ENGC6353 Dr.

Mohammed Arafa Page 1

Design Example 3
Rectangular Silo

Design a single rectangular concrete silo for storing peas. The bottom is a symmetrical
pyramidal Hopper. The silo walls rest on the Hopper base which is supported by four
columns. The Roof load ( DL =150 kg/m
2
and LL=100 kg/m
2
Use
).
' 2 2
350 / , 4200 /
c y
f kg cm f kg cm = =















Solution
For Peas
3
'
800 /
25
0.296
o
kg m γ
φ
µ
=
=
=

b=6m

a
=
4
m


An Above Hopper

b=6m

a=6m
Openning0.5x0.5m

30m

5m

7m

φ50cm

3m

ENGC6353 Dr. Mohammed Arafa Page 2

Assume angle of response = =25
2
3tan25 1.4 1.0
3
1 sin25 0.577
4
1.0
4 4
'
1.0
4
2 4 6 '
' 4.8 1.2
4 6 4
s s
a
b
b
h m h m
k
a
R m
a
R m
a
a R m
ρ φ
= = ⇒ ≅
= − =
= = =
= =
× ×
= = = =
+


Overpressure Factor C
1 d
d
/ 40/10 4
upper H c 1.5
lower 2/3 H c 1.85
Hooper 1.5
d
H D
c
= =
=
=
=
d


At the bottom of the silos
( ) '
2
2
2
2
At the bottom of the silos 30-1.0 29.0
1
'
( 1.0) 4.65t/m
0.577 4.65 2.7 t/m
( 1.2) 5.53t/m
0.577 5.53 3.2t/m
kY R
Y m
R
q e
k
p kq
For shortwall R q
p kq
For longwall R q
p kq
µ
γ
µ

= =
(
= −
¸ ¸
=
= =
= = × =
= =
= = × =

Vertical Loads Due to Friction
( )
( )
( )
ShortWall 0.8 30 4.65 1.0 19.35ton
Long Wall 0.8 30 5.53 1.2 22.16ton
Friction V Y q R
V
V
γ = −
= × − × =
= × − × =

Wall tension and bending moment
( )
( )
,
,
ShortWall 1.7 1.85 3.2 6 2 30.2ton/m
Long Wall 1.7 1.85 2.7 4 2 17.0ton/m
au
b u
F
F
= × × =
= × × =

Frame action analysis using moment distribution Analysis
Assume wall thickness h=30cm
25cm

ENGC6353 Dr. Mohammed Arafa Page 3

The moment distribution is computed for an idealized rectangular frame 6.3 by 4.4 m
Using symmetry
a
2 2
ShortWall =0.465I
4.3
2 2
Long Wall =0.317I
6.3
0.465
DF 0.6
0.465 0.317
0.4
a
a
b
b
b
I I
K
L
I I
K
L
DF
= =
= =
= ≅
+


Short Wall Long Wall
DF 0.6 0.4
FEM 4.16 -10.6
Balancing 3.86 2.58
FINAL 8.0 -8.0
Assume fillit (hunch) at the corner =25cm
Negative moment will be calculated at the face of the hunch
2
b,-ve
2
a,-ve
M 8.0 3.2 0.4 / 2 10.1 0.4 4.2 .
M 8.0 2.7 0.4 / 2 5.8 0.4 5.9 .
t m
t m
= + × − × =
= + × − × =


Check for thickness
( )( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )( )
( )
( ) ( )
' 2
, 2
5
3
2
, 2
5
3
2
, 2
6
2 2 350 37.4 /
ForlongWall
6 4.2 10
1 17 10
11 /
1.7 1.85 30 100
30 100
ForshortWall
6 5.9 10
1 30.2 10
15.7 /
1.7 1.85 30 100
30 100
Thewall thicknes
t b r c
t b r
t b r
T M
f f f kg cm
bt bt
f kg cm f
f kg cm f
= + ≤ = = =
(
×
×
( = + = <
×
(
¸ ¸
(
×
×
( = + = <
×
(
¸ ¸
sisoK

Design for Reinforcement
Long Wall
negative moment M
Check for small eccentricity
-ve

3.2 t/m
2


2
.
7

t
/
m
2


6.3m

4.3m

7.9 t.m

-8.0

-8.0

-
1
.
5


25cm

ENGC6353 Dr. Mohammed Arafa Page 4

( ) 4.2 100
24.7 '' 15 5.7 9.3
17 2
u
u
M h
e d
F
= = = > − = − =

Small eccentricity approach can not be used
3
2
st
'' 15 5.7 9.3
2
Directtensionreinforcement
17 10
A 4.5 /
0.9 4200
y
h
e d
T
cm m
f φ
= − = − =
×
= = =
×

Bending Moment Reinforcement
( )
( )
( )( )( )
'
,
5
2
2
( )
2
,
4.2 17 9.3/100 2.6 .
d=30-5.7=24.3
2.6110 2.6
0.85 350
1 1 0.00117
4200
100 24.3 350
0.00117 100 24.3 2.85
4.5 2.85 7.35 /
14@20
u ve
ve
s ve
s total
M t m
A cm
A cm m
use cm
ρ
φ



= − × =
(


( = − − =
⋅ ⋅ (
¸ ¸
= =
= + =

Design for Positive Moment at Midspan
( )
( )
( )( )( )
'
,
5
2
2
( )
2
,
7.9 17 9.3/100 6.32 .
d=30-5.7=24.3
2.6110 6.32
0.85 350
1 1 0.00289
4200
100 24.3 350
0.00289 100 24.3 7.0
4.5 7 11.5 /
16@15
u ve
ve
s ve
s total
M t m
A cm
A cm m
use cm
ρ
φ
+
+
+
= − × =
(


( = − − =
⋅ ⋅ (
¸ ¸
= =
= + =


Design for Short Wall
negative moment M
Check for small eccentricity
-ve

( ) 5.9 100
19.5 '' 15 5.7 9.3
30.2 2
u
u
M h
e d
F
= = = > − = − =

Small eccentricity approach can not be used
ENGC6353 Dr. Mohammed Arafa Page 5

3
2
st
'' 15 5.7 9.3
2
Directtensionreinforcement
30.2 10
A 8.0 /
0.9 4200
y
h
e d
T
cm m
f φ
= − = − =
×
= = =
×

Bending Moment Reinforcement
( )
( )
( )( )( )
'
,
5
2
2
( )
2
,
5.9 30.2 9.3/100 3.0 .
d=30-5.7=24.3
2.6110 3.0
0.85 350
1 1 0.00137
4200
100 24.3 350
0.00137 100 24.3 303
8.0 3.3 11.3 /
16@15
u ve
ve
s ve
s total
M t m
A cm
A cm m
use cm
ρ
φ



= − × =
(


( = − − =
⋅ ⋅ (
¸ ¸
= =
= + =

Design at Mid-span

Design of the Hopper Walls
The pressure changes very little with depth of the hopper, so use the pressure at the top of
the hopper with Cd=1.35
2
,
2
,
2
,
2
,
1.35 4.65 6.28t/m
1.35 0.577 4.65 3.6t/m
1.35 5.53 7.47t/m
1.35 0.577 5.53 4.3t/m
a des
a des
b des
b des
q
p
q
q
= × =
= × × =
= × =
= × × =

1
1
Angleof slopes
3
tan 48
3 0.3
3
tan 60.5
2 0.3
a
a
α
α


| |
= =
|

\ .
| |
= =
|

\ .



2 2 2
,
2 2 2
,
3.6sin 48 6.28cos 48 4.8t/m
4.3sin 60.5 7.47cos 60.5 5.0 t/m
a des
b des
q
q
α
α
= + =
= + =




ENGC6353 Dr. Mohammed Arafa Page 6

Horizontal Ultimate tensile forces
( )( ) ( )
( )( ) ( )
2
2
1.7 5.0 6/2 sin 48 =19.0t/m
1.7 4.8 4/2 sin 60.5 =14.2t/m
tau
tbu
F
F
=
=

The own weight of the Hopper and its contents
( )( )( )
( )( )( )
3 4 6 3 0.8 60
3 4 6 3 0.2 2.5 38
L
L
W ton
W ton
π
π
= × =
= × × =

For simplicity neglect the opening area at the bottom of the hopper. Hopper side A
a
and A
b


can be calculated as:
( )
( )
2
2
2
1
4 3 6
2
1
6 2 6
2
6
1/ 4
a
b
a b
a b
A m
A m
A A m
c c
= × =
= × =
= =
= =

( ) ( ) ( )( )
( ) ( ) ( )( )
,
,
1.7 1.4
1.7 0.25 60 6 6.28 1.4 0.25 38
34.6
sin 4sin48
1.7 1.4
1.7 0.25 60 6 7.47 1.4 0.25 38
22
sin 6sin60.5
a L a a des b g
mau
a
b L b b des b g
mbu
b
cW A q cW
F ton
a
cW A q cW
F ton
b
α
α
+ +
× + × +
= = =
+ +
× + × +
= = =

Hopper wall bending can be computed using Tables for triangular slabs:
For Hopper wall A
( )
2
2
4.3
6.3/ 2 3 4.35
/ 1.0
a m
c m
a c
=
= + =


From table 16.4 in Appendix At the centre of the top edge n
x
=-0.209 and n
y
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
2
1.7 0.209 4.8 4.3 /64 0.493 .
1.7 1.255 4.8 4.3 /64 2.89 .
xau
yau
M t m
M t m
= =
= =
=-1.255

This slab is to be designed for bending and tensile force similarly as shown above.




ENGC6353 Dr. Mohammed Arafa Page 7

Design of the edge beam
Dowels are provided to transfer the vertical loads from hopper edge beam into the vertical
walls
3
2
,
sin 34.6sin48 25.7 /
25.7 10
6.8 /
0.9 4200
mau a
st dowels
T F ton m
A cm m
α = = =
×
= =
×

Since the edge beam is to be joining the vertical wall using dowels. The upper wall shear
and horizontal components of the hopper are assumed to be in equilibrium. Thus no
horizontal load is carried by the edge beam. Its only purpose is to simplify construction.
Minimum longitudinal steel and shear stirrups are provided

Vertical Wall
The vertical walls are analyzed as deep girder (strut and tie analysis can be used) to carry
vertical the following vertical loads:
From dowel 25.7 ton/m
Friction 1.7(19.35) = 32.9 ton/m
Wall weight,
1.4(2.5)(0.3)(30)= 31.5 ton/m
Total = 90 ton/m



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