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Unit- 1. Definition, need and importance of organisational behaviour- nature and scope- frame work – organisational behaviour models. What Managers Do Manager: Individuals who achieve goals through other people. Managerial Activities • • • Make decisions Allocate resources Direct activities of others to attain goals
Where Managers Work A consciously coordinated social unit composed of two or more people that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals. Management Functions
Management Functions Planning: A process that includes defining goals, establishing strategy, and developing plans to coordinate activities.
Organizing: It determining what tasks are to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are tp be grouped, who reports to whom and where decisions are to be made. Leading: A function that includes motivating employees, directing others, selecting the most effective communication channels, and resolving conflicts. Controlling Monitoring activities to ensure they are being accomplished as planned and correcting any significant deviations. Mintzberg‟s Managerial Roles
Definition - Organisational Behaviour. OB is a systematic study of the actions and reactions of individuals, groups and subsystems. O.B. is the systematic study and careful application of knowledge about how people- as individuals and as members of groups –act within organizations. It strives to identify ways in which people can act more effectively. O.B. is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups and structures have on behaviour within organizations for the purpose of applying such knowledge towards improving an organization‟s effectiveness. O.B. is the study and understanding of individual and group behaviour, patterns of structure in order to help improve organizational performance and effectiveness. Bases of Organizational Behaviour
1. Psychology: The science or study of individual human behaviour 2. Sociology: The study of group human behaviour 3. Social Psychology: Studies influences of people on one another 4. Anthropology: Study of the human race, and culture 5. Political Science: Behaviour of individuals in political environment.
The Collegial Model. The Custodial Model 3. Challenges of OB 1. The Autocratic Model 2. Responding to Globalisation  . The Supportive Model 4.Models of Organisational Behaviour 1.
 . Creating a positive work environment 8. Personality – types-factors influencing personality-theories.cost labour v) Managing people during the war on terror 2. Managing workforce Diversity i. Perceptions . Improving customer service 5.measurement. Embracing diversity Changing demographics 3. people or events.i) Increased foreign assignments ii) Working with People from different cultures iii) Coping with anticapitalism backlash. Improving ethical behaviour ********* Unit – 2.theories. Emotions emotional labour .formation.types – effects on work behaviour.organisational behaviour modification.components .importance .learning theories. Attitudes – characteristics . It may be defined as a tendency to feel and behave in a particular way towards object. ATTITUDES - Personality describer the whole person & Attitude determiner the personality. Improving quality and productivity 4. Working in networked organisations 7.factors influencing perception interpersonal perception. Attitude is a state of mind of an individual towards something. It remains unchanged for a long period of time unless he is influenced by External forces.emotional intelligence . iv) Overseeing movement of jobs to countries with low.importance. ii. Motivation.learning-types of learners – the learning process. Stimulating innovation and changes 6.
respects or fears. Sources of Attitudes: Attitudes are gained from parents.Individual may have a member of attitude regarding different aspects of life. . BEHAVIOURAL – intention is a verbal indication or typical behavioural tendency of an individual. Behaviour.response is an emotional response that expresses an individual‟s degree of preference for an entity. For an example: from heart. Companies commit with popular personalities. Feelings and beliefs held by an Individual. Such as leading actors. But field of OB focus only on the study of job-related attitudes. “C” component include the beliefs. teachers & members of the peers group. Heredity also determines his personality & attitudes. 1 by pervading new Information by involving people in problem solving.my job is interesting). Individuals are more willing to modify their behaviour & shape their attitude to correct with the behaviour of people whom they look up to. Affect. such endorsement helps develop a positive attitude towards their products among the public. Ex: if person does not like a certain aspect way of job he is said to have a Negative attitude towards the assignment. Three components .- - Attitude is evaluative statements that can be either favourable or unfavourable. The child begins his schooling & Interacts with people. and Cognition AFFECTIVE. (From brain. (Intention to act I am going to get to work early with a smile on my face) COGNITIVE response is a cognitive evaluation of the entity that constitutes an individual‟s beliefs about the object. Ex: Organisation helps to understand the competitive threats the org facing & makes them realize the needs for change & organ development Both positive & negative Types of Attitudes: . opinions and information the person has about the object of the attitude. A component is the person‟s emotions or feelings about object of that attitude. Way in which an individual organize his perceptions & cognitions attaches to a particular thing.ABC Model.  . his attitudes are influenced by people whom he admires. cricket players. It can be changed by various means. I love my job.Focus on 3 Attitudes.
Ex: Salary power compare to his friends – high satisfaction . Job satisfaction is an emotional response to a job. Working conditions: Good working conditions have a positive impact on job satisfaction.  . Supervision: Employee whose supervision offers him technical help & behavioural support in times of need will experience more satisfaction in his job. This response can be inferred.Smith. Pay: If the compensation he receives for the work he does is comparable to that of others in similar jobs in the organise employee have a positive Attitude.C. there are 6 job dimensions that represent the most important characteristics of a job. Refers to an individual‟s general attitude towards his or her job. Co-workers: Employee will experience a higher level of job satisfaction when his follow workers are cooperative & able to offer him technical Assistance. Job Satisfaction is that an Individual driven from his job depends on the extent to which outcomes meet his expectations.Moderate . Job satisfaction Job involvement Organizational commitment. As the positive emotional state that results when an individual evaluates his job or job experience. 3 dimensions of job satisfaction. Job satisfaction reflects others attitude of employees. Promotion opportunities: Level of satisfaction will higher in a job that provides him on opportunity to move up in the organisational hierarchy than in a job. Job satisfaction: Important widely study of attitudes. The work itself: Jobs include interesting tasks & provide opportunities to the employees to learn & to shoulder responsibilities bring more satisfaction.Low level of satisfaction Determinate of job satisfaction: According to P.
But will reduce the rate of turnover.  . They also showed enthusiasm in learning job related tasks. The outcomes of job satisfaction by studying the relationship b/w job satisfaction & various other organizational aspects such as productivity turnover absents etc. Satisfaction & turnover:Moderate relationship b/w high job satisfaction will not eliminate employee turnover. Satisfied employees are help fellow employees customers & other people in society by undertaking social activities. incentives that leads to increase in productivity.S. These relationships are. Other effects of jobs satisfaction: Employees who are highly satisfied with their jobs have low stress level have less on the job accidents [mistakes] & fewer grievances. Want to know whether job dissatisfaction would lead to decline in employee output & consequently organisational performance. Suggest. Dissatisfied employee encourage switching organisation at the slightest opportunities for better prospects in other organisations. - Satisfaction & productivity:Assume positive relationship b/w satisfaction & performance. These are other mediating variable like rewards.Outcomes of job satisfaction: Find out the impact of employee job satisfaction on organisational effectiveness. & considers that his performance in the job contributes to his self-worth. It does result in an overall improvement in organisational performance. Economic dooming even satisfied employee also may leave their organisation seek better prospects. Of yrs an employee‟s has worked in a job in an organisation] another factor that impact on turnover. & vice versa. The satisfied employees will consider several aspects before leaving the organisation. Job involvement:New concept in field of ob refers to the extent to which a person identifies himself psychologically with his job actively participates in it.Other variables such as the extent to which people consider their jobs important have an impact on absenteeism. But there is no strong relationship b/w this factor. - Satisfaction & Absenteeism: [inverse relationship] A high level of J. Job tenure [no. . leads to low absenteeism. The employee who felt that their jobs were important took less more than other types. satisfaction may not bring about considerable improvement in individual performance.
Who are highly committed is a strong supporter of the values & goals of the organisation and he want to strive hard to achieve the goals of the organisation. Work hard to levels of job involvement lead to lower absenteeism & employee turnover levels. Affective commitment:. commitments such as the job market & the opportunities for career options available to the employee.Employees who are highly involved with their jobs strongly identify themselves with the kind of work they do & strive to deliver quality work.traits Personality Determinants  .” Personality is measurable . Attitude towards his job Organisation variables include: Job design & the leadership style of a superior. Personal variables include: Employee‟s age No. 3 components model for understand multidimensional nature of org.Org. Of yrs he is working. .Refers to an employee‟s satisfaction with a particular organisat ion & its goals. Commitment of an employee is affected by a numbers of personal & organisational variables. Organisational commitment:.” “It is the sum total of ways an individual reacts to and interacts with others. Continuance commitment:Influence by the costs that could accuse to the employee if he leaves the organisation.Concerned with employees emotional attachment & involvement with the organisation. Commitment. Personality Albert Gordon “Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychological system that determines his unique adjustment to his environment. Normative commitment:Refers to the extent to which an employee feels obligated to continue in the organisation. Sometimes non-organisation factors influence org.
 .Personality Traits The Big Five Model Extroversion Agreeableness Conscientiousness Emotional stability Openness to experience The Big Five Model & OB High relation with job performance Conscientiousness leads to high level of job knowledge.
Extroverts are good sales persons. god. Psychoanalytic Theory 4. Self Theory Personality Attributes influencing OB 1. Trait Factor Theory 3. or powerful others)? Internals – they control what happens to them Externals – controlled by outside forces (lady luck to chance. Locus of Control Internals Vs Externals Absenteeism Turnover Job satisfaction Job performance Locus of Control – one‟s perception as to where is his locus of control. THEORIES ON PERSONALITY 1. Type Theories 2. The concept was developed originally Julian Rotter in the 1950s. Do you believe that your destiny is controlled by yourself or by external forces (such as fate. High on agreeableness makes a person good team player. fate) Research has found the following trends: Males tend to be more internal than females  . People are good and quick learners if they are high on openness. Socio-psychological Theory 5.
Machiavellianism High Machs Pragmatic. Overly internal people who lack competence. anxious and depressed. it‟s important to warn people viewing notion that internal is good and external is bad (two legs well. win more Do high Machs make good employees? Type of job Bargaining Less rules and regulations 3. four legs bad?). Externals can lead easy-going. In other words. There are important complexities to be considered. efficacy and opportunity can become neurotic. internals need to have a realistic sense of their circle of influence in order to experience 'success'. An internal orientation usually needs to be matched by competence. manipulative Emotional distance. persuade others Believes in ends can justify means. relaxed.As people get older they tend to become more internal People higher up in organizational structures tend to be more internal However. happy lives. 2. Self Esteem High on Self Esteem • • • Expectations for success Possess ability for success Willing to take risks  . For example: Internals can be psychologically unhealthy and unstable. self-efficacy and opportunity so that the person is able to successfully experience the sense of personal control and responsibility.
Risk Taking Person ability / willingness to take risk • • Decision making quick Specific to jobs (stocks) (accounts) A & B Types of Personality Type „A‟ Always moving. how many. how much they have achieved Type „B‟ Never suffer from a sense of time urgency Feel no need to display/discuss their achievements unless required Play for fun /relaxation  .• • Do not seek approval from others on their capabilities High on Job Satisfaction 4. Self Monitoring High on SE • • • • • Expectations for success Possess ability for success Willing to take risks Do not seek approval from others on their capabilities High on Job Satisfaction 5. walking & eating fast Feel impatient Strive to do two or more things at once Cannot cope with leisure time Obsessed with number.
economist. stable. news reporter  . organizing. farmer machine/drill Investigative Thinking. persistent. operator. Analytical. genuine. practical Mechanic. Biologist. mathematician. original independent curious. Can relax without guilt Type „A‟ Suffer high level of stress Quantity over quality Time pressure/deadlines Rarely creative Poor decision makers Behavior is easier to predict Type „B‟ Difficult to predict behavior Good decision makers Quality of work No compromise on health Wiser than hasty Creative / innovative solutions to same problem Personality-Job Fit TYPE CHARCTERISTICS OCCUPATION Realistic Prefers physical activities Shy. conforming.
musicians. rule regulator Conforming. Painter.understanding Social Helping and developing others Sociable. PR Artistic Ambiguous expression allow creative Imaginative. Lawyer. clinical psychologist Conventional Orderly. inflexible efficient. real estate. counselor. corporate manager Enterprising Influence power others and attain Self-confident. friendly. Emotions in OB are influenced by two factors Myth of rationality Mostly emotions are viewed as negative  .Work place or everyday life. energetic ambitious. teacher. idealistic disorderly. we are driven by emotions. decorator interior Emotions Emotions play a very crucial role in the formation of behavior patterns. You are angry Or pleased. Accountant. cooperative Social worker. file clerk. bank teller.
Reactions Object specific Emotions can turn into moods Emotional labor An OB concept every employee puts in their Physical labor Mental labor Emotional labor – employee displays desired (organizational) emotions.Affect – Emotions – Mood!! Affect – range of feelings which encompass emotions & moods. cricketer etc) Emotions Felt emotions Actual feelings In-born Natural response Displayed emotions emotion exhibited desired. Emotions – intense feelings that are directed towards someone or something. doctors. Almost all jobs require high emotional labor (customer dealing. pilots service jobs. learned How do you fall victim to office politics is mostly a difference between felt & displayed emotions?  . organizational requirements. Moods – feelings which are less intense than emotion and is not directed towards anything. sales.
fear. surprise. Being neutral is being emotionless Emotions dimensions Variety Dozens of emotions Positive & negative Six universal emotions (continuum) Emotions are happiness. sadness. anger. sports. A variety of emotions are displayed at work place Intensity Some people hardly express emotions Some people are always ecstatic Job requirement also determines the intensity Emotions displayed by services jobs vs lawyers.Emotions are never neutral. etc Frequency & duration How often and for how long a emotion is exhibited/exist Some jobs demand show of an emotion more frequently and also for a longer period of time political leaders/workers and HR personnel  . disgust.
Women are socially brought up like that. 3. Women have inborn ability to read & understand others‟ emotions. Men are required to hide their emotions 2. Need for social approval is higher for women Emotional constraints Organizational Influences Though no „list‟ of emotions is there for organizations Some organizations laid out display of certain emotions Expression of negative emotions is discouraged Cultural Influences Understand the cultural value for emotions Different cultures read one emotion differently  .Emotion-free Humans cannot be emotion-free Can hide the emotions where situation requires Alexithymia (lack of emotions) A disease where person can not express emotions at all Uncomfortable for others as well as self Appropriate for jobs where working in isolation is required Gender & Emotions Men Vs women Women are more emotional They react with emotions very easily They also understand/read emotions of others Three factors count: 1.
lose patience to analyze the pros & cons People experiencing positive emotions are good decision makers.OB applications An understanding of emotions can help us predicting a number of processes in an organizations: Ability and selection Person who can read own and others emotions has found to be a good performer This is called EI (emotional intelligence) EI enables us to cope with stress and pressures EI is a factor in selection of employees Emotional Intelligence EI is composed of five dimensions Self-awareness (what you‟re feeling) Self-management (manage the feelings) Self-motivation (go on with -ve emotions) Empathy (feel how others are feeling) Social skills (handle emotions of others) Decision making Emotionally charged people make poor decisions. Problem solving skills are sharpened Motivation People with high motivation are emotionally committed to their work/project. hence negative emotions can be displayed  . Involvement with the job generates positive emotions Discouragement leads to low motivation level.
envy. Maslow saw human needs in the form of a hierarchy. and he concluded that when one set of needs is satisfied. Deviant workplace behaviors Actions which violate norms and threaten members or organizations. such actions are called employee deviance These action scan be violent or non-violent. back stabbing.Leadership Leader rely a lot on expression of feelings by themselves They also read and understand others‟ emotions to be a better leader. ascending from the lowest to the highest. Theories of Motivation Meaning of Motivation: A motivation is one’s willingness to push up efforts to accomplish some specific goals. etc. As per his theory this needs are :  . a manager is supposed to keep an eye on emotional content of it. this kind of need ceases to be a motivator. Definition: Motivation is a process that starts with a physiological or psychological deficiency or need that activates behaviour or a drive that is aimed at a goal or incentive. Theories of Motivation: 1) Abraham Maslow‟s “Need Hierarchy Theory” : One of the most widely mentioned theories of motivation is the hierarchy of needs theory put forth by psychologist Abraham Maslow. Leaders make people follow them by making them emotionally charged Emotionally charged people accept change readily Interpersonal conflict When conflict is there emotions are surfacing When resolving conflict. jealousy.
food or shelter. autonomy and achievements and external esteem factors such as states. This kind of need produces such satisfaction as power. prestige status and self-confidence. (ii) Security or Safety needs : These are the needs to be free of physical danger and of the fear of losing a job. water. (v) Need for self-actualization : Maslow regards this as the highest need in his hierarchy. no other motivating factors can work.(i) Physiological needs : These are important needs for sustaining the human life. warmth. they need to belong and be accepted by others. (iv) Esteem needs : According to Maslow. shelter. It is to maximize one‟s potential and to accomplish something. sleep. property. (iii) Social needs : Since people are social beings. they tend to want to be held in esteem both by themselves and by others. medicine and education are the basic physiological needs which fall in the primary list of need satisfaction. recognition and attention. once people begin to satisfy their need to belong. 2) “Theory X and Theory Y” of Douglas McGregor :  . People try to satisfy their need for affection. acceptance and friendship. It also includes protection against any emotional harm. Maslow was of an opinion that until these needs were satisfied to a degree to maintain life. Food. It is the drive to become what one is capable of becoming. achieving one‟s potential and self-fulfillment. It includes both internal esteem factors like self-respect. it includes growth.
Because employees dislike work. coerced or threatened with punishment to achieve goals.” In contrast Theory Y organizations can be described as “participative”. ingenuity and creativity in solving the problems of the organization. Under the assumptions of theory X : Employees inherently do not like work and whenever possible.McGregor. In. but their presence has motivational impact. Employees avoid responsibilities and do not work fill formal directions are issued. However. That the way the things are organized. 3) Frederick Herzberg‟s motivation-hygiene theory : Frederick has tried to modify Maslow‟s need Hierarchy theory. where the aims of the organization and of the individuals in it are integrated. However.  . Average human beings are willing to take responsibility and exercise imagination. The first is basically negative. His theory is also known as two-factor theory or Hygiene theory. He stated that there are certain satisfiers and dissatisfiers for employees at work. the average human being‟s brainpower is only partly used.trinsic factors are related to job satisfaction. On analysis of the assumptions it can be detected that theory X assumes that lower-order needs dominate individuals and theory Y assumes that higher-order needs dominate individuals. this theory has been criticized widely for generalization of work and human behavior. An organization that is run on Theory X lines tends to be authoritarian in nature. People do exercise self-control and self-direction and if they are committed to those goals. which falls under the category X and the other is basically positive. McGregor concluded that a manager‟s view of the nature of human beings is based on a certain grouping of assumptions and that he or she tends to mold his or her behavior towards subordinates according to these assumptions. He states that presence of certain factors in the organization is natural and the presence of the same does not lead to motivation. Most workers place a greater importance on security over all other factors and display little ambition. In similar manner there are certain factors. they have to be forced. will attempt to avoid it. in his book “The Human side of Enterprise” states that people inside the organization can be managed in two ways. After viewing the way in which the manager dealt with employees. their nonpresence leads to demotivation. In contrast under the assumptions of theory Y : Physical and mental effort at work is as natural as rest or play. the absence of which causes no dissatisfaction. while extrinsic factors are associated with dissatisfaction. individuals can achieve their own goals best by directing their efforts towards the success of the organization. which falls under the category Y. the word “authoritarian” suggests such ideas as the “power to enforce obedience” and the “right to command.
Examples of Hygiene factors are : Security, status, relationship with subordinates, personal life, salary, work conditions, relationship with supervisor and company policy and administration. Examples of Motivational factors are : Growth prospectus job advancement, responsibility, challenges, recognition and achievements. 4) Contributions of Elton Mayo : The work of Elton Mayo is famously known as “Hawthorne Experiments.” He conducted behavioral experiments at the Hawthorne Works of the American Western Electric Company in Chicago. He made some illumination experiments, introduced breaks in between the work performance and also introduced refreshments during the pause‟s. On the basis of this he drew the conclusions that motivation was a very complex subject. It was not only about pay, work condition and morale but also included psychological and social factors. Although this research has been criticized from many angles, the central conclusions drawn were :
People are motivated by more than pay and conditions. The need for recognition and a sense of belonging are very important. Attitudes towards work are strongly influenced by the group.
5) Vroom‟s Valence x Expectancy theory : The most widely accepted explanations of motivation has been propounded by Victor Vroom. His theory is commonly known as expectancy theory. The theory argues that the strength of a tendency to act in a specific way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual to make this simple, expectancy theory says that an employee can be motivated to perform better when their is a belief that the better performance will lead to good performance appraisal and that this shall result into realization of personal goal in form of some reward. Therefore an employee is : Motivation = Valence x Expectancy. The theory focuses on three things :
Efforts and performance relationship Performance and reward relationship Rewards and personal goal relationship
This leads us to a conclusion that :
6) The Porter and Lawler Model : Lyman W. Porter and Edward E. Lawler developed a more complete version of motivation depending upon expectancy theory.
Actual performance in a job is primarily determined by the effort spent. But it is also affected by the person‟s ability to do the job and also by individual‟s perception of what the required task is. So performance is the responsible factor that leads to intrinsic as well as extrinsic rewards. These rewards, along with the equity of individual leads to satisfaction. Hence, satisfaction of the individual depends upon the fairness of the reward. 7) Clayton Alderfer‟s ERG Theory : Alderfer has tried to rebuild the hierarchy of needs of Maslow into another model named ERG i.e. Existence – Relatedness – Growth. According to him there are 3 groups of core needs as mentioned above. The existence group is concerned mainly with providing basic material existence. The second group is the individuals need to maintain interpersonal relationship with other members in the group. The final group is the intrinsic desire to grow and develop personally. The major conclusions of this theory are : 1. In an individual, more than one need may be operative at the same time. 2. If a higher need goes unsatisfied than the desire to satisfy a lower need intensifies. 3. It also contains the frustration-regression dimension. 8) McClelland‟s Theory of Needs : David McClelland has developed a theory on three types of motivating needs : 1. Need for Power
They can be motivated to perform if they are given key positions or power positions. Such people are motivated to perform when they see atleast some chances of success. In the second category are the people who are social in nature. They like to build a friendly environment around themselves. He also observed that people who were at the top. 9 ) Equity Theory : As per the equity theory of J. People in the third area are driven by the challenge of success and the fear of failure. Need for Achievement Basically people for high need for power are inclined towards influence and control. They try to affiliate themselves with individuals and groups. They are driven by love and faith. Social recognition and affiliation with others provides them motivation.2. They are analytical in nature and take calculated risks. Need for Affiliation 3. People have a tendency to use subjective judgment to balance the outcomes and inputs in the relationship for comparisons between different individuals. Their need for achievement is moderate and they set for themselves moderately difficult tasks. later ceased to be motivated by this drives. people are motivated by their beliefs about the reward structure as being fair or unfair. Accordingly :  . They are demanding in nature. They like to be at the center and are good orators. Stacey Adams. McClelland observed that with the advancement in hierarchy the need for power and achievement increased rather than Affiliation. forceful in manners and ambitious in life. relative to the inputs.
Skinner. Instead of considering internal factors like impressions. individuals are directed by what happens in the environment external to them. However. if people perceive that they are rewarded higher. 11) Goal Setting Theory of Edwin Locke :  .F. the only way to motivate is to keep on making positive changes in the external environment of the organization. Skinner states that work environment should be made suitable to the individuals and that punishments actually leads to frustration and de-motivation. attitudes and other cognitive behavior. feelings. Hence. individuals can be motivated. who propounded the reinforcement theory. 10) Reinforcement Theory : B. holds that by designing the environment properly.If people feel that they are not equally rewarded they either reduce the quantity or quality of work or migrate to some other organization. they may be motivated to work harder.
3. internal stimulus survives. vertical or random. separately. T. It believes that even after the stoppage of external stimulus. 12) Cognitive Evaluation Theory : As per these theory a shift from external rewards to internal rewards results into motivation. However. Virtual Groups.communication. practically extrinsic rewards are given much more weightage.e.These groups are formed by the organizations to carry out specific tasks. The goal setting theory states that when the goals to be achieved are set at a higher standard than in that case employees are motivated to perform better and put in maximum effort. Instead of treating external factors like pay. drives. It relates to the pay structure in the organization. It revolves around the concept of “Self-efficacy” i. ************ Unit. help in achieving them faster. (a) Information Sharing (b) Decision Making (c ) Solving Complex Problems  . they should be treated as contemporary to each other.hierarchical.facilitated through I. individual‟s belief that he or she is capable of performing a hard task.formation – groups in organisations – influence. The cognition is to be such that even when external motivators are not there the internal motivation continues.Instead of giving vague tasks to people. Informal-interest groups or cliques-horizontal. GROUP DYNAMICS are the interactions and forces among group members in social situation.interpersonal relations. a goal orientation also avoids any misunderstandings in the work of the employees. These are the groups formed by employees themselves. specific and pronounced objectives. incentives. responsibility etc. Organisational structure.control. promotion etc and internal factors like interests. As the clearity is high. Types of Groups Formal.group dynamicsemergence of informal leaders and working norms-group decision making techniques.
understanding of individual strengths and personalities. (a)Open-Matrix (b) Closed.Gang Wars.belongs (b)Referent-Would like to belong 4. affinity. (a)Interacting. rivalry.assembly-line (b) Co-acting. (a)Membership. competition.politics Stages of Small Group Development FORMING STORMING NORMING PERFORMING ADJOURNING Group Structure: 1) Formal leadership 2) Roles 3) Norms 4) Status 5) Size 6) Composition Differences between Work Groups and Teams  . (a)In and Out groups. sense of belonging and loyalty Other types of Groups 1.work independently (c ) Counter-acting. Psychological Group-‟we‟ feeling.Fixed Roles 3.union/ management 2. sensitivity.
1. 7. 2. 3.  . Work Team: A group whose individual efforts result in performance that is greater than the sum of the individual inputs. 4 5. No. 6.S. Identity Cohesion Communication Flexibility Morale Idea generation Work Groups Set of behaviours No identity „me‟ feeling self-centered rigid Maybe Old ways Teams Understands roles Norms & values „we” feeling member-centered flexible Enthusiasm/pride New/creative ways TEAM GROUP Work Group: A group interacts primarily to share information and to make decision to help each group member perform within his or her area of responsibility. Aspect Roles& Respon. Difference between Groups and Teams.
Commitment and inspiring goals 2. Role Clarity  .Characteristics of Effective Work Teams 1.
Management of power Team Functioning 1. a)Cohesion.confrontation) 4. 4. Creativity with constructive confrontation 7. a)Clarity of Roles 2. Openness to feedback 5. b)Confrontation-solving problems 3. Congruence between individual and group goals 9. c)Resources provn. c)Collaboration-working together Team Empowerment 1.amongst team members 2. Supportive leadership 10.3. Collaboration /Support/Trust 8. d)Accountable-goals TEAM EFFECTIVENESS MODEL Context Work Design -Adequate resources -Leadership and structure -Climate of trust -Performance evaluation & Reward systems -Autonomy -Skill variety -Task identity -Task significance  . b)Autonomy 3. Self. Competence 6.disclosure (incl.
 . Robbins – an organisational structure defines how job tasks are formally divided grouped & coordinated. Division of labour: Gives slope for employee to obtain expect in particular skill. Area in which expected to perform duties & responsibilities should be clarified to avoid confusion. Coming to office on time meeting project deadlines. Divide people blue collar & white collar & gap b/w them both in org & society.TEAM EFFECTIVENESS Composition Process -Abilities of members -Personality -Allocating roles -Diversity -Size of teams -Member flexibility -Common purpose -Specific goals -Team efficacy -Conflict levels -Social loafing Organisational structure Defined “as framework of tasks reporting & authority relationships within which as organisation functions”. Productivity & efficiency. Characteristics of ideal org. Classical organisation theory Bureaucratic model: . Formulated max weber. Same task gives boredom stress in employees. Abstract rules: Defined rulers & regulation. structure:Work specialization & division of labours: Duties & responsible of all employee should be defined clearly.
Unity of command: Should have only one superior to who he or she is directly responsible. Departmentalization: Basis by which jobs in an organization are grouped together engineering. flat structure. The degree to which tasks in an organization are subdivided into separate jobs. Cold rolling. South. Hierarchy: Each member in the organisation is accountable for his actions in his superior. Decentralisation. overseas customers) Chain of command: Unbroken line of authority that extends from top to lowest level & clarifies who reports to whom. casting pressing etc. East) By process (alloys. departmentalisation. Marketing) By geography (North. Span of control: The number of subordinates a manager can efficiently & effectively direct. West. *******************  . accounting personnel. Modification of bureaucratic centralization decentralization. Tall structure. Individual. By customers (Corporate customer. By product:Varity of product under a single manager By function ( HR. centralisation. Hot rolling.Impersonality of managers:Manager should take rational decisions & judgement based purely on facts. Work specialization: -Division of labour.
Towards goals. Formal control: to main hierarchy among are job related to any grievant to their immediate boss follow their job description. Function of communication:1) Control 2) Motivation 3) Emotional Expression 4) Information Control:Communication acts to control member‟s behaviour in several ways. Communication provides a release for the emotional expression of feelings for fulfilment of social needs. Process of importing ideas & making oneself understood by others. effect of feedback. Communication performance relates to its role in facilitating decision making. The process f meaningful interaction among people in an organisation. It is the process by which meanings are presented & understandings are reached among human beings.  . Process of passing information and understanding from of person to another. It provides information that individuals & group need to make decision by transmitting the data to identify & evaluate alterative choices. Emotional Expression:Group fundamental source is social interaction. Motivation:What is to be done? How well they are doing what can be done to improve performance. Information:Trans mission of information.Communication Communication: The transfer & understanding of meaning Robbins.
Informal channelindividual choice Directions of Communication: Downward Flow of authority.one and group discussion. Reasoning. Formal one – to. report submission. Maintenance of hierarchy. Disadvantage:  .Communication Process:- Message sent Encoding Channel Message Receive Decoding Noise Feedback Steps between sources and receiver that result in transfer and understanding of meaning. request. Memo Upward Feedback. permission Lateral Communication among same work group INTERPERRSONAL COMMUNICATION: Oral communication Speech. Formal channelestablish by organisation to transmit message to professional activities. Advantage: Best way to get information from and to employees.
magazines. reference. These all are used as a record of communication and evidence. Time consuming. when it reach to destination. no universal meaning for body language. text messages.If a one way communication. Network Criteria Speed Accuracy Emergence leader Member satisfaction Chain Moderate High Moderate Moderate wheel Fast High High Low Network Fast Moderate None High  . Disadvantage 1. No feedback. Wheel 3. Advantage Quick feedback Disadvantage Cultural difference. 2.verbal Body language and sign boards are called non-verbal communication. emails. Non. It should be clear. 3. very different from its original. Chain 2. notices and reports. letters. Written communication: All memos. fax. Organisational communication 1. Language barriers.
4. Leader Leader take personal and active interest in achieve goals.leadership styles. Organisation needs strong leadership and strong management for optimal effectiveness. Monitoring and evaluation Compare effect of measurement range of variation.Grapevine It is an informal way of communication. Leadership role simply because of position he/she hold in organisation. Revise standard one. if they need to work independently.power and politics. face book). Process of control Measure measure present performance. Leaders interact with people frequently and in Managers limit their interaction with people to more natural way. Tele/ video conference. all managers are leaders. Managerial actions correct actual performance. network software (Orkut. Electronic Communication E-mail. Control It is a process of monitoring activities to ensure they are being accomplished as planned and of correcting any significance deviation. Leader is a personal and active interest in achieve goals.importance. text message. They become tense.sources of power. Not all leaders are managers. Manager Managers tend to play a relatively passive role in accomplishing goal Managers need power to be entrusted to them by organisation to deal with people. web blogs. Meaning. Leaders have power within themselves and the required drive the head people and motivate them to work enthusiastically towards achieving objectives. If managers are require to work alone without assistance from people. They inspire people the minimum extent required to carry out their  . Leader can act confidently even.theories. Sources of this influence may be formal based on the managerial rank in an organisation.leaders Vs managers. Goal Vs Performance. ******************* Unit .power centres. Leadership Definition: “as the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of a vision or set of goals”.
integrity. Leaders focus on developing a vision for the future.  . integrating their efforts. desire to lead. controlling deviations from plans. self confidence. Power to inspire / enthuse in other people creative and flexibility. Others believe physical characteristics like height (more than average). . organisational structure.motivate them and lead them. Conceptual skills. TOP LEVEL CONCEPTUAL TECHNICAL LOW LEVEL HUMAN MIDDLE LEVEL THEORIES Traits theories Behavioural theories I) Ohio Theory II) Leadership Grid. Managers drive their power from their position in the organisation and formal authority that comes with the position. Leaders traits Initiative. Traits of effective leaders. and knowledge of the specific company industry and technology. Factors are supplemented with traits such as charisma. helping them overcome hurdles and developing their abilities to realise the vision. LEADERDHIP SKILLS: Technical. Leaders often arise from a group without any formal appointment and outside the purview of the organisation structure.Cognitive and psychological factors like intelligence ambition and aggressiveness are the traits commonly found in leaders. managerial responsibility. Communicating the vision to people. Human. Managers concentrate on developing plans. analytical ability. weight large body structure and personal attractiveness are important.
Big Five Model. PRODUCTION ORIENTED  .Goal Theory TRAIT THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP Theories that consider personal qualities and characteristics that differentiate deader from non-leaders. CONSIDERATION Giving importance to human relationship in another way the leader has an empathetic (see others problem in their point of view) attitude. heredity. sociable. Assign group members to particular tasks. Initiating structure Consideration INITIATING STRUCTURE It is extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of subordinates in the search for goal attainment. expected workers to maintain definite STD of performance and emphasizes the meeting of deadlines. University of Michigan Studies.it support to trait theory. For example. appearance. Friendly with followers. Employee Oriented Production Oriented EMPLOYEE ORIENTED: It emphasis interpersonal relationship they look a personal interest in the need of their employee and accepted individual difference among members. experience BEHAVIOURAL THEORIES Theories proposing that specific behaviours differentiate leaders from leaders from nonleader. personality. dominate. Contingency approach Situational theory Leadership – Member Exchange theory Path. Ambition energy. - - OHIO STATE STUDIES Leader‟s behaviour is described by employees.
9) Team Mgt Concern for People (5. MANAGERIAL GRID/ LEADERSHIP GRID Concern for People / Production (1. SITUATION: Match leader with situation there are 3 contingency dimensions. obedience LOW LOW Concern for production (1. 5) Organisation man Mgt Authority.It emphasizes the technical on task aspects of the job. main concern to accomplishing their group‟s tasks and the group members. Leadership style: LEAST PREFERRED CO-WORKER (LPC). Leader-Member Relations Task Structure  . 9) Participate.Fiedler The theory that effective groups depends on a proper match between a leader‟s styles of interacting with subordinate‟s situation gives control and influence to the leader. 1) Impoverished Mgt (9. To measure whether the person is task or performance oriented. Country Club HIGH (9. 1) HIGH CONTINGENCY THEORIES: Author .
Respected and employees have confident with boss / superior TASK STRUCTURE It is the degree to which the job assignments are procedurized (structure or unstructured). Tasks for payroll manager are wage computation. check writing. PATH – GOAL Theory: It states that it is the leader‟s job to assist followers in attaining their goals and to provide the necessary direction and / or support to ensure that their goals are compatible with the overall objectives of the group or organisation. Environment Contingency Factor  . Position power LEADER. discipline. For example. He is in position to decide the rewards and incentives for his followers. leadership style affect by situation. Clarify the path to help their followers get from where they are to the achievement of their work goals and make the journey along the path easier by reducing road blocks. promotions and salary increases. and report filing. For Ex PAYROLL Manager. POSITION POWER: It is the degree of influence a leader has power variables such as hiring.degree of task on hand. Due to the stress. firing. COGNITIVE RESOURCE THEORY Leadership that states that stress unfavourably affect a situation and that intelligence and experience can reduce the influence of stress on the leader. trust and respect members have in their leader.MEMBER RELATION: It is the degree of confidence. Leader is accepted by his subordinates.
get disproportionate amount of the leader‟s attention more likely to receive special privileges. because of time pressure . less turnover and greater job satisfaction. LEADER Personal Compatibility *subordinate competence *extraverted personality Outcome *performance *satisfaction A B IN-GROUP Charismatic Leadership C D E F OUT-GROUP  .*task structure *formal authority system *work group Leader Behaviour *Directive *Achievement oriented *Participative *Supportive Person Character *Locus of control *Experience *Perceived Ability. They are trusted. subordinates with in-group status will have higher performance ratings. LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE THEORY (LMX) It is that supports leaders‟ creation of in-groups and out –groups. leaders establish special relationship with small group of their followers. Individual‟s makeup in-groups.
TRANSACTIONAL LEADERS Management by exception (active) Leader constantly monitors organdisational activities. TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERS Charisma Leaders have a vision which they are easily communicate with others.Ability and response to their needs and feeling. They are good at expressing complicating goals and objectives  . Path-Goal theory are transactional leadership type.- It is states that followers make attribution of heroic/ extra ordinary leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviour. Unconventional behaviour-engage in behaviour perceived as novel (new counter to norms against) TRANSACTIONAL LEADERS Leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and taks requirement. Ohio. KEY Characteristics Vision – long term strategy Personal Risk. TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERS: A leader who inspire followers to transcend their own self-interest and who are capable of having a profound and extraordinary affect on followers is called transformational leaders. They establish a mission for their followers and make them take pride in working towards that mission. Fiedler. They gain respect and trust of their follower Inspiration They inspire their followers by communicating to them the high expectations of the organisation has often and assume them of their capacity to met those expectations. If there is any deviation from the established rules and stds take necessary steps to bring condition back to normal Management by exception (positive) Leaders involve in day to day operations only if the required std a not is met.incurs high cost and engages self-sacrifice Sensitivity to follow needs.
Bases of Power: 1. Coercive Power Base that is dependent on fear. Dependency: “B”s relationship to “A” when „A‟ possesses something that B requires. Promotion bonuses. Preference for contingent rewards: Leaders believe that people can be motivated by recognizing their accomplishments and designing rewards appropriate for their level of efforts and performance. Formal power 2. It can come from formal authority.g. Informal Power FORMAL POWER • Based on individual‟s position in an organization. E. \ Intellectual Stimulation They appreciate and encourage rationality and careful problem solving among their followers. „A‟ can dismiss. POWER AND POLITICS Power • A capacity that “A” has to influence the behaviour of “B” so that B acts in accordance with A‟s Wishes.Laissez-faire Leader tries to escape responsibilities and avoids making decision. pay rates raises. Formal Power • LEGITIMATE POWER  . E. suspend Reward Power Compliance achieved based on the ability to distribute rewards that others view as valuable.g.
their organisation commitment and their performance.It represent the formal authority to control and use organisational resources.The power a person receive as a result of his/her position in the formal hierarchy of an organization.  . They have a power to influence your choice of chocolates and credit cards. E. E.g. Sachin WHICH BASES OF POWER MORE EFFECTIVE Personal sources of power.g. • SCARCITY Opposite-abundance. Brand Ambassador. When particular resource have no proper substitute then that person control that resource will have power over those who require that resource. EXPERT POWER Influence based on special skills and knowledge. Expert and reference power are positively related to employees‟ satisfaction with supervision. where an reward and legitimate power seem to be unrelated to these outcomes. • NON-SUBSTITUTABILITY. This not create power / dependency. Economists REFERENT POWER Influence based on possession by an individual of desirable resources or personal traits. Production Manager can control the wastage for the material from the production Personal Power Power comes from an individual‟s unique characteristics. the things you control must be perceived as important. When things come scarcity it create dependency and power. THE KEY OF POWER-DEPENDENCY FACTOR • IMPORTANCE To create dependency. E.g. Accountants.
Legitimate power.win situation negative consequence 1. Positive motivation 2. 1. Social power 3.compliance with expert‟s wishes lead to positive outcomes 3. Person possess expert /reference power that position determine and control profit and loss of an another person 2. Power relationship may be direct or indirect DIRECT POWER A B INDIRECT POWER A B C  . POWER STRUCTURE • • High ranking persons have more power. Non compliance with legitimate power Lead to a loss in form of punishment or non-acceptance by colleagues. Loyalty &commitments EXCHANGE THEORY AND CONTROL Motivation is outcome.POWER Positive Negative primitive in nature lose. Expert power.incurs profit by confirming to accepted std and procedures. when individual tries to bring about parity between the cost he incurs and the reward he gets.
(Set of values and key characteristics)  . Organisational development – characteristics.influence on behaviour. Job satisfactiondeterminants.POWER PROCESS. Organisational change-importance-stability Vs change. Organisational climate. POWER BALANCE If Degree of dependency is equal to degree of power exercise. Individual Difference too.factors affecting organisational climate. Dependency = power exercise.measurements.objectives.team building. If the above is not equal that is called power imbalance.ELEMENTS Dependency Balancing Power relationship Reaction to imbalance Power ploys Note: Dependency we already discussed earlier.resistance to change.importance .proactive Vs reaction change. Nature of powerr in organization: Some individuals always seek power to influence benefits in favors for him. Organisational effectiveness.the change process. Some give more important and some not give important to get power. Dependency =power exercise. Stress –work stress-prevention and management of stress.balancing work and life. ****************** Unit-5.managing change. ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE AND CLIMATE CULTURE: “A system of shared mea ning held by members that distinguishes the organisation from other organisations”.
norms that are shared by an organisation‟s members. Team Orientation: The degree to which work activities are organised around teams rather than individuals. buildings etch. CHARACTERISTICS Innovation Degree to which employees are encouraged to be innovative and task risk. are called material Element.Organisational culture is the set of assumptions. values. Aggressiveness: The Degree to which peoples are aggressive and competitive rather than easygoing. Based on these characteristics. work groups and work performance. Attention to details Degree to which employee are expected to exhibit to precision analysis and attention to detail. dresses. ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE: A set of attributes specific to an organisation that may be inducing from the way the organisation deals with its members. norms which are known as abstract elements of the culture. Organisational Assumptions. Outcome orientation: Degree to which management focuses on results/ outcomes rather than on the techniques and processes used to achieve those outcomes People orientation: The Degree to which management decisions take into consideration the effect of outcomes on people within the organisation. Externally oriented characteristics like products. It is current situation in an organisation and linkage among individuals. values. beliefs. Stability: The degrees to which organisational activities are emphasize maintaining the status quo in contrast to growth. organisation culture should be identified  .
It is a descriptive term. CULTURE Vs FORMALIZATION  . It concern with how employees feel about the organisation‟s expectation. Job satisfaction seeks to measure of affective response to work environment. STRONG Vs WEAK CULTURE Strong culture impact on employee behaviour and or more directly related to reduced turnover. Builds cohesiveness loyalty and commitment less opportunity to leave organisation. DOMINANT CULTURE: It expresses the core values that are shared by a majority of the organisation‟s members. SUB-CULTURE This is mini culture within an organisation. policies and etc. Based on anthropology and sociology Culture is a means through which members learn Climate does not deal with values and norms it is and communicate what is accepted and concerned with the current atmosphere in the unaccepted in an organisation on the light of its organization values and norms Culture is more difficult to change in short period of time Climate is subject to manipulation by managerial actions even in short-term. rewards. it is important because differentiate the concept of job satisfaction. DOES ORGANISATION HAVE NIFORM CULTURE? Many organisation have dominant culture and many number of sub culture.CULTURE CULTURE AND CLIMATE CLIMATE Study of climate base on psychology... Macro view of culture that gives an organisation its distinct personality. It influence on the behaviour of its members because the high degree of sharedness and intensity creates an internal climate of high behavioural control. typically defined by department designations and geographical separation.It includes core values of dominant culture plus additional values unique to members or the concerned department. CULTURE IS A DESCRIPTIVE TERM Organisational culture is concerned with how employees perceive the characteristics of organisation. Primary and dominant values that are accepted throughout the organisation.
attractive.National culture strongly shaped this company‟s organisational culture. Strong culture can act as a substitute for formalization. Both are two different roads but common designation Strong organisational culture less management need to concern rate on rules and regulations to guide employee‟s behaviours ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE Vs NATIONAL CULTURE: National culture is greater impact on employees than organisational culture . Outcome orientation 4. WHAT DOES CULTURE DO? (Or)FUNCTIONS OF CULTURE IN ORGANISATION: Boundary defining roles: it relates distinction between one organisations from another. CULTURE AS A LIABILITY: Culture should match with environment. Attention to details 3. For example: Disney theme park. People orientation 5. Team orientation 6. Serve as sense-making and control mechanism that guides and shapes attitude and behaviour of employees. Innovative and risk taking 2. In many organisations with strong culture practice that led to previous success can lead to failure when those practices no longer match up well with environment needs . Formalization refers to the degree to which the organisations are standardized. clean wholesome looking with smile face.Cultures increase behavioural consistency. stability Organisational Culture Strength High Performance Low Satisfaction  .consistency of behaviour is an asset to an organisation. FACTORS INFLUENCE PERFORMANCE AND SATISFACTION OR HOW ORGANISATION CULTURE INFLUENCE PERFORMANCE AND SATISFACTION? Objective Factors 1. Aggressiveness 7. It enhance the stability of social system: culture is the social glue that helps the organisation together by providing appropriate stds for what employees should say and do. Represent a sense of identity for organisation culture: culture facilitate the generation of commitment of something larger than one‟s self-interest. Image of Disney Strong culture support by formal rules and regulations that Disney theme park employees will act in uniform and predictable way.
Expect liquor and mill cloth. good bad experience from his own life.value is define as what is right and what is wrong what is desirable and what is undesirable and so on. past work experience. learning‟s from varies personalities and situations. These factors also can influence performance and job satisfaction. level of respect to employees. values. A good vision helps several ways to organisational members. Bajaj auto limited is an example. timing. Visionary companies hold distinct set of values. family culture and customs. competitive. highly discipline traits. Values of individual. Vision derived from values. Values also determine how organisational activities will be carried out. Gender. It depends upon the founders and other key personnel‟s values.  . attitudes. More opportunity in business he selected trading in auto parts. rules and regulations of organisation. personality of individuals. He is Gandhi ideology. HOW TO KEEP A CULTURE ACTIVE? OR PROCESS OF CREATION OF ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE Establishing values Creating vision Operationalising values and vision Socialisation of employees Establishing Values: Define values. Characteristics of founder: personality aggressive.Environment. CREATING VISION: Vision represents imagination of future event and prepares the organisation for the same. CREATING AND SUSTAINING CULTURE: Origin of a culture: Organisation current customs traditional and formal way of doing things. personality.
Operational sing values & vision:These are not put into action. Reward system put enough provisions in the reward system. Proper selection should significantly reduce the probability of latter encounter or occurrence. Company considered it is entered for tra nsforming young employee‟s fresh out of school into dedicated corporate warriors. For putting values & vision in action.It inspires and exhilarates them. A new member become totally disillusioned with the actualities (disappointed) of her job. It creates competitiveness originality uniqueness. Take care should be takes while selecting an employees. that their values match organisational values. Metamorphosis stage:New employee adjusts to his/her work groups values & norms.  . the organisation can unfertile full activities. For that 5 month training programme where they learn way of doing everything. co-workers. Organisation prepares a written statement containing its value & vision & communicates these two organisation members land books. Encounter:Expectation true with realities he adopt org culture quickly. At the recruitment stage most of the org give job previews which help the prospective employees to learn more about the job & the organisation. From how to speak to superiors to proper grooming & dress. The new employee must undergo socialization that will detach him from her previous assumptions & replace them with another set that org deems desirable. Socialization process:Pre-Arrival:Before join the organisation he understands what is organisation from kerning friend & family. Socialization of employees:It means process that adopts employees to the organisation cultures. It fosters risk-taking and experimentation. It fosters long term thinking. Expectation & realities is different Expectation abt the person her boss. It helps in the creation of a common identity and a shared sense of purpose.
This show act as a motivator by publicly recognising outstanding sales performance. Language:Many organisations & units within organisation use language as a way to identify members of a culture or sub culture by learning these language members at least to their acceptance of the culture & in so doing help to preserve it. Recruit personnel with previous experience so that they are able to interact well. Rituals:Rituals repetitive sequence of activities that express & re-in force the key values of the organisation. Stories:Learning org norms & values through stories include circulation of informal & oral narration of events abt the organisation. What goal is most important who is important? Corporation rituals. May – Kay cosmetics annual award meeting. language. material symbols. rituals. Make changes from top to bottom so that consistent message is delivered. Miss American pageants wear. Material symbols:Various materials symbols used by org convey specific means high status people can be distribution the bases of various facilities provided to him equality. Changing the org culture:Predict the current culture set unique goals. Stories. It acts as common denominator that unties members of an organisational culture.Methods of socialization with organisation Or How employees learn culture. In convey to sales persons that reaching their quote is important & that through hard work & encouragement they too can achieve success.  .
which remain unsatisfied. Individual factors:Level of Education: Highly educated person have very big expectations from their jobs. Routine repetitive job provides lesser satisfaction.  . Nature of job:Occupation level:High level job provide more satisfaction carry prestige status. Job content:Refers to intrinsic value of the job which depends on the requirement of skills for performing it & the degree of responsibility & growth it offers. Determinants of job satisfaction. Stay the course of being persistent.Include employees in this process of change when making changes in rules & policies. Job satisfaction in job rotation. situational variables. Age: Starting stage is org high job satisfaction gradually reduced. Other factor: If individual not satisfied with family & social life. Individual factors. Which an individual has abt his job. He may not satisfy with org also. nature of job. enlargement. ***************** Job Satisfaction - Mental feeling of favourable. enrichment.
******************* STRESS MANAGEMENT  . Improving overall organisation climate. turnover. Equitable rewards:Job performances rewards determine reward is based on job performance reward based on consideration. Improving quality of work-life. Work group:Either created formally or they develop on their own to seek emotional satisfaction at work place. organisation citizenship behaviour. Type of supervision:Employee oriented supervision Production – oriented supervision. Effect of job satisfaction:- Productivity.Situational variables:Working condition:Condition of work place & associated facilities for performing the job. absentees. Opportunity for promotion:If the present job offers opportunity of promotion in future. Such groups are cohesive. work place. How to improve satisfaction: Improve level of job satisfaction. degree satisfaction is high. Linking rewards with performance. customer satisfaction. In form go job redesigning to make the job more interesting & challenging. it provides more satisfaction.
obligations and uncertainty. STRESS MODEL: Environment factor INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCE Economic. Demands are responsibilities. self-efficacy. or event that places special physical and /or psychological demands upon a person”. role. pressure. political uncertainty. high BP. interpersonal demand PERSONAL FACTORS Family. Resources – things within an individual‟s control that can be used to resolve demands. heart disease. mediated by individual characteristics and/or psychological processes. Problem.  . turnover. social support. low in job satisfaction. DEFINITION JOB STRESS: “Job stress is a condition arising from the interaction of people and their jobs and characterised by changes within people that force them to deviate from their normal functioning”. absenteeism. Economic. hostility Physiological symptoms Head ache. depression. Personality Perception. Technology changes ORGAINSATIONAL FACTORS Task. CHALLENGE STRESSORS: It associated with work load. Experience stress Behavioural symptoms Productivity. HINDRANCE STRESSORS: Its keep you from reaching your goals (office politics. pressure to complete taks and time urgency. belief in locus of control. SOURCES OF STRESS OR CAUSES OF STRESS. confusion. over job responsibilities) Stress is associated with demand and resources. that is consequence of any external action. Psychological symptoms Anxiety.DEFINITION OF STRESS: “Stress is an adaptive response. job experience. situation.
lack of mutual understanding and relationship are causes of stress. family commitments make stress. That is economic uncertainty. PERSONAL FACTORS Family Personal relationship. Role demand Role conflict. Political uncertainty Political threats and changes.  .financial problem in family and organisation make feel stress. breaking off of a relationship. Poor interpersonal relationship creates stress. political uncertainty. Economic Uncertainty Changes in business cycle create economic uncertainty that people become anxious about job security. degree of automation) working conditions. interruption. ORGANISATIONAL FACTORS Task demands It related to person‟s job include design of the individual job (task variety. and stress. Personality – type A and introversion personality person are easy undergoing stress. Physical work layout.type A and introversion emotional people are highly feels stress. room visible location. Personality. increase anxiety. unclear role. technology changes. Individual Differences: Perception – laying of job security Experience. Social support. For example cover crowded. marital difficulties. Economic.ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS There are three main uncertainties.Voluntary retirement service. Interpersonal demand Lack of social support from peer groups. noise. discipline troubles with children. Technology changes New innovation can make employees skills and experience become obsolesce in very short time period. role over load.
boredom. heart attack. relaxation training. Making daily list of activity accomplished Prioritizing activities.CONSEQUENCE OF STRESS: PHYSIOLOGICAL SYMPTOMS: Heart diseases. sleep disorders. TIME MANAGEMENT Scheduling activities according to priorities. high BP. breathing rates. Manage Stress 1. rapid speech. Individual Approach 2. Be alert and productive. importance. absenteeism. expands social supports and network. RELAXATION TRAINING Do meditation daily 15-20 minutes. PHYSICAL EXERCISE: Cycling. jogging. eating habit. high smoking and drinking. headache. Knowing daily cycle and handling most demand part it increases part of cycle. Deep relaxation it keep your mind relax and also physically relaxed.  . Organisational Approach Individual Approach: Take personal responsibility for reduce stress level Strategies include Time Management. BEHAVIOURAL SYMPTOMS: changes in productivity. turnover. irritability. PSYCHOLOGICAL SYMPTOMS: tension. and urgency. anxiety. swimming. Techniques –Physical exercise. riding bicycle.
Human resource policy and practices must be changed as to concentrate in an effective work force. It reduces employee stress related to managerial control and power.  . ****** ORGANISATIONAL CHANGES (Making things different). peers group. Change refers to alternation in the total work environment. Some candidates will be external locus of control. Redesigning job Make less dependence. the change towards the growing trend. more meaningful work. Organisation spends a lot of money in development skills of the employees. Goal setting: Get feedback from employees it will motivate to employees. (deficiency in existing organisation) CAUSES OF CHANGES OR FORCES FOR CHANGES: . i. ORGANISATIONAL APPROACH Task and role demand can be controlled by management and it can be modify and change in organisation Recruitment and personnel sections: Organisation doesn‟t give importance to experience candidate.EXPAND SOCIAL SUPPORT AND NETWORK Keep good relationship with family members. Factors: Internal changes (changes in managerial personal) External changes. People should adopt themselves to the changing situations.e. neighbourhood. more responsibility to employees. Technology: It is changing jobs and organisation speed /fast technology change. Work Force The educational level of work force seems to be cause for organisational changes.Stimulates changes in organisation.
capital structure. it completely the recruitment new employee or training given to existing employee. Environment constrain – job structure change.Planned change aims to prepare the total organisation or a major portion of it to adapt to significant changes in the organisation‟s goals and direction. If Organisation acquiring new technology change job content. Reactive and Proactive changes: Reactive change is undertaken when it is pressed by some factors. It is known as Domino Effect. . Planned Changes .  . dividend decision. Organisation introduces certain methods or systems when they are forced for that. investment decisions. Organisation known as prospectors which constantly interact with their environment to identify new opportunity and threats. Social trend We used post cards to communicate to some people but now we communicate through internet chat room and mobiles. Proactive change is brought out of the likely behaviour of the forces having impact on the organisation. For example: organisation is not able to face competition in the market because of old techniques of production and competitors.Planned changes are change activities that are intentional and goal oriented. Baby boomers – future generation adjust organisation product and marketing strategy to be sensitive to changing social trends. internal relationship change. New technique only alternative is to only change. recession these two factors influence financial decision.Economic Shocks: Boom. For example: population control devices they did when they are forced by government. Competition: It is changing capable of new product development rapidly and getting them to market quickly. Regularly basis changes in order to avoid developing inertia of inflexible. Either internal or external to the organisation most of organisation believe in traditional pattern of working often go for reactive changes. Chain Effect of Change: Change touches a sequence of related and supporting changes.
It is said to be a discontinuous one that the assumptions are to be reframed by the organisation. the management does not even have inkling of the resistance of its actions by employees. i. When resistance is not open.(moderate changes/ adjustments.Implementation of a structural innovation a new policy or goal or a change in operating philosophy climate or style. When there is resistance. Implicit and deferred are more complicated. They are Overt (explicit ) Implicit (covert) Immediate Deferred Explicit and immediate resistance that occurs after implementation of a certain changes initiative is rather easier to manage than implicit or deferred resistance.. The resistance may fall under 4 types. then the merits and demerits of that idea will be discussed and it is good for organisation.  .(completely different nature from old state ) RESISTANCE to CHANGE: Whenever an idea is proposed. Structure Technology Task People First order change: said to be continuous that there will be no fundamental shift in the assumptions regarding the improvement to be made in the functioning of the organisation. It can easily reversible) Second order change/ fundamental / quantum. there will be resistance to adapt those changes. e to make some changes in the organisation.
The habits developed by an individual are difficult to change. Participation.  . People fear the unknown and uncertainty associated with it and hence resists change.CAUSES OF RESISTANCE TO CHANGE: Individual resistance Organisational resistance INDIVIDUAL RESISTANCE It is related to human characteristics. Security. People tend to resist change that threatens their safety and security. Selective information processing. It becomes difficult for the individuals to resist a change decision in which they take active participation. the resistance is reduced. Individuals process information selectively to make it compatible with their perceptions. Employees should be educated on the logic of changes by explaining the full facts and all doubts must be cleared in order to reduce the resistance. By identifying strong cohesive groups and making them involve and participate in the decision making process. Individual resist change if ti is likely to decrease their income or sources of earning. Economic factors. Fear of the unknown. values and behaviour. They are Habit. Use of group force. Group can exert more pressure on attitude. Change agents can offer a range of supportive efforts like counselling. ORGANISATIONAL RESISTANCE: Limited focus of change. paid leave. HOW TO OVERCOME RESISTANCE TO CHANGE? Education and communication. etc. Facilitation and support. training. Group inertia Threat to expertise Threat to established power relationship Threat to established resource allocations.
Twisting information. loss of promotions. APPROACHES: LEWIN‟s Three steps Model: UNFREEZING MOVEMENT REFREEZING Unfreezing: Employees are educated about external and internal factors that make change important.  . New skills are adopted with the help of training and management ask to demonstrate new skills like Role play. creation of false rumours. the actual change process begins doing a way of practices and adopting new methods. Manipulation. Here the change agents‟ credibility will be zero. He brings a climate for psychological support from the subordinates. Negotiation. Reforming changes so that organisation does not revert to old state of things. This is the application of force or direct threats of transfers. Leadership for change. with-holding undesirable information are some of the tactics of manipulation to decrease the intensity of resistance to change. A few powerful individual can be offered a specific reward package and negotiated. Movement of changes: Employees convinced on prepared for change. Coercion. A strong leader /manager can use personal reasons for change without resistance. Refreezing: It is an implemented stage. Job duties are redefined. negative performance evaluation.
Change agent analysis the information collected in the diagnostic stage. Evaluation. Change agent shares his observations and conclusions from diagnosis and analysis information. Action. The change agents evaluates the effectiveness of the actions taken by measuring the outcomes of those actions. Diagnosis. change agents attempts determine the underlying causes of an organisation‟s problems.In this step. There are 5 steps. Feedback.RESISTANCE OF CHANGE Level Of performance Changes P2 Forces of changes P1 Time ACTION RESEARCH MODEL According to Robbins. action research is “a change process based on the systematic collection of data and then selection of a change action based on what the analyzed data indicate” . Action research follows a scientific methodology for managing changes. Analysis. ***********  . Employees and change agents work together to implement the measures that they consider solutions to the organisation‟s problems.
.is to improve performance of individuals and groups in organisations. ideas. Techniques of OD It attempts to improve the fit between individual and the organisation and its environment and among the different organisation components like strategy structure and processes. Meaning for definition OD is a system of planned change.Facilitator take notes related to expression. control.Trainer is called facilitators. . poor designed task etc.Unstructured and no proper agenda. OD targets organisational processes. confrontation. belief. It helps to improve listening skills. human. and conflict. social as well as structure. They give importance to collaboration. . learn to talk. Participants not give importance to power. It deals with “people problem” such as poor mora le. . .give opportunity to express their opinion.It is also called T-group training . structure. and processes of improving an organisation‟s effectiveness”. OD is problem oriented.provide feedback on their behaviour. poor quality. low productivity.To sensitize people to the perceptions and behaviour related aspects of themselves and others. participation. poor team performance.  . Objective. interpersonal conflict. poor customer relations. OD focuses on relationship. reactions of participant during interaction. Definition „A system wide application of behavioural science knowledge to the planned development and reinforcement of organisational strategy.ORGANISATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OD is a unique organisational improvement strategy. OD takes a holistic or system wide approach to change. Sensitivity training . intergroup conflict. rather than content. openly and accept individual differences.
Identity the area that need change. decision making. and improves organisational productivity and efficiency. flow of communication. interpersonal and leadership skills. role analysis. Problem Diagnosis 2. and remedies re suggested. Survey Feedback Use of questionnaires to identify discrepancies among member‟s perceptions. Team Interventions: High interaction among team members to increase trust and openness. Maintaining team relationship 4. (Take a sample for group performance) Appreciative inquiry: AI Problem centred Identify the unique qualities and special strengths of an organisation which can be build to improve performance. To improve the performance of work team. Process consultation intervention: Reason for ineffectiveness is dysfunctional interpersonal conflict. Task accomplishment 3. It specifies to improve a particular process of the organisation. Four steps  . Intergroup development Again same reason for ineffectiveness is dysfunctional interpersonal conflict. competition among groups. Here they set agenda. development of interpersonal relations among the members.It reduces interpersonal conflicts. Demerits of this training program are stereotype. AI agrees that problem solving approaches always ask people to look backward at yesterday. It includes flow of work. co-operation. to clarify each member‟s. discussion follows. roles and responsibility and team process analysis. present feedback on observation and give suggestions. Improving team and organisation process Activities consider that goal setting. group problem solving. It covers 4 substantive areas. roles and responsibility. 1.
low cost producing. productivity. Dreaming From discover stage. ******************* ORGANISATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS “Effectiveness may be defined as the degree of which an organisation realises its goals” OE also called as organisational success or growth. profitability. (effective. Not effective. efficient – not control cost of production) Organisation may be both effective and efficiency. Destiny Participants discuss how the organisation is going to fulfil its dream. ( Long term survival in market)  . Barnard defined Organisational effectiveness as it is degree to which operative goals have been attained. may not be effective. Efficiency refers to relationship between input and output. Efficiency.Discover: Idea is to find at what people think are the strength of the organisation. may not be efficient.fails to follow price strategy) Organisation may be effective.(efficient. Effectiveness related to goals and is externally focussed. It includes the writing of action plans and development of implementation strategies. participants focus on finding a common vision of how the organisation will look and agree on its unique qualities. While the concept of efficiency represents the cost/benefit rate incurred in the pursuit of these goals. There are 3 situations in organisation Organisation may be efficient. organisational growth to denote organisational effectiveness.earn profit. used to speculate on possible future for the organisation Design: Based on dream.
It includes quality. Both goals are trying to satisfy his needs by working in the organisation. Some people give importance to individual needs rather than organisation needs. motivation etc. utilisation of environment. It focuses on organisational goals and individual goals. To know whether organisation is doing things rightly. productivity. which ultimately determines the degree of goal achievement by an organisation. high productivity. effectiveness defined Profit maximisation. if not additional efforts require. stability. good employee morale etc. readiness. organisations have to follow some control mechanism. Organisational means for satisfying the needs of people in the society and the satisfaction of such needs is directly linked to organisation effectiveness. To change this situation. 2.APPROCHES TO MEASURE EFFECTIVENESS: There are 2 reasons for measure effectiveness. BEHAVIOURAL APPROACH It takes into account the behaviour of people in the organisation. turnover or retention.goal ---------degree of Effectiveness  . It may be short term and long term. efficiency. Approaches Goal Approach Behavioural Approach System – Resource Approach Strategic Constituencies Approach GOAL APPROACH Effectiveness is in terms of accomplishment of goals. profit or return. 1. In Goal approach. Low Degree of Goal Integration: Org . Effectiveness of the organisation can be measured in terms of the degree to which these goals are achieved. providing an efficient service. accidents.
input transaction of various kinds relating to various things. their exportation. In terms of bargaining position reflected in the ability of the organisation in either absolute or relative terms. It consider only relevant environment of the organisation under reference and takes into account those factors which impact on the operation of the organisation. It focuses on interdependence between organisation and environment.Moderate Degree of Goal Integration Org. Bargaining Position refers to resource getting ability. 1. Goal --------------------------------Degree of effectiveness Individual Goal SYSTEM RESOURCE APPROACH: It derived from open system model and it is applied to formal social organisation. STRATEGIC CONSTITUENCIES APPROACH It is similar to System Resource Approach. Bargaining position includes ob that importation of resource. their use. But there are 2 major differences. These are scared and valued resources. High Degree of Goal Integration Org. It takes the form of output. Goal Result of interaction between two set of goals is a compromise actual performance is a combination of both. Goal ---------------- Degree of Effectiveness Indi.  . It focuses of competition between organisations. It is a continuous process underlying the emergence of Universal Hierarchical Differentiation among social organisations such as Hierarchy may be yardstick because it reflects the bargaining position of organisation. A competition occurs under different social settings and takes different forms.
customer. price of the product. suppliers. Customer related. retaining. motivation and attitude to work. satisfaction. performance of product. People related. Strategy Technology People Structure INTERVENING CRITERIA Product related END-RESULT CRITERIA Growth rate Customer related Profitability People related Shareholders value Social performance Product related.  . attracting. new product development. management.personal ability skills. It differs from different types of functions of organisation.service. (Owner. It does not only consider taking input from environment but exporting its outputs to the environment. community) CRITERIA FOR ORGANISATIONAL EFFETIVENESS CASUAL FACTORS. government. Effectiveness depends on the degree to which organisation able to satisfy the strategy constituencies. loyalty.quality.2.
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