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INDUSTRIAL PROFILE

HISTORY

India is the highest milk producer in the entire globe. India is well known as the 'Oyster' of the global dairy industry, with opportunities galore for the entrepreneurs globally. It might be dream for any nation in the world to capitalize on the largest and fastest growing milk and milk products' market. The dairy industry in India has been witnessing rapid growth with liberalization. As the economy provides good opportunities for MNCs and foreign investors to release the full potential of this industry. The main objective of the Indian Dairy Industry is to manage the national resources in a manner to enhance milk production and upgrade milk processing using innovative technologies. The crossbred technology in the Indian Dairy Industry has further augmented with the viability of the dairy units by increasing the milk production per animal. Then subsequently milk production has also increased at an exponential rate while the benefits of an increase in milk production also reached the consumers from a relatively lower increase in the price of milk. The favorable price environment for milk producers for the Dairy Industry in India however appeared to have weakened during the 90's, a decline in the real price of milk being noticed after the year 1992. And then slowly regained it is glory after 1992 to till now. In India dairying from very much earlier is regarded as an instrument for social and economic development. The country's milk supply comes from millions of small producers, who are dispersed throughout the rural areas. All these farmers maintain an average herd of one or two mulch animals, comprising cows and/or buffaloes. Mostly ample labor and a small land base encourage farmers to practice dairying as an occupation subsidiary to agriculture. As income from crop production is seasonal instead dairying provides a stable which is a year-round income and also an important economic incentive for the small farmer.

BRIEF INTRODUCTION

India had tremendous milk production in 40 years and has become the world's largest milk-producing nation with a gross output of 84.6 million tons in 2001. The Indian Dairy Industry has achieved this strength of a producer-owned and professionally-managed cooperative system, despite the facts that a majority of dairy farmers are illiterate and run small, marginal operations and for many farmers, selling milk is their sole source of income. More than 10 million dairy farmers belong to 96,000 local dairy cooperatives, who sell their products to one of 170 milk producers' cooperative unions who in turn are supported by 15 state cooperative milk marketing federations. In India dairy business has been practiced as rural cottage industry over the years. Semicommercial dairy started with the establishment of military dairy farms and co-operative milk unions throughout the country towards the end of the 19th century. Since Independence this Industry has made rapid progress. A large number of modern milk and milk product factories have since been established. The organized dairies in India have been successfully engaged in the routine commercial production of pasteurized bottled milk for Indian dairy products. The growth of Indian Dairy Industry during the last three decades has been impressive, at more than 5% per annum; and in the 90's the country has emerged as the largest producer of milk. This is not a small achievement when we consider the fact that dairying in India is largely stringent that farmers in general keep dairy animals in proportion to their free crop and also are available for family labor with little or no purchased inputs and a minimum of marketed outputs. The existence of restrictive trade policy milk in the Diary Industry and the emergence of Amul type cooperatives have changed the dairy farming practices in the country. Farmers have gained the favorable price for their milk and for their production which was essentially a self-reliant one is which are now being transformed into a commercial proposition.

In India Milk production is dominated by small and marginal land-holding farmers and also by landless laborers who in aggregate own 70% of the national mulch animal herd. And as the crop production on 78% of the agricultural land still depends on rain, which is prone to both drought and floods, rendering agricultural income is very much uncertain for most of the farmers. Dairying, as a subsidiary source of income and occupation, is real relief to most of the farmers in the society. Usually one or two mulch animals enable the farmers to generate sufficient income to break the vicious subsistence agriculturaldebt cycle. The Operation Flood which is the successful Indian dairy development programmed has analyzed that how food aid can be utilized as an investment in building the type of institutional infrastructure that can bring about national dairy development. Programmers like this, with similar policy orientations, may prove to be appropriate to dairy development in India. India in the early 1950's was commercially importing around 55000 tons of milk powder annually to meet the urban milk demand. Most of the significant developments in dairying have taken place in India in this century only.

India's Milk Product Mix


Fluid Milk Ghee Butter Curd Khoa (Partially Dehydrated Condensed Milk) 46.0% 27.5% 6.5% 7.0% 6.5%

Milk Powders, including IMF 3.5% Paneer&Chhana (Cottage Cheese) 2.0% Others, including Cream, Ice Cream 1.0%

Total contribution to the economy sales


The Indian Dairy Industry engages in the production and processing of milk & cream.

This industry is involved in the manufacture of various dairy products like cheese, curd, yoghurt etc. The Indian Dairy Industry specializes in the procurement, production, processing, storage and distribution of dairy products. India as nation stands first in its share of dairy production in the international scenario. The industry contributes about Rs 1, 15,970 to the national economy.

Employment opportunities
The Indian Diary industry which is in the developing stage provides gainful employment to a vast majority of the rural households. It employs about 8.47 million people on yearly basis out of which 71% are women. Jobs in Indian dairy industry are mainly in the fields of production and processing of dairy products. An individual with minimum of 60% marks who has bachelor's degree course in the dairy technology can easily be availing an opportunity to work in this industry. For the graduation course in Dairy technology one has to qualify the All India Entrance Test that is affiliated to the Indian Council of Agricultural Research. After that the person can continue with his masters in dairy technology. Jobs would be for the following positions.

Dairy Scientists: The main job of the dairy scientists is to deal with collection of milk and taking care of the high yielding variety of animals. Dairy Technologists: the work of Dairy technology requires procurement officers who take the responsibility of collecting milk from farmers, milk booths and cattle-rearers. This particular procurement officer should well understand the latest technology that is applicable in maintaining the quality of milk of the process of transporting it to the desired location. Dairy Engineers: dairy engineers are usually appointed is to set up and maintain dairy plants. Marketing Personnel: These individuals deal with the sale and marketing of milk together with milk products.

Latest developments

Indian Dairy Industry is the largest milk producer all over the world, around 100 million MTIndian Dairy Industries value of output amounted to Rs. 1179 billion in 2004-05 which approximately equals combined output of paddy and wheat. With 1/5th of the worlds bovine population In India the Mulch animals constitutes45% indigenous cattle, 55 % buffaloes, and

10% cross bred cows Intensive Dairy Development Programmed (IDDP): The Schemes, modified under these programmers are on the basis of the recommendation of the evaluation studies which were launched during Eighth Plan period and are being continued throughout the Eleventh Plan with an outlay of Rs. 32.49 core for 2009-10. Strengthening Infrastructure for Quality and Clean Milk Production (CMP): this is a centrally sponsored scheme which was launched in October 2003, which had the main objective of improving the quality of raw milk produced at the every village level in the India. Dairy Venture Capital Fund- this is introduced in the Tenth Five Year Plan to bring about structural changes in unorganized sector, which would measure like milk processing at village level, marketing of pasteurized milk in a cost effective manner, quality or the up gradation of traditional technology to handle commercial scale using modern equipments and management skills.

Key Players and Ownership


Production Policy and Regulation of Dairy Products Dairy production in India runs on a low inputlow output system, in which individual producers Typically own less than five cattle or buffalo and use locally available feeds. This has resulted in yield levels that are below international averages but also the worlds lowest production costs. As dairy product prices and income from milk collection continue to increase, farmers are slowly growing herd sizes and increasing their specialization. In addition, interests from private sector investors have also facilitated construction of larger dairies through partnering with dairy processors. Through implementing various incentive schemes, Indian policy makers are aiming to increase the countrys dairy output. Examples of these schemes include the Ministry of Agricultures research programs, imports of bovine semen and embryos, the National Project for Cattle and Buffalo Breeding, which focuses on improving Indian indigenous breeds with an allocation of USD 255 million. On the other hand, support is also offered by the private sector through activities such as artificial insemination services, training for veterinary care and other livestock management skills. In 2010, the government and the National Dairy Development Board have drawn up a

National Dairy Plan (NDP) that proposed an expenditure of around USD 378 million to nearly double Indias milk production by 2020. This plan will Endeavour to increase the countrys milk productivity, improve access to quality feeds and improve farmer access to the organized market. These goals will be achieved through activities that focus on increasing cooperative membership and growing the network of milk collection facilities throughout India. In addition, the new Food Safety and Standards Authority of India has consolidated various previous policies that set the sanitary requirements for food safety, machinery, premises, quality control, certification, packing, marking and labeling standards for all food products, including milk and milk products and aims to regulating food safety in India through one overarching regulation. The forthcoming regulation, named The Food Safety and Standards Regulation, is implemented in 2011. Although the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India sets the safety standards for both domestically produced and imported milk and dairy products, the Ministry of Agricultures Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries is the entity that is responsible for issuing sanitary permits for the import of livestock and dairy products into India.

Cooperative Movement in Dairying


Immediately after India gained independence in 1947, the Milk Control Board was established to control the dairy supply and distribution chains. However, a number of issues emerged. First, the middlemen got hold of the sales profit and the share of producers in the sales declined. Second, as processing units were set up in cities, it became difficult for the milk to be procured and transported the production centers in the rural areas. Consequently, the yield of milk declined and imports of milk powder went up. While the government was trying to deal with these problems, a cooperative was set the Village of Kaira in Gujarat to collect process and market milk. Subsequently, the Kaira Cooperative Union established a marketing agency named Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation, which follows a threelayer structure that collects processes and markets dairy products at village, district and state levels. The district units also provide technical support to the milk producers and a range of services such as feed, veterinary care, artificial insemination, education and training. These milk cooperatives of Gujarat today own the GCMMF, the largest food products business in India. GCMMF is also the largest exporter of dairy products from India and owns the brand Amul. The foundation of Indian dairy industrys cooperative movement was thus set and federal and egalitarian structure of these cooperatives ensured social and economic equity. The government then

set up the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) in 1965, which prepared a blueprint for a dairy revolution across the country. The revolution was known as Operation Flood

Operation Flood Era


Indias dairy sector witnessed a spectacular growth between 1971 and 1996; the period was known as the Operation Flood era. An integrated cooperative programmed aimed at developing the dairy industry was implemented in three phases, with The National Dairy Development Board designated by the Government of India as the implementing agency. The major objective was to provide an assured market round the year to the rural milk producers and to establish linkage between rural milk production and urban market through modern technology and professional management. The Operation Flood was one of the worlds largest rural development programmers which ran for 26 years and eventually helped India to emerge as the worlds largest milk producer. As part of the programmed, around ten million farmers were enrolled as members of about 73000 milk cooperative societies. Since the implementation of this programmed, milk production increased from 21 million tons in 1970 to nearly 69 million tons in 1996, at the compound growth rate of 4.5 per cent. By 1996, milk cooperatives attained a dominating share of the Indian dairy market butter 96%,pasteurized liquid milk over 90%, milk powder 59% and processed cheese 85%. India was reckonedas a major threat in the dairying world. In retrospect, it was by no means an easy task.

INDUSTRY STRUCTURE, PRODUCTION &CONSUMPTION


Industry Structure While it is estimated that around 40 to 50 percent of Indian dairy farmers are employed by the Organized sector, approximately 65 percent of milk in India is consumed (in fluid or processed forms) on farm or by the unorganized sector including local milk vendors, wholesalers, retailers, and the producers themselves. Of the total milk distributed jointly by both the organized and unorganized sector, around 46 percent of the milk is consumed

in fluid form and the rest is processed into various milk products such as butter, yogurt and milk powder. Indias milk processing industry is small compared to the large amount of raw milk produced every year. Almost 55 percent of the milk produced is consumed by the producer household. Of the remaining, twothird is sold in informal markets and 1516 percent of the total milk produced in India is processed by the organized market, including dairy cooperatives and the private sector. During 19992000, there were around 770 dairy processing units in the organized sector. Vendors and milk dealers dominate the informal market where the former generally procures milk from producers and sells them to urban households, while the latter supplies to private processing units. Of the milk that enters the formal and informal market, almost 45 percent is consumed in the raw form while the remaining is processed to produce ghee, khoa, butter, curd, milk powders, cottage cheese, etc.

ENTREPRENEUR

Verghese Kurien (26 November 1921 9 September 2012) best known as the "Father of the White Revolution". For his 'billion-liter idea' or Operation Flood the world's biggest agricultural development programmed. The operation took India from being a milk-deficient nation, to the largest milk producer in the world, surpassing the United States of America in 1998, with about 17 percent of global output in 201011, which in 30 years doubled the milk available to every person,. Dairy farming became Indias largest self-sustaining industry.He made the country self-sufficient in edible oils too later on taking head-on the powerful and entrenched oil supplying lobby. He founded around 30 institutions of excellence (like AMUL, GCMMF, IRMA, NDDB) which are owned, managed by farmers and run by professionals. As the founding chairman of the Gujarat Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation (GCMMF), Kurien was responsible for the creation and success of the Amul brand of dairy products. A key achievement at Amul was the inventionof milk powder processed from buffalo milk(abundant in India), as opposed to that made from cow-milk, in the then major milk producing nations. His achievements with the Amul dairy led Prime MinisterLalBahadurShastri to appoint him as the founder-chairman of National Dairy

Development Board (NDDB) in 1965, to replicate Amul's "Anand model" nationwide. During his illustrious career, Dr. VergheseKurien won many accolades and awards. These include: Ramon Magsaysay Award for Community Leadership (1963), Padma Shri (1965), Padma Bhushan (1966), KrishiRatna Award (1986), Wateler Peace Prize Award of Carnegie Foundation (1986), World Food Prize Laureate (1989), International Person of the Year (1993) by the World Dairy Expo, Madison, Wisconsin, USA, and Padma Vibhushan (1999). One of the greatest proponents of the cooperative movement in the world, his work has alleviated millions out of poverty not only in India but also outside. Hailed as the "Milkman of India", Kurien won several awards including the Padma Vibhushan (India's second-highest civilian honour), the World Food Prize and the Magsaysay Award for community leadership.

James Jose
It's a familiar sight in the sprawling Indian capital and its suburbs -- crowds outside kiosks selling milk and ice-cream, flavored yoghurt and pickle, frozen vegetables and fresh ones too. Dairy products leader Mother Dairy's milk booths may be as unpretentious as its headquarters in the Indian capital, but the long queues are testimony to one of the greatest success stories of Indian entrepreneurship. What started 33 years ago under the aegis of the National Dairy Development Board's (NDDB) Operation Flood - one of the world's largest rural development programmers has grown into a Rs.3.3-billion (about $70-million) corporate entity with business interests in milk and dairy products, apart from fruits, vegetables and edible oil. For Mother Dairy, which primarily caters to the national capital New Delhi and its suburbs, it all started with milk. It supplies 2.3 million liters of milk a day to the region. "Our mandate is simple - source milk from farmers, give them the best prices possible and make it available to the public," said Paul Thatchil, chief executive of Mother Dairy's dairy and foods division. "The aim is to strike a balance between helping the farmer and serving customers; while we want to give back as much as 75 percent of the revenues to the farmers, we would also not want to tax our customers," added Thatchil.

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According to him, an increase in milk price by as little as Re.1 a liter would fetch Mother Dairy an extra Rs.2 billion ($42.5 million). "But we don't want to do that, milk is a sensitive commodity." In 1974, when urban centers were hit by an acute milk shortage, the company came up with the system of milk tokens to counter the problem; all one needed was to purchase a token and queue up at a Mother Dairy milk booth. The system not only made milk affordable but also kept black marketers at bay. "At that time we didn't have access to polypack technology, which was anyway expensive, so we started making milk available through dispensing machines. This milk was Rs.2 cheaper than packed milk. Next we arranged specialised containers to deliver the milk to all booths," said Thatchil. In early 1987, Mother Dairy, which was already procuring milk through associations in and around Delhi, was asked to do a pilot project on similar lines for fruit and vegetables. The mandate was the same: minimize exploitation of farmers by middlemen and help consumers get fresh supplies of fruit and vegetables at a fair price from neighborhood retail outlets. Thus was born Safal, India's oldest food and vegetable retail chain. Since then, Safal's turnover has grown from Rs.27 million ($577,000) to over Rs.3 billion ($64 million), with almost 85 percent of its revenues coming from the sale of fresh fruit and vegetables, while the rest was accounted for by processed foodstuff.

Characteristics of an entrepreneur
Entrepreneurs have many of the same character traits as leaders, similar to the early great man theories of leadership; however trait-based theories of entrepreneurship are increasingly being called into question. Entrepreneurs are often contrasted with managers and administrators who are said to be more methodical and less prone to risk-taking. Such person-centric models of entrepreneurship have shown to be of questionable validity, not least as many real-life entrepreneurs operate in teams rather than as single individuals. Still, a vast literature studying the entrepreneurial personality argues that certain traits seem to be associated with entrepreneurs: Bird - mercurial, that is, prone to insights, brainstorms, deceptions, ingeniousness and resourcefulness. They are cunning, opportunistic, creative, and unsentimental.

Busenitz and Barney - prone to overconfidence and over generalizations. Cole - found there are four types of entrepreneur: the innovator, the calculating

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inventor, the over-optimistic promoter, and the organization builder. These types are not related to the personality but to the type of opportunity the entrepreneur faces. Collins and Moore - tough, pragmatic people driven by needs of independence and achievement. They seldom are willing to submit to authority. Cooper, Woo, & Dunkelberg - argue that entrepreneurs exhibit extreme optimism in their decision-making processes. John Hawkins - focused specifically on creative entrepreneurship. He found that entrepreneurs in the creative industries needed a specific set of traits including the ability to priorities ideas over data, to be nomadic and to learn endlessly. David McClelland - primarily motivated by an overwhelming need for achievement and strong urges to build.

Qualities
1. Disciplined These individuals are focused on making their businesses work, and eliminate any hindrances or distractions to their goals. They have overarching strategies and outline the tactics to accomplish them. Successful entrepreneurs are disciplined enough to take steps every day toward the achievement of their objectives. 2. Confidence The entrepreneur does not ask questions about whether they can succeed or whether they are worthy of success. They are confident with the knowledge that they will make their businesses succeed. They exude that confidence in everything they do. 3. Open Minded Entrepreneurs realize that every event and situation is a business opportunity. Ideas are constantly being generated about workflows and efficiency, people skills and potential new businesses. They have the ability to look at everything around them and focus it toward their goals. 4. Self Starter Entrepreneurs know that if something needs to be done, they should start it themselves. They set the parameters and make sure that projects follow that path. They are proactive, not waiting for someone to give them permission. 5. Competitive

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Many companies are formed because an entrepreneur knows that they can do a job better than another. They need to win at the sports they play and need to win at the businesses that they create. An entrepreneur will highlight their own companys track record of success. 6. Creativity One facet of creativity is being able to make connections between seemingly unrelated events or situations. Entrepreneurs often come up with solutions which are the synthesis of other items. They will repurpose products to market them to new industries.[13] 7. Determination Entrepreneurs are not thwarted by their defeats. They look at defeat as an opportunity for success. They are determined to make all of their endeavors succeed, so will try and try again until it does. Successful entrepreneurs do not believe that something cannot be done. 8. Strong people skills The entrepreneur has strong communication skills to sell the product and motivate employees. Most successful entrepreneurs know how to motivate their employees so the business grows overall. They are very good at highlighting the benefits of any situation and coaching others to their success. 9. Strong work ethic The successful entrepreneur will often be the first person to arrive at the office and the last one to leave. They will come in on their days off to make sure that an outcome meets their expectations. Their mind is constantly on their work, whether they are in or out of the workplace. 10. Passion Passion is the most important trait of the successful entrepreneur. They genuinely love their work. They are willing to put in those extra hours to make the business succeed because there is a joy their business gives which goes beyond the money. The successful entrepreneur will always be reading and researching ways to make the business better. Successful entrepreneurs want to see what the view is like at the top of the business mountain. Once they see it, they want to go further. They know how to talk to their employees, and their businesses soar as a result.

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Concept
It has assumed super importance for accelerating economic growth both in developed and developing countries. It promotes capital formation and creates wealth in country. It is hope and dreams of millions of individuals around the world. It reduces unemployment and poverty and it is a pathway to prosper. Entrepreneurship is the process of exploring the opportunities in the market place and arranging resources required to exploit these opportunities for long term gain. It is the process of planning, organizing, opportunities and assuming. Thus it is a risk of business enterprise. It may be distinguished as an ability to take risk independently to make utmost earnings in the market. It is a creative and innovative skill and adapting response to environment. Perception of entrepreneurs The ability of entrepreneurs to innovate is thought to relate to innate traits such as extroversion and a proclivity for risk-taking. According to Schumpeter, the capabilities of innovating, introducing new technologies, increasing efficiency and productivity, or generating new products or services, are characteristic qualities of entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurs are catalysts for economic change, and researchers argue that entrepreneurs are highly creative individuals with a tendency to imagine new solutions by finding opportunities for profit or reward. Largely due to the influence of Schumpeters heroic conceptions of entrepreneurs, it is widely maintained that entrepreneurs are unusual individuals. In line with this view, there is an emerging research tradition investigating the genetic factors that are perceived to make entrepreneurs so distinctive (Nikolaou and Shane, 2009). However, there are also critical perspectives that attribute these research attitudes to oversimplified methodological and/or philosophical assumptions (Gartner, 2001). For example, it has been argued that entrepreneurs are not that distinctive, but that it is in essence unrealistic preconceptions about "non-entrepreneurs" that maintain laudatory portraits of "entrepreneurs" (Ramoglou, 2011).

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Classification of entrepreneurs
A. Based on functional characteristics 1. Innovative entrepreneur: Such entrepreneurs introduce new goods or new methods of production or discover new markets or reorganize the enterprise. 1. EX: new product, new ways of product, new markets and reorganize the enterprise. 2. Imitative or adoptive entrepreneur: Such entrepreneurs dont innovate;they copy technology or technique of others. 1. EX: Chinese mobiles. 3. Fabian entrepreneur: Such entrepreneur display grates situation and skepticism in experimenting with any change in their enterprise. They change only when there is a serious threat to the very existence of the enterprise. 4. Drone entrepreneurs: Such entrepreneurs are characterized by a diehard conservatism and may even be prepared to suffer the losses. 1. EX: Acc. To MC Kinsey in 2015, 110-130 million people will be unemployed out of which 90-100 million people will be Fresher. B. Based on development angle 1. Prime mover: This entrepreneur sets in motion a powerful sequence of development expansion and diversification of business. 1. EX: Ambani 2. Manager: such an entrepreneur doesnt initiate expansion and its content in just staying in business. 3. Minor innovator: This entrepreneur contributes to economic progress by finding better use for existing resources. 1. EX: minimum wastage maximum production. 4. Satellite: This entrepreneur assumes a suppliers role and slowly move towards a productive enterprise. 5. Local trading: such entrepreneur limits his enterprise to the local market.

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C. Based on entrepreneurs business 1. Manufacturing 2. Wholesaling 3. Retailing 4. Service Based on personality traits 1. The improver: They have unwavering to run these businesses with high integrity and ethics. 2. The advisor: Customer is right and we must do everything to please him because company is built by advisors and advisors become customer focused. 3. The superstar: All depends upon the charisma and on the high energy of the superstar CEO. 1. EX: Richard Branson (400 cos/Virgin coin), Larry Page (Google), Lt. Steve Jobs (Apple), Ratan Tata (Tata sons). 4. The artists: Are highly creative type, very conscious about business. If feedback is constructive i.e. positive than also lets go with negative self-image. 1. EX: Aamir Khan, Michael Dell (Dell), MC Cormich (EMI). 5. The visionary: Too focused on dreams with little focused on reality. 1. EX: Jack Welch (GE), Bill Gates (Microsoft), Kishore Biyani (Future Group), Warren Buffet (Berkshire Hathaway), Sam Walton (Wall Mart). 6. The analyst: More focused on fixing problems in a systematic way. 1. EX: Gordon Hore (Intel), RanaKapur (Yes Bank), GautamAdani (Adani Groups) 7. The fireball: A business owned and operated by a fireball is full of life, energy and optimism. They have A get it done attitude in a playful manner. 1. EX: Malcolm Forbes Forbes magazine 8. The hero: Have an incredible will and ability to lead the world and your business through challenges. 9. The healer: They provide nurturing harmony to their business, they have uncanny abilities to survive and persists inner calm. 1. EX: Dr. BindeshwarPathak (Sulabh International), Kumar Manglam Birla (Son of L.M Birla). 1. The Opportunistic: take advantage of opportunities as they occur.

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1. EX: Mark Zuckerberg Theory-based Typologies Recent advances in entrepreneur researcher indicate that the differences in entrepreneurs and the heterogeneity in their behaviors and actions can be traced back to their founder's identity. For instance, Fauchart and Gruber (2011) have recently utilized social identity theory to illustrate that entrepreneurs can be distinguished in three main types: Darwinians, Communitarians and Missionaries. These types of founders not only diverge in fundamental ways in terms of their self-views and their social motivations in entrepreneurship, but also engage fairly differently in new firm creation.

WHAT IS A BRAND?
A brand is a product, service, or concept that is publicly distinguished from other products, services, or concepts so that it can be easily communicated and usually marketed. A brand name is the name of the distinctive product, service, or concept. Branding is the process of creating and disseminating the brand name. Branding can be applied to the entire corporate identity as well as to individual product and service names. Brands are usually protected from use by others by securing a Brand is often expressed in the form of logos, graphic representations of the brand. In computers, a recent example of widespread brand application was the "Intel Inside" label provided to manufacturers that use Intel's microchips. Demark or service mark from an authorized agency, usually a government agency. A company's brands and the public's awareness of them are often used as a factor in evaluating a company. Corporations sometimes hire market research firms to study public recognition of brand names as well as attitudes toward the brands.

What do you mean by brand perception?


Brand perception is essentially the sum of all experiences related to the product, service and companies that make and deliver the product or service. More specifically, customer perceptions are formed by their functional experiences with the product or service (i.e. speed, quality, reliability and ease of use), as well as their emotional experiences (i.e. improving my performance, making my life easier or making me feel better). In today's marketplace, you must not only be concerned about how your brand is selling, you must also know what the marketplace's perception of your brand is. Understanding brand perception is vital for everything from product/service development to product/service positioning or market segmentation. But, how do you measure brand

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perception? It is important to note brand perceptions are developed over time from a variety of sources like the following:

Previous experience with the brand Interactions with sales, customer service and other employees Recommendations from friends and colleagues Reviews by reputable sources Advertising

When measuring brand perception, a comprehensive picture is key and this is where technology and clearly identified metrics can help, but there is still a huge reliance on human strategy to use those metrics effectively. When measuring brand perception, a comprehensive picture is key and this is where technology and clearly identified metrics can help, but there is still a huge reliance on human strategy to use those metrics effectively. There is no one solution to identifying the correct metrics or how those metrics are measured, but we have identified a number of important factors to consider, and these are more likely to lead to successful marketing measurement programs First, its vital to have a clearly stated objective; it is useless to measure for the sake of measuring. It is important to start with the business goals and work down to the key indicators which can assist in meeting those goals. Second, measurement has to be continual for it to be sustainable. In one sense it is better to have a simple brand measurement solution than something which is overly complex, as this will be difficult to use on a regular basis. One of the key factors to a successful brand measurement program is consistency. For the brand strategy to be successful, brand monitoring over time and then fine-tuning that program is key, note that the market is always changing, so companies also need to regularly monitor the metrics they have in place. Third, technology can greatly assist in the monitoring process, but the technology is only as good as the individual who can use that technology to generate insights, who can understand how to apply market intelligence to meet the business goals. Successfully measuring brand perception and awareness helps companies tailor their marketing mix in a way that is not only cost-effective but also strategic in the long run.

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Most companies agree that their brand is an asset, yet measuring brand awareness and equity of that asset can be quite daunting. So, here are 4 tips you should consider as your company seeks to measure brand perception: 1. 2. 3. 4. Include measures of awareness, preference, accessibility, value and loyalty Include both behavioral and attitudinal measures Tailor the study for your product categories and industry Include competitive comparisons

When marketing researchers explore brand perception, we tend to focus on eight primary areas. These qualitative markers go beyond the typical gauges of brand awareness to encompass how consumers feel about a brand, how they respond to it, talk about it, and interact with it. Lets define the eight areas perception studies cover and take a deeper look at each. 1. Emotion. What are the broad emotional responses consumers have with the brand? What are the primary triggers and influencers of the positive and negative reactions? 2. Individuality. What characteristics differentiate the brandand by association consumers who use it? How is it set apart from competing brands and how substantial or valuable are the differences? 3. Communication. How and what does the brand communicate instantly? Are these messages consistent or do they change with time, experience, or sub-brands? 4. Social influence/transformative potential. Does the brand have the power to improve lives? Is it an agent of personal or social transformation? 5. Competitiveness. How well does the brand separate itself from competing brands? What are the key differentiators and how important are they to consumers? 6. Innovation. Whats the brands capacity for growth and reinvention? Does it have a reputation for innovation and the potential to redefine markets? 7. Leadership and durability. Is the brand viewed as a leader in its category? Does it command authority and respect in the marketplace? Is it a brand thats considered stable, secure, and relevant generation after generation? 8. Comfort and inspiration. Are people comforted and uplifted by the brand? How does

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the brand generate confidence, inspiration, or action with consumers? The positive and negative information culled from perception studies form a starting point for a targeted marketing strategy that can both inform and empower business owners. A clearer idea about how consumers experience a brand can help marketers trumpet positive associations and recreate negative ones.

IMPORTANCE OF BRAND PERCEPTION


Understanding brand perception is vital for everything from product/service development to product/service positioning or market segmentation. Successfully measuring brand perception and awareness helps companies tailor their marketing mix in a way that is not only cost-effective but also strategic in the long run. The success of a business depends upon its ability to attract and retain customers who are willing to purchase goods and services at prices that are profitable to the company. Consumer perception describes how customers and potential customers view a company and its products and services. Brand perception is important to business since it can influence consumer behavior, which ultimately affects the profitability of a business. Many businesses spend large amounts of resources to influence brandperception.

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Chapter 2 Research Design

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Title of the Study:


A STUDY OF BRAND PERCEPTION OF SARAS DAIRY IN JAIPUR

Statement of the Problem


The dairy industry has been witnessing significant competition in recent times, with the emergence of several brands which are creating a national presence. While almost every state has its own milk cooperative, and a brand associated with it, there are some brands like Amul and Mother dairy which are establishing themselves across the country and hence creating competition for the state owned cooperative brands. Also, competition comes from unorganized sector, where individual owners of cow-sheds sell their milk to households or other buyers. Over the last few years, there have been attempts by various state milk cooperatives to introduce value added milk products like ghee, cheese, butter, ice-cream etc. These processed milk products not only allow these companies to increase their presence in the marketplace, they are also high margin products, which allow them to increase their sales revenues and incomes. This is the segment which is also witnessing competition from other established players like Britannia and Nestle. Particularly, Britannia has been able to make a strong presence in butter and cheese. Amul and Mother Dairy also have introduced products like Dahi (curd), butter, lassi, ice-cream. And these brands are national brands and hence giving competition to the local dairy brands in different markets.

Objectives of the Study


Facing competition from many players, it is important for Saras to understand how consumers perceive them in a competitive environment. A negative perception of the consumers would allow the firm to consider ways to convert this negative perception into positive one through its marketing efforts. A positive perception, on the other hand, would be an assurance for the company that its marketing efforts are good. Given the context explained in the previous section, the objectives of the study were To identify the way consumers perceive Saras as a brand

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To understand the various products of the brands that consumers buy To understand the consumer buying behavior for milk To assess how consumers evaluate Saras along various attributes of the brand

Scope of the Study


Considering the limitation of time and resources, the study has been restricted to Jaipur in Rajasthan. It has been found that the Rajasthan market, particularly Jaipur, has been witnessing strong competition in the milk and milk product market due to the entry of many other brands like Mother Dairy, Amul and Britannia. Under these circumstances, consumers have been faced with many choices of products. Saras, being the local brand in Rajasthan, has been facing this competition in the marketplace. Also, there have been some controversies surrounding Saras in recent times. The rise in competition and the some of the negative reports in the popular press may have negatively impacted the brand. In order to measure the existing perception of customers about this brand this study was undertaken. The reason for choice of Jaipur has also been due to the level of competition in this market and the headquarters of the company in this city. Majority of the dairy brands market different kinds of products. But our research has been predominantly restricted to the study of perception about the milk brand, because the share of milk in the portfolio of all the dairy brands is very high compared to other products. Also our belief was that the perception about milk may also be applicable about the perception about other products marketed by the company, unless the brand does not market milk.

Methodology
Marketing research is the systematic and objective identification, collection, analysis, dissemination, and use of information for the purpose of improving decision making related to the identification and solution of problems and opportunities in marketing. As the above definition suggests, marketing research is systematic and uses structured method of data collection and analysis. A marketing research study may be undertaken for two purposes (1) to identify a problem and (2) to solve a problem. Naresh Malhotra, in his book Marketing Research an Applied Orientation, lists the various problem identification researches as Market Potential Research, Market Share Research, Image Research, Market Characteristics Research, Sales Analysis Research, Forecasting Research, and Business Trends Research. On the other hand the various

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problem solving researches have been identified as Segmentation Research, Product Research, Pricing Research, Promotion Research and Distribution Research. Based on the above classification, this research is a problem identification research. As stated in the objectives, the purpose of this research to identify how consumers perceive Saras as a brand, and what are the associations that they make with the brand? A research design is a framework or blueprint for conducting the marketing research project. It details the procedure for obtaining the information needed to structure and/or solve marketing research problems. However, the research design is based on the nature of the research. Research Design can be classified broadly into two types (1) Exploratory Research design and (2) Conclusive Research design. Conclusive research design is further divided into Descriptive and Causal Research. Descriptive research is again divided into Cross-Sectional or Longitudinal Design. Cross-sectional design if further divided into single cross sectional design or multiple cross sectional design. The classification is shown in Figure below:

Research Design

Exploratory Research Design

Conclusive Research Design

Descriptive Research

Causal Research

Cross-Sectional Design

Longitudinal Design

Single CrossSectional Design

Multiple CrossSectional Design

Using the above classification, the research design used for this research is conclusive research design. This research is descriptive in nature and uses a cross sectional design,

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where a single cross section of customers have been studied. Data has been collected from customers from Jaipur market to understand their perception about Saras brand.

Sampling Techniques
For this study, consumer survey was the most appropriate method of data collection, based on the objectives set for the study. However, considering the fact that Jaipur is a large city, it was important for us to decide on the sample of the population for conducting this research. Among the various sampling techniques, which can be used in a research, we have adopted a quota sampling technique to cover five different areas in the city of Jaipur, which is more or less representative of the entire city. The size of the sample chosen this research was 100. This 100 was further divided into 20 respondents in each of the 5 areas in the city. In order to reduce the biasness of the research, the 20 customers chosen for the survey were done randomly across several outlets of Saras and other dairy brands. The sample size was restricted to 100 due to limitation of time and resources.

Tools for data Collection


In deciding the methodology for a research, the nature of data which is collected for analysis in the research is important. Based on the nature of data, research is also classified as primary or secondary; and qualitative or quantitative. Primary data are those which are collected for the specific purpose of a particular study and is collected first hand. This data can be collected in different ways like interviews, questionnaires, observation etc. On the other hand, secondary data are those which have already been collected for other purposes but can be used as a reference in another study. For example, the company data available on the website which is used for a study is secondary data. Similarly any other report pertaining to the dairy industry, published by someone else, can be a secondary source of data. Qualitative research makes use of qualitative data which is often expressed as language and not in terms of numbers. Such data is often collected through personal interviews, where the researcher may explore specific aspects of a problem. On the other hand, quantitative data are those which are mathematical in nature and can be mathematically analysed. The mathematical analysis of quantitative data makes it easier for interpretation and can be more objective than qualitative data. The personal biasness of the researcher

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in interpreting quantitative data would be much less than that in case of qualitative data. Based on the above discussion, this research is a quantitative research involving primary data. The data was collected using a structured questionnaire and mathematically analysed for interpretation. The questionnaire used for the study is included in Appendix I. The questions were selected to capture various aspects of the consumers feelings and behaviour towards Saras as a brand. The questions try to find the demographic profile of the customers, their buying habits in terms of the volume purchased, the type of products purchased. The questionnaire also tries to capture the feelings of the customers along different dimensions of product, pricing, quality etc. which can have a bearing on their perception about the brand. As mentioned earlier, the data was collected from customers across five different areas in Jaipur. For collecting the data, in each area, the researcher visited at least 5 outlets including 2 Saras milk booths, and administered the questionnaire to customers who came and bought at least one dairy item from the shop. On an average response from four customers in each of the retail outlets was collected. Therefore, 25 stores were covered for the study. The data was collected from customers of different stores, so that the differences in the customer profiles may get captured during the data collection process.

Plan of analysis
Most of the questions in the questionnaire had fixed options for the customers to choose their response. There were some questions where the customers had to qualitatively write their responses. For the options which had fixed options, the data analysis involved graphical representation of the distribution of the responses. For representing the data, pie charts were used for their greater visual appeals. Even for the demographic data, pie charts were used to find the distribution of customers on the basis of their age, occupation etc. We did not use any sophisticated mathematical analysis of the data as our objective was just to capture the perception of customers about the brand Saras. The analytical tools were simple percentages of responses, except the last question which captures the customers views across multiple dimensions using a 4 point scale. Hence a different analysis is used for the last question.

Reference period
The research design was a single cross sectional design. Hence only one sample customers was approached for the data collection purpose. The data was collected over a

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period of one month during the last winter. The duration of the research was kept short so that there is no significant change in the consumer behavior which can result from various factors like weather, introduction of new brands, unavailability of certain products etc.

Limitation of the study


Brand perception studies are complex, and involve the study of multiple attributes involving multiple brands. Since perceptions are often with reference to other brands, a perceptual map is used. However, constructing a perceptual map is a complex process using complex statistical tools. Our study did not attempt to develop a perceptual map, but studied the aspect of brand perception for Saras more or less in isolation. However, our study is still relevant as the findings of the study can be relevant for the company to understand if there is a requirement for further studies with respect to competitors. One of the questions in the questionnaire tries to capture the competitor brand that a customer may patronize in absence of Saras. The limitation of the study arises from the limited number of customers who were selected for the study. Considering that Jaipur is a very large city with diverse nature of consumers, the sample chosen may not actually be representative of the entire city. However, in order to avoid any skewness in the data, the researcher identified five different areas within the city which are fairly different in terms of the nature of customers who inhabit these areas. To that extent the selection of customers from different areas improves the degree to which the sample is representative of the population of Jaipur. A third limitation could be due to biasness of the response. At the outset, we had mentioned to the customer that our objective was to understand the brand perception of Saras. This may have led to customers giving a biased response to the questionnaire. Also, the answers to the open ended questions were very difficult to obtain. Therefore, it may have happened that the customers may not have given their right opinions to the questions which required them to write something. Another limitation of the study may have arisen due to the selection of Jaipur as the place of study. Since Saras is headquartered in Jaipur, there is a likelihood that it may have a strong distribution network compared to other brands, and also people may be more familiar with this brand. This may also have impacted the nature of the response that customers gave to the answers to the questions.

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Chapter Scheme
This report is divided into 5 chapters. Chapter 1 gives an introduction of the research by discussing the theoretical background of the study. This chapter also gives a brief historical background on the industry in which the company operates, and operational definitions of the issues which have been studied during this research. This chapter (Chapter 2) discussed the research methodology by explaining the objectives of the study and the choice of appropriate methodology after considering various options. This chapter also outlined the scope of the study and discussed in details the research design issues like sampling, data collection and analysis. The limitations of the study have also been outlined in this chapter. Chapter 3 discusses the profile of the company which has been chosen for the study. This chapter puts into perspective the company studied, and the issues faced by it in the marketplace. Chapter 4 provides an analysis of the findings and the interpretations of the findings. The findings based on the data collected through questionnaires are summarized and the implication of each finding for the company is discussed in this chapter. Finally, the last chapter summarizes the findings and presents the recommendations and conclusions of the study. This chapter is based on the previous chapter.

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Chapter 3 Company Profile

Agriculture still continues to be the major sector in Indian economy. Indian agriculture is based on mixed farming I.e. Crop production through irrigation and rearing livestock. Co-operative dairy grew in the post-independence era on the foundation of co-operation. The demand for milk and milk products continues to rise in our country years after years due to growing incomes of families. To meet the growing

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demand of milk and milk products, there is a need to revamp the country's milk policy and promote manufacture of high quality dairy products.

In the year 1946 the first milk union was established. This union was started with 250 liters of milk per day. In the year 1972 Saras was established. A quality control expert in Jodhpur had suggested the brand name "Saras". Saras products have been in use in millions if homes. Saras Butter, Saras Milk Powder, Saras milk have made a Saras a leading food brand in India. Today Saras is a symbol of many things like of the high-quality products sold at reasonable prices, of the genesis of a vast cocooperative network, of the triumph of indigenous technology, of the marketing savvy of a farmers organization Registered March 1975 Plant commissioned June 1981 APS April 1984 Coverage Jaipur&dausa started with 25DCS Processing facilities (Jaipur diary) transferred in April 1992 APS transferred in April 1997 Plant capacity Initial 1.5LLPD Expanded to 2.5LLPD Further Expanded to 5.00LLPD APS 40TLPD

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Powder Plant Expanded to Chilling centers Initial Present

10 MT/day 15 MT/day

02 07

Today Saras dairy provides liquid milk of four types, names Toned Double toned Standard & Gold (full cream) Various products like ghee, paneer, table butter, chhach, Lassi, shrikhand in the district of Jaipur &Dausa and also contributes grid. Its sale tetra packs milk throughout the country.

The plant is managed and operated by well qualified, competent and experienced, managerial cadre and highly motivated work force to provide highest quality product and best of service to its estimated customers. To further improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the plant performance Jaipur dairy (jaipurZilaDugdhutpadaksahakrisangh LTD., jaipur) had earlier obtained the quality management systems certification as per ISO 9002:1994 in combination with IS: 15000 (HACCP) in the year 2000. Now the dairy has upgraded the system in accordance with ISO: 9001: 2000 in combination with (HACCP) as per IS: 15000: 1998.

ORGANIZATION CHART FOR SARAS DAIRY

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Organization is the structure framework of duties and responsibilities required of personal in performing various within the company. It is essentially a blue-print for action resulting in a mechanism for carrying out function to achieve the goals setup by the company. An organization structure shows the authority and responsibility relationship between various position in the organization and also clarifies who reports to whom. It is a set of planned relationship between groups of related functions and between physical factors. And personnel required for the achievement

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of organizational goals. The organizational structure is generally shown on organization chart. It represent authority relationship between various position in the organization by showing who reports to who me. It is a set of planned relationships between groups of related junctions and between physical factors and personnel required for the achievement of organizational goals. An organizational chart is a diagrammatical form which shows important aspects of an organization including the major function and their respective relationship. It is graphic portrayal of position in the enterprise and of the formal line of accountability among them. It provides a bird eye-view of the relationship between different departments or division of an enterprise as well as the relationship between the executives and the subordinates at various levels. An organization cannot work cutting a detents structure. The first step in designing the structure of an organization is to insetting In Paschimi Rajasthan DughUtpadak SahakariSangh Ltd. The overall management of these cones is under the control of the managing director Mr.R.K. Sangwa. The organization structure chart of this concern is given as under.

Aims& Objectives
The scheme aims to achieve the following objects: To Improve the Social & Financial Status of Milk Producers. To organizing dairy co-operative societies & Producers Marketable surplus milk. To provides remunerative price to milk producers at the door step. To undertake milk production enhancement activities by promoting breeding / feeding and hygienic milk production practices. To undertake training and awareness programmed against milk producers. Market quality processed milk and milk products to the consumers. Development of Co-operative milk procurement system in the rural areas covered under the milk collection routes of the scheme in order to provide raw milk a channel which is more remunerative than the tradition channel of conversion of surplus milk into un-economic ghee. Establishment of milk processing-cum-manufacturing plant for supplying pasteurized milk primarily to Jaipur City.

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Main Tasks And Targets


Targets are defined as goal, which has to be fulfilled and sounds compulsiveness. Without setting target it is difficult for anybody to achieve his/her objective.

The targets that are set for me during the training are:1) To make maximum people aware to Saras. 2) To interview 100 homes to know their views and opinions about Saras products. 3) To conduct a comparative study of the growth of Saras 4) To conduct survey of Saras parlours and booths to know their problems And sort them out. To get feedback from Saras parlours and booths. 5) To get feedback from customers and find their problems, satisfaction Level, take their suggestions and help Saras to implement those Suggestions. 6) To take responses from people who do not use Saras products and find The answer to the question, Why they are not using Saras products. 7) To Learning Technique increase the sale of products.

Operations department
The operations department defines the working of the organization. Processes: The steps for preparation of various products are as follows:

Process of making Ghee


Pasteurizer

Cream separator

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(To separate cream from milk)

Cream Tank (To collect the cream)

Butter Churn (Where the cream is churned to make butter)

Melting Vat (The butter is melted in Melting Vat)

Ghee Kettle (The melted butter boils in ghee kettle)

Packing department (Where the ghee is packed in 1 litre and half litre packs)

Plain Chhach :
This is pasteurized milk which contains 3.1% fat and 8.6 % SNF and acidity 1.08%. This is packed in 500ml packets and supplies to the market for sale.

NamkeenChhach :
In plain chhach various ingredients like 0.6% salt, 0.3% jeera, 0.15%pepper is added to make namkeen chhach and packed in 200 ml and supplies to the market for sale.

Lassi
In plain chhach 12% sugar is added to make lassi and packed in 200 ml packets and

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supplies to the market for sale.

Paneer Segment:
Milk from SILO

Paneer Vat (In this Vat the milk contains FAT 5.0% and SNF 9.0%) The milk boils in paneer vat at 80 degree celcius and 2% citric acid is added in this milk to separate FAT, SNF and water.

Paneer hook (Then curded milk is pressed in panner hooks for 45 minutes, then this paneer is put into chilled water at 5 degree celcius)

Packaging department (Here the paneer is packed in 1kg and 200 gm for sale)

Double Toned Milk


Composition: Fat %(Min.)-1.5 SNF %( Min.)-9.0 Pack Size-1/2 & 1 litre, 5 litres

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Self-Life/best before; 2 days from the date of packing when stored below 8C PRICE- Rs-19.00(litre), Rs 9.50(500ml), 95(5 litre)

Toned Milk
Composition: Fat %(Min.)-3.0 SNF %( Min.)-8.5 Pack Size-1/2 & 1 litre, 5 litres Self-Life/best before; 2 days from the date of packing when stored below 8C PRICE- Rs-21.00(litre), Rs 10.50(500ml), 105(5 litre)

Standard Milk
Composition: Fat %(Min.)-4.5 SNF %( Min.)- 8.5 Pack Size-500ml& 1 litre

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Self-Life/best before; 2 days from the date of packing when stored below 8C PRICE- Rs-23.00(litre), Rs 11.50(500ml)

Taaza
Composition: Fat %(Min.)-3.0 SNF %( Min.)-8.5 Pack Size1 litre Self-Life/best before; 120 days from the date of packing when stored below 8C PRICE- Rs-32.00(litre),

Dahi
Composition: Fat %(Min.)-3.0 SNF %( Min.)-8.5 Pack Size:- 200gm Self-Life/best before; 120 days from the date of packing when stored below 8C PRICE- Rs-8.00(2gm)

Paneer

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Composition: Fat % 50 on dry matters Moisture%( Max.)-60 Pack Size:- 200gm PRICE- Rs-125(1kg), 25(20gm) Self-Life/best before; 15 days from the date of packing when stored below 8C

Chaach
Composition: Fat %(Min.)-2.0 Acidity% (Max): 0.45 Salt: 0.75,T.S.%: 6-7% SNF %( Min.)-8.5 Pack Size-250ML, 500ML, 1 LITERPOUCH Self-Life/best before; 7 days from the date of packing when stored UNDER REFRIGERATION BELOW PRICE- Rs-7.00-500ML

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Specifications for Ice Cream


Fat % 12.0+0.5% (Min 10.0% %Protein (Min)) 3.5% %TS (Min) 36.0% Self-Life/best before; 6 month from the date of packing when stored below 20C

Specifications For Canned Rasgulla


Moisture% by Wt. Min 5.0 Fat5 by wt., Min 5.0 Self-Life/best before; 6 month from the date of packing when stored cool and dry place

Ghee
Composition: Moisture%(Max) 0.3 FFA%(MAX) 0.3 Meets Agmark Standards Pack Size 1liter polypack in duplex board carton 5 liters in tin.

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Self Life / Best before 9 month from date of packing for tin, 6 month for poly pack Price Rs 230 per kg

Cheese
Composition: Fat %( Min) 4 on dry matter basis Moisture %( MAX) 47 Added sales (Max) 2.5 Pack Size 400 gm, in metal cans Self Life / Best Before 12 month from date of packing under refrigeration at 4C.

Lassi
Composition: Fat % (Min) 2.0 Acidity% (Max) 0.5 Added sugar 8-10% T.S% 16-17% Pack Size 250 ml, poly pack Self Life / Best Before 7 Days from date of packing under refrigeration below 8C. Price Rs 7.00 (250ml)

Table Butter
Composition:

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Fat% (Min) 80.0 Moisture% (MAX) 16 Salt 2.3+ .02%, Curd% (Max) 1.0 Meets Agmark Standards Pack Size 100gm, 500gm, Self Life / Best Before 12 month from date of packing under refrigeration below 20C. Price Rs87.00 (500gm), 18.00 (100gm)

Flavored Milk
Composition: Fat %( Min) 1.5 SNF %( Min.)-9.0 Added sugar AND PERMITTED FLAVOURS. Pack Size 200 ml, bottle& Tetra pack FlavoursElaichi, Coffee, Straw Berry & Chocolate. Self Life / Best before 3 month from date of packing Price Rs 11.00 each

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Mawa
Composition: Fat% 30 on dry matter basis. Moisture %(Max) 30-35 Pack Size 200, g m Self Life / Best Before 20 days from the date of packing when stored below 8C.

Types of milk

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Fresh Milk Products of Saras dairy

FUTURE PLANS OF SARAS


Each and every business has its own future plan and its own goal or objective and to achieve it company always does something for it. Future plan is decided by the company very firstly. The Company deciding it in present that what is their future plans? The future plans of the SARAS DAIRY are as under: 1. To achieve top selling rate in all over the Country. 2. To increase the production of auto parts and number of auto parts

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Chapter 4 Data Analysis and Interpretation

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DATA ANALYSIS
Data analysis is one of the important elements of a research study, which allows a researcher to understand what the data which has been collected for a study means, and what conclusions can be drawn from the data. The analysis of data becomes the basis of subsequent interpretation on the basis of which a researcher can make necessary recommendations for future action.

DATA INTERPRETATION
While data analysis can provide a summary of the data, it is important to find the meaning which emerges out of the data analysis. Interpretation is the meaning which a researcher derives from the study. Based on this future direction that a company may take can be understood, and necessary recommendations made. In this chapter, the analysis of the data which have been collected using questionnaires and their interpretations are presented. The data is summarised for all the 100 sets of data which was collected in five different areas in the city of Jaipur. Based on these findings, in a later chapter the specific recommendations have been made for the company, which may help them to plan their marketing activities better. In the following sections, the analysis is presented for each question which has been asked in the questionnaire. Table 3.1 Shows the summary of the respondents based on their gender.

Gender Male Female Analysis

Number 61 39

Percentage 61% 39%

It can be seen from above table that majority of the respondents who buy milk are 61% of the male and 39% are the female who buy the milk. This may be due to the social structure of the country where males are more likely to go out and shop for daily needs product like milk.

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Figure 3.1 Shows the percentage of the respondents on the basis of their gender

39% Male Female 61%

Interpretation It can be seen from the above figure 3.1 that 61 per cent of the respondents were males while only 39 per cent were females. However, the ratio of male to female shoppers for milk in Jaipur is 1.5 is to 1. Table 3.2 Shows the age distribution of the respondents.

Age 18-30 31-40 41-50 51-60 Above 60

Number 26 35 18 11 10

Percentage 26% 35% 18% 11% 10%

Analysis It can be seen from the above table that majority of the respondents 26% were in the age group of 18-30. More than 35 per cent of the shoppers are 31- 40 years of age.

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Respondents 41-50 years of age constitute only 18 percent of the total number of shoppers for milk in Jaipur. The age group of 51-60 consumes 11% of milk from shoppers and above 60 consumes 10% of milk from shoppers. These demographics are important for any firm which markets milk Figure 3.2 Shows the percentage of respondents in each age group.

10% 11% 26% 18-30 31-40 41-50 18% 51-60 Above 60 35%

Interpretation The above figure suggests that most of the buyers of dairy products are between 31 and 40 years of age, and constitute 35 % of the total number of respondents. However, the age group of 60 years and more were the lowest in number at 10 % of the total.

Table 3.3 Shows the distribution of income of the respondents.

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Monthly Income Less than 5000 5,000 to 15,000 15,000 to 30,000 30,000 to 50,000 Above 50,000 Analysis

Number 13 18 17 31 21

Percentage 13% 18% 17% 31% 21%

It can be seen from the above table that 31% of respondents have a monthly income between Rs.30, 000 and Rs.50, 000. Respondents with income less than Rs.5, 000 are 13%. It can also be seen from the above that 18% of proportion of respondents have incomes of Rs.5, 000 to 15,000; and Rs.15, 000 to Rs.30, 000 is 17%. It can be seen from the figure that respondents from all income groups are consumers of milk. 21% of respondents with more than income of Rs.50, 000 monthly consume milk. Figure 3.3 Shows the percentage distribution of income among the people.

21%

13% Less than 5000 18% 5,000 to 15,000 15,000 to 30,000 30,000 to 50,000

31%

Above 50,000 17%

Interpretation The above figure suggests that 31 % of the respondents have income between Rs. 30,000 and Rs. 50,000. However, families with income of Rs5, 000 or less were least in number,

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accounting for 13 per cent of the population. Table 3.4 Shows summary of the number of people in the family for the respondents.

Family Size 1 2 to 3 4 to 5 More than 5 Analysis

Number 15 40 35 10

Percentage 15% 40% 35% 10%

It can be seen from the above table that more than 40% of the households have 2 to 3 members. This suggests that most of the families are nuclear families with a single child. 35 per cent of the families have 4 to 5 members in their families. Around 10% of families have more than 5 members at their house and 15% of the families have 1 member in their house.

Figure 3.4 Shows the percentage breakup of the number of family members that the respondents have.

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10%

15% 1 2 to 3

35% 40%

4 to 5 More than 5

Interpretation It can be seen from the above table that the families with 2 to 3 members constitute the largest proportion of respondents accounting for 40 per cent of the total. However, there are only 10 per cent of the households who have more than 5 members. Table 3.5 Shows the brand which customers regularly buy.

Brand Amul Britannia Mother Dairy Nestle Saras

Number 20 5 13 3 59

Percentage 20% 5% 13% 3% 59%

Analysis It can be seen from the above table that 59% of the customer market consumes Saras regularly. The other most regularly bought brands are Amul and Mother dairy with market share of 20% and 13%. Britannia (5%) and Nestle (3%) are not very popular brands. Saras and Amul together account for nearly 80% of the milk market in Jaipur. Saras, Amul and Mother Dairy account for 13% of the milk purchased in Jaipur.

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Figure 3.5 Shows the percentage breakup of the share of the brands.

20% Amul 5% 59% Britannia Mother Dairy 13% Nestle Saras

3%

Interpretation It can be seen from Figure 3.5 that 59 % of the people buy Saras regularly. However, 3% of the people buy Nestle respectively. It suggests that Saras has the majority market share in the Jaipur market.

Table 3.6 Shows the frequency of purchase of milk by customers

Frequency of Purchase Daily Once on 2 days Whenever needed

Number 74 14 12

Percentage 74% 14% 12%

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Analysis It can be seen from the above table that more than 70% of the respondents purchase milk daily. This may be due to the perishable nature of the milk and the level of consumption by each family. Therefore, the last group buy milk whenever required, which suggests that 14% buys once in two days that comprise of respondents base. Around 12% of respondents buy the milk whenever they required. Figure 3.6 Shows the percentage distribution

12%

14%

Daily Once on 2 days Whenever needed 74%

Interpretation Figure 3.6 shows that nearly three fourth of the total number of respondents (74%) buy milk daily. However, 12% of the customers buy milk whenever they require.

Table 3.7 Shows the distribution of the average daily consumption of milk by the consumers.

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Average daily consumption of milk 1 to 2 litres 3 to 4 litres Less than 1 litre More than 4 litres Analysis

Number 33 27 14 26

Percentage 33% 27% 14% 26%

It can be seen from the above table that 33% of respondents consume 1 to 2 litres of milk per day. Nearly 27% of respondents consume 3 to 4 litres and more than 4 litres of milk. Therefore, respondents consuming more than 4 litres of milk account for 26 per cent of the respondents. Therefore, the average consumption of milk in Jaipur market can be considered as 3 litres per day. No. of respondents consuming less than 1 litre of milk per day is approx.14%.

Figure 3.7 Shows the percentage breakup of the average daily consumption of milk in the families of each of the respondents.

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26%

33%

1 to 2 litres 3 to 4 litres Less than 1 litre

14%

More than 4 litres

27%

Interpretation It should be from the above chart that 33 per cent of the respondents consume 1 to 2 litres of milk, constituting the largest individual segment. However, only 14 % of the respondents consume less than a litre per day. Table 3.8 Shows the brand which consumers would buy if their own regular brand is not available.

Alternate Brand Amul Britannia Mother Dairy Nestle Saras Analysis

Number 33 16 24 4 23

Percentage 33% 16% 24% 4% 23%

It can be seen from the above table that most preferred alternate brand is Amul, and the least preferred alternate brand is Nestle with just 4% respondents base. 33 per cent respondents think that Amul is the most preferred alternate brand of milk that

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respondents are willing to buy, followed by Mother Dairy. Saras, despite having the largest market share, is the third most popular brand among respondents with 23% share. Britannia, which has a very low share of the market, also has a 16% share of respondents willing to buy it as an alternate brand when their regular brand is not available. However, Nestle is the only brand whose share, as an alternate brand is similar to its existing market share of 4%. Thus Nestle is not the brand of popular choice of customers. Figure 3.8 Shows the percentage breakup of the choice of alternate brand by consumers.

23% 33% 4% Amul Britannia Mother dairy Nestle Saras 24% 16%

Interpretation It can be seen from the above chart that Amul is the most preferred brands when the existing brands are not available. 33% of the respondents would buy Amul as the replacement brand to their existing regular brand of milk that they purchase. However, only 4 per cent of the respondents indicated that they would consider buying Nestle. Table 3.9 Shows the amount of effort a respondents would spend to ensure that he gets the brand that he regularly buys. Efforts spent At least two shops Number 59 Percentage 59%

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Buy next day Whatever is available Analysis

17 24

17% 24%

The above table indicates that more than 50% respondents would make significant efforts to buy their regular brand. 24% respondents would consider buying another brand without spending enough efforts to get their regular brand. Nearly three fourth of the total number of respondents would either visit at least two shops to ensure that they get their regular brand, or may even consider buying next day. There are approximately 17% of respondents who would postpone their purchase decision to the next day. This may however be a function of the availability of milk at home. In case the stock of milk at home is exhausted, consumer may be forced to buy the same day and may not be able to postpone the decision. But the fact that they indicate that they would rather postpone the decision to the next day indicates that they are very loyal towards their brand. The efforts that a respondents would spend while seeking the particular brand of milk, indicate the extent of their loyalty to the brands. Thus customer loyalty was measured by trying to understand how much effort that consumers would spend measured in terms of the number of shops they would visit before buying milk, in case their regular brands are not available in the shop where they go to buy their brand.

Figure 3.9 Shows the percentage distribution of the responses.

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24% At least two shops Buy next day 17% 59% Whatever is available

Interpretation It should be from the above chart that 59% of the respondents would visit at least two shops, if the product is not available in the first shop where they went to buy the products. However, 17% would not buy the product at all if it is not available that day, but would buy the product next day.

Table 3.10 Shows the other most frequently purchased product of the same brand Other products Butter Cheese Curd Others Analysis It can be seen from the above table that the brands under the study also offer other products, this study also tried to find out what products other than milk that consumers buy of these brands. A preliminary survey of the market revealed that the most common products which these brands had were butter, cheese and curd with 33%, 21%, 35% respectively. But some brands like Britannia and Nestle had a wider range of products including biscuits and chocolates. Hence 11% of these items were clubbed under the others option. Together these two products account for 68 per cent of the respondents Number 33 21 35 11 Percentage 33% 21% 35% 11%

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who buy products other than milk from the same brand. Figure 3.10 Shows the percentage breakup of the products other than milk which the respondent buys of the same company as their milk.

11% 33%

Butter Cheese

35%

Curd Others

21%

Interpretation It should be from the above chart 35 % of the respondents who buy milk also buy curd of the same brand. However, only 11 % of respondents buy products other than curd, butter or cheese from the companies. Tables 3.11 (A) to 3.11 (D) Show the perception of respondents about various attributes of milk fat content, calcium content, taste and price. Table 3.11(A) shows how customers perceive various brands about the fat content. In this case, the responses of the customers were restricted to the brand of milk that they purchase. The percentage figures indicate the perception of the total population and not the percentage of customers of each brand.

Brand/ Fat Content Amul Britannia Mother Dairy

Number 1 2 10

Low 1% 2% 10%

Number 9 1 3

Medium 9% 1% 3%

Number 10 2

High 10% 2%

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Nestle Saras

26

26%

26

26%

3 7

3% 7%

Interpretation The above table indicates that respondents of Amul consider their brand to have medium to high fat, while customers of Mother Dairy perceive their milk to have low fat content. For Saras, the respondents perceive the brand to have low to medium fat content. Nestle respondents consider their brand to have high fat content, while Britannia customers think that their brand has either low or high fat content. Table 3.9(B) Shows the perception ofrespondents about the calcium content of the milk that they regularly consume. Brand/ Calcium Amul Britannia Mother Dairy Nestle Saras Number Low Number Medium Number High 7 7% 13 13% 3 3% 2 2% 7 7% 2 2% 3 3% 32 32% 17 17%

4 10

4% 10%

Interpretation The above table indicates that customers of Amul perceive their milk to have medium to high calcium content, similar to customers of Saras. Respondents of Mother Dairy perceive the brand to have low to medium calcium content. Britannia and Nestle customers consider their milk to have medium to high calcium content.

Table 3.9(C) Summarises the perception of respondents about the taste of their brand of milk. Brand/ Taste Amul Number 4 Average 4% Number 16 Good 16% Number Poor

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Britannia Mother Dairy Nestle Saras

1 4 11

1% 4% 11%

4 7 3 40

4% 7% 3% 40%

2 8

2% 8%

Interpretation It can be seen from the above table that respondents of each of the brands generally consider the taste of the products that they buy to be good. Only for Saras and Mother Dairy, some of the respondents feel that the taste is poor. For both Amul and Saras, about 20 per cent of the respondents (4 out of 20; and 11 out of 59) consider the taste to be average. Table 11(D) Summarises the perception of respondents about the price of their brand of milk. Brand/ Price Number Average Number Economical Number High Amul 15 15% 4 4% 1 1% Britannia 2 2% 3 3% Mother Dairy 7 7% 6 6% Nestle 1 1% 2 2% Saras 29 29% 30 30% Interpretation It can be seen from the above table that price for most of the brands of milk available in the market are in the similar price range, particularly for branded milk, Table 3.11(D) indicates that the perception about price among the respondents vary. While most of the respondents feel that price of their regular brands are economical or average, some also feel that these prices are high. Buying Situation For understanding how consumers feel about their brands and what motivates them to buy a particular brand, a set of questions were included in the questionnaire about their buying situation and the importance of price in their buying process. The findings are presented below. Table 3.12A Shows percentage of respondents who buy milk on the basis of assured quality. Purchase due to quality assurance Agree Number 70 Percentage 70%

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Disagree Analysis

30

30%

It should be from the above table that majority of the respondents i.e. 70% buy milk because they are assured of the quality. Therefore, what may be of concern is that a significant number (30%) of respondents disagree to the statement. Thus, there is an apprehension in the minds of the respondents about the quality of the brand that they purchase. Figure 3.12A Shows percentage of respondents who buy the milk

30% Agree Disagree 70%

Interpretation It should be from the above chart that 70% of the respondents buy milk because they are assured of the quality of the milk. However, 30% of the respondents buy milk for other reasons.

Table 3.12B Shows the response of the respondents whether they buy the products because of their easy availability. Purchase due to Availability of product Agree Disagree Number 70 30 Percentage 70% 30%

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Analysis It can be seen from the above table that majority (70%) of the respondents purchase milk due to their availability. Therefore, availability can be an important figure to induce customers to buy milk. As a result, firms may focus on their distribution network to reachout to maximum number of customers. Figure 3.12B Shows the percentage breakup of the responses

30%

Agree Disagree 70%

Interpretation It can be seen from the above chart that 70 per cent of the respondents buy milk because of their availability, while for 30 per cent availability is not an issue. The latter group may be more brands loyal as they may not seek convenience to purchase their brand of milk. Table 3.12C Shows the responses of respondents about whether they buy other products along with milk of a particular brand. Buy other products of the same brand Agree Disagree Number 49 51 Percentage 49% 51%

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Analysis It can be seen from the above table that the more respondents disagree (51%) than agree (49%) to this question. Therefore, the loyalty of the customers may be more towards the milk rather than the company brand. One of the characteristics of the Dairy industry is that all the companies manufacture a number of products. For some companies, milk may be the main product, and they add other products around this main product. Other products may include butter, cheese, icecreams etc. For some companies, the main product could be something other than milk, but they also produce milk to complete the product range. For a brand to get maximum benefit, it should induce customers to buy all its products.

Figure 3.12C Shows the percentage break-up of the responses.

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49% 51%

Agree Disagree

Interpretation It can be seen from the above chart that 51 per cent of the respondents do not buy other products from the same company. However, 49 per cent of the respondents regularly buy other products of the same brand. Table 3.12D shows the consideration of price as a factor for decision making Importance of Price Agree Disagree Analysis It can be seen from the above table that the price is an important consideration for respondents when buying milk, as 70% of the respondents disagree with the statement that When I buy milk, I am not bothered about price. This is an important result, as it indicates that price can be an important attribute of the product. Thus, a strong brand alone cannot sustain in the market if its pricing is not appropriate. The fact that 30 percent of the respondents do not consider price during their purchase decision of milk, indicates that they may be loyal to the brand that they buy and can consider buying them even if the prices are higher than competitor brands. This suggests that branding is an important activity for milk marketing firms. Yet, for majority, price is an important factor. Number 30 70 Percentage 30% 70%

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Figure 3.12D Shows the percentage breakup of the responses.

30% Agree Disagree 70%

Interpretation It should be from the above chart that 70% of the respondents, price is an important consideration for buying milk. However, 30% of the respondents do not consider price while buying milk.

Table 3.12E Shows the views of the respondents about switching their existing brand. Not easily switch existing brand Agree Disagree Analysis It can be seen from the above table that significant proportion of respondents (69%) indicates that they are not likely to switch brands. This may suggest that the consumers of milk are brand loyal. They may not easily switch to other brands. For a company the best thing that it can expect is that consumers continue to buy their products. To study the extent to which consumers would continue to buy their existing product, this next question tried to understand their intention to switch brands, which can result from many factors. A consumer with a strong loyalty towards a brand may require Number 69 31 Percentage 69% 31%

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strong inducement for making a switch of brands. However, customers who are not loyal may easily switch from one brand to another. The findings of the study indicate that majority of the customers are not willing to switch their brand indicating that brand loyalty in this category is high. For milk marketing companies, high loyalty is beneficial. Therefore, they may have to develop their marketing strategy to convert the remaining 31% of the respondents from brand switchers to brand loyal customers. Since their numbers are significant, it may benefit the milk marketing companies to work on building brand loyalty among these people. Figure 3.12E Shows the views of the respondents about switching their existing brand.

31% Agree Disagree 69%

Interpretation From the above figure, it can be seen that 69 per cent of the respondents would not easily switch their brands. However, 31% of the respondents can easily switch their brands.

Table 3.13 Shows the views of the respondents about switching their existing brand. if the prices are increased by more than Rs.3 per litre. Switch brand if price increases by Rs.3 Yes No Number 62 38 Percentage 62% 38%

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Analysis It can be seen from the above table that more than 60% of the people would switch brands if the price of their existing brand is increased by more than Rs. 3 per litre. This finding, when compared to the previous questions about price consideration during purchase and brand switching intention, suggests that if prices increase significantly customers may switch brands. This indicates that there is a threshold of price up to which a consumer may not be price sensitive and would be brand loyal. Beyond this threshold, the economic considerations may be more significant contributors to their decision making. However, in this case the assumption here is that the prices of the other brands would either remain unchanged or would have an increase in price which is lower than Rs. 3. The results also indicate that there are large proportions i.e. 38% of the respondents who may not switch their brands even if there is a rise of Rs. 3 in the prices of their product brands. This group of respondents are likely to bring maximum benefit to the dairy brands.

Figure 3.13 Shows the percentage breakups

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38% Yes No 62%

Interpretation Figure 3.14 indicate that 62 per cent respondents would switch brands if prices increase by Rs. 3 per litre. However, 38 percent of the respondents would still continue to buy their current regular brand of milk despite an increase in price of Rs. 3. Table 3.14 Shows the way consumers buy milk. Place/ Mode of Purchase Daily home delivery Milk booth Nearby store Analysis The above table indicates that majority of 48% of the respondents prefer to have a regular supplier who delivers the milk at home on a daily basis. The reasons for this may be because of convenience and the payment at the end of the month. However, a majority of the customers go out in the market to buy milk. Among the market outlets, 30% respondents prefer to have from milk booths because they are more popular destinations for purchase of milk as compared to local shops. 22% of the respondents prefer to have milk from nearby store. Chart 3.14 Shows the way consumers buy milk. Number 48 30 22 Percentage 48% 30% 22%

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22% Daily home delivery Milk booth Nearby store 30%

48%

Interpretation It should be from the above chart that 48 per cent of the respondents like their milk to be home delivered every day. However 22% of the respondents buy milk from local shops. Table 3.15 Shows the summary of the findings.
Attribute/ Brand Quality Fat content Taste AMUL Saras 8.3 4.6 7.9 5.6 5.3 8.2 Mother Dairy 6.5 6.8 5.1 Britannia 5.9 7.1 6.4 Nestle 7.2 3.6 9

Analysis Table 3.15 shows that in terms of quality, Amul scores the highest, while Saras scores the lowest. In terms of fat content, Britannia scores the highest while Nestle scores the lowest. In terms of taste Nestle scores the highest, while Mother Dairy scores the lowest. Therefore, Amul has stronger overall perception over Saras. However, none of the brands have higher score over other brands across all the three attributes. Figure 3.15 Shows the summary of the findings.

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10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 AMUL Saras Mother Dairy Brand Britannia Nestle

Score

Quality Fat content Taste

Interpretation As shown in the above figure 3.15, in terms of Quality the top three brands are Amul, Nestle and Mother Dairy. The score of Saras is the lowest. In terms of Fat content the highest score is that of Britannia followed by Mother Dairy and Saras. In terms of taste, the top three brands are Nestle, Saras and Amul.

Table 3.16 Shows the breakup of respondents who are using or have used Saras products. Used Saras brands Yes No Analysis Table 3.16 indicates that there is a very strong awareness about the Saras brand, with majority of 95% of the respondents having used some or the other product of Saras. 5% of the respondents say no to the use of Saras product. Figure 3.16 Shows the break-up of respondents Number 95 5 Percentage 95% 5%

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5%

Yes No

95%

Interpretation It can be seen from the above chart that 95 per cent of the respondents have used Saras products. However, there are still 5 percent respondents who have not used any products of Saras. Table 3.17 Shows the products wise respondents, who have purchased products of Saras Product Milk Curd Butter Ghee Number 72 13 9 6 Percentage 72% 13% 9% 6%

Analysis It can be seen from the above table that majority (72%) of the respondents people buy or have bought milk of the Saras brand. This indicates that milk is the most popular product or Saras. The other products of the brand like curd, butter, ghee are not as popular as milk as they account for 13%, 9%, and 6% of the products that respondents have purchased of the product.

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Figure 3.17 Shows the products wise respondents

6% 9% Milk 13% Curd Butter Ghee 72%

Interpretation It should be from the above chart that 72 per cent of the respondents, who are aware of Saras or have bought its products, buy or have bought milk. However, only 6 per cent of the respondents have bought Saras brand ghee. Table 3.18 Shows quality of Products from Saras Good quality Yes No Analysis The above table indicates that the quality perception about Saras is almost equally divided among respondents who consider it to have good quality (52%) and those who think that quality is lacking (48%). This may be a major concern area for Saras. Although the brand seems to have a leadership position in the Jaipur market, it may lose its leadership if it is not able to improve the quality perception in the mind of the respondents. Figure 3.18 shows quality of Products from Saras Number 52 48 Percentage 52% 48%

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48% 52%

Yes No

Interpretation It should be from the above chart that 52% of the respondents feel that Saras products have good quality. However, a significant 48 % of respondents feel that the products are not of good quality. Table 3.19 Shows availability of Saras Products Availability of Saras Good Average Poor Number 80 18 2 Percentage 80% 18% 2%

Analysis The product availability for Saras is very high, with a majority of 80% the respondents considering product availability to be good to average of 18%. When analysed with respect to question number 12, this is a significant advantage for Saras. 2% find availability of Saras product is poor. Figure 3.19 Shows availability of Saras Products

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90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Good Average Poor Number

Interpretation The above figure indicates that 80 per cent of the respondents believe that the availability of Saras is good. However, only 2 percent of respondents believe that the availability of product is poor.

Table 3.20Performance of Saras ATTRIBUTE POOR PRICE SWEETNESS X PACKAGING SCHEMES X AVAILABILITY AVERAGE X X X GOOD EXCELLENT

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Analysis It can be seen from the above table that the overall performance of Saras on five attributes indicate that in terms of sweetness and schemes the brand performance is poor, while in terms of price and packaging its score is average. The only attribute where it scores the highest is in terms of availability. This suggests that the distribution n network for Saras is very good.

Chapter 5
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Summary of Findings Suggestions and Conclusion

Summary of findings
After The complete analysis and interpretation of data summary would be as follow: 1. It was found from the study that 61 per cent of the respondents were males while only 39 per cent were females. However, the ratio of male to female shoppers for milk in Jaipur is 1.5 is to 1. 2. The study reveals that most of the buyers of dairy products are between 31 and 40

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years of age, and constitute 35 % of the total number of respondents. However, the age group of 60 years and more were the lowest in number at 10 % of the total. 3. It was found from the study that 31 % of the respondents have income between Rs30, 000 and Rs.50, 000. However, families with income of Rs5, 000 or less were least in number, accounting for 13 per cent of the population. 4. It was found from the study that the families with 2 to 3 members constitute the largest proportion of respondents accounting for 40 per cent of the total. However, there are only 10 per cent of the households who have more than 5 members 5. The study reveals that 59 % of the people buy Saras regularly. However, 3% of the people buy Nestle respectively. It suggests that Saras has the majority market share in the Jaipur market. 6. The study reveals that nearly three fourth of the total number of respondents (74%) buy milk daily. However, 12% of the customers buy milk whenever they require. 7. It was found from the study that 33 per cent of the respondents consume 1 to 2 litres of milk, constituting the largest individual segment. However, only 14 % of the respondents consume less than a litre per day. 8. The study shows that Amul is the most preferred brands when the existing brands are not available. 33% of the respondents would buy Amul as the replacement brand to their existing regular brand of milk that they purchase. However, only 4 per cent of the respondents indicated that they would consider buying Nestle. 9. It was found from the study that 59% of the respondents would visit at least two shops, if the product is not available in the first shop where they went to buy the products. However, 17% would not buy the product at all if it is not available that day, but would buy the product next day. 10. The study shows that 35 % of the respondents who buy milk also buy curd of the same brand. However, only 11 % of respondents buy products other than curd, butter

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or cheese from the companies. 11. It was found from the study that 70% of the respondents buy milk because they are assured of the quality of the milk. However, 30% of the respondents buy milk for other reasons. 12. The study reveals that 70 per cent of the respondents buy milk because of their availability, while for 30 percent availability is not an issue. The latter group may be more brands loyal as they may not seek convenience to purchase their brand of milk. 13. It was found from the study that 51 per cent of the respondents do not buy other products from the same company. However, 49 per cent of the respondents regularly buy other products of the same brand. 14. The study shows that 70% of the respondents, price is an important consideration for buying milk. However, 30% of the respondents do not consider price while buying milk. 15. The study reveals that 69 per cent of the respondents would not easily switch their brands. However, 31% of the respondents can easily switch their brands. 16. It was found from the study that 62 per cent respondents would switch brands if prices increase by Rs.3 per litre. However, 38 per cent of the respondents would still continue to buy their current regular brand of milk despite an increase in price of Rs.3. 17. It was found from the study that 48 per cent of the respondents like their milk to be home delivered every day. However 22% of the respondents buy milk from local shops. 18. The study reveals that the top three brands are Amul, Nestle and Mother Dairy. The score of Saras is the lowest. In terms of Fat content the highest score is that of Britannia followed by Mother Dairy and Saras. In terms of taste, the top three brands are Nestle, Saras and Amul.

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19. It was found that 95 per cent of the respondents have used Saras products. However, there are still 5 percent respondents who have not used any products of Saras. 20. It was found from the study that 72 per cent of the respondents, who are aware of Saras or have bought its products, buy or have bought milk. However, only 6 per cent of the respondents have bought Saras brand ghee. 21. The study shows that 52% of the respondents feel that Saras products have good quality. However, a significant 48 % of respondents feel that the products are not of good quality. 22. It was found from the study that 80 per cent of the respondents believe that the availability of Saras is good. However, only 2 per cent of respondents believe that the availability of product is poor.

Suggestions
The findings of the study indicate that Saras is a leader in the Jaipur market for milk, with a share of 59 per cent. However, there are certain aspects of the product which are not favourably viewed by customers. Some of the actions that Saras should take in order to maintain its lead over others are discussed below: 1. The consumers perception about the quality of the brand needs to be improved. It appears that Amul is the brand which scores high on different parameters of quality over Saras. This perception has to be changed. To do this company can undertake a media campaign, educating people about the quality of its products.

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2. While Saras is strong with its milk, its other products are not very popular among consumers, except dahi. Therefore, the company needs to also try and promote other products along with its milk. 3. One of the strong points of the brand is its availability. The company should further strengthen its distribution network to ensure that the products are easily available to customers. 4. Some of the specific aspects that the brand should work on are taste, price and packaging. It can also consider launching some schemes for customers.

Conclusion
The dairy industry is a highly competitive industry, with state milk cooperative companies as well other national and international brands competing in the marketplace. While milk is still constitutes a major share of the products sold by these companies, there are other value added products which these marketers are offering in the marketplace to increase their revenues and also offering a wide range of products to customers. The Jaipur market is quite competitive with brands like Saras, Amul and Mother Dairy accounting for more than 90 per cent of the market. Saras is the state level milk marketing company, which enjoys a leadership position in the marketplace, with major share of the market. However, there are some issues which came out as a result of this study, which the firm must address to ensure that it is able to maintain its position. However, in terms of price, it is perceived as average priced. One of

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the major advantages that Saras enjoys over its competitors is its strong distribution network, which ensures easy availability. The brand perception study is very important for Saras, as it gives the company the opportunity to evaluate how consumers perceive it across various attributes. For example, the high market share of the company may give the feeling that consumers are happy with the product. But, study of other aspects revealed that the perception of its quality is poor. This is one of the reasons why customers do not prefer to buy other products from Saras, which is not so in case of Amul and Mother Dairy. As we know that Saras is a very big organization and market leader in dairy products. It has maximum market share in milk, as we know Saras is a co-operative organization, with the help of research, company can find out its week points in dairy products and can increase its quality through rectify mistakes. People have believed in Saras product and they will accept.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Reference Books
Marketing management-Philip kotler Marketing Management in Indian perspective- jha & Singh Pamphlets and information from SARAS Dairy Learning % observation from SARAS Dairy

Website
1. http://www.marketresearch.com 2. http://www.dairy.com

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3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/dairyindustry 4. http://www.sarasmilkfed.rajasthan.gov.in/index.aspx 5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Research_design

ANNEXURES

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Questionnaire
I am a student of Jain University, Bangalore. I have undertaken an academic study to understand the Brand Perception for Saras Dairy among customers in Jaipur. I would request you to spend a few minutes to answer the questions that follow. This study is for purely academic purposes. Please select the appropriate options among the given choices Name: .. Gender: [a] Male [b] Female

Age: [a] 18-30 [b] 31-40 [c] 41-50 [d] 51-60 [e] Above 60

Monthly Income: [a] <5,000 [b] 5,000-15,000 [c] 15,000-30,000 [d] 30,000-50,000 [e] Above 50,000

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Family Size: [a] 1 (single) [b] 2-3 [c] 4-5 [d] More than 5

1) What brand of milk do you buy regularly? [a] Amul [b] Saras [c] Mother Dairy [d] Britannia [e] Nestle

2) What is the frequency of your purchase of milk? [a] Daily [b] Once in two days [d] Whenever there is a need

3) What is the average consumption of milk in your house per day? [a] Less than a liter [b] 1-2 liters [c] 3-4 liters [d] More than 4 liters

4) If the brand that you regularly buy is not available, which is the next choice of milk that you would buy? [a] Amul [b] Saras [c] Mother Dairy [d] Britannia [e] Nestle

5) Before deciding to buy another brand of milk, how many stores would you enquire before making the decision? [a] Buy whatever is available in the store [b] At least two shops [c] Buy the next day

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6) From the brand(s) that you regularly buy milk, what other productsdo you also buy? [a] Butter [b] Ghee specify)_______________ [c] Curd [d] Cheese [e] Others (Please

7)Please tick the appropriate box against each attribute for your existing brand of milk. Fat content [a] Low [b] Medium [c] High Calcium content [a] Low [b] Medium [c] High Taste [a] Poor [b] Average [c] Good Price [a] High [b] Average [c] Economical 8) Please tick the appropriate option against each of the sentences which describe your buying situation for milk and other products of the brand that you buy [a] I am assured of good quality when I buy the products [b] I buy because the products are easily available [c] I buy the same brand of milk and other products [d] When I buy milk, I am not bothered about price [e] I will not easily switch my brand of milk [Agree] [Agree] [Agree] [Agree] [Agree] [Disagree] [Disagree] [Disagree] [Disagree] [Disagree]

9) If youre preferred brand of milk decides to increase the price by more than Rs. 3 per liter, would you switch to another brand? [a] Yes [b] No

10) Where do you buy your milk from ?

[a] Milk booth [b] Store near to my house independent owners of cows/ buffalos

[c] delivery boy delivers daily at homes [d]

11) On the following attributes please compare the various brands of milk which is available in the market, by scoring them on a scale of 1 to 10, where 10 indicates the highest score along a particular attribute. If you have not tried any of the products, you may give

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your scores based on your perception of the brand. Attribute/ Brand Quality Fat content Taste AMUL Saras Mother Dairy Britannia Nestle

12) Do you use Saras Products? [a] Yes [b] No

13) If yes, which products do you use? [a] Milk [b] Butter [c] Dahi [d] Ghee [e] Others

14) Do you think Saras products are of good quality? [a]Yes [b] No

15) How would you rate the availability of Saras products? [a] Poor [b] Average [c] Good

16) Please rate SARAS Products, based on your perception of the brand, across various criteria in the table below. ATTRIBUTE POOR AVERAGE GOOD EXCELLENT

PRICE

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SWEETNESS PACKAGING SCHEMES AVAILABILITY

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