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# AME 352

GRAPHICAL ACCELERATION ANALYSIS

6. GRAPHICAL ACCELERATION ANALYSIS In kinematic analysis of mechanisms, acceleration analysis is usually performed following a velocity analysis; i.e., the positions and orientations, and the velocities of all the links in a mechanism are assumed known. In this chapter we concentrate on one graphical method for acceleration analysis of planar mechanisms. We start this chapter with some exercises to ensure that the fundamentals of acceleration analysis are well understood. You may review these fundamentals in Chapter 2 of these notes. Exercises In these exercises take direct measurements from the figures for link lengths and the magnitudes of velocity and acceleration vectors. If it is stated that the angular velocity and acceleration are known, assume ω = 1 rad/sec CCW and α = 1 rad/sec2 CW unless it is stated otherwise. Write the position, velocity, and acceleration vector equations, and then graphically determine the unknown acceleration(s). P.1 P.2 Known: A A , α and ω Known: A A and A B Determine: α Determine: A
B

AB

A
AA

B
AA

A

B

P.3 Known: A A , α , and ω Determine: A B , A C and A BC

P.4 Known: A A and A B Determine: A C

B
AA

B
A B AA

C
P.5 Known: A A , α , and ω Determine: A B , A C and A BC
AA

A
P.6

C

A

Known: VA , VB , A A and A B Determine: A C
A
AA AB VA

A

B

C

B
VB

C

P.7 Known: ω , V
s BA

P.8

AA , α , A

s BA

,

s A A , α , A sBA , Known: ω , VBA s VBA = 1 unit/sec positive, and

s VBA = 1 unit/sec positive, and

P.E. Nikravesh

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their acceleration vectors have normal and tangential components: t n t n t An A +A A +A BA +A BA − A B − A B = 0 Or. α i and α j A AA (i) B AC (j) C Polygon Method Four-bar Mechanism For a known four-bar mechanism.. Determine α 3 and α 4 .9 s Known: ω .11 Known: ω i . and a given angular acceleration of the crank. Since R AO2 . ω 4 .E. ω 3 . The position and velocity vector loop equations are: R AO2 +R BA − R BO4 − R O4O2 = 0 RBA A B RAO 2 O2 RBO 4 RO4 O2 O4 A VA +VBA − VB = 0 VA It is assumed that for this given configuration a velocity VBA OV analysis has already been performed (e. in a given configuration and known velocities. A BA . VBA . α 2 (say CCW). and A B can completely be P. A A . and R BO2 are moving vectors with constant lengths. construct the acceleration polygon. α i = 1 rad/sec2 CCW. and A C Determine: A B . A A . AB .    2 2 2 −ω 2 R AO2 +α 2 R AO2 − ω 3 R BA +α 3R BA − (−ω 4 R BO4 ) − α 4 R BO4 = 0 t n n We note that since ω 2 . ω j = 1 rad/sec CW. Nikravesh 6-2 .g. R BA . and α 2 are known.10 Known: ω i = 1 rad/sec CCW. and A A B C AB Determine: A B and A C A (i) A A (j) B C P. The acceleration equation is obtained from the time derivative of the velocity equation as A A +A BA = A B . Determine: α and A C A A A α j = 1 rad/sec2 CW. velocity polygon) and all of the unknown velocities have been VB B determined. A n A . s VBA = 1 unit/sec negative P. ω j .AME 352 GRAPHICAL ACCELERATION ANALYSIS s ABA = 1 unit/sec2 positive s ABA = 1 unit/sec2 negative Determine: A B and A C A AA Determine: A B and A C B C A AA B C P. AA .

Since An B itself appears with a negative sign in the acceleration equation.E. A tBA and A tB . Determine the magnitude of A tB from the t / RBO4 (in this polygon. Compute α 4 as α 4 = AB A tB AtBA A n B An A AtA diagram it is CCW). t BA A RBA B RBO 4 OA An A AtA A 7. Determine the magnitude of A t B t BA t polygon. Compute the magnitude of A n B as RBω 4 . i. Since A tB must be perpendicular to R BO4 . draw a line perpendicular to R BO4 closing (completing) the polygon. 3. have known axes but unknown magnitudes. Add this vector to A n A. Add this vector in the opposite direction of R BA to the other two vectors. Compute the magnitude of A as RBAω . t Note that the sum of A n A and A A is A A . Compute α 3 as α 3 = ABA / RBA (in this diagram it is CW). Note that n BA OA An A An B is in the opposite direction of R BO4 . P. OA An A AtA A 2 3 RBA B RBO 4 3.e. The remaining components. Select a point in a convenient position as the reference for zero acceleration. We rearrange the terms such that these unknown terms appear as the last component in the equation:    2 2 2 −ω 2 R AO2 +α 2 R AO2 − ω 3 R BA − (−ω 4 R BO4 )+α 3R BA − α 4 R BO4 = 0 Acceleration polygon A 1. Name this point RAO 2 O A (origin of accelerations). Nikravesh A n BA 6-3 . from the A n BA 8.. 9. O2 2 2. An B A n BA AtA 5. it should be added to the other vectors in the diagram as shown. Compute the magnitude of A n A as RAO2 ω 2 . Construct vectors A t BA n B and A on the polygon. Compute the magnitude of A tA as RAO2 α 2 . headto-tail. 6.AME 352 GRAPHICAL ACCELERATION ANALYSIS constructed. From OV construct vector A n A in the opposite direction of R AO2 . The direction of A tA is determined by rotating R AO2 90o in the direction of α 2 . Since A must be perpendicular to R BA . 2 4. draw a line perpendicular to R BA in anticipation of adding A tBA to the diagram.

α 4 = 0. Assume an angular acceleration of α 2 = 1 rad/sec2 CW for the crank. An PA A AP An A AtA A t PA Example FB-AP-1 This is a continuation of Example FB-VP-1. such as P. The position and velocity vector loop equations are: R AO2 +R BA − R BO2 = 0 A VA VBA VA +VBA − VB = 0 RAO 2 Assume that all the velocities have already been RBA VB obtained. B The acceleration equation is obtained from the time derivative of the velocity equation: O2 RBO 2 A A +A BA − A B = 0 P. Nikravesh OV 6-4 .46 CW. the 2 2 P R PA y A RAO 2 R PO2 B acceleration expression becomes A P = A A + A PA = A n + A tA + A n + A tPA A PA   2 2 = −ω 2 R AO + α 2 R AO − ω 3 R PA + α 3R PA 2 2 x O2 OA All four vectors can be constructed graphically. then determine α 3 and the acceleration of the slider block. Assume α 2 is given to be CCW.AME 352 GRAPHICAL ACCELERATION ANALYSIS Secondary equation(s) We can use the polygon method to determine the acceleration of a coupler point. AP = 1. α 2 .E.14 CW. Construct the acceleration polygons. The vector sum is the acceleration of P. Acceleration polygons are constructed and the following accelerations are obtained from the polygons: α 3 = 0. B P A O2 AtPA An PA O4 A tB An B An BA AP AtA AtBA AtA O A n A O An A Slider-crank (inversion 1) For a known slider-crank mechanism (inversion 1) in a given configuration and for known velocities. is given. the acceleration of the crank. It is assumed that all the angular velocities and accelerations have already been determined. For the position vector R PO = R AO + R PA .7 in the direction shown on the polygon.

Add this vector to the diagram. in terms of the components of the acceleration vectors. Draw a line perpendicular to R BA in anticipation of adding A tBA to B An BA . 6. Construct vectors A tBA and A B .76 to the left. Determine the magnitude of A B from the polygon. Compute α 3 as An A AtA As B α 3 = A / RBA . Acceleration polygon A 1. we have t n t s An A +A A +A BA +A BA − A B = 0 Or. 9. A tBA must be perpendicular to R BA . Using the results from the velocity analysis. Compute AA O2 OA An A AtA determined by rotating R AO2 90o in the direction of α 2 . Determine the magnitude of A tBA . The direction in this example is to the left. From O A draw a line parallel to the sliding axis. 5. Assume an angular acceleration of α 2 = 1 rad/sec2 CCW for the crank. t = RAO2 α 2 .E.0 rad/sec2 CCW. Compute ABA . A RBA O2 n 2 4. P. Determine the direction of α 3 (in this example it is CCW). The results are: α 3 = 1. OA An BA 7. A B must reside on this line. t BA AtBA A n BA O A An A AtA Example SC_AP-1 Continue with Example SC-VP-1 from the velocity polygon section. Select a point in a convenient position as the reference for zero acceleration.AME 352 GRAPHICAL ACCELERATION ANALYSIS Or. A AtBA AB O An A B O2 AtA An BA AB = 0. The direction of A tA is 3. Compute AA A in the opposite direction of R AO2 . RAO 2 n 2 = RAO2 ω 2 . From OV construct A n 2. 8. the acceleration polygon is constructed.   2 2 −ω 2 R AO2 +α 2 R AO2 − ω 3 R BA +α 3R BA − A s B = 0 The first three components are completely and the last two components are partially known. O A . Nikravesh 6-5 . Construct A n = RBAω 3 BA in the opposite direction of R BA .

Nikravesh 6-6 . n 2 = RAO2 ω 2 . Determine the Coriolis acceleration A c AO4 . We draw the slider-crank in the given configuration and define position vectors to form a vector loop equation: R AO2 − R AO4 − R O4O2 = 0 The velocity equation is: t t s VAO − VAO − VAO =0 2 4 4 A R AO4 R AO2 s VAO 4 t VAO 4 O2 R O4 O2 O4 OV VAO 2 s The velocity polygon for this mechanism has already been obtained. ω 4 and VAO are 4 assumed known. the acceleration of the crank. O A . t = RAO2 α 2 . 5.e. Compute AA n A of A tA . Construct vector A n 4. Compute AAO AO4 4 in the opposite direction of R AO4 and add it to the polygon. The s ω 4 . Ac AO4 An AO4 P. Re-arranging the terms in order to have the partially known terms as the last two terms:  s 2 2 −ω 2 R AO2 +α 2 R AO2 − (−ω 4 R AO4 ) − 2ω 4 VAO 4  s − A AO4 − α 4 R AO4 = 0 Acceleration polygon 1. α 2 . Add this vector to A n A .AME 352 GRAPHICAL ACCELERATION ANALYSIS Slider-crank (inversion 2) For a known slider-crank mechanism (inversion 2)..   s 2 2 −ω 2 R AO2 +α 2 R AO2 − (−ω 4 R AO4 ) − α 4 R AO4 − A s AO4 − 2ω 4 VAO4 = 0 t All the terms are fully known except for A s AO4 and A AO4 . i. The acceleration equation is obtained from the time derivative of the velocity equation: t n t s c An AO2 + A AO2 − A AO4 − A AO4 − A AO4 − A AO4 = 0 Or. in a convenient position.E. Construct the acceleration polygons and determine α 3 . Select the origin of accelerations. and its magnitude of this vector is 2VAO 4 R AO4 O4 OA An AO2 A tAO2 direction is found by rotating V s AO4 90 in the o direction of ω 4 . Add this vector to the polygon. Determine the direction 3. 2 n = RAO4 ω 4 . Compute AA R AO4 R AO2 O2 OA An AO2 A tAO2 R O4 O2 O4 A in the opposite direction of R AO2 . From OV construct vector 2. in a given configuration and for known velocities. is given (say CW).

Compute α 4 as α 4 = AA 4O4 AtAO4 OA An AO2 As AO4 Ac AO4 An AO4 A tAO2 Determine the direction of α 4 (in this example it is CW). CCW.5 rad/sec2. AtAO4 AP A s AO4 An AO2 A tAO2 Ac AO4 An AO4 P. Construct vectors A s AO4 and A AO4 to complete the Ac AO4 An AO4 A tAO2 An AO2 polygon.AME 352 GRAPHICAL ACCELERATION ANALYSIS 6. Assume an angular acceleration of 0. P R PO4 y AP x A t PO4 O2 RO4 O2 O4 An PO Example SC-AP-2 This is a continuation of Example SC-VP-2. This acceleration has a magnitude of AP = 1. Draw another axis perpendicular to R AO4 .9 polygon: α 3 = α 4 = 0. The acceleration of point P is determined from a second polygon. Secondary point In order to determine the acceleration of point P on link 4. 9. we express its acceleration as R P = R O4O2 + R PO4  2 A P = A PO4 = −ω 4 R PO4 + α 4 R PO4 Since the angular velocity and acceleration of link 4 are both known. Determine the magnitude of A tA4O4 from the t / RA4O4 . 10. 7. CCW. A tAO4 will be on this axis. AAO 4 4 P A O2 O O O4 in the direction shown. for the crank. The acceleration polygon is constructed and the following accelerations are determined from the s = 3. the two components of the acceleration vector can be constructed. Draw an axis for A s AO4 parallel to R AO4 .E. R AO4 O4 OA t 8. Nikravesh 6-7 .0 in the direction shown.24 rad/sec2. Determine the magnitude of A s AO4 from the polygon. polygon.

Compute AA A R AO2 O2 O A An AO2 A tAO2 An A in the opposite direction of R AO2 .  s  2 2 s −ω 2 R AO2 +α 2 R AO2 − ω 3 R O4 A + 2ω 3VO +A O + α 3R O4 A = 0 4A 4A Acceleration polygon 1. The 5. n 2 = RAO2 ω 2 . t A n A (3) RO4 A (4) n O4 A 4. Draw the slider-crank in the given configuration and define position vectors to form a vector loop equation: A R AO2 + R O4 A − R O4O2 = 0 The velocity equation is t s t VAO + VO + VO =0 2 4A 4A R AO The velocity polygon for this mechanism has already been obtained. Add this vector to the polygon. construct the velocity and acceleration polygons. and its direction s 90o in the direction of ω 3 . From this polygon. ω 3 and the velocity of the O2 slider-block have been determined. O A . Select the origin of accelerations. c . in a given configuration and for known angular velocity and acceleration of the crank. 7. s 6. t = RAO2 α 2 . Nikravesh 6-8 . is found by rotating VO 4A Add this vector to the polygon. Draw an axis for A O 4A A (3) RO4 A (4) O4 c AO 4A n AO 4A P. and then determine ω 3 and α 3 . Compute AA A A based on the direction of α 2 . 2 VAO 2 (3) s R O4 A VO 4A t VO 4A (4) R O4O2 O4 The acceleration equation is obtained from the time derivative of the velocity equation: n t s c t An AO2 +A AO2 + A O4 A + A O4 A +A O4 A + A O4 A = 0 or. Draw an axis for A O parallel to R AO4 .AME 352 GRAPHICAL ACCELERATION ANALYSIS Slider-crank (inversion 3) For a known slider-crank mechanism (inversion 3). The direction of A 2 3 n O4 A is O4 c AO 4A n AO 4A opposite of R O4 A . Determine the direction of 3. Add this vector to A . From OV construct vector 2. Determine the Coriolis acceleration A O 4A magnitude of this vector is 2ω 3VOs4 A . in a convenient position.E. ω 2 and α 2 (assume both CW). Compute A = ω RO4 A . 4A t perpendicular to R AO4 .

Assume an angular acceleration of 1 rad/sec2 CW for the crank. Determine α 3 . Nikravesh 6-9 . Compute α 3 as α 3 = AO 4A A tO4 A s AO 4A 10.1 – P.E. In this example it is CW since R O4 A must rotate 90 CW to line up with t AO .AME 352 GRAPHICAL ACCELERATION ANALYSIS s 8. A s O4 A c AO 4A n AO 4A AtPA An PA Exercises In these exercises take direct measurements from the figures for link lengths and the magnitudes of velocity and acceleration vectors.2 (3) (4) (2) P (4) P. Construct vectors A tAO3 and A O . Assume ω 2 and α 2 are given. α 4 .4 in the direction shown.4 are examples of four-bar mechanism.8 . 9. Determine the magnitude of A O 4A t / RO4 A . Acceleration polygon (right) is constructed and the following accelerations are determined from the polygon: s = 3. α 3 = α 4 = 2.1 P (2) (3) P. Determine the direction of α 3 . Exercises P. AO A 4 An AO2 AtAO2 A tO4 A O O An AO2 AtAO2 AP and AP = 0.7 in the direction shown. and A P . A second polygon (left) is constructed to determine the acceleration of point P as: AP = 2. 3O4 t from the polygon.67 rad/sec2 CW. P. 4A c AO 4A o An AO2 A n O4 A AtAO2 Example SC-AP-3 This is a continuation of Example SCVP-3.

and the acceleration of the slider block. and the acceleration of the slider block 6.4 P (3) (3) (2) (4) (4) P Exercises P.6 (3) (2) (4) P. α 4 .10 For this six-bar mechanism ω 2 and α 2 are given.8 P (3) (2) (4) (4) P P.5 (2) (3) (4) P. Assume ω 2 and α 2 are given: For P.7 and P. and A P . Determine α 5 .9 For this six-bar mechanism ω 2 and α 2 are given. α 4 .8 are examples of slider-crank mechanism. Nikravesh 6-10 .5 and P. Determine α 5 and the acceleration of the slider block 6. acceleration of P.8 determine α 3 . For P.5 – P.7 (3) (2) P. (6) (5) (4) (3) (2) P.3 (2) P.E. P P (3) (4) (2) (5) (6) P.6 determine α 3 . P.AME 352 GRAPHICAL ACCELERATION ANALYSIS P.