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By Tuhin Chattopadhyay
What is a shopping mall?
• A shopping mall or shopping centre is a building or set of buildings that contain a variety of retail units, with interconnecting walkways enabling visitors to easily walk from unit to unit.
What is Mall Management?
• Shopping malls or shopping centres are physical spaces created for retailing, fun, leisure and entertainment and have many elements. Primarily, a mall can be divided into various zones: • Retailing: Pure shopping • Entertainment: Movie theatres, gaming zones, video parlours • Food Court: Fine dining restaurants • Atrium: Common area, public spaces, prayer rooms, rest rooms, kids area, parking, etc.
Leasing: selling this idea to retailers and other tenants 2. Promotions and activities 4. Facilities management Hence. 5. Mall marketing 3. Security etc. .What is Mall Management? • Now. to manage all these activities in a huge space. a specialised skill set is required. settles disputes etc. makes sure that there is coordination between various activities and tenants. Various functions under mall management are: 1. mall management ensures the smooth running of the mall.
zoning. a comfortable ambience and a safe and secure environment. tenant mix.What is Mall Management? • Mall management broadly includes mall positioning. all of which result in retaining loyal customers in ever-shrinking catchments. • Mall management is a value addition that cannot be measured but translates into intangibles such as the arrival experience. promotions. . facilities and finance management.
What is Mall Management? Leasing and coordination Handover to tenants and fit-outs Project completion coordination Statutory preparedness Pre-opening set up – centre management. recruiting and training .
events and promotions.statutory compliances. space on hire (SOH).What is Mall Management? Facility management Asset enhancement and asset management Visitor management Lease administration Marketing . MIS and best global practices . sales Common area management (CAM) Environment management .brand positioning of the mall. licenses and permits Business analysis and strategy planning and implementation Community connect initiatives Reports.
Mall management encompasses operations. marketing. which includes procurement of various equipment and maintenance. facilities management. This means leasing out shops and advertising space to interested parties. accounts. procuring all necessary equipment. • The biggest problem in this industry is finding the right kind of tenants.What is Mall Management? • A mall management company takes care of the entire operations of a mall. while leasing out space to tenants. security. leasing and all the other functions even remotely related to a mall. common area maintenance. . to maintaining the mall. it is important to keep in mind the image that you want to create in the customer’s mind.
security. concierge services. Besides this they also handle business services like guest relations. and meeting room management. housekeeping. . access control. etc. help desk management. power management. and cash management.FACILITY MANAGEMENT • Mall management companies outsource usually many operations to these companies like parking. Facility Management handle electro mechanical services like fire detection and suppression. and administration services. water management plumbing. They also provide soft services like cleaning and pest control. physical and security surveillance.
One other problem that is faced by service providers is payment delays from their clients. It might sound ironical. These include conducting research for malls to find out their requirements before actually starting to service them. The share of revenue depends on the number of services provided to all the malls in a facility management company’s portfolio. the core business of which is providing manpower to their clients. but finding human resources is the main problem faced by facility management companies. .FACILITY MANAGEMENT • There are a few other functions that facility management companies are also taking up.
. Both outdoor advertising and BTL activities are revenue generators at the malls. advertising and promotional activities in malls have become a hot opportunity. starting from conceptualizing the advertisement to leasing out the space on behalf of their clients. A creative agency takes care of all the aspects of advertising.Mall Advertising • As the number of malls in the country is growing at a rapid pace and with it the number of people visiting these malls burgeoning. to putting up hoardings or setting up kiosks or conducting events.
3. 2.Who are the stakeholders in a mall? 1. 6. 4. 5. Developers Investors Occupants (brands and franchises) Customers Government/ statutory organizations Other Stakeholders .
In most cases facility manager is a third party and mall management/marketing team is a separate strategic business unit (SBU). mall developer should be a client and the entity responsible for its management (unless a third party) should be an agency. the developer generally hands it over to mall and facility management team.1. . • In the long run. This SBU should be considered as a separate entity so as to ensure that the developer doesn't behave like a landlord but as a place developer. Developers • After the mall is built and the process of possession is over.
He would want continuity of occupants. This should subsequently help in making it easier for him to sell similar projects to brands/franchises/ bankers. .Expectation of Developer • The developer would expect at least little over nominal return on investment so as to earn profit and further invest in such projects. He would also want the project to enhance the company's brand image as mall business by nature has a snob value. Better ROI would also mean that shareholders and investors in the company would be satisfied.
People and stakeholders appreciate the present project/set of projects through its popularity and success.Who fulfills the developer’s expectations? • Those who contribute to make this possible include occupants who pay good rental as well as advertisers. good event and promotion plans. kiosk owners and sponsors who provide additional sources of revenue. high footfalls that spend. . friendly mall management and professionalism of developer play an important role in this regard. Better management of mall.
Investors • Investors are the people who have bought property in malls in bits and pieces.2. but they are the people who bought small units during the built-up stage or later. They should not be confused with equity partners or directors. .
.Expectation of Investors • Investors would look for better ROI than similar business with similar investment can offer with security and longevity. In other words. he would want confidence and peace of mind.
. as well as the developer with strong financial background who can run the business with long-term interest. • A performing mall management team with professionals working to enhance the brand image of the mall is equally important in this regard.Who fulfills the investor’s expectations? • Those who can make this possible are the occupants who will pay good rental and stick to the mall.
An occupant can be a brand (like Shoppers' Stop. Occupants (brands and franchises) • For a mall as an entity. They can be an anchor store. They are also investors because they can be on lease or would have bought property.3. etc) or their appointed franchises. multiplex. food court or any other occupant. its occupants are the most important external stakeholders. . Hutch. Adidas. Lacoste.
Expectation of Occupants • They would want ROI and more business than that generated from the nearest market. more footfalls at lower cost of marketing and adequate cost of rentals. . hasslefree shopping atmosphere.
and professional mall developer who understands customer needs. So is ROI of developer and investors based on long-term purview so that rentals are affordable. . developer and other stakeholders are equally important. events and promos. Continuous efforts by mall management. facilities. ambience.Who fulfills the occupant’s expectations? • Customers who come because of all other stakeholders. management. Other contributing factors are location. brands.
4. Customers • The end-consumers are the most important stakeholders as it is they who decide in many ways the future of others. .
impromptu events that are fresh and spring surprises also.Expectation of customers • They would look for value for money. ambience. . food. etc). shopping with least effort (maximum brands). better security. convenience of parking. value for time spent (scope of good quality entertainment. promos.
ambience. right tenant mix. location. Also. facilities. professional mall developer who understands customers' need and with vision to succeed financially.Who fulfills the customer’s expectations? • Right occupants with right price and product mix. management. brands. . events/promos.
municipal corporation and other such bodies are stakeholders indirectly as they have allowed the mall to be built with some goals in mind. which can be providing a better lifestyle to the people or creating a better image of the city.5. . Government/ statutory organizations • Not many people believe it but local government.
etc. outdoor advertisers. financially and in providing the daily dose of freshness to the mall. They are crucial to the success of the mall. Other stakeholders • They are different in different malls but very important for variable income and mall marketing plan. radio). TV. . airline partner. various event sponsors.6. They could be media partners (newspapers. kiosk owners.
. higher footfalls and existence of the possibility for conversion.Expectation of other stakeholders • Other stakeholders would look for better brand image of the mall.
Who fulfills other stockholder's expectations? • Contributing factors include quality-oriented known or unique brands. events and promos. . facilities. support from all other stakeholders. In short. ambience. management. location.
Ambience management and high levels of hygiene are important to attract the family crowd. tenant mix. Only a few malls in India follow revenue sharing. Traffic management is critical to the success of a mall. promotions. zoning. .Quick Bytes Mall Management includes mall positioning. facilities and finance management. Right tenant mix attracts the focused buyer and right zoning attracts the impulsive buyer. which is a common practice in developed markets.
.Quick Bytes • All stakeholders have a great role to play in the success of a mall. • The most important fact is that all stakeholders are dependent on each other for their individual success and for the success of the mall.
Remember that: A Customer sees more in an hour Than Management sees in one year! .
To Start the Value Creation Process you need 3 things: 1 A Good Location 2 A Good Location 3 A Good Location .
• The future will belong to the concepts that put their hope into the synergetic combination of • Entertainment. • Experience. . • Commerce & • Communication.
but also a new centre of life. • A successful shopping mall is nowadays not only a shopping destination. .To make a mall successful: • • • • Experience Leisure Convenience Point of purchase have to be defined in an emotional way to bond with the customers.
.To make it a new centre of life. following things can be included: • • • • • • • • A convention centre A health spa A library A travel agency Restaurants Squash and bowling zone Golf or tennis Additional kid’s playground or kid’s party organization.
• Malls need their own identity. These could be sports. • The main message is: Malls have developed into concepts with their own identity. . religion. culture or even a special atmosphere like Mediterranean scenery. It should not be only a conglomeration of different retail stores. the focus is on theme concepts. • Internationally.
• Shopping has to be a source of lust and excitement. alive and surprising a shopping mall is made to be. • The more diversified. • Mall architecture must reflect the aesthetic value: Beauty & Utility should go hand in hand. . the greater the success will be.
impressions. . the following things need to be counted: Traffic. average time spent interacting. • To find out the right timing. cars in the parking lot segmented by hour.Right Promotion At Right Time • Different groups visit malls at different times on different days (teens after school. working women in the evening). Plan accordingly. Saturday & Sunday are typically the most popular days to stage an event. media hits.
etc). fashion.Positioning a mall • The best international mall management practices include clear positioning of the mall (value. backed by market research to understand the primary catchments needs and thereafter category mapping or defining the categories of services. lifestyle. the women's mall in Bangalore • Gold Souk. • Eva. a jewellery mall in Gurgaon • Ishanya for interior products in Pune .
•A tenant strategy means building that portfolio of occupants that appeal to consumers. Tenant strategy? What’s that? . This phenomenon is highly prevalent in our Asian cultures which give more importance to communal life. especially the increasingly large number of recreation oriented visitors who visit malls for family or social reasons. or conversely expands too much. and have small living quarters. the company can be evicted or shifted at the end of the period. combining shopping with entertainment. •The tenant mix must reflect their needs and the portfolio must be re-evaluated at every lease expiry. If a tenant does not do as well as expected.
Because of high real estate prices. dedicating space to amusements is a larger financial risk than a totally retail-oriented area. . cineplex’s etc is risky without considerable study of the market. though payoffs can be much greater.Tenant strategy • An important aspect of tenant strategy that Indian developers must remember is that appealing to entertainment hunger through dedicated facilities such as arcades.
Proof of a successful mall is in its anchoring tenants
• A mall is a well defined conglomerate retail format where the space is leased out to the tenants and not sold out. There should be a floor plan well orchestrated for customer circulation with the right facilities in place. The mall mix should be profiled by the mall management team so that it not only becomes a destination for customers but becomes a place for shopping there repeatedly. The anchoring stores are very significant for any successful mall. The proof of the pudding is in the eating and likewise the proof of a successful mall is in its anchoring tenants.
What is the Economic model followed?
• Setting the lease rate appropriately is critical. If the lease level works out to more than the average for the mall , the mall is said to be ‘over rented’ and the property shall experience tenant abandonment and a climbing vacancy rate. If rents are lower, the developer gets sub-optimal returns and rents would have to be substantially increased on expiry of the lease period.
• The lease amount is usually structured so as to reflect the space taken up and the crowd pulling capability of the tenant. Tenants taking up large spaces and able to attract large volume of visitors are approached first and in their role as anchor tenants are provided with substantial discounts on the base asking rates to entice them into taking up space .
advertisements.Rentals • Rentals based on a percentage of store turn-over are common abroad. .. managerial personnel associated office expenses. in addition the mall management company charges a royalty or service fee to cover the costs of managing the mall i.e. as well as marketing costs such as newspaper. promotions. and are in fact preferred by many retailers as the mall management then has a stake in increasing the turn-over of tenants. It goes without saying that this arrangement depends on a high level of trust between retailer and developer .
. • The obvious intention behind such design strategy is to increase the number of footfalls (which may increase the number of conversions) in a shopping centre.Food courts • Food courts should be strategically located in a manner that avoids noise but boosts visibility.
Quality Mall Operations • • • • • • Air Conditioning Mall Safety Mall Security Making the Mall Customer Friendly Mall Cost Control Electrical Energy .
. marketing skills and relationship building & customer service skills.Skilled retail professionals • A mall needs to have a strong mall management team with clear requirements of facilities management skills.
.Revenue sharing model between the developers and retailers • Revenue sharing would motivate the mall management to come up with various marketing programmes conceptualized with common tenant objectives in mind.
the ticket size. the coherence and the longevity of the mall mix. the profile of the anchor tenants and the customer profile .• On only 10-12% of malls in India successful • Success is measured not by just the rental revenues but by other factors like footfalls and conversions.
If it is not planned it is just a shopping complex. The anchoring stores are very significant for any successful mall. . A mall is a well defined conglomerate retail format where the space is leased out to the tenants and not sold out. improper zoning. The proof of the pudding is in the eating and likewise the proof of a successful mall is in its anchoring tenants. poor tenant mix and accessibility are major drawbacks. There should be a floor plan well orchestrated for customer circulation with the right facilities in place.• On inadequate planning. • The structure then does not deserve to be defined as a mall. The mall mix should be profiled by the mall management team so that it not only becomes a destination for customers but becomes a place for shopping there repeatedly.
• the percentage of visitors who turn into shoppers is as low as 10-15% in Indian malls .Customers • Middle-class Indians are still hesitant about spending in malls because they think prices are higher in the mall.
Responsibilities of a Mall Manager: • To provide leadership to all Mall staff and to ensure the proper Management of the Mall. • To provide superior client service and to ensure that all reports provide the same service standards. • To ensure delivery of the Mall Business Plan objectives. • Making the Mall Lawsuit Resistant . and meet budgetary targets. • To run the Mall according to good retail property principles by increasing sales and foot-traffic & ultimately increase the return on investment to the owner.
Types of Shopping Centre .
7. 4. 3. 2. 8. 6. Neighbourhood Center Community Center Regional malls Super-regional malls Fashion/Speciality Center Power Center Theme/ Festival Center Outlet malls .Types of Shopping Center 1. 5.
3 & Market No. Market No. Market No. Market No. New Delhi.Neighbourhood Center • This center is designed to provide convenience shopping for the day to day needs of the consumers in the immediate neighbourhood. . • Half of these centers are anchored by a supermarket. 1. • E. 4 in Chittaranjan Park. 2.g.
toys etc. • Among the more common anchors are supermarkets. • Community center tenants sometimes contain off-price retailers selling items like apparel. . super drugstores and discount department stores.Community Center • Typically offers a wider range of apparel than the neighbourhood center does. home improvement.
Mezz and Ego’s many options—Thai. • Beauty salons like Affinity and Ravissant . Nothing Authentic.New Friends Colony Community Centre Market (NFC) • Barista or Café Coffee Day for coffee or fast-food from Concept. Al Bake for a quick bite of Shawarmas. Open Oven for delicious bakes. burgers and privacy for dating couples. • Lily General Store for your grocery or CRS Health for the essentials. Mystic Heights. • Fashion Point is well known for its range of men’s wear. Trendz and The Beginning would answer the clothing needs for the entire family. Italian and desi—are hugely popular with the “spirit-ed” and the sober alike. McDonalds for burger and fries and Fast Trax for the fries. • Among the popular choices are Nathu’s Sweets for spicy chaat. The Pebble Street. Moksha.
in the United States.000 square feet. a shopping mall which is designed to service a larger area than a conventional shopping mall.5 lakh sq. • Given their wider service area.g. • It is typically larger with 4.Regional malls • A regional mall is. • Offers a wider selection of stores.ft area .00. as per the International Council of Shopping Centers. • E. Shipra Mall at Indirapuram with 4.00. • Regional malls are also found as tourist attractions in vacation areas. these malls tend to have higher-end stores that need a larger area in order for their services to be profitable.000 square feet to 8.
00. • E. in the U.00. • Draws from a larger population base. • Select Citywalk with 13. • Has more anchors & a deeper selection of merchandise.00.S. as per the ICSC.000-sq.Super-regional malls • A super-regional mall is.ft.g. The Great India Place with 15.000 square feet of gross leasable area.000 ft² . a shopping mall with over 8.
usually within a period of one week. Khan Market is one of the more up market and expensive places to shop in Delhi. Some of the best-known brands. Nike. dress or shirt. . Several shops have a range of excellent materials and will have a tailor on hand to make a suit. • E. it also has some of the best tailors in Delhi. have their outlets in the Khan Market.g. • This centers usually are found in trade areas having high income levels. like Reebok. Benetton and Adidas.Fashion/Speciality Center • A center composed mainly of upscale apparel shops and boutiques.
g. • E. Palika Bazaar. • A shopping site with: (a) up to a half-dozen or so category killer stores and a mix of smaller stores. including discount department stores.Power Center • A center dominated by several large anchors. • Karol Bagh offers Indian garments and shoes. off-price stores. Connaught Place – Cheap garments and electronic commodities are available. . warehouse clubs and category killers. or (b) several complementary stores specializing in a product category.
Diwali fair at Delhi Haat.Theme/Festival Center • These centers typically employ a unifying theme that is carried out by the individual shops in their architectural design and to an extent in their merchandise. . • The theme for Surajkund Mela 2008 is West Bengal. • Teej fair.
• Other stores in outlet malls are operated by retailers selling returned goods and discontinued products. Vaishali.Outlet malls • An outlet mall (or outlet centre) is a type of shopping mall in which manufacturers sell their products directly to the public through their own stores. Ansal Plaza (Factory Outlet Mall). Ghaziabad. • E.g. . often at heavily reduced prices.
Tenant Mix .
a variety of mall stores and food court operators.• A planned center should aim to create an optimal combination of tenants that will maximize center turnover and retailer profits and therefore total net rentals. • Each category of retail tenant has a role to play in creating the center's micro retailing climate. . • The retail tenant mix will normally include one or more anchor tenants.
as well as capitalizing on the high pedestrian traffic flows in the focus of a center.• At the foundation are anchors that attract a base number of consumers to the center. so as to economize consumers time cost of shopping. . • Food court operators can create another function for the retail destination. • Mall stores cover all of the other shopping needs of the consumer.
There are two types of tenants: (1) anchor. Non-anchors however are affected by the amount of space they lease and the space let to the anchor . • The anchor tenant is affected only by the amount of space it leases and not by the space allocated to non-anchors. and (2) non-anchor tenants • The anchor tenants create a draw card for the center and the non-anchor tenants benefit from locating near the anchor.
.• It is typically observed that anchor tenants have far lower rentals per square meter than mall stores and food court operators.
.So why doesn't the landlord allocate all space to mall stores and food court operators? • The price of the mall store and food court space depends on the space allocated to an anchor. This will cause total rental to be less than the optimal. If there is no anchor the sales these retail tenants would achieve. will move toward zero. and therefore the rent they could afford.
• The starting point for Brueckner's model is that centers contain a variety of shops to lure consumers because of the time economizing quality of shopping at one destination. If another type of retailer enters a center.• Brueckner (1993) has produced a general shopping center space allocation model that does not differentiate between anchors and nonanchors. • Retail tenants are defined according to their retail demand externality generating abilities. but between all retail tenant types. this increases the likelihood that any given shopping trip can be executed in a time-cost saving manner by visiting the center .
while a department store that carries many goods on the average shopping list generates many.• As some additional consumers will patronize other stores during their visits. the existing retail tenants receive what Brueckner terms an "externality" from the new type of store locating in the center. Retail tenant types differ in their externality generating ability. a mall store selling goods that are not on many shopping lists would generate few externalities. For example. .
• Brueckner extends this rationale and formally shows that the rental for any retailer is dependent on the sales volume per square foot the retailer achieves. . The implication of Brueckner's theoretical work is that landlords must optimize interretailer externalities to maximize center total rents. and also on the sales that other tenants generating externalities achieve.
The landlord does not allocate all the mall store parades to jewelers and lottery stores because the price of these retail tenants depends on their sales per square meter and the externalities generated by other mall store tenant types. jewelry stores and lottery stores are typically identified as high rental payers. For example. Allocation of all the space to jewelry and lottery stores is likely to cause externalities to be suboptimal.• The conclusions from Brueckner's model also appear to be consistent with observed behavior. . as in most cases shoppers will not want only these two store types.
• Size of store is consistently found to be the most significant determinant of base rentals per square meter. Rent per square meter decreases as sales per square meter decreases. Rent per square meter decreases as size increases. Anchor stores have the largest size and the lowest sales and rent per square meter. .
.• Empirical studies have confirmed the important negative relationship between size and base rents and the positive relationship between sales and base rents.
All tenant strategy should start with the following questions: • Who are we? • Who are our customers? • How is our retail offering responsive to the needs of our customers? • What is our primary promise to the buying public? .
The owner of the center sometimes has to make an unpleasant choice to give the tenant the flexibility it seeks and put the viability of the center at risk or deny the tenant its desires and risk losing the tenant.• A major retail tenant of a shopping center has a lot of bargaining power. . So much so sometimes that it has the power to change the tenant mix in a way which is detrimental to the entire center.
Fortunately. there are other alternatives: .
. the lease will prohibit the clothing store from converting either itself or its space into a flower shop. while present in the center. The first is to permit the tenant the widest use of its space but prohibit it from changing the use of that space to the then principal use of another tenant of the center (through change in business of the tenant or through assignment or subletting). business of another tenant.1. Thus. if the major tenant of the shopping center is a clothing store and the center later adds a florist. is an ancillary. This is particularly important if the size or location of the center is such that the center will be unable to support two businesses in direct competition and has two beneficial effects. rather than a principal. for example. It maintains tenant balance in the center while simultaneously giving some flexibility to the powerful tenant by allowing it to use some or all of its space for a business which.
. if a florist shop or a clothing store is permitted and a music store is not. one of which is the principal use of another tenant. Another frequently employed technique is to permit the main tenant to use the space for one or more specific purposes (these being the purposes for which the tenant intends to use the space at the time of execution of the lease) and provide that the tenant may not use the space for any of a list of prohibited purposes. This limits both the use to which the original tenant may affirmatively put the property (that is.2. the tenant may not open a music store even if it would otherwise be permissible) while simultaneously restricting uses which would be deleterious to the continued good health of the center.
but restrict the purposes for which the original tenant may assign the lease or sublet the premises.3. The third common technique is to give the original tenant the broadest possible use of its own retail space. . • These strategies should not be applied without careful consideration of the needs both of the tenant and the shopping center.
which act as a magnet to shoppers.Retail Tenant Mix (RTM) • Retail tenant mix (RTM) design seeks to maximise retailers' profits by using pedestrian flows generated by anchor stores and creating clusters of smaller retailers. . or potential for efficient shopping amongst 'complementary goods'. This offers them opportunities to assess 'comparison goods'.
• A successful RTM increases patronage of a centre. Understanding effective RTM is therefore important to investors in managed shopping centres. boosts retail profits and the rent paid to the landlord/investor owning the centre. As a centre matures. their property agents and retailers. . using lease terms and duration. tempered by retailers' micro-location decisions. • In a managed centre RTM results from the landlord's letting strategy. its tenant mix develops in response to changing retail fashions and the landlord manages this process to maximise his investment returns.
Mall Architecture .
mall architecture changes. .Architecture is fashion • As our lifestyles change. our environments change.
a term used to refer to the front exterior of a building. a house may have two or more facades: a front facade facing the street. a facade is an elevation of a building: what you see when standing before one side of the building. Also. The front facade or principal elevation of a building is sometimes referred to as "the facade. etc.• In architecture. other exterior sides when they are emphasized. a garden facade facing the back yard. • In its most general sense. Under this usage." Facade .
Water Fountain in West Edmonton Mall .
Roman Statute in Mall .
Miniature Golf at West Edmonton Mall .
Skating Rink at West Edmonton Mall .
Merry-Go-Round in Mall .
Water Park in Mall .
Food Court Architecture .
Atrium • An atrium is a large space in a building open to the ceiling. used for circulation. In the 20th century the word has been adopted to describe dramatic enclosed glass-roofed indoor spaces associated with high-rise hotels and office buildings that are treated as substitutes for the public realm. reception areas and plants. often skylighted. • In classical architecture. left open to the sky. • An atrium usually has a glass ceiling or many windows to let in a lot of light. • An entrance hall of a building. In contemporary architecture. a significant interior space. . often rising through a number of storeys and containing lifts. Originally the hall or chief apartment of a Roman house. • In the Roman period this was the inner courtyard of a house. an interior courtyard that is open to the weather. and generally built by the affluent urbam classes.
Atrium in a mall .
Ceiling Of A Mall .
Mall Layout .
During late 60s & 70s
The design of shopping centre includes: • Large car parks. • No links to local community. • Large box shapes. • Often poor regard for the surrounding environment. • The capture and contain mentality.
Customer started demanding • Better designed environment to shop • Recreational opportunities such as: Cinemas, Cafes, Lifestyle retail & Entertainment in various forms.
From the 90s
• Greater focus on entertainment and eating. • Demanding an environment full of recreation and enjoyment.
Bloomington. Minnesota (Opened 1992) .Mall of America.
5 million square feet are available as retail space on four levels which are arranged in a roughly symmetrical rectangle. only 2.• The gross area inside the Mall of America is 4. • There are also two large food courts in the mall. . one on each of the north and south side’s third levels. and each side has its own distinct style in terms of decor. • The four sides to the rectangle contain roughly 520 stores on three levels.2 million square feet. • They built two gigantic identical seven-level parking structures on the east and west sides of the mall. however.
• In fact. which also provide natural light to the Amusement Park during the day. to fit with the whole America theme. . the Mall of America is not heated. Instead.• Each level in the parking structures is named after a state. air conditioning needs to be run at all times to maintain a comfortable climate within the mall. • Also. employees. even during January. despite being in one of the coldest parts of the country. the giant structure is heated by patrons. and the greenhouse effect during the day because the roof is made up of transparent windows.
Inside the four-storied Mall .
the third and fourth levels at the Mall of America are a bit different. with many national retailers.• The first two levels of the mall are typical of any super-regional mall. save for some junior anchor holdouts. which only exists on the east and north sides of the mall. Comprising the rest of the third level on the east and west sides there are many seemingly local stores. • The fourth level. and was comprised of several adult-themed night clubs and a 14-screen AMC Movie Theater. but there are also many sit-down restaurants like California Cafe and Famous Dave’s on this level. however. It seems the third level is undesirable for many competitive national retailers. . opened with an allencompassing entertainment theme. • The food courts occupy most of the third level along the north and south corridor.
Inside of the mall’s retail perimeter: .
The Atrium .
In the past… • The mall used to hold National American University college classes at the mall for many years. it has • An underwater aquarium • An alternative High School • An amusement Park . Presently.
The Public Space .
Interconnectivity through Aesthetic Architecture .
Facts @ Mall of America 1. Gross building area . Number of stores . Gross leasable space .5 million square feet 4.More than 520 . Economic impact .Mall of America contributes more than $1.$650 million 2.2.8 billion in economic impact activity annually to the state of Minnesota 3. Cost to build .2 million square feet 5.4.
57 miles 13. Total store front footage .30 8. Fast food restaurants . Sit-down restaurants . Movie screens .11.12. Specialty food stores .36 9.550 on-site 12.Facts @ Mall of America (Contd..000 during summers and holidays 11.3 miles . Parking spaces .14 10. 13.20 7.000 year-round. Employees .) 6.4. Walking distance around one level .
Visibility Through Architecture .
A Sit-down Restaurant .
Aesthetic sense created with Plants .
Amusement Park Inside The Mall .
Stage for Events & Concerts .
Mall of America is big enough to hold 32 Boeing 747s 2. it would take them more than 86 hours to complete their visit to Mall of America 4.Did you know? 1. There is no sales tax on clothing in Minnesota . If a shopper spent 10 minutes browsing at every store. Seven Yankee Stadiums can fit inside Mall of America 3.
000 seat music theatre. • Water park etc. .Future Plans: • 6. • New hotel.
Recent Trends in Mall 1. 2. . Increasing spending on food and merchandise. particularly the provision of Entertainment/ lifestyle attractions such as cinemas. Greater diversity of uses in shopping centers. 3. Creation of precincts targeted towards certain parts of market.
Creating environments that respond to changing demographics including more singles and childless couples and increasing average age. .) 4. Creating environments where people feel comfortable including the identification of the ‘third place’ – a place away from home and work where people want to spend their time.Recent Trends in Mall (contd. The impact of the increasing popularity of electronic services such as internet shopping and phone banking. 5. 6.
Recreating the image of the mall to suit the expectations of target audience and better integration of the tenants to mall ambience. .Recent Trends in Mall (contd.) 7.
• Conversely. . better architectural design not necessarily ensures successful shopping centers. shopping centers which are architecturally challenged may also be successful.Conclusion • However.