This shifting of a motive is related to analytical cubism. Musical ideas may be planed freely or systematically. and may move to all available planes. Picasso and cubist painters defied the conventional approach to space and representational art. following arpeggios and by scale steps.” John Coltrane illustrated this concept when he played the four note motive from A Love Supreme in all twelve keys. G# minor and B minor before returning to D minor.). A line is shown where all the chromatic tones (a.4 Planing by transposing motive down by major thirds œ &c ‰ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ J œ œ œ ‰ J œ œ œ bœ bœ œ bœ #œ nœ #œ nœ œ nœ œ œ The four-note motive in ex. three major third intervals. A contemporary improviser knows that melodic fragments or motives exist in eleven geometric planes (keys) other than the tonal center. Lines may shift to other levels further than a step above or below. 17. It is as if the motive as a whole has a leading tone motive. Three dimensional objects were flattened onto a two dimensional canvas where many geometric planes were visible at once. Shifting motives to these other planes or keys is consequently called “planing.396 Chapter 17 Coloring “Outside” the Lines & Beyond chromatic leading tones. b. or could begin in a remote key and lead back to the tonal area. Much of traditional music is based on moving musical ideas the interval of a perfect fourth or fifth as dominant theme moving up a perfect fourth to the tonic. 17. Picasso explained that he did not paint what he saw.) sound before resolving up to the D dorian pitches (b. 17. or twelve half-steps. Some improvisers choose to plane their musical motives following one of the symmetrical divisions of the octave: two tritone intervals.

The following excerpts may be analyzed with variety of approaches and not strictly one distinct approach. Pentatonic scales are used often used to derive motivic material because of the many simple melodic shapes. It would be convenient for theorists if all melodic ideas used only singular music principles.Chapter 17 Coloring “Outside” the Lines & Beyond 397 A tone common to two different scales may be used as a pivot. 17. 17. but this is not the nature of anything as complex as art.6 and the Fn is common to both the D minor and Bb minor pentatonic scales shown in ex. presumably due to its presence in the overtone series. Many of the concepts may overlap in real musical examples. A six-note motive is sequenced in ex. This is like playing outside with one foot still in the door.8 Planing transposing motive following scale tones &c Œ & œ œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ bœ bœ œ bœ bœ nœ œ œ œ nœ œ Œ Ó Ó œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ bœ œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ Pentatonic & Quartal Approaches Traditional tonal music is based on tertian triads. If one wants to depart from the tertian traditions. Melodies worldwide are based on tones of a major triad. 17. and quartal triads that can be derived from them.6 Using common tones as pivots w &w w ww 17. The previous examples were designed to illustrate specific concepts. 17. As the motives get transposed.7 bbbw w w ww Dm7 œ œ œ œ œ ‰ j œ bœ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ bœ œ œ B bm 7 Dm7 Fm7 Dm7 Using common tones as pivots w w w & ww w bbbbw w ww Dm7 œ œ œ œ ‰ œ bœ œ bœ œ bœ œ œ œ ˙ œ J bœ nœ œ nœ A motive can be transposed following any set of pitches. the answer depends on the question (is light a wave? is light a particle?) This should be instructive as to the nature of music and the perils of attempting to explain music theory principles. the top note remains within the tonal center while many of the other pitches create dissonance. The Cn is common to both the D minor and F minor pentatonic scales shown in ex. This has its parallel in any science: when observing something. then quartal triads and structures are logical choices. Jazz Theory Resources . Eleven notes of the chromatic scale occur in the line.7. 17.8 with its original intervals intact and the top note following the D dorian mode from A down to A.

13). The entire phrase is balanced and the chromatic passage was rhythmically and melodically prepared. Hancock presented the first motives simply. 17.11 17. œ b œ b œ b œ b œ œj ‰ &3 4 ‰ bœ bœ bœ bœ ˙ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ?3 4 17.398 Chapter 17 Coloring “Outside” the Lines & Beyond Wayne Shorter’s use of quartal material in his compositions often inspired the use of quartal sounds by those improvising over Shorter’s music. F#.13 #œ œ œ nœ bœ n˙ ?c œ œ # œ b œ œ # œ œ # œ bœ œ œ Jazz Theory Resources . It is impossible and unimportant to know whether Hancock conceived of the line by thinking of a superimposed harmonic progression or by intervallic transposition. Hancock then sequenced the pattern transposing it up by minor thirds. Herbie Hancock. used the quartal chord D-G-C in its first inversion (see page 325). The motive was first repeated after five beats. in ex. 17. The motive was sequenced at three other diatonic levels all containing tones from a C dorian scale. Stravinsky. Copland and others for inspiration. If the first occurrence of the motive represents C dorian. then after only three beats. A and then C again.10-11). leaving space before each motive. In fact many jazz composers and improvisers have looked to Bartók (17.12). then five beats again. There is no space between the motives during the chromatic planing sequence. œ œ œ œ j œ.9 excerpted from his improvisation on Shorter’s Speak No Evil.9 3 Planing quartal motives by minor thirds &c œ œ ˙ œ Œ 3 3 Œ 3 3 3 œ œ ˙ 3 3 3 œ nœ œ nœ œ œ & Œ œ œ œ bœ bœ œ #œ #œ #œ œ Ó œ œ œ œ Œ bœ bœ œ ˙ Quartal chords and their inversions have fascinated more than just jazz musicians as the next few examples illustrate.12 &2 4 œ œ œ 17. the next could represent Eb.10 Quartal melodic fragments in Twentieth Century music ?3 4 bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ ˙ . œ œ œœ œ œ œœ œ œ œœ œœœ œ œ œ œ œ œ 17. Holst (17. Hindemith (17.

From that point. In the second measure the descending minor third was replaced by a perfect fourth interval as the line continued. 17.F7. To return to the key. Bb-Eb. A very simple whole-step 1-2-3 pattern is chromatically sequenced over the pedal.15 Planing quartal motives by whole steps œ bœ œ bœ œ bœ œ bœ nœ j œ b œ n œ & #œ œ œ Harrell sequenced a four-note motive (Bb-Ab-F-Eb) down a major third (at F#) and then down a second (at En). The rhythmic setting allows the listener to hear the individual motives. Kenny Dorham used a whole step pattern chromatically sequenced over this traditional harmonic progression. landing on the third of the Bb. the line continued with alternating ascending and descending perfect fourth intervals sequenced down by whole steps. Dorham used a conventional outline no.Chapter 17 Coloring “Outside” the Lines & Beyond 399 Tom Harrell used quartal patterns in these excerpts to slip in and out of “Rhythm Changes” in the key of F major. Db.14 Planing quartal motives by whole steps œ ‰ œ bœ bœ ‰ œ ‰ œ œ œ bœ œ œ bœ j œ œ œ bœ bœ ‰ J &‰ J œ J J J #œ œ Harrell began this excerpt with a motive that could have been derived from a pentatonic scale emphasizing an ascending perfect fourth answered by a descending minor third. The first motive began on F and was displaced beginning on Eb. 1 clearly defining the Cm7 . Cm 7 F7 Dm7 G7 Cm7 F7 Bb bBœbœ œ œ # œG7 œ b œ nœ #œ œ œ #œ œ nœ bœ nœ œ bœ #œ œ nœ &c œ œ b œ œ œ b œ œ b œ b œ œ œ œj œ 3 17. E-A. 1 This next passage occurred in an improvisation by Joey Calderazzo over a D pedal. This 1-2-3 pattern can be derived from a pentatonic scale. F#-B. The perfect fourth intervals emphasized in this passage move down in whole steps: C-F.16 Planing quartal motives by various intervals P4 intervals sequenced by WS bœ bœ œ bœ #œ nœ œ œ b œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ bœ #œ &c Ó bœ #œ nœ nœ œ œ œ nœ 4 note motives: Quartal intervals are not the only intervals used to blur the key center. B and partially again on A. 17. 17. The perfect fourth interval at the end of each motive was emphasized.17 Whole-step sequential pattern followed by outline no. Ab-Db. Jazz Theory Resources . It was immediately sequenced down by a whole step. In this first example a motive was sequenced moving down by whole steps.

This motive.œ # œ n œ i. œ # œ œ œ # œ # œ b œ œ œ œ b œ # œ œ œ œ Œ ‰ J ‰ J & ‰ bJ a. Motives related to the underlying harmonic structure b.) can be derived from an F minor pentatonic scale. 17.) and recurred eight more times at seven other pitch levels. œ . Rather than outlining chord tones. This four-note pattern is the first four tones of a minor pentatonic scale.5 Jazz Theory Resources . E7 and Eb7 chords.18 Coloring “Outside” the Lines & Beyond Whole-Step 1-2-3 sequential pattern &Ó œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ #œ #œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ nœ bœ bœ bœ œ œ & nœ nœ nœ œbœ bœ nœ nœ #œ Ó bœ bœ nœ nœ nœ #œ nœ bœ bœ nœ nœ #œ bœ nœ A quick view of the Bb blues chorus below and it is clear that the improviser was not thinking about a traditional harmonic framework. # œ bœ bœ b œ œ œ ‰ bœ .20 B b7 & w bw bw w 5 7 R 9 a. These tones are also upper chords tones (5-7-root-9) of Bb7.19 Bb Blues excerpt œ ‰œ J œœ Œ œ œ œ g. contains chord tones (5-7-R-[9]) of the Eb 7 chord. œ bœ b œ œ œ b œ b. #w nw nw nw E7 9 R 7 5 bw bw bw nw 5 7 R 9 E b7 b9 In mm.n œ b œ n œ œ # œ œ œ bœ bœ œ œ œ œ œ & œ Œ ‰ œj b œ b œ The four-note group began the phrase at (a. McCoy Tyner chose four-note motives and developed them sequentially transposing them to other planes or pitch levels. #w nw nw nw b13 #11 3 B b7 c. A better understanding may be achieved by tracing the individual motives independent of any explicit or implicit harmonic progression.). but the labels would often prove meaningless and misleading. These tones can also be analyzed as chords tones of an altered Bb7 (b13-#11-3-b9) or as tones from the tritone substitute dominant E7 (5-7-R-9).6-9 it appears no effort was made to coordinate the four-note motives with the underlying harmony.4 was transposed down a half step for m. The Bb minor motive of m. missing one tone. d. In m. œ c.400 Chapter 17 17.5 at (c. 17. The motives seem to follow a progression independent of the blues.4. All of the pitches could be labeled as part of a vertical structure of the underlying traditional blues progression.œ œ œ œ œ œ # œ # œ h. bœ ‰ JŒ ‰ J &Ó ‰ J J‰ J e. the four-note motive was transposed a tritone away. The motive from m. # œ œ œf. Tyner’s motives to this point in the blues chorus were consistently with the upper structures (5-7-root-9) of the Bb7. The four-note group (a.

and to C# minor (h.Chapter 17 Coloring “Outside” the Lines & Beyond 401 moves up to C# minor (d. 17. All of the superimposed chords can be derived from the key of three sharps. 17.) G# minor pentatonic. w #w #w # w & #w #w w w w w w w w w w w #w #w w #w In m. The four-note group at (i.10 of the blues. g. the four-note groupings follow a descending step line back to C#.22 Motive related to the underlying harmonic structure & nw 9 F7 nw R bw 7 nw 5 The excerpt below was improvised over F minor. (c. & œ œ œ œ #œ œ #œ #œ #œ œ nœ bœ nœ d. h.). a. E minor (f. Bb minor pentatonic.23 Chromatically sequenced pentatonic scale patterns &c Œ ‰ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ nœ œ bœ œ #œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ bœ bœ bœ bœ nœ œ nœ œ e. The rhythmic character of the four-note group was altered by addition and subtraction of pitches and by shifting at the point of transposition.) B minor pentatonic. (e. c. After the leap (m3) from Bb up to C# and the bigger leap (P4) up to F#. the original four-notes recurred in retrograde matching the same chord tones that were used earlier in mm. f. D minor (g. (b). 17. Motives freely transposed over second phrase e. (d. b.) again. 17. where one would expect an F7.). Michael Brecker moved away from the key center using symmetrical six-note pentatonic patterns sequenced in descending half-steps before returning to F minor.) A minor pentatonic.) are the upper chord tones (5-7-R-9) of the F7 chord 17. 1-5.) F minor pentatonic. to F# minor (e. Brecker may have superimposed another progression over the given chords as shown below.24 Superimposed progression implied Fm7 Fm 7 F#m7 E Bm7 B b7 E7 Ebm7 E bm 7 &c Ó Œ bœ œ bœ œ #œ nœ #œ nœ œ œ #œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ bœ ˙ Ó Jazz Theory Resources . 17.). The symmetry of ex. The notes over the Bb7 chord can be analyzed as chord tones of the Bb7 or its tritone substitute E7 and seem to clearly point to Eb minor. Brecker used these pentatonic scales: (a.23 is not present in ex.).21 d.24.

At (a. but the notes again related to the original key center. e. The motive occurred earlier in the improvisation.) the motive side-slipped down a half-step.) the motive sideslipped up a half-step and at (e. The melodic line shown in ex.) up a fourth from the original. 17. c. d. (b.27 Planing in & around F minor using patterns extracted from pentatonic scales &c ‰ œj # œ œ b œ œ b œ œ bnbw w ww nœ nœ #œ œ bœ nœ nœ œ w n # ww w w b n b b ww w #œ œ bœ nœ bœ œ œ œ w n # ww w n b b ww w w & c ##w w ww Jazz Theory Resources . 17.25. and then to the Bn again. 17.402 Chapter 17 Coloring “Outside” the Lines & Beyond This improviser planed a four-note motive over a modal blues in C minor shown in ex. a departure from tertian structures and can be derived from a pentatonic scale. These melodic fragments can be strung together and freely planed to create long lines that move in.27 was created using the four note patterns shown below the line.) the pitches related to the key center of C minor. œ œ bœ œ & bœ bœ bœ œ bœ œ œ œ nœ nœ nœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ f. Is the motive on Bn suggesting a tritone substitution? œ œ œ œ ˙ a.26 Ó Many different three and four note patterns can be extracted from pentatonic scales. back to the F. The motive itself is quartal (D-G-C-F).) the motive moved back to the original key. (d. œ bœ œ œ œ œ nœ œ B b7 œ #œ nœ œ œ nœ œ bœ œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ #œ nœ œ œ nœ ˙ &b c F7 17. Tete Montoliu played this motive over the first few measures of a blues progression in F beginning on the F and shifted to the Bn a tritone away. and is shown here in an excerpt from the seventeenth and eighteenth choruses. and finally at (f.) up another half-step. out and around a key center.25 Motivic planing or side-slipping &c Ó œ œ œ œ #œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ b. The three note motive can be derived from a pentatonic scale. (c. This excerpt illustrates sequencing a motive at the tritone. 17.

The composition forms and may be decided moments before the performance. This can be an exercise is rethinking the organization of a quartet. and bass/drums/saxophone. the group can be split into six duos: piano/bass. were given to the bass and to the saxophone. Isorhythms An isorhythm was a technique common to the composition of medieval motets where one rhythmic pattern was repeated over and over while other musical elements were free to vary. Jazz Theory Resources . Jazz musicians usually follow some set of instructions when im provising as a group. where a composer might not specify par ticular pitches or rhythms. Parameters may changes within that set of instructions: the tempo may be double-timed. Tone Rows If the traditional set of instructions is to give the improvisers a set of chords to which they will improvise melody lines and bass lines. If a soloists is to follow another. The designated leaders may change throughout the group by cues. but they may be following very strict sets of instructions. piano/saxophone. and ten other groupings of duos and trios. The isorhythm may be divided into sections where three improvisers perform it as a canon. would change with every performance as each performer would choose to perform them with different rhythmic values. In a contemporary improvisational setting. piano/drums. bass. tone rows. the piece may modulate on some cue. The vertical alignment. the rhythm may be given without any pitches.Chapter 17 Coloring “Outside” the Lines & Beyond 403 & BEYOND Jazz improvisation is rarely totally free. piano/drums/saxophone. The one who follows tries to mimic or imitate the ideas of the leader in something that resembles fugal or traditional imitative entrances. The tone row was not a twelve-tone row. the second soloist may be instructed to begin with the actual pitches or single pitch on which the first ended. Creative Groupings Specific groupings of musicians may be determined ahead of time. Many of these performances may sound “free” as they are far removed from tradi tional sounds. In so many jazz settings. One player may be designated to lead a section while another follows. some jazz musicians have looked for other ways to motivate and direct improvi sations. Some musicians throw away all instructions and choose to play “free” jazz. A twelve-bar blues with common chord changes in the key of F at a medium tempo is an example of set of instructions that a group will agree upon as a point of departure. piano/bass/saxophone. The improvisers must provide the pitches while following a predetermined rhythm. the exception being the obligatory “trading fours” with the drummer. There is little theory to discuss with “free” jazz. drums and saxophone. With all the freedom that offered by this mini mal set of instructions. alternate sets of chord changes may be imposed. the four members of a quartet all play at the same time for most of a piece. and drums/saxophone. merely a row of tones without given rhythm indications. The orchestration of the piece is given in the instructions and the notes and rhythms may be determined in other ways. For sections of a original piece called In Remembrance. literally rows of tones. or chords. bass/saxophone. The tone rows may be applied to the isorhythms at some point in the structure of the performance. Tone rows. there can be four soloists (soloist meaning without any accompaniment). The rows may be twelve-tone rows or any assortment of pitches. but here are some of the other ways musicians choose to direct their improvisations. then the opposite would be to give them lines and let the chords be the result of those lines. and may in part be dic tated by chance. may be given to the performers to execute with specific or non-specific rhythmic values. four trios: piano/bass/drums. Some borrowed twentieth century aleatoric concepts. The tone rows may be split into sections and performed as a canon. With the instrumentation of piano. In a quartet. bass/drums.

B & C. strings bowing near and even behind the bridge. The modal sections are meant to be a very specific color and a contrast to more dissonant and dodecaphonic sections. (player plays A. agitated. Isorhythm pattern divided into three sections A. long smears legato twelve tone row from I. half valve tones. One composition for a quartet may be: (Leader cues transitions between sections) Twelve tone row without rhythmic designation played freely by the group. Form The form is often decided just before a performance by making a list of possible approaches. muted. with the fourth section improvised freely. short staccato notes. V. Modes Some sections may instruct the performers to play within a certain mode. Are there other ways to organize improvisational music for a group of musicians? Are there ways to combine these structural concepts with traditional structural. B & C. low or the lowest notes possible. G dorian (bass instrument may play a bass line) Original twelve tone row from I. applied to the isorhythm from II. This can be refreshing after contrapuntal chromatic parts. side-slipping or planing. breathy sounds. determining cues and rough timings. melodic and rhythmic materials? Jazz Theory Resources . One set of instructions may involve using the instrument in unorthodox ways which might include using pitched instruments as percussion instruments. improvise freely percussive sounds on the instrument I. improvises D then repeats) Notes determined by the musicians Four part round or canon following these instructions: • • • • IV. Each musician takes a turn at improvising counterpoint. Musical ideas from this point are only limited by imagination. III. slow or calm. II. Almost any of these instructions may be combined with others as: play a smear up to the loudest and highest notes possible on the instrument and decrescendo playing staccato notes down to the lowest tones and fade to breath sounds. Often performers using these improvisational methods want the modal sections to be strictly within the designated mode allowing for no outside chromatic embellishment. The performers may be instructed to play anything from the following list and more: glissandos or smears.404 Chapter 17 Coloring “Outside” the Lines & Beyond Descriptions of Playing Techniques or Effects A section may have a set of instructions that has nothing to do with rhythms or pitches but may describe playing techniques or desired effects. and endless other ideas. fast or fast as possible. high or the highest notes possible. Repeat and ritard to end of row.

WHAT & HOW MUCH to TRANSCRIBE? Transcribe what interests you as an artist. approaches and tools for developing jazz music. WHY TRANSCRIBE? Like so many other arts. This vocabulary is part of the socialization of jazz musicians. Transcription expedites the development of melodic vocabulary. Every great jazz artist can list those they imitated while learning to play. Five well-known improvisations will be analyzed. The analyses should be studied in conjunction with repeated listening to the recordings. How do these pieces fit into the whole of a jazz improvisation? This chapter will attempt to answer the why. Training the ears to take musical dictation from an outside source helps the ears hear the music from the inside source. There is a common musical vocabulary that all jazz musicians must know. entire improvisations will be easier to transcribe. but many questions arise: why? what to transcribe? how much? how to? what is done after transcribing? Analysis is defined as the separation whole into separate components for individual study. maybe only two to four measures of a particular improvisation. ANALYSIS: The BIG Picture TRANSCRIPTION It is often said that transcribing jazz improvisations is one of the best tools for learning to improvise jazz. and too much to digest to make it worth the investment of time. how much. much the same way a child becomes a unique individual even though beginning by imitating parent’s words and actions. what. Books about jazz came later. We are often more comfortable with the individual expression of an artist once we sense they have done their homework and speak our common language. Ear development is one of the primary benefits of transcribing. imitation was the only way jazz was passed on from one musician to another and from one generation to another. Imitation should go beyond just playing the notes and rhythms: an artists’ inflections and articulations should also be mimicked. and what then questions of jazz transcription and analysis. Historically. Begin transcribing improvisations with a low degree of difficulty in order to develop skills and to prevent discouragement. The previous chapters have dealt with many of these separate components. We often listen for that common language from an artist before accepting the unique artistic expressions.Chapter 18 ANALYSIS: The BIG Picture 405 XVIII. These artists developed their own unique voice while emulating someone else. The first attempts should be short phrases. learning jazz improvisation owes much to imitating the Masters. too time consuming. Jazz Theory Resources . In the beginning an entire improvisation might be too difficult. One or two potent phrases can provide hours of practice room material. With practice. Transcription is a great tool. The material was gathered and sorted from hundreds of transcriptions of great jazz performances.

and then move on to another area. The absence of a specific approach may be significant to the analysis. Better questions yield more useful information. Data must be gathered. Learn to depend on your ear. Have a list of questions on hand when you begin your analysis. There is no set formula or paradigm for a jazz improvisation. ANALYSIS Why analyze a solo? There is a practical motive for most jazz theorists: we want to play quality jazz solos. train our ears and brains to listen more intently and intelligently to the music we love. These may help the process. Analysis is defined as the separation whole into separate components for individual study.406 Chapter 18 ANALYSIS: The BIG Picture HOW TO? There are many methods and tools to aid transcription. another may rely on paraphrasing the original theme. Jazz Theory Resources . identify the primary pitches on downbeats and significant rhythmic places. Determine that by asking the questions. Take choice fragments and practice them literally in all keys. By examining outstanding improvisations by great jazz artists we can find specific things to practice. another on improvising over the harmony using common melodic outlines. Examine the same fragments conceptually: what musical principles are at work? How could the same principles apply in a different way to the same or other musical settings? What could be added or subtracted to the fragment and how else might it be applied? One fragment could occupy hours of inventive work in the practice room. A specific approach may be searched for and not found. and then connections and conclusions can be formulated. if a piece is in Bb. or to justify any note. Some questions may lead to dead ends. not just individual pitches. Treat each improvisation as an individual avoiding forcing square pegs into round holes or dismissing one as irrelevant because it does utilize the same principles as another. sorted into categories and classified. D and F will sound consonant and the other pitches will sound dissonant to varying degrees. and then fill in the secondary pitches that complete the line. Stopping a melodic line on every pitch and plucking randomly on an instrument to find the pitch will be time consuming and counterproductive. Analysis begins with asking the right questions. WHAT THEN? After completing a transcription fragment or complete improvisation. Resist the temptation to check every single pitch with an instrument. pitches. but can in some ways be damaging to the learning process. Traces of one approach may be found. the job is not to justify every note. Several improvisations will share similar characteristics. Try to hear phrases. In difficult passages it may be helpful to notate rhythms first. No improvisation will include all the elements on any list. Determine what is being done literally and conceptually. Practice playing the entire transcription along with the recording matching rhythms. Let your intellect assist your ears. One improvisation may focus on thematic and motivic transformation. For example. and later determine to be insignificant for the analysis. Do not try to make the improvisation fit your idea of what should be there. Leave it behind. There are many digital devices that can slow down the playback of a recording and even stop the recording on a single note. Learn to hear those groups of notes as you would perceive a noun clause or a verb clause in a sentence: not as separate words or letters but as a unit. phrasing and articulations. Groups of chromatic and diatonic dissonances will usually point to a consonant note. find ways of organizing our thinking about structure. Write out the phrase and then check it for accuracy with an outside source. analyze the material. then the Bb. analyze what is actually in the music.

Side slipping or planing An improvisation may include many overlapping concepts. Jazz Theory Resources . III. Step progression: simple ascending or descending step motion in the middle of more angular lines. Mozart. What figurations were added to the melody? (NTs. 1.Chapter 18 ANALYSIS: The BIG Picture 407 Some of your search should be microscopic. An improvisation can be based on the melodic material or the harmonic structure. Blues scales 3. You should also step back and look at the overall larger picture of the solo: how does it build? what are the devices that give the entire solo form and structure? Is there a shape and how is it achieved? Examine the trees and the forest. A single phrase may begin using harmonic generalization. Specific arpeggios (1-3-5-7 & 3-5-7-9) 2. what devices were used? If the improvisation is based on the harmonic progression. Paraphrasing the Melody A. and some macroscopic.) B. Specific scale colorizations 4. 1 is a typical example. Additions to the basic progression 3. Fragmentation: Using a smaller portion of the initial idea. How was the rhythmic content altered? C. Outlines nos. What elements recur in the improvisation and how are they similar or different? B. Within an improvisation. The list below reviews some of these devices that are illustrated in chapter 12 beginning on page 318. C. Addition or interpolation: The opposite of fragmentation. Sequencing: Transposing to other pitch levels in a repeating series. SPECIFIC QUESTIONS to ASK ABOUT an IMPROVISATION: The outline below is a source for questions about the specific devices used to create an improvisation. Within these two large categories are many separate divisions. Harmonic superimposition 1. Triadic generalization 2. 2 & 3 5. arpeggio tones. PT. Mode changes 5. Improvising on the Harmony A. Guide tones (3rds & 7ths) 4. Harmonic Generalization 1. The new material can occur before. If the improvisation is based on melodic paraphrasing. etc. A study of theme and variations by Bach. D. move to harmonic specificity and end by paraphrasing the original theme or melody. was it specific or general? I. How was the general contour ornamenting or embellished? II. compositional and motivic devices may be applied to any of the developmental processes listed above. down to individual notes in some cases. Material is added to the motive. Compositional Devices for Motivic Development A. Tritone substitutions 2.) C. or specific chord symbol) 3. Harmonically Specific 1. Scales (related first to the key center. You may have to examine small pieces of the solo. (Outline no. Beethoven and others will reveal the same: that variations are based on melodic or harmonic material. Repetition: The theme must recur for it to be a theme. after. or in the middle of the original motive which is usually intact and recognizable. Common clichés B.

K. Short and long phrases F. A phrase can be long or short. J. I. Embellish or ornament: This differs from the addition of notes before or after as it involves the elaboration of the original note using neighbor tones while still following the general contour of the original idea. Augmentation: To augment is to make something larger. High and low ranges C. Displacement: May be applied to rhythms or pitches. O. but can be a useful device. Iteration: Repetition. A motive may be rhythmically displaced to a different part of the phrase earlier or later than might be expected L. Contrasts to look for: A. M. Thick textures and space G. contrasts) How was contrast used as a developmental tool? VII. the intervals and even the orchestration. Placement (before. Simplicity and complexity E. Pitches may be displaced by moving them up or down an octave. Diminution: To diminish is to reduce something. Harmonic specificity and harmonic generalization B. Loud and soft D. Agitated and calm Jazz Theory Resources . This is also not always recognizable to the casual observer. They can be inverted using exact intervals or generally following the diatonic intervals. on the downbeat. Inversion: The intervals of the original idea can be turned upside down. H. F. Musically this can apply to the rhythmic units. it is helpful to view the improvisation from a larger perspective. Connections (last notes or note of one phrase begins the next phrase) What types of rhythmic character are present in the improvisation? Were there instances of polyrhythmic superimposition? Was there a contrast between simple and complex subdivisions? How does the rhythmic character contribute to the structure of phrases. Rhythmic Development (polyrhythm. and after the downbeat. after) C. Do the length and placement of phrases contribute to the musical result of the improvisation? IV. Quotes from other sources After closely examining individual notes in relationship to the original melody or harmonic structure. G. This is not perceived by the casual observer. phrase groups and the overall form? VI. Phrasing A. This can apply to rhythmic units.408 Chapter 18 ANALYSIS: The BIG Picture E. How are the phrases formed without considering harmonic implications? Is there a relationship between phrases? Are there connections? Do several phrases work together to imply larger architectonic forms? A phrase can begin only three different ways: before the downbeat. on. relationship) B. Length (short or long. Retrograde: The motive is played with the pitches in reverse order. the intervals and the orchestration. Retrograde inversion: the original can occur upside down and backwards. Making a simple rhythm more active by repeating melodic pitches. Mode Change: The motive might be set in other modes.

1 &c Ó œ œ.Chapter 18 ANALYSIS: The BIG Picture 409 The improvisation can be examined in an even larger context. c.4-7. Theme no. œ œ œ œ œ œ . 8 of another and 8 more of the first..” Miles Davis did not base his So What improvisation on “scale running.. rotator. was rhythmically displaced to end on the upbeat of beat four in m. phrase. E. and c.2 after a initial “sigh” motive. 1 I Œ Theme 1: Œ a. Davis introduced theme 1 in m.. deified. verse.7. at the ends 1 A word. ending with repeated note) remains unchanged. c. B. 18. sequencing. X j Œ Ó . but in conjunction with numerous appearances of fragment c. calm. This occurrence alone may be difficult to hear. > œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ Ó J œ œ > . Overall Character Agitated. a. F.10 and was answered by fragment c. b. Fragment b. and referred to both themes in his closing statement. D. a. SO WHAT: MILES DAVIS In the liner notes from the Kind of Blue recording session. Seq. Sequence: b. ‰ jœ œ œ œ œ a. and b. conversational. 1 can be divided into three parts as indicated by the lower case letters a. and diminution. The D was repeated up an octave to bridge the first A section with the second and recalls the initial “sigh” motive. Fragment c. The pitches of c. œ. occurred inverted in m. Examples: radar. The theme is a palindrome1 with an additional note at the end. one for each chorus with some overlap. civic. b. but the general shape (descending. cont. A. .” Without the harmonic framework of traditional harmony. Davis sequenced the theme in mm. What musical elements contribute to the overall mood? When is the high point of the solo? How is that achieved? Resolves conflict or not? What is attractive about the solo? sound? rhythm? melodic ideas? technical interest? formal? feeling? Harmonic vocabulary It is recommended that the following improvisation analyses be studied in conjunction with frequent listening to the recordings. was saved for the end of the phrase as Davis worked primarily with fragments a. Jazz Theory Resources . refer. was balanced by the falling fragment of c. etc. or sentence that reads the same backward or forward. Davis improvised two thirty-two measures choruses employing two major themes. relentless. œ œ œ &œ œ . . œ œ œ œ Fragment b. C. The fragment c. Bill Evans described the tune So What as “a simple figure based on 16 measures of one scale. Davis chose to develop his ideas using motivic devices including: repetition. œ ˙. b. was transposed up a diatonic third in m. What is the overall shape and character? What musical mechanisms help determine the contour? VIII. b.: b. were changed. Poor Dan is in a droop. The rising fragment of a.6. fragmentation.

Fragment c. b. returned in m. A scale passage that may suggest fragment a. up a half-step from its last appearance in m. This short idea signaled the end to the first chorus.23.31. again. a passing tone (G). b. Ó > c. ended with fragment c. a. œ c. Ó Ó ‰ œ œ J The inversion of fragment b. followed. c. c.. œ œ # œ j Œ ‰ & œ œ œ œ 3 b. œ ˙ ∑ . Fragment c. œ œ. . transposed a tritone away from its first occurrence in m. ˙ > œ œ . Theme 2: œ .3. b> œ . The inversion of b. A and the leading tone C#. inverted œ Œ J œ œ œ œ œ . b œ œ . bœ b¿ bœ > > Œ bœ œ bœ ¿ > > & b œj œ . 5 c. inverted &˙ 9 Ó > œ > ˙ œ œ c. The pitches (D and A) are the same as those in m.410 Chapter 18 ANALYSIS: The BIG Picture of phrases the relationship becomes clear.3 and m.25 and m.7. Another scale passage followed that included the unusual leap of a tritone (D-Ab) in m. this time transposed up a perfect fifth higher than in m.14 transposed up a step from m. .15. but inverted and the rhythmic value of the repeated notes is augmented 7 bœ œ > b œ œ Œ b œ œ ˙ b œ & bœ œ b œ b ¿ .13: the E a leading tone to F. was preceded by triadic material in m. ∑ Section B began with a. bœ ^ œ œ # œ œ # œ bœ bœ œ nœ ‰ j œ bœ b œ b> œ b œ b œ > b> œ bœ > Œ Ó œ > œ œ œ > (1/2 V) &œ .30 answered by fragment c. These two phrases in the second A section are symmetrical. occurred with the same pitches in m. œ J (1/2 V) 3 œ . œ Ó Ó ˙ Jazz Theory Resources . This phrase. as all preceding phrases.15. > 1 c. returned in m. The line ended with fragment c. inverted &œ Œ Ó Œ ^ œ > œ.10 and again was answered by fragment c.

c. 1. ∑ T2 up half-step: Sequence of T1.4-7 was an additional reminder of the material of theme no. 1 ended with theme no. 2 anticipated the second chorus and is answered in mm. An inverted fragment b. Davis continued the development of theme no.Chapter 18 ANALYSIS: The BIG Picture 411 The second chorus is an ideal structural point to introduce a second theme. appeared to be a part of the answer to theme no. > œ œ œ œ œj œ . of theme no. 1. 2 was stated again in the lower register in mm. b. Theme no. T2 with PTs down octave: œ ¿ bœ œ œ bœ Ó Œ ‰ œj > Jazz Theory Resources .38-39 similarly to mm. 2 is between C and G in an upper register. Theme no. . j œ. 2. b.34-35. & 9 T2 up half-step: œ J b˙ œ .50-51 was filled in with passing tones. . œ (1/2 V) œ . Ó Œ bœ 5 Having reacquainted the listener with theme no. 2. At section B of the second chorus Davis played theme no. The first two short phrases end with fragment c.4-7: b. 2. The phrase in mm. II & 3 w Theme 2: œ. . inverted The second A section of the second chorus began with a bluesy response to theme no. œ œ œ ¿ œ > > a. œ & ‰ ¿j œ œ œ . It is as if Davis wanted to remind the listener of the first theme before further development of the second theme. Echoes mm. & bœ œ 1 œ > œ > c. œ œ. bœ bœ bœ J . œ Œ ‰ jœ œ œ b.45-47 which is nearly identical to the sequence that occurred in mm.53-54) that recalled fragment a. 1 was introduced between the pitches of D and A. œ. 1.34-35. 2 up a half-step. 2 floated above the rhythm section using notes of longer values. theme no. œ œ œ œ œ œ3 Œ œ #œ ˙ b. c.36-37 and was answered in mm. The answer in the lower octave. 1. j œ œ. of theme no. inverted œ œ. a.55. in mm. Theme no. 1 was rhythmically active with eighth note subdivisions. 2 transposed to another pitch level in m. Theme no. Bluesy response (1/2 V) œ. œ œ J ^ œ œ. J ‰ ˙ Theme 2 down octave: ˙ (1/2 V) Theme 2 answer T2 down octave T2 answer in upper octave: &˙ 7 Ó Œ (1/2 V) œ J . Davis chose a secondary theme that contrasted in many ways to the theme no. theme no. A short passage (mm.

3 a. Theme no. 18. examine and compare their characteristics. makes them easier to trace. inverted œ > œ œ œ œ œ . 2 answer that included the inverted fragment b. the component parts of the whole improvisation.2. œ j œ œ œ The “M” shaped palindrome structure of theme no. The answer in m.412 Chapter 18 ANALYSIS: The BIG Picture > > œ œ bœ œ ‰ bJ œ b œ b œ œ . c.. The line begins with fragment a. and fragment c. 2 in the original key. T2 answer .3 Theme no. T2 œ . T2 & 7 ˙ ˙ ˙ œ.45-47. Fragment c. . œ œ œ Œ Ó . Theme no. j & Œ œ œ œ.4-7 or mm. 18. J bœ œ œ ‰ bJ & b œ b> œ œ b> . and then Davis played the remainder of theme no. 18. j j œ œ. Davis anticipated the last section of the chorus with a return of theme no. 1 is clear as illustrated in ex. A concluding paragraph of a well written essay sums up the major points discussed in the exposition and body. 1 Fragment a. 1 ending with a rhythmic augmented fragment c. a. &œ Œ Ó > 1 > ‰ j œ œ œ bœ #œ œ ˙ œ > > > a. A response grew out of the theme no.3. œj œ œ # œ œ . 18.2 Theme no. T2 transposed: Ó Ó œ œ œ œ a. 2 recurred in m. 1 as a Palindrome &w w w w w Jazz Theory Resources . c.63. Davis seemed to follow this model and refers to both themes in his concluding line. 2 œ œ œ.59 was rhythmically more active than previously heard. j œ œ œ œ ˙ œ b. 1 is shown with its three fragments in ex. œ - Œ Ó EXCERPTS from SO WHAT Separating individual motives and themes. Fragment b.œ œ > . as if to restate the sequences found in mm.

& ‰ œj œ œ œ 4 œ œ a. c. J & œ Jœ œ 61 &œ œ 65 œ Jazz Theory Resources . a. transposing fragment b. œ œ œ . Each phrase ended with fragment c. the rhythmic values of fragment c. œ œ œ œ œ œœ œœ > .5 Repetition of theme no. as phrase endings & j œ œœŒ 3 & j œ œ œ 8 3 & œ œ ˙ 12 & œ œ œ 16 j & b œ ¿ b œj œ .41-47. 21 & œ J œ ˙ 25 & œ J œ œ 31 & 41 œ œ œ & 43 œ œj œ . the dominant and tonic. returned in the two occurrences at mm. and each fragment was a step higher than the previous (mm.47. Davis ended the improvisation in mm. Davis recalled and played almost the exact phrase in mm. In m. a. 1 by repeating the first two fragments. > œ œ J b. a.30-31. . a. > œ œ œ œ œj œ . and returning to the complete theme in this phrase from mm. b.Chapter 18 ANALYSIS: The BIG Picture 413 Davis began developing theme no. 18. b. both ended on an upbeat and both used the dominant falling to the tonic.45-47. œ b.4-7.4 Repetition of theme no. b. but up a half-step. This recurrence of material unified the improvisation more than any other element. 43 and 47. 1 fragments from mm. The original pitches. The first two occurrences were almost identical.) The fragment from mm. Davis created a rising step progression with the endings of the three phrases in mm.12 was a bit disguised with smaller intervals and augmented rhythmic values. X œ.24-25 and mm. Forty-one measures after mm.21-22 recalled the fragment heard in m. œ & ‰ ¿j œ œ œ . & 47 œ œj œ . 18.15.15. c.60-61 used the same pitches as that of m.6 Twelve occurrences of fragment c.4-7. 45 jœ œ œ œ ¿ œ > >. MM.45-47 b.41. Twelve phrases in the improvisation ended with fragment c. 18. but the rhythmic values were doubled. were closer to the original although the interval was slightly diminished. 1 fragments from mm.4-7. b.64-65 with the original pitches. The third occurrence in m. though inverted.

j œ œ œ œ #œ œ .56. œ œ œ œ œ œ3 & Ó Œ œ. œ ¿ bœ œ œ bœ & bœ J 55 œ bœ . A short reference to the triadic theme no. œ J . œ - Œ Ó a. j œ œ œ œ ˙ œ & Ó 18. The triadic shape of the answer was disguised with passing tones. Davis introduced a contrasting second theme.7 Occurrences of Theme no. a summary including material from both themes. bœ bœ bœ J . . 2 in m. Last phrase of improvisation as summary of all thematic materials Theme no.414 Chapter 18 ANALYSIS: The BIG Picture At the midpoint of the two chorus improvisation after developing one theme and its fragments for the first half. J ‰ & ˙ 37 ˙ bœ 49 Ó Œ ^ œ œ. 18. Theme no. Theme no. c. 2 floated while the first was more rhythmically active.54-55. 1 was primarily constructed with the notes of a D minor chord and the second was based on the upper extensions.œ > . 2 recurred one last time in m.8 œ œ œ œ ˙ 57 ˙ ˙ œ. Theme no. Davis anticipated the last A section with another return of theme no. œœ J (1/2 V) œ œ.48. Davis repeated theme no. 2 with the first two pitches transposed down an octave. œ œ. 2 occurred in mm. Jazz Theory Resources . 2 > œ œ bœ #œ œ ˙ & ‰ œj œ > > > 62 œ. the 7-9-11. or a superimposed C major triad over the D dorian. œ J b˙ œ . Theme no. Ó . inverted & Ó ˙ 33 w œ. 2 b. .63 as a part of the last phrase. 2 returned anticipating the B section in m.

. fragment a. such as the iteration device in mm. and diminution. Jazz Theory Resources . simple eighth notes lines to flurries of sixteenth notes and sixteenth note triplets.5-6. The rhythmic vocabulary ranged from relaxed. He began with extended arpeggios in thirds using a rhythmic motive that recurred with variations. 2. This improvisation is an exceptional lesson in motivic development and economical construction. The 4-3-1-7 shape was the first item to be developed as Adderley sequenced it over the C7 in mm. The material used to construct the entire improvisation was introduced by Adderley in the first four measures. leaping almost two octaves contrasted with measured trill figures that restrained the melodic motion..62-65) Without a harmonic progression.9-16) Fragment a. Davis developed two main themes and their fragments using motivic devices including: repetition. 1. A bluesy motive and a bop figure resembling outline no. Miles constructed a logical improvisation manipulating fragments of his themes like Picasso in an analytical cubist painting. 3. The pitches suggested an extended tertian (1-3-5-7-9-11) G chord. Outline no. inversion of b. sequencing. B (mm. Summary of all ideas in the last phrase: (mm. inversion of b SECOND CHORUS A (mm. Flurried passages were answered with simple swinging eighth note passages. Almost every chorus ended with an ethereal phrase avoiding harmonic and rhythmic clarity...49-56) Theme no. Two eighth notes on the downbeats empha6 sized the strong beats of one and four. inversion of b. Certain areas of the form were treated the same. this modal improvisation included no guide-tones or outlines.57-64) Theme no. A rhythmic motive (R1) was introduced in the first phrase. inversion of b. fragments a. Many phrases ended with the bop outlines. 1. & inversion of b.. The form is a modal blues.Chapter 18 ANALYSIS: The BIG Picture 415 OVERVIEW of THEMATIC MATERIAL The charts below provide a overview of the thematic material in the Davis improvisation. ALL BLUES: CANNONBALL ADDERLEY Cannonball Adderley used several recurring musical elements in this improvisation. Extended arpeggios.17-24) Fragments a. A (mm. There were no instances of exotic scales or harmonic substitutions. 2. A bluesy 4-3-1-7 idea answered followed by a bop sounding figure that eventually Adderley developed into outline no. 3 lent continuity in form and structure to lines with much rhythmic variety. A (mm. Modal passages were contrasted and balanced with bluesy or be-bop figures. A (mm. 3 followed. Miles was frugal with notes.1-8) Theme no.28-30 and mm. B (mm. 2. Recurring rhythmic motives lent a continuity to the material even when the pitch content changed. & c.33-40) Theme no. Cannonball showed his wonderful sense of balance in this solo.. b. These elements and their transformations helped create a coherent organization. & c. which made it easier to see and hear the simple structures. c. fragment of Theme 2 A (mm. fragments a. as if Adderley conceived the passages as a certain mood or character beyond just the harmonic implications..25-32) Fragment a. fragmentation. creating the duple meter ( 4 ). b.. FIRST CHORUS A (mm.37-38.41-48) Theme no..

3 œ œ œbœ . 3. The bop figure returned to end the phrase. The accents of R2 suggested a triple ( 2 ) instead 6 of the duple meter ( 4 ). Ó œ œ œ œ Œ œ œ œ Œ œ œ œ Œ œ œ œ Œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ 7 9 11 9 7 5 3 1 1 I G7 Rhythmic motive 1 (R1) 4-3-1-7 Motive Bop figure: & œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ 3 C7 ˙ 4-3-1-7 motive developed œ . led to the recurring bop figure. Adderley answered with a static measured trill as a contrast to the vigorous outline figure. II G7 & 3 œœŒ Œ Œ œ œ R3 4-3-1-7 motive œœŒ Œ ‰ j œœœ œ œ #œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ #œ œ œ . bœ œ œ . A chromatic line was suggested within the outline: (D-C#-Cn-Bn). œ j œ œ Œ Œ Œ Œ Œ ≈ #œ . This time the figure was recognizable as outline no. œ œ œ œ œ œ & œ #œ œ œ œ Nœ œ #œ nœ œ œ œ G7 R2 Bop figure 3 3 D7 Ethereal section: j ‰ b œ n œr œ œ œ b œ # œ b œ Œ œ b œ Œ œ œ œ b œ Œ Œ Œ #œ œ œ ‰ & œ J #œ nœ œ œ œ 0 E b7 D7 G7 R2 Another variation of R1 occurred in mm.13-14 at the beginning of the second chorus using only the two eighth notes on the down beats. ˙ œ œ bœ œ j ‰ J œ œ œ œ œ 3 The upper extensions returned over the G7 as Adderley emphasized the 7-9-11 of G7. Adderley treated the last four measures of the first chorus with a harmonic and rhythmic vagueness that created an ethereal mood. 3 Measured trill: Measured trill: 6 & œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œbœ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ Œ Œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œbœ œ œ œ œ œ 3 3 3 3 œœ Jazz Theory Resources . G mixolydian scale with two chromatic passing tones. A flurry of notes. œ #œ C7 5 Bop figure: outline no.9 ANALYSIS: The BIG Picture Œ &6 4 Ó. The rhythm (R2) 3 was related to R1 but stressed beats one.416 Chapter 18 18. The melody emphasized the upper extensions (9 & 13) and recalled the bluesy motive. three and five. R2 returned in the last two measures of the form.

&˙ 5 III G7 Œ 3 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ ‰ J 3 3 Measured trill: Œ œ œ#œ œ nœ œ œ #œ œ 3 & œ œ bœ œ œ & 7 œ. with the internal chromatic implications (D-C#-Cn-Bn). 3. 3 7 9 11 13 R An ethereal feeling was again created on the last four measures of the form. 3 and a arpeggio of the upper extensions (7-9-11-13-R) of the G7 chord. bœ œ œ œ œ œ Œ Œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ 3 Iteration: Upper Extensions 5 7 9 11 13 R Outline no. It was answered by a lengthy flurry of sixteenth notes that included outline no. Adderley recalled R3 and the bluesy 4-3-1-7 motive in the closing measures of the second chorus.1920. G7 Outline no. Outline no. 2 & 9 w w www www w w Outline no. and the wide range of the line (almost two octaves) contrasted with the static nature of the previous measured trills. Œ R3 The measured trill returned at the top of chorus three. 3 www nw w Jazz Theory Resources . œ œ &‰ J 1 D7 Ethereal section: œ œ ‰ œj b œ 4-3-1-7 Motive E b7 D7 bœ bœ bœ œ bœ œ œ bœ œ 3 ‰ n œj #œ œ 3 #œ œ œ œ œ G7 &œ œ Œ 3 Œ Œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œj œ . 2 was followed by outline no.Chapter 18 ANALYSIS: The BIG Picture 417 The static measured trills were abandoned for the chromatic and rhythmically exciting line in mm. The sixteenth notes provided a rhythmic contrast. œ˙ œ œ œ b œ j ‰ œ œ œ œ & œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ bœ œ nœ œ œ #œ nœ œ 3 œœ œ œ œœ œ G7 3 3 3 Upper ext. and ended with the extended tertian arpeggio.

3 which Adderley again paired with the upper extension arpeggio. These repeated notes are called iteration.62 and led to another occurrence of outline no. The last two measures contained a return to R3 and the measured trill. 3 3 Extensions & 7 w ww nw w The line in m. The rhythmically diminished pair of notes from R4 were used again Jazz Theory Resources . 4.61-62 with an inserted measured trill. œ œ & œ œb œ œ œ j‰ œ œ b œ œ œ œ œ œ # œ n œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œb œ œ œ œ œ œ œ 5 7 9 11 13 Iteration sequence: 3 IV G7 Outline no. the #11 of G7 in m. Adderley played a repeated eighth note line.35.40 suggested the tertian extensions (7-9-11-13) and at the same times has a blues feeling due to the Db-C and the Bn-G. occurred in m. R1 returned in mm. Rather than the two eighth notes of R1-3. The internal chromatic implications (D-C#-Cn-Bn) were again implied in outline no. The ethereal section returned with ambiguous floating rhythms and distant notes such as the C#. 0 œ & ‰ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ bœ œ Œ œ œ œ Œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ Œ œ r œ #œ œ Measured trill R1 C7 3 3 R1 continued through m. The melodic material that began the fourth chorus again suggested the upper extensions (5-7-9-11) of the G7 chord. C7 & œ œ œ œ œ œbœ œ 9 Iteration sequence: G7 r œ œ œ œ œ bœ Œ Œ œ œ ‰ œ œ œ œ œœœœ œ œœ œ œ œ E b7 3 3 R4 3 2 œ bœ œ bœ Œ ‰ œ œ Œ Œ Œ b ˙ b œ œ &œ œ bœ œ œ J œ bœ bœ œ œ . 3. Rhythmic variation no.418 Chapter 18 ANALYSIS: The BIG Picture As a contrast to the sixteenth notes. the pair were the first two notes of an eighth note triplet.31 featured a slightly diminished version of the pair of notes found in the other rhythmic variations. œ œ bœ œ D7 Ethereal section: D7 & #œ œ Œ 5 G7 Œ Œ œ œ œ œ measured trill œ œ Œ Œ ‰ # œj œ œ œ œ œ 3 R3 Adderley played another iteration sequence at the beginning of chorus four. 3 returned paired with an arpeggio that emphasized the upper extensions (5-7-9-11-13) of G7. Outline no.

65. 3 Fragment of R4 w ww w w # œ œ Œ ‰ œj ‰ œj œ . Ó œ œ œ œ Œ œ œ œ Œ œ œ œ Œ œ œ œ Œ œœ œœœ œ œ œ 1 I G7 18.43 & bœ œ Œ 1 œ œ œ Œ œ &œ œ Œ 3 j 3 œ #œ œ ‰ œ œ œ œ Jazz Theory Resources .10a R1 Œ &6 4 Ó.65.10b R1 at m.66 they return to a pair of eighth notes.65-66. the pair of notes were the first two notes of an eighth note triplet. G7 & œ œ Œ œ #œ œ & 3 R1 ‰ œj œ œ 3 3 3 3 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ‰œ œ œœ œ Œ œ œ œ œ œ JJ œ œ œœœ œ 3 7 9 11 13 Upper extension D7 Outline no. 3 with the suggestion of the internal chromatic line.10c R1 at m.41 C7 G7 18. The improvisation ended with one last reference to outline no. on the downbeat of m. with a missing the Dn. #œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ ˙ G7 G7 bœ bœ œ œ œ œ Œ ‰ J & D7 E b7 & 6 w w ¿ w w EXCERPTS from ALL BLUES RHYTHMIC MOTIVES 18. and at the end of m. The note pairs were played with progressively larger rhythmic values in mm.Chapter 18 ANALYSIS: The BIG Picture 419 in m.66 they have become two quarter notes. In m.

11c R2 in mm.13a R4 in m.12a R3 in mm.12d D7 G7 R3 in mm.11-12 #œ bœ Œ œ bœ Œ œ œ œ œ œ œ & 12 G7 18.11b R2 in mm.13-14 II 18.35-36 2 &œ œŒ Œ Œ œ œ.420 Chapter 18 ANALYSIS: The BIG Picture 18. œ bœ bœ œ 18. 3 18.7-8 G7 &œ œ Œ œ œ Œ œ #œ nœ œ 8 œ œ 18.23-24 3 & 3 œ œ Œ Œ Œ œ œ 18.11a R2 Implies triple meter ( 3 2 ) instead of duple meter ( 6 4 ) 6 œ 4œ 1 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ œ 2 2 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ œ 3 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ 3˙ 2œ 1 18.12b G7 R3 in mm.12c R3 in mm.31 G7 3 œ & #œ œ Œ Œ Œ œ œ œ œ œ œ Œ 5 & 1 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ‰ œ 3 œ œ Jazz Theory Resources .32-33 G7 œ œ Œ & œ œ Œ Œ Œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œj œ .

14d Outline no. 3 from another improvisation B bm 7 & Œ œ œ b œ œ b œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ bœ #œ œ 18. 3 in m.4 3 18. 3 in mm.45 3 3 3 œœ œ bœ bœ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ‰ Œ Œ ‰ & J J J ANALYSIS: The BIG Picture 421 D7 E b7 D7 G7 OUTLINE EXAMPLES 18. #œ œ nœ œ #œ œ œ œ ˙ œ œ ¿ nœ œ 44 Jazz Theory Resources .Chapter 18 18.14b G7 Outline no.7-8 & œ #œ 4 œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ & #œ œ nœ œ 8 œ œ 18.15-16 &œ œ œ œ œ œ œ # œ œ n œ œ œ nœ œ œ 16 18. 3 at the end of the improvisation 3 3 E b7 & & j œ ‰ œj œ .13b R4 fragment in m.14e Outline no.14a Outline no. 3 in mm.14c Outline no.

15b Outline no.43-44 & & 3 j œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ 44 œ œ Jazz Theory Resources .422 Chapter 18 ANALYSIS: The BIG Picture OUTLINE EXAMPLES FOLLOWED by EXTENDED TERTIAN ARPEGGIOS 18.38-39 & & 3 j 3 œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ 39 18.15c Outline no. 3 in m. 3 in mm.27 & & œ.19-20 3 3 &Œ & œ œbœ œ œ œœ œ œ # œ œ n œ œ œ œœœœœ œ œ nœ œœ œ œœœ œ œ œ œ 20 ˙ 18. 2 & no. 3 in mm. œ œ Œ œœœ œœœ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ # œ n œ œ œ œœ œ œœœ œœœ nœ œ 3 28 18.15d Outline no. 3 in mm.15a Outline no.

Chapter 18 EXTENDED TERTIAN ARPEGGIOS 18.16b ANALYSIS: The BIG Picture 423 Extended tertian arpeggio &w R w 2 w 3 w 4 w 5 w 6 w 7 w w R R w 3 w 5 w 7 w 9 w 11 w 13 w R 18.16a G mixolydian: scale 18. Jazz Theory Resources . Œ œ œ & œœ 28 & 39 j œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ 3 5 7 9 11 13 7 9 11 13 R 7 9 11 13 R œ œ œ &œ œ œ œ 44 7 9 11 13 4-3-1-7 BLUES FIGURE 18.16c Extended tertian arpeggio at the beginning of the improvisation G7 & & œ œ 1 œ œ Œ œ œ œ Œ œ w 9 œ œ Œ œ Œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ ww 3 R w 7 w w 11 9 w w 7 5 18.17 4-3-1-7 Blues figure throughout the improvisation C7 & œ œ œ œ œ 4 & 5 ˙ œ . bœ œ œ . ˙ œ œ bœ œ j ‰ J œ œ œ 3 3 &œ œ 14 œ œ Œ &œ œ œ 44 œ œ œ œj œ .16d Other extended tertian arpeggios throughout the improvisation &œœ ˙ œœœ 21 3 œ œ.

18 4-3-1-7 Measured trill figure throughout the improvisation C7 3 3 3 3 & œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œbœ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ 17 Œ Œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ 3 3 & bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ 42 3 3 œ œ œ œœ œ œœ œ˙ & J 26 ITERATION 18.20b Ethereal section at the end of second chorus œ œ &‰ J œ œ ‰ œj b œ 21 D7 bœ bœ bœ œ ‰ n œj # œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ bœ œ E b7 D7 G7 Jazz Theory Resources .19 Iteration throughout the improvisation & bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ 29 œ œ œ œ r œ bœ Œ Œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ G7 & œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ 29 œ œ b œ œ œj ETHEREAL FLOATING VAGUENESS 18.424 Chapter 18 ANALYSIS: The BIG Picture MEASURED TRILL FIGURE 18. œ ≈ j ‰ b œ j ‰ n œr œ œ œ b œ # œ b œ Œ œ b œ Œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ Œ & Nœ œ # œ .20 D7 3 Ethereal section at the end of first chorus E b7 D7 G7 œ œ œb œ . œ J# œ n œb œ 9 18.

2 (G harmonic minor) Ethereal Section 9 SECOND CHORUS R1 4-3-1-7 Motive 13 ‘ ‘ ‘ Scale with chromatic passing tones Outline no. Adderley implied several bop outlines and extended tertian arpeggios over this modal framework and often linked the two elements. 3 Outline no. 3 R4–Rhythmic activity winds down 45 It should be apparent from these transcriptions that constructing improvisations is more that playing the correct chords and scale tones.Chapter 18 18. 3 Bop Figure R3 4-3-1-7 Motive 5 R2 derived from R1 Rhythmic Motive no. 3 /extended tertian arpeggio 4-3-1-7 Motive Measured trill 17 Ethereal Section 21 THIRD CHORUS Measured trill figures Extended bop figure 25 ‘ R4 Upper extension arpeggio Relaxed motive using iteration 29 Ethereal Section 33 ‘ R3 (G harmonic minor) FOURTH CHORUS Iteration idea returns Outline no. Jazz Theory Resources . subdivisions and implied metric divisions. moods.20c Ethereal section at the end of third chorus ANALYSIS: The BIG Picture 425 œ œ j ‰ J & œ œ ‰ œ bœ 32 D7 j bœ bœ bœ œ ‰ nœ #œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ bœ œ E b7 D7 G7 PHRASE CONTENT FIRST CHORUS Extended tertian arpeggios using Rhythmic Motive no. 3 ends with extended arpeggio R2 41 Trill figure added to rhythmic Motive no. 3 37 Extended arpeggio Bluesy ending Outline no. 1 connects to next measure R3 Bop Figure Outline no. A rhythmic motive recurred in several forms. 1 (R1) 1 ‘ ‘ ‘ 4-3-1-7 Motive Bop Figure related to outline no. 2 R3 Outline No. textures. Cannonball Adderley introduced at the beginning of the improvisation a few musical elements that recurred transformed and varied to create a coherent organization. The improvisation was balanced by contrasting rhythms.

This improvisation was chosen for its simplicity. b n œ ˙ ˙ œ & ˙. The F triad creates a Gm11 over the Gm7.5 (F to E). The improvisation began with perfect fifth leap.3 which continued briefly through m. & b œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ≈ nœ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœœ œ œ œ # œ œ œ . Coltrane used the ascending D melodic minor scale to bring the line back up the octave to the An again. œ bœ œ œ œ . The step line was octave displaced again as the Dn leaps up to the Cn. Coltrane leapt a perfect fifth to the An which began the descending step progression. nœ j w œ . Another octave leap suggested a G7 preceding the Cm7 so that the Fn sounds like the seventh resolving to the third (Eb) of Cm.21 &b c &b c b9 bb 9 Dm9 Cm7 F7 3 B bmaj7 A7b 13 r r œ œ œ œ. the ninth of Am7. The melody is shown on the top line and the implied step progression on the bottom.426 Chapter 18 ANALYSIS: The BIG Picture BLUE in GREEN: JOHN COLTRANE John Coltrane contributed so much to jazz from the complex harmonic passages in Giant Steps and Countdown to the modal improvisations and beyond. 18. The F triad works as a triadic superimposition for many of these chords and Coltrane seemed to be using these common tones to provide melodic continuity. to the fifth of Dm (An). the #9 of the A7.3 and the Dm7 in m. it supplies the b13 and #9 over the A7. and came to rest again on the An as the ninth of Gm7 in m. The octave displacement continued and the seventh of F (Eb) resolved to the third of Bb (Dn) completing a descending scale that began on A. the b9 of A7 resolved as expected to the An. The line returned to An on beat three after moving to surrounding tones below and above to further embellished the An. The first step progression ended here with a leap of a perfect fifth to a Dn.6. Note that he used a Bn when ascending and at the top a Bb. The step progression often adheres to voice leading principles. There was a 4-3 suspension on the D minor chord. The short ten measure melodic line was constructed primarily from a single step progression elaborated with octave displaced notes and rapid scale passages. The An was reinforced by the D minor arpeggio and then moved down a step to Gn. A broken arpeggio octave displaced the An to the lower register for the A7. œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ≈ œr œ . and is the 3-5-7 of the Dm7 chord. A new step progres- Dm 7 E7 9 b Am9 Dm9 3 Gm9 3 A7 9 b 6 Jazz Theory Resources . The Bn helped the line ascend and the Bb brought it back down to the An.4. the fifth of Cm7. œ œ œ œ Gm 9 A7 13 ˙ 1 ˙ œ œ b˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ A secondary step line was introduced in m. Coltrane played an F triad over the A7 in m. the fifth of Dm. . œ ˙ œ The Bb. The descending step line continued from the Cn down to Bn. it is the 5-7-9 of the Bbmaj7.

œ bœ œ bœ œ ≈œ &b ˙ œ bœ Dm 9 œ œ œ ≈ #œ œ bb 9 œœœ œœ A7 13 bb 9 5 r œ œ œ . The step line continued through the G and F. œ œ œ. Kelly constructed the improvisation using short. œ J˙ ˙ œ . D ascending melodic minor returned in m. the fifth of Dm7. The most difficult element to describe or adequately discuss is that elusive quality called “feel. well constructed improvisation on Freddie Freeloader.3. as the seventh of F7 resolved to the third of Bb. One central element that makes this solo a classic was the groove. the #9 and b9 of A7 resolved to An. This voice leading referred to the similar passage leading to the Dm7 in mm. bœ œ . œ œ œ. Am9 Dm9 Gm9 &b œ œ œ œ 0 #œ œ nœ œ .8-9. The simple underlying structure contributes to expressiveness as it gave him a logical framework to which he applied creative octave displacements. indexed and cataloged. œ œ. œj One skip interrupted the descending step line as Coltrane concluded this improvisation. Coltrane played a 3-5-7-9 arpeggio over the Bbmaj7 chord. œ œ Œ Ó Œ Ó &b ˙ 0 Coltrane’s melodic line over Blue in Green is profoundly expressive though only ten measures in duration. This arpeggio recalled the melodic shape from m. FREDDIE FREELOADER: WYNTON KELLY Wynton Kelly played a short. fading away to almost nothing. The arpeggio octave displaced the step line again and the C and Bb. yet the placement in different octaves disguises the close intervallic relationship.Chapter 18 ANALYSIS: The BIG Picture 427 sion began on the D.” It cannot be quantified. As with many improvisations in a bop style. The Eb. the soulful swinging feel from the beginning to the end. œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ nœ #œ œ Dm9 E7 13 œ œ œ. built up to an emphatic two-handed blues testimony and finally restored a calm that prepared the entrance of Miles Davis. the #9 and b9 of E7 resolved to En. Coltrane played scale passages over the A7.9 over the Dm7. Jazz Theory Resources . The D was surrounded by diatonic neighbor tones (D-Eb-C-D) over the F7. scale and arpeggio passages. codified. this time strictly playing D harmonic minor. simple. the fifth of Am7. simple statements. Bill Evans then metrically modulated the piece to double time for the next soloist. It can be experienced from listening to the recording. which this piece is not. Cm 9 F7 B maj7 b 3 j & b œ ‰ ≈ œ œ œ œ . . We are lucky to be living in the an age where recordings of jazz classics are plentiful and can be accessed from anywhere on the planet.

but each one propelled the improvisation to the climax.5. Each chorus gathered a little more steam until the climax in mm. Gn. The D n in m. no matter how interesting. The Db resolved back to Dn in mm. and primarily occurred in the spaces between the right hand lines.36-40. Kelly testified with stylistic gospel blues lines and double stops. In m. and the Bb triadic material led back to the lower Dn. Kelly added rhythmic complexity (mm. Jazz Theory Resources . left hand answering the melody. & Gb) are not heard as alterations of the dominants. The descending Bb arpeggio in m. The climax was effective in part because of the arrangement and timing of previous material. The chromatic tones (En.9.9 created syncopation. Guide tones (GT) occurred regularly at significant rhythmic spots. The chords were played very softly and usually short.11 yielded the upper tertian extensions (9-#11-13) of the Ab lydian dominant sound. PHRASE CONNECTIONS Kelly helped the listener follow his improvisation with carefully connected phrases. becomes predictable and uninteresting. Had Kelly begun with emphatic statements then mm. The leading tone/guide tone idea was sequenced for the Eb7. Rather that repeat exactly what he played before.10 to comply with the Eb7. There are highs and lows within each chorus. Here are some elements Kelly manipulated for contrast: • • • • contrasted phrase lengths—short phrases & long phrases contrast between blues generalization & harmonic specificity contrast between simple triadic melodies & extended tertian melodies contrasting accompanying approaches—simple inconspicuous independent left hand. accenting with the melody SOLO CONTOUR Kelly played four blues choruses. almost identical material recurred (mm. An improvisation constructed out of a single device. the third and seventh. rather as neighbor tones pointing to F. The improvisation began simply with short statements and ended with a simple descending scale. The chords were used to launch some lines and punctuate others. after playing around the root and fifth of E b7. of the dominant chords.428 Chapter 18 ANALYSIS: The BIG Picture CONTRASTS Contrasts contributed to the success of this improvisation. Kelly played the seventh and third identifying the Eb7. An unembellished Bb arpeggio led to the guide tone An. Kelly was careful to play Db in m.7-8. & emphatic left hand. The recurrence of almost identical phrases preserved continuity within the improvisation. though still recognizable.36-40. which Kelly approached with a chromatic leading tone. Kelly began with four very short statements based on the dominant rising and falling to the tonic. and the emphasis on beat four of m.7 was surrounded by its upper and lower neighbors. The rhythm section reached cruising altitude in the third chorus and settled in to a comfortable groove (listen to the sidestick snare on beat two and Kelly’s later emphasis on beat four). moving the improvisation to a logical conclusion. G#.19-20) and chromatic elaboration. in m. Rhythmic and melodic motives recurred transformed. Phrases often began on a note or notes that ended the previous phrases.7-12 and mm. This was the last stage building to the climax in mm. the only held chord occurred in the last measure of the first chorus. the third of F7. In the first and second chorus.19-24). Kelly played simple voicings using just the tritone. elaborated with various neighbor tones. An arpeggio that again emphasized upper extensions (7-9-#11-13) of the Ab lydian dominant sound led to the top of the second chorus.36-40 would not have been perceived as climactic. Kelly’s left hand accompaniment was spare during this first chorus.

œ j œ œ œ œ # œ œ # œ Œ œœ œ œ œ œ bœ Œ ‰ œ ‰œ &b œ J II B b7 3 3 3 3 7 3 œ j œ ‰ Œ ‰ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ 3 & 7 bb E b7 GT: D b r #œ GT: Dn > 3 B b7 b œ œ œ œ œœœ > œ b œ n œ œ œ œ b œ n3œ œ bœ œ Œ œ#œ œ œœ œ œbœ Œ œœ 3 7 (7-9.#11-13) Kelly played with the Bb triad in the first phrase of the second chorus.22-23 recalled the similar arpeggio in m.9-10.21 ANALYSIS: The BIG Picture 429 b j & b c ‰ œ œ bœ œ nœ œ .20 and m. The material heard in mm. 3 3 (7-9. 3 3 œœ œœ 3 3 œ œ œ œ œ # œ œ œ œ œ # œ rœ b .14-15 led to the guide tone Ab which began to point towards the Eb7 chord in m. The guide tone Db from mm. As a contrast to the preceding triadic shapes.19-20. The Bb triadic shape in m.#11-13) (9. An ascending arpeggio bridged the end of the second chorus to the top of the third as Kelly did in mm. Db.7.13 preceded by its leading tone. The triadic arpeggio in mm. The Dn was emphasized in m.29 was elaborated with sixteenth note subdivision compared to the triplet and dotted eighth notes of m.21-22 as he had done in mm.19-24 was a transformation and development of the material heard in mm. Both of the first choruses ended on the major third of Bb. Kelly clarified the Eb7 sound by landing on the guide tone third preceded by its leading tone F#. and leaping to the seventh. the only long note occurred in the last measure of the chorus. C#. Kelly interrupted the resolution of the dissonant Ab to the consonant G with the chromatic passage (all chromatic passing tones between F and Bb.17. # œr œ > 3 œ œ b œ œ œ œ . œ œ ‰ œj b œ œ œ œ .8 are almost identical. œ Œ 5 1 I B b7 Œ œ œ œ œ 5 1 Œ r #œ œ bœ nœ œ 5 1 Œ Œ nœ œ œ œ Œ 5 1 B b7 œ œ .1). The descending arpeggio over the Ab7 chord in mm. j b œ œ œ œ b œ œ # œ b ‰ œ œ Œ ‰ œ œ ‰ ‰ œ b œ & œœ œ œ.12-13.17-19 was resolved back to the major third of Bb (Dn) in mm. Kelly played the upper extensions of the Eb7 suggesting a lydian dominant chord with the 7-9-#11-13 arpeggio that recalled material from m. the original notes from m.12. The accompaniment style for the second chorus was the same as the first: sparsely punctuated left hand tritones. Kelly reused the chromatic leading tone the third of the F7 and the Eb7 chords in mm.Chapter 18 18. œ œ œ œ J J 7 3 3 3 E b7 > nœ bœ œ > # œ œ œ œ œ œ #> œ œ œœ # œ b œ b œ & #œ œ bœ œ œŒ F7 3 3 7 7 E b7 # A b9 11 œ # œr œ . M.#11-13) 7 3 Jazz Theory Resources .712.11.

#11-13) The swinging groove intensified during the third chorus. The double stops. Kelly shifted to the emphatic accompaniment style of playing both hands simultaneously. Kelly emphasized beat four in mm.28-30.22). An emphatic extension of the repeated note rhythmic idea occurred in m. œ œ 3 œ j œ ‰ œ bœ œ r #œ ↓ 3 3 (7-9.37 and 39. 31-32. This passage sounds like the climax of a big band shout chorus with the octave reinforced melody in the right hand over the left hand playing almost identical rhythms. sometimes stressing upbeats of four and two. The climax ended with the displaced quarter note triplet and eighth note triple in m. m. Kelly turned to the Bb minor blues scale in mm. A Bb triad was the source for melodic material that emphasized the major third (D) and dominant seventh (Ab) in mm.35 using the Bb triad over the Ab7.29. two note idea from mm. and expanded in m. œ b œ œ œ j j j b œ #œ œ # œ . œ b ‰ ¿ & J bœ J J F7 1 E b7 # A b9 11 ˙ œ. and 35 returned in m. ¿ œ œ #œ b œ b œœ ‰ œ n œ n œ œ .35. idea 3 3 B b7 Rhy.25-28. œ b œ .39. œ b œ œ œ Œ ‰ ‰ œ ‰ œ b œ b œ & œ œ œ ¿ œ III 5 3 7 Short Rhy. Kelly resolved the Db back to Dn in mm. The left hand returned to the independent “Charleston” rhythm in m.35-38.26. A short repeated note rhythmic idea recurred several times in the chorus in m. Emphasis on beat four ↓ œ B ↓ ↓ œb7 œ œ r œ > > .28.430 Chapter 18 ANALYSIS: The BIG Picture #œ œ . The rapid passage in m. which set up the beginning of the climax.37. and the stress on beat four occurred again in mm.31-32.35. œ b b œ b œ ¿ œ ¿ œ bœ œ œ r œ ‰ ‰ nœ œ Œ ‰ &b œ Jœ œ b¿ œ #œ nœ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ 9 E b7 GT: D b œ nœ bœ bœ œ 3 3 œ > > > œ œ œ œ œ œ Œ ‰ œ œ nœ bœ bœ œ œbœ œ n œ b œ œ œ bœ œ œ # œ b & J œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ bœ œ œ J J F7 3 E b7 3 3 3 3 Rhy.40 seemed to release the last bit of energy from the preceding climactic section.36. The minor blues line in octaves began the climax to the improvisation in m. the Db in this phrase acted as the guide tone seventh of E b7 and the minor third of Bb minor blues scale. Kelly recalled two other rhythmic devices that occurred earlier in the improvisation: the short. Rhy.30-31. Kelly used variations of the “Charleston” rhythm placing the chords on beat one and the upbeat of two. The left hand accompaniment pattern shifted from dialog with the right hand to a more independent approach. A lydian dominant sound was suggested by the 7-9-#11-13 arpeggio over the Eb7 in m.33. Jazz Theory Resources . The Bb minor blues scale material with the lowered third and seventh contributed to the powerful climax.40. 4-3 “amen” suspensions and bluesy elements give this chorus a gospel blues feeling.26. m.#11-13) Kelly continued the assertive and energetic accompaniment approach from mm.34. m. In m. 18. The third of F7 was again emphasized in m.#11-13) (9. œ . (The climax is shown below in ex. 28. 3 œ 3 3 > j œ œ œ œ n œ . 7 3 # A b9 11 GT: Dn 3 3 7 (7-9.24-27 and the side-stick snare responded emphasizing beat two.

and he did so again in this last chorus in m. The guide tone Db emphasized over the Eb7 in mm. The two Dn guide tones in mm. œ œ œ #œ > # 7 3 3 3 E b7 GT: D b GT: Dn B b7 3 (7-9. The three note voicings included a seventh.42-44 accent beat four as Kelly had done several times.. Jazz Theory Resources .Chapter 18 3 ANALYSIS: The BIG Picture 431 3 œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ nœ bœ bœ œ bœ 3 œ n œ b œ n œ œœbœ œnœ œ ¿ b n œ b œ b œ b œ œ ‰Jœ œ Œ bœ œ ‰ &b œœ‰J œœ J n¿ IV B b7 7 Rhy.22 illustrates how Kelly’s left hand accompaniment contributed to the high point of the improvisation. Kelly emphasized guide tones on the downbeats of the final four measures: the third of F7 (An). Emphasis on beat four ¿ To contrast with the preceding phrase.45-48 and diminishing rhythmic activity helped quiet the emotional intensity and prepare for the entrance of the next soloist. & bb # A b9 11 18.22 Emphatic left hand accompaniment at climax of improvisation ? b b 5 3 > > œ œ> cJ œ œ œ J . Every important note in the right hand was doubled at the octave and supported with a three note left hand voicing. the guide tone of F7.41-42 was resolved back to Dn in mm. c ‰bœ œ J 3 Œ œ œ œ J nœ bœ bœ œœ œ ‰ œ nœ bœ bœ J œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ ‰bJ œ œ3 b œ Bœb7 œ œ b œ œ œ œ ‰ J bœ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ Œ nœ œ bœ œœ œ œ ‰ J œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ bœ Œ bœ nœ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ A fundamental theme and variation technique is for subsequent versions of a melody to be more embellished while retaining the same underlying structure.44. This can be found in the Chopin and Beethoven examples on the following page. The descending step line in mm. Miles Davis. Kelly used the sparse left hand accompaniment again in the remaining measures of the improvisation. using an ascending Bb arpeggio. In the first two choruses.42-44. the seventh of Eb7 (Db). The insistent quality of the preceding minor blues ideas are contrasted with the return of the extended tertian arpeggio (7-9-# 11-13) creating a lydian dominant sound for the Eb7. third and thirteenth. œ œ n œ .11-13) E b7 A b9 11 B b7 3 > œ 3 > œ b œ > œ œ œ bœ œ œ b œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ &b œ œ œ œœœ œ œ œ ˙ F7 5 # Ó 3 7 7 3 Ex. œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ. 18. the seventh of Ab7 (Gb).. Kelly led to the An. and finally the third of Bb (D n). 1 œ #> œ œ # œ œ b b œ œ œ œ œ b ‰ j œ œ Œ œ bœ œ œ r œ & œ œ #œ œ #œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ .

œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ J 3 œ #œ œ . œ J J œ œ J œ. œ j œ œ # œ b c ‰ œ œ ‰ ‰ œ & œ œ #œ œ. œ œ œœ & b c œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ n œ œ œ œ œ b œ œ œ œ œ œ n œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ # œ œ œ œ n œ Œ #œ Some would be surprised to find this technique in a blues improvisation.7-12 and mm.23. variation from Movement III.432 Chapter 18 18. 18.19-24 are juxtaposed in ex. 18.œœ œ. ¿ œ ‰ œ b j œ œ œ # œ œ œ bœ œ œ ‰ Œ ‰ œ œ œ ¿ &b c Œ œ J œ #œ œ œ w w b w w w &b c w ww w ww 3 7 19 Variation: B b7 Similar passages from mm. œ # œ œ œ b œ œ j œ ¿ œ œ bœ œ œ ‰ Œ ‰ œ œ œ ‰ ¿ & b c Œ œ #œ J œ #œ œ œ w w b w w w &b c w w ww ww 3 7 19 B b7 Jazz Theory Resources . œ œ Ÿ. œ jœ œ œ b ‰ ‰ & œ.24 Beethoven. œ œ J œ œ œ Œ b &b c ˙ 18. œ œ œ œ. œ .19-24 and their framework F7 > œ # œ œ œ œ œ œ #> œ œ nœ b œ . œ J j œ œ œ. œ œ œ œ J 3 œ. œ œ œ œ. œ œ m œ œ . œ œ œ. œ b . The very similar passages from mm. œ œm œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ n œ J b œ œ œ œ œ n œ œb œ œ n œ J œ nœ œ œ bœ . Nocturne in Eb. no. The bottom line illustrates the basic framework from which both phrases were constructed. 9.7-12 and mm. 9 Original theme: ˙ ˙ œ. J J J b œ œ œ œ . Symphony no.23 ANALYSIS: The BIG Picture Chopin.25 F7 > # œ œ œ œ œ #> œ œ œ nœ b c ‰ œ #œ œ œ œ . Op. 2 b & b b 12 8 First time: time: b bSecond 12 b & 8 œ œ.

Chapter 18 ANALYSIS: The BIG Picture 433 MELODIC VOCABULARY Kelly used a variety of materials for melodic sources. and specific colorizations of lydian dominant chords. A chart like this may be useful for practicing blending different melodic approaches within an improvisation. The following chart traces the melodic vocabulary measure by measure in the improvisation. major and minor blues lines. He kept a balance between triadic generalization. FIRST CHORUS Tonic & Dominant 1 ‘ Blues Scale Triadic ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ Triadic 5 Triadic 9 ‘ Extended Tertian (Ab9#11) SECOND CHORUS Triadic 13 ‘ ‘ ‘ Triadic ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ Extended Tertian (Eb9#11) 17 Triadic 21 Extended Tertian (Ab9#11) THIRD CHORUS Major Blues 25 ‘ ‘ Extended Tertian (Eb9#11) ‘ ‘ Extended Tertian (Ab9#11) ‘ ‘ Minor Blues Minor Blues 29 Triadic 33 FOURTH CHORUS Minor Blues 37 ‘ ‘ Triadic ‘ ‘ ‘ Guide Tones: Dn = 3rd of Bb7 Extended Tertian (Eb9#11) 41 Guide Tones: An = 3rd of F7 45 Guide Tones: Db = 3rd of Eb7 Guide Tones: Gb = 7th of Ab7 Jazz Theory Resources .

phrasing elements. “*” represents phrases that began on the same pitch as the ending pitch of preceding phrases. on.434 Chapter 18 ANALYSIS: The BIG Picture PHRASE CHART Individual musical phrases can be short or long. Wynton Kelly’s short. to the restored calm of the last phrase. In the chart above. cont.) 45 Kelly phrases were carefully connected. Kelly contrasted accompaniment approaches. Lines often began on the same pitch or within a step of the pitch that ended the preceding phrase. Jazz Theory Resources . These elements were used to construct a solo with a discernible emotional curve from the simple beginning to the emphatic climax. The following chart traces the phrase lengths and beginnings measure by measure through Kelly’s improvisation. melodic approaches. Other phrases were connected by using and developing similar motives. Never loosing focus on the groove and feeling. simple improvisation on Freddie Freeloader is a model of ingenious construction. or after the downbeat. Rhythmic and melodic motives recurred transformed. though still recognizable. FIRST CHORUS Short/After Short/After 1 Short/After Short/After Short/After * Long/Before * Short/Before * Short/After 5 (Long/Before) 9 SECOND CHORUS Short/After Short/After 13 Short/Before ‡ Short/After * Short/Before * Short/Before ‡ Short/After 17 (Short/Before) 21 Short/Before ‡ Short/Before THIRD CHORUS Short/After Short/After 25 Short/After Short/After Long/After Long/Before Short/Before * (Long/After) 29 (Long/Before) 33 FOURTH CHORUS Short/After Short/After 37 Short/After Short/After ‡ Long/Before Long/After 41 (Long/Before. “‡” represents phrases that began within a step of the previous ending pitch. moving the improvisation to a logical conclusion. A chart like this may be useful for practicing contrasting phrase material. and may begin before.

The phrases were balanced.19. This melodic shape occurred later in a rhythmically diminished form in m. 18.26 Melody F Bb ‰ œ .Chapter 18 ANALYSIS: The BIG Picture 435 BILLIE’S BOUNCE: CHARLIE PARKER Charlie Parker’s four chorus improvisation on Billie’s Bounce was constructed using a balance of triadic generalization and very specific outlines. œ ‰ œj œ œ # œ œ œ œ n œ œ œ & b c Ó Œ ‰ œj . œ œ #œ œ #œ Alto 8vb B b7 F7 Am 7 D7 œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ J b ‰ œ #œ Nœ ‰ J ‰ œj œ œ & œ œ œ Gm 7 C7 F7 D7 Gm7 ‰ œ . The Ab.28). and the important use of space.14. 18. and it returned to An in m. œ œ C7 The improvisation began with an elaboration of the F major triad using chromatic passing tones.27 I F Improvisation 3 & b œ œ #œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ Œ &b œ 3 F7 3 GT Ó œ Œ ‰ J Triadic: œ œ œ œ œ œ F7 œ ∑ 7 GT œ œ œ GT b bœ œ œ œ bœ œ & œ œ œ #œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ n b B b7 Jazz Theory Resources . The absence of a Dn. Outline no. œ. 2 was suggested in m.21.. œ œ # œ œ œ b œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ. and the emphasis on F and C suggested Parker was still employing the F triad for the melodic structure. contrasting varied rhythmic subdivisions. Parker’s second phrase began on the last pitch of the first phrase transposed up an octave. œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ nœ 1 B °7 F7 j j œ œ bœ œ œ œ ‰ J œ bœ Œ ‰ nœ J & b Œ ‰ œ œ œ ‰ bœ ‰ œ ..34. phrase lengths. the guide tone and seventh of Bb. The implications of C7 in m.22 were ignored in favor of a return to the same F triad elaboration found in m. The underlying triadic structure resembles the Shaker tune Simple Gifts (see ex. 18. then Parker descended to C through a chromatic passing tone. œ ‰ j . was the only obvious concession to the Bb7 chord.

No.33. 2 &b 1 œ œ œœœ œ œ Triadic œ œ œ œ œ Chorus two began with a oddly placed rhythmic statement of F minor blues material. 1. II F7 & b ‰ œ ‰ bœ œ œbœ œ œ œ œ ¿ œ ≈bœ œ œ Ó 3 3 F Minor Blues F7 3 Œ ‰ œj # œ œ œ n œ œ œ œ œ œ b œ œ ‰ œj Triadic &b 5 œ B b7 3 œ œ œœ œ bœ Outline no. Parker implied outline no. E and D were preceded by their leading tones.27-28 ending on the guide tone Eb. The G. The notation is an approximation (as is all music notation) and the recording should be consulted (as with all transcriptions). including the identifying third (Dn) and seventh (Ab).34 in rhythmic diminution. K.” the ascending arpeggio motive that begin works such as the Finale of the Mozart Symphony in G minor. The melody in m. The F triadic material returned in mm. The ascending F arpeggio that connected the second chorus to the third is reminiscent of the “Mannheim Rocket. Op. The F triadic shape heard in m. Outline no. The phrase ended quietly returning to eighth note subdivisions.550 and the Beethoven Piano Sonata in F minor.34. 2.30-31 with a relaxed eighth note feel. A triadic line returned in mm. 3 Œ &b œœœœ œ œ bœ &b 9 GTs: Ó œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ Triadic F7 ∑ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ After a measure of rest (m.28 was sequenced over the Bb7 in m.29 stressed all of the Bb chords tones.436 Chapter 18 ANALYSIS: The BIG Picture 3 œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ b Œ ‰ œ œœ œ Œ œ & œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ 3 Gm 7 C7 F7 D7 ∑ Outline no. Jazz Theory Resources . 3 began the phrase in m.14 and 22 returned in m. 1 and included a b9 over the C7 in m.32) Parker played the most energetic phrase of the solo.

39.1 A descending step progression began in m. and this is exactly what Parker did on the Bb chord in m. a secondary dominant (V7/ii). D7. as the V7 in Gm. an octave and a sixth above where the previous phrase ended. Parker played an Ab in m. The upper line continued from the A to the G and on down to the C through the same chromatic notes heard in m. Both of these notes occurred significantly over the D7 in m. must have an Eb from the key signature and an F# as the leading tone. 1.38. The A n is avoided in m.42. The step line seemed to break into two pieces as the Dn resolved to Db and the Bb resolved to An. The altered ninths (Db & Eb) were borrowed tones from F minor.43 as expected with the F chord.4 of the melody. but Parker played it on the downbeat of m. Parker connected the third chorus to the fourth with a long tone suggesting a moment of repose. Outline no. The material was based on the F triad. A universal jazz improvisation device is to play the 3-5-7-9 arpeggio after arriving on the third of the target chord.44. 3 with passing tones or outline no. the Ab the only concession to the Bb7 chord.45.46-47. The Db ultimately resolved to the Cn in m.41. 43 and continued to the Gm7 in m. 44 as they did in m. 2 œ œœ œœ œœœbœœœ œ œœ œ œ Triadic Outline no. 1 was sequenced in m. That chromatic line (Dn-Db-Cn) was played in m.8 of the melody. created a downward pull to the line and recalled the b9 of D7 in m. œ bœ œ œ œ Œ œ œbœ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ Nœ œ bœ œ œ bœ œ œ œ bœ &b œ œ œ 3 3 III F Bb F7 3 œ bœ œ œ œ b œœ & Step progression 7 œbœ œ bœ œ œ œœ œ bœ œ bœ œ With no preparation.37 and returned to the Cn that began the phrase in m.37-39 (Eb-Dn-Db-Cn). Outline no.Chapter 18 ANALYSIS: The BIG Picture 437 Gm 7 & b Œ#œœ &b 3 œ œ œœ#œ œœ#œnœnœ œœœ œ C7 œœ œœ œœœbœœœ œœœœœ 3 œ Œ ‰ jœ œ œ ‰ b œj œ œœ œ œœ œ œ œ œœœ œ F7 D7 Gm7 C7 Outline no. Two notes were necessary for the D7. 1 œ #œ bœ Jazz Theory Resources .36. B b7 F7 D7 3 ( A ø7 ) bœ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ . œ Œ ‰ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ bœ œ œ Œ ‰ J J J n &b Ó &b 1 b 3 œ œ œ œ œ Outline no. The steps did lead to the third of Bb which might suggest outline no. 1 began on the Cn in m.

IV F & b œ. A polyrhythm was suggested as the accents occurred three beats apart. The improvisation was brought to a close as Parker returned to triadic generalization in the final measures. œj œ œ nœ #œ œ œ Œ ‰ J œœ œ œœ œ œ œ œœ 7 3 C7 F7 D7 Gm7 C7 F œ Œ Ó Outline no. 3 œœ œ Triadic œœ œ œ œ œ œ Jazz Theory Resources . ˙ &b œ œ 5 Outline no. 3 occurred in mm. & b œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ &b 7 Gm 7 3 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ .53 and beat two of m.17.50. Outline no. while the A b and Dn clearly suggested the Bb 7. The G in m. 3 œ œœ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ j œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ b Œ ‰ Œ ‰ bœ œ œ bœ œ œ & œœ J œ b n B b7 F minor idea from m. 9 j œ œ œ œ œ bœ 3 B b7 F7 œ œ œ œ œbœ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ ∑ GT Parker repeated a bluesy idea heard earlier in m.49 accented beat four. The line accented beat three in m. 1 bœ œ œ œ œ The long line that began in m.48 was on the upbeat of one. 1 returned in m. the Ab in m.56 including the guide tone F#.51 and the C ended the line on the upbeat of three. The line in m. an Eb stopped the line in m. ignoring implications of the D7.9-10 of the melody. 1 œ œ œ œ #œ Outline no.438 Chapter 18 ANALYSIS: The BIG Picture 3 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ bœ œ œ œ œ œ Ó &b œ œ Œ ‰ œ Gm 7 C7 F7 D7 Gm7 C7 ‰ œ.54. Parker added the common chromatic elaboration (G-F#-Fn-E). 1 œ œ œ œ œ Sequence of Outline no. This same chromatic elaboration was heard in mm.61-62. the G anticipated beat one of m. Gm7 and C7 chords.17 developed F7 3 Am 7 D7 &b 3 Outline no. The line was based on the F minor triad.48 was constructed of short ideas landing on oddly placed rhythmic spots.55 answered the blues line and Parker resolved the Ab to An.

GT (Ab)/Blues triadic generalization Sequence Outline no. 3 c. and the Shaker song. 1 Modulation GTs (F # & Eb) Held note = repose FOURTH CHORUS GT (Ab) Blues. Simple Gifts. GT (An) Outline no. 1. 3 b. FIRST CHORUS Triadic Triadic & GT (Ab) Outline no. gression (3-5-7-9 arpeggio) ∑ Outline no. 3 GT: 7th-3rd (Bb-An) GT (Eb) Blues line answered. GT (A n) GT (F#) ∑ Triadic Jazz Theory Resources . cont.Chapter 18 ANALYSIS: The BIG Picture 439 The triadic shape that Parker used (a. Lou Donaldson played almost the identical line (b. 1/triadic ‘ Simple Step progression.) at the beginning of the improvisation can be found at the heart of other melodic fragments. 2 Triadic Triadic ‘ ‘ ‘ Triadic & GT (An) ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ Outline no. cont.). 1 ∑ Triadic/Arpeggio Step progression. 3 SECOND CHORUS F minor blues Bb7 arpeggio/GT (Ab) Busy: Outline no.28 a. & b c œ œ #œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ Œ œ œ œ œ &b c ˙ ˙ ˙ œ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ œ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ œ ˙ PHRASE CHART The following chart traces the melodic approaches used by Parker in his improvisation on Billie’s Bounce. 18. 2 Triadic Outline no. cont. A chart like this may be useful for practicing contrasting phrase material. cont. THIRD CHORUS Descending Step proStep progression. Entrance staggered by dotted half GT (Ab) Outline no. follows the shape without chromatic embellishment.

Many musical materials overlap. Extract rhythmic ideas to add to your vocabulary. Use large scale charts of improvisational approaches in creating improvisation agendas for practice. Be prepared to accept the music as it is. Measure lines exist only in music notation. Add to. etc. linear entities and avoid strict. What elements contribute to the character of the whole or parts of the improvisation? Good music theory reveals something about the way the music sounds and suggests practical applications for implementing those concepts. A common melodic outline implies the use of guide tones and may create a step progression. vertical thinking. replace it with another tool. These would include: • Extract specific examples from solos. displacement. was written from materials gathered from transcriptions. Transpose to minor. Include contrasts between simple and complex subdivisions. ask the questions. There are numerous examples of extracted practical musical concepts and applications for implementing them in improvisations and compositions. take away and personally adapt these ideas. • • Jazz Theory Resources . Improvisations are as unique as the artists who create them. An outline may be sequenced. accept the answers. when it becomes ineffective.440 Chapter 18 ANALYSIS: The BIG Picture ANALYSIS SUMMARY In any search for meaning. the answers can only be as good as the questions asked. Some lines can be at once harmonically general and specific. If one tool for analysis works. There are many elements of music about which many questions can be formed. polyrhythmic ideas. Learn in all keys. More questions yield more information and the more information helps bring the picture of the whole into better focus. Developing Practice Materials The book. Guide tones may be observed within a line based on triadic generalization. How are the phrases related? What is the rhythmic character? The significant notes may be on the downbeats of the measure but they can be anticipated and delayed. Learn to consider melodies lines as horizontal. Comprehensive Technique for Jazz Musicians. There is no indisputable paradigm for the form or approach to a jazz improvisation. Learn to examine more than just notes in relationship to chords. then implement it.

Functional harmony (harmony functioning to point to a tonic) is centuries old. D minor becomes Dm11 (ex. and Miles Davis. too many artists continue to use and reuse the same material. Chords happen by themselves only in a music theory class—in music they occur in a logical progression we call harmony. writers and artists continue to challenge the assumptions of their own vocabulary. 19. A simple melody (C–D–E or DO–RE–MI) will be used to illustrate some harmonic possibilities. concepts of form and color. The first example (ex. takes years of experience to develop the skills and ears to create meaningful. There are an infinite number of possible solutions for harmonizing these pitches. only a few will be examined.2a). The Beatles. An extended C major becomes C major 7. Jazz Theory Resources . New harmonic possibilities often spurs creation of new melodies. Harmony is like a sentence: a sentence has form—different types of words working together to create meaning beyond any single word in the sentence. EXPANDING HARMONIC VOCABULARY INTRODUCTION One challenge of life is avoiding falling into predictable patterns. Reharmonizing a good melody may make it better or can create a contrasting mood. This is especially true for artists. and like writing.Chapter 19 Expanding Harmonic Vocabulary 441 XIX. The driving force of music is rhythm and melody is the lifeline. This chapter should provide a challenge to discover new harmonic sounds and introduce some methods for challenging harmonic boundaries. balanced musical creations. painting techniques.2b). Harmony may be secondary to melody and rhythm. and harmonic progressions. still quite familiar and useful. simple sentences work best. Some contemporary harmony relies on extensions of the diatonic chords to further color the harmony. Harmony has its own logic and grammar. 19. Sting. and may often be the best choice in a given musical setting. This can be seen in the development of many diverse composers: Beethoven.1) uses common chords in a typical progression: I–V–I. C major 9. or C major 13 #11 (ex. Often. 19. Stravinsky. Driven composers. The same is true for a musical progression. A string of polysyllabic words strung together does not insure meaning. After finding a workable vocabulary. but can do much to color and propel a musical story.

3 Gm9 C9 Fm aj7 &c œ œ œ œ œ œœ b œ œ œ œ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ œ ? c bœ A variety of ninths (9.442 Chapter 19 19. #9) and fifths (b5. The fifth and ninth can be altered and the chord still be a G dominant. There are twelve combinations with the five voices shown. 19. but a #5 and b13 are the same pitch (the difference in a musical setting is that the #5 wants to resolve up and the b13 wants to resolve down).2a 19.4 shows a simple voicing for a G9 chord. There are more if you consider all the enharmonic spellings. 19. 19.1 Expanding Harmonic Vocabulary 19. b13) can be added to a dominant seventh chord.4 G9 Possible dominants with alterations G913 b # G9 13 G9 5 b G9 5 b G13 9 G7b 13 b9 &c w w w w ?c w w w ww w ˙ b˙ ˙ ˙ ˙˙ # ˙ ˙ w w bw w w w bw w ww w bbw w ww w Jazz Theory Resources .3. b9. The altered notes are sometimes written with enharmonic spellings (#9 = Bb instead of A#). These extended tertian (chords built in thirds) chords provide expanded sounds used in traditional progressions. 19. #5) or substitutes for the fifth (13.2b œ &c œ œ ?c œ œ œ œœ œ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ &˙ ˙ ˙ ?w ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ #˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ w ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ A simple ii–V–I progression in F (Gm7– C7– F) can be expanded using more extended and colorful tertian chords as in ex. The notes that have to remain for the chord to be a G dominant chord are the root (G) and the third and seventh (B and F). Ex. 5.

19.8 shows dominants with other colorful alterations.8 # # G b9 11 F9 11 # B b9 11 œ bbœ œ œ œ ? c bbœ bœ &c œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ ˙ ˙ n˙ ˙ b˙ b˙ ˙ Using parallel chords of the same quality can disguise the tonal center.7 œ œ bœ œ œ ?c œ œ &c ˙ # ˙ bœ œ n ˙ # ˙ œ ˙ nœ ˙ bœ œ ˙ bœ ˙ # A b9 11 b9 G13# 11 19.8. the resolution is brighter in contrast to the previous chords in the progression. Try this passage with all eight combinations of tritone substitutions. the resolution to major is unexpected and bright. 19.7. The F and E7 in ex. 9 is interesting because each new chord cancels out the expectations of the previous one.5 seem to point to A minor. but instead the progression arrives at A major. chapter 6. 19. #9 A7b 13 19. Ab9 #11 would become D7 #9 b13. In ex. and composers of music to create a surprise and maintain the interest of the audience. Colorful alterations and upper extensions of these dominants generate motion. 19. 19.Chapter 19 Expanding Harmonic Vocabulary 443 b G7 9 G7b 5 b9 # G13 9 G7b 13 #9 # G7 9 G7b 5 #9 & bw w w w ? w w bbw w w w bw ww w w w ww bbw w bw w w w w bw w w b w w Pointing in one direction and arriving at another is a device used by magicians. In this context.5. G7 13 b9 #11 would become C#7 #9. The Cm7 removes Jazz Theory Resources . Ex. Using bass notes a tritone away changes little of the sound of the passage in ex. 19. The progression in ex. After sounding chords that clearly point to one place. p. Like ex.5 to the key of D.127). composers often use a deceptive resolution to this end. (see discussion on tritone substitution.6 transposes the same root progression as ex. 19. Ex. the roots move traditionally in downward fifths. great story tellers.5 Fm aj7 #9 E7b 5 19. The progression almost sounds like functional harmony even though the A chord is not a dominant. 19. comedians. The root movement could be chromatic using tritone substitutions. A7 #9 b13 would become Eb9 #11. 19.6 &c œ œ œœ bœ œ œ œ #œ œ ˙ n ˙ ##˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ Amaj7 # B b9 11 Am9 Dmaj7 ?c œ œ œ œ œœ œ ? c bœ bœ &c œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ #˙ ˙ ˙ Dominants that progress downward in fifths or down chromatically always sound good.

12 # D bmaj7 11 # E bmaj7 11 # Fmaj7 11 œ &c œ œ œ ? c bbœ œ œ œ œœ bbœ œ ˙ ˙ ˙˙ ˙ ˙ Jazz Theory Resources . The voices in the right hand are moving parallel and in contrary motion to those in the left hand. 19.11 # D bmaj7 11 # G bmaj7 5 œ &c œ œ œ ? c bbœ œ bœ œ œ œ bbœ œ #˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ n˙ ˙ # Fmaj7 5 Moving chords in a parallel fashion is sometimes called planing. 19.11 retains some of the feeling of traditional harmony. While ex. the Eb suggests 2 flats. the Bb.10 shows a mixture of major and minor ninth chords. can be very expressive.10 œ &c œ œœ œ ?c œ œ bœ œ œœ bœ œ œ #˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ##˙ ˙ ˙ Bm 9 Fmaj7 Em9 Dmaj7 œ &c œ œœ ?c œ œ œœ #œ œ œ œ #˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ Augmented major seventh chords can be built on the third degree of melodic minor and harmonic minor scales. Ex.9 was interesting from the movement of like chords.12 move in a parallel plane and get brighter as they progress. As each chord sounds. Augmented major seventh chords diffuse any sense of tonality and pitch center since the chord tones can point so many different places. This parallel harmony. and the F no sharps/no flats. They also can be constructed from augmented scales and major scales with a flatted sixth. C and Eb of the Cm9 are canceled by the Bm9. The bass line in ex. The D b suggests 4 flats. D is the only common tone with all three chords. flatted notes are raised creating a brighter and brighter effect.444 Chapter 19 Expanding Harmonic Vocabulary the En from the Dm9. 19.9 Dm9 Cm 9 19. The lydian chords in ex. 19. but the chords have moved beyond being functional. and many others. 19. Duke Ellington. This device was used by Debussy. mixtures of different chord types are more common. 19. The key center is disguised by the mixture of accidentals. forbidden in “classical” harmony. 19.

9 as the suggested mixolydian sounds are brighter than dorian. 19.14. 19. 19. but changes the bass notes. Ab/A could be called A minor major 7 #11. C/Db could be called C# minor/major 7 #11. Essentially the same sound is created placing the ii7 chord over the dominant bass: Dm7 over G in the bass (Dm7/G).Chapter 19 Expanding Harmonic Vocabulary 445 Ex.14c is brighter than ex. These chords could be labeled differently. The sound is a dominant ninth chord with a suspended fourth. For example: D C= D triad over a C triad C/D = C triad over a D bass note A common slash chord is created by placing the IV chord over the dominant bass note: F triad over G in the bass (F/G). 19. The progression goes from bright to dark: the Db lydian sounding chord is followed by a C minor/major 9. 19.b are five note chords using just the notes of a pentatonic scale).b shows the minor seventh chord over the bass note.13 begins with the same chord as ex. E/F = F minor major 7 #11. A common practice is to notate true polychords with a horizontal slash (—) with the top chord on top. and to notate chords with different bass notes with a (/) where the first part is the chord. G7sus4. and then the A/Bb. 19. 19.12. and G9sus4.13 # D bmaj7 11 Cm maj 7 œ &c œ œ œ bœ ? c bbœ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ #˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ b˙ b˙ ˙ A/B b Some chords are created by placing one chord on top of another bass note or on top of another chord.14.14. the second part indicates the bass note.14.a F/G G/A 19. Notice the contrary motion in the outer voices. Ex.14. The resulting chords can be named in a traditional way but are often notated with slashes indicating the two chords or the chord and the different bass note. The harmony is more dissonant and varied than previous examples. G/Ab = Ab minor major 7 #11.b 19. Jazz Theory Resources . 19. though a true polychord is the stacking of two chords one on top of the other.c &c œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ #˙ ˙ ˙ A/B Fm7/B b Gm7/C œœ bbœ œ bœ bœ œ bœ œ œœ œ œ œ ˙ n ˙˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ Am7/D Dm9/G Cm9/F ?c œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œœ #˙ ˙ bœ œ ˙ œœ # ˙ bœ ˙ œ ˙ œ ˙ Bm9/E Ex. as well as the slash chord notation.14. 19. These chords are often notated as G7sus.c uses harmonic color similar to that of ex. The first (ex. 19. The resulting sound is usually called a polychord. The following example shows three possible harmonizations of the melody using suspended dominant sounds.16 is another series of simple triads over different bass notes. (The chords in ex. but often the slash chord notation gets the better and quicker results from performers. 19. Ex.14. 19.9.a) uses simple triads over the dominant bass notes. Ex. the bottom chord on the bottom. Ex. 19.15 is a series of simple triads over the “wrong” bass note. but moves in contrary motion. but slash chord notation would probably get better results.

19. two chord types from the melodic minor scale. The upper voices in ex.17 contrasts two chord types: the minor/major 7 and the augmented major 7.446 Chapter 19 Expanding Harmonic Vocabulary 19. There is contrary motion in the outer voices. Each separate chord could be labeled.18 # E bmaj7 5 Dm maj 7 &c œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ bnœ œ ˙ n#˙ ˙ ˙ n˙ ˙ Fm maj 7 E bm maj 7 C #m maj 7 &c œ bœ œ œ œ bbœ œ œ bœ bœ ˙ #˙ ˙ ˙ #˙ #˙ ? c bœ œ ?c œ œ Some instances call for a mixture of voice leading as in ex. The augmented triads over the bass notes create minor/major 7 chords.16 œ & c bbœ œ œ ?c œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ bb bœ œ ˙ # ˙ n ˙ ˙ n˙ ˙ ˙ E F A b/G G/A b œ & c bbœ œ œ ?c œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ bb bœ œ ˙ ˙ n˙ ˙ bb˙ ˙ C/D b Ex. write out exactly what is wanted to eliminate the confusion caused by an oddly named or misinterpreted chord symbol. 19. but for best results.18 are augmented triads which move in contrary motion to the bass notes. 19.15 A b/A G/A b 19. 19.17 Fm maj 7 19. 19.19 ˙ bœ œ œ b œ n œ œ &c œ b œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ ? c œ œ bœ bœ #œ œ œ œ Jazz Theory Resources . 19.

22. Good voice leading makes the music seamless and propels it in a linear fashion.9 and expanded into an eight measure phrase. the highest and lowest. occurs in two different places in the piece. 19. Voices lead smoothly in all of the examples shown in this chapter. though extra notes have been added. 19. the chords were taken from ex. The second time (ex. the harmonic rhythm is quarter notes. Voices sound more musical when there is smooth motion avoiding awkward leaps. If each individual voice leads smoothly to the next point. by landing on Bb minor/major 9.20) feels completely unresolved. HARMONIC RHYTHM 4 Harmonic rhythm is the rhythm in which the chords change in the musical work. Any assortment of harmonic rhythms could be used elongating the duration of the chords to any length.Chapter 19 Expanding Harmonic Vocabulary 447 Where a musical passage is located in relationship to the rest of the piece determines aspects of harmonic choices. helping it to move the piece along. In ex. every measure = whole note harmonic rhythm. Jazz Theory Resources . The examples would work if played by many combinations of instruments. 19. The inner voices. every two beats = half note harmonic rhythm. are often in contrary motion. the second leads back to a solo on the form.20 G/A b F #/G G/F # A/F 19. When chords change in rhythms that are too predictable the music may become monotonous.21 œ ##œ &c œ œ # œ # œ œ œ ? c bbœ bœ œ œ œ œ n#œ œ œ œ œ w bw w w B b/B œ #œ nœ œ œ ##œ œ nœ nw nw #œ nœ œ ##œ œ œ b œ n œ ##œ n œ # œ œ œ œ bœ œ # œ n œ œ bœ œ B/C B b/B B/B b D b/A œ œ bnb bœ œ œ œ B bm maj 7 w w w w bw bw w VOICE LEADING Good voice leading is crucial to the success of a musical passage. A composer should examine hundreds of musical works from a variety of composers and styles to develop a sense of harmonic rhythm and harmonic pacing. even in the most dissonant and complex chords. This phrase from a big band jazz piece. The first time it leads to more development material. 19. Most well crafted pieces vary the harmonic rhythms. The first time (ex. 19. often move in steps with occasional leaps of a third.21) it is stated a major third higher and feels more resolved in this context. the result sounds less like a succession of chords and more like the result of moving lines. Brainstorm. The outer voices. These examples are shown out of any musical context. In a 4 piece where the chords change every beat. The melody still follows the C–D–E contour over six measures.

that can tell a story. three chord types may be employed: minor seventh. b œ œ b œœ œ ˙˙ ˙ J J bœ œ ˙ . or sometimes Bb-F-C). dominant seventh. In the introduction to Passenger (University of North Texas One O’Clock Lab Band. begins with a minor ninth and then alternates (m-M-m-M-m-M). and at what pace? What were the different densities and their relation to the overall shape of the piece. The first two phrases in the introduction employ alternating major ninth and minor ninth chords. ˙˙ ˙ ?c ˙ ˙ Bm 9 j œ ˙ œ œ œ œ œœ œ ˙˙ ˙ J .. creating more tension by the densities of the chords. ii7-V7-I (Dm7-G7-C). Alternating chord types is one such device used by many composers. Music can be interesting utilizing only one type of chord. Aspiring composers should examine hundreds of compositions from many style periods and composers to gain a sense of timing and purpose.22 Expanding Harmonic Vocabulary q»¡•º Dm 9 &c œ ˙. Some composers have used formula. œ ˙ ˙ J J A bm 9 Cm 9 ‰ j œ œ bœ œ bœ ˙ ˙œ ˙ ˙ ˙ b9 Ó #œ & œ œ ‰ ? ##œ œ œ ‰ ‰ j œ œ #œ œ œ œ œbbbœ œ Œ œ œ œ bœ œ ˙ #œ œ ˙ # œ ‰ b ˙ œ bœ Œ J j ‰ nbœ ˙ ˙ n nœ œ œ ˙ ˙ ‰ bœ œ ˙ ˙ J D b13# 11 . but transposed down a major third. In the typical progression. but never for the entire piece. The melody for the second phrase is the same as the first. varied and moving. and there are several compositions which use only minor sevenths or other single chord types exclusively. Some of the examples in this article alternate from one chord type to another and back to the first.24. and major. Densities will be different from composition to composition. 19. œ œ . how often. What may be a dissonance and intense harmonic moment in a Baroque piece should be compared to its own context and not to chords found in Stravinsky.. even if only two: major and minor. The third and fourth phrases use more complex sonorities which drives the music forward. When did the chords change. Messiaen or Schwantner compositions.23. œ ˙ œ ˙ Œ ‰ œ ˙. The first phrase. is the life mission of many composers. Œ Œ MIXTURE of HARMONIC COLORS The major/minor harmonic systems depends on employing different chord types to propel the music. ˙ ˙ . many blues tunes utilize only dominant sevenths. Claude Debussy and Duke Ellington used parallel chords of the same quality effectively. The second phrase. create drama and tension. Mixing the chord types to create a progression that is meaningful. ex. even serialist techniques to arrive at a varied harmonic progression. 19. but most of the music we hear is composed of some variety of chord types. ex..448 Chapter 19 19. Many best-selling pop and rock tunes only use major triads (IV-V-I = F-G-C. Lab ’88) several devices were used to attempt to make the music interesting. b œ œ œ ‰ œ œ œ.. ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ . j œ œ œ œ œ . The first Jazz Theory Resources . begins with a major ninth chord and then alternates (M-m-M-mM-m). J #œ œ œ œ J œ œ œ J ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ . Ask questions of the music..

Jazz Theory Resources .23 Bert Ligon: Passenger B bm aj7 F #m9 &c ?c œ œ œ œ . lydian major sevenths. 19. or viewed another way: Ab major over A minor. ##œ œ . ex. is the melodic inversion of the first phrase: what intervals ascended before now descend and vice-versa.. 19. augmented major sevenths. ˙ #œ œ ˙ œ #˙ ..24 Bmaj7 j œ œ œ œ œ b œ œ œ bœ œ ###œ œ j œ œ œ ##œ œ n œ œ œ nœ Fmaj7 Cm9 Gm9 w w w w bw w w Bert Ligon: Passenger F #m9 Bmaj7 œ œ œ n b œ œœ b œ nœ œ œ ?c œ œ œ œ &c Cm9 Fmaj7 Am9 Dm aj7 œ #œ œ œ # # œ œ #œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ ##˙ ... The chords are much more dense and have more variety: polychords.Chapter 19 Expanding Harmonic Vocabulary 449 two phrases are orchestrated for the brass section in a slow chorale style. 19. The last sounds are parallel diatonic chords from D harmonic minor with bass notes a fifth below: F maj7#5/Bb — Eø7/A. Ex. 19.25.25 Bert Ligon: Passenger F #/G G/F # # E bmaj7 5 # # Dmaj7 5 Fmaj7 11 # Emaj7 11 A b/A &c ?c #œ ###œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ #œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ ###œ œ bœ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ ˙ ### #˙ ˙˙ #˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ bb b˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ The piano plays the next section which begins to set up the time feel for the piece (fast swing). œ œ ## œ #œ . œ bœ œ 19.26 shows the harmonic framework for the fourth phrase. The phrase ends with a minor chord with major seventh and an augmented eleventh.. ##˙ ˙ ## œ ˙ #œ The melody for the third phrase. Augmented triads descend over ascending bass lines creating a planing effect of minor/major sevenths chords. shown here in a piano reduction. œ... œ .

The following examples had parallel or similar motion: Ex. 19. 19. Can be pleasing for short passages. 19.24.19. Typically the most interesting. 12.1. 19.14.25. Makes the distinction between the two lines difficult to discern. 19. tedious over longer periods. The following examples had contrary motion: Ex. but less dependent. Similar: parts move in the same direction with different interval types. 19. 19.1. 10.5. Jazz Theory Resources . 19. 19.20. 14. 19.26.27).23. 9.7. The following examples used similar or same chord type: Ex. 19. Review the previously shown examples for types of motion. 8. 19. then try different qualities of chords to create the inner voices. 19. The following examples used alternating chord types: Ex. 5. 19. 18. and move independently.17. 19.450 Chapter 19 19.26 E bm maj 7 Expanding Harmonic Vocabulary Bert Ligon: Passenger F #m maj 7 A bm maj 7 Bm maj 7 C #m maj 7 Em maj 7 # Fm aj7 5/B b E ø7/A œ & c bbœ œ ? c bœ bœ #œ œ œ #œ #œ nbnœ œ œ bœ bœ ##œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ #œ #nœ œ œ œ #˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ ww bw w w w Some interesting chords can still be derived from ancient scales. 19. and 26. Can be effective in short passages. 17.13. Oblique: one part moves and the other remains stationary. 19. because it clearly defines the independence of the two voices. 19. 19. Even Stravinsky’s shocking chord from Rite of Spring is constructed with notes from Ab harmonic minor (Ex. and 19.3.18. and 19.11. and 19. 19. 23. TYPES of MOTION There are four possible types of motion between a pair of voices: • Parallel: parts move in the same direction with the same constant interval types.8.14. 15. 19. but eventually the voices will both want to move. The following examples had combinations of contrary and similar motion: Ex.c.a.16. and 24.14. If the outer voice are interesting.12.27 Stravinsky: Rite of Spring Built using all the tones of the Ab harmonic minor scale Eb7 over Fb chord: b &b b 2 4 b œœ œ œ ? bb 2 bœ œ b 4 bbœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ bb œ œ œ bœ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ n˙ b˙ b ˙ b ˙ b ˙ b ˙ b˙ b˙ Review the previously shown examples for harmonic variety. • • • It is best to begin with just the outer voices when creating harmonic passages.21. Contrary: one part moves up and the other down. 19.b.15. Good relationships between the outer voices may be enough to make the passage interesting. 19. Similar to parallel.6.

Surprise resolutions should have a sense of inevitability. On one end of a scale you have simple. Don't try to conceive 32 measures of constantly moving harmony. or on different pitches until you are familiar with their sound. minor 9. b13. • • • Learn the basic chords—major triads: can you hear them? imagine the sonority? can you recognize them in different contexts? Move on to minor. a wild mystery chord might sound inappropriate. so step one must be to train your ears to recognize more sonorities. • Follow a simple step-line that can be elaborated later. 13. or trying similar harmony. minor 7. Remember. Music based on simpler chords will probably not venture too far to the side of the complex chords and vise-versa. It takes some practice and a critical ear to compose music with harmony that sounds like it goes together. EAR TRAINING It is easier to write what you can hear. 5th. There were not that many different chord types used in this chapter to learn. The note “C” can be any of the following: Melody Note C Root of C chords 3rd of A or Ab chords 5th of F or F# chords 7th of D. dominant 7 with altered 9ths (b9. major 7. If a short passage works. half-diminished 7 (ø7). major 7 #5). diminished 7 (°7). minor 6/9. 11th. diminished. part of creativity is taking chances and being playful. • Always consider voice-leading. • • • Jazz Theory Resources . Learn the most common chords derived from major and minor (harmonic) scales: major. minor. In a context of dissonant polychords. Some chords dismissed now as useless may become very good friends later. #11. Harmonic passages using chords falling on the scale between the simple functional chords and the more complex contemporary chords may venture into the ancient and to the contemporary ends of the scale. #9) altered fifths (b5. If the vocabulary is basic I-IV-V functional harmony. 7th. ø7 #2. augmented chords. major with a b6. • Don’t dismiss chords that sound ugly to you at first. Learn “mystery” chords and polychords (chords superimposed on one another). augmented: (minor major 7. dominant 7.Chapter 19 Expanding Harmonic Vocabulary 451 CREATING with NEW VOCABULARY Here are a few suggestions on applying these and other sounds. Enhance those basic sounds by learning chords with added notes and extensions: (major 9. or 13th with any number of alterations. Jackson Pollock and Norman Rockwell paintings probably would not hang together on the same wall. Take new chords one at a time. 9th. resolving to a major triad might sound foolish. Chords should be in company of related sonorities. • Keep densities and colors consistent. D#. These sonorities should sound like voices in motion. • Remember that any pitch can be a the root. try sequencing it at another pitch level. 3rd. Learn chords derived from other scales such as melodic minor. or D b chords 9th of B or Bb chords 11th of G or Gb chords 13th of E or Eb chords • Work with short phrases at first. play them in different keys. not unrelated chords in some sequence. diminished. dominant 9/13. major 7 #11. major 6/9. • Trust your ears to hear where the chords want to move. #5). basic functional chords and complex polychords on the other.

452 Chapter 19 Expanding Harmonic Vocabulary POSSIBLE HARMONIZATIONS of the PITCH “C” 19.28 A bm aj7 Harmonization with major seventh chords Fmaj7 D bm aj7 B bmaj7 G bm aj7 E bm aj7 w & c bw w w ? c bbw bw w w w ww w w w w ww w bbw w bbw w w w ww w bw w w w ww bbw bw bbw w w w w w w bbw w 19.29 Am9 Harmonization with minor ninth chords Fm9 Dm9 B bm9 Gm9 w w w w ?c w w w &c w w bbw ww bw w w w w ww w w w w w bbbw ww w bw w w w w ww bw w w 19.30 C13 #9 C7b 13 Harmonization with dominant seventh chords A b13 F13 #9 D7b 13 D9 b5 D7b 9 w & w w ? bw w w w bbw w w w w w w w bw bw w w w bw w w bw ww #w w w w w w w bbw w w w w w w w Jazz Theory Resources .

31 Harmonization with lydian dominant seventh chords # B b9 11 # G b9 11 # E b9 11 &c w #w w w w w ww bw bw w w w w bbw bbw w bw w w w bw bw w ? c bw w w # A bmaj7 5 19.30 Harmonization with dominant seventh chords b B13 9 B7 alt. A7b 13 #9 b E b13 9 E b13# 11 b9 E7b 13 #9 w w & w w bw w w w w w bbw w #w w w w w w #w w w ? bw bw bw bw bw bw nw w #w w w w w w w w bw bw w ww n#w w bw bw w w w w n#w w # C9 11 19.32 Harmonization with augmented major seventh chords # Em aj7 5 # D bm aj7 5 &c ?c w w w w bw w bbw w w w w w w w bw Jazz Theory Resources .Chapter 19 Expanding Harmonic Vocabulary 453 b B b13 B b9 13 B b9 19.

34 C7sus Harmonization with dominant suspended chords.35 C/D b w bw w b ww w w w w w w w ww bbw w bw bw w w w w w w w w w b w bw w bbw w Harmonization using Poly or Slash chords C/B A b/A A b/G F/G b F/E &c w w w w ? c bbw w w w w w w w w w bbw w n nn w w w w w bbw w w w w w w w w w bb bw w w w w w w w 19. Am9/D) F7sus D7sus B b7sus G7sus E b7sus &c w w w w ? c bw w 19.33 Harmonization with half diminished chords # B bø7 2 # G ø7 2 w &c w w ?c bw w w w w bbbw w w bw bw w w bw w bw w 19.36 C Db Harmonization with True Polychords and Extended Tertian chords Ab A F Gb &c w w w w w w w bbw #w n nw w ? c bbw w w w w w w bw bbw w #w w w #w w w E aug. (Sometimes notated as C/D Am7/C. F aug Fm F #m bw w w w w bw w ##w w w D bmaj7 #5 Dmaj7 #5 w ##w w Jazz Theory Resources .454 Chapter 19 Expanding Harmonic Vocabulary # D ø7 2 19.

Jazz. If music is a vehicle for expression. and the evolution of jazz is yet completed. and others. eyes and mind open. Boulez. as is the music of all cultures. Tonal music is not dead. world and ethnic music. One of Tatum’s entourage suggested they leave because pianist was uninteresting. Tatum wanted to stay because he heard the one thing the pianist really did well. Find those attractive things in music and learn from them. Jazz composers and improvisers began to use different harmonic materials imposed over the major/minor systems. Art Tatum was one of the greatest pianists in the world. Learn from what ever sources are at tractive. and the unusual methods for constructing music borrowed from Schoenberg. There is a story about him visiting some bar where a mediocre pianist was playing. Beethoven and Mozart are invaluable sources of melodic invention. Jazz influenced popular music and in turn has borrowed from popular and folk music. Jazz Theory Resources . as this book is written. This may have been why Tatum was such an exceptional musician: he consistently found the one thing that someone did well and learned from it. Many jazz artists throughout the history of jazz were influenced by non-jazz music of the twentieth century trying to find ways to in corporate the sounds borrowed from Stravinsky. then music theory should provide tools and resources to expedite the search for what ever is needed to bring those expressions to life. It became increasingly more difficult to compose music that expressed their originality. Debussy. As the jazz art form grew. CODA The development of jazz improvisation vocabulary is many ways mirrors the development of Western art music. some jazz artists. Cage. Bach. as many composers in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. and later to create new music with harmonic progressions that did not function in traditional ways. keep your ears. and even American country and western.Chapter 20 Summary 455 XX. To grow as an artist. forms and instruments. Ravel. still reflects a wide spectrum of musical expressions. Students are often surprised at how much jazz theory is practical “real time” applications of traditional theory. A great deal of jazz is based on the major/minor key systems common to music of the Baroque through late Romantic periods. felt the major/minor systems had been exhausted. Jazz has always been a melting pot of styles: African rhythms and performance practices fused with European harmonic vocabulary. Bartók.

Reference for Chord/Scale Relationships The chords in the following chart are sorted by single identifying pitches Triads may have perfect. or D# added) Jazz Theory Resources . A.456 Appendix I Reference for Chord/Scale Relationships Appendix I. ex. triads with perfect fifths can have a major or a minor third. E°7 with F#. Fifth Third Triads M7 Maj7 M3 Major m7 Dom7 7sus P5 m3 Minor M7 m maj7 m7 m7 d5 m3 Diminished m7 ø7 d7 °7 ° maj7 °7 with added tones* rare A5 M3 Augmented M7 maj #5 m7 7th chords 9th chords & beyond 7#5 Maj9 9 (n5) m maj9 m9 ø 7 #2 9#5 Maj76/9 9 (13) mmaj7 6/9 Maj7(#11) 7 b 9 (n5) Maj7 7 b 9 (b13) # # ( 11/ 9) 7 #9 (n5) 7 #9 (b 13) 9 (#11) 7 (b 9 b 5) 7 (b 5 #9) 13 (b 9) 13 (#9) 9 (b 13) 13 (#11b 9) 9sus 7susb 9 m11 m 6/9 *(usually a whole step above one of the chord tones. a triad with major third may have a minor or major seventh. C. and so on. diminished or augmented fifths.

C half-diminished = Cø7. C minor major 7 = Cmmaj7. These chords can be named in a traditional way but are often notated with slashes indicating the two chords or the chord and the different bass note. C∆7 (C∆ can also mean just a major triad). Cm∆7. Cm#5 (even though by definition a minor chord has a perfect fifth). When discussing tertian chords use the odd numbers: 1-3-5-7-9-11-13. and the “maj” to refer to the seventh. Here is a partial list of symbols you may encounter: C major 7 = Cmaj7. so C 13. I would try to avoid the triangle and the “-” and use the “m” for the minor third.Appendix I Reference for Chord/Scale Relationships 457 There are many shorthand symbols for chords. Jazz Theory Resources . The 7 is redundant. second and fifth but may often be in first inversion as C2/E. as C13 implies a dominant seventh chord. the “mi” and “min” unnecessary. A common practice is to notate true polychords with a horizontal slash (—) with the top chord on top.” Raised notes may occur as “+” so that C7 with a raised ninth may appear as: C7#9. In some parts of the world the triangle is unknown. Showing it with an alteration is unnecessary when there is a symbol (ø) which means half-diminished. C minor 7 = Cm7.” A Cmmaj 76/9 indicates a major sixth and major ninth added to the minor major seventh chord. and even the C7 9+. C–7. C7+9. and means C major with an added sixth. not C6.” so that C7+9 could be interpreted as C7 add a ninth (D#) when someone meant a D#. Lowered notes (b) should be shown with the universally understood musical sign “b” Lowered notes may occur as “–” so that C7 with a lowered ninth may appear as: C7 b9. Cm6/9 indicates a major sixth and major ninth added to the chord. not C9 #4. Cmin7. The “+” sign could also refer to the fifth so that someone may interpret the C7+9 or C7 9+ as a C9 chord with a raised fifth. For example: D C= D triad over a C triad C/D = C triad over a D bass note Raised notes (#) should be shown with the universally understood musical sign “#. “M” can cause problems depending on the accuracy of penmanship. the second part indicates the bass note. but is common practice to include it in the symbol. Cm7b5. C–7b5. This chord is found naturally in both the major and harmonic minor scales. Cmin7 b5. or Ab /C. The “–” sign can be ambiguous. Cma7. C9 #11. The “maj” abbreviation is clear. A Cm6 means a minor chord with an added major sixth. The resulting sound is usually called a polychord. The plus sign is often misread as “add. one on top of the other. Using “maj” for major and “m” for minor and staying consistent should insure your symbols are clearly understood. or C7 –9. Rehearsals have stopped to measure the size of the “M’s” to determine major or minor. C–∆7. and to notate chords with different bass notes with a (/) where the first part is the chord. Cmi7. In music notation # means raise and b means lower so these symbols are preferable to the (+) and (–). The sixth degree of the scale in a chord is the thirteenth. C6 does not mean C13. the bottom chord on the bottom. Extensions: When discussing scales use numbers 1-7 or 1-8. since this chord cannot half-diminished without the seventh. CM7. There is no single agreed upon standard so one should be familiar with and expect to find a number of possibilities. and even the C7 9–. C6 may be encountered in older music. If a minor sixth is wanted above the minor chord it may occur as: Cmb6. Try to separate the two to avoid “mmaj7. though a true polychord would only be the stacking of two chords. A C2 chord indicates the root. Slash Chords: Some chords are created by placing one chord on top of another bass note or on top of another chord.

Diminished Scale Augmented Scale & œ b˙ #œ ˙ #œ n˙ œ b˙ & #œ ˙ œ b˙ nœ ˙ Jazz Theory Resources . FORMULA W W 1/2 W W W 1/2 W 1/2 W W 1/2 A2 1/2 W 1/2 W W W W 1/2 W W 1/2 W 1/2 A2 1/2 (1/2 Whole) (Whole 1/2) WWWWWW minor 3rd 1/2 m3 1/2 m3 3. & ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ ˙ 7. & ˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ #˙ #˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ & ˙ ˙ ˙ #˙ #˙ b˙ ˙ & ˙ #˙ ˙ ˙ b˙ n˙ ˙ Diminished scale is like a diminished 7 chord with leading tones to each chord tone and an augmented scale is like an augmented triad with leading tones to each chord tone.458 Appendix I Reference for Chord/Scale Relationships CHORD/SCALE RELATIONSHIPS SCALES 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1. & ˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ ˙ b˙ n˙ ˙ 5. & ˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ ˙ n˙ n˙ ˙ 6. & ˙ b˙ b˙ n˙ #˙ n˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ 8. & ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ 4. SCALES Major Harmonic Minor Melodic Minor Major with a b6 (Harmonic Major) Diminished Diminished Whole Tone Augmented 2.

2nd mode Major Major 6. 7. b2 2nd mode Harmonic Minor # Locrian 2. 12. & ˙ œ ˙ œ ˙ œ ˙ œ ˙ œ ˙ #œ ˙ œ ˙ œ ˙ #œ ˙ #œ ˙ œ ˙ œ ˙ œ ˙ œ ˙ bœ ˙ œ ˙ #œ ˙ ˙ bœ ˙ œ CHORD TYPE Minor 7 Minor 7 Minor 7 Minor 7 Minor 7 SCALE SOURCE CHARACTERISTICS Dorian. 3. m3 b6. & ˙ œ b˙ œ ˙ œ b˙ œ ˙ œ b˙ œ ˙ bœ b˙ œ ˙ bœ b˙ œ ˙ bœ b˙ œ ˙ œ b˙ #œ ˙ œ b˙ œ ˙ bœ b˙ œ ˙ œ b˙ œ CHORD TYPE ø7 ø7 ø7 ø7 SCALE SOURCE CHARACTERISTICS b5. 4. 3rd mode Major #4 4th mode Harmonic Minor b Dorian 2. 14. 6th mode Major b2. 2nd mode Melodic b2 Minor 6 7 8 9 10 6. 9. b3 Aeolian. 4th mode Major 6th mode Harmonic Minor Major with a b6 Augmented CHARACTERISTICS n4. 10. 1st mode Major Lydian. #5 or b6 1 2 3 4 5 1. & ˙ bœ b˙ œ b˙ bœ b˙ œ ˙ b˙ nœ bœ b˙ œ b˙ œ ˙ b˙ bœ œ b˙ œ b˙ œ ˙ b˙ nœ œ b˙ œ b˙ œ Jazz Theory Resources . 13. 6th mode of Melodic #2 Minor #2 2nd mode Major with a b6 11 12 13 14 11. 5. 2. #11 b6 or b13 Maj/Min3. 7 #11 #9. 5. 7th mode Major b5. b2 Locrian. b6 Phrygian. 8.Appendix I Reference for Chord/Scale Relationships 459 CHORDS with SCALE SOURCES: CHORD TYPE Major 7 Major 7 Major 7 Major 7 Major 7 SCALE SOURCE Ionian.

& ˙ œ b˙ œ ˙ bœ ˙ œ ˙ œ b˙ œ ˙ nœ n˙ œ ˙ œ b˙ #œ ˙ œ ˙ œ ˙ b˙ nœ ˙ bœ ˙ œ 19 20 21 22 23 CHORD TYPE Major 7 #5 Major 7 #5 Major 7 #5. 18. 16 17. #9. 21. 25. n4 #5. Major 7 b6 or b13 Major 7 #5 Major 7 #5 SCALE SOURCE 3rd mode Harmonic Minor 3rd mode Melodic Minor Major with a b6 6th mode Major with a b6 Augmented CHARACTERISTICS #5. #5 15. 22. #11 Maj/Min3. 23. b13 #5. 5. 5. #5 19. 27.460 Appendix I Reference for Chord/Scale Relationships 15 16 17 18 CHORD TYPE Minor/Major 7 Minor/Major 7 Minor/Major 7 Minor/Major 7 SCALE SOURCE 1st mode Harmonic Minor 1st mode Melodic Minor 4th mode Major with a b6 Augmented CHARACTERISTICS b6 n6 #11 Maj/Min3. 20. & #˙ œ ˙ œ ˙ œ b˙ #œ #˙ #œ ˙ #œ ˙ œ b˙ nœ #œ #˙ œ ˙ #œ ˙ nœ b˙ #œ b˙ ˙ œ ˙ œb˙ œ bœ Jazz Theory Resources . 26. #11 n5. & ˙ œ ˙ œ #˙ œ ˙ œ ˙ œ ˙ #œ #˙ œ ˙ œ ˙ œ ˙ œ ˙ bœ n˙ œ ˙ #œ ˙ #œ #˙ œ ˙ œ ˙ #œ ˙ ˙ bœ ˙ œ CHORD TYPE Diminished 7 Diminished 7 Diminished 7 Diminished 7 SCALE SOURCE 7th mode Harmonic Minor Diminished W 1/2 7th mode Major with a b6 6th mode Major with a b6 CHARACTERISTICS Traditional sound Tones whole step above each chord member available 24 25 26 27 24.

5th mode Major 5th mode Harmonic Minor 5th mode Major with a b6 3rd mode Major with a b6 Lydian b 7. 31. & ˙ œ ˙ œ ˙ œ b˙ œ ˙ bœ ˙ œ ˙ bœ b˙ œ ˙ bœ ˙ œ ˙ œ b˙ œ ˙ bœ bœ b˙ ˙ bœb˙ œ ˙ œ ˙ #œ ˙ œ b˙ œ 33. #11 9. #5 28. #11. n5. 32. b9 b9. 5th mode Melodic Minor Diminished 1/2 W Whole Tone CHARACTERISTICS n9. 29. & ˙ bœ bœ b˙ bœ bœ b˙ œ ˙ œ ˙ œ ˙ bœ b˙ œ ˙ bœ bœ n˙ #œ ˙ œ b˙ œ ˙ œ ˙ #œ #œ b˙ œ Jazz Theory Resources . n5 9. #9. b13 13. b5 b13 13.13 b9. b13. 13 b9. b13.Appendix I Reference for Chord/Scale Relationships 461 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 CHORD TYPE Dominant 7 Dominant 7 Dominant 7 Dominant 7 Dominant 7 Dominant 7 Dominant 7 Dominant 7 Dominant 7 SCALE SOURCE Mixolydian. #9. 7th mode Melodic Minor Mixolydian b6. b9. 30. 36. 4th mode Melodic Minor Super locrian. 34 35.

462 Appendix I Reference for Chord/Scale Relationships SCALES with DERIVED CHORDS: MAJOR SCALE 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th CHORD TYPES Major 7 Minor 7 Minor 7 Major 7 Dominant 7 Minor 7 ø7 C Cm aj7 Cmaj9 C 6 9maj7 C6 C2 C2/E Dm Dm7 Dm9 Dm11 &w w w ?w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w ww w ww w w w ww w w w w w w w w w w w w w w Em Em7 w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w F Fmaj7 # Fmaj9 Fmaj7 11 G G7 G9 G13 w &w w ?w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w ww w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w G7sus4 G9sus4 G13sus4 w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w &w ?w Am Am7 w w w w Am 9 w w w Am11 w w w w w w B° B ø7 B ø711 w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w Jazz Theory Resources .

Appendix I Reference for Chord/Scale Relationships 463 HARMONIC MINOR 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th CHORD TYPES Minor (major 7) ø7 Major 7 #5 Minor 7 Dominant 7 Major 7 °7 Cm Cm maj 7 Cm maj 9 & ? bw w w w w bnw w w w bnw w w D° D ø7 D ø711 E baug bw w w w bw w w w w ww bw w w bw w # E bmaj7 5 w w w w bw bw Fm & ? bw w w w w bbw w w Fm 7 Fm9 w bw w nw w w w G nw w w G7 b G7 9 bw w w nw w bbw w w nw w G7b 13 b9 G7sus4 w w w b G7sus 9 bw w w w w bw w w w & ? w bbw w bw Ab A bmaj7 bw w w # 11 # 9 b b A maj7 A maj7# 9 w w bnw w bw w n w bw w bw w nw w w w bbw w G Ab B° B °7 B °7(add G) w w w w w w bw w w w bw w w bw Jazz Theory Resources .

464 Appendix I Reference for Chord/Scale Relationships MAJOR with a b6 (Harmonic Major) 1st 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 6th 7th CHORD TYPE Major 7 Major 7 b6 ii ø 7 Dominant 7 (#9. n5) Minor (major 7) Dominant 7 (b9. °maj7 °7 b Cm aj7 6 # D ø7 2 E7b 13 & ? w bw ww w bw w w w w w w w bw w w w w w w #9 E7alt. w w w #w w w #w w w Fm maj 7 & ? bw w w w # Fm maj 9 Fm maj 7 11 F °maj9 w w w bw w bnw ww bw w w w w w bw w Em Fm w w w b G13 9 bw w w w w bw w w # A bm aj7 5 G/A b & ? w w w bw w w w A b°maj7 B °7 B °7(add E ) B °7(add G) w w w bw w bw w w w bw w w w w w bw w w bw Jazz Theory Resources . b9. b13. n13) Major 7 #5 °7.

b9. #11) b C7 9 # 11 C7b 9 # 11 C7# 9 b9 # C13 11 # C7 9 b9 #9 # C13 11 & bw bw w ? w w bb#w w w w w #b#w w w w w w bb#w w w w w b#w w w w w w ##w w bbw w w w w Jazz Theory Resources . b13. w w bw w w w w w bw w w w 1/2W DIMINISHED CHORD TYPE Dominant 7 (b9. #9. b5. n13.Appendix I Reference for Chord/Scale Relationships 465 MELODIC MINOR 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th CHORD TYPE Minor (major 7) Minor 7 (b9) or 7susb9 Major 7 #5 Dominant 9 #11 Lydian dominant Dominant 9 b13 ø7 #2 Dominant 7 (#9.) Cm Cm maj 7 Cm maj 9 A ø7/D # A ø7 2/D E baug # E bmaj7 5 & ? bw w w w w bnw w w w w bnw w w w w bw w w w w bw w w w w w bw w bw w w w bw # F9 11 G9 b 13 & ? w w bw w w w bw w w w w # A ø7 2 B7alt.

466 Appendix I Reference for Chord/Scale Relationships W1/2 DIMINISHED CHORD TYPE °7. w #w w #w w w Jazz Theory Resources . #5) # C7 5 b C7 5 # C9 5 ## C9 5 11 & #w w ? bw w bw w bw w AUGMENTED #w w w bw w CHORD TYPE Major 7 #5 Major 7 minor (major 7) Cm aj7# 9 #w #w w w bw w # Cmaj7 5 #5 Cm maj 7 & #w w w ? w w w bw w ##w w w w w B aug. °7 with added notes C °7 C °7(add B ) C °7(add D) & b # ww w ? w b#w ww w w w b # ww w w C °m aj7(add D) w b#w ww w w C °7(add F ) C °7(add A b) nw w w b#w ww bbw w w #w w w WHOLE TONE CHORD TYPE Dominant 7 (9. C aug.

j . œ œ œ œ œ œ œ .. . œ œ œ ˙ œ œ œ.56a from Chapter 10 3 3 E 7 œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ ˙ Jazz Theory Resources .2 Traditional j ‰ j‰ ‰ ‰ œ œ j œ œ #œ œ nœ œ œj œ œ œ . œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ nœ . ELABORATIONS of ii7-V7 PROGRESSIONS This is the most common shown over ii7-V7-I in C major..Appendix II Elaborations of Static Harmony 467 Appendix II.. . Several common elaborations are cataloged in this appendix..... 10. .. A chromatic line is inserted beginning on the root of the ii7 chord which moves down to the third of the V7 chord. b œ.. .3 .. . . j œ œ œ ?c w II.. II. Elaborations of Static Harmony Diatonic and chromatic elaborations may be introduced in the accompaniment or in the melodic improvisation that introduces more motion than implied by the static harmonic implications. œ &c˙ ˙ ˙ Dm7 G7 ˙ #˙ ˙ ˙ n˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ n˙ ˙ ˙ .1 Traditional G7 &c˙ ˙ ˙ Dm7 ˙ #˙ ˙ ˙ n˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ n˙ ˙ ˙ ?c w II. œ œ ˙ b & b bb c B m7 b Ex..

55 from Chapter 10 C7 3 bœ & b c œ œ œ ¿ #œ ¿ nœ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ Œ Ó II.. 10. œ œ œ . œ œ œ œ....b 7 implied in melodic line over the first four measures of blues from Tete Montoliu F7 j bœ ˙ .59 from Chapter 10 A7 D # & # c œ œ œ #œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ Œ Ó Several examples of this type of elaboration occurred in the improvisations of Cannonball Adderley and Charlie Parker shown in chapter 18.4 Gm 7 Elaborations of Static Harmony Ex.œ œœ œ œ œ œ œœ œœ œ œ œ œ œ.. 5-#5-6-b7 over four measures as the first four measures of blues &c w w w ?c w II. œ œœ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ.# 5-6. œ œ œ ≈ œ œ œ b œ ≈ œj .7 ˙ ˙ ˙ w b˙ ˙ ˙ . ... œ œ œ œ C7 .. ELABORATIONS of a C MAJOR CHORD USUALLY as TONIC (I) II. 10. .5 Em7 F Ex. œ œ . œ.8 F C #w w w w w w w w bw w w w F w w w w 5. b œ Œ ‰ œj n œ Œ ‰ œj ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ œ &b c ‰ œ J œ œ œ J J œ œ œ J Œ Jazz Theory Resources . œ ≈ œ œ œ # œ ≈ œj .6 C 5-#5-6-b6 over two measures &c ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ #˙ ˙ ?c w II.468 Appendix II II.

10 C ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ w ˙ ˙ ˙ . &c ˙ ˙ ˙ ?c w II.9 5-6-7-6 diatonic elaboration Elaborations of Static Harmony 469 &c ˙ ˙ ˙ ?c w II. ˙ ˙ ˙ ..13 C ˙ œ #œ w w w w ˙ œ ##œ œ w ˙œ w w ˙ œ #œ w ˙ œ# œ w w w w w 3-4-#4-5 implied by melody & ˙ œ œ œ ˙ œ œ œ #˙ œ bœ ˙ Ó : Jazz Theory Resources ..11 C ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ w ˙ ˙ ˙ .12 1-2-#2-3 C Several chromatic elaborations 3-4-#4-5 Combined 3rds: C C C 6ths: 6ths: C7 ˙ œ #œ bw ˙bœn œ w & c ˙ œ #œ w ?c w w II. w C ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ w ˙ ˙ ˙ C ˙ ˙ ˙ w ˙ ˙ ˙ bw w w w C7 F ˙ ˙ ˙ w Two chromatic lines implied: 1-2-#2-3 & 3-4-#4-5 &c ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ œ œ œ œ œ œ ##œ œ w w ww w ?c w II.Appendix II II. R-7-6-7-R-7-b7 diatonic elaboration over first four measures of blues leading to IV. ...

œ bœ œ œ œ bbœ œ œ œ w œ ##œ œnn œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ bœ œ w w b &b c B b 3-4-#4-5 implied by melody from Sonny Stitt œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ œ bœ œ #œ œ 3-4-#4-5 implied by melody from Tete Montoliu 3 B b7 œœ œ œ œ œ œ ‰ œ b œj n œ œ ‰ œ &b c J II.470 Appendix II Elaborations of Static Harmony ..18 3 œ3 3 3 3 œ œ b œ œ œ bœ nœ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ J J 3 F7 Descending 5-b5-4-3 3-4-#4-5 & b7-6-b6-5 for end of blues phrase 3 3 3 3 & c Œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ Œ ? c wbœ œ bœ œ œ bœ œ œ œ ˙ ˙ œ œ œ ˙ œb bœ œ ˙ Œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ Œ bœ œ bœ w 3 œ œ œ œ b œ # œ œ œn œ œ œ #œ nœ œ œ œ # œ nœ œ œ œ œ 3 3 3 w w bw w w II.15 II.14 Bluesy chromatic elaboration over C7 .. ... œ œ œ 3 3 3 œ œ œ œ œj œ œ 3 œ œj œ œ jœ œ œ œ œ œ 3 jœ œ œ ..16 F7 II. œ œ j œ œœ œœ œ œ œ 3 jœ . œ j œ œ œ 3 œ œj .17 F 3-4-#4-5 & 5-#5-6-b7 implied by melody from Tete Montoliu œ &b c ‰ œ J œ #œ II. 3 Jazz Theory Resources .. .19 9-R-7-R elaboration in pop style &c˙ ˙˙ ?c w C ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ w ˙ ˙ ˙ . œ œ b œ œ # œ œ œ œ œ œ b œ œ # œ œ &œ œ œ # œ œ œ #œ œ bœ œ œ bœ œ œb œ œ II.

7-6-b6-6 elaboration over Dm ˙ &c ˙ ˙ ˙ n˙ ˙ ?c w ˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ n˙ ˙ w j . . œ b œ œ ‰ n œ ‰ œ ‰ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ œ..Dmb13 .. or Dm ... ‰ œ œ œ œ nœ œ ˙ œ œ . vi. 3 4 ..Appendix II Elaborations of Static Harmony 471 II..Dm6) &c˙ ˙ ˙ Dm b˙ ˙ ˙ n˙ ˙ ˙ w b˙ ˙ ˙ . j j j ..20 D7 Cycle of Dominants on B Section of “Rhythm Changes” G7 &c #œ ?c C7 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ F7 nœ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ Bb œ œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ &œ ?œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ bœ œ #œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ ELABORATIONS of a D MINOR CHORD as i. (Chords may appear as: Dm .Dm6 or Dm .Dm#5 . œ ˙ J œ.. or i II...Dm6. œ ?c w II. ˙ œ œ œ jŒ ‰œ œ œ œ œ œ jŒ ‰ œ œ bœ œ œ œ ˙ œ œ œœ ˙ jŒ .Bb/D . j . œ œ Jazz Theory Resources . 3 Œ 4 ...22 Dm . œ œ œ .21 5-b6 [#5]-n6-b6 “Secret Agent” elaboration over Dm. ‰ œ œ œ .

472 Appendix II Elaborations of Static Harmony II.23 Blues Etude In F with elaborations & compound melody examples j œ bœ œ bœ œ & b c œ œ #œ œ œ ‰ œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ Œ ‰ J œ œ nœ bœ œ œ bœ œ j œ œ œ ‰ œ nœ #œ bœ nœ œ Œ Œ œ œ & b Œ ‰ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ bœ Œ ‰ bJ #œ J & b œ œ Œ Œ ‰ # œj œ œ b œ œ œ b œ & b œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ w j œ Ó œ œ œ #œ nœ nœ bœ œ . j œ œ œ ‰ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ ‰ J œ bœ œ Œ ‰ j œ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ #œ œ œ œ œ #œ bœ ‰ J œ ‰ b œj œ n œ # œ œ Ó &b ‰J & b œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ #œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ ‰ œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ Jazz Theory Resources .

2 F Blues turnaround and ending using common chromatic elaborations 3 3 3 bœ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ nœn bœ & b c Œ œ œ œ nœ œ œb œ œ œ œ bœ œ #œ œb œ œ ?b c w III. Endings Musicians should go to jobs with a few standard endings in their toolbag in order to avoid potential train wrecks.3 F 3 ˙ ˙ ˙ œ œ œ # œ b œ # Blues turnaround and ending using common chromatic elaborations D7 9 G13 9 C7 9 F13 3 3 œ œ nœ œ œ œ b Œ œ b œ œ œ & bœ ?b œ œ œ #œ b nœ œ œ n œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ w w w bw w œ œ #œ œ nœ œ Jazz Theory Resources .Appendix III Endings 473 Appendix III.1 Blues turnaround and ending using common chromatic elaborations F13 3 3 3 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ b Œ œœœ œ nœ œ bœ œ œ œ ###œ œ ˙ œœ n n œ œ ˙ ˙ B9 B 13 bœ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ bœ ˙ œ # œ n œ œ n œ bœ ˙ ˙ III. Appendix III catalogs several common endings and their variations. ENDINGS to BLUES b 3 G b9 3 3 b & b c Œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ bœ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ ? b c bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ b œ œ b bœ œ B III.

œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ? b c œ œ bœ œ ENDINGS to STANDARD TUNES III.5 œ nœ U Œ b œœ bœ œ nœ œ œ œ U Œ œ bœ œ œ Blues ending. œ . Standards typically end on tonic at “*” from which point several options are available ˙ &b c ˙ ˙ Gm7 œ œ ˙ ˙ C7 ˙ ˙ ˙ w w w ˙ ˙˙ * F w ww w w w ww w w w ?b c w Jazz Theory Resources .4 Endings Blues ending. &b c‰ œ . œ bœ œ nœ bœ bœ œ &b c‰ J ?b c j œ œ. Inner descending voice is in contrary motion to bass line.5 is now melody and the inner voice is in the bass. b œœ œœ œ b c ‰ & œ. Top line improvised. œ œ œ ?b c œ œ œ œ T T U œ œ œ b œ œ œ œ n œ b œ b œ œ b œ n œ œ Œ b œœ œ œ ‰ J œ œ œ U ∑ Ó Œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ T T U œ b œ œ œ œ n œœ œ œ œ ‰ J n œ b œ b œ œ b œ n œ œ Œ b œœ œ œ bb œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ œ U Ó œ bœ œ œ ∑ Œ œ III. Contrary motion: Bass line from III.474 Appendix III III. œ œ . Last two measures improvised. III.. Last two measures improvised.6 Blues ending.7 Ending to a pretend song in standard style.

œ œ œ .. . œ nœ . œ œ . œ nœ U Œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ Fmaj7 U œ œ œ œ Œ œ III. œ &b c‰ œ œ . The last chord is often absurdly dissonant. . œ ?b c œ > J œ. III. Gm7 ˙ ˙ ˙ j Ó œ nœ j œ bœ Ó œ Piano solo: œ œ œ œ Œ Œ nœ œ #œ œ tutti: U œ ‰ œ J Œ œ œ œ œ Fmaj7 œ U ‰ œ J Œ œ Jazz Theory Resources .Appendix III Endings 475 > ..8 Ending in swing style. œ œ . . Gm7 ˙ ˙ ˙ j ‰ œ nœ œ. ?b c ‰ œ III. œ &b c‰ œ œ. > œ . œ nœ .10 . œ . œ œ œ . . œ œ œ .. bœ œ. œ œ ˙ ˙ C7 . œ œ .. > œ .. œ œ . Sometimes called “Ellington” ending . œ œ œ . bœ œ. œ .9 “Ellington” ending may repeat the last chord with this rhythmic extension. > j b c & œ . ?b c ‰ œ “Basie” ending: solo piano answers ensemble who rejoins on final chord . final one may be held or played with a fall-off. œ > .. j bœ œ ‰ > œ. œ nœ Œ œ ˙˙ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ ˙ ˙ œ œ œ œ Œ œ F13 œ # n œœ œ œ bbœ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ Œ œ # n œœ œ œ ˙ œ œ œ œ Œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ‰ J Œ œ œ œ bbœ œ œ œ œ œ ‰ œ œ Œ œ œ œ œ œ J > . œ œ ˙ ˙ C7 .

then “Basie