A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF MEDICINAL PLANTS OF INDIA

NUDRAT.Z. SAYED AND USHA MUKUNDAN Chapter Outline: 1. Introduction 1.1 Brief History: 1.2 Medicinal Plants and their Uses in Present Age: 1.3 Medicinal plants and Modern Drugs: 1.4 Distribution of Medicinal Plants: 1.5 Trade: 2. India and its medicinal wealth. 2.1 Indian Floral Elements 2.2 Distribution of Medicinal plants in India 3. Medicinal Plants of India. 3.1 Brief Overview: 3.2 Brief description: 4. Some therapeutic actions, mode of action and some plants that possess these actions. 5. Current Status of Medicinal Plants In India. 6. Trade of Medicinal plants in India. 7. Conclusion. 8. Reference. ____________________________________________________________________ 1. Introduction: “There is no plant in this Universe which is non medicinal and which cannot be made use of for many purpose and by many modes.” This definition rightly suggests that in principle all plants have a potential medicinal value. Medicinal plants have been considered as important therapeutic aid for alleviating ailments of humankind. Search for eternal health and longevity and to seek remedy to relieve pain and discomfort prompted the early man to explore his immediate natural surrounding to develop a variety of therapeutic agents using natural resources. 1.1 Brief History: Hundreds if not thousands of indigenous plants have been used by man from prehistoric times on all continents for relieving suffering and curing ailments. There are evidences that suggest that Neanderthals, living 60,000 years ago in present day Iraq used Althea rosea which is still in ethnomedical use around the world today. The practice of organized herbal medicine dates back to the earliest periods of known human history. Medicinal plants have been used in treatment of diseases in almost all ancient civilizations, from 3700 B.C. Egypt followed by the Chinese, the Greeks and Romans. The Petric collection from Kahun in Egypt (1880 B.C.), Atharvaveda (1200 B.C.) from India and the Avesta (6 A.D) from Persia show that the early medicine was based mainly on religion and magic but also included a growing use of herbs. In spite of tremendous development in the field of allopathy medicinal plants and their derivatives still remain one of the major sources of drugs in modern and traditional systems throughout the world playing a major role in medicinal therapy.

1.2 Medicinal Plants and their Uses in Present Age: The WHO estimates that 80% of people living in developing countries rely almost exclusively on traditional medicine for their primary health care needs. Medicinal plants form the back bone of traditional medicine and hence more than 3300 million people utilize medicinal plants on a regular basis. Demand for medicinal plants is increasing due to growing recognisation of natural products being non toxic, having no side effects. Furthermore an increasing reliance on the use of medicinal plants in the industrialized societies has been traced to the extraction and development of several drugs and chemotherapeutics from the plants as well as from traditionally used rural remedies. Moreover in these societies herbal remedies have become more popular in the treatment of minor ailments on account of the increasing cost of personal health maintenance. 1.3 Medicinal plants and Modern Drugs: Inspite of rapid development in methods of organic synthesis in laboratories, medicinal plants continue to play a significant role in modern medicine due to their inherent distinct chemical and biological properties. In nature a plant is able to synthesize complex molecules, namely alkaloids, terpenoids, tannins, saponins, glycocides etc collectively called secondary metabolites, from simple ones through highly specific reaction mechanisms that they use for defense and communication. It is difficult and expensive to duplicate such synthesis in laboratory. The compounds synthesized by the plants play an important role as medicinal and pharmaceutical agents not only as purified isolates and extractives but also as lead compounds for synthetic optimization. As botanist Walter Lewis PhD and microbiologist Memory Elvin Lewis, PhD put it in their book Medical Botany: “Nature is still mankind’s greatest chemist and many compounds that remain undiscovered in plants are beyond the imagination of even our best scientists”. Apart from being the sources for new drug the plants continue to play an important role in modern therapy. Plants seem to have served as model in drug development due to several reasons the main reason being their capability to synthesize complex compounds (secondary metabolites). Many secondary metabolites extracted from plants are useful in studying biological systems and disease processes. At least 25% of all prescription contains active principles extracted from higher plants which have persisted for at least the last 25 years. Biologically active substances derived from plants may have low pharmacological properties or they may be toxic if directly used however they can serve as templates for synthetic modification. Medicinal plants are an integral component of research developments in the pharmaceutical industry and drug development, not only when plant constituents are used directly as therapeutic agents but also when they are used as basic material for the synthesis of drugs or as models for pharmacologically active compounds. In 1985, Farnsworth identified 119 secondary metabolites isolated from higher plants that were being used globally as drugs.These 119 useful drugs are still obtained commercially for the most part by extraction from only about 90 species of plants. About 75% of these drugs have the same or related uses as the plant from which they were discovered. The scope of herbal medicines ranges from mild acting medicinal plants such as chamomile and peppermint, to very potent ones such as foxglove. In between these two poles lies a wide spectrum of plant medicine with significant medical application.

1.4 Distribution of Medicinal Plants: In terms of life form medicinal plants are equally distributed across habits viz trees, shrubs and herbs. Roughly one third of the known medicinal plants are trees and equal proportion is shrubs and the remaining one third comprises of herbs epiphytes, grasses and climbers. Very small proportions of the medicinal plants are lower plants like lichens, ferns, and algae. The majority of medicinal plants are higher flowering plants. The major families in which medicinal plants occur are Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae, Poaceae, Rubiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Apiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Malvaceae, and Solanaceae. 1.5 Trade: The industrial uses of medicinal plants are many ranging from traditional medicines, herbal teas and health foods as nutriceuticals to galenicals, phytopharmaceuticals and industrially produced pharmaceuticals. Medicinal plants also constitute a source of valuable foreign exchange for most developing countries as they are a ready source of drugs such as quinine and reserpine, of galenicals like tincture and of intermediates in the production of semi synthetic drugs. 2. India and its medicinal wealth: India is well known as an Emporium of medicinal plants. Knowledge of medicinal use of plants in India is amassed over millennia by tribals. For thousands of years Indian plants have been attracting attention of foreign countries. People from countries like China, Cambodia, Indonesia and Baghdad used to come to ancient universities of India like Takshila (700BC) and Nalanda (500BC) to learn health science of India. Dioscorides mentions many plants including datura smoke for treating asthma, nux vomica for paralysis and indigestion and croton as purgatives. It is evident that the Indian people have a tremendous passion for medicinal plants and use them for a wide range of health related applications from common cold to memory improvement and treatment of poisonous snake bites to a cure for muscular dystrophy and the enhancement of body’s general immunity. There are estimated to be around 25,000 effective plant based formulations available in the indigenous medical text used in folk medicine and known to rural communities all over India. Medicinal plants provide raw material for use in all indigenous systems of medicine in India namely Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, and Tibetan medicines. 2.1 Indian Floral Elements: India is a treasure chest of biodiversity which host a large variety of plants and has been identified as one of the eight important Vavilorian centers of origin and crop diversity. Wide variation in climatic, meteorological and topographical conditions prevailing in India due to its vastness makes it the repository of perhaps the most varied and luxuriant flora growing anywhere on the surface of earth. Indian flora is not only rich but very cosmopolitan. There is naturally a preponderance of genera and species of the adjacent countries. Chinese, Malayan and Burmese floral elements are seen in the eastern region of the country while European and Middle Eastern flora occur in the north western parts. African, Australian and American elements occur in some part or the other. In the alpine

regions of the Himalayas Tibetan and Siberian flora flourish while Chinese and Japanese flora occur in its temperate belts. 2.2 Distribution of Medicinal plants in India: Medicinal plants represent not only a valuable part of India’s biodiversity but also a source of great knowledge. The WHO has listed 21,000 plants that are used as medicine around the world. India has a rich medicinal plant flora of some 2500 species and out of these 150 species are used commercially on a fairly large scale. India has 16 agro climatic zones and medicinal plants are distributed across diverse habitats and landscapes. Nearly 70 % of India’s medicinal plants are found in the tropical areas mostly in the various forest types across the Western and Eastern ghats, the Vindhyas, Chota Nagpur plateau, Aravalis and Himalayas. Nearly 30 % of medicinal plants occur in temperate and alpine region which include plants of high medicinal values. A small number of medicinal plants are found in aquatic habitats and mangroves. The percentage of medicinal plants occurring in dry and moist deciduous regions is larger as compared to evergreen or temperate regions. Ved et. al (2001) give an estimated number of medicinal plants found in different biogeographic regions of India. According to them Trans Himalayan region have 700 species, Himalayan 2500 species, Dessert 500 species, Semi arid region have 1000 species, Western Ghats have 2000species, Deccan Peninsula 3000 species, Gangetic Plains have 1000 species, North East India has 2000 species, Islands show around 1000 species and Coasts have around 500 species. Analyses of habit of medicinal plants indicate that they are distributed across various habitats. One third is trees and the other one third is shrubs and the remaining one third herbs, grasses and climbers. A very small proportion of medicinal plants are lower plants like lichens, ferns, algae etc. Majority of medicinal plants are higher flowering plants. Of the 386 families and 2200 genera in which medicinal plants are recorded the families Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Lamiaceae, Fabaceae, Rubiaceae, Poaceae, Acanthaceae, Rosaceae and Apiaceae share the larger proportion of medicinal plant species with the highest number of species being under Asteraceae. 3. Medicinal Plants of India: 3.1 Brief Overview: India has an impressive medicinal flora and a large number of plants are endemic to the country.Towering above all is Azadirachta indica, whose all parts are used as medicine to treat an array of disorders. The whole plant of Acalypha is a drug against bronchitis, asthma, rheumatism and pneumonia. The dried stems of Ephedra and dried leaves of Datura provide anti-asthmatic medicines.Ocimum sanctum, Piper nigrum, Adhatoda vasika, Glycyrrhiza glabra and Alpinia galanga are used to combat cough. The aerial parts of Lobelia are a good respiration stimulant. Roots of Solanum xanthocarpum helps in cases of chest pain and congestion. The leaves of Atropa belladonna provide a drug against whooping cough, spasms and asthma. Oil of Gaultheria fragrantissima and the dried roots of Withania somnifera are beneficial in treating rheumatism.The mucilage of Aegle marmelos fruit, dried barks of Alstonia scholaris and Holarrhena antidysentrica, and the gum of Butea are used in cases of diarrhea and dysentery, while a drug made from the entire plant of Perguleria is effective for infantile diarrhea. The hairy substance

on Mallotus phillepinensis fruit and dried Embelia ribes fruits are used to make preparations to kill tapeworms. Indian gentian plant components and the rhizomes of Acorus calamus remove flatulence. Cassia pulp is a good laxative, while kaladana seeds give rise to a remedy for constipation. Cinnamon bark preparations prevent/ control vomiting. The dried roots of Rauvolfia serpentina and Catharanthus have a good action against high blood pressure. The seeds of Psoralea, leaves and stems of Centella and the oil of Hydnocarpus have been used in the treatment of leprosy and leucoderma. The bark leaves, and flowers of Madhuca give rise to itch relieving preparations. Emblica officinalis, Terminalia bellarica and Terminalia chebula are endowed with excellent tonic characteristics. Amla has been hailed as a nugget of Vitamin C. A preparation from fresh air dried leaves of Symploccus racemosa is used in treating eye diseases. Tribulus terrestris is indicated in urinary disorders while rhizomes of Valeriana officinale are used against hysterical fits. Withania somnifera is used as a general restorative for consumption, debility and sexual weakness.The bamboo has on the inside of its stem a white powdery deposit that has marked decongestant properties, particularly useful as local application in tonsillitis.The large handsome evergreen Cinnamomum camphora is the traditional source of camphor. It is used extensively in medicine as it can liquefy obstinate body secretion and cause them to flow. Commiphora mukul produces resin with marked anti-inflammatory properties. Asafoetida, a resin collected from roots of Ferula foetida is used to relieve colic and abdominal distension. Valeriana wallichii has long been used as a sedative and antispasmodic. Berberis aristata is used to control various types of inflammation and is also used as a remedy against jaundice. Leaves of Lawsonia inermis has the property to soothe rashes particularly eczema. Vetiveria zizannioides purifies blood, reduces fever, and acts as soothing agent in vomiting and diarrhea. Trigonella foenum-graceum is highly effective as tonic for digestive, respiratory and nervous systems.It is also beneficial in diabetes and high blood pressure. Crocus sativa relieves respiratory congestion and is an antioxidant. Moringa oleifera provide relief from high blood pressure and tones up heart and circulatory systems. The ripe fruits of Tamarindus indicus stimulate the appetite and digestion. The range of plants used in traditional medicinal preparation is so vast and diverse that one may rightly wonder if there is such a thing as a non medicinal plant. 3.2 Brief description: India is tenth among plant rich countries of the world and fourth among the Asian countries.In India about 2,500 plant species belonging to more than 1000 genera are used in indigenous system of medicine.Medicinal properties of some of the plants are briefly described below. Achillea millefolium Linn. Achillea millefolia is used to curb discharges of blood from the nose. The plant is highly astringent, and hence dries and heals up wounds. It is useful in treatment of piles. It improves the flow of blood and acts as an antiseptic in urinary infections. It has long been taken as a strengthening bitter tonic. Achillea millefolia helps recovery from colds and flu and is beneficial for hay fever. It is also helpful for menstrual problems and circulatory disorders.

Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. Root is bitter, tonic, digestive, alleviates dysentery and bilious complaints, good in periodic and intermittent fevers as a tonic, useful in diarrhoea and vomiting in children, causes constipation when taken in large doses. The dried root is analgesic, antiinflammatory, antiperiodic, aphrodisiac, astringent, cholagogue, antipyretic, and tonic. It is used in India in the treatment of dyspepsia, diarrhoea and coughs. Aconitum heterophyllum appeared to stimulate phagocytic function while inhibiting the humoral component of the immune system. Acorus calamus Linn. The oil of Acorus calamus has been found to possess an antibacterial activity against organism responsible for digestive and throat infections. Asarone derived from the plant was found to exhibit in vitro nematocidal activity against Toxocara canis. It is a memory enhancer. It is recommended in the treatment of anorexia nervosa and loss of appetite. Acorus calamus is highly valued as a rejuvenator of the brain and nervous system.It aids digestion, helps in curing gastritis, peptic ulcer, hyperacidity, posseses analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties and is beneficial in rheumatic pain and neuralgia, sinusitis. Adathoda vasica Nees. Leaves collected during the flowering of the plant are medicinally important. It is expectorant, antispasmodic and bronchodilator. It is also used in the treatment of cough, wounds, bronchitis and menstrual disorders. It is a natural pain-killer, antiinflammatory, antihistaminic, and has uterine stimulant activity. It is also an antiallergic agent. Adonis aestivalis Linn. Antioxidant, Adonis acts very much like digitalis and strophanthus. It stimulates the muscles of the heart, thereby increasing cardiac contractility, and causes contraction of the smaller arteries throughout the whole body, thus increasing arterial tension. It diminishes the frequency of the pulse and regulates the heart-beat. The remedy acts quickly, even quicker than digitalis, and is well tolerated. Diuresis is increased, probably by its action on the renal circulation.Homoeopathic physicians speak highly of this drug in heart disease, and kidney affections. It is recommended in endocardial inflammation, with valvulitis. It is adapted to those cases where the cardiac muscles are laboring to overcome valvular obstruction, or when there is danger of dilatation of the heart from weakening of the muscular tissues. It is valuable in secondary heart trouble, resulting from Bright's disease, being indicated by an irregular and intermitting pulse, showing weakened heart action, with venous stasis and dropsy. It is valuable in cardiac dropsy. In chronic albuminuria, with scanty, light-colored urine and delirium, it benefited greatly. Allium sativa Linn. Garlic has been used as both food and medicine in many cultures for thousands of years. During World Wars I & II soldiers were given garlic to prevent gangrene and today garlic

is used to help in prevention of atherosclerosis, high blood pressure, and to reduce cold, cough and bronchitis. Allium sativa contains more than 100 biologically useful secondary metabolites which include alliin, alliinase, allicin, S-allyl-cysteine, diallyldisulphide, diallyltrisulphide and methylallyltrisulphide. Garlic has antioxidant properties and recent studies have revealed that this property is due to presence of bioflavonoids quercetin and cyaniding.Garlic also contain a rich content of selenium which is a cellular antioxidant. Diallyltrisulphide, diallyldisulphide, S-allyl-cysteine, found in Allium sativa have anticarcinogenic properties. Garlic has been traditionally used as dietary supplement for diabetes. Extract of garlic inhibits growth of several species of bacteria including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the organism responsible for tuberculosis. Aloe vera Linn. Aloe is found in semi wild state in all parts of India and has been in use for over 7000 years. Aloe gel is anti-fugal, anti-inflammatory, and is extremely effective in treating several skin disorders. It is an effective moisturizer and helps in anti-ageing and softening the skin. Aloe removes dead skin cells and stimulates formation of new cells, tightening of the skin and making skin to look young. Other medicinal uses include treating radiation ulcers, peptic ulcers, thermal burns, wounds, pimples, freckles, spots, dandruff, split ends, menstrual problems, constipation, urine disorders and improving digestion. Angelica glauca Edgew. Angelica is used for asthma, bronchitis, anaemia, coughs, indigestion, arthritis and colds. It is also beneficial in psychogenic asthma, digestive disorders, loss of appetite, frontal headaches, neuralgia, sinusitis, and rhinitis.It possesses antispasmodic diuretic, hepatoprotective, antimicrobial, analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, anticholesterolemic, and antitumor-promoting activity. It is a circulatory stimulant, useful in female ailments, painful and irregular menstruation, anemia, abdominal pain, angina pectoris, and gastric ulcer healing asthma. It is immuno-modulatory and has antioxidant properties. Arctium lappa Linn. Arctuim lappa, commonly known as burdock, is one of the foremost detoxifying herbs in herbal medicine. The plant is antibacterial, antifungal, carminative and possesses antioxidant properties that may protect body cells from damage caused by oxidation, both orally and topically, burdock root preparations have mild antibacterial, antifungal, soothing, mucilaginous properties effects, which may help to relieve skin conditions such as acne, athlete's foot, dandruff, diaper rash, dry skin, eczema, burns, bruises and others. It is used in the treatment of herpes, impetigo, ringworm, boils, bites etc. The antibacterial chemicals in burdock leaves appear to be effective against different types of bacteria than the chemicals in the roots. The roots of one-year old plants are harvested in mid-summer and dried. They are alterative, aperient, blood purifier, cholagogue, depurative, diaphoretic, diuretic and stomachic.The seed is alterative, antiphlogistic, depurative, diaphoretic and diuretic. Recent research has shown that seed extracts lower blood sugar levels. The seed is harvested in the summer and dried for later use. The crushed seed is poulticed onto bruises. The leaves are poulticed onto burns, ulcers and sores

Artemisia annua Linn. This plant is known as a potent anti malarial. Artemisinin, the active constituent of the plant, reacts with the high iron concentrations found in the malaria parasite. When artemisinin comes into contact with iron, a chemical reaction ensues, spawning charged atoms that chemists call free radicals. The free radicals attack cell membranes, breaking them apart and killing the single-cell parasite. Artemisia annua is also used as a cooling and detoxifying herb. Apart being a remedy for malaria it is anti-parasitic, anti-protozoal, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, immune regulator, and anti-coagulant Artemisia nilagirica (Clarke) Pamp. The herb is considered to be emmenagogue, anthelmintic and stomachic. A paste made of the leaves is applied twice a day for sprains and for longer periods in the case of rheumatoid arthritis. The warm leaf is tied around the chest to alleviate coughs, colds and fever. The oil of A. nilagirlca has been reported to exhibit biological properties. The essential oil of Artemisia nilagirica was found to possess complete antidermatophytic activity by the poisoned food technique. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the oil was found to be 200 ppm. It was fungistatic in nature and had a broad fungitoxic spectrum. An ointment of the essential oil prepared in polyethylene glycol showed pronounced efficacy as a herbal antifungal agent against dermatomycosis induced in guinea-pigs within 14 days of application. Azadirachta indica A. Juss. It is one of the oldest medicinal plants in the world and has been used in indigenous medicinal systems for thousand of years. It possesses properties of antiseptic, moisturizer and emollient and hence used in treatment of many skin disorders. Root bark and young fruits are astringent, tonic and antiperiodic. The roots are used in treatment of syphilis and intestinal disorders. Leaves are anthelmenthic and are also used as remedy for headaches, hysteria, glandular swelling and menstrual disorder.Leaves also exhibit hypoglycaemic activity. The oil of neem is local stimulant, antibacterial and an insecticide. It also has emmenagouge properties. Bacopa monnieri (Linn.) Wettst. Bacopa monnieri is a small, creeping herb that contains the alkaloids brahmine and herpestine.The entire plant constitutes the well-known drug Brahmi.The drug is astringent, bitter and cooling. Bacopa monnieri is a well known memory enhancer which sharpens dull memory and improves intelligence. It is used in Ayurveda for the treatment of asthma, hoarseness, insanity, and epilepsy. It is a potent nerve tonic, cardiotonic, diuretic, aphrodisiac and aperient. It is anti anxiety agent having adaptogenic effect.It is also used in diabetes, anorexia, rheumatism, bronchitis and anaemia. It is also capable of imparting youthful vitality and longevity. It also calms restlessness in children and is used in several mental disorders.

Barleria prionitis Linn. The whole plant, leaves, and roots are used for a variety of purposes in traditional Indian medicine.A mouth wash made from root tissue is used to relieve toothache and treat bleeding gums. Leaves are used to promote healing of wounds and to relieve joint pains and toothache. The whole plant extract contains iridoid glycosides, barlerin, and verbascoside, which have shown potent activity against respiratory syncytial virus in vitro and may account for the plant’s use in treating fever and several respiratory diseases in herbal medicine. Extract of the plant have also shown to effectively suppress the fungi Trichophyton mentagrophytes in vitro due to its antiseptic properties extracts of the plant are incorporated in herbal cosmetics and hair products to promote skin and scalp health. Berberis aristata DC. Commonly known as barberry, it has played a prominent role in herbal healing for more than 2,500 years. Berberine, berberine chloride and palmative chloride are its principal constituents. Barberry is one of the best remedies for correcting liver function and promoting the flow of bile. The roots possess antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. It is used in inflammation of the gall-bladder or in the presence of gall stones. Berberis aristata is given in jaundice that occurs due to a congested state of the liver.It acts as a bitter tonic with mild laxative effectsand hence it is used to strengthen and cleanse the system. The herb is believed to have the ability to reduce an enlarged spleen. It acts against malaria. Barberry tends to dilate the blood vessels, thereby lowering blood pressure. The fresh juice of the fruit is also said to strengthen the gums and relieve pyorrhea when brushed on or applied directly to the gums.It is used as a blood purifier and as antidiabetic. Bergenia ciliate. Sternb. Commonly known as Pashanbheda, roots and rhizomes are bitter, astringent; tonic widely used against kidney stone problems.It is used in treatment of a chronic bronchitis. The antilithic property of the crude extract has been investigated by several workers. There is significant CNS depressant activity in the crude extract. In ayurvedic practice, Pashanabheda, as its name suggests, is used as a litholytic agent for urinary calculi. The alcoholic extract displays marked anti-bradykinin activity although it does not affect the action of 5-HT and acetylcholine on isolated guinea pig ileum. It has been shown to potentiate the action of adrenaline on guinea-pig trachea and ileal muscle. The alcoholic extract has a marked anti-inflammatory effect, on the response, to various forms of experimental injury. The anti-inflammatory effect of the extract, like its diuretic effect, is reduced when higher doses of the drug are employed. There is also a mention of antiviral activity against influenza-A virus.It is also used in the treatment of dysuria and renal failure, cystitis and crystalluria. Its anti-inflammatory property finds a use in the treatment of abscesses and cutaneous infections. It is also used in the treatment of dysentery and diarrhoea. It also possesses antibacterial activities. Biophytum sensitivum (Linn) DC. Biophytum sensitivum, an annual herb is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of hyperglycemic patients. The effect of the leaf extract of the plant was studied on glucose homeostasis in rabbits.The study indicated that the hypoglycemic response of

B.sensitivum may be mediated through stimulating the synthesis/release of insulin from the beta cells of Langerhans. Biophytum sensitivum is known as a diuretic, and is considered alterant and antiasthmatic. It is used for urinary complaints, and is useful in diseases arising from impurity in blood and bile. Boswellia serrata Roxb. The resin of Boswellia serrata is used as an anti-inflammatory agent when applied externally. Internally, besides being antiarthritic, it has expectorant effect and improves immunity and hence has immunomodulating properties. One of the principal constituents in the gum resin is boswellic acid which exhibits anti-inflammatory activity. The gum resin is used as an ointment for sores and has anti-inflammatory, antiatherosclerotic and antiarthritic activities. The nonphenolic fraction of the gum resin had marked sedative and analgesic action. Casearia esculenta Roxb. The root and the root bark of Casearia esculenta, an indigenous plant in South India, are extensively used in the indigenous system of medicine as an antidiabetic due to their hypoglycemic activity. The roots are especially efficacious in milder chronic diabetic cases. The root contains leucopelargonidin, arabinose, dulcitol, beta -sitosterol and another sterol, and two resinous substances having hypoglycemic activity have also been reported. Studies have shown that it lowers blood glucose level under normal and glucose load conditions, and in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats. The study also indicates that C. esculenta root extract at doses of 200 and 300 mg/kg restored all the antioxidant parameters to near normal value. Calendula officinalis Linn. The ligulate florets constitute the drug which is reported to possess stimulant, bitter, tonic, sudorific, febrifuge, carminative, anti-emetic and anthelmintic properties.It has been used traditionally for treatment of wounds, sores and other skin problems. Recent research indicates that water and alcoholic extracts exhibited significant healing and tissue regeneration in wounds. The flowers contain calenduline, and oleanolic acid glycoside and sterol glycosides. They also contain alpha- and beta-amyrin, taraxasterol, y - taraxasterol, lupeol, brein, faradiol, arnidiol, erythrodiol, calenduladiol, coflodiol (ursadiol) and manilladiol.Essential oil of Calendula officinalis has a strong bacteriostatic activity inhibiting the growth of various strains including Staphylococcus aureus, Sarcina citre, S. rosa, S. beige, Bacillus subtilis, B. anthracis and Salmonella enteritdiis. It increases the flow of bile from 20%- 50% making it a herb of modest to good cholagouge. Catharanthus roseus (Linn) G.Don. Catharanthus roseus is traditionally used in folk medicine to treat diabetes and high blood pressure. As antidiabetic remedy it is believed to promote insulin production or to increase the body’s utilization of sugars from food. More than 70 dimeric indole alkaloids including vinblastine, vincristine, alstonine, ajmalicine and reserpine has been isolated from this plant. Out of all the alkaloids isolated from Catharanthus roseus, vinblastine and vincristine are most potent ones. Vinblastine is used in the treatment of Hodgkin’s

disease, non Hodgkin’s lymphoma and cancer of kidney and testis. Vincristine is usually used in combination with other anticancer agents to treat acute lymphocytic leukemia, Wilm;s tumour, neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, Ewing’s sarcoma, lymphoma and cancer of breast, lungs, bladder and the cervix. Centella asiatica (Linn.) Urban. Centella asiatica is a useful treatment for various brain disorders from poor memory to cognitive disability. The plant contains glycosides indocentelloside, brahmoside, brahminoside, asiaticoside, thankuniside and isothankuniside. It is exceptionally high in B- complex vitamins, especially in B1, B2 and B6, all of which are essential for the correct function of the nervous systems. The root system of Centella asiatica is high in amino acids theonine, histidine and lysine all of which have been shown to be efficacious in the treatment of psoriasis. Centella can be considered an adjunct in the treatment of immunodeficiency and autoimmune diseases. Hyperglycemic and hypercholesterolemic effects have been reported for asiaticoside in humans.Asiaticoside is also reported to be active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Bacillus leper and Entamoeba histolytica. In Ayurveda, the plant is used for the treatment of leprosy and skin diseases, as an antidote to cholera, and in bronchitis, asthma, gastric trouble, catarrh, leucorrhea, kidney troubles, urethritis and dropsy. The plant also has tranquilizing, anabolic, antiprotozoal and spasmolyticproperties. Celastrus paniculata Willd. Celastrus paniculata is widely used as emetic, diaphoretic, febrifuge and nervine tonic. The seeds are antirheumatic and are popular for sharpening effect on the memory. It has shown good results in treating mental depression, hastening the process of learning and memory enhancement in experimental animals. The drug is used in the traditional system of medicine as a sedative. The reported constituents are Mal III A, Mal III B, triterpenoids zeylasterone, and seylasteral. Its therapeutic uses include treating anxiety and beri-beri. Alcoholic extract has anti-inflammatory and sedative properties. An herbal extract of the crude drug was tested for its adaptogenic properties, on mice. It showed significant CNS depressant effect and a clear synergism with pentobarbital. It also gave excellent results in hysteria without any side effect. Leaves are emmenogouge and the bark is abortifacient. It is also used in treatment of sores, ulcers and gout. Cinnamomum camphora (Linn.)Presl. Camphor is obtained as colorless or white crystals, granules or crystalline masses, or colorless to white translucent, tough masses.Camphor is used in medicine internally as a nervine depressant in hysteria, nervousness and neuralgia. Camphor acts as a carminative, reflex expectorant and reflex stimulant of the heart, circulation and respiration. Camphor has also been used in epilepsy, chorea and convulsions and as an aphrodisiac. The oil extract has a peculiar fragrance and locally it is an irritant.It numbs the peripheral sensory nerves and is slightly antiseptic and hence it externally used as counter irritant in rheumatism and in inflammatory conditions.

Coleus forskohlii Brig. Forskolin, the active constituent of the plant is a labdane diterpenoid isolated mainly from the roots of Coleus forskohlii. It increases the levels of a fundamental natural compound known as cyclic AMP. Cyclic AMP plays a major role in many cellular functions, and some drugs that affect it relax the muscles around the bronchial tubes. Forskolin has been found to stabilize the cells that release histamine and other inflammatory compounds. This suggests that Coleus forskohlii may be a useful treatment for asthma, eczema, and other allergic conditions. Studies have also found that forskolin relaxes smooth muscle tissue and hence Coleus forskohlii has been suggested as a treatment for asthma, dysmenorrhea, angina, irritable bowel syndrome, bladder infections, and hypertension. Coleus forskohlii has also been proposed as a treatment for psoriasis, because that disease appears to be at least partly related to low levels of cyclic AMP in skin cells.   A tiny double-blind study indicated that forskolin taken by inhalation may be as effective as standard asthma inhalers, and forskolin eyedrops appear to improve glaucoma.Coleus oil was found to be very effective in inhibiting the growth of skin pathogens including Propionibacterium acnes Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermis a bacterial strain occurring in a variety of opportunistic bacterial skin infections and in acne. Additionally, Coleus oil was found to inhibit the yeast culture Candida albicans. Commiphora mukul Engl. Guggul, the sticky gum resin from the Commiphora mukul, plays a major role in the traditional herbal medicine of India. The primary chemical constituents of Guggul include phytosterols, gugulipids, and guggulsterones. The gum resin showed different pharmacological properties, uses and clinical application. It is astringent, expectorant, aphrodisiac, demulcent, carminative, alterative, antispasmodic and emmenagogue. It is useful in infertility, arthritis, leprosy, impotence, sterility, in liver disorders and hemiplegia. Guggul exhibits a cholesterol lowering ability unlike any other natural substance. In human trials, using gugulipid, the cholesterol levels dropped 14 to 27 percent in a 4 to 12 week period while the triglyceride levels dropped from 22 to 30 percent. Guggul has great effect in preventing heart atherosclerosis, or narrowing of the arteries. Guggul helps reduce high cholesterol, because it lowers harmful low-density lipoproteins while elevating the beneficial high-density lipoproteins. It helps prevent blood platelet aggregation and breaks up already formed blood clots. Thus, it helps prevent heart disease and stroke. It is also widely promoted as a weight loss agent that supposedly enhances thyroid function. Guggul lipid stimulates the activity of white blood cells in the body, contributing to the build-up of the immune system and also helps eliminate and expel dead tissues, wastes, and toxins from the body. Guggul has been known to relieve coughing and lung congestion, soothe mucous membranes and alleviate other respiratory problems. Guggul may also be used to treat arthritis and reduce inflammation of the joints. A small controlled trial compared oral gugulipid against tetracycline for the treatment of acne, and reported equivalent results. Coptis teeta Wall. It is a bitter tonic and is used to boost appetite, restore digestive power, removes flatulence and other visceral obstructions. It is useful in jaundice, debilitating diseases and convalescence after fever. It is also used in catarrhal and rheumatic conjunctivitis.

The root is a pungent, very bitter, cooling herb that controls bacterial and viral infections, relaxes spasms, lowers fevers and stimulates the circulation. It is locally analgesic and anaesthetic with alterative, ophthalmic and pectoral activity. The root contains several compounds that are effective in inhibiting various bacteria and they are a safe and effective treatment for many ailments, such as some forms of dysentery that are caused by bacteria. Coscinium fenestratum Colebr. Coscinium fenestratum is used to cure stomatitis and eye diseases. A weak infusion of the  stem   is   used   as   a   lotion   for   foul   ulcers   with   great   success.Coscinium   fenestratum  possesses antiseptic properties. It has been used also as a yellow dye.  A 50% ethanol extract of Coscinium fenestratum stem material (AECF) has been found to possess hypotensive action in anaesthetised dogs, rats and guinea pigs in a dose-related pattern. Antioxidant effect of methanol extract of Coscinium fenestratum stem powder was examined using carbon tetrachloride-intoxicated rat liver as the experimental model. The decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in carbon tetrachloride-intoxicated rats, and its retrieval towards near-normalcy in the methanol extract co-administered animals revealed the effectiveness of Coscinium fenestratum in combating oxidative stress due to hepatic damage. The leaves, flowers and other parts of the creeper are used as a traditional ayurvedic skin care treatment to enhance the complexion of the skin Crataegus oxycantha Linn. Crataegus oxyacantha has a long history in both folk medicine and clinical medicine as a heart tonic. The herb is typically used to improve cardiovascular function, as it increases the supply of blood to the heart muscle, resulting in enhanced circulation throughout the body. It has shown to have positive effects upon stabilizing angina pectoris, as well as aiding recovery from heart attacks. The leaves, flowers, and berries of Crataegus oxyacantha contain a variety of bioflavonoid-like complexes that appear to be primarily responsible for the cardiac actions of the plant. Crataegus oxyacantha seems to inhibit angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and reduce production of the potent blood vesselconstricting substance angiotensin II. This reduces resistance in arteries and improves extremity circulation. The bioflavonoids in Crataegus oxyacantha are potent antioxidants. The skin of berries, leaf, and flower of Crataegus oxyacantha are all naturally rich sources of a potent antioxidant called oligomeric proanthocyanadins (OPC). These naturally occurring antioxidant flavonoids are tissue specific for strengthening the walls of arteries and thereby reducing the risk of recurring aneurysms and hemorrhagic strokes. In addition to antioxidant protection, OPCs also support collagen and help maintain elastin throughout the entire body. By maintaining healthy levels of structural collagen and elastin, our bodies are able to continue to function more efficiently and maintain their youthful strength and flexibility longer. OPCs attach to "reactive sites" on collagen molecules and protect them from free radical attack. This is one of the reasons they are so protective and so valuable for the circulatory system Flowers and berries are astringent and useful in decoction to cure sore throats. It is a useful diuretic in dropsy and kidney troubles.

Curcuma aromatica Salisb. It is a perennial herb, cultivated throughout India. The drug is stimulant, tonic, and carminative. It protects skin from pollution, wrinkles, and bacteria. It imparts resistance against allergies of throat, nose and tracheobronchial passage. It is commonly used in skincare and treats pimples, acne, black heads. It helps prevent and slower the growth of superfluous hair. Curcuma longa Linn. Traditionally turmeric is used in treatments of gastrointestinal disorders, colic, hemorrhage, hematuria, menstrual disorders and jaundice. Turmeric contains several water and fat soluble antioxidant compounds of which curcumin was found to be most effective. Curcumin inhibits production of nitrosamine that enhances natural antioxidant functions of the body. The hepatoprotective effect of turmeric may stem from its potent antioxidant effects. In addition to its antioxidant effects curcumin has been shown to enhance liver detoxification by increasing the activity of glutathione S- transferase an enzyme which conjugates glutathione with a wide variety of toxins to facilitate their removal from the body. Curcumin is used to treat squamous cell carcinoma of the skin and ulcerating oral cancer. It inhibits the growth of cancer by preventing production of harmful eicosanoid such as PGE- 2. Both, the volatile oil and curcumin exhibit powerful anti- inflammatory effects. Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. Cuscuta reflexa is used indigenously in Indian system of medicine in the remedy for various ailments. The plant is acrid, bitter, astringent to bowels, aphrodisiac, alternative tonic, useful in diseases of eye and heart, and in biliousness. The herb has a bitter sharp taste, is an expectorant, carminative, tonic anthelmenthic, purgative, diaphoretic, diuretic, purifies blood and cleanses the body, lessens inflammation, useful in jaundice, pains in the muscles and the joints, headache, paralysis, and diseases of spleen. The seed are sedative, diuretic and is useful in diseases of liver and spleen, chronic fever and gripping. Cyperus rotundus Linn. Cyperus rotundus is an alterative, general and nervine tonic, carminative and liver stimulant.The tubers of Cyperus rotundus contain an essential oil that contains pinenes and cineole and is used as hair wash and for treating hair and scalp disorders. It dilates the small capillaries and acts on the sebaceous glands at the root of the hair and hence stimulates them. The tubers are diaphoretic and astringent. They are also credited with diuretic, anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, carminative, stomachic, emmenagogue and stimulant properties. Cyperus rotundus is also widely used for skin care. Delphinium denudatum Wallich. The roots are alterative, bitter, stimulant and tonic. Delphinium denudatum popularly known as `Jadwar', have been reported to possess anticonvulsant properties in the Unani medicine system. The roots of Delphinium denudatum have yielded a new diterpenoid alkaloid, 8-acetylheterophyllisine, in addition to the known alkaloids vilmorrianone, panicutine, denudatine, isotalatizidine, and condelphine, as well as 3-hydroxy-2-methyl4H-pyran-4-one.Some of the compounds have shown antifungal activity against a

number of human pathogenic fungi. The roots are used by traditional healers for the treatment of various ailments such as epilepsy, paralysis, cholera, jaundice and cardiac diseases. A study was undertaken to investigate the de-addiction properties of Delphinium denudatum in morphine dependent rats. It was observed that administration of D. denudatum Wall. extract caused significant reduction in counted as well as checked signs of morphine withdrawal. The aqueous extract of the plant showed strong anticonvulsant action in in vivo and in vitro studies. In in vivo experiments the essential oil showed strong action in maximal electroshock test (MEST), subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole test (sc PTZ) and subcutaneous bicuculline (sc BIC) test at doses of 600 mg/kg. Since the essential oil exhibited strong anticonvulsant activity in MES, scPTZ and scBIC tests as well as inhibited SRF, it suggests presence of anticonvulsant compounds that may be effective in therapy of generalized tonic-clonic and partial seizures as well as absence and myoclonic seizures. Didymocarpus pedicellata R.Br. The essential oil from the leaves contains didymocarpene as its chief constituent. The leaves are used in indigenous medicine as a cure for stones in the kidney and bladder. Dioscorea deltoidea Wallich. Dioscorea root has been found to contain phytosteroids such as diosgenin and saponin. The roots of this species contain an average of 4.8% diosgenin. Dioscorea deltoidea is known as a tonic herb that supports spleen, lung, and kidney. Diosgenin, has anti-fatigue, anti-inflammatory, anti-stress, hypocholesterolemic, and estrogenic effects. Dioscorea is antispasmodic, and could be helpful for nausea of pregnant women (morning sickness), spasmodic hiccough and asthma. Dioscorea deltoidea is widely used in modern medicine in order to manufacture progesterone and other steroid drugs. It is also used as contraceptives and in the treatment of various disorders of the genitary organs as well as in a host of other diseases. Eclipta alba Hassk. Eclipta alba is used for treatment of hepatosplenomegaly, elephantiasis, gastropathies, anorexia, helminthiasis, wounds, ulcer, hypertension, pruitis, odontalgia, otalgia and edema. It is used in the treatment of obstinate skin disorders and in diseases of eyes and head. The alkaloid 25-beta-hydroxyverazine derived from methyl extract of Eclipta alba showed significant activity against Candida albicans. Another alkaloid ecliptalbine had an antifungal activity comparable to verazine when tested against three yeast strains. An ethanol / water extract of Eclipta alba significantly counteracted CCL4 induced hepatotoxicity restoring hepatic lysosomal acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase. This indicates that the hepatoprotective activity of Eclipta alba functions by regulating the level of hepatic microsomal drug metabolizing enzymes. An oil prepared using Eclipta alba may be used as an anti inflammatory and vulnerary in cases of psoriasis and eczema and finds special application when applied on the head to improve memory and mental functions. Wedelolactone and demethylwedelolactone from Eclipta alba (Bhringraja) have potent trypsin inhibitory effect. Emblica officinalis Gaertn.

It is one of the most important plants of Ayurvedic materia medica. Amla is an excellent antioxidant and is used to treat cardiovascular disorders, diabetes and insulin resistance and diseases of microcirculation such as macular degeneration. Though amla is one of the highest naturally occurring sources of vitamin C, its antioxidant effect have also been attributed to the tannoid complexes. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts have been found to be both antifungal and antimicrobial without any indication of toxicity. Amla also finds use in anorexia, anemia, biliousness dyspepsia and jaundice. It is also known to cure alopecia and adds luster and strength to hairs. Amla form an important component in the treatment of hepatitis and cirrhosis. Ephedra gerardiana Wall. Ephedra gerardiana is a source for the drug ‘Ephedrine’ that is treasured for treating allergy, asthma, cold, cough, diarrhea, fevers, hayfever, headache, malaria, and rheumatism. Infusions prevented low blood pressure in flu and pneumonia. The total crude alkaloid extract of ephedra (containing ephedrine and pseudoephedrine) has been shown to be more effective in treating cold and flu symptoms than the equivalent combination of synthetic ephedrine and pseudoephedrine. Fritillaria roylei Hook. f. The bulb is antiasthmatic, antirheumatic, febrifuge, galactogogue, haemostatic, ophthalmic and oxytocic. It is boiled with orange peel and used in the treatment of TB and asthma. Garcinia cambogea Desr. The tree is valued for its dried rind which is rich in acids and possesses marked antiseptic properties. It contains tartaric acid, reducing sugars, and phosphoric acid (as calcium triphosphate). It limits the synthesis of fatty acids in the muscles and liver lipogenesis (production of fat) by inhibiting the enzyme ATP-citrate lyase. The fruits contain about 30% acids (calculated as citric acid) on the dry basis which is essentially (-)-hydroxycitric acid. A decoction of the fruit rind is given in rheumatism and bowel complaints. The resin possesses purgative properties. Gaultheria fragrantissima Wall. The volatile oil obtained by the steam distillation of the leaves of G. fragrantissima is identical to Wintergreen oil, obtained from G. procumbens. The principal constituent of the oil is methyl salicylate. It is stimulant, carminative and antiseptic. It is applied externally in the form of liniment or ointment in rheumatism, sciatica and neuralgia. It is a diuretic, stimulant, and emenagogue. It is very useful in gout and stiffness due to old age. It also revitalizes and gives energy following muscular pains.

Gentiana kurroo Royle.

Gentian root has a long history of use as a herbal bitter in the treatment of digestive disorders and is an ingredient of many proprietary medicines. It contains some of the bitterest compounds known. It is especially useful in states of exhaustion from chronic disease and in all cases of debility, weakness of the digestive system and lack of appetite. It is one of the best strengtheners of the human system, stimulating the liver, gall bladder and digestive system and is an excellent tonic to combine with a purgative in order to prevent its debilitating effects. The root is anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, bitter tonic, cholagogue, emmenagogue, febrifuge, refrigerant and stomachic. It is taken internally in the treatment of liver complaints, indigestion, gastric infections and anorexia. Geum urbanum Linn. Geum urbanum possesses astringent, styptic and tonic properties. As an astringent, it is useful for diarrhea. It is considered useful in dysenteries, leucorrhoea, sore throat, chills, catarrh, intermittent fevers, chronic and passive haemorrhages, gastric irritation and headache. The principal active constituent is a volatile oil, which is mainly composed of eugenol. It also contains a glycoside, gein, geum-bitter, tannic acid, gum and resin. It promotes appetite and acts as a tonic during convalescence. Geum urbanum acts as a purifier and removes obstructions of the liver An infusion is considered an excellent cordial sudorific at the commencement of chills and catarrh, cutting short the paroxysm, and the continued use of it has restorative power in weakness, debility, etc. The infusion is also used in some skin affections. When used externally as a wash, it will remove spots, freckles or eruptions from the face. On account of its stomachic properties, chewing of the root has been recommended for foul breath. Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. Glycyrrhiza glabra is part of both Western and Eastern herbal traditions. Traditional uses include treatment of peptic ulcers, asthma, pharyngitis, malaria, abdominal pain and infections. The traditional medicinal properties include demulcent, expectorant, antitussive and mild laxative activity. The primary active constituent of Glycyrrhiza is the triterpene glycoside glycyrrhizin. Glycyrrhiza has been shown to have a direct hepatoprotective effect. Glycyrrhiza flavonoids provided protection to hepatocytes exposed to carbon tetra chloride and galactosamine. The researchers pointed to the antilipid peroxidation effect of Glycyrrhiza as the central mechanism contributing to its protective action against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity. Glycyrrhiza has also been shown to have a significant free radical quenching effect. Recent studies have brought to light the ability of Glycyrrhiza to enhance the detoxification of medications and toxins. Glycyrrhiza exerts antiviral activity in vitro towards a number of viruses including hepatitis A, varicella zoster, HIV, herpes simplex type I, Newcastle disease and vesicular stomatitis viruses. It modulates the immune system and has shown remarkable immuno-stimulant properties. It has an antioxidant activity. It is a mild anti-inflammatory for arthritis and rheumatism and is used to treat gastric, duodenal and esophageal ulceration or inflammation, heartburn and mouth ulcers. The plant contains phytoestrogens in the form of isoflavones such as formononetin; glabrone, neoliquiritin and hispaglabridin A & B. It alleviates irritable conditions of the mucus membrane, and strengthens the immune system and provides resistance in recurring infections.

Gymnema sylvestris R.Br. ex Schultz. Gymnema has the property of destroying sugar and hence it is very useful in diabetes.Its principal constituent is gymnemic acid which has anti-diabetic properties. The leaves when chewed have the property of paralysing the sense of taste for sweet and bitter substances for a few hours. The leaf extracts contain gymnemic acid which is said to inhibit hyperglycemia. It abolishes the taste of sugar and is believed to neutralize excessive sugar present in the body in diabetes mellitus. It has also been shown to have a regenerative effect on pancreatic beta cells and is insulinotropic. The plant is stomachic, stimulant, laxative, diuretic and useful in cough. In Ayurveda this plant is mentioned as bitter, acrid, cooling tonic, alterative, anthelmentic, alexiteric and useful in respiratory troubles, heart diseases, piles, leukoderma and urinary discharges. Gynocardia odorata R.Br. The oil from the seeds is employed internally and externally in the treatment of skin diseases, scrofula, rheumatism, eczema, also in leprosy, as a counterirritant for bruises, sprains, etc., and sometimes applied to open wounds and sores. Hemidesmus indicus R.Br. This plant has a reputation of being a tonic, alterative, demulcent, diaphoretic, diuretic and depurative. It is employed in nutritional disorders, chronic rheumatism, gravel, and other urinary disorders, syphilis, scrofula and skin infections. It helps in fighting against syphilis by stimulating the defence mechanism of the body. It has also been used successfully in the treatment of psoariasis. It also shows inhibitory effect on the growth of Escherichia coli. Hedychium spicatum Buch. Ham. Ex Smith. In preliminary pharmacological studies the drug is found to have a vasodilatory effect on coronary vessels, mild hypotensive property and a non-specific antispasmodic effect on smooth muscles. Studies on the essential oil of the rhizomes of Hedychium spicatum reveal that these oils possess a mild tranquilizing effect of short duration. The crude ethanolic extract of rhizomes possesses anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. The root stalk is useful in local inflammations, nausea, asthma, bronchitis, hiccups and in pain. The rhizome of the plant is said to be carminative, stimulant and a tonic. It has been described as useful, especially as an antiasthmatic agent. Clinical trials have been conducted in tropical eosinophilia, with promising results Hippophae rhamnoides: Linn. Commonly known as Seabuckthorn, it contains 190 bio-active components. The oil is the best single source known to man for Vitamin E, Vitamin C, Beta-carotene, unsaturated fatty acids, essential amino acids and flavonoids. Traditionally used to stimulate digestion, seabuckthorn provides nutritional support for the circulatory system over longer use, due to the presence of sea buckthorn flavonoids. The berries have proven to be among the most nutritious fruits known. Seabuckthorn is being increasingly used in making fruit juices, singly or mixed with other fruits, because of its reputed health

benefits. The freshly pressed juice is used in the treatment of colds and exhaustion. Highquality medical oil is made from the fruit of sea buckthorn and used in the treatment of cardiac disorders. Seabuckthorn is an excellent source of plant based polyunsaturated (essential) fatty acids for maintaining good health, normal growth and development. Its seed oil naturally provides a 1:1 ratio of omega-3 to omega-6. Seabuckthorn contains more linolenic acid per equal serving size than any other oil. Seabuckthorn is also an excellent source of oleic acid, an essential fatty acid known to help reduce blood cholesterol levels. These essential fatty acids are important in the prevention of heart disease, cancer and maintaining an overall healthy immune system. Inula racemosa Hook. f. The rhizome is said to have a sweet, bitter and acrid taste with a neutral potency. It is used in the treatment of contagious fevers and pain in the upper body, especially between the neck and the shoulders. In ayurvedic practice, it is mainly used as an expectorant and bronchodilator. It has been used in the treatment of tuberculosis and topically in the treatment of skin diseases. The plant extract showed potent anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and antispasmodic effect against bronchial spasm induced by histamine, 5hydroxytryptamine, and various plant pollens. The essential oil of I.racemosa was tested for antibacterial and anti- fungal activity. It is moderately effective against S. aureus, Ps aeruginosa, B.subtillis and mildly against E. coli and B. anthracis. Alantolactone and isoalantolactone exhibited antidermatophytic activity. Antifungal activity of these two compounds against two ring- worm fungi was comparable to that of Nystatin but inferior to that of Amphotericin B. Inula is also used for angina pectoris, heart disease, ischemic heart diseases. When combined with Commiphora mukul it lowers diastolic blood pressure, improves liver conditions, decreases cholesterol, and is beneficial in respiratory tract conditions, asthma, bronchial disease, chest (precordial) pain, chronic bronchitis with cardiac complications, cough, and dyspnea. Juniperus communis Linn. Juniper is given as a diuretic, stomachic and carminative in indigestion, flatulence, and diseases of the kidney and bladder. The chief use of Juniper is as an adjuvant to diuretics in dropsy depending on condition of heart, liver or kidney. It is used in chest complaints, leucorrhoea, blenorrhoea, scrofula etc. Juniper has antiseptic properties hence used in dental disorders, acne and oily skin seborrhea of scalp. Juniper oil relaxes body and is used in neuralgia, sciatica and rheumatism. Steam inhalation with juniper leaves relieves cold and cough. Kaempferia galanga Linn. The rhizome of Kaempferia galanga is considered a stimulant and is believed to prevent wind and colic, food poisoning, tetanus, mouth ulcers, coughs and colds.Kaempferia galanga rhizome contains about 1.5 to 2% essential oil, whose main components are ethyl cinnamate (25%), ethyl p-methoxycinnamate (30%) and p-methoxycinnamic acid. Kaempferia galanga is a good natural source of a biologically active easter compound ethyl p-methoxycinnamate. The juice of the plant is an ingredient in some tonics used in the preparation of gargles, and administered with honey as a remedy for coughs and bronchial infections. The leaves are used in lotions, as well as poultices for sore eyes,

sore throat, swellings, rheumatism and fevers. A decoction of the rhizomes is used for dyspepsia, headache and malaria. It is also used as a wash for dandruff. The rhizomes of Kaempferia galanga are widely used in the ayurvedic system of medicine in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The oral administration of the extracts (20 mg/day) of K.galanga effectively lowered the serum and tissue levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids and significantly increased the serum levels of high density lipoproteins (HDL) in high cholesterol fed white wistar rats over a period of 4 weeks. The results are indicative of this plant in various lipid disorders especially atherosclerosis. Rhizomes of K.galanga is valued traditionally for their skin protectant action pertaining to their action against ultraviolet rays and function as a ‘booster' that augments the activity of conventional sunscreens The antifungal action of ethyl p-methoxycinnamate is reported in the literature . A natural extract obtained from the roots of Kaempferia galanga has antimicrobial action and tyrosinase inhibitory functions, suggesting its multifaceted benefits in acne fighting formulations. Marsdenia roylei Wight An aqueous extract of the roots is given as an antidote to snake bite. The aqueous extract of the plant is also used in the treatment of spermatorrhoea. A paste made of the roots is applied to boils and blisters. An aqueous extract of the leaves is used as an antidote to rabies. Mesua ferrea Linn. Various parts of this plant are used in the treatment of rheumatism, skin diseases, dysentery and bleeding piles etc. in the Indian system of medicines. Studies have revealed that the principle active constituent of Mesua ferrea, xanthones produce significant CNS depresent effect at a dose of 200mg/ kg. Signs of CNS depression are characterized by sedation, decreased spontaneous motor activity and potentiation of pentobarbitone sleeping time in mice and rats. This supports the CNS calming effect of Mesua ferrea. Meconopsis aculeata Royle. Commonly known as Himalayan Blue Poppy, the whole plant is useful against renal colic and backache. The roots contain narcotic principles and are used as an analgesic, in healing broken bones and in the treatment of inflammation from fractures. Nardostachys jatamansi DC. Nardostachys jatamansi has tonic, antispasmodic and stimulant properties. It is used in treatment of certain types of fits, convulsions and palpitation of heart. It is beneficial in treating chronic fever, spleen disorders, pathogenic disorders, and it subsides swelling. It is also used as a laxative and for promoting urination menstruation and digestion. Jatamansin from Nardostachys jatamansi (Jatamansi) has shown tranquillizing activity. Nothopodytes foetida (Wight) Sleumer. The wood extract of this tree is used in the treatment of cancer. The active principle of the wood camptothecin is known as a potent drug that breaks single strand DNA in the

mammalian systems and is found to be useful in the treatment of tumors. Camptothecin is also known to inhibit retroviruses such as HIV. Derivatives of camptothecin such as 18OH camptothecin, 11-OH camptothecin, and 10-OH camptothecin have been found to possess a strong antileukaemic activity. It is believed that camptothecin is the third most important alkaloid sought after by the pharmaceutical companies around the world. Successive petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts of Nothopodytes foetida leaves and stem were tested for their antibacterial activity. The methanol fractions were found to be most effective against all the tested organisms. Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Linn. Nyctanthes arbor-tristis is widely used in Ayurvedic medicine for treatment of sciatica, arthritis, fevers, and various painful conditions. Water soluble portion of alcoholic extract, at 4mg/kg and 8mg/kg, exhibited significant tranquilizing activity in mice and rats. The extract produced general depression of spontaneous motor activity and significantly increased pentobarbitone sleeping time. These activities are common to major tranquilizing agents and thus it supports the usage of this plant as tranquilizer. Oenothera bienni Linn. This plant finds use in a variety of disorders such as premenstrual syndrome, benign breast diseases, obesity, multiple sclerosis, mental disorders, rheumatism, etc. It facilitates cholesterol reduction, blood pressure regulation. Oenothera bienni is high in gamma-linolenic acid that is readily converted in the body to prostaglandin E1, therefore it is employed in various treatments. Traditionally it is used as an astringent, antibiotic, mucilaginous, expectorant, antitissive, and digestive stimulant. Evening Primrose oil has been successfully used in patients with atopic eczema. Evening Primrose has some antitubercular as well as antimicrobial properties. Ocimum sanctum Linn. This plant has been used for medicinal purposes since time immemorial. The juice of leaves is used in catarrh and bronchitis and applied to the skin in ring worm and other cutaneous diseases. It has antibacterial, antifungal and anti-stress properties. It is used in treatment of several skin diseases. An infusion of the leaves is given to the children in gastric disorders. A decoction of the root is given as diaphoretic in malarial fever. It drives away mosquitoes. Piper nigrum Linn. It is an aromatic, stimulant, carminative, and is said to possess febrifuge properties. Due to its stimulant action it is useful in atonic dyspepsia and constipation. It is also used in flatulence, nausea, diarrhoea and cholera. It has antiseptic effect on the digestive tract and the circulatory system. The essential oil eases rheumatic pain and toothache. It is antibacterial and reduces fever. Podophyllum hexandrum Royle. This plant has very high content of podophyllotoxin lignans which have shown antitumor activities and anti HIV properties. Podophyllin arrests multiplication of cancerous cells by breaking down the microtubules into smaller subunits thus inhibiting the cell division.

Podophyllotoxin, the active principle of podophyllin is used in treatment of Hodgkin’s disease, non- Hodgkin’s lymphoma, leukaemia, bronchogenic carcinoma and cancer of the ovary and testis. Podophyllum is a source of anticancer drug like etopside and teniposide. Polygonum recumbens Royle A paste made of the whole plant is applied in the treatment of various skin diseases. A decoction of the plant is given orally as a blood purifier. Polygonum hydropiper Linn. Polygonum hydropiper commonly known as smartweed is valued especially for its astringent properties that make it useful in treating bleeding, skin problems, diarrhoea etc. The leaves are anti-inflammatory, astringent, carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic, emmenagogue, stimulant, stomachic, and styptic. They contain rutin, which helps strengthen fragile capillaries and thus helps prevent bleeding. The seed is carminative, diuretic and stimulant. The whole plant, either on its own or mixed with other herbs, is decocted and used in the treatment of a wide range of ailments including diarrhoea, dyspepsia, itching skin, excessive menstrual bleeding and haemorrhoids. A poultice of the plant is used in treating swollen and inflamed areas. A homeopathic remedy is made from the leaves. It is used in the treatment of piles, menstrual pains and other menstrual complaints. Research indicates that smartweed extracts have hemostatic properties, and that they lower the blood pressure. Studies on animals have also shown that the plant does indeed have contraceptive effects, as people have claimed. Polygonum hydropiper is astringent, diaphoretic, and diuretic. It is effective as an extract against coughs and colds, and crushing the fresh herb, and using it as a plaster for congestion is common practice. The juice of the plant, mixed with a bit of water, is effective on sores that have developed pus. Ten flavonoid compounds were isolated from the dried leaves of Polygonum hydropiper L. Evaluation of the antioxidative activity, conducted in vitro, by using electron spin resonance (ESR) and ultraviolet visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometric assays, showed that these isolated flavonoids possess strong antioxidative capabilities. Prinsepia utilis Royle Roots are used for supparating the boils for promotion of healing. The seed oil is externally applied for extended period to relieve the symptoms of rheumatism and gout. Psoralea corylifolia Linn. This plant finds use in treating psoariasis, leprosy, leucoderma and several other skin diseases. It is capable of stimulating the cells by penetrating through the epidermis to the lymphatic cells and entering into the subcapillary areas under the skin. The seeds impart vigour and vitality, improve digestive power and receptive power of the mind, improve texture and complexion of skin and help growth of hair. Psoralea corylifolia tones the liver, spleen and pancreas. It is used to prevent frequent or involuntary urination, cold and painful extremities, and difficult breathing. It also finds use in treatment of impotency. Pueraria tuberosa D.C

Pueraria tuberosa is an excellent antioxidant.It possesses antimutagenic, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antidiabetic properties.It is an excellent hepatoprotective, promotes elimination of acetaldehyde from the blood, has antithrombotic and, antiallergic activity. Pueraria tuberosa has been thoroughly investigated for its contraceptive potency in various animals viz. rats, mice and hamsters. The studies on its biological properties suggest that all the fractions of P. tuberosa possess significant estrogenic activity. In addition to this activity, the crude powder also shows significant progestational and mild antiprogestational activity whereas ethanolic and butanolic extracts show significant progestational activity. Petroleum ether and benzene extracts show only the estrogenic activity Rauvolfia serpentina Benth. ex. Kurz. The principal use of Rauvolfia serpentina today is in the treatment of mild essential hypertension. It is also used as a tranquillizer for nervous and mental disorders such as insanity and schizophrenia.Rauvolfia serpentina is used as a tonic in states of asthenia, a cardiotonic and antipyretic. It is used against snake and insect bites, for constipation, liver diseases, flatulence, insomnia, and rheumatism. Major alkaloids present in Rauvolfia serpentina probably lower high blood pressure by depleting tissue stores of catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine) from peripheral sites. By contrast, their sedative and tranquillizing properties are thought to be related to depletion of catecholamines and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) from the brain. Following absorption from the gastrointestinal tract the active alkaloids concentrate in tissues with high lipid content. They pass the blood–brain barrier and the placenta. The active alkaloids are metabolized in the liver to inactive compounds that are excreted primarily in the urine. Unchanged alkaloids are excreted primarily in the faeces. The extract of Rauvolfia serpentina showed a good antibacterial activity against gram negative organisms, which may be due to the presence of alkaloid. Rheum emodi Wall. ex. Meissen. Rhein, physcion, aloe-emodin and chrysophanol isolated from Rheum emodi rhizomes exhibited antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Aspergillus fumigatus Rheum spiciforme Royle. Commonly known as Himalayan Rhubarb, dried rhizomes and roots are purgative, astringent and tonic useful against rheumatism. Rhododendron anthopogon D.D. The stems and leaves of Rhododendron anthopogon have a sweet, bitter and astringent taste and they promote heat. They are antitussive, diaphoretic and digestive and are used to treat lack of appetite, coughing and various skin disorders. The flowers of R. anthopogon are antitussive, febrifuge and tonic hence used in the treatment of inflammations, lung disorders and general weakening of the body. Rubia cordifolia Linn.

The roots of Rubia cordifolia is widely used in treating pimples, reducing wrinkles, improving complexion, treating burns, healing injuries, lessening inflammation. The fruits are used to treat liver disorders. Rubidianin, an anthraquinone isolated from alcoholic extract of Rubia cordifolia has demonstrated significant antioxidant activity as it prevented lipid peroxidation induced by ferrous sulphate and t-butylhydroperoxide. The drug depicted activity in dose-dependent manner. The anti-oxidant activity of rubidianin was found to be better than mannitol, vitamin e and p-benzoquinone. The roots of Rubia cordifolia are valued in the Ayurveda in the maintenance of general health and normal blood circulation. It is commonly used in the treatment of skin disorders of many varieties, menstrual disorders, renal stone, urinary disorders, and blood detoxification. Dried root of Rubia cordifolia is also used in amenorrhoea, paralysis, jaundice and visceral and urinary obstructions. An infusion of the root has also been prescribed in women after delivery to clear the uterine channels. Ruta graveolens Linn. In ancient Greece and Egypt, Ruta graveolens was employed to stimulate menstrual bleeding, to induce abortion and to strengthen the eyesight. The rutin contained in the plant helps to strengthen fragile blood vessels and alleviates varicose veins.Ruta graveolens is also used due to its antispasmodic properties, especially in the digestive system where it eases griping and bowel tension. The easing of spasms gives it a role in the stopping of spasmodic coughs. The plant has also been used to treat conditions as varied as hysteria, epilepsy, vertigo, colic, intestinal worms, poisoning and eye problems. The latter use is well founded, as an infusion used as eyewash brings quick relief to strained and tired eyes, and reputedly improves the eyesight. It increases peripheral blood circulation and relieves eye tension. Salacia reticulata Wight. The roots and stems of Salacia reticulata exhibits hypoglycaemic activity, and hence used in diabetes. In addition to its antidiabetic property it is antirheumaticand is also used in skin diseases. It has significant inhibitory action on alpha-glycosidase, inhibits lipase, inhibits aldose reductase is hepatoprotective and has antioxidant activity. It is also used as antiobesity. The antiobesity effects of the hot water–soluble extract (SRHW) from the roots of S. reticulate was studied using obese rat models. In conclusion, polyphenolic compounds may be involved in the antiobesity effects of SRHW in rats through inhibition of fat metabolizing enzymes (PL, LPL and GPDH) and enhanced lipolysis. Santalum album Linn. Sandal has a calming effect slowing heart rate and promoting contentment and relaxation. The essential oil of Sandal is a very popular remedy for afflictions of urinary tract such as cystitis, gonorrhoea, and pyelitis. It also finds use in irritating cough and bronchitis. Sandal is a cooling agent, stimulant and blood purifier. It protects the skin from sun rays, acts as anti-ageing agent and is extremely effective on pimples, prickly heat, skin eruptions, itching, rashes, freckles and swellings. Internally sandal is used in the treatment of gastric irritability, dysentery, thirst and heat stroke. Saraca asoka (Roxb.) De Willde.

The bark of Saraca asoka is extremely useful in uterine affections especially menorrhagia due to uterine fibroids and other causes. Ashoka also has an astringent but stimulating effect on the endometrium and the ovarian tissues. Its effect on the ovarian tissue may produce an estrogen like activity that enhances the repair of the endometrium and stops the bleeding. It is useful in many gynecological problems such as uterine bleeding associated with fibroids and the treatment of leucorrhoea. Ashoka has been efficacious in regularizing menstrual disturbances without producing any side effects. In metrorrhagia, in addition to decreasing the uterine bleeding it regularizes the interval between two cycles. Ashoka also provides immense relief from painful menses and the premenstrual synodrome. A. Saraca is also considered beneficial in the treatment of dyspepsia and indigestion, thirst, burning sensation, blood disorders, fractures, tumors, colic and menstrual cramps. Topically it is used for treating bites, ulceration and skin discoloration. Saussurea lappa C.B. Clarke. This plant possesses the property of relaxing involuntary muscles. It is beneficial in bronchial asthma, cough, rheumatism and skin disorders. It is useful in the treatment of stress related and blood disorders, pulmonary diseases and amenorrhea. Alkaloids from Saussurea lappa have a strong inhibitory effect on histamine-induced bronchospasm and intestinal spasm in guinea pigs. Chemical extracts from this herb have antispasmodic, bronchodilatory, and blood pressure-lowering effects. Saussurea is beneficial in the treatment of respiratory disorders like bronchitis, asthma and cough, especially controlling attacks of bronchial asthma. The combined action of the essential oil and the alkaloid in the root restrict the paroxysms. The alkaloid saussurine has a depressant action on the vagus centre in the medulla, which supplies motor nerve fibre, as well as on the involuntary muscle fibers of the bronchioles and gastrointestinal tract. It produces a slight but persistent rise in blood pressure and increases the force of contraction and amplitude of the ventricles. The essential oil not only relaxes the bronchial muscle, but also has a marked expectorant action which relieves turgescene of the mucosa. It strengthens functioning of the stomach and promotes its action. It is helpful in arresting secretion or bleeding. The essential oil has antiseptic and disinfectant properties. It relaxes the involuntary muscle tissues and serves as a cardiac stimulant. It relieves flatulence and is a diuretic. This powerful aromatic stimulant is also useful in cholera. The essential oil in the herb produces reflex inhibition by its stimulating properties. It helps in controlling the disease. It is an irritant and has a strong penetrating and persistent odour and taste. The depressant action of the drug on the brain helps in relieving the spasm. Saussurea is useful for severe ulceration. The herb prevents premature greying of hair. The dried and powdered root can be used as hair wash. Sida cordifolia Linn. Sida cordifolia has an affinity for diseases of the nervous system and can be used in a wide variety of conditions. It is useful as a soothing diuretic and is anti-spasmodic. Sida cordifolia may be used internally as a demulcent in chronic bronchitis, tracheitis, cystitis and bleeding haemorrhoids as it is mucilaginous and cooling. It contains small amounts of ephedrine making it a mild bronchodilator with vasoconstrictive properties. Ethyl acetate extract of the root and aerial parts showed comparable antiinflammatory activity

with indomethacin in experimental animals. A methanol extract of the root was found to possess significant hypoglycaemic activity. Silybum marianum Gaertn. Silybum marianum is very effective in both acute and chronic liver disorders ranging from viral hepatitis to cirrhosis. Bioflavanoids found in Silybum marianum such as silymarin and silybin are known to protect liver tissues. Silybum increases protein synthesis in liver cells by increasing the activity of ribosomal RNA via the nucleolar polymerase A. Silymarin induces an alteration of liver cellular membranes to stop absorption of many toxins. Silybin induces new DNA and ribosomal RNA synthesis. It protects the body against liver cancer by accelerating regeneration of liver cells. Silybum extract has been shown to reduce the effects of many toxins on liver. It is also known to protect the kidneys, brains, and other tissues from toxic chemicals. Silybum marianum also exhibit antioxidant properties. Spilanthes acmella (Linn.)Murr. Spilanthes acmella (Linn.)Murr. a medicinal plant of family Asteraceae, known as paracress or tooth-ache plant. It has long been used as traditional medicine for local anesthetic, antibacterial, antiviral, antihypertensive and diuretic actions. This plant owes its activity to the antiseptic alkaloid Spilanthol, as well as immune stimulating and saliva stimulating alkylamides. Spilanthol is effective at extremely low concentrations against blood parasites, and is a poison to most invertebrates while remaining harmless to warm blooded creatures. This is the explanation for its utility against blood parasites, specifically malarial spirochetes, either as a prophylactic or as a treatment for malarial paroxysms.The herb is also a strong anti-bacterial. Studies show strong in-vitro activity of Spilanthes extracts against such common pathogens as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella gallinarum and Staphylococcus albus. Spilanthes also inhibits the fungal organism Candida albicans, which is responsible for the nearly epidemic condition known as candidiasis. The internal use of this herb stimulates an increased rate of phagocytosis, increased production of white blood cells and an increased production of antiviral interferon. Given the obvious sialagogue (saliva-inducing) effects, it is clear that there is stimulation of not only the parotid glands, but also of the interrelated lymphatic system. Spilanthes acmella is used for enhancing the immune system's resistance to infections. It stimulates wound healing, protects the individual from colds and flu. It decreases allergic symptoms. It is indicated for swollen glands, gum disease and all manner of acute bacterial, viral and fungal infections. On preliminary phytochemical screening the aqueous extract Spilanthes acmella (SPA) of was found to contain flavonoid compounds. Flavonoids are known to target prostaglandins which are involved in the late phase of acute inflammation and pain perception. Hence, the presence of flavonoids may be contributory to the antiinflammatory and analgesic activities of aqueous SPA. Further studies may reveal the exact mechanisms of action responsible for the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of SPA. Swertia chirata Buch-Ham.

Swertia chirata is a traditional Ayurvedic herb. Swerchirin, a xanthone from Swertia chirayita has antidiabetic activity. Researchers compared the effects of mode of action of three different hypoglycemic agents; centipiperalon, tolbutamide and swerchinin in normal as well as diabetic rats. Except in rats with severe pancreatic damage, swerchinin showed better glucose lowering effect compared to tolbutamide. A strongly bitter tonic it is an excellent remedy for a weak stomach, especially when this gives rise to nausea, indigestion and bloating, and it has also been shown to protect the liver. The plant has an interesting chemistry, similar in many respects to Gentiana lutea, a widely used restorative tonic of the digestive system. It also contains xanthones, which are reputedly effective against malaria and tuberculosis, and also amarogentin, a glycoside that may protect the liver against carbon tetrachloride poisoning. Amarogentin also has antileishmanial activity. The whole plant is an extremely bitter tonic digestive herb that lowers fevers and is a stimulant. The herb has a beneficial effect on the liver, promoting the flow of bile; it also cures constipation and is useful for treating dyspepsia. The plant is harvested when the seed is setting and then dried for later use. Symplocos racemosa Roxb. It has the properties of mild astringent, cholagouge, antidiarrhoeal, antidysentric, aperient and cooling. Symplocos racemosa is commonly recommended in menorragia due to relaxation of uterine tissue as it has specific action on relaxed mucous membranes. It is considered cooling and mild astringent. Symplocos racemosa is used in diarrhoea, for wound healing and to stop haemorrhage. It is also commonly used in bowel complaints. Antimicrobial and pharmacological actions of some fractions obtained from the bark of S. racemosa have been investigated. A crystalline fraction is found to inhibit the growth of Staphylococci, E. coli, enteric and dysenteric group of organisms. The alcoholic fraction also reduced the frequency and intensity of the contractions in vitro of both pregnant and non pregnant uteri of some species of animals, prolong the quiescent period and antagonised acetylcholine induced contraction. It was also a spasmogen on the various parts of the gastrointestinal tract and could be antagonised by atropine. The plant and its formulations are used in diarrhoea, for wound healing and to stop haemorrhage. It is also used in skin and eye infections. It is widely used in oral hygiene, bleeding gums, and bleeding teeth as it strengthens gums and teeth. It is also used in treating skin rashes and amoebiasis. Taraxacum officinale Weber. Taraxacum root acts by straining and filtering toxins & wastes from the bloodstream. It exhibits hypoglycemic effects in experimental animals, and its beneficial effects on liver complaints have been well documented by both Asian practitioners and American physicians. It stimulates bile production, and helps the body get rid of excess water produced by the diseased liver. Dandelion extracts are said to also benefit the spleen, and improve the health of the pancreas. Dandelion root exhibited the potential for fighting cancer. This herb has been shown to uniformly remedy chronic liver congestion, and has also been used in medical practice to successfully treat hepatitis, swelling of the liver, jaundice, and dyspepsia with deficient bile secretion. Taxus baccata Linn.

In Unani system of medicine, the extract from the bark and leaves of T. baccata was the source of a drug Zarnab, used for the treatment of various disorders. The paste prepared from its bark is applied as a plaster on fractured bone. It is also applied externally on the forehead to provide relief from headache. The extract from the bark and leaves is also used for the treatment of various diseases like bronchitis asthma, poisonous insect bites and also as an aphrodisiac. It is used to treat fever and relieve muscular pain. Terminalia arjuna (Roxb) Arn & Wight. The drug, commonly called Arjuna, comprises of bark of the tree. It is the best ayurvedic remedy for improving the health of the heart. Arjuna has been used for thousand of years for all heart conditions without any side effects. Regular use of Arjuna strengthen the heart to its optimum condition Arjuna with potent antioxidant constituents improve endothelial dysfunction in smokers. It also treats fractures, pimples, acne, freckles, and non healing wounds. Terminalia bellarica Roxb. Terminalia bellarica is a stimulating astringent. The mature dried fruits are effective in the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery and parasites. A decoction of fruits may be taken internally and can be used externally as eyewash in the treatment of ophthalmological disorders. It also promotes eyesight and hair growth. Fresh fruit is diuretic, digestive, expectorant, antipyretic and antiemetic. Pulp of fresh fruit is astringent, lithotriptic and anthelmentic. Dried fruit is constipating. Terminalia chebula Retz. Terminalia chebula improves digestion, promotes the absorption of nutrients and regulates colon function. It is most useful in prolapsed organs as it improves the strength and tone of the supporting musculature. It has a tonic effect on the central nervous system. In treatment of piles and vaginal discharge a decoction of Terminalia chebula is used as antiseptic and astringent wash. A fine paste of powder may be applied on burns and scalds. Terminalia chebula is reported to have potent and broad spectrum activity against human pathogenic Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Gallic acid and its ethyl ester, isolated from the plant displayed potent antimicrobial activity against several bacteria including methicillin resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus. A water extract of this plant was found to possess antifungal activity. Terminalia chebula is reported to significantly reduce serum cholesterol, aortic sudanophilia and the cholesterol contents of the liver and aorta in cholesterol fed rabbits. Thalictrum foliolosumDC. The root is antiperiodic, diuretic, febrifuge, ophthalmic, purgative, salve, stomachic and tonic. It is considered to be a good remedy for atonic dyspepsia and is also useful in convalescence after acute diseases and as an application for ophthalmia Tinospora cordifolia Meirs. Commonly known as gulvel this plant is one of the best rejuvenating plant. It is well known for its anti-inflammatory, antacid, antipyretic, tonic and neuroendocrine immune modulating effects. It promotes the qualitative nourishment of all tissues and is used for

treatment of chronic inflammation of respiratory and urinary systems, general weakness and chronic skin disorder. It also cures jaundice, thirst, burning sensation, diabetes, and neurological diseases. It possesses antibacterial and antifungal properties. Externally it is used in rheumatism. Tribulus terrestris Linn. Tribulus terrestris is an outstanding remedy in urinogenital disease promoting urine flow, soothing the mucosa and aiding in the excretion of stones and calculi. Both the plant and the seeds are used for treatment of spermatorrhoea, impotency, phosphaturia, dysuria, gonorrhea, gleets, chronic cystitis, renal calculi incontinence, gout, post partum hemorrhage and to ensure fecundity. Saponin present in Tribulus terrestris dilates the coronary artery and improves coronary circulation. The plant contains harmine alkaloids that are most likely to be responsible for its sedative properties. Ash of the whole plant is used for topical application in rheumatoid arthritis. Trifolium pretense Linn. Trifolium pretense is one of the most useful remedies for children with skin problems. It is useful for the treatment of chronic skin conditions such as eczema and psoriasis. It possesses expectorant and anti-spasmodic action hence given in the treatment of coughs and bronchitis, especially in whooping cough. It purifies blood, it also can be used for treating cancerous growths and leprosy. Trifolium pretense helps to calm coughs, reduce skin inflammations, and improve general health. Primary chemical constituents of Red Clover include phenolic glycosides (salicylic acid), essential oil (methyl salicylate), sitosterol, genistiene, flavonoids, salicylates, coumarins, cyanogenic glycosides, silica, choline, and lecithin. Red Clover, as it is commonly known, also contains vitamin A, vitamin C, B-complex, calcium, chromium, iron, and magnesium. Red Clover also increases the production of mucus and urine flow helping relieve irritation and inflammation of the urinary tract. As a digestive aid, Red Clover stimulates the production of digestive fluids and bile. It also relieves constipation and helps soothe inflammation of the bowel, stomach and intestines. Red Clover contains easily absorbable calcium & magnesium which tones and relaxes the nervous system, relieves tension due to stress and the associated headaches. It contains stilbene which stimulates eostrogenic activity, thus increasing fertility. It also supports the uterus with its vitamin content, and the high protein content nourishes the whole body. There is also an alkalizing effect which improves the vaginal and uterine acid/alkaline balance. Urginea indica (Roxb) Kunth. Urginea indica commonly known as squill was valued as a medicine in early classic times and has ever since been employed by physicians, being official in all pharmacopoeias. Squill has diuretic property and is frequently employed in dropsy, whether due to chronic disease of the kidneys or to the renal congestion consequent to chronic cardiac disease. Its diuretic action is attributed to a direct stimulant effect upon the kidney. Squill stimulates the bronchial mucous membrane and is given in bronchitis after subsidence of the acute inflammation and is considered most useful in chronic bronchitis, catarrhal affections and asthma. It is largely used for its stimulating, expectorant and diuretic properties. It is also a cardiac tonic, acting in a similar manner to digitalis, slowing and strengthening the pulse, though more irritating to the gastro-

intestinal mucous membrane. It is also used as antidiabetic, and treatment of asthma, pneumonia, and whooping cough. Valeriana officinales Linn. The medicinal properties of valerian were well known at least since Roman times. This plant is a well known CNS depressant. Root of Valeriana officinales is a general tranquilizer used for relieving nervous tension, insomnia and headaches. The volatile oils and valeri acid may be responsible for the plant’s sedative effect. It is believed that valerian works in ways similar to the prescription drugs in the benzodiazepine class by increasing the body's supply of a neurotransmitter known as gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA). Both valerian and benzodiazepine drugs may increase GABA production, decrease its re-absorption, and/or interfere with its break down. Unlike benzodiazepines, though, valerian may not have as much residual "hangover" effect on physical or mental functioning. Valerian as it is commonly known possesses antispasmodic properties and hence it decreases muscular spasm, is useful in cases of nervous digestion, bowel syndrome, stomach and menstrual cramps. Valerian is also hypotensive, antibacterial, antidiuretic, hepatoprotective, tonic, nervine and carminative. Valerian helps relieve stress and has become an increasingly popular remedy in recent decades. It is a safe, nonaddictive relaxant that reduces nervous tension and anxiety and promotes restful sleep hence relieves anxiety. Inhaling the vapor from the warm water is thought to help relieve nervousness and induce sleepiness. Similarly, shredded valerian root may be put into simmering water so the steam can be inhaled as a relaxant Valeriana wallichii DC. Valeriana wallichii is prescribed as a remedy for hysteria, hypochondriasis, nervous unrest and emotional troubles. It is also used as a carminative and forms an ingredient of a number of Ayurvedic recipes. The drug contains a group of iridoid or monoterpenic derivatives, known as valepotriates which are useful as tranquilizers and sedatives. An iridoid ester glycoside designated as valerosidatum (isovaleryl glucoside) has also been isolated. The essential oil of the root and rhizome has anti-bacterial property. Vetiveria zizanioides (Linn.) Nash. Vetiveria zizanioides is sedative hence is useful in insomnia, nervousness and tight muscles. It relieves aches and pains in the muscles, decreases stiffness, for arthritis, rheumatism, and sprains. Vetiveria zizanioides strengthens the nervous system, reduces anxiety, stress, tension, depression. It has a balancing effect, helps to stabilize energy, to concentrate, organize scattered thoughts and overcome intellectual fatigue. It is an antiseptic, balances the production of sebum, helps to moisturize the skin, soothes irritation and inflammation, and helps wounds to heal. It is an antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, detoxifying, and nervine. It stimulates production of red corpuscles. Vetiveria zizanioides is panacea for stress and tension. It may have a healing effect on acne and support the skin generally. The commercial oil of Vetiver is reported to be used as a carminative in flatulence, colic and obstinate vomiting. It is regarded as a stimulant, diaphoretic, refrigerant and antibacterial and when applied externally, it removes excess heat from the body and gives a cooling effect. A decoction of the leaves is recommended as a diaphoretic.

Viola odarata Linn. This herb is well known for its medicinal values since olden times and is used for several diseases. The herb is valued as an expectorant, diaphoretic, antipyretic and diuretic, and as a laxative in bilious affections. It is used for catarrhal and pulmonary troubles and for calculous affections. It has a long history of use as a cough remedy and for treatment of bronchitis. The flowers contain violin and the leaves contain an essential oil, an alkaloid, coloring matter, friedelin, ß-sitosterol and a straight-chain alcohol. The flowers are used in bilious affections, epilepsy, nervous disorders, prolapsed rectum and the uterus, and inflammatory swellings. The flowers are popularly used for the treatment of cough, sore throat, kidney disorder, liver disorder, and infantile afflictions. Viola odarata is also used for treating skin conditions like eczema, as anti-rheumatic, anti-inflammatory, and astringent. Vitex negundo Linn. The root is reported to be tonic, febrifuge, diuretic, and expectorant. The root is also used in a great variety of diseases such as dyspepsia, colic, rheumatism, worms, boils, and leprosy. Internally leaves are alterative, aromatic, bitter vermifuge and anodyne. Leaves are externally antiparasitic and powerfully discutient. They are applied to rheumatic swellings of the joints and in sprains. It can be applied locally in rheumatic arthritis and sprains. The leaves are also reported to be used for coughs and asthma. The juice of the leaves is used for the treatment of fetid discharges. They show anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and analgesic activities. It is useful in the treatment of superficial bruises, injuries, sores and skin infections. Flowers are cool and astringent. It is used for syphilis, veneral diseases and other syphilitic skin diseases. It is also given in catarrhal fever with heaviness of head & dullness of hearing. The flowers are also used in diarrhea, cholera, fever, and diseases of the liver, and are also recommended as a cardiac tonic. Fruit is nervine cephalic and emmenagogue. The seeds make a cooling medicine for skin diseases and leprosy, and for inflammation of the mouth. Withania somnifera Dunal Withania is often considered the Indian equivalent to Ginseng however unlike Ginseng; it has a sedative effect rather than stimulant action on the central nervous system making it a superior medicine for exhaustion with nervous irritability. Withania is widely used in any debility, emaciation or consumptive condition in both adults and children. Withania roots exhibit hypoglycemic, diuretic and hypocholesterolemic effects. It provides immunity to body by bringing about an increase in hemoglobin concentration, red blood cell count, white blood cell count, platelet count and body weight, as well as increased hemolytic antibody responses towards human erythrocytes. It is also known to posses anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. It is known to enhance memory. It contains withanolides which possess immunomodulatory activity. Withaferin A & withanolide D found in Withania somnifera are known to inhibit growth of cancer. Studies have revealed that Withania somnifera enhances the therapeutic effect of radiotherapy. Zanthoxylum armatum DC. The aqueous extract of tender leaves and seeds is used for treating toothache and as a

mouth wash in oral hygiene. A decoction of the seeds is used as a blood purifier. The stem is used as a tooth brush. 4. Some therapeutic actions, mode of action and some plants that possess these actions: 4.1 Immunomodulator: The immune system, resulting from millions of years of evolution, provides protection against microbial infections and the body’s own damaged or cancerous cells. It is composed of the innate and the adaptive immune responses. The innate immune response involves processes that occur almost immediately after exposure to a foreign microorganism, and is now known to exhibit a degree of specificity. The adaptive immune response is triggered within a few hours to a few days, and provides exquisite specificity and a long-lasting protection through specialist memory cells. An immunomodulator is any substance that helps to regulate the immune system. This "regulation" is a normalisation process, so that an immunomodulator helps to optimise immune response. Immunomodulators do not tend to boost immunity, but to normalize it. Part of their benefit appears to be their ability to naturally increase the body's production of messenger molecules, such as cytokines, which mediate and regulate the immune system making the immune system more efficient. Some plants with properties of Immunomodulator: Aconitum heterophyllum, Acorus calamus, Ailanthus exelsa, Asparagus racemosa, Azadirachta indica, Bacopa monnieri, Berberis aristata, Chonemorpha macrophylla, Citrullus coclcynthis, Cloedendron serratum, Crataeva nurvala, Curcuma longa, Cyclea peltata, Cyperus rotundus, Eclipta alba, Embelia ribes, Emblica officinalis, Hemidesmus indica, Holarrhena antidysentrica, Ichnocarpus frutescens, Picrorhiza kurroa, Piper longum, Plumbago indica, Psoralia corylifolia, Pterospermum marsupium, Rubia cordifolia, Santalum album, Saussurea lappa, Solanum surattense, Terminalia bellarica, Terminalia chebula, Tinospora cordifolia, Tragia involucrata, Vertiveria zizanioides, Zingiber officinale. 4.2 Antioxidant: Antioxidants are substances that may protect cells from damage caused by unstable molecules known as free radicals. Exposure to various environmental factors lead to formation of free radicals, which are actually electrically charged oxygen molecules. These electrically charged oxygen molecules take up electrons from other molecules causing an array of disorders. Antioxidant interact with these free radicals and stabilizes them and thereby prevents them from damaging the cells. Some antioxidants stimulate the immune system and increase the activity of detoxifying enzymes in the liver. Some plants with properties of antioxidant: Allium sativa, Beta vulgaris, Bixa orellana, Brassica oleracea, Celastrus paniculata, Citrus aurantifolia, Crocus sativa, Curcuma longa, Emblica officinalis, Hemidesmus indicus, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lycopersicon esculentum, Momordica charantia, Murraya koenigii, Picrorhiza kurroa, Plumbago zeylanica, Syzygium cumini, Trigonella foenum-graceum, Withania somnifera.

4.3 Astringent: Astringents are any of a group of medicines that shrink mucous membranes and stop or slow secretion of blood, mucous, or other fluids from human body. Astringents decrease fluids by narrowing small blood vessels, drawing water away from organ, or coagulating the superficial layers of organ into a crust. They usually contain tannins that precipitate the proteins when they come into contact with it. Thus, in a remedy, they will tend tone up the mucous membranes and reduce secretions and discharge, and have an anticatarrhal effect. Astringents are also anti-haemorrhagic and will form an eschar (scab) over a wound so preventing the entry of bacteria. Sometimes they will act on tissues with which there is no direct contact. Some plants with properties of astringent: Abrus precatorius, Acacia catechu, Aerva lantana, Allophyllus serratus, Anogeissus latifolia, Blumea lacera, Boswellia serrata, Bauhinia variegata, Callicarpa macrophylla, Calycopteris floribunda, Canthium parviflorum, Catuneregam spinosa, Costus speciosus, Crataeva magna, Crotolaria retusa, Dalbergia sisso, Ficus hispida, Ficus microcarpa, Flacourtia jangomas, Garcinia morella, Gossypium arboretum, Ipomoea mauritiana, Jasminum arborescens, Jasminum auriculatum, Kyllinga nemoralis, Limonia acidissima, Premna corymbosa, Pseudarthria viscida, Sapindus lauriflorus, Symclocos chinensis, Symplocos racemosa, Syzygium cumini, Toddalia asiatica, Verbena officinalis, Vitex trifolia, Zanthoxylum rhetsa. 4.4 Depurative: A depurative is effective in blood purification and detoxification. They assist the body in ridding itself of viral and bacterial toxins that the body has stored over the years. The blood performs many vital functions which sometimes become over-taxed during acute & chronic cellular disease. Likewise, many ailments and diseases are the direct result of impurities & toxins within the blood. The blood is, therefore, a target for effective medicinal intervention. Depurative changes the properties of the blood from an "unhealthy state" to a "healthy" one. It filters out the toxins and wastes, kills microbial organisms present in the blood, adjusts and balances vital salts, furnishes nutrients, and strengthened and enhances important plasma substances. Some plants with properties of depurative: Albizzia lebbeck, Andrographis paniculata, Anogeissus latifolia, Aphanamixis polystachya, Aristolochia indica, Artemesia nilagirica, Asclepias curassavica, Buchanania lanzan, Calotropis gigantean, Cassia auriculata, Chonemorpha fragrans, Cocculus hirsutus, Coscimum fenestratum, Gloriosa superba, Hemidesmus indicus, Homonoia riparia, Hydnocarpus laurifolia, Kirganelia reticulata, Melia azedarach, Murraya koenigii, Pterocarpus santalinus, Pterospermum canascens, Rhinacanthus nasuta, Ricinus communis, Samadera indica, Schrebera swietenioides, Swertia angustifolia, Thespesia populnea, Vetiveria zizanioides, Woodfordia fruiticosa. 4.5 Memory Enhancers: Certain types of mental decline result from exposure to toxins and from allergies, stress or low nutrient levels in the tissues, which appear to contribute to brain inflammation, scarring and cognitive function impairment. Memory is only one aspect of cognitive functioning. Cognitive functioning refers to the collection of brain functions that

constitute our intellectual ability. Included in this are higher order sensory and motor processing, attention and concentration, language function, and executive functions. Executive functions refer to the ability to plan a task, execute the task according to your plan, and also the ability to change execution of the task after having acquired relevant new information Some memory enhancers reduce the age-related decline of neurotransmitters and receptors. Through these actions they may improve cognitive function and reduce central nervous system degeneration. Certain other memory enhancers appear to interact strongly, promoting cognitive performance, slowing vascular dementia and improving late-life brain function. Some memory enhancers have been shown to enhance the actions of acetylcholine through cholinergic activity. Some plants with properties of memory enhancers: Anisomeles malabarica, Argyreia nervosa, Bacopa monnieri, Canscora decussata, Celastrus paniculata, Centella asiatica, Cucumis trigonus, Cyperus rotundus, Embelia ribes, Evolvulus alsinoides, Habenaria edgeworthii, Lawsonia inermis, Nardostachys grandiflora, Sphaeranthus indicus. 4.6 General tonic: The term "general tonic" refers to a substance or medication that increases the tone of a tissue or an organ. They increase the vigor and tone of the system by improving the appetite, favoring digestion and assimilation, and adding strength to the circulatory system. Sometimes tonics are also taken to be herbs that have a nourishing and supportive effect. Some plants with properties of general tonic: Aconitum heterophyllum, Asparagus racemosa, Betula utilis, Biophytum sensitivum, Buchanania lanzan, Butea monosperma, Calamus rotang, Canscora decussate, Canthium parviflorum, Cassia occidentale, Celastrus paniculata, Cichorium intybus, Commiphora mukul, Coptis teeta, Costus speciosus, Crataeva magna, Cressa cretica, Curculigo orchioides, Delphinium denudatum, Emblica officinalis, Habenaria edgeworthi, Ichnocarpus frutenscens, Pyrethrum radix, Samadera indica. 4.7 Aphrodisiac: Since the beginning of time people have searched high and low for substances they could use to stimulate and heighten sexual desire in themselves and others. Various food have gained notoriety for being sexual stimulants however there is very little scientific evidence in their support An aphrodisiac is defined as any food or drug that arouses sexual instinct, enhances sexual vitality, and helps to overcome sexual dysfunction naturally. Herbs have become increasingly fashionable for use as aphrodisiac and unlike substances like the Spanish Fly and Chan Su, it does not hurt to try and find out if they if they actually possess the said property. Most of the herbs are not only said to increase libido but they are quite healthy to eat. In fact some say that the true reason people believe these foods are aphrodisiacs is because healthy eating promotes better physical condition and, in turn, better sexual performance. Some plants with Aphrodisiac properties:

Abelmoschus moschata, Adenanthera pavonia, Argyeria nervosa, Boerrhavia diffusa, Bombax ceiba, Buchanania lanzan, Butea monosperma, Ceiba pentandra, Coccinia grandis, Commiphora mukul, Cordia dichotoma, Curculigo orchiodes, Dioscorea alata, Euphorbia thymifolia, Evolvulus alsinoides, Ficus arnotiiana, Ficus religiosa, Habenaria edgeworthii, Hygrophila auriculata, Ichnocarpus frutenscens, Jasminum grandiflorum, Jatropha curcus, Loranthus falcatus, Madhuca longifolia, Manilkara hexandra, Morus alba, Mucuna pruriens, Pandanus odaratissimus, Polygonatum cirrhifolium, Peuraria tuberose, Saussurea lappa, Vigna pilosa. 4.8 Contraceptive: The primary mechanism of action of contraceptives is the inhibition of ovulation. The release of an egg, which commonly occurs in the middle of the menstrual cycle, is prevented by them. Two hormones produced by the pituitary, a gland located at the base of the brain, coordinate the development and release of an egg from the ovary. One is follicle stimulating hormone, abbreviated FSH, and the other is luteinizing hormone, or LH. A surge in both of these hormones ordinarily occurs in the middle of a woman's menstrual cycle. The surge in LH is the trigger for ovulation. Oral contraceptives inhibit the production of both FSH and LH and consequently prevent ovulation. The contraceptive action of one group of contraceptives occurs primarily at the level of the pituitary and the hypothalamus. They interrupt the usual hormonal messages sent from the brain to the ovary that lead to ovulation. Some plants with properties of contraceptive: Abrus precatorius, Ageratum conyzoides, Anthocephalus cadamba, Berberis aristata, Butea monosperma, Caesalpinia bonduc, Carum carvi, Cissampelos parriera, Cucumis sativa, Curcuma longa, Curcuma zedoaria, Embelia ribes, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Holerrhena antidysentrica, Mentha arvensis, Martynia annua, Mesua ferrea, Michelia champaca, Mimusops elengi, Mimusops hexandra, Nigella sativa, Piper nigrum, Plumbago zeylanica, Ricinus communis, Salmalia malabarica, Santalum album, Syzygium cumini, Zizyphus jujuba, Valeriana wallichii 4.9 Emmenagouge: Emmenagouge stimulates the uterine muscular fibers and promotes menstrual flow. If used in higher doses they can act as abortifacients. Some of the emmemnagouge acts as tonic in gynaecological disorders Some plants with Emmenagouge properties: Arctium minus, Artemisia maritime, Aristolochia bracteolata, Artemisia niligirica, Barringtonia acutangula, Boswellia serrata, Capparis deciduas, Cardiospermum halicacabum, Carthamus tinctorius, Celastrus paniculata, Cichorium intybus, Commiphora mukul, Cyperus rotundus, Delphinium denudatum, Euphorbia thymifolia, Gossipium arboretum, Melia azaderach, Moringa oleifera, Mucuna pruriens, Origanum vulgare, Polygonum hydropiper, Prunus ceracoides, Salacia reticulate, Urtica dioca. 4.10 Abortifacient: Abortifacient are substances that causes or induces abortion. The mode of action alters the endometrium so the uterus is not receptive to implantation of the fertilized egg. The

developing embryo travels through the fallopian tube, reaches the uterus where it would normally be nourished and protected until birth. The uterus gets chemically altered so that there is no nourishment for the developing embryo and hence the embryo is aborted. They may have other benefits such as regulation of menstrual cycle. Some plants with Abortifacient properties: Abrus precatorius, Ageratum conyzoides, Cassia fistula, Cassia occidentalis, Catunaregam spinosa, Celastrus paniculata, Dalbergia sissoo, Derris brevipes, Garcinia morella, Gloriosa superba, Helotriopium indicum, Lawsonia inermis, Moringa oleifera, Nigella sativa, Pandanus odaratissimus, Plumbago indica, Sapindus lauriflorus, Trichosanthes tricus . 4.11 Galactagouge: Galactagouge promotes the flow of milk in nursing mothers. Although their exact mode of action is unclear and probably diverse, some are known to act by inhibiting dopamine release, allowing for the unopposed secretion of prolactin. Some plants with Galactagouge properties: Alternenthera sessilis, Amaranthus spinosus, Barringtonia acutangula, Coccinia grandis, Cyperus rotundus, Ficus hispida, Gmelina arborea, Holostemma ada-kodienk, Ipomoea mauritiana, Jatropha curcus, Lilium polyphyllum, Limnophila aromatica, Nigella sativa, Noelamarkia cadamba, Polygonatum cirrifolium, Premna corymbosa, Pueraria tuberose, Ricinus communis, Saussurea lappa. 4.12 Cosmetics and Toiletry: Herbs and spices have been used for enhancement and maintenance of human beauty since time immemorial. Sandalwood, turmeric, henna and natural oils have found use in a wide variety of beauty treatments. Elaborate herbal beauty treatments are carried out to heighten sensual appeal and maintain general hygiene. A large number of cosmetics and toiletry formulation have been developed based on herbs. Some of the plants used in beauty care: Acacia concinnia, Acorus calamus, Allium sativa, Aloe vera, Alpinia galanga, Azadirachta indica, Bacopa monneiri, Barleria prionitis, Bixa orellana, , Cedrus deodara, Centella asiatica, Cichorium intybus, Crocus sativa, Curcuma longa, Cyperus rotundus, Eclipta alba, Emblica officinalis, Euphorbia hirta, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Hibiscus rosa sinensis, Lawsonia inermis, Mesua ferrea, Moringa oliefera, Ocimum sanctum, Pongamia pinnata, Rubia cordifolia, Salvadora persica, Sapindus trifoliatus, Sesamum indicum, Syzyguim aromaticum, Terminalia bellarica, Terminalia chebula, Vitex negundo. 4.13 Antiperiodic: These are agents, which prevent or check the return of diseases which recur periodically. Very little is known of their mode of action however it is possible that they have a toxic action upon the microbes in the blood, which are supposed to cause the disease. The typical antiperiodic, quinine, has, however, a decided effect upon the heart and brain, as well as other parts of the nervous system. Achyranthus aspera, Aconitum heterophyllum, Andrographis paniculata, Aesculus hippocastanum, Aristolochia bracteolate, Cassia fistula, Cassia tora, Crataeva magna,

Cyperus rotundus, Enicostemma axillare, Gymnema sylvestris, Holarrhena antidysentrica, Melia azedarach, Picrorhiza scrophula, Tinospora cordifolia, Tragia involucrata, Vernonia cinerea. 4.14 Antiinflammatory: Inflammation is a process that is accompanied by local liberation of chemical mediators like histamines, 5 – hydroxytryptamine, bradykinin and eicosanoids. They are formed in almost every tissue in the body. Inhibition of their biosynthesis is the main stay of antiinflammatory therapy. Antiinflammatory drugs are used in a variety of conditions including arthritis, muscle and ligament pains, pains after operations, headaches, migraines, and some other types of pains. Antiinflammatory agents do not alter the course of painful conditions however they ease symptoms of pain and stiffness. Plants used as remedy: Acacia catechu, Aglaia roxburghiana, Allophyllus serratus, Anogeissus latifolia, Aristolochia bracteolate, Artemesia nilagirica, Baliospermum montanum, Bauhinia variegate, Berberis asiatica, Blumea lacera, Buchanania lanzan, Caesalpinia bonduc, Cassia fistula, Cassia occidentalis, Catunaregam spinosa, Celastrus paniculata, Cinnamomum camphora, Commiphora mukul, Crinum asiaticum, Cyclea peltata, Cyperus rotundus, Dalbergia sissoo, Delphinium denudatum, Desmodium gangeticum, Enicostemma axillare, Erythrina indica, Ficus hispida, Flacourtia jangomas, Gentiana kurroo, Gossypium arboretum, Holoptelea integrifolia, Hydnocarpus laurifolia, Hygrophilla auriculata, Hyoscyamus niger, Inula racemosa, Lagenaria siceraria, Moringa oleifera, Nigella sativa, Nyctanthes arbotristis, Oxalis corniculata, Pedalium murex, Picrorhiza scrophula, Plumbago indica, Pterocarpus marsupium, Pterocarpus santalinus, Rubia cordifolia, Salacia reticulata. 4.15 Antispasmodic: Antispasmodic drugs also known as anticholinergics relieve cramps, reduce uncontrollable movements, prevent bladder spasm, relax the lung airways and dry the nose and chest. They are used to treat stomach cramps, Parkinson’s disease, colds, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and urinary incontinence and muscle spasms from cerebral palsy. Antispasmodics prevent the entry of choline in the nerve terminal by hemicholinium and triethylcholine. It also prevents the entry of acetylcholine into the synaptic vesicles by vesamicol. It prevents the release of acetylcholine by ecocytosis and blocks the cholinergic receptors. Plants used as remedy: Abelmoschus moschatus, Adhatoda vasica, Ailanthus exelsa, Anthemis nobilis, Cassia occidentalis, Cissampelos parreira, Commiphora mukul, Ferula asafoetida, Hyocyamus niger, Mentha piperita, Mimosa pudica, Mirabilis jalapa, Phyllanthus niruri, Scoparia dulcis, Tinospora cordifolia, Withania somnifera, Vetiveria zizanioides. 4.16 Antipyretic (Febrifuge): Body temperature is regulated by a centre in the hypothalamus. Disturbances in this region lead to a rise in the body temperature and manifestation of pyrexia (fever). In fever there is an increase in formation of various cytokines which in turn increase the synthesis of PGE2 in circumventricular organs in and near the preoptic hypothalamic area. This

ultimately results in elevation of body temperature by promotion of heat generation and suppression of heat loss. Antipyretic agents inhibit the synthesis of PGE 2 thereby preventing rise in body temperature. Normal body temperature is not affected by antipyretic agents. Plants used as remedy: Aconitum falconeri, Acacia catechu, Adenanthera pavonia, Alstonia scholaris, Alternenthera sessilis, Alangium salvifolium, Amaranthus spinosus, Andrographis paniculata, Anisomeles malabarica, Aristolochia indica, Artemisia nilagirica, Barringtonia acutangula, Blumea lacera, Boerrhavia diffusa, Boswellia serrata, Caesalpinia bonduc, Careya arborea, Carrissa carandas, Cassia fistula, Cassia occidentalis, Ceiba pentandra, Celastrus paniculata, Centella asiatica, Chonemorpha fragrans, Cichorium intybus, Citrullus colocynthis, Coccinia hirsutus, Coptis teeta, Costus speciosus, Crinum asiaticum, Curculigo orchiodes, Cyperus rotundus, Dalbergia sissoo, Gloriosa superba, Leucas aspera, Murraya koenigii, Naregamia alata, Nelumbo nucifera, Operculina turpethum, Pergularia daemia, Prunus ceracoides, Samadera indica, Saussurea lappa, Sida cordifolia, Tephrosia purpurea. 4.17 Antimicrobial: Antimicrobial destroy disease causing microorganism with minimal damage to host tissues. They act against bacteria, viruses, fungi and other invading organisms to inactivate or destroy them. This may be a direct effect on the microbe or it may be indirect, by way of stimulating or modifying the immune response. Broad spectrum antimicrobials act on a large number of microbes whereas narrow spectrum antimicrobials are selective in action acting on specific organisms Plants used as remedy: Allium sativa, Aquilaria agallocha, Bixa orellana, Cassia occidentalis, Chukrasia tabularis, Jatropha gossipifolia, Mirabilis jalapa, Momordica charantia, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, Vitex negundo. 4.17 Antimalarial: Malaria is one of the most significant and fifth largest killer infectious diseases of the world. It is a protozoal disease caused by Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium falciparum. The effectiveness of drug in malaria depends upon the efficacy of the particular drug in a particular parasite species and the stage in the life cycle of the parasite. Antimalarial drugs, if used appropriately, can cure malarial infection completely and suppress symptoms in individuals exposed to infection in endemic areas. Certain antimalarial inhibit the growth of the parasite in the preerythrocytic stages which prevents malarial fever and further transmission to mosquitoes. Second group of drug eliminates all the remaining parasites in the body after the primary infection is effectively treated. Third group of antimalarial drug kill the asexual erythrocytic stage of the malarial parasites and thus terminate the clinical attacks of the disease. Fourth group of antimalarial destroys the sexual stages of the parasite in blood thereby prevent the transmission of the parasite to the mosquito. The fifth group prevents further development of the malarial oocysts and sporozoites in the infected mosquito. Plants used as remedy:

Adina cordifolia, Allium cepa, Alnus serrulata Alstonia scholaris, Andira inermis, Anthemis nobilis, Argemone mexicana, Artemisia annua, Asplenium lunulatum, Azadirachta indica, Bauhinia malabarica, Bixa orellana, Heliotropium indicum, Naregamia alata, Ocimum americanum, Phyllanthus niruri, Plectranthus amboinicus, Schleichera oleosa, Scoparia dulcis, Sterospermum colais, Strychnos nux-vomica, Swertia chirayata, Taraxacum officinale, Vitex negundo. 4.18 Antibacterial: Antibacterial drugs either kill the bacteria directly or prevent them from multiplying so that the body’s immune system can destroy the invading bacteria. Antibacterial drugs act by interfering with some specific characteristics of bacteria. Bacterial cells possess rigid cell wall which maintains its shape. Certain antibacterial injury the wall or inhibits its formation leading to lysis of the bacterial cell thereby causing the death of the organism. One group of antibacterial inhibit cell membrane function by altering the permeability that results in leakage of intracellular macromolecules and ions leading to cell damage and cell death. A number of antibacterial inhibit protein synthesis through an action on ribosomes in the bacterial cells. Some antibacterial bind strongly to DNA dependant RNA polymerase of bacteria inhibiting RNA synthesis thus inhibiting bacterial growth. Plants used as remedy: Ageratum conyzoides, Artemisia pallens, Azadirachta indica, Betula utilis, Caesalpinnia bonducella, Capparis deciduas, Cassia siamea, Chukrasia tabularis, Cryptostegia grandiflora, Embelia tsjeriam-cottem, Euphorbia thymifolia, Ficus religiosa, Garcinia morella, Lantana camara, Leucas aspera, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Nigella sativa, Nyctanthes arbotristis, Ocimum canum, Oxalis corniculata, Portulaca oleracea, Premna corymbosa, Solanum indicum, Solanum nigrum, Toddalia asiatica,Urtica dioica, Vateria indica, Vernonia cinerea, Woddfordia fruticosa. 4.19 Antifungal: Fungal infections can have effects ranging from an irritating patch of itchy skin to a life threatening condition. In general fungal infections can be divided into topical (superficial) infection affecting the skin, nails, hair or mucous membranes and systematic infections affecting deeper tissues and organs. Widespread use of immunosuppressive chemotherapy, broad spectrum antibiotics, corticosteroids, implants and the emergence of AIDS, compromise the host defense mechanism allowing infection by saprophytic fungi. Mild infections are usually susceptible to topical therapy, however severe or resistant infections may require systemic treatment. Certain antifungal bind with high affinity to ergosterol present in fungal membranes resulting in certain alterations in the fungal membrane with formation of microspores. Through these pores vital macromolecules and ions are lost leading to irreversible damage. Another group of antifungal inhibits DNA synthesis of the fungus exerting antifungal effect. Plants used as remedy: Abroma augusta, Aglaia roxburghiana, Alpinia galangal, Amamirta cocculus, Artemisia niligarica, Artemisia pallens, Asclepias curassavica, Azadirachta indica, Bacopa monnieri, Berberis aristata, Caesulia axillaries, Calotropis procera, Chukrasia tabularis, Lippia alba, Psoralea coryfolia, Moringa oleifera, Nelumbo nucifera, Syzygium travancorium, Tinospora cordifolia, Vernonia cinerea.

4.20 Antiviral: Viruses are the smallest microorganism infecting human beings. Virus invades the cell and is dependant on the cell’s metabolic for its requirements and hence it is difficult to control or inhibit them. There are two types of viruses- DNA viruses that cause smallpox, chicken pox, herpes, glandular fever and RNA viruses that cause influenza, measles, mumps etc. Antiviral drugs interfere with the life cycle of a virus by preventing its penetration into a host cell or by blocking the synthesis of new virus. Some antiviral stimulate the immune system so that the body can fight the viral infection itself. Plants used as remedy: Aloe barbedensis, Andrographis paniculata, Arctium lappa, Barleria prionitis, Calophyllum inophyllum, Cassia fistula. Melia azadirach, Momordica charantia, Phyllanthus amaras, Phyllanthus niruri, Rheum officinalis, Santalum album, Sarcostemma acidum, Scoparia dulcis, Terminalia chebula. 4.21 Antiseptic: Since time immemorial chemical substances were used to control the infection in wounds and spread of contagious diseases. Antiseptic agents kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms on the external surfaces of the body. They are toxic both to the microorganism and the host and hence are used topically. There is a great variation in the ability of antiseptics to destroy microorganisms and in their effect on living tissue Antiseptics are potent germicidal usually with broad spectrum activity. There is also a great difference in the time required for different antiseptics to work. Plants used as remedy: Acacia catechu, Anthemis nobilis, Bixa orellana, Cassia occidentalis, Catunaregam spinosa, Cinnamomum camphora Commiphora mukul, Garcinia cambogia, Homonoia riparia, Indigofera tinctoria, Inula racemosa, Jasminum grandiflora, Limnophila aromatica, Mangifera indica, Melia azaderach, Mentha arvensis, Nardostachys grandiflora, Pandanus odaratissimus, Phylanthus amaras, Pterocarpus santalinus, Oxalis corniculata, Rhinacanthus nasuta, Rubia cordifolia, Sassurea lappa, Scoparia dulcis, Semecarpus anacardium, Solanum nigrum, Streblus asper, Vitex negundo, Zanonia indica, Zanthoxylum armatum, Zizyphus oenoplia. 4.22 Expectorant: Cough is one of the most common symptoms of respiratory diseases. It is a protective reflex and helps in clearing the airway of unwanted matter from upper respiratory tract. Cough reflex is elicited on stimulation of receptors in the mucosa of airway. The cough receptors are stimulated by inflammation, secretion, foreign bodies, chemical substances and intrabronchial tumours. Expectorants augment the output of the respiratory tract and facilitate the excretion of mucous from the lungs and the throat. Plants used as remedy: Acalypha indica, Achyranthes aspera, Aconitum heterophyllum, Albizzia lebbeck, Betula utilis, Boerrhavia diffusa, Caesalpinna bonduc, Calamus rotang, Capparis deciduas, Catunaregam spinosa, Cinnamomum camphora, Clerodendron serrata, Commiphora mukul, Coptis teeta, Crinum asiaticum, Cuscuta reflexa, Gardenia gummifera, Grewia tiliefolia, Helicteris isora, Hiptage benghalensis, Inula racemosa, Lagenaria siceraria,

Lilium polyphyllum, Naregamia alata, Plumbago indica, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia paniculata, Tylophora indica. 4.23 Anthelmentic: Parasitic infections impose a substantial health problem and economic burden in under developed countries. Anthelmentic are used in eradicating a number of helminthic parasites in the intestinal tracts of humans and other animals. There are two categories of anthelmentics – 1) vermicide which destroys the parasite without causing their expulsion from the bowels and hence a laxative or a cathartic has to be used to expel the dead parasite.2) vermifuge which expels the parasite from the bowel. Anthelmentics inhibits cytoplasmic microtubule synthesis in nematodes and impair their glucose uptake and secretion of acetylcholinesterase. As a result the parasites are immobilized and die slowly. Plants used as remedy: Alangium salvifolium, Aristolochia bracteolate, Barrintonia acutangula, Canscora decussate, Careya arborea, Cissampelos pareira, Cleome viscose, Cordia dichotoma, Cressa cretica, Cucumis trigonus, Embelia ribes, Leucas aspera, Mallotus philipinensis, Morus alba, Operculina turpethum, Ophiorrhiza mungos, Phyla nodiflora, Piper longum, Sarcostemma kleinii, Sesbania grandiflora, Shorea robusta, Solanum surattense, Sphaeranthus indicus, Tamarindus indicus, Tephrosia purpurea, Tinospora cordifolia, Vernonia anthelmentica, Vernonia cinerea, Vitex negundo, Zizyphus oenoplia. 4.24 Hepatoprotective: Liver breaks down and neutralizes an array of toxic that enters our body. Natural substances like hormones are also broken down by the liver. Hepatitis and cirrhosis are two diseases that can badly damage the liver. Hepatitis is an inflammation of liver caused by certain viruses. Cirrhosis changes the structure of the liver and hence it fails to function properly leading to retention of toxins in the blood. Therapeutic agents used in liver disorders promote the production of bile in the liver and promotes the release of bile from the gall bladder into the duodenum. Agents that stimulate the production and flow of bile often considered alternatives, and because bile promotes peristalsis, the net effect of is usually a laxative effect. Hepatics are often liver trophorestoratives, acting to strengthen the liver, aid in pelvic decongestion, and generally improve digestion and elimination. Plants used as remedy: Andrographis paniculata, Adhatoda vasica, Aloe barbadensis, Alpinia galangal, Alstonia scholaris, Bixa orellana, Blumea lacera, Boerrhavia diffusa, Caesalpinnia bonduc, Capparis spinosa, Cassia fistula, Cassia tora, Cichorum intybus, Commiphora mukul, Cucumis trigonus, Curcuma longa, Cyperus rotundus, Eclipta alba, Enicostemma axillare, Flacourtia jangomas, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Mirabilis jalapa, Picrorhiza kurooa, Podophyllum hexandrum, Phyllanthus amarus, Phyllanthus niruri, Semecarpus anacardium, Silybum marianum, Sphaeranthus indicus, Solanum nigrum, Solena amplexicaulis, Strychnos potatorum, Swertia chirata, Symplocos racemosus, Taraxacum officinale, Trifolium pratense, Valeriana wallichii, Terminalia arjuna, Terminalia chebula, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Wedelia chinensis, Wrightia tinctoria. 4.25 Antijaundice:

Jaundice or Hepatitis A is an acute infectious disease caused by Hepatitis A virus (HAV). Jaundice means the yellow appearance of the skin and whites of the eyes that occurs when the blood contains an excess of the pigment called bilirubin. Bilirubin is a natural product arising from the normal breakdown of red blood cells in the body and is excreted in the bile, through the actions of the liver. Although jaundice is most often the result of a disorder affecting the liver it can be caused by a variety of other conditions affecting for example the blood or spleen The red blood cells in our circulation carry oxygen to all parts of the body and have a life span of about 120 days. At the end of their life they are broken down and removed from the circulation by special cells called phagocytes, which are found within the bone marrow, spleen and liver. Following breakdown of the red cells some of their component parts such as amino acids and iron can be re-used by the body. Other components such as bilirubin need to be removed Bilirubin released from old red cells, passes through the bloodstream to the liver, where the liver cells process it. These cells carry out many complex chemical functions and also produce the liquid bile, which is the 'vehicle' by which the cells discharge their output to the bile duct system. Bile (and therefore bilirubin) then passes out through the small and large intestines and is excreted in the stool (faeces).Therefore, any failure of the bilirubin removal pathway will lead to a buildup of bilirubin in the blood. When this happens the individual's skin turns yellow, causing jaundice. The balance between manufacture and breakdown of red cells is normally precisely balanced and equal but there are several conditions in which the rate of breakdown increases. If the amount of bilirubin thus released exceeds the liver's capacity to remove it, then jaundice will develop. The commonest cause is a viral infection of the liver cells known as Hepatitis. Many different types of infection including glandular fever (mononucleosis) can also be responsible for this. Alcohol abuse and subsequent scarring of the liver (cirrhosis) can cause significant cell damage leading to jaundice. The disease is heralded by non specific symptoms such as fever, chills, headache, fatigue, generalized weakness, followed by anorexia, nausea, vomiting and dark urine. Plants used as remedy: Abrus precatorius, Aloe vera, Asplenium lunulatum, Azadirachta indica, Baliospermum montana, Berbaris aristata; Bixa orellana, Boerrhavia difusa, Chonemorpha fragrans, Cichorium intybus, Citrullus colcynthis, Coscinium fenestratum, Curculigo orchioides, Curcuma longa, Embelia ribes, Emblica officinalis, Hedyotis corymbosa, Hibiscus vitifolius, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Hygrophila auriculata, Lagenaria siceraria, Leucas aspera, Mahonia leshchenaultia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mimosa pudica, Nigella sativa, Operculina turpethum Phyllanthus niruri, Picrorhiza kurooa, Picrorhiza scrophula, Podophyllum emodi, Portulaca oleracea, Rubia cordifolia; Santalum album, Sphaeranthus indicus, Tamarindus indicus, Taraxacum officinale, Tephrosia purpurea, Terminalia chebula, Thalictrum foliolosum, Tinospora cordifolia, Trichosanthes lobata, Tylophora indica, Uvaria narum, Valeriana jatamansi, Verbena officinalis. 4.26 Anticancer: Cancer is commonly defined as an uncontrolled growth of cells, with loss of differentiation and commonly, with metastasis, spread of the cancer to other tissues and organs. Cancer is malignant growth. Cancer treatment involves surgery, radiation and

drugs, singly or in combination. Majority of anticancer drugs act by interfering with cancerous cell growth, however these drugs commonly affect not only the cancerous cells but other cells that reproduce quickly like the cancer cells. Therapeutic effect of anticancer herbs is executed by inhibiting the cancer activating enzymes, stimulating DNA repair mechanism, promoting production of protective enzymes, inducing antioxidant action and by enhancing activity of the immune cells. Certain biological response modifiers derived from herbs are known to inhibit growth of cancer by modulating the activity of specific hormones and enzymes. Some herbs reduce toxic side effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Plant used as remedy: Abrus precatorius, Aloe vera, Arctium lappa, Asclepias curassavica, Berberis aristata, Betula utilis, Catharanthus roseus, Curcuma longa, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Heliotropium indicum, Jatropha curcus, Kaempferia rotunda, Morus alba, Nothopodytes foetida, Podophyllum hexandrum, Rhinacanthus nasuta, Rhuem officinale, Semecarpus anacardium, Silybum marianum, Stillingia sylvatica, Taxus wallichiana, Tiliacora racemosa, Trifolium pratense, Urtica dioca, Vernonia cinerea, Viola odorata, Vitex trifolia, Viscum album, Withania somnifera. 4.27 Antitumor: Tumors are benign growth that remain encapsulated and grow within a well defined area. Tumors may be fatal if untreated as they may exert pressure on essential organs. Antitumor agents work in the same way as anticancer agents. Plant used as remedy: Ageratum conyzoides, Anthemis nobilis, Asclepias currassavica, Azadirachta indica, Bambusa arundinacea, Cassia auriculata, Catharanthus roseus, Cayratia carnosa, Ceiba pentandra, Citrullus colocynthis, Excoecaria agallocha, Ficus racemosa, Flacourtia jangomas, Garcinia indica, Kaempferia rotunda, Messua ferrea, Mirabilis jalapa, Momordica charantia, Moringa oleifera, Mucuna pruriens, Phyllanthus niruri, Tamarindus indicus, Urtica dioca, Withania somnifera, Zanthoxylum armatum. 4.28 Antiulcer: Ulcer is caused by peptic ulceration that involves the stomach, duodenum, and lower oseophagus. Ulcers are caused by Helicobacter pylori infections and are treated with a combination treatment that incorporates antibiotic therapy with gastric acid suppression. Antiulcer drugs are a class of drugs used to treat ulcers in the stomach and the upper part of the small intestine. The objectives of antiulcers are relief of pain, promotion of ulcer healing and prevention of recurrence and complication. The agents used for treatment of ulcers are: (i) acid neutralizing agents that are basic in nature and neutralize acid in the lumen. (ii) proton pump inhibitor that block the secretion of gastric acid by the gastric parietal cells inhibiting the secretion of gastric acid. (iii) ulcer insulators does not inhibit gastric acid but rather react with the existing stomach acid to form a thick coating that covers the surface of an ulcer protecting the open area from further damage. Plants used as remedy: Achyranthes aspera, Aegle marmelos, Amaranthus hybridus, Azadirachta indica, Baliospermum montanum, Berberis aristata, Boswellia serrata, Calophyllum inophyllum, Cassia occidentalis, Coscinium fenestratum, Datura metal, Datura stramonuim,

Emblica officinalis, Ficus hispida, Ficus microcarpa, Garcinia indica, Gentiana kurroo, Gloriosa superba, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Gymnema sylvestre, Hemidesmus indicus, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Hypericum perforatum, Maytenus aquifolium, Mesua ferrea, Morinda tomentose, Phyla nodiflora, Plumbago zeylanica, Polygonatum cirrhifolium, Pueraria tuberosa, Rubia cordifolia, Santalum album, Saraca asoca, Sarcostigma kleinii, Schliechera oleosa, Semecarpus anacardium, Shorea robusta, Solanum nigrum, Streblus asper, Strychnos potatorum, Symplocos racemosus, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia arjuna, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia crenulata, Terminalia paniculata, Tribulus terrestris, Tylophora indica, Valeriana jatamansi, Verbena officinalis. 4.29 Antidiabetic: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. The lock and key binding of insulin to the insulin receptors fails to initiate the intercellular signaling cascade that results both in glycosis and in synthesis of the carbohydrate reserve molecule glycogen from glucose. To compensate this down regulating of signaling pathway the body secretes greater amount of insulin. As a result of this over burdening the insulin secreting cells of the pancreas eventually become exhausted and cease to function. Anti-diabetics function in different ways. They may be substances that stimulate secretion of insulin, may be insulin sensitizers, biguanides, inhibitors of carbohydrate absorption and inhibitors of fat absorption. Plants used as remedy: Abroma augusta, Achyranthes aspera, Aconitum falconeri, Aconitum heterophyllum; Adiantum incisum, Aegle marmelos, Ageratum conyzoides, Azadirachta indica, Bixa orellana, Butea monosperma, Chonemorpha fragrans, Chlorophytum arundinaceum, Cichorium intybus, Citrullus colocynthis, Coccinia indica, Cocculus hirsutus, Commiphora wightii, Desmodium gangeticum, Emblica officinalis, Ficus racemosa, Flacourtia jangomas, Gymnema sylvestre, Helicteris isora, Hemidesmus indicus, Hibiscus vitifolius, Madhuca indica, Mirabilis jalapa, Picrorhiza scrophula, Pilocarpus jaborandi, Phyllanthus niruri, Polygala arvensis, Pongamia pinnata, Portulaca oleracea, Pterocarpus marsupium, Premna corymbosa, Pseudarthria viscida, Rotula aquatica, Rubia cordifolia, Salacia reticulata, Syzygium cumini, Syzygium jambos, Terminalia arjuna, Terminalia chebula. 4.30 Diuretic: Diuresis means increase in urine volume with loss of solute and water. Agents that increase the rate of the urine formation are called diuretics. The primary function of these drugs is maintenance of normal volume and composition of the body fluid hence they act on the kidney. Most of the diuretics act mainly by blocking tubular reabsorption of sodium at a particular site along the nephrons. Diuretics are mainly used in strangury that may be caused by edema due to cardiac failure, renal diseases and cirrhosis of liver an in the treatment of hypertension. They are usually combined with a demulcent to sooth any irritation due to acids or gravel. Diuretic can also be used in the treatment of backache, prostatitis, sciatic, kidney stones, bladder ache, gonorrhea, and water retention Plants used as remedy:

Abutilon indicum, Aconitum atrox, Amaranthus spinosus, Ammania baccifera, Biophytum sensitivum, Blumea fistulosa, Boerrhavia diffusa, Calophyllum inophyllum, Canthium parviflorum, Cardiospermum halicacabum, Cayratia carnosa, Curculigo orchiodes, Diospyros malabarica, Dolichos biflorus, Erythrina indica, Flacourtia indica, Haldinia cordifolia, Heliotropium indicum, Ipomoea sepiaria, Merremia emarginata, Nelumbo nucifera, Pedalium murex, Phyllanthus amarus, Polygonatum verticillatum, Portulaca oleracea, Prunus cerasoides, Rotula aquatica, Salvadora persica, Securinega leucopyrus, Tragia involucrate, Tribulus terrestris, Terminalia paniculata, Thespesia populnea, Tragia involucrata, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Woodfordia fruticosa, Zanthoxylum armatum . 4.31 Antihypertension: Hypertension is defined as elevation of arterial blood pressure. Hypertension is a major factor for coronary artery disease and the most important risk factor for stroke. Hypertension is a multifactorial disease and is categorized as primary and secondary. Primary hypertension can be hereditary or can be caused by increased fluid volume, renal Na+ transport deficiency, increased vascular tone and thickness, sympathetic nervous system hyperactivity, chronic stress, obesity, excess or deficiency of minerals, alcohol etc. Secondary hypertension may be caused by renal, endocrine and neurological abnormalities, drug induced and cardiovascular structural defects. Untreated hypertension generally has no symptoms hence it’s a silent killer. Plants used as remedy: Achillea millefolium, Allium sativa, Anona reticulate, Asparagus racemosa, Bixa orellana, Celastrus paniculata, Cissampelos parreira, Coleus forskohlii, Commiphora mukul, Cyperus rotundus, Dolichos biflorus, Emblica officinalis, Evolvulus alsinoides, Hemidesmus indicus, Inula racemosa, Mangifera indica, Momordica charantia, Phyllanthus niruri, Rauvolfia serpentina, Solanum surattense, Solanum xanthocarpum, Terminalia arjuna, Tribulus terrestris, Withania somnifera, Wrightia tinctoria. 4.32 Cardioprotective: Almost anything that causes the heart to increase its workload for a prolonged period or produces anatomic damage that makes it more difficult for the heart to function leads to cardiac disorder. Cardiac disorders manifest itself in various forms. Primary heart muscle diseases and coronary artery disease causes diminishing of the force of contraction of the ventricles. Mechanical failure in the filling the ventricles during diastole occur due to narrowing of the mitral valve opening and accumulation of fluid in the pericardium. Narrowing and obstruction of aortic valve and incomplete closure of aortic valve causes overload of the ventricles during systole. These causes dilation of the ventricles, increase in the mass of cardiac muscle, increase in the activity of sympathetic nervous system and activation of renin- angiotensin system. Cardiac glycosides causes increase in the force and velocity of cardiac contractions and decrease in the heart rate which results in increased cardiac out put and increased renal perfusion therefore increased fluid elimination. Vasodilators decreases preload through venodilation and decreases after load through arteriolar dilation. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors leads to (i) decreased peripheral resistance which in turn decreases afterload, (ii) decreased salt and water retention leading to decreased preload (iii)

increased kinin activity which leads to increased vasodilation and (iv) decreased sympathetic activity by decreased angiotensin mediated norpinephrine release. Plants used as remedy: Abelmoschus moschatus, Adonis aestivalis, Alpinia galangal, Alstonia scholaris, Argyreia nervosa, Aristolochia indica, Boerrhavia diffusa, Buchanania lanzan, Cassia tora, Celastrus paniculata, Centella asiatica, Cichorium intybus, Cinnamomum camphora, Cissampelos pareira, Cleome viscose, Coleus forskohlii, Crataegus oxyacantha, Delphinium denudatum, Desmodium gangeticum, Gardenia gummifera, Hiptage benghalensis, Hyoscyamus niger, Jasminum auriculatum, Limonia acidissima, Nelumbo nucifera, Nepeta hindustana, Oroxylum indicum, Phoenix pulsilla, Premna corymbosa, Sassurea lappa, Semecarpus anacardium, Solanum surattense, Taraxacum officinalis, Valeriana officinalis, Vetiveria zizannioides, Vitex negundo. 4.33 Purgative: A substance used to cleanse or purge especially causing the immediate evacuation of the bowel. Purgatives cause massive, explosive bowel movements. This function is frequently accompanied by severe cramps and abdominal pain, and can be harmful to the patient. Purgatives are to be used with extreme caution. These are usually combined with carminatives to reduce griping. They produce evacuation of the contents of the intestinal canal by increasing secretion along the tract, by exciting peristaltic action. Plants used as remedy: Alangium salvifolium, Aristolochia indica, Asclepias curassavica, Baliospermum montanum, Baringtonia acutangula, Cassia fistula, Cassia occidentalis, Cordia dichotoma, Ficus religiosa, Hydnocarpus laurifolia, Lagenaria siceraria, Michelia champaca, Mimusops elengi, Operculina turpethum, Pergularia daemia, Salvadora persica, Samadera indica, Schleichera oleosa, Schrebera swietenoides, Thalictrum foliolosum, Tylophora indica, Ricinus communis, Zanthoxylum rhetsa. 4.34 Laxative: Laxatives promote bowel action by stimulating evacuation of the bowels. Laxatives can cause retention of fluid in the colonic content by inhibit electrolyte and water absorption from the colon by direct or indirect mechanism. Laxative may enhance the motility of the colon. They also cause looseness or relaxation of intestinal muscles. A laxative can cause cramping hence should be used with care. Usually they can be used in short term along with long term diet and lifestyle correction. Plants used as remedy: Abutilon indicum, Andrographis paniculata, Carthamus tinctorius, Cassia fistula, Cassia tora, Cissus quadrangularis, Euphorbia thymifolia, Ficus hispida, Homonoia riparia, Phoenix pulsilla, Picrorhiza kurooa, Picrorhiza scrophula, Pueraria tuberosa, Solanum nigrum, Tamarindus indicus, Trichosanthes lobata. 4.35 Carminative: These herbs have a settling effect on the gut wall and ease pains. They contain volatile oils which stimulate the expulsion from the gastrointestinal tract. Carminatives also increase the tone of the musculature and stimulate peristalsis. Plants used as remedy:

Abies spectabilis, Acorus calamus, Ageratum conyzoides, Aquilaria agallocha, Betula utilis, Cedrus deodara, Citrullus colocynthis, Chonemorpha fragrans, Colchicum luteumew, Curcuma zedoaria, Cyperus rotundus, Ferula asafetida, Leucas aspera, Merremia emarginata, Nepeta hindustana, Nigella sativa, Pedalium murex, Piper brachystachyum, Plumbago indica, Oroxylum indicum, Saussurea lappa, Solanum indicum Solena amplexicaulis, Trichosanthes tricus. 4.36 Digestive: It is agents that stimulates or strengthen the activity of the stomach. They effect solution (digestion) of food in the alimentary canal. They can be used as tonic to improve the appetite and digestive processes. Plants used as remedy: Allophyllus serratus, Andrographis paniculata, Artemisia niligirica, Blumea lacera, Callicarpa macrophylla, Capparis decidua, Celastrus paniculata, Cleome viscosa, Delphinium denudatum, Embelia ribes, Enicostemma axillare, Flacourtia indica, Gentiana kurooa, Hedyotis corymbosa, Limnophila aromatica, Moringa oleifera, Nardostachys jatamansi, Prunus cerasoides, Pseudarthria viscida, Saussurea lappa, Schrebera swieteniodes, Semecarpus anacardium, Solanum indicum, Solanum nigrum Taraxacum officinale, Vigna radiate var sublobata. 4.37 Stomachic: These are those herbs that stimulate and strengthen the functions of the stomach. They promote and improve digestion and appetite and are usually bitter in flavor. They also check fermentation and dispel accumulation of flatus. Plants used as remedy: Achyranthes aspera, Aconitum heterophyllum, Aegle marmelos, Angelica glauca, Buchanania lanzan, Carissa carandas, Crataeva nurvala, Coscinum fenestratum, Gmelina arborea, Hedychium spicatum, Mangifera indica, Mesua ferrea, Murraya paniculata, Phyla nodiflora, Phyllanthus amaras, Phyllanthus niruri, Portulaca oleracea, Ocimum sanctum, Ophiorrhiza mungos, Salacia reticulata, Sida cordifolia, Spondias pinnata, Solanum xanthocarpum, Stereospermum colais, Swertia chirayata, Tagetes minuta, Valeriana officinalis, Zanthoxylum rhetsa. 4.38 Acne: Acne is a skin problem that consists of mild to severe outbreaks of pimples and cysts mainly on the face, but also on the back, arms and chest. Acne can cause a number of different types of spots. They may be blackheads that are caused by a blockage of the pores, which get their dark color through excess skin pigment or whiteheads that occur near the surface of the skin when excess sebum gets trapped inside the follicle. In more severe "inflammatory acne", cysts develop beneath the skin's surface. These acne cysts can rupture, spreading the infection into nearby skin tissue. This can result in scarring. Anti-acne can be an antibiotic which will kill the germs or it may be an agent that will dry out the skin and encourage it to shed the surface layer of dead skin. Medication may have the property to reduce the amount of oil being produced or to reduce the amount of androgen in the body. Plants used as remedy:

Arctium lappa, Artemisia pallens, Azadirachta indica, Betula utilis, Capparis deciduas, Cassia siamea, Cinnamomum camphora, Curcuma aromatica, Curcuma longa, Ocimum sanctum, Plumbago zeylanica, Pterocarpus santalinus, Santalum album, Saponaria officinalis, Taraxacum officinale, Viola tricolor. 4.39 Psoriasis: Psoriasis is a chronic skin condition. In simple terms, it is only an acceleration of the usual replacement processes of the skin. Normally a skin cell matures in 21 to 28 days during its passage to the surface where a constant invisible shedding of dead cells, as scales, takes place. Psoriatic cells, however, are believed to turn over in two to three days and in such profusion that even live cells reach the surface and accumulate with the dead cells in visible layers. It appears as raised red patches of skin covered with silvery scales. It can occur on any part of the body although elbows, knees and the scalp are usual sites. There is often accompanying irritation. Some parts of the body do not have this typical scale. These are areas where two skin surfaces come together as in the natural skin creases and folds e.g. the groin and genital area and underneath women breasts. Psoriasis, in these areas can look bright red and shiny rather than scaly. There are a variety of topical treatments available i.e. creams and ointments that are applied to the skin. When used properly they can be most effective and have minimal side effects. Whatever treatment you use it is also vitally important to use a moisturiser to make the skin more comfortable. Plants used as remedy: Amaranthus spinosus, Andira inermis, Anacardium occidentale, Cassia alata, Carica papaya, Centella asiatica, Curcuma longa, Hydrocotyle asiatica, Psoralea corilifolia, Santalum album, Saponaria officinalis, Withania somnifera. 4.40 Eczema: Eczema is a group of skin conditions that cause skin to become irritated. There are many forms of eczema, but atopic eczema is the most common form however may be caused by a difference in the way a person's immune system reacts to things. Skin allergies may be involved in some forms of eczema. Eczema usually breaks out where the elbow bends; on the backs of the knees, ankles, and wrists; and on the face, neck, and upper chest although any part of the body can be affected. At first your skin may feel hot and itchy. Then, if you scratch, your skin may become red, inflamed, or blistered. Plants used as remedy: Amaranthus spinosus, Anthemis nobilis, Arctium lappa, Aristolochia bracteolata, Azadirachta indica, Cassia alata, Celosia argentea, Curcuma longa, Eclipta alba, Saponaria officinalis, Scoparia dulcis, Viola odarata, Viola tricolor.

The depth of study of plants is clearly reflected in their manifold applications. It is not uncommon to see several hundred applications of a particular plant used or in various formulations for different purposes. 5. Current Status Of Medicinal Plants In India: At present, it is feared that 15-20 percent of the total flora of India may fall under one of the IUCN categories of threatened, rare or endangered. At least 120 medicinal species have been officially classified as endangered. In spite of this, 70 percent of the critically endangered plants of India have been reported to be part of active trade. According to a study done by the EXIM Bank; around 95% of the medicinal plants used by the Indian Industry are collected from the wild. An estimate suggests that over half a million tons of raw material is collected from the forest every year. Less than 20 species are under commercial cultivation. Over 70 % of the plant collection involves destructive harvesting. Indian medicinal plants that are listed under CITES are: Saussurea costus, Rauvolfia serpentina, Podophyllum hexandrum, Dioscorea deltoidea, Euphorbia spp, Pterocarpus santalinus, Taxus wallichiana, Picrorhiza kurrooa, Aquilaria malaccensis, Nardostachys jatamansi. The Ministry of Environment & Forest, Govt of India, in 1992 prepared a “Negative List” of 56 species and banned their export. In 2000 the “Negative List” was appended with a list of 114 species for regulating their wild harvest, by requiring legal procurement certificate from the concerned forest officer to accompany the export consignment. Given below are some plants that are included in the list of critically endangered and vulnerable species: Aconitum spp, Colchicum luteum, Commiphora wightii, Coptis teeta, Drosera spp, Gentiana kuroo, Gloriosa superba, Iphignia indica, Meconopsis betonicifolia, Nardostachys spp, Rheum emodi, Berberis aristata, Artemisai spp, Coscinium fenestratum, Costus speciosa, Didymocarpus pedicellata, Ephedra spp, Gynocardia odorata, Hydnocarpus spp, Hyoscymus niger, Strychnos potatorum, Swertia chirata, Urginea spp, Rauvolfia serpentina, Ceropegia spp, Podophyllum hexandrum, Dioscorea deltoidea, Pterocarpus santalinus, Taxus wallichiana, Aquillaria malaccensis, Angelica glauca, Arnobia benthamii, Adhatoda beddomeii, Ampelocissus indica, Berberis kashmirana, Berberis lycium, Bunium persicum, Dipterocarpus indicus, Dysoxylum malabaricum, Eulophia cullenii, Garcinia travancorica, Gymnema khandalensis, Gymnema montana, Hedychium coronarium, Hedychium spicatum, Humboldtia vahliana, Hydnocarpus alpina, Inula racemosa, Ilex khasiana, Kaempferia galanga, Meconopsis aculeata, Madhuca longifolia, Panax pseudo ginseng, Picrorhiza kurrooa, Piper barberi, Rheum nobile, Saussurea gossypiphora, Saussurea obvallata, Saussurea simpsoniana, Salacia oblonga, Salacia reticulata, Syzygium travancoricum, Trichopus zeylanicus, Trichosanthes anamalaiensis, Valeriana jatamansi. Trade of Medicinal plants in India: The market in medicinal plants in India is very large and complex. In recent years the growing demand for herbal products has lead to a quantum jump in the volumes of plant material traded across countries. According to data compiled by the International Trade Centre, Geneva, India is ranked second amongst the exporting countries with an annual export of 326,000 tonnes with a value of Rs 45.95 million during 1992-95. Recently the

economic value of medicinal plant related trade in India is of the order of Rs 5.5 billion per year. Thus India earns a substantial foreign exchange from supplying raw drugs to the international market. India is a major exporter of raw plants and processed plant based drugs. Exports of crude drugs from India in 1994-95 were valued at US$ 53,219 million. Important crude drugs included Plantago ovata, Panax spp, Cassia spp, Catharanthus roseus. In addition to the international trade, there is a substantial volume of internal trade in medicinal plants in India. The domestic market of Indian System of Medicine and Homeopathy is of the order of Rs 4000 crores (2000) which is expanding day by day. The Ayurveda drug market alone is of the order of Rs 3500 crores (2000). Besides this there is also a growing demand for natural products including items of pharmaceuticals, food supplements and cosmetics in both domestic and international markets. Presently India’s export from medicinal plants is 446 crores (2000) which is predicted to be around Rs 3000 crores annually by 2005. The EXIM bank of India, in its report (1997) has reported the value of medicinal plants related trade in India of the order of 5.5 billion US dollars and is growing rapidly. According to WHO the international market of herbal products is estimated to be USD 62 billion which is poised to grow to USD 5 trillion by the year 2050. India’s share in the global export market of medicinal plants related trade is just 0.5%. India with its diversified biodiversity has a tremendous potential to emerge as a major player in the global herbal product based medicines. 7. Conclusion: Varied climatic and topographical conditions prevailing in India has bestowed upon it a rich and diverse flora which is responsible for the richness and uniqueness of medicinal plants. Numerous wild plants growing in Indian forest are used as folklore medicines to prevent or cure several diseases. Medicinal plants have a potential in today’s synthetic era, as a number of synthetic drugs are becoming resistant. A number of novel plant derived substances have entered into Western drug market. Clinical plant based research has made particularly rewarding progress in the important fields of anticancer and antimalarial. Medicinal plants are important for pharmacological research and drug development, not only when plant constituents are used directly as therapeutic agents but also when they are used as basic material for the synthesis of drugs or as model for pharmacologically active compounds. According to one estimate only 20% of the plant flora has been studied and 60%of synthetic medicines owe their origin to plants. Ancient knowledge coupled with scientific principles can come to the forefront and provide us with powerful remedies to eradicate the diseases. Exploration for forest based plant products for new pharmaceuticals and the demand for medicinal plants are increasing in both developing and developed countries. In addition to purified plant derived drugs there is an enormous market for crude herbal medicines. As a result there is resurgence in the trade of herbal medicines. India, with its floral diversity, stands next to China in global trade of medicinal plants as it shares along with China 40% of the world biodiversity. Thus there is an enormous scope for India to emerge as a major player in the global market of plant based medicines.

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