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Construction Professional Services

Core & Mandatory Competencies Quantity Surveying & Construction Presented by: Fred Cooksey & Gerry OLoughlin

Programme morning
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09.00 09.15

Course Introduction Core Competencies Commercial Management of Construction Construction Technology & Environmental Services Contract Practice Design Economics & Cost Planning

10.15

Workshop

Level 1 Questions Level 2 Questions Level 3 Questions Main text

10.45 11.15

Feedback on Questions Tea & Coffee

11.30
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Competencies
Lunch

Procurement & Tendering Project Financial Control & Reporting Quantification & Costing of Construction Works

Programme afternoon
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13.45 14.15 14.45 15.00 15.45 16.00 16.15 16.30

Workshop

Level 1 Questions Level 2 Questions Level 3 Questions Feedback on Questions Tea & Coffee Mandatory Competencies Ethics Workshop The RICS Questions Close
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Objectives
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Highlight what is included within the core and mandatory competencies

Review the likely questions that are associated with these Main text competencies
Discuss the likely response you should make to these questions at the interview

The Core Competencies


Level 3
Commercial management of construction (T010) Construction technology & environmental services (T013) Contract Practice (T017) Design economics & cost planning (T022) Main text Procurement & tendering (T062) Project financial control & reporting (T067) Quantification & costing of construction works (T074)
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Commercial management of construction


Overview
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This covers the commercial management of construction works.

You should have an awareness of how commercial competitiveness balances against profitability.
Main textof the financial You must have a thorough understanding processes used to achieve profitability and how these integrate with the overall delivery of the project.

Commercial management of construction


Level 1
You need to have an understanding of the following.
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Components that make up the cost of the project to the Contractor


Effect that the design and construction processes have on cost Awareness of the techniques used to reconcile the cost against income
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Awareness of the techniques to financially manage sub-contractors and suppliers The use of cash flows as part of the financial management of contracts

Commercial management of construction


Level 1 Sample Question & Answer Main text What are the sources of cost data that are often used by Quantity Surveyors when preparing estimates?

In house historical data from previous projects Main text BCIS Manufacturers and Suppliers literature Published cost models and construction magazines Priced books Sub-contractors quotations

Commercial management of construction


Level 2
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The application of knowledge to the financial management of construction projects, including regular monitoring and reporting on cashflow and profitability. Collecting of data for reports Carrying out cost to completion exercises Preparing cashflows Main textcost to complete and cost Preparing reports such as liability statements, value reconciliations Applying value engineering processes Preparing and submitting cost data for in-house and / or external use in relation to areas such as cost of preliminaries, comparative cost of different construction techniques and taxation allowances

Commercial management of construction


Level 2 Sample Question & Answer
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What information would typically accompany a budget estimate for a construction project?
A covering letter Executive summary Main text Specification note Assumptions Exclusions Cashflow forecast Drawings and other information on which the estimate is based Risk register Value engineering proposals etc.

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Commercial management of construction


Level 3
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Monitor, report and advise on project cashflows and profitability. Evaluate and advise on the financial implications of your decisions and appropriate management actions. Advise on the implications of programme and cashflow slippage Through cost reconciliation advise management of the current financial Main text status of your project

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Commercial management of construction


Level 3 Sample Question & Answer
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What cost reconciliation system do you use to keep management informed of income and expenditure on your project?

This is an opportunity to discuss your own internal cost Main text reconciliation system within your organisation and how it functions.

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Construction technology & environmental services


Overview
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This competency requires a clear understanding of the design and construction processes commonly used. You should use your projects to demonstrate your understanding of this competency in terms of the solutions offered to clients.
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Construction technology & environmental services


Level 1
You need to have an understanding of the following.
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The stages of design from inception to completion (RIBA Plan of Work).


Impact of current legislation/regulations national/international How elements of the building work can inter-relate. Main text The process of constructing the works. The use of cashflows, as part of the financial management of contracts

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Construction technology & environmental services


Level 1 Sample Question
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Can you explain what a composite slab is and when would you use it?
Composite slabs consist of a profiled steel deck acting as a permanent soffit whilst at the same time providing the formwork for in-situ concrete in-fill.
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The concrete usually includes steel reinforcement to increase strength and reduce cracking. Used generally with steel frames but can also be supported on brick or other concrete components.

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Construction technology & environmental services


Level 2
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You will be expected to apply your knowledge of the design and construction processes. This will include the following. How design solutions vary for different types of buildings.
Main textto functional elements Alternative construction details in relation of the design.

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Construction technology & environmental services


Level 2 Sample Question & Answer
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Can you identify some of the issues to consider in the design of ventilation systems for buildings?
Client requirements The chosen system and design needs to align with what the client wants to achieve from the project and the functional space Main text requirements of the building. Occupants requirements Cost in terms of the budget available for the project External conditions The location of the building Control requirements for the system Space The amount of space available for plant rooms Award criteria e.g. BREEAM, LEED, Estidama

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Construction technology & environmental services


Level 3
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Advise on the selection and application of particular systems including liaison with consultants and specialists in order to offer solutions towards cost and design. Give advice on the choice of construction solutions
Main text Report on the impact of particular design solutions in terms of cost and programme.

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Construction technology & environmental services


Level 3 Sample Question & Answer
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From your record of experience you recommended a steel frame solution for your project. What approach did you take in deciding on this solution?
Your decision will be based on a team selected decision. The clients objectives or the type of building may have led to a clear choice of frame solution but where Main text options are available you should consider the following. The clients brief and key objectives What are the site constraints and what effect they will have on the solution? Are there any abnormals associated with the building? Value engineer the options with the design team What are the programme implications?

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Contract practice
Overview
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This covers a wide range of issues around contracts and how they should be used within the construction industry. You need to be familiar with the standard forms of contract and the key implications that each contract type places on the Main text contracting parties.

You will also need to be aware of the implications of bespoke contracts particularly where they relate to your project.

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Contract practice
You should focus your attention on the following aspects of a Main text construction contract.
Insurances What insurances are specifically required by the contract and who is responsible for providing them? Payments What payment provisions are set out in the contract (e.g. monthly valuation procedure, certification and payment periods, retention)? Variations What are the provisions within the contract for issuing variations Main text and how are variations to be valued? Practical/Sectional Completion Does the contract allow for sectional completion and what is required to achieve practical completion? You should also be aware of the obligations that practical/sectional completion places on both parties (N.B. pay particular attention to insurance obligations post practical/sectional completion)

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Contract practice
Extension of Time (EOT) What provisions are contained within the contract for issuing an EOT and what are the consequence of an EOT award? (pay particular attention to the different formulae used to calculate head office overhead contribution during prolongation periods)
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Liquidated Damages To what extent and in what situations will liquidated damages be deducted?
Sub-Contracts How does the contract deal with the selection, Main text appointment and payment of sub-contractors? Reporting What are the reporting requirements set out in the contract and what information is to be provided within these reports? Notice Periods Are there any clauses within the contract that require notice to be given by the contractor and what are the consequences of not giving this notice within the period stated?

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Contract practice
Level 1
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This is about your basic awareness of contract types and will involve you having a knowledge and understanding of the following. Contract law and legislation. Contract documentation. Various standard forms of contract and sub-contract e.g. JCT,NEC,GC Works, ICE, FIDIC Contractual mechanisms and procedures Main text Third party rights including relevant legislation/collateral warranties. Roles and responsibilities of the various parties e.g. Contract administrator, employers agent, Project Manager, Supervisor, Engineer, Contractor, SubContractor and QS

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Contract practice
Level 1 Sample Question & Answer
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Explain the fundamentals of a contract agreement and outline the main forms available for use within construction.
Fundamentals A contract is a legally enforceable agreement normally between two parties. Contracts will normally form a commercial relationship between the numerous entities that make up the construction industry so that both parties can Main text work together, construct buildings and make money. There are many forms of contract involved in a construction project. Agreements will be created for Consultancy services for construction works, for subcontract works etc.

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Core

Contract practice
Level 1 Sample Questions & Answers ( contd)Main text

Types of contract Traditional Contract / Procurement where the project is separated into design and construction stages with the consultant responsible for design and the contractor responsible for the management and execution of the works. A key consultant will act on behalf of the client as the contract administrator. This contract creates a rigid separation of the parties and their rights, obligations and risks. Sometimes resulting in a lack of co-operation thus encouraging Main text defensive and adversarial behaviour with time and cost problems being left to the end of the project to be resolved. This presents a risk of protracted final accounts and disputes. Risks are normally passed down the supply chain to contractors and subcontractors and there is usually little opportunity for overlap of design and construction.. Traditional forms of contract have a long history so are therefore tried and tested and are focussed on the clients main requirements of cost and time.

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Contract practice
Level 1 Sample Questions & Answers ( contd)Main text
Non traditional /collaborative contracts These attempt to overcome the problems of the traditional contract by introducing some form of collaborative working and trying to unite the various project parties. These new contracts claim to increase cost and time certainty and remove traditional construction inefficiencies.. Non traditional forms would include, NEC, Design & Build The NEC is probably the most popular non-traditional Main text form at present but requires a very proactive and programme oriented form of contract administration. Design and Build Form This is probably the most popular form of procurement giving the client single point responsibility.

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Contract practice
Level 1 Sample Questions & Answers ( contd)Main text
Management forms of contact provide for the engagement of a party whose sole objective is to manage the works with the vast majority of activities procured through sub-contractors. These are more appropriate for large scale fast track type projects. Sub-contract forms - Many of the bodies whoMain produce standard forms of text contracts also produce corresponding sub-contracts that are contractually back to back with the main contract.

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Contract practice
Level 1 Sample Questions & Answers ( contd)Main text
Framework and Term service arrangements where the client has an ongoing or rolling construction programme which can provide continuity for contractors on the framework thus avoiding repeated tendering. The framework agreement consists of 2 contracts one of which will be for the length of the framework and the second for a specific project. Term service contracts are a single contract with the Main text client and contractor agreeing a plan or schedule of works to be performed over the period of the contract and generally used for planned maintenance type projects.

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Contract practice
Level 2
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You will be expected to demonstrate an application and understanding of this knowledge at project level, including the duties and responsibilities of both parties.

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Contract practice
Level 2 Sample Questions & Answers
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What advice did you give to the client on the level of Liquidated Damages to be inserted into the contract?
Loss of rent or other income Additional fees Main text Fines from statutory bodies Costs imposed by other parties on the client. Possibility of additional storage costs where equipment is involved

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Contract practice
Level 3
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This is generally focused on the provision of reasoned advice and depth of technical knowledge acquired by the candidate based on practical experience.

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Contract practice
Level 3 Sample Question & Answer
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What advice would you give to the client on whether or not he can deduct Liquidated Damages where he has not incurred the loss? Yes - provided the calculation is not deemed a penalty and is a genuine pre-estimate. Main text

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Design economics & cost planning


Overview
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This competency covers a wide range of issues that are dealt with regularly throughout the pre contract stage of a project.

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Design economics & cost planning


Main text Level 1 Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the main factors that affect design economics over the whole life of a building and how cost planning assists in the cost control of projects during the design development stage.

Factors that affect design economics including capital and life cycle costs
text How cost planning assists in the financial control Main of projects .

The various stages of cost planning Accuracy of cost plans how tested. Sources of cost data BCIS, in-house database, other external. Adjustments that may be required - location, specification, time and market forces.

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Design economics & cost planning


Level 1 Sample Question & Answer
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What do you understand by the term Life Cycle Costing?

This will involve consideration of costs over the whole life of a building and not just the capital costs. Main text You will also need to consider capital costs against maintenance costs/replacement costs. Through discussions with the client determine the clients requirements in terms of capital and life time costs.

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Design economics & cost planning


Level 2
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Application of your knowledge and understanding of the cost management of the design development of a project from feasibility to design completion. The preparation of cost data from in-house and external sources for use in the preparation of cost plans.
Production of estimates and cost plans Carrying out of life cycle costing exercises Main text Applying value engineering techniques Preparing cost reports Preparing and submitting cost data to in-house and/or external data sources

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Design economics & cost planning


Level 2 Sample Question & Answer
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How do you develop your initial cost plan through the pre-tender stage of the project ensuring all parties understand the financial position of the project?
Depending on the amount of information available you will develop your cost plan by preparing an initial approximate estimate and then dividing up your estimate into the different building elements. You need to review this cost plan with the Main text client identifying areas of uncertainty and risk along with the contingency allowances. As the design develops you must engage in constant cost checks on the information as it develops so that any differences can be highlighted and any risks can be eliminated. Where a BOQ is involved price the document.

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Design economics & cost planning


Level 3
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Outline strategic and reasoned advice through the preparation of reports with reference to cost, time and quality taking account of various market factors and trends in construction costs.
Evaluation of building design efficiency. Assessing /evaluating market factors and trends in construction costs. Analysing the accuracy of predicted cost. Main text Interrogating historical cost data. Using value and risk management techniques. Contingency Who controls? How it is assessed. Exclusions normal exclusions from cost plans.

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Design economics & cost planning


Level 3 Sample Question & Answer How would you identify risk within the cost plan?
Start by discussing the contingency sum which covers unforeseen events within the contract. For specialist works you need to explain PC Sums to the Client and the importance of going to tender as soon as possible to eliminate the risk of any cost plan increases.
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Stress the importance of continuous cost checks to identify Design Team changes not included in the cost plan.
Mention the risk register and the importance of completing the register and mitigating the risk as much as possible.

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Commercial management of construction


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In your groups Prepare answers to questions 20 minutes


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Give feedback to everyone 10 minutes

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Commercial management of construction


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1. What is the main difference between a cash flow prepared by the contractor for the client and a cash flow prepared by the PQS for a client? 2. What is your approach to risk on a project you are currently undertaking? Main text 3. Advise your client on how you intend to manage identified risk on a project.

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Commercial management of construction


Main text 1. What is the main difference between a cash flow prepared by the contractor for the client and a cash flow prepared by the PQS for a client?

The contractor will not be interested in design team fees whereas they will be an automatic inclusion in the PQS cash flow forecast. Main text You could expand your answer in terms of how a cash flow is put together and the significance of the S curve

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Commercial management of construction


Main text 2. What is your approach to risk on a project you are currently undertaking?

Risk identification Structured interviews with key parties Risk workshop with design team, client Prepare risk checklist from previous schemes Use lessons learned from previous similar projects Risk response Take action first to reduce uncertainty Eliminate features in the design causing the risk Transfer the risk to another party Tolerate risk of low impact Allow a contingency to deal with risk Risk quantification Use a Monte Carlo risk analysis to determine the financial impact of the identified risk and also the likely contingency to be set.

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Commercial management of construction


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3. Advise your client on how you intend to manage identified risk on a project.
Produce a risk management plan Prepare an excel risk register Main text Identify risk ownership and assign the risk accordingly Identify on-going action delivery Engage in periodic reviews in a workshop forum

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Construction technology & environmental services


text 1. Can you outline the most common ventilation systems Main used in a building?

2. What factors should be considered when choosing between a concrete or steel framing solution for a commercial office building?
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3. What ventilation system was used on your project and how did you work with the team to ensure the most cost effective design solution was achieved ?

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Construction technology & environmental services


text 1. Can you outline the most common ventilation systems Main used in a building?

Natural ventilation which describes the process of air entering and circulating in a building and will be provided using windows which are manually controlled or programmed to open in different conditions. Stack ventilation which allows air to rise through high level openings. Main text Mechanical ventilation using an air handling unit which can produce cool and warm air depending on the temperature required within the room.

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Construction technology & environmental services


Main text factors should be considered when choosing between a concrete or steel framing solution for a commercial office building?

2. What

Programme requirements as steel is quicker to erect than concrete. However bear in mind a longer lead in time for steel Complexity of design with steel providing greater flexibility Aesthetics and client aspirations Repetitiveness of design i.e. formwork Main text Market conditions and supply costs Height of building M & E strategy Technical requirements of the building i.e. floor loads, fire protection

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Construction technology & environmental services


Main text 3. What ventilation system was used on your project and how did you work with

the team to ensure the most cost effective design solution was achieved?

Distribution of the system throughout the building Builders work involved Fire strategy Exposed ductwork Alternative types of insulation Main text Open plan areas Avoiding over-design Location of plant Avoiding unnecessary controls What are the programme implications

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Contract practice
Main text 1. The key client requirement for your project was the contract completion date. What mechanisms exist under the form of contract to protect the clients position with regard to the completion date?

2. You have been requested to make amendments to a standard form of contract/sub-contract. Explain how you undertook this. Main text 3. Can a Quantity Surveyor deduct Liquidated Damages from the valuation due to the contractor? Elaborate.

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Contract practice
Main text 1. The key client requirement for your project was the contract completion date. What mechanisms exist under the form of contract to protect the clients position with regard to the completion date?

The inclusion of a Liquidated Damages Clause within the contract.

Liquidated Damages are a genuine pre-estimate of the loss a client is likely to incur should the project be delayed and where no extension of time has been allowed.
They are normally included as a cost per day or week depending on the contract.

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Contract practice
Main text 2. You have been requested to make amendments to a standard form of contract/sub-contract. Explain how you undertook this.

You can either do a Schedule of Amendments attached to the contract OR alternatively the relevant contract clauses can be amended by inserting the revised wording as appropriate. Main text Each alteration should be signed and counter-signed by the contractor and client

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Contract practice
Main text 3. Can a Quantity Surveyor deduct Liquidated Damages from the valuation due to the contractor? Elaborate.

No the QS, along with the other design team members, can advise the client of the situation and the onus is on the client to deduct Main text them provided a certificate of non-completion has been prepared.

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Design economics & cost planning


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1. What is Value Management?

2. Is Value management simply cost cutting? Elaborate.


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3. How would you deal with a cost plan that is over the clients budget?

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Design economics & cost planning


1. What is Value Management?
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Value Management involves an overall structured team based approach to a construction project.
It involves clearly defining the clients strategic objectives considering optimum design solutions within the context of the Main text clients business objectives and deciding which of these provides the optimum lifetime value to the client as well as a review of the whole process after occupancy. Value Engineering is a tool in the overall value management process.

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Design economics & cost planning


2. Is Value management simply cost cutting? Elaborate.
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Value management ultimately achieves value for money for the client through reviewing the functionality of the building and challenging the design and the design team to achieve this goal.
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Design economics & cost planning


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3. How would you deal with a cost plan that is over the clients budget? Before approaching the Client identify areas where possible savings could be made. This would be carried out by first meeting with your Design Team and through value engineering identify a list of Main text potential savings that can be made. Use a project you have been involved in where you dealt with such a situation drawing on all your experience.

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Procurement & tendering


Overview
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This covers a wide range of issues in relation to both procurement and tendering methods within the construction industry. It will focus specifically on the various procurement options Main text available, their differences and reasons for use.

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Procurement & tendering


Main text Level 1 Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the main types of procurement. Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the tendering and negotiation process involved in procurement.

The pre-selection process

The principles of procurement.

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Tendering and negotiation processes involved Ancillary processes e.g. partnering and framework agreements. Codes of practice and procedures used.

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Procurement & tendering


Level 1 (contd) Types of procurement. Design and build Traditional Management contracting Construction management Measured term Serial contracting Lump sum Re-measured Reimbursable Target costs Guaranteed maximum price
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Procurement & tendering


Level 1 Sample Question & Answer What experience have you had of Partnering?
You would be expected to have an understanding of what partnering is and how it differs as a form of Procurement to other more traditional methods. If you have worked on a Partnering scheme then outline the scheme and how it worked from a Partnering perspective. Main text From a general perspective you should comment on the history of partnering, namely that for too long the construction industry has been divided by factionalism and conflict, which often lead to poor performance, low profit margins, poor morale and dissatisfied clients.
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Procurement & tendering


Level 1 Sample Question & Answer ( contd)
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The industry had a problem with unpredictability and under-performance alongside poor quality and late and overpriced projects. In 1998 the Construction Task Force set up by the Government to deal with these issues published its report Rethinking Construction. This gave birth to the Movement for Innovation (M4I) and a pool of demonstration projects, which in text the new spirit of openness, provide a bank of Main knowledge on good practice and innovation. The Government has followed this up with its own guidance documents produced by the Treasury. One of the initiatives recommended was a more open and less adversarial approach to construction projects partnering.

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Procurement & tendering


Level 2
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Apply your knowledge to the implementation of the procurement routes selected for your projects and to carrying out tendering and negotiation processes relevant to them.
Implement procurement routes e.g. traditional, design and build, management forms, term and serial contracting and other types. Produce/compile tender documentation e.g. letter of invitation, form of Maindocumentation text tender, health and safety documentation, design and contractual details. Carry out tendering and negotiation processes e.g. single and two stage tendering Use of codes of practice and electronic tendering. Identifying the advantages and disadvantages associated with each procurement route

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Procurement & tendering


Level 2 Sample Question & Answer
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What are some of the benefits and pitfalls of using the different procurement routes?

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Procurement & tendering


Level 2 Sample Questions & Answers ( contd)Main text
Route Traditional Advantages Control over design process Disadvantages No one person is responsible for the design and construction Quality control through the direct reporting of the design team to the client No risk premium built in by the Main text contractor Design & Build Single point responsibility Buildability through the early involvement of the contractor Cost certainty Lack of control over quality Contractor will include a risk premium Where novation exists this could cause legal difficulties Design will be developed as fully as possible Time and cost are likely to escalate

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Procurement & tendering


Level 2 Sample Questions & Answers ( contd)Main text
Route Management Advantages Disadvantages

Contracting

Buildability achieved through the


contractors early involvement Early appointment can be achieved

No single point responsibility


for design and construction Management contractor is only responsible for workmanship

Construction Management Construction Manager is a

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Construction manager has no direct control with the trade contractors

qualified advisor to the employer

Construction Manager can exercise cost and quality control

It is difficult to control cost increases

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Procurement & tendering


Level 2 Sample Questions & Answers ( contd)Main text
Route Advantages Disadvantages

Framework
Agreements The contractor only needs to negotiate once for a series of contracts Prospect of repeat business for all concerned Two Stage Tender contractors early involvement
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May not always be the best value for money Public procurement regulations may impact Once contractor is selected competition is lost and may impact on the pricing

Buildability achieved through the

Can start on site earlier

Difficult to walk away once second stage has taken place

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Procurement & tendering


Level 2 Sample Questions & Answers ( contd)Main text
Route Advantages Disadvantages

PFI/PPP

Risks borne by the private sector Specialist private sector manages construction and the operation of the asset
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Loss of control by the public sector Can be hard to show value for money

Partnering

Less adversarial approach to the project

Difficult once the partnership breaks down

Buildability achieved through the contractors early involvement and all parties in partnership

Can be non competitive

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Procurement & tendering


Level 3
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Give reasoned advice on the appropriateness of various procurement routes. Managing the tendering and negotiation process and presenting reports on the outcome. Here you should be able to apply your knowledge to practical situations that you have encountered in Main your working life. text Evaluation of various procurement routes. Management of the tendering and negotiation process Preparing procurement and tendering reports.

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Procurement & tendering


Level 3 Sample Question & Answer
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You have identified project X in your critical analysis. Outline the procurement strategy you adopted and your reasons for the particular procurement route chosen.

Main text Link your answer back to the key client requirements and the advantages and disadvantages previously outlined.

Outline some other options considered and why rejected.

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Project financial control & reporting


Overview
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The Project financial control and reporting competence tests whether you can control costs once a project is on site. This competency covers the effective cost control of construction text projects during the construction phase. Main Candidates should be aware of the principles of controlling and reporting costs on any construction project. They should have a detailed understanding of the control and reporting processes used on their projects.

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Project financial control & reporting


Main text Level 1 Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the effective control of costs during a project. Demonstrate an understanding of the legal and contractual constraints and the effect of time and quality on the cost of a project.

The need for effective programme planning, monitoring and control of costs including the impact of advice at the inception and design stage of a project.
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The cost planning process and alternative methods of producing cost advice/estimates. The use of the brief to describe both the scope of the design work and construction works.

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Project financial control & reporting


Level 1 (contd)
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Legal and contractual constraints on the cost of a project such as changes in building legislation and design risk allocation. Reporting/forecasting of costs during the construction phase The principles of contingencies/risk allowances Value management techniques
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Project financial control & reporting


Level 1 Sample Questions & Answers
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What measures can be taken to effectively control costs during the construction phase of a project? Proactive risk and contingency management Implementing a robust change control process Main text Management of provisional sums within budget Regular cost reporting which is also forward looking

Rolling final account with closure process for financial impact of change

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Project financial control & reporting


Level 2
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Apply your knowledge to the management of project costs. This should include the preparation and presentation of financial reports on the performance of a project at appropriate intervals, to provide effective forecasting of costs, risks and their financial implications.
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Reporting/forecasting costs - different procurement routes/client types. Use of cashflows in financial management Manage provisional sums/contingencies/risk allowances.

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Project financial control & reporting


Level 2 Sample Question & Answer
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Where you have initiated a change yourself, can you tell me the information that you included on the change control proposal form prior to presenting it to the client?
Full description of the proposed change andMain the reason for the proposal text Cost implications including a breakdown and a basis for the cost Any risks attached to the proposal Implications of functionality and quality in conjunction with the design team Programme implications outlining the rationale behind your decision

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Project financial control & reporting


Level 2 Sample Questions & Answers ( contd)Main text
Buildability or CDM issues Description of the documentation, drawings etc used and attached to the CPF Implications of project team fees and resource levels Confirmation of design co-ordination by design team Confirmation of funding of change control i.e. whether funded from the contingency, provisional sums or some other source of funding and through the change control report its effect on the forecast out -turn cost Main text Date required for approval Implications of late approval and /or rejection of the proposed change Approvals folder

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Project financial control & reporting


Level 3 Advise on strategies and procedures to control predicted expenditure in line with a budget. Implement change control procedures within the contract Establish reporting regimes/protocols
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Use risk management and analysis techniques

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Project financial control & reporting


Level 3 Sample Questions & Answers
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Your final assessment record states that you established the cost reporting protocol on project X. What approach did you take to this?
While you may have standard cost report formats within your organisation, you would be expected to agree the cost reporting protocol with the client and/or project manager at the start of the commission, including the following.
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Content and format of report Timing and frequency of issue Interfaces with other parties, such as the contractor and clients finance team Any additional requirements of stakeholders, such as funders Distribution list and means of issue Method of presentation of report

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Quantification & costing of construction works


Overview
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This competency covers the measurement and definition of construction works in order to value and control costs. Candidates should have an awareness of the various methods of quantifying and pricing construction works Main text used throughout a project. They must have a thorough understanding of the specific methods used on their projects.

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Quantification & costing of construction works


Main text Level 1 You must demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the principles of quantification and costing of construction works as a basis for the financial management of contracts.

The quantification of construction works (including both measurement and definition)


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The various standard methods of measurement The costing of construction works The measurement of buildings and structures to agreed standards

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Quantification & costing of construction works


Level 1 Sample Questions & Answers
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What is the purpose of a standard method of measurement ?


It gives guidelines as to what should be measured for various parts of the construction process.

It allows for estimators to measure works in a standard format for easy preparation of a Bill of Quantities and easy comparison of tenders.

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Quantification & costing of construction works


Level 2
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You will be expected to be able to apply their knowledge to the quantification and costing of construction works, including the use of appropriate standard methods of measurement and forms of cost analysis. Carrying out measurement and costing of works at all stages of the construction process.
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Quantifying construction works at the various stages of a project Producing pricing documents such as bills of quantities, schedules of activities/works, schedules of rates or contract sum analyses Carrying out the costing of construction works by methods such as tendered rates, quotations or dayworks

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Quantification & costing of construction works


Level 2 Sample Questions & Answers What are the different types of provisional sums?
Defined and un-defined. A defined provisional sum is a sum included to cover the cost of a defined piece of work for which you still have no details. Once details are available then this provisional amount can be quantified. The contractor must include a defined Main text provisional sum allowance within his programme for the works. The contractor will not be entitled to an extension of time for a defined provisional sum as it will be deemed to have been part of his original programme. An undefined provisional sum is included for additional works that may or may not be included in the contract. There is no provision made for this within the contractors programme and the contractor may be entitled to an extension of time once this work has been decided upon.
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Quantification & costing of construction works


Level 3
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Advise on appropriate methods of quantification and costing for specific projects. Take responsibility for the preparing and issuing of pricing documents. Price or analyse such documents. Give advice on and/or supervise the valuation of construction works throughout a project. This will include:
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Advising on appropriate methods of measurement and costing Selecting of appropriate pricing documents Negotiating and agreeing the valuation of construction works at various stages of the project such as the contract sum, construction and final account.

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Quantification & costing of construction works


Level 3 Sample Question & Answer How would you go about measuring a basement?
You need to identify where the basement is. Is it in a city centre site or is it on a brownfield site. You should develop a take-off list and identify each of the measureable items stating its unit of measurement as appropriate.
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Commercial management of construction


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In your groups Prepare answers to questions 20 minutes


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Give feedback to everyone 10 minutes

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Procurement & tendering


1. What procurement routes are you familiar with?
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2. What do you say to a potential client who says Partnering is just about having a cup of tea around a table there are no real benefits ?
Main text 3. How do you make partnering happen and how do you facilitate this?

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Procurement & tendering


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What procurement routes are you familiar with?

A. Identify the procurement routes you are familiar with giving understanding of your knowledge of each:

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Traditional Procurement (Client engages the design team and the contractor directly) Main text Design and Build (Client engages the contractor who then employs designers. Potential for novation of the clients design team as an alternative) Management Contracting (Contractor performs the role of managing the works contractors who carry out the works)

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Procurement & tendering


Main text to Construction Management (Construction manager is employed arrange trade contracts and monitor them)

Framework Agreements (A template contract is agreed for a series of projects) Two Stage Tender (The Contractor is selected for the first stage on the basis of limited scope i.e. preliminaries, overheads and profit. The second stage will involve negotiation on an open book tendering basis) Main text PFI/PPP (Private sector designs, builds, operates and finances the asset for the public sector who pays an annual charge) Partnering (Open and less adversarial approach to construction projects)

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Procurement & tendering


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What do you say to a potential client who says Partnering is just about having a cup of tea around a table there are no real benefits
The candidate would be expected to provide an opinion here. Issues that may be considered could be to ensure the client understood the whole concept of partnering and its many benefits. Explain that partnering is not about having Main text a cup of tea around a table. Partnering is too often confused with longstanding relationships, negotiated contracts, serial working and other pseudopartnering arrangements, all of which lack structure and the objective of true partnering. The essential characteristic of partnering is the commitment of all parties at all levels to make the project a success. There are three fundamental characteristics to partnering:

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Procurement & tendering


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Formalised mutual objectives: improved performance and reduced cost The active search for continuous measurable improvement An agreed common approach to problem solving Partnering arrangements which include all members of the team (including client, contractor and consultants) provide the necessary solution, but to be successful, it is essential Main text and thoroughly that the partnering process is both properly planned, and more importantly that all partners within any project team are fully committed and trained in this respect.

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Procurement & tendering


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Q. How do you make partnering happen and how do you facilitate this A. To instigate a full blown partnering contract the procedures and objectives
are often worked out in a one/two day workshop, where all parties come together at the earliest possible stage, to plan the project. This is the start of the team building exercise Main and involves the actual text personnel to be involved as well as the senior staff. The workshops are often run by professional facilitators and terminate with the drawing up of a project charter. You may want to try and relate this to a specific project you worked on. Once instigated a properly set up and effective partnering contract has many benefits in the terms of time, cost and quality.

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Procurement & tendering


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There is a reduced learning curve as optimum performance and productivity can be achieved much earlier in the process, through a combination of familiarity with working practices and participants expertise. A continuity of personnel and familiar systems of management diminishes the problems of mistakes. There is improved identification of risk, and as a result risk allocation and management is enhanced. Main text as a result there is greater Long-term relationships can be built, and confidence and reliability. There is improved quality and programming. This is due to the fact that an overall strategy is developed giving balance to the clients priorities. Consequently, there is a balance between the clients requirements with regard to time, cost and quality.

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Procurement & tendering


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The contractual relationship is one of harmony, rather than the adversarial relationship, which is sometimes associated with some of the traditional procurement arrangements. Advantage can be taken of continuity and preferred supplier arrangements, so, partnering potentially exists throughout the supply chain. Through common mutual objectives, improved performance and reduced cost can be achieved. Main text There is continuous measurable improvement

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Project financial control & reporting


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1. What is the purpose of change control on a construction project? 2. What information would you include within the cost report for a project procured under a single stage traditional procurement route?
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3. I see from your summary of experience that you advised the client of the change control procedure implemented on your project. Can you tell me the key issues you considered in advising the client on the procedure you adopted?

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Project financial control & reporting


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What is the purpose of change control on a construction project


This provides a method of assessing and managing change giving details of consequent cost, programme and scope effect. Effective change control procedures enables the monitoring and reporting of cost changes where they affect the out-turn cost and enables the project team to monitor and appraise programme Main text implications and impact. The client is made aware of the consequences of a potential change and the effect this will have on the overall project thus allowing an informed decision to be made with a full understanding of the impact of its implementation

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Project financial control & reporting


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What information would you include within the cost report for a project procured under a single stage traditional procurement route
This will be based upon the candidates experience, the type of project and the requirements of the client, but typically the cost report will include the following information:
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Executive summary, which may include the following: Current budget and forecast Contingency position Level of cost certainty, i.e. agreement of provisional sums Total commitment and expenditure to date

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Project financial control & reporting



Main text Final account progress Contract position Cash flow position Progress in the period and current financial position Outstanding information Major risks or causes for concern

Next steps and recommendations

Analysis of contingency and risk status

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Register of approved changes/ instructions and pending changes Summary of provisional sums and progress against these Value engineering or opportunities register Risk register & cash flow forecast

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Project financial control & reporting


Q. I see from your submission that you advised the client of the change control procedure implemented on your project. Can you tell me the key issues you considered in advising the client on the procedure you adopted? A.
Your answer will needless to say be based on your experience and should cover the following:
Main text What are the clients objectives in terms of monitoring change Who are the key decision makers in the design and approval of the change What are the implications in terms of the key client requirements of time, cost and quality Main text

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Project financial control & reporting


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What was the procurement process on your project and will this have any effect on your change control process At what point in the design process of your project was it appropriate to start measuring change and why? Confirm with the client and/or the project manager what costs need to be included within the change e.g. professional fees, v.a.t. etc Who takes responsibility for raising the change proposal Main text How will the change control procedure link with contract instructions and contractors procedures(RFIs) during the construction period

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Quantification & costing of construction works


Main text 1. What are the standard methods of measurements that you are aware of?

2. What are Nominated Sub-contractors? 3. The client is thinking of using a design & build procurement Main text strategy but is concerned as to what form of pricing documentation he will receive from the contractor

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Quantification & costing of construction works


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What are the standard methods of measurements that you are aware of
SMM7, CESSM, POMI, NRA and the New Rules of Measurement. The RICS New Rules of Measurement Order of cost estimating and elemental cost planning provide a structured basis for measuring building work and present a consistent approach for dealing with other Main text key cost components associated with a building project when preparing order of cost estimates and elemental cost plans. The rules represent the essentials of good practice and have the same status as RICS guidance notes.

It is divided into 4 parts with supporting appendices as follows

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Quantification & costing of construction works


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Part 1 places cost estimating and elemental cost planning in context with the RIBA plan of work and the OGC Gateway process and explains the symbols, abbreviations and definitions used in the rules. Part 2 describes the purpose and content of an order of cost estimate, defines its key constituents, explains how to prepare an order of cost estimate, and sets out the rules of measurement for the preparation of an order of cost estimate using the floor area Main text method, functional unit method and elemental method Part 3 describes the purpose of elemental cost plans, explains their key constituents and explains how to prepare an elemental cost plan Part 4 comprises the tabulated rules of measurement for the preparation of formal elemental cost plans

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Quantification & costing of construction works


2. What are Nominated Sub-contractors
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Nominated Sub-contractors are nominated by the client to carry out specialist work on behalf of the client. The main contractor is entitled to object to the appointment of a nominated sub-contractor provided he has a legitimate reason for doing so. The main contractor will be entitled to claim profit and attendance on the nominated sub-contractor. The profit element will be adjusted on a pro-rata basis whereas the attendanceMain is text only adjusted depending on the scope of works once quotations have been received from nominated sub-contractors. The main contractor will have to include for the nominated sub-contractors programme within his own programme

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Quantification & costing of construction works


3. The client is thinking of using a design & build Main text procurement strategy but is concerned as to what form of pricing documentation he will receive from the contractor
Under a design & build procurement route the contractor will normally supply a schedule of rates so that in the event of variations occurring the clients representative will have rates available to determine whether or not he is getting value for money.
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