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A mind map connects ideas together visually Notetaking is the practice of writing pieces of information, often in an informal or unstructured manner. One major specific type of notetaking is the practice of writing in shorthand, which can allow large amounts of information to be put on paper very quickly. Notes are frequently written in notebooks, though any available piece of paper can suffice in many circumstances—some people are especially fond of Post-It notes, for instance. Notetaking is an important skill for students, especially at the college level. Many different forms are used to structure information and make it easier to find later. Computers, particularly tablet PCs and personal digital assistants (PDAs) are beginning to see wide use as notetaking devices. Professional Notetakers provide access to information for people who cannot take their own notes, in particular Deaf and hard of hearing people. Manual notetaking requires pen and paper and Electronic Notetaking (or Computer-Assisted Notetaking) requires laptops with special notetaking software. Professional Notetakers most frequently work in colleges and universities but also in workplace meetings, appointments, conferences, and training sessions. They are usually educated to degree level. In the UK they are increasingly expected to have a professional notetaking qualification, such as that offered by the Council for the Advancement of Communication with Deaf People (CACDP).
Note taking can help to record and organize information. Lecture learning is prominent in classrooms and note-taking influences the academic success of all high school and college students  and students usually spend about 80% of class time listening to lectures  The problem is that students typically record incomplete notes--usually 2040% of the important lecture ideas. In addition, approximately 80% of what is not noted is forgotten after two weeks and it is of vital importance that note-taking skills are taught  . Literature indicates ) that a significant gap between lecture speed delivery and writing speed makes a negative impact on number of units of information recorded and comprehension of the class material.
 Note-Taking Speed
An important aspect of effective note taking is the writing speed . Humans cannot record spoken information at the speed it is generated. By writing words in an abbreviated form one can potentially attain a higher writing speed. There are several note-taking approaches such as the Cornell Method, Outlining and Mapping methods. For example, the Cornell Notes method provides a systematic format for condensing and organizing notes without laborious recopying. However, these systems do not provide methodology to process spoken word efficiently. EasyScript Speed Writing can be learned quickly to increase writing speed and to take fast notes at meetings, on the phone and in school more effectively.
 Note-Taking and Word Abbreviation
Research  indicates that note-taking efficiency can be enhanced when information is encoded using abbreviations and suggests that abbreviating of spoken information can improve attention span, number of units of information recorded and improvement of subject retention. Students perform note-taking more efficiently when they are allowed "to encode information" using abbreviations and abbreviating of spoken information increases the number of words in working memory and improvement of subject retention  Use of abbreviations decreases hands and eyes engagement and enable to record spoken information more efficiently.  Moreover, abbreviating the spoken word reduces the gap between speaking and writing speed, enhances comprehension of the class material and can lead to improvement in overall organization of their notes. In addition, a higher writing speed allows more time to pay attention to handwriting legibility and style to make notes legible and readable.
are frequently unable to read them after the lecture. A study  has found that students with learning disabilities are passive learners. especially the lower-achieving students and speedwriting techniques should be taught to students in the same manner that they are taught writing or computer skills  . and even necessary. students with disabilities either avoid taking notes. rely on note takers or teachers to assist them with guided lecture notes after class  Although these accommodations are helpful. As evidenced by various research studies. They do not possess a sufficient writing speed to take down spoken information and.  EasyScript Instruction Some experts believe  that all students would benefit if teachers deliberately trained their students in speedwriting techniques. As a result. Individuals with Disabilities Persons with disabilities will derive an additional benefit from speed note-taking because they record fewer units of lecture information than their non-disabled peers. students with disabilities are not effective note takers. and note-taking is one way to actively engage them in the learning process. mostly because their notes are illegible . even when they do take notes. it is important for students with disabilities to learn how to effectively take notes from lectures.
Taking notes helps the student sort out important information—by synthesizing and beginning the actual learning process the student is actually making the material his own. Keep up with reading assignments.NOTETAKING STRATEGIES • • • • Why take lecture notes ? Did you ever wonder why instructors make such a big deal about taking notes during a class lecture ? Have you ever really thought about the importance of taking notes in class? In fact. Arrive on time. Taking notes in class makes the student an active participant in the learning process rather than a passive listener or daydreamer. Lecture notes provide the clearest and best indication of what the student should encounter on the exam. a most honorable action to take as a serious student. thereby increasing concentration. that you are present in class. retention and understanding. Taking notes in class means. This process leads to longterm learning. The notes taken will become a study aid. Taking lecture notes in class keeps the student's attention focused on the lecture. • FACILITATING YOUR NOTETAKING • • • Attend class regularly. See chapter on SQ3R. most significantly. allowing the reader to recognize main ideas and to understand the organization of the material. Not only does the student record significant facts but the lecturer's emphases and perspectives are recorded as well. and an instrument to aid in review and recitation. WHY SHOULD YOU REWRITE YOUR NOTES? . Organize your notetaking materials ahead of time and come mentally prepared. it is just as important to take notes as you read your text assignments. an external memory device. • • • • • • • • THE IMPORTANCE OF TAKING NOTES Taking notes develops a sense of listening.
Orient yourself for the upcoming lecture. • A student needing to improve notetaking skills might check for additional information on these websites. the lesser the loss of recall. What is the single most important way to prepare for a test? o Believe it or not. · Extensive studies have shown that one's recall rises immediately after a learning period. Boring! Right? o Studies have shown that about 80% of your study time can more profitably be spent in recitation rather than rereading. Start preparing for the next unit test by spending 20 minutes each day throughout the time period assigned for that unit reviewing and reciting the relevant material. the single most effective way to prepare for a test is recitation. o Hearing your own voice summarizing the material and quizzing yourself on it will greatly reinforce your mental image of the subject. · Notes should be legible and complete. · Review each week's notes at the end of the week. You will be able to take more relevant and complete notes. and then declines rapidly until after about twenty-four hours. o the shorter the period of time.• • • • To be useful. However. the decline in recall can be dramatically reduced if one reinforces the learning by a short review within one hour. such as a lecture. · Notes should be paraphrased. See the SQ3R section to learn about taking your own notes on the textbook assigned readings. notes must be arranged in some logical system that you understand and use. Be brief. Take the time to put them into your own words and understanding. OTHER IMPORTANT POINTS ABOUT NOTE-TAKING • • • • • Review your notes as soon as possible after class. recall has diminished by about 80%. o Too many student think that the thing to do is to reread chapters. Use the rewriting process to reformat them. · Review the notes from the previous class meeting while you sit and wait for the class to begin. o The longer the period of time the greater the loss of recall. reword them and to complete them. Cornell Method of Notetaking Effective Notetaking WHEN INSTRUCTORS TALK TOO FAST .
Exchange notes regularly if it proves beneficial. Many instructors allow time for questions. Most instructors will discuss the material in different words. Familiarity with a subject increases your ability to pick out key points. . perhaps adding illustrations. 4. Hearing it again will help solidify your understanding of the material and help you fill in gaps in your notes. 5. Ask questions in class. Take detailed notes on your reading . use the following suggestions. leaving plenty of room to add lecture notes to them. 8. Ask the instructor if he or she is giving the same lecture at another time. the best tool to use in the classroom is taking notes. That forces you to stay actively engaged in the lecture. Exchange notes with your classmates. 6. Houghton Mifflin Company. It might mean having to make choices. Ask the instructor's permission to use a tape recorder in class. that will simplify the material. Becoming a Master Student. If that doesn't work. Pool these notes and all involved will have a more complete set of notes. Take your notes with you and show the instructor what you missed. See the instructor after class. Come prepared for class. 7. Adapted from Ellis.1. 3. Ask questions. 2. Write down key words and phrases and revise your notes immediately after class. 1994. Choose what you think is most important. Use this time to ask for clarification of difficult points or simply to fill in information you missed the first time. Suggest that he or she slow down. Focus your attention on key points. Leave large empty spaces for filling in information you missed. Remember. This option should be used only as a last resort. 9. It might mean having to preview material to be covered during the next class meeting. Use symbols that will help you remember what is missing.
. they emphasize. Visually oriented ". Though it is useful to consider each of these functions separately. Second. work better with graphic formats. The Value of Training . First. Morris.Students who have received on-going training on how to take notes frequently become better note takers. notes also have an external storage function. (1984) indicates proficient note takers tend to get higher grades. A 1985 study by Einstein. since that is a context many students have difficulty with. in their view. note taking is best viewed as one aspect of academic literacy (Nist. Additional studies by Carrier (1983) and Hult et al. This paper focuses on note taking in classroom lectures. To be . note taking is best viewed as one aspect of academic literacy . 1993). it is a way of encoding information. One of the first studies on this topic by Crawford (1925) suggests a positive correlation between student lecture notes and grades. Effective notes. They stress that taking notes is of marginal utility. Conversely. . Fisher and Harris (1974) maintain students perform best academically when permitted to use their own preferred encoding strategies. these points seem clear: i. it is a way to consolidate and assess information. cognitive scientists such as Teslow. .Creative Note Taking and Study Skills Note taking can be saidto fulfill three functions. and Smith also points towards a clear correlation between academic performance and note taking skills. These researchers found successful learners take notes with more salient points than less successful ones. Though many issues about note taking remain unresolved. This alone does not insure better academic performance. but are more comprehensive. which may or may not include taking notes. Carlson. research by Carter and Van Matre (1975) as well as Henk and Stahl (1985) questions the impact of note taking on information recall. and Miller (1994) suggest they are closely related. A 1995 study by Robinson and Kiewra also indicates some students benefit more from visually-based representations of ideas (graphic organizers) instead of textual notes. aren't necessarily lengthier. Indeed. . One reason may be a lack of note taking skills. but it may be a component of success. Note Taking and Academic Success How important is note taking for academic success? A review of the literature shows mixed results. There are probably a variety of reasons for this. but reviewing notes regularly can enhance recall. Beasley (1990) also points out many students from Asia have difficulty adapting to university lectures overseas." learners may. Third. Taking notes without reviewing them periodically may of limited long-term value.
It's much more efficient than just listening or reading . since weak students in particular often lack effective review skills. "Ninety percent of what [students] learn in class is in the process of writing their own class notes. some ways are less effective than others." (1982:3). Kesselman-Turkel and Peterson echo. According to the University of Toronto Office of Student Affairs. take tests. Good note takers know what to ignore as well as what to write. The Value of Goals . ii. Roszkowski of the University of Illinois has remarked." (2000). students need to learn not only how to take notes. The Value of Supplemental Notes . and read/write critically. Few effective than others.Much of the benefit of note taking appears to come from review. iii.successful academically. Eight ineffective note taking behaviors and strategies are listed below. Writing Too Little . if they are supplemented by course outlines. iv. but also manage time.Since student notes often contain gaps and errors. Kruger and Dunning (1999) note how poor students in particular tend to overrate their ability to remember ii. A 1979 study by Bretzing and Kulhary points out that verbatim notes are of less value than condensed ones. The value of periodic review should be stressed. Moreover. Writing Too Much .Some over-zealous note takers attempt to record everything without considering the content. Others merely jot down a few phrases. Perhaps this is one of the reasons that Yorkey (1982) asserts many foreign students lack the necessary study skills to succeed at universities overseas. . The strategy for taking and reviewing notes to merely remember facts differs from that needed to master higher level concepts. students may remember more. . . Such students are either apathetic or believe they can remember an entire presentation from one listening. teacher notes. Notes from other sources should not replace personal notes. Although there is not a single correct way to take notes. Perhaps we should remember that note taking is a critical thinking activity which involves a process of sifting and condensing information. On this point. even good "Although there is not a single correct students often fail to capture key way to take notes. i. The Value of Review .Some students simply do not take notes. Common Problems Students Have Taking Notes How well do most students take notes? A report by Palmatier and Bennett (1974) suggests most students are inefficient note takers. "The very act of note taking helps you remember the ideas you're taking down. some ways are less information in some lectures. Note taking is a flexible tool which can be used in many ways. Prof." schools in Asia attempt to systematically teach note taking skills.Note taking is most effective if students have a clear idea of what they are taking notes for. or notes from other sources. students take better notes if they have a clear idea of their learning goals.
Though students may not bother to listen to a lecture if all of the information is written down. As Doyon (2000) points out. vii. Moreover. Kanaoka (1999) suggests that having several information sources can foster critical thinking skills for some students. One thing teachers can do to alleviate this is to encourage student peer mentoring (Murray. It should be stressed that recording information is merely one function of note taking. Writing Incorrect Information . or Not Citing References . . indirect quotes. vi. Not Reviewing Adequately .Foreign language students in particular tend to either mishear or record information incorrectly. The main problem with notes from multiple sources is that all too often mediocre students do not bother to read the original texts or attend the original lecture . students unaccustomed to sifting through several information sources may become confused by the abundance of contrasting data. and some students do not seem to understand plagiarism is unacceptable. Many students do not understand how to cite references correctly. Not Storing Notes Well . Such papers are easily misplaced. Many students also have problems locating information in their notebooks because their entries are not properly dated or arranged by subject. they need to relisten to a presentation to digest it. Relying on Other Notes . Misquoting.As a supplement to regular classes and readings.As audio and video technology becomes increasingly compact. viii. Over reliance on Technology .they just count on prepared notes to make it through exams. Asian and African students in particular need to be educated about intellectual property rights and what constitutes plagiarism. many Asian students are too self-conscious to tell their instructors when they can't follow a lecture. the temptation to depend on tape recorders or video cameras take notes increases. Also. Instead of reviewing frantically just before an exam.Slate et al. v. students are likely to gain more value by reviewing once or twice a week throughout a semester. Plagiarizing. One way teachers can help such students is to remind them to take notes. outline notes with information gaps and pre-listening questions can encourage task-based active listening (Ahmed. This is often an inefficient use of time. These functions cannot be done by external technologies. iv.Students preparing notes for reports need to understand how direct quotes. Relying on mechanic devices to "catch everything" does not promote cognitive processing. notes from other sources can be beneficial. writing down key points often helps.The importance of review has already been mentioned. Copying is rampant in Asia. (1998) has mentioned how many students simply take notes on loose scraps of paper instead of on notebooks. An even better way is to show them how to do so. 1998). Condensing and reviewing information are also essential.iii. People with tape recorders or video cameras often pay more attention to their microphones or camera lens than what is being said. Several note taking approaches emphasize the importance of dating entries and placing them in clearly categorized sections of a notebook. and paraphrases differ. information. However. As Boehm (2000) has pointed out. 1998).
others do so at . code-switching might be an efficient strategy. if the goal is to write things down quickly. Pauk's System . If the goal is foreign language mastery. Popular Note Taking Systems Dozens of different note taking systems exist.Fry (1994) emphasizes the role of active listening in classroom note taking. While reading the cues on the left-hand column. in Pauk's view.In 1974 Pauk devised a note taking method using loose leaf notes with two columns. the main column should be checked and memory cues are added. i. 1 depicts some notes according to the Pauk system for a literature class. as much information as possible is recalled out loud. After outlining each system.In addition to these problems. Figure 1. For example. whereas some instructors tend to present key information early in a class. This paper described five which are currently popular. After a lecture or reading. Often referred to as the "Cornell System". Persons reviewing their notes should actually try to say the information being recalled out loud. reinforces it. Is that counterproductive? That depends on the learning goals. he suggests the main column be devoted to recording key ideas in paragraph form and the lefthand column be devoted to providing cues. He recommends students try to understand an instructor's preferred teaching style and gauge their verbal and nonverbal cues. Fig. key features are briefly compared. However. Scene 1 of Richard II according to the Pauk system (1974). Subvocalizing the information. When reviewing. Fry's System . it may be worth taking notes in the target language. the main column is covered. foreign language students may find it more comfortable to take notes in their native language. ii. Sample notes for Act I.
it is necessary to consider how new ideas relate hierarchically to previous ideas. 1 has already shown what paragraph style notes look like. 2 offers notes from the first scene of Richard II according to a format recommended by Fry. Fig. Figure 2. however. Van Blerkom's System . Notice how main ideas and sub-ideas are indented differently. often an effective review process. then graphic-mapping notes when reviewing them. iii. With presentations which jump around. timeline. Fig. One option is to use block-paragraph style notes for recording presentations. and suggests that students gain experience with block-paragraph. in fact. he suggests mapping out ideas graphically for notes. A glimpse of outline notes based on a format recommended by Van Blerkom appears in Fig 3. and outline style notes.vowels are eliminated in most words. Graphic-mapping notes by the author for Act 1. Fig. Often.the end. she doesn't go as far as Fry in advocating vowel elimination. such hierarchical outline notes can be of value.Van Blerkom (1997) emphasizes that there are many different ways to take notes. Taking notes of notes is. Though she recommends using extensive abbreviations. For well-organized lectures. Scene 1 of Richard II based on a system by Fry (1994). In this format. graphic-mapping. 2 has offered an example of graphic-mapping notes. other note taking formats might be more apt. Salient characteristics of Fry's system include extensive abbreviations . . She recommends adding recall and/or question columns to most notes after a lecture is over.
Nama pembicara tamu. Mulai setiap cacatan pembahasan dengan halaman penutup untuk ringkasan dan persiapan ujian. Hindarkan pengutipan kecuali kalau sangat penting. Anda dapat membangun sistem sebagai strategi belajar dan mencatat : Merekam* Mengurangi* Menceritakan* Merefleksikan* Meninjau (melihat kembali) Ambil halaman-halaman lepas buku catatan: Ini akan memungkinkan Anda menambah. dan merangkaikan kembali halaman-halaman dan materi-materi. Abridged outline notes for Act I. Halaman catatan khas: Tanggal & Kepala (bagian atas) • Tanggal • Klas/subyek atau judul atau nomor (misalnya. membatalkan. Scene 1 of Richard II based on a model by Van Blerkom (1997).Figure 3. 3/34) • Rekam /catat di sini: identifikasi titik penting ide utama yang ditangkap Gunakan garis-garis besar peta konsep p Gunakan kata-kata dan gambar dan alinea sejauh itu menyerap informasi cepat. termasuk sumbangan anggota .
berbicara melalui.. atau ilustrasikan definisi. Menceritakan: Berbicara dengan suara keras • • • Tinjauan berdasarkan ingatan apa yang Anda telah pelajari Gunakan kata-kata kunci dan pertanyaan dari margin sebelah kiri. Tinjauan catatan yang Anda buat dan ringkaskan di bawah halaman pada pembahasan studi berikutnya. dan sebelum membaca materi baru atau belajar untuk ujian. Hanover. diagram. NH) . evaluasi.mahasiswa Anda Mengurangkan Catatan sesudah Klas: • Kata kunci/isyarat • frase • pertanyaan Jaringan informasi dari teks atau sumber lain Tinjauan: ringkasan halaman. dan sebagainya. bandingkan. khususnya isi yang menarik. Ciptakan contoh Anda sendiri Merefleksikan: Pertimbangkan! • • Bagaimana hubungan ini dengan apa yang Anda ketahui sebelumnya? Catat terminologi esei dan temukan salah satu yang terbaik yang merujuk pada studi Anda: terapkan.. konsep. Ringkaskan kuliah apakah di bagian penutup atau di akhir halaman. Dialihkan dari Walter Pauk (1989) dan “Sistem Pencatatan di Cornell”(Dartmouth College. Gandakan halaman catatan untuk satu kuliah: • • Ringkaskan setiap halaman di bawah halaman. dan sebagainya.
According to the TNTT Wiki The Cornell method is probably the most useful method for students at university. It was devised 40 years ago by Walter Pauk. read through the notes taken and reduce to key words and phrases. This method is used by dividing the paper in two columns. The key words and phrases are used as cues to help recall the ideas and facts.Definition Note taking (or notetaking is the practice of writing pieces of information. you should recapitulate each main idea using complete sentences at the bottom of the key word column. The first column is used to enter key or cue words while the second is the notes column (for recording ideas and facts). The questions are to add clarity to the facts and ideas. you may engage in note taking) Note taking methods The Cornell method The "Cornell method" has been designed for classroom note taking and it includes postprocessing. It is important that you are not just mechanically repeating. record as many facts and ideas as possible in the notes column. phrases and questions in the cue word column recite the ideas and facts in the notes column. Recite Using only the key words. DSchneider has the impression that Note taking includes the following: • Taking notes in a Taking notes in a Taking notes from lecture or a discussion • lecture + processing/annotating/rewriting these notes • reading / on the Web in some systematic way. review your past notes by reciting and reflecting upon them. Reduce After the lecture. a lecturer at Cornell University in the United States. Reflect Based on the facts and ideas learnt. Recapitulate After you have reduced. See also: literature review (since before and during a literature review. but using your own words. recited and reflected upon your note. or questions. reflect upon how this fits in with what you already know. . There are six steps to Cornell note-taking: • • • • • • Record During the lecture. and how this knowledge can be applied. for his students. Review On a frequent basis.
• • See concept maps Mind maps (i. 5. look at the headings used. • • • Put concepts on a row Each line represents an article and each cell can contain pointers and comments to a definition of concept Since normal paper is not wide enough. Review . 3. Think about whether or not you think the book is relevant or if it's current and if it suits the purpose of your study. Recall .you might want to read through twice quickly.Write down the main points of the reading and any really important facts. Read . looking for the main points of the reading .read actively but quickly.Concept maps and mind maps The idea is to map out concepts as they are found or received. He suggests that students should use the following activities in order to get the most from a reading in the most efficient way.Ask questions about the way the reading is structured and think about the questions you will need to keep in mind while reading.don't take any notes . At this point you might like to finalise your notes and re-read your notes or write down how the material you've just covered relates to your question or task. and opinions that help support the main points. familiarise yourself with the reading. Question . Charting Charting is method that helps to summarize and see relations.flip through the chapter or book and note the layout. 4.e. SQ3R SQ3R is a note taking method from readings Rowntree (1976: 40-64) outlines what he calls the 'SQ3R' approach to reading and note taking from text. • One creates a tale with rows and columns This teachnique can be used to chart out concepts found in the literature in order to prepare a literature review. Also record the bibliographic details.repeat the first three steps over and make sure you haven't missed anything. hierarchical trees) can also be used to take lecture notes in real time. first and last chapters or paragraphs. 2. Survey . . DSchneider thinks that one should use either a huge sheet of page (flip chart size) or use a wordprocessor or spreadsheet. 1.
” Graphic Organizer: Research Note Taking Made Easy. It is intended for people like me who use paper index cards to write all the notes and pieces of an essay.us.Links Notetaking tools Note taking tools are a specific form of cognitive tool. WikiPad.dicio. fiction. This looks like a wiki for individual use. Paper • See paper Stand-alone programs • The Note Taking tool (TNTT): The Note Taking Tool (TNTT). which started life as a University project. and then arrange the pieces and then use that to type them into the computer. This is a rtf (word) template. It can be used to organize research papers. but there are some extra features (not tested / DKS).built especially with the writer in mind. books and whatever related to writing. note shareing. On-line notetaking. see also writing tools for an overview on different genres of writing tools. Interface with Facebook. • • • • On-line • See also the list of web 2. It's a social software .” (There is a freeware version) EverNote Text Block Writer “ is a virtual index card program for writers. Autolinks to Wikipedia and Google.0 applications. It helps students maximise the potential of their note-taking by guiding them through the Cornell method. • • • Notalon: An Open-Source Cornell Notes Application Scribe note-taking application The Literary machine “ is a dynamic archive and an idea management tool aimed at creative thinking . there may be other entries. has now grown up and become open source! TNTT is a note-taking application tailored for use by students in academic environments. etc. • stu. non-fiction. articles. It is packed with indexing and display techniques so general and potent that you will use it as an intelligence center.
• Wikis. or be enslaved by another Man's Wm. Kommers & G. VA: AACE. Blake 1757 . Designing an Online Note Taking Tool from the Ground Up. Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2005 (pp. In P. Françoise and Annie Piolat. Note Taking and Learning. A. (1970) Effective study (4th ed.1827 English . Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia. Richards (Eds. • • Taking Notes in Lectures I must Create a System. A Summary of Research. Most entries in this wiki are just note takings (12:55. K. but Jennifer Maddrell's she extends this electronic portfolio-like) • General links • Note taking skills .from lectures and readings. C3MS (that's not DSchneider's idea. 21 September 2006 (MEST)). Department of Lifelong Learning: Study Skills Series. (2005).). Francis Pleasant. The WAC Journal PDF (Recommended overview article). • • • • • • References • Bauer. New York: Harper & Row. Robinson. University of Exeter Wikipedia: Notetaking Wikipedia: Cornell Notes Wikipedia: SQ3R (webpage describing the method) Explanation of the Cornell note-taking system The SQ3R Method(webpage describing the method) Study Skills Self-help Information (Virginia Tech).). Abstract/HTML/PDF Boch. Chesapeake. 4181-4186). & Koedinger.
Develop an organizational system. a system of "sections" to organize your notes Leave plenty of white space for additions Think in terms of three main sections: 1. Hanover.A good strategy of note taking in class will pay off in terms of effectiveness and time savings. and re-sequence pages and materials. headings. a marginal space for editing or annotating what you have written. a "condensing" or summary section Taking notes from a textbook Reading is to the mind what exercise is to the body Richard Steele. including your fellow students' contributions 3. include 1. any guest speakers' names. the date. even the number of the class (e. English 1672– 1729 . bring a tape recorder if it is permitted) 2.g. linking information from the text or other sources. delete. adding definitions 3. 3/34) 2. A central space for identifying the main points capturing the main ideas not quoting the lecturer (if you want to quote someone. The keys to good note taking are the five "R's" from the Cornell Notetaking System (Dartmouth College. This will enable you to add. NH): Record * Reduce * Recite * Reflect * Review You can develop your own system based on a few elementary strategies: Get a good loose leaf notebook.
Halaman catatan khas: . Mulai setiap cacatan pembahasan dengan halaman penutup untuk ringkasan dan persiapan ujian. membatalkan. Review. It is tempting to take notes as you are reading the first time. Do not take notes. but rather focus on understanding the material. but this is not an efficient technique: you are likely to take down too much information and simply copy without understanding Second: Review the material • • • Locate the main ideas. and ask yourself if you truly understand Anda dapat membangun sistem sebagai strategi belajar dan mencatat : Merekam* Mengurangi* Menceritakan* Merefleksikan* Meninjau (melihat kembali) Ambil halaman-halaman lepas buku catatan: Ini akan memungkinkan Anda menambah. and compare your notes with the text. as well as important sub-points Set the book aside Paraphrase this information: Putting the textbook information in your own words forces you to become actively involved with the material Third: write the paraphrased ideas as your notes • • Do not copy information directly from the textbook Add only enough detail to understand See Concept mapping for a system of writing and organizing notes.First: read a section of your textbook chapter • Read just enough to keep an understanding of the material. dan merangkaikan kembali halaman-halaman dan materi-materi.
Hindarkan pengutipan kecuali kalau sangat penting. Ringkaskan kuliah apakah di bagian penutup atau di akhir halaman. atau ilustrasikan definisi. Nama pembicara tamu. khususnya isi yang menarik. Ciptakan contoh Anda sendiri Merefleksikan: Pertimbangkan! . Gandakan halaman catatan untuk satu kuliah: • • Ringkaskan setiap halaman di bawah halaman. Tinjauan catatan yang Anda buat dan ringkaskan di bawah halaman pada pembahasan studi berikutnya. Menceritakan: Berbicara dengan suara keras • • • Tinjauan berdasarkan ingatan apa yang Anda telah pelajari Gunakan kata-kata kunci dan pertanyaan dari margin sebelah kiri. dan sebagainya. berbicara melalui. konsep. 3/34) • Rekam /catat di sini: identifikasi titik penting ide utama yang ditangkap Gunakan garis-garis besar peta konsep p Gunakan kata-kata dan gambar dan alinea sejauh itu menyerap informasi cepat. dan sebelum membaca materi baru atau belajar untuk ujian. termasuk sumbangan anggota mahasiswa Anda Mengurangkan Catatan sesudah Klas: • Kata kunci/isyarat • frase • pertanyaan Jaringan informasi dari teks atau sumber lain Tinjauan: ringkasan halaman.Tanggal & Kepala (bagian atas) • Tanggal • Klas/subyek atau judul atau nomor (misalnya.
bandingkan. Hanover. diagram.• • Bagaimana hubungan ini dengan apa yang Anda ketahui sebelumnya? Catat terminologi esei dan temukan salah satu yang terbaik yang merujuk pada studi Anda: terapkan. NH .. Dialihkan dari Walter Pauk (1989) dan “Sistem Pencatatan di Cornell”(Dartmouth College. dan sebagainya.. evaluasi.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?