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Biology Form 5: Chapter 1 1.2 The Circulatoy System 1.

Components: a) Blood b) Heart c) Blood vessels

Blood and haemolymph 1. Blood is the medium of transport in animals and humans. 2. Haemolymph is a blood-like nutritive fluid found in insects. The functions of blood 1. Tranports oxygen from the lungs to the cells throughout the body. 2. Tranports carbon dioxide from the cells to the lungs. 3. Tranports nutrients, hormones and waste products 4. Regulate the Ph of body fluid. 5. Regulate body temperature. 6. Regulate water content. 7. Blood clotting. 8. Protects the body against diseases . The functions of haemolymph 1. Transports water, inorganic salts and organic compounds. The composition of human blood 1. Made up of 55% plasma and 45% cellular components. 2. Plasma is the main transport medium in the body. 3. Cellular components of blood: a) red blood cells (erythrocytes) b) platelets c) white blood cells (leucocytes)

Hb contains haem groups which contains iron. Destroyed in the liver and spleen. 4. 9. Contains haemoglobin. 7. 6. Haemoglobin is an oxygen carrying protein pigment which gives the RBC the colour red. 3. Lifespan of erythrocyte is 120 days. 5. Biconcave disc shaped provides large surface area/volume ratio for gaseous exchange. 2. It is the site of oxygen binding.Erythrocytes (RBC) 1. Matured cells do not have nucleus. Each haemoglobin molecules can bind up to four oxygen molecules. Manufactured in the bone marrow. . 8.

2. Involved in blood clotting Human blood vessels Arteries 1. 5. No nucleus. 7. To withstand such a high pressure. Leucocytes can fight infectious diseases in the interstitial fluid. Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart. Arteries branch into smaller vessels called arterioles. 3. 2. the walls of the aorta must be thick.Leucocytes (WBC) 1. Eosinophils and basophils release enzymes that combat inflammation in allergic reactions and kill parasitic worms. 4. . 7. Colourless and have a nucleus. The muscle tissue enables the artery to constrict and dilate. 3. The blood pressure in the human aorta is about 120 mm Hg. Platelets 1. Larger than RBC. Transport blood quickly at high pressure (due to heart’s pumping action). 6. Lymphocytes produce immune response against foreign substances. Aorta is the main artery. Cell fragments from the bone marrow. Neutrophils and monocytes are phagocytes. 5. 3. 2. Made from stem cells in bone marrow 4. 6.