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Nng,Thng 2 nm 2013

B GIO DC V O TO
HC VIN CNG NGH BU CHNH VIN THNG
KHOA: in T Vin Thng
Ngnh: K Thut in T - Truyn Thng
BO CO
CHUYN THNG TIN QUANG
Ti: H thng truyn dn v thit k h thng Soliton
Gio Vin Hng Dn : GV.Ths Trng Xun
Trung
SV nhm 12 thc hin : Nguyn Qunh Hu
L Xun T
Lp : 11CQVT09 N ( TVT11)
Kha : 2011- 2013
ti: H thng truyn dn v thit k h thng Soliton
MC LC
MC LC...2
CHNG 1: TNG QUAN V SOLITON....................................................................3
1.1. Khi nim v Soliton...3
1.2. Soliton si.3
CHNG 2: H THNG TRUYN DN SOLITON.4
2.1. M hnh h thng chung.4
2.2. Truyn thng tin vi cc Soliton4
2.3. Tng tc Soliton6
2.4. S lch tn ( Frequency chirp)..9
2.5. My pht Soliton...11
2.6. nh hng ca suy hao si..13
2.7. Khuch i Soliton15
CHNG 3: THIT K H THNG SOLITON..18
3.1. C ch Soliton trung bnh18
3.2. S khuch i phn b.21
3.3. Nhiu b khuch i.22
3.4. Tin trnh thc nghim.24
KT LUN...27
Nhm 12: Qunh Hu- Xun T Trang 2
ti: H thng truyn dn v thit k h thng Soliton
CHNG 1: TNG QUAN V SOLITON
1.1 .Khi nim v soliton:
Soliton l thut ng biu din cc xung lan truyn qua khong cch di m khng
thay i hnh dng xung do n a ra kh nng c bit truyn cc xung khng
nhy cm vi tn sc.
H thng soliton quang mc d cha c ng dng nhiu trong thc t song vi
nhng tim nng vn c, n tr thnh mt d tuyn c bit cho h thng truyn dn
quang.
1.2 .Soliton si:
S tn ti ca soliton si l kt qu ca s cn bng gia tn sc vn tc nhm
GVD (Group-Veocity Disperson) v t iu ch pha SPM ( Self Phase Modulation),
c hai u hn ch hiu nng truyn thng quang si khi hot ng c lp trn xung
quang ang lan truyn bn trong si ngoi tr khi xung b dch ban u theo ng
hng. c bit hn mt xung b dch c th c nn trong sut giai on u ca
s lan truyn bt c khi no tham s GVD
2

v h s chirp C tri du nhau (


2

.C<0). SPM, kt qu t s ph thuc ca chit sut vo cng quang, a ra mt


s dch trn xung quang sao cho C > 0. V
2

<0 vng bc sng 1,55


m
nn
iu kin
2

.C<0 c tha mn. Hn na s dch chuyn bi SPM ph thuc cng


sut nn khng kh khn hiu rng di iu kin no SPM v GVD c th kt
hp theo mt cch no sao cho s dch bi SPM l ng hng loi b s m
rng xung do GVD gy ra. Nh vy xung quang c th lan truyn khng mo di
dng ca mt Soliton.
Phn loi soliton:
- Soliton c bn v soliton bc cao
Nhm 12: Qunh Hu- Xun T Trang 3
ti: H thng truyn dn v thit k h thng Soliton
- Tin trnh soliton
- Soliton ti (Dark soliton)
CHNG 2: H THNG TRUYN DN SOLITON
2.1 M hnh h thng chung.
Cng nh h thng thng tin quang thng thng, h thng soliton thng thng
bao gm phn pht, knh truyn dn v phn thu c m t nh sau:
Hnh 2.1: M hnh chung ca h thng truyn dn soliton
- My pht quang l mt diode laser iu ch cc xung quang trc tip, v vy s lch
tn u ra laser l khng ng k. Tn hiu u vo l cc bit 0 hoc 1, mi bit 1 l mt
soliton c bn.
- Knh truyn dn l cc on si quang n mode, mi on theo sau l mt b
khuych i quang si EDFA dng b suy hao si, tuy nhin li sinh ra nhiu pht x
t pht c khuych i ASE (amplified spontaneous emission) lm nh hng n cht
lng truyn dn.
- B thu quang bao gm mt photodiode, mt b lc in v mt b lc quang. Tn
hiu quang thu thng c chuyn i trc tip thnh tn hiu in. Cc b lc quang
t trc photodiode lm gim nhiu ASE do cc b khuych i a ra.
2.2 Truyn thng tin vi cc soliton.
Nhm 12: Qunh Hu- Xun T Trang 4
u ra B pht
quang
B thu
quang
u vo Knh truyn dn
ti: H thng truyn dn v thit k h thng Soliton
Trong h thng thng tin quang, m NRZ thng c s dng truyn dn
thng tin v rng bng tn tn hiu ca n nh hn khong 50% so vi m RZ. Tuy
nhin trong truyn dn soliton, m NRZ khng c s dng v rng soliton phi l
mt phn nh ca khe bit chc chn rng cc soliton ln cn nhau c tch ring.
m bo kh nng lan truyn khng mo, cc soliton phi c dng sech nh hm (2.1).
Tuy nhin, nghim soliton ny ch ng khi n chim gi ton b ca s thi gian t

. Gi tr ny c th c m bo gn ng cho mt dy soliton ch khi cc soliton
ring c t cch ly. V vy ngi ta s dng m RZ m ha thng tin trong truyn
dn soliton. Yu cu ny c dng biu din mi quan h gia rng soliton (T
0
)
v tc bt (B):
B
0 0
2
1 1
T q T
B

(2.1)
Trong : T
b
l rng khe bit
2q
0
=
0
T
T
B
l khong cch gia 2 soliton ln cn.
Hnh v sau m t dy bit soliton dng m RZ:
Nhm 12: Qunh Hu- Xun T Trang 5
T
B
Solito
n
1 1 0 1 0
1
ti: H thng truyn dn v thit k h thng Soliton
Hnh 2.2: Dy bit soliton m RZ. Mi soliton chim mt phn nh ca khe bit
sao cho cc soliton ln cn c t xa nhau.
Trong n v vt l bin ca xung l:
A(0,t)=
) ( sec
0
0
T
t
h P
(2.2)
P
0
l cng sut nh tha mn iu kin:

2
0
2
0 0
1
T
P L P
D


(2.3)
rng y na gi tr max (FWHM: full width at half maximum) ca soliton
l:
T
S
=2T
0
ln( 2 1+ ) 1.763T
0
(2.4)
Nng lng xung ca soliton c bn thu c l:
E
S
=

+

dt t A
2
) , 0 (
2P
0
T
0
(2.5)
Nu gi thit s bit 1 v 0 xy ra bng nhau, cng sut trung bnh ca tn hiu RZ l:
S
P
=E
S
(
2
B
)=
0
0
0 0
2
2
2 q
P
T P
B

(2.6)
2.3 Tng tc soliton.
Khong cch T
B
gia cc xung ln cn xc nh tc bit B ca h thng truyn
thng (B=1/T
B
). Vn t ra l cc soliton t gn nhau nh th no m khng gy ra
s tng tc ln nhau gia chng. Nhiu nghin cu chng t rng tng tc soliton
khng ch ph thuc vo khong cch 2q
0
gia cc soliton ln cn m cn ph thuc vo
pha v bin tng i ca 2 soliton. Nu cc gi tr ny khng c la chn ng,
mt s va chm tun hon gia cc soliton s xy ra.
Nhm 12: Qunh Hu- Xun T Trang 6
ti: H thng truyn dn v thit k h thng Soliton
Ta c th gii hm NSE bao hm c s tng tc soliton vi iu kin xung u vo
gm mt cp soliton:

[ ] ) exp( ) ( sec ) ( sec ) , 0 (
0 0
i q r h r q h t u + +
(2.7)
Vi r : bin tng i ca 2 soliton
: pha tng i gia 2 soliton ln cn
2q
0
: khong cch ban u ca 2 soliton
Hnh 3.3 miu t tin trnh ca mt cp soliton vi q
0
=3.5 vi cc gi tr r, khc
nhau. Ta thy r rng s tng tc ny ph thuc mnh vo c pha v bin tng i.
Hnh 2.3: Tin trnh mt cp soliton qua 90 ln chiu di tn sc c s tng tc soliton
vi khong cch bc ban u q
0
=3.5 trong tt c bn trng hp.
Nhm 12: Qunh Hu- Xun T Trang 7
ti: H thng truyn dn v thit k h thng Soliton
- Vi r=1 (Cc soliton c bin bng nhau)
0 : Cc soliton ht nhau sao cho chng va chm nh k theo chiu di si.
4 / : Ban u cc soliton hut nhau ri li tch khi nhau.
2 / : Cc soliton y nhau ngy cng mnh khi khong cch lan truyn tng.
Khi thit k h thng iu ny th khng th chp nhn c. N c th to ra jitter thi
gian n ca cc soliton v nh hng n hiu nng h thng. Mt cch trnh tng
tc soliton l tng khong cch soliton ln lch v v tr soliton nh sao cho
cc soliton vn v tr gc trong khe bit khi truyn dn qua khong cch ln.
Khi q
0
>>1 trong trng hp c bit r=1, =0 (tc l u(0,t)=sech( 0
q
)+sech( 0
q +
)),
khong cch 2q
s
gia 2 soliton v tr

c a ra bi [3]:
2exp[2(q
s
-q
0
)] =1 + cos[4

exp(-q
0
)] (2.8)
Mi quan h ny cho thy q
s
(

) thay i tun hon vi chu k dao ng l:



) exp(
2 ) exp( 4
2
0
0
q
q
p

(2.9)
Kt qu ny ng vi q
0
>>1. Mt biu thc ng hn cho mi gi tr q
0
l [3]:

) 2 sinh( 2
) cosh( ) 2 sinh(
0 0
0 0
q q
q q
q
+

(2.10)
Nu
>>
T T D p
L L L ,
l tng khong cch truyn dn. Tng tc soliton c th khng
tnh n v cc soliton c th lch mt cht so vi gi tr ban u ca n.
V D p
L
>>
T P P T
L
Bq T
L >>

,
_


2
2
0
2
2
0
2
1


2
2
0 2
2
0
2
0
8 4
1

q
e
q
B L
q
P T
<<
(2.11)
Nhm 12: Qunh Hu- Xun T Trang 8
ti: H thng truyn dn v thit k h thng Soliton
V d chn q
0
=6 trnh tng tc soliton, suy ra:
634
2
0

q
p
e

V chn km ps / 1
2
2
v hu ht cc h thng truyn thng soliton u s dng si
dch tn sc.
Ta c:

km
s
T e
L B
b
T
. ) ( 4 , 4
298
2
6
2
<<

(2.12)
Nh vy iu kin km
s
T
L B
b
T
. ) ( 4 , 4
2 2
<< c th ng vi L
T
ln hng chc ngn
kilmt. Tuy nhin, khi khong cch lan truyn ln th tc bit li nh, chng t iu
kin ny gii hn n khong cch truyn dn cng nh tc bit ca h thng
soliton.
V vy khi khong cch gia cc soliton rng hn ch tng tc th li hn ch tc
v khong cch truyn dn ca h thng. Mt cch gim q
0
m vn m bo tng
tc soliton nh nh s dng cc soliton ln cn c bin khc nhau. Nh biu din
hnh 3.3 vi s lch cng sut nh gia 2 soliton ln cn l 10% (r=1.1). Lc ny khong
cch gia 2 soliton ln cn khng thay i nhiu hn 10% so vi khong cch ban u q
0-
=3,5. Lu rng cng sut nh ch lch khong 1% so vi gi tr l tng ca n khi
N=1. V s lch nh v cng sut nh khng gy hi n bn cht lan truyn xung nn
s ny c th thc hin trong thc t tng dung lng h thng.
Ngoi cc yu t trn tng tc soliton cng c th thay i bi cc nhn t khc nh
s lch tn ban u tc ng mnh ln xung u vo.
2.4 S lch tn (frequency chirp)
lan truyn nh mt soliton c bn bn trong si quang, xung u vo khng ch c
dng sech m cn phi khng b chirp. Tuy nhin, trong thc t, cc ngun xung
quang ngn u c s lch tn (b chirp) tc ng ln chng. iu ny c th gy nguy
Nhm 12: Qunh Hu- Xun T Trang 9
ti: H thng truyn dn v thit k h thng Soliton
hi n s lan truyn cc soliton v n lm dao ng cn bng chnh xc gia GVD v
SPM. nh hng s lch tn ban u c tnh ton bng cch gii phng trnh NSE
vi iu kin u vo:
u(0,t)=sech(

)exp(
2
2
iC
) (2.13)
Vi C l h s chirp.
Dng bc hai ca s thay i pha tng ng vi chirp tn s tuyn tnh sao cho tn s
quang tng theo thi gian vi gi tr C dng. Hnh 2.4 biu din qa trnh lan truyn
xung vi N=1 v C=0.5
Hnh 2.4: Tin trnh xung quang b lch vi N=1 v C=0,5. Khi C=0 hnh dng xung
khng thay i v xung lan truyn nh mt soliton c bn.
Da vo hnh v ta thy hnh dng xung ban u c nn (do C>0). S nn ban u
ny vn xy ra ngay c khi vng mt cc hiu ng phi tuyn. Sau xung b m rng v
cui cng c nn ln th hai. Xung s tin trin thnh mt soliton qua khong cch lan
truyn
15 >
.
Vi gi tr C<0, tin trnh xung xy ra tng t nh trn mc d s nn ban u khng
xy ra trong trng hp ny.
xung tin trin thnh mt soliton yu cu gi tr
C
nh v cc soliton thng n
nh di s dao ng yu. Khi
C
vt qu gi tr nguy him C
crit
, xung s khng th
Nhm 12: Qunh Hu- Xun T Trang 10
ti: H thng truyn dn v thit k h thng Soliton
hnh thnh mt soliton. Th d trong trng hp N=1, soliton trong hnh 3.4 s khng
c hnh thnh nu C tng t 0.5 ln thnh 2.
Gi tr nguy him C
crit
ca h s chirp c th c tnh theo phng php tn x ngc
[4]. N ph thuc vo N v pha trong phng trnh (3.12), tm c l C
crit
=1,64 vi
N=1.
Khi thit k h thng yu cu s lch tn ban u l nh nht c th v khi hnh dng
xung s thay i t v qu trnh hnh thnh mt soliton cng nhanh hn. iu ny c th
cn thit v s dch tn tuy khng nguy hi vi crit
C C <
nhng mt phn nng lng
ca n cng b mt di dng sng tn sc trong sut qu trnh hnh thnh soliton [3]. V
d trong trng hp C=0.5, ch 83% nng lng xung c chuyn i thnh soliton v
con s ny gim xung ch cn 62% vi C=0.8.
2.5. My pht soliton.
.H thng truyn thng soliton quang yu cu mt ngun quang c kh nng to cc
xung picogiy khng chirp tc lp cao vi hnh dng gn ging nht vi dng hm
sech. Ngun pht c th vn hnh bc sng gn 1,55
m
, ti suy hao si l nh
nht v cc b khuych i quang si EDFA c th hot ng mt cch hiu qu b
suy hao si. Laser bn dn c s dng chung cho c h thng tuyn tnh v phi tuyn.
C nhiu my pht soliton khc nhau. Trong thi k u, truyn dn soliton s
dng k thut chuyn mch khuych i pht xung quang picogiy trong khong 20

40ps. V mt nguyn l n s nh thin laser di ngng v bm n cao trn ngng


nh k bi vic cung cp xung dng. Tc lp li c xc nh bng tn s iu ch
v thng xp x 1

10GHz. Nhc im ca k thut ny l cc xung pht b chirp do


s thay i chit sut cm ng sng mang theo h s tng cng rng ph c

. Tuy
nhin xung c th c to ra gn nh khng chirp bng vic cho n qua mt si quang
vi tn sc GVD bnh thng (
2

>0) m nn xung cng thi gian (ch k thut ny


to cc xung vi s lch tn sao cho tham s C<0).
Nhm 12: Qunh Hu- Xun T Trang 11
ti: H thng truyn dn v thit k h thng Soliton
Laser kha mode cng thch hp cho truyn thng soliton v thng c a dng
hn v dy xung kha mode pht t laser nh vy b chirp t b chirp hn. S kha mode
tch cc thng c s dng bi iu ch dng laser tn s bng hiu tn s gia 2
mode dc ln cn. Tuy nhin, mt laser bn dn n c chiu di hc tng i ngn
(thng 5mm hoc ngn hn) lm cho tn s iu ch ln hn 50GHz. khc phc
nhc im ny, mt laser hc m rng c a ra s dng tng chiu di hc cng
nh m rng tn s iu ch. Trong mt cch gii quyt thc t, ngi ta s dng phn
ui heo ni c nh vi my pht quang ln hc m rng bng vic khc mt cch t
si chirp.
Vic s dng cch t si b chirp cung cp mt bc sng n nh n 0,1nm trong khi
m ra mt c ch t iu ha m cho php laser kha mode c tn s iu ch trong
khong rng cc gi tr. Mt b lm nng nhit c s dng iu ha bc sng hot
ng qua mt dy 7nm bng vic thay i bc cch t. Ngun laser nh vy sn xut
xung ging soliton c rng 20ps tc 10Gb/s v c s dng trong nhiu th
nghim truyn dn quang.
Mt phng php n gin khc l to dy xung iu ch pha u ra mt laser bn
dn DFB t sau mt b lc bng thng quang. S iu ch pha to ra cc di bin FM
trn c hai bin ca tn s sng mang v b lc quang la chn cc gii bin trn mt
pha ca sng mang. Thit b nh vy s to ra mt dy xung n nh rng 20ps tc
lp c iu chnh bi mt b iu ch pha. N cng c th s dng nh mt ngun
lng bc sng bng vic lc cc gii bin trn c hai bin ca tn s sng mang vi
khong cch knh 0,8nm bc sng 1,5
m
. Mt k thut khc li s dng b iu ch
Mach-Zender n, c kch thch bi mt dng d liu in m NRZ chuyn i u
ra CW ca laser DFB thnh mt dng bit quang m RZ. Nhng xung quang ny mc d
khng c dng sech ca mt soliton nhng chng vn c dng trong h thng soliton
v kh nng tin trin thnh mt soliton ca si.
Nhm 12: Qunh Hu- Xun T Trang 12
ti: H thng truyn dn v thit k h thng Soliton
2.6 nh hng ca suy hao si
Nh bit, cc soliton s dng tnh phi tuyn si duy tr rng ca chng ngay
c khi c tn sc si. Tuy nhin thuc tnh ny ch ng khi suy hao l khng ng k.
Cn khi suy hao ln, cng sut nh gim ng k v s lm suy yu cc hiu ng phi
tuyn cn thit chng li nh hng ca GVD, dn n s m rng xung soliton.
Trong khi m phng nh dng mt soliton, chng ta xt phng trnh lan truyn
sng vi gi thit khng tnh n suy hao si. Tuy nhin, trong thc t suy hao si ng
mt vai tr rt quan trng khi thit k h thng, l mt tham s xc nh khong cch
gia b thu v pht v khng th b qua. Phng trnh NSE khi tnh n c suy hao si
c dng:

u
i
u u
u u
i +

2 2
1 2
2
2

(2.13)
Vi 2
2
0
/ T I
D

l suy hao si qua chiu di tn sc.
Khi 1 << ta c th coi nh c mt s dao ng nh v nghim phng trnh (2.13)
c tnh xp x [7]:

[ ] [ ]

'

) 2 exp( 1 )
4
( exp ) exp( sec ) , (
i
h u
(2.14)
T ta thy bin soliton gim theo hm m. V rng soliton t l nghch vi
bin ca n nn rng soliton tng theo hm m vi khong cch lan truyn tng
nh sau:

) exp( ) exp( ) (
0 0 1
z T T T
(2.15)
S tng rng nh vy khng c mong ch v thng gy kh khn cho truyn
dn ng di. Hnh 3.5 miu t s ph thuc ca h s m rng T
1
/T
0
vo

khi soliton
c t trong si c
07 , 0
.
Nhm 12: Qunh Hu- Xun T Trang 13
ti: H thng truyn dn v thit k h thng Soliton
(1): S m rng soliton khi
1 <<
(2): S m rng xung trong trong trng hp khng c mt cc hiu ng phi tuyn.
(3): S m rng xung vi
07 , 0

Hnh 2.5: S m rng xung bi suy hao si ( =0,07) cho soliton c bn
Da vo th ta thy s m rng xung soliton khi c mt cc hiu ng phi tuyn nh
hn so vi trng hp tuyn tnh. Bi vy nh hng ca cc hiu ng phi tuyn rt c
ch trong truyn thng quang ngay c khi soliton khng th duy tr hnh dng ca n mt
cch hon ho bi suy hao si.
Trong ng dng ng di, cc soliton c truyn qua khong cch ln (hng chc
nghn km hoc hn) m khng s dng cc b lc in. V vy chng li nh hng
do suy hao si gy ra, cc soliton cn c khuych i nh k khi phc rng
xung ban u, cng sut nh v nng lng ca chng.
Nhm 12: Qunh Hu- Xun T Trang 14
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
T
1
/T
0
0 20 40 60 80
100
Khong cch, z/L
D
N=1
(3)
(2)
(1)
ti: H thng truyn dn v thit k h thng Soliton
2.7. Khuch i soliton
Nh ni trn chng li nh hng ca suy hao si, cc soliton c khuych
i nh k b chnh xc suy hao si, lm cho xung c duy tr hnh dng khi lan
truyn trong si. S n gin nht cho khuych i ging nh trong h thng truyn
thng khng soliton (hnh 3.6a). Mt b khuych i quang c t nh k dc theo
lin kt si v h s khuych i ca n c chnh sao cho b chnh xc suy hao si
gia hai b khuych i. Mt tham s thit k quan trng l khong cch L
A
gia cc b
khuych i, khong cch ny thng c tnh ton t gi tr ln nht c th, gip
gim thiu chi ph thit b. Trong h thng quang thng thng, L
A
thng bng 80-
100km. Nhng vi h thng truyn thng quang soliton, khong cch ny b gii hn
khong cch nh hn nhiu. l v cc b khuych i quang ch gip tng th nng
lng soliton n mc u vo m khng khi phc dn soliton c bn. Cc soliton
c khuych i s sa dn rng ca n mt cch ng trong on si sau mi b
khuych i. Tuy nhin, n cng lm mt mt phn nng lng di dng sng tn sc
trong sut qu trnh sa pha. Phn tn sc c th c tch ly n mt mc ng k
qua mt s giai on khuych i v iu ny cn phi c trnh. Mt cch gim
phn tn sc l gim khong cch b khuych i L
A
sao cho cc soliton khng b o
ln nhiu qua khong cch . S m phng bng s cho thy rng y l trng hp khi
L
A
l mt phn nh ca chiu di tn sc (L
A
<<L
D
). Chiu di tn sc L
D
ph thuc c
vo rng xung T
0
v tham s tn sc vn tc nhm
2

, v c th thay i t 10-
1000km. Bnh thng L
D
< 50km vi h thng 10Gb/s vn hnh bc sng 1,55

m s
dng si chun. Vic s dng cc b khuych i tp trung yu cu L
A
<10km - mt gi
tr nh hn gi tr mong i trong thc t khi thit k. Tuy nhin, L
D
cng c th vt qu
200km khi
km ps / 1
2
2
<
bc sng hot ng. Khong cch b khuych i t 30-
50km l c th t c
Nhm 12: Qunh Hu- Xun T Trang 15
ti: H thng truyn dn v thit k h thng Soliton
Hnh 2.6: S khuych i tp trung
(a) v khuych i phn tn
(b) b suy hao si trong h thng truyn dn soliton
Mt gii php khc l s dng k thut khuych i phn tn m cc soliton c
khuych i dc theo tuyn si truyn dn d liu. Tn x Raman kch thch c s
dng cho mc ch ny t nhng nm 1985. S khuych i phn tn cng c th t
c bng cch kch tp si truyn dn nh sng vi phn t him erbium. Hnh (3.6b)
biu din s khuych i phn tn m cc laser bm tim nh sng CW trong c hai
hng s dng cc coupler si. Bc sng bm c la chn sao cho n cung cp h s
khuych i bc sng tn hiu. V h s khuych i c phn tn qua ton b chiu
di si, cc soliton c th c khuych i on nhit trong mt cch nh vy m N
c duy tr gn vi gi tr u vo N=1 d c suy hao si. Tht vy, nu h s khuych
i c cn bng chnh xc vi suy hao si mi im trong si, N vn l 1 v soliton
vn duy tr chnh n qua mt khong cch ty . Tuy nhin, iu ny khng c tha
mn trong thc t v cng sut bm khng n nh dc theo si. Khong cch trm bm
L
A
ph thuc vo suy hao si bc sng bm v nng lng soliton c th lch mt
cht t gi tr u vo ca n. Thng L
A
= 40-50km nu s lch ln nht ca nng lng
Nhm 12: Qunh Hu- Xun T Trang 16
R
x
R
x
T
x
T
x
Amplifier
s

Pumpin
g
Coupler
s
(a)
(b
)
ti: H thng truyn dn v thit k h thng Soliton
soliton c th chu c l 20%. y L
A
c th vt L
D
nhiu ln, tri vi trng hp
khuych i tp trung L
A
<<L
D
.
Cc th nghim trc y v khuych i soliton tp trung vo s khuych i
Raman. Mt th nghim nm 1985 chng minh suy hao si qua khong cch 10km c
th c b bi h s khuych i Raman trong khi duy tr rng soliton. Hai laser gi
mu trung tm c s dng trong th nghim ny. Mt laser to xung 10ps bc sng
1,56
m
. Khi vng mt khuych i Raman, soliton b m rng khong 50% v suy hao
(T
1
/T
0
=
z
e

=1,51 vi z=10km,
km dB/ 18 , 0
). Khi cng sut bm khong 125mW, h
s khuych i Raman l 1,8dB c b cho suy hao si v xung u ra c nhn dng
gn ng vi xung u vo.
Mt th nghim sau c chng minh s truyn dn soliton qua 4000km s dng s
khuych i Raman. Th nghim ny s dng vng lp si 42km m suy hao ca n
c b chnh xc bng vic tim vo nh sng bm CW t laser di mu trung tm
m 46 , 1
. Cc soliton c cho lu thng nhiu ln dc theo vng lp si n 96 ln
m khng tng rng xung l my, cho thy s khi phc xung qua khong cch
4000km. Khong cch ny c th ti 6000km. Th nghim ny c chng minh nm
1988 m ra cc kh nng truyn cc soliton qua i dng. Tr ngi chnh y l s
khuych i Raman yu cu cc laser bm pht cng sut CW>500mW bc sng 1,46
m
. S l kh khn c th t c mt cng sut cao nh vy t cc laser bn dn
v laser di mu trung tm. Cho n nm 1989, vi s ra i ca cc b lc khuych i
quang si EDFA, kh khn ny c gii quyt. EDFA c th thay th cc b
khuych i thng thng vi nhiu u im: mch n gin, linh hot (khng c mch
ti to thi gian, mch phc hi). C cu trc nh, d lp t v c th lp nhiu EDFA
trong cng mt trm lm cho h thng linh hot hn. Cng sut ngun nui nh nn khi
p dng cho cc tuyn thng tin quang vt bin, cp c cu trc nh nh hn. Gi thnh
r, trng lng nh, nng cao khong cch lp v dung lng truyn dn. Cc th nghim
sau ny u s dng EDFA khuych i soliton v cc soliton c th duy tr hnh dng
qua khong cch di bt k bn cht bm ca tin trnh khuych i.
Nhm 12: Qunh Hu- Xun T Trang 17
ti: H thng truyn dn v thit k h thng Soliton
CHNG 3: THIT K H THNG SOLITON
H thng thng tin quang si tc cao thng b hn ch bi tn sc vn tc nhm
m m rng xung v suy hao nng lng. Cc soliton ra i gip cho ci tin hiu
nng h thng, hn ch tn sc duy tr rng xung nh vic cn bng nh hng ca
GVD v hin tng phi tuyn SPM. Tuy nhin, trong thit k h thng soliton, nhiu yu
t gii hn khng trnh c v cn c xem xt ti gin nh hng ca n. Cc
nhn t chnh gii hn khong cch truyn dn soliton gm suy hao si, tng tc soliton
v jitter timing.
Khi xem xt vn suy hao si, chng li nh hng ca n ngi ta s dng cc
c ch khc nhau ty thuc vo suy hao trn chiu di tn sc (
D
L
) v khong cch b
khuych i L
A
. Nu
D
L
<<1 v L
A
>>L
D
, soliton c th sa suy hao nng lng on
nhit, c ch ny c gi l c ch ta on nhit v s c tho lun chng k
tip. Cn nu L
A
<<L
D
hnh dng soliton khng b mo nhiu d c suy hao nng lng.
Trong h thng , soliton c th c khuych i hng trm ln m vn duy tr hnh
dng ca n. V tin trnh soliton thng c chi phi bi nng lng soliton trung bnh
trn cc khong khuych i L
A
nn ch vn hnh ny c gi l c ch soliton trung
bnh. Trong phn ny chng ta s xem xt cc vn cn ch khi thit k h thng
truyn thng soliton theo c ch trung bnh.
3.1 C ch soliton trung bnh
S khuych i nh k ca soliton c th c tnh ton bng vic thm mt s hng
khuych i vo phng trnh (3.13) v NSE khi c dng nh sau :

( ) ( )u m G i u
i
u u
u u
i
A
N
m
A

+ +

1
2
2
2
1
2 2
1


(3.1)
Nhm 12: Qunh Hu- Xun T Trang 18
ti: H thng truyn dn v thit k h thng Soliton
Vi N
A
l s b khuych i;
) exp( , , /
A D D A A
G L L L
l h s khuych i
cn b suy hao si; Hm delta tnh cho bn cht tp trung ca s khuych i v tr
A
m
; H s 1 G trnh by s thay i bin trong sut qu trnh khuych i.
V s thay i nhanh ca nng lng soliton c a ra bi s khuych i tp
trung, ta thc hin chuyn i sau:

) , ( ) ( ) , ( a u
(3.2)

) , ( ), ( a
tng ng l hm bin thin nhanh v chm ca

.
Thay vo phng trnh (3.1) ta c:
( )
( ) ( )
( )


1
]
1

+ +

+ +

A
A
N
m
A
N
m
A
m G i
a
a
i a i
a m G i a
i
a a
a a i
1
2
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
2
) ( 1
2
1
) (
2
1
) ( 1 ) (
2
) ( ) (
) (
2
1 ) , ( ) (
0 ) (
2
1 2
2
2
2
+

a i
(3.3)
v
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )


+
1
]
1

A A
N
m
A
N
m
A
a m G a m G a
a
1 1
1
2
1
1
2
1

(3.4)
s hng cui trong phng trnh (3.4) l tun hon v ch gp phn ti
A
m
,
) ( a
l hm tun hon ca

. Trong mi chu k
) ( a
gim theo hm m v tr v gi
tr u cui chu k .

) (
2
a
thay i nhanh vi mt chu k
1 <<
A

. V cc soliton tin trin t qua mt


khong cch ngn
A

, ngi ta c th thay th
) (
2
a
bng mt gi tr trung bnh ca n
qua mt chu k. S xp x ny c th c chng minh bng vic s dng + vi

l soliton trung bnh tha mn hm NSE chun:


Nhm 12: Qunh Hu- Xun T Trang 19
ti: H thng truyn dn v thit k h thng Soliton
i
0 ) (
2
1 2
2
2
2
> < +

a
(3.5)
v l mt s dao ng ca

theo
,
tng i nh khi
1 <<
A

. Cng sut nh
u vo P
in
ca soliton trung bnh c la chn sao cho
1 ) (
2
> < a
. Suy ra:
P
in
=
0
1
ln
P
G
G G

(3.6)
Vi G=
A
e

, P
0
l cng sut nh trong si khng suy hao.
Hnh 3.1 miu t tin trnh soliton trung bnh trong c ch soliton trung bnh qua
khong cch 10000km, L
A
=50km. Khi L
D
=200km, rng soliton c duy tr tt thm
ch sau 200 ln khuych i v iu kin
D A A
L L /
<<1 c tha mn. Tuy nhin nu
chiu di tn sc gim xung 25km, soliton b ph hy v n khng lan truyn lu trong
c ch soliton trung bnh.

Hnh 3.1: Tin trnh soliton trong c ch soliton trung bnh qua khong cch 10000km
vi L
A
=50km, a=0,22dB/km v km ps / 5 , 0
2
2
v a) L
D
=200km, b)L
D
=25km
iu kin
1 <<
A

hay L
A
<<L
D
c yu cu c ch vn hnh trong c ch soliton
trung bnh. S dng L
D
= 2
2
0
/ T
, iu kin tr thnh:
T
0
>> A
L
2

(3.7)
Nhm 12: Qunh Hu- Xun T Trang 20
ti: H thng truyn dn v thit k h thng Soliton
Tc bit B=
2
2
0
2
2 0
0 0
4
1
2
1
2
1

q
L B
L q
T q
A
A
<< <<
(3.8)
Da vo phng trnh (3.8) ta thy r rng s dng c ch soliton trung bnh gii hn
c v tc ln khong cch bc b khuych i ca mt h thng soliton.
3.2 S khuych i phn b.
iu kin L
A
<<L
D
c p t ln cc soliton c qun l tn sc khi cc b khuych
i tp trung c s dng thc t lm cho kh khn tng ln p ng c cc tc
truyn dn c 10Gb/s. iu kin ny c th c xem xt khc phc khi s khuych i
phn b c s dng. K thut khuych i phn b vn l mnh hn khuych i tp
trung do vic s dng n cung cp si gn nh khng b suy hao nh s b tn tht cc
b ti mi im dc trn tuyn si. Thc t, k thut ny c s dng vo nm 1985
nh s dng tng ch phn b c cung cp bi s khuych i Raman khi si quang
mang tn hiu c tp trung ti bc sng c chiu di khong 1,46 micromet nh s
dng laser mu trung tm. Thng thng, si quang truyn dn c th c kch tp nh
sng vi cc ion erbium v c tp trung nh k tng ch khuych i. Mt vi thc
nghim m t rng cc soliton c th c truyn trong cc si quang tch cc trn cc
khong cch tng i di.
u im ca s khuych i phn b c th thy trong phng trnhm c th c
vit di dng cc n v vt l nh sau:

p z g
dz
dp
) ) ( (
(3.9)
Nu g(z)=

vi mi z, cng sut nh hoc nng lng soliton duy tr khng i dc


theo tuyn si quang. y l mt trng hp l tng m si quang thc s khng b tn
tht. Thc t, s tng ch c thc hin bng cch bm tp trung cng sut mt cch
nh k vo trong tuyn si quang. Do cng sut tp trung khng duy tr hng s v cc
tn tht si v s suy yu tp trung, g(z) khng th duy tr khng i dc theo si. Tuy
Nhm 12: Qunh Hu- Xun T Trang 21
ti: H thng truyn dn v thit k h thng Soliton
nhin, mc d cc tn tht si khng th c b ti mi ni bn trong si, chng c th
c b y trn khong cch L
A
c cho:

A
L
L dz z g
A

0
) (
(3.10)
K thut khuych i phn b c thit k tha mn phng trnh (3.10). Khong
cch L
A
c xem nh l khong cch bc trm khuych i.
3.3. Nhiu b khuych i
Cc soliton l mt loi xung quang c bit c kh nng lan truyn qua khong cch
hng chc ngn kilmt m khng gy mo tn hiu. Nh bit, trong qu trnh truyn
dn, tn hiu trsoliton cng b suy hao lm gim cng sut nh, xung s b m rng
m bo ng c tnh ca mt soliton. trnh tn hiu ny tn hiu ny tn hiu phi
c khuych i nh k b chnh xc suy hao si. Tuy nhin cc b khuych i li
sinh nhiu ASE (amplified spontaneous emission: s pht x t pht c khuych i)
lm nh hng quan trng n h thng.
Mt ph ca ASE ph thuc vo chnh h s khuych i G. hiu ASE nh
hng nh th no ti tin trnh mt soliton, ta xem xt dng chung nht ca mt soliton
c bn [6]:

( ) [ ]
,
_

+ + +

i i i q h u
s
2
) ( exp sec ) , (
2 2
(3.11)
Trong
, , , q
tng ng l bin , v tr, tn s, pha ca xung vo ti bin
0
nh hng ca ASE lm thay i ngu nhin cc gi tr 4 tham s
, , , q
u ra
mi b khuych i. Phng sai ca 4 tham s soliton c th c tnh ton bng vic
xem ASE nh mt s dao ng. Theo thuyt nhiu lon on nhit pht trin cho soliton,
tin trnh ca 4 tham s v s nhiu lon soliton
) (
s
u
l :
Nhm 12: Qunh Hu- Xun T Trang 22
ti: H thng truyn dn v thit k h thng Soliton

d u u
s s
) ( Im
(3.12)

( ) [ ]

d u q u
s
tanh ) ( Re
s (3.13)

+

+



d u q u
q
s s
*
) )( ( Im
1
(3.14)

[ ] { }

+



+

d u q q u q
s s
*
2 2
) ( tanh ) ( 1 ) ( Re
1
2
(3.15)
Cc hm trn ng vai tr quan trng trong thit k h thng v chng c th c thit
k vi dng ty ca hm dao ng.
Vi ASE hm dao ng c dng:

) exp( ) , ( ) ( i i in u
s
+
(3.16)
Trong n(
,
) l nhiu ngu nhin, bao gm c s dao ng bin v pha. Phng
sai ca n lin quan n mt ph tp m ASE
S
nh sau:
S
G
sp
N
F
n 2
2

(3.17)
S
G
sp
N
F
n
3
2
2

(3.18)
Nhm 12: Qunh Hu- Xun T Trang 23
ti: H thng truyn dn v thit k h thng Soliton
S
G
sp q
N
F
n
6
2 2

(3.19)
S
G
sp
N
F
n
3
2
6
2
2

,
_

(3.20)
Trong : n
sp
h s pht x t pht.
F
G
=( ) ) ln /( 1
2
G G G
N
S
l s photon c cha trong mt soliton c bn c nng lng E
S
(N
S-
=E
S
/ 0 0 0 0
/ 2 T P
)
S dao ng bin lm gim tn hiu trn tp (SNR) ca dng bit soliton. S dao
ng tn gy ra mt jitter timing nh hng n hiu nng ca h thng truyn thng
soliton m gii hn khong cch truyn dn. Vn jitter timing s c ni n ngay
sau y.
3.4. Tin trnh thc nghim.
Hnh 3.2: Th nghim thit lp truyn dn soliton 2 b EDFA t sau b iu ch LiNO
3
hot ng nh mt b tng th cng sut.
Nhm 12: Qunh Hu- Xun T Trang 24
ti: H thng truyn dn v thit k h thng Soliton
Hnh 3.2 biu din mt th nghim s dng b iu ch cng LiNO
3
tc ng
n tn hiu trn dy xung. Dy bit soliton c truyn qua nhiu on si vi suy hao
mi on c b bi mt b EDFA. Khong cch b khuych i c la chn tha
mn iu kin L
A
<<L
D
v thng t 25-40km.
Trong mt th nghim nm 1991, cc soliton truyn qua 1000km tc 100Gb/s.
Cc soliton rng 45ps cho php khong cch b khuych i l 50km trong c ch soliton
trung bnh.
T nm 1991 tr i hu ht cc th nghim truyn thng soliton u s dng cu hnh
vng lp si tun hon tit kim chi ph. Cng trong mt th nghim nm 1991, cc
soliton 2,5Gb/s truyn qua c khong cch 12000km s dng vng lp si 75km
cha ba b khuych i EDFA, t cch nhau 25km
Hnh 3.3: Cu hnh vng lp tun hon truyn dn qua 12000km tc 2,5Gb/s.
Trong th nghim ny, BL=30(Tb/s)km, b gii hn chnh bi jitter timing cm ng b
khuych i. Vn jitter sau c gii quyt bng cc b lc quang.
Cc soliton qun l tn sc c th to ra mt s li ch cho h thng truyn dn soliton,
chng hn nh ci thin t s tn hiu trn nhiu, gim jitter timing.
Cc k thut qun l tn sc c s dng cho cc soliton u nm 1992 mc d lin
quan n cc tn nh truyn thng soliton thnh phn v s phn b tn sc. Trong dng
Nhm 12: Qunh Hu- Xun T Trang 25
ti: H thng truyn dn v thit k h thng Soliton
n gin nht ca qun l tn sc, mt phn tng i ngn ca si b tn sc (DCF)
c thm vo nh k i vi si truyn dn to ra biu tn sc tng t nh c
s dng cho cc h thng khng phi soliton. Mt th nghim nm 1995 nhn thy
rng vic s dng cc DCF gim jitter timing mt cch ng k. Thc t, trong th
nghim 20Gb/s ny, jitter timing tr nn thp khi tn sc trung bnh c gim ti gn
vi gi tr -0,025
km ps /
2
m tn hiu 20Gb/s c th c truyn vt i dng.
T nm 1996, nhiu th nghim cho thy cc li ch ca cc soliton qun l tn sc
i vi h thng sng nh sng. Trong mt th nghim vic s dng biu tn sc theo
nh k cho php truyn dn lung bt soliton 20Gb/s trn tuyn si quang 5520km
gm cc b khuych i c t cc khong cch 40km. Trong mt th nghim khc
cc soliton 20Gb/s c th truyn trn khong cch 9000km m khng s dng cc b lc
quang trong ng v vic s dng nh k cc DCF gim jitter timing hn 3 ln. Mt
th nghim tp trung vo truyn dn cc soliton c qun l tn sc nh s dng cc
biu tn sc m cc soliton c truyn hu ht thi gian trong c ch GVD bnh
thng. Th nghim 10Gb/s ny truyn cc tn hiu trn 28Mm nh s dng nh s
dng mt vng lp si quay vng gm 100km si GVD thng thng v 8km si GVD
d thng bi vy GVD trung bnh l d thng (khong
km ps / 1 , 0
2

). Cc bin i
nh k rng xung cng c quan st trong mt vng lp si quang. Mt th nghim
na trong vng lp c hiu chnh to ra gi tr GVD trung bnh khng hoc
ln hn khng mt mc khng ng k. Truyn dn n nh ca cc soliton 10Gb/s trn
28Mm vn c quan st. Trong tt c cc th nghim cc kt qu rt ph hp vi cc m
phng s.
Nhm 12: Qunh Hu- Xun T Trang 26
ti: H thng truyn dn v thit k h thng Soliton
KT LUN
S ra i ca h thng Soliton l 1 cha kha gii quyt bi ton truyn dn tc
cao v ng di, khng nh l 1 trong nhng cng ngh ca tng lai vi nhng u
im ni tri l:
- Cc Soliton hnh thnh t s cn bng gia GVD v SPM c kh nng duy tr
rng xung qua khong cch lan truyn ln.
- Soliton c bn c xung u vo b dch pha trong qu trnh lan truyn trong si
nhng bin khng i lm cho n tr nn l tng vi truyn thng quang.
- C kh nng n nh chng li s nhiu lon. V vy cc Soliton c bn tuy yu cu
1 dng c bit v cng sut nh ring song n c th c hnh thnh ngay c khi cc
gi tr lch khi iu kin l tng nh kh nng t sa cc tham s ca mnh.
- H thng Soliton khng cn s dng cc b lp in, gim chi ph lp t.
- S dng cc b khuch i quang si EDFA c nhiu u im lm cho mach n
gin d lp t.
- C kh nng kt hp nhiu knh c cc bc sng khc nhau trong 1 si n mt
tng dung lng v tc truyn dn.
Soliton c nhiu u im nh c tnh duy tr c hnh dng khng i trn
ng truyn. Song u thu vn c th thu sai cc bt tn hiu do cc bt ny n sai v tr
ca n m nguyn nhn chnh l jitter.
- Vn v jitter cn phi nghin cu cn thn c cch iu khin hp l nhm hn
ch kh nng tn hiu thu b gim cht lng. Nhiu phng php m phng bng thc
nghim thc hin rt thnh cng cho kt qu gn vi thc t to iu kin cho vic
nghin cu c hiu qu hn.
- Nhiu kh khn trong vn trin khai h thng soliton trong thc t. Trong jitter
ng mt vai tr quan trng. Mc d vy h thng soliton ang ha hn mt tng lai
ti sng.
Nhm 12: Qunh Hu- Xun T Trang 27