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Thomas Noll∗ Department of Computer Science Technical University of Berlin November 4, 2001

Abstract This article provides an introduction to basic geometric investigations of the 12-tone sytem and its subsets, the chords. The various deﬁnitions and results are intended to lay a theoretical basis for 12-tone-based explorative and empirical research on occidental harmony. The entire approach is motivated by the assumption that the 12 tones do not constitute an arbitrary 12-element set with arbitrary paradigmatic relations, but rather a discrete geometrical space. Transpositions obviously are instances of paradigmatic relations, that are reﬂected by aﬃne transformations. From the mathematical point of view, the article presents a straightforward elaboration of this observation. From the music theoretical point of view it is of speculative nature and asks for experimental studies.

1

Tone Perspectives

Consider the ring Z12 of residue classes of integers modulo 12. Let T denote the 12-tone module - i.e., Z12 understood as a module over itself. Its points are called tones.1 Aﬃne endomorphisms f : T → T of the tone module are called tone perspectives. Each one is given by a multiplication factor a ∈ Z12 , together with a translation summand b ∈ T and we write b a in order to denote the corresponding tone perspective b a : T → T with b a(t) = at+b. The 144 tone perspectives form a monoid A with respect to the operation ◦ of concatenation. One has d c ◦ b a = cb+d (ca). There are 6 submodules K ⊆ T, namely the two trivial ones: T and 0T = {0} and 4 proper submodules: 2T, 3T, 4T and 6T. For each submodule K ⊆ T consider the submonoid A(K) = {f ∈ A|f (K) ⊆ K} of selfperspectives of K, consiting of those tone perspectives mapping K into itself. Furthermore, we will

∗ Interdisciplinary Research Group KIT-MaMuTh for Mathematical Music Theory ﬁnanced by the Volkswagen-Stiftung 1 In a music theoretical application of this model one has to be more careful in dealing with the meaning of the elements of T. One might formally distinguish the carrier sets Z12 and T from one another in order to avoid confusion between scalar factors and tones.

1

be concerned with the factor module T/K, whoose elements are aﬃne subspaces t + K associated with K. The following deﬁnition and lemma focus on the proper submodules 3T and 4T and the corresponding factor modules T/3T and T/4T. Deﬁnition 1 (Outer decomposition of the 12-tone module) 1. The factor module T3 := T/3T is called the outer 3-cycle of the 12-tone module T and its elements are called inner 4-cycles or dimtones. 2. The factor module T4 := T/4T is called the outer 4-cycle of the 12-tone module T and its elements are called inner 3-cycles or augtones. 3. The direct sum T3×4 := T3 ⊕ T4 is called the outer decomposition of the 12-tone-module. Remark 1 The technical terms ”dimtone” and ”augtone” shall, on the one hand, refer to the traditional terms ”diminished seventh chord” and ”augmented triad”. On the other hand we do not intend to refer to the operations of diminution and augmentation in this deﬁnition. Lemma 1 Let ?3 and ?4 denote the projection maps from T onto T3 and T4 respectively and consider their product map ?3×4 onto T3×4 , i.e. ?3 : T → T3 ?4 : T → T4 ?3×4 : T → T3×4 Then the following holds: 1. The tone perspectives 0 4 and 0 9 induce module injections ?∗4 : T3 → T and ?∗9 : T4 → T such that (?∗4 )3 = idT3 and (?∗9 )4 = idT4 . 2. ?3×4 is an isomorphism of Z12 -modules. Its inverse map is given through (?, ?)∗4×∗9 : T3×4 → T with (t, s)∗4×∗9 := 4t + 9s. Proof: 1. The value 0 4(t + 3k) = 4t does not depend on k, and, furthermore we have (4t)3 = t3 . Similarily, the value 0 9(t + 4k) = 9t does not depend on k, and (9t)4 = t4 . 2. ((t, s)∗4×∗9 )3×4 = (4t + 9s)3×4 = (t + 3(t + 3s), s + 4(t + 2s). The last pair represents the same element of T3×4 as (t, s) does. Conversely, we have (t3×4 )∗4×∗9 = (t3 , t4 )∗4×∗9 = (4t + 9t) = t. According to this lemma, one has a natural identiﬁcation of the augtone-module T4 with the dimtone 3T = {0, 3, 6, 9} as well as of the dimtone-module T3 with the augtone 4T = {0, 4, 8}, such that they can be viewed as retracts of T. The 2 with with with t3 := t + 3T, t4 := t + 4T, t3×4 := (t3 , t4 ).

situation is diﬀerent in the case of the two-element module T2 = T/2T when compared with the two-element tritone-chord 6T = {0, 6}. They are isomorphic as Z12 -modules, but 6T is not a retract of T. Analogously, 2T is not a retract of T. Deﬁnition 2 Let A3 and A4 denote the monoids of aﬃne endomorphisms of the Z12 -modules T3 and T4 respectively. The elements of A3 are called dimtone perspectives and the elements of A4 are called augtone perspectives. Let A3×4 := A3 ⊕ A4 denote the direct product of the monoids A3 and A4 . Its elements are called outer tone perspectives. Lemma 2 Each tone perspective f ∈ A induces a dimtone perspective f3 ∈ A3 as well as an augtone perspective f4 ∈ A4 by virtue of f3 (t3 ) := (f (t))3 and f4 (t4 ) := (f (t))4 . The mappings ?3 : A → A3 and ?4 : A → A4 are surjective monoid morphisms. Especially, the restriction of ?3 to A(4T) (and of ?4 to A(3T)) yields a monoid isomorphism A(4T) ∼ A3 (and A(3T) ∼ A4 ). = = Proof: Take f = b a. Then f3 ((t + 3k)3 ) = (f (t + 3k))3 = (a(t + 3k) + b)3 = (at + b)3 = (f (t))3 = f3 (t3 ). Hence the deﬁnition of f3 does not depend on the representatives of an argument. Further, (f ◦ g)3 (t3 ) = (f (g(t))3 = f3 ((g(t))3 ) = (f3 ◦ g3 )(t3 ) and obviously (0 1)3 is the identity in A3 . Finally, two tone perspectives b a and d c induce the same dimtone perspective, if and only if both diﬀerences b − d and a − c are multiples of 3. An inspection of A(4T) = {b a | a, b ∈ 0, 4, 8} shows that these nine tone perspectives represent nine diﬀerent dimtone perspectives, just because 0, 4, 8 represent diﬀerent residue classes modulo 3. Hence we are done with f3 . The same line of arguments works for f4 . The following lemma shows that tone perspectives are in a natural 1-1-correspondence with the outer tone perspectives. Lemma 3 The mapping ?3×4 : A → A3×4 with f3×4 := (f3 , f4 ) is an isomorphism of monoids. Proof: We construct the inverse mapping ?∗4×∗9 : A3×4 → A as follows: Let f = b+3k (a + 3l) and g = d+4m (c + 4n) be arbitrary representatives of an argument (f3 , g4 ). Its image (f3 , g4 )∗4×∗9 ∈ A has to be independent of the variables k, l, m, n. Indeed, we set (f3 , g4 )∗4×∗9 :=

4(b+3k)+9(d+4m)

(4(a + 3l) + 9(c + 4n)) =

4b+9d

(4a + 9c).

Hence the mapping is well-deﬁned. Now we check that it is inverse to ?3×4 . For f = b a and (f3 , g4 ) = ((b a)3 , (d c)4 ) we compute, (f3×4 )∗4×∗9 = ((b a)3 , (b a)4 )∗4×∗9 = 4b+9b 4a + 9a = b a = f, ((f3 , g4 )∗4×∗9 )3×4 = (4b+9d 4a + 9c)3×4 = ((b a)3 , (d c)4 ) = (f3 , g4 ). Finally, the product map ?3×4 = ?3 ×?4 : A → A3 ⊕ A4 is a monoid morphism, because its factors ?3 : A → A3 and ?4 : A → A4 are monoid morphisms. 3

Remark 2 Besides the monoid structure of A, A3 , A4 and A3×4 these sets carry the structure of a Z12 -module (e.g., addition in A is given by b a+ d c = b+d (a+c) and scalar multiplication by k(b a) = kb (ka). The above calculations make clear that the monoid morphisms ?3 , ?4 and ?3×4 are, at the same time, linear module morphisms. However, the additive module structure and the multiplivative monoid structure do not combine into a ring structure, because the distributivity law is not fulﬁlled: Left distributivity is fulﬁlled: (b1 a1 + b2 a2 ) ◦ d c = (a1 +a2 )d+b1 +b2 (a1 + a2 )c = a1 d+b1 (a1 c) + a2 d+b2 (a2 c) = b1 a1 ◦ d c + b2 a2 ◦ d c. But right distributivity is not fulﬁlled: c ◦ (b1 a1 + b2 a2 ) = c(b1 +b2 )+d c(a1 + a2 ) d c ◦ b1 a1 + d c ◦ b2 a2 = cb1 +d (ca1 ) + cb2 +d (ca2 ) =

d c(b1 +b2 )+2d

c(a1 + a2 ).

Some contructions for rings like ideals are also meaningful in the present situation. A useful generalization of right and left ideals in rings to a monoid like A are sieves and cosieves in the category A (a monoid is a category consisting of one object, while its elements are interpreted as arrows). It appears in our situation of the ”pseudo-ring” A, that the cosieves share the properties of ”left-ideals”, while only a few out of many sieves show the additive properties of ”right-ideals”. Deﬁnition 3 A set R ⊆ A of tone perspectives is said to be an A-sieve, if R ◦ A = R, i.e., if r ∈ R implies r ◦ f ∈ R for all f ∈ A. A set L ⊆ A of tone perspectives is said to be an A-cosieve, if L ◦ A = L, i.e., if l ∈ L implies f ◦ l ∈ L for all f ∈ A. While there are thousands of A-sieves, there are only 6 A-cosieves, namely the submodules T (kZ12 ) ⊆ A (for k ∈ {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6}) (see Remark 2). All A-sieves are semigroups, but not vice versa (e.g., the only sieve R among the submonoids M ⊆ A is A itself, because 0 1 ∈ R always implies 0 1 ◦ f = f ∈ R for all f ∈ A).

4

2

Tone Symmetries

Among the 144 tone perspectives there are 48 invertible ones, namely those having multiplicative units in Z∗ = {1, 5, 7, 11} as multiplication factors. They 12 form a group A∗ ⊂ A and are called tone symmetries. Similarly, we write A∗ ⊂ A3 to denote the 3-element group of dimtone symme3 tries within the 9-element monoid of dimtone perspectives and we write A∗ ⊂ A4 4 for the 8-element group of augtone symmetries within the 16-element monoid of augtone perspectives. We consider three actions of the group A∗ on A: lef t : A∗ × A → A right : A∗ × A → A conj : A∗ × A → A with lef t(s, f ) := s ◦ f. with right(s, f ) := f ◦ s. with conj(s, f ) := s ◦ f ◦ s−1 .

These three actions induce actions lef t3 , right3 , conj3 of A∗ on A3 as well as 3 actions lef t4 , right4 , conj4 of A∗ on A4 (e.g. lef t3 (s3 , f3 ) := (lef t(s, f ))3 ). 4 Proposition 1 Let A3 /lef t3 , A3 /right3 and A3 /conj3 denote the sets of orbits of dimtone perspectives with respect to the actions lef t3 , right3 and conj3 , respectively, and let A4 /lef t4 , A4 /right4 and A4 /conj4 denote the sets of orbits of dimtone perspectives with respect to the actions lef t4 , right4 and conj4 . In detail one has the following orbits: 1. A3 /lef t3 consists of two orbits: {(0 0)3 , (4 0)3 , (8 0)3 } and A∗ . 3 2. A3 /right3 consists of four orbits: {(0 0)3 }, {(4 0)3 }, {(8 0)3 } and A∗ . 3 3. A3 /conj3 consists of four orbits: {(0 0)3 , (4 0)3 , (8 0)3 }, {(0 4)3 }, {(4 4)3 , (8 4)3 } and {(0 8)3 , (4 8)3 , (8 8)3 }. 4. A4 /lef t4 consists of three orbits: {(0 0)4 , (9 0)4 , (6 0)4 , (3 0)4 }, {(0 6)4 , (9 6)4 , (6 6)4 , (3 6)4 } and A∗ . 4 5. A4 /right4 consists of seven orbits: {(0 0)4 }, {(9 0)4 }, {(6 0)4 }, {(3 0)4 }, {(0 6)4 , (6 6)4 }, {(9 6)4 , (3 6)4 } and A∗ . 4 6. A4 /conj4 consists of seven orbits: {(0 0)4 , (9 0)4 , (6 0)4 , (3 0)4 }, {(0 6)4 , (6 6)4 }, {(9 6)4 , (3 6)4 }, {(0 9)4 }, {(6 9)4 }, {9 3)4 , (3 3)4 } and {(0 3)4 , (9 3)4 , (6 3)4 , (3 3)4 }. The veriﬁcation of this propositions is left to the reader.

∗ ∗ Let A∗ 3×4 = A3 × A4 denote the group of outer tone symmetries within the monoid A3×4 of all outer tone perspectives. The actions lef t3 , right3 , conj3 and lef t4 , right4 , conj4 induce three actions

lef t3×4 , right3×4 , conj3×4 : A∗ × A3×4 → A3×4 3×4 (e.g. lef t3×4 ((s3 , s4 ), (f3 , f4 )) := (lef t3 (s3 , f3 ), lef t4 (s4 , f4 )). Obviously, the sets A3×4 /lef t3×4 , A3×4 /right3×4 and A3×4 /conj3×4 of orbits of these three actions consist of cartesian products O3 × O4 of orbits O3 and O4 with respect to 5

the corresponding actions on A3 and A4 . As a consequence, the above propositions provide a complete picture of the three orbit structures on A3×4 . Furthermore, the natural isomorphy between (inner) tone perspectives and outer tone perspectives implies, that the group actions lef t, right and conj yield the same orbit structures on A as the actions lef t3×4 , right3×4 and conj3×4 do on on A3×4 . This is subsumed in the following proposition: Proposition 2 Let A/lef t, A/right, A/conj denote the sets of orbits of tone perspectives with respect to the group actions lef t, right and cons : A∗ × A → A. The monoid isomorphism ?3×4 : A → A3×4 induces natural bijections A/lef t A/right A/conj ∼ A3×4 /lef t3×4 = ∼ A3×4 /right3×4 = ∼ A3×4 /conj3×4 = = {O3 × O4 | O3 ∈ A3 /lef t3 , O4 ∈ A4 /lef t4 }, = {O3 × O4 | O3 ∈ A3 /right3 , O4 ∈ A4 /right4 }, = {O3 × O4 | O3 ∈ A3 /conj3 , O4 ∈ A4 /conj4 }.

We conclude this paragraph by a series of tables displaying these orbit structures. Remark 3 In order to display all the tone perspectives, their various orbits and other structures in a suitable and coherent way, we will be using the following 9 × 16-table.

00 40 80 04 44 84 08 48 88 60 10 0 20 64 10 4 24 68 10 8 28 90 10 50 94 14 54 98 18 58 30 70 11 0 34 74 06 46 86 66 10 6 26 96 16 56 36 76 11 6 09 49 89 01 41 69 10 9 29 61 10 1 21 65 10 5 25 99 19 59 91 11 51 95 15 55 39 79 11 9 31 71 11 1 35 75 03 43 83 07 47 87 63 10 3 23 67 10 7 27 93 13 53 97 17 57 33 73 11 3 37 77 11 7

0 10 6 10 9 10 3 10 4 10 10 10 1 10 7 10

11 4 8 10 2 10 5 10 11 10 8 1 38 78 11 8 02 42 82 62 10 2 22 92 12 52 32 72 11 2 05 45 85

0 11 6 11 9 11 3 11 4 11 10 11 1 11 7 11

11 5 8 11 2 11 5 11 11 11

The displayed vertical and horizontal lines in such a TP-Table may be varied in order to group tone perspectives. In the ﬁgure above, the lines indicate, that the table is based on a recursive embedding of a standardized 3 × 4-table into itself. The outer large 3 × 4 - frame groups the 144 tone perspectives into 12 small 3 × 4 - frames according to their multiplication factors, while they are displayed according to their translations inside of each small frame. The standardized 3 × 4-table is the following: 0 6 4 10 8 2 9 3 1 7 5 11

6

TP-Table 1 Orbits of tone perspectives under the action of tone symmetries by concatenation from the left: A/lef t

00 40 80 04 44 84 08 48 88 60 10 0 20 64 10 4 24 68 10 8 28 90 10 50 94 14 54 98 18 58 30 70 11 0 34 74 06 46 86 66 10 6 26 96 16 56 36 76 11 6 09 49 89 01 41 69 10 9 29 61 10 1 21 65 10 5 25 99 19 59 91 11 51 95 15 55 39 79 11 9 31 71 11 1 35 75 03 43 83 07 47 87 63 10 3 23 67 10 7 27 93 13 53 97 17 57 33 73 11 3 37 77 11 7

0 10 6 10 9 10 3 10 4 10 10 10 1 10 7 10

11 4 8 10 2 10 5 10 11 10 8 1 38 78 11 8 02 42 82 62 10 2 22 92 12 52 32 72 11 2 05 45 85

0 11 6 11 9 11 3 11 4 11 10 11 1 11 7 11

11 5 8 11 2 11 5 11 11 11

These orbits are in bijection with the 6 factor spaces of T (f

f (T) ∈ T/K).

TP-Table 2 Orbits of tone perspectives under the action of tone symmetries by concatenation from the right: A/right

00 40 80 04 44 84 08 48 88 60 10 0 20 64 10 4 24 68 10 8 28 90 10 50 94 14 54 98 18 58 30 70 11 0 34 74 06 46 86 66 10 6 26 96 16 56 36 76 11 6 09 49 89 01 41 69 10 9 29 61 10 1 21 65 10 5 25 99 19 59 91 11 51 95 15 55 39 79 11 9 31 71 11 1 35 75 03 43 83 07 47 87 63 10 3 23 67 10 7 27 93 13 53 97 17 57 33 73 11 3 37 77 11 7

0 10 6 10 9 10 3 10 4 10 10 10 1 10 7 10

11 4 8 10 2 10 5 10 11 10 8 1 38 78 11 8 02 42 82 62 10 2 22 92 12 52 32 72 11 2 05 45 85

0 11 6 11 9 11 3 11 4 11 10 11 1 11 7 11

11 5 8 11 2 11 5 11 11 11

These orbits are in bijection with the 28 aﬃne subspaces of T (f

f (T)).

**TP-Table 3 Orbits of tone perspectives under the action of tone symmetries by conjugation: A/conj
**

00 40 80 04 44 84 08 48 88 60 10 0 20 64 10 4 24 68 10 8 28 90 10 50 94 14 54 98 18 58 30 70 11 0 34 74 06 46 86 66 10 6 26 96 16 56 36 76 11 6 09 49 89 01 41 69 10 9 29 61 10 1 21 65 10 5 25 99 19 59 91 11 51 95 15 55 39 79 11 9 31 71 11 1 35 75 03 43 83 07 47 87 63 10 3 23 67 10 7 27 93 13 53 97 17 57 33 73 11 3 37 77 11 7

0 10 6 10 9 10 3 10 4 10 10 10 1 10 7 10

11 4 8 10 2 10 5 10 11 10 8 1 38 78 11 8 02 42 82 62 10 2 22 92 12 52 32 72 11 2 05 45 85

0 11 6 11 9 11 3 11 4 11 10 11 1 11 7 11

11 5 8 11 2 11 5 11 11 11

7

3

Chords and their Perspectives

Deﬁnition 4 Nonempty sets of tones are called chords. For a chord X ⊆ T the module X − X generated by all diﬀerences X − X = {x − y | x, y ∈ X} within a chord X is called the module of that chord and X := x + X − X (for any x ∈ X) is called the aﬃne subspace generated by that chord X. A chord X is called special if its module X − X is a proper submodule of T. Non-special chords with X − X = T are called general. A typology for special chords is given by the 27 proper aﬃne subspaces and the corresponding 5 proper submodules of T (see TP-Tables 2 and 1). Deﬁnition 5 A tone perspective f ∈ A is said to be a chord perspective with respect to a given ordered pair (X, Y ) of chords, if f (X) ⊆ Y . The set of all chord perspectives with respect to the ordered pair (X, Y ) of chords is denoted by A(X, Y ). Elements of A(X) := A(X, X) are called selfperspectives of the chord X. Lemma 4 The collection 2T of all chords as objects together with all chord perspectives as arrows forms a category CH. The 12 singletons {x} with x ∈ T are terminal objects of that category. The proof is straightforward. Similar deﬁnitions can be given by replacing T by the modules T3 , T4 and T3×4 . Sets of dimtones are called dimchords, sets of augtones are called augchords and sets of outer tones are called outer chords. Similarly, one has generated modules, like X3 − X3 , generated subspaces X3 , as well as the notions of special and generic dimchords, augchords and outer chords. The resulting categories are denoted by CH3 , CH4 and CH3×4 . Lemma 5 The morphisms ?3 : T → T3 , ?4 : T → T4 and ?3×4 : T → T3×4 induce functors ?3 : CH → CH3 , ?4 : CH → CH4 and ?3×4 : CH → CH3×4 respectively. The latter is an isomorphism of categories whose inverse ?∗4×∗9 : CH3×4 → CH is induced by the morphism ?∗4×∗9 : T3×4 → T. The proof is straightforward. So far we used the symbols ”?3 ”, ”?4 ”, ”?3×4 ” on two levels, namely applied to tones t ∈ T and to tone perspectives f ∈ A. Without causing confusion this notation can be extended to chords and chord perspectives. However, there has one detail to be mentioned: The morphism ?3×4 : T → T3×4 on tones is deﬁned as the diagonal morphism ?3 ×?4 of ?3 : T → T3 and ?4 : T → T4 . Consider the product category CH3 ×CH4 . Its objects are pairs (X3 , X4 ) consisting of any dimchords X3 and augchords X4 . These are in 1-1-correspondence to outer cartesian chords X3 × X4 , i.e., the cartesian products of dimchords 8

with augchords, which are particular objects of the category CH3×4 . The sets of arrows between two pairs (X3 × X4 ) and (Y3 × Y4 ) are the cartesian products A3 (X3 , Y3 )×A4 (X4 , Y4 ) = A3×4 (X3 ×X4 , Y3 ×Y4 ). Let κ : CH3 ×CH4 → CH3×4 denote the functor sending a pair (X3 , X4 ) to its cartesian product X3 × X4 and a pair (f3 , f4 ) ∈ A3 (X3 , Y3 ) × A4 (X4 , Y4 ) to itself. This deﬁnes an embedding of CH3 × CH4 onto a full subcategory of CH3×4 . For this reason, the functor κ is called the cartesian embedding. Deﬁnition 6 Let ?3×4 := κ ◦ (?3 ×?4 ) : CH → CH3×4 denote the concatenation of the direct product functor ?3 ×?4 of the functors ?3 : CH → CH3 and ?4 : CH → CH4 with the cartesian embedding functor κ. This functor ?3×4 is called the outer cartesian closure functor. Its concatenation ? := (?3×4 )∗4×∗9 : CH → CH with the ”outer-inner-translation”-functor ?∗4×∗9 : CH3×4 → CH determines an endofunctor of the category CH, which is called the (inner) cartesian closure functor. The image X of a chord X is called an (inner) cartesian chord. Each map ? : A(X, Y ) → A(X , Y ) is a set inclusion. This expresses the fact that chord perspectives f ∈ A(X, Y ) are also chord perspectives with respect to the cartesian closures X and Y of X and Y . Proposition 3 In the sequel we list the isomorphy classes in the categories CH3 , CH4 and CH3 × CH4 . 1. The 7 non-empty dimchords fall into 3 isomorphy classes with representatives {0}3 , {0, 4}3 and {0, 4, 8}3 . 2. The 15 non-empty augchords fall into 5 isomorphy classes with representatives {0}4 , {0, 6}4 , {0, 9}4 , {0, 9, 6}4 and {0, 9, 6, 3}4 . 3. The 105 non-empty cartesian chords fall into 15 isomorphy classes with representatives κ(X3 timesX4 ), where X3 and X4 run trough the representatives listed in 1 and 2. The following 15 TP-Tables display the monoids A(X) of selfperspectives of all the 15 representative cartesian chords:

9

A({0})

q q q q q q

q q q q q q q q q qq q qq q q

q q q q q q q q q qq q q q q q

q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q

A({0, 6})

qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq q q q q q q q qq qq qq qq q qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq

A({0, 9})

q q q q q q

q q q qq q q qq qqq qq qq

q q q qq q q qq qq qq qq q

A({0, 6, 9})

qqq qq q qqq qq q qqq qq q

q q q qq q q qq qqq qq qq

A({0, 6, 9, 3})

qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq

A({0, 4})

A({0, 6, 4, 10})

A({0, 9, 4, 1})

qq qq q q q q qqq qqq qqq qq qq qq qq q

A({0, 6, 9, 4, 10, 1})

qq qq qq qq qq qq qqq qq q qqq qq q

A(T\{8, 2, 5, 11})

q q q q q q qq q q

qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq

A(T)

A({0, 4, 8})

A({0, 6, 4, 10, 8, 2})

qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq

qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq

qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq

q qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq q

A({0, 9, 4, 1, 8, 5})

A(T\{3, 7, 11})

qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qqq

qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq

qq qq qq qq q

qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qq qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq

In order to refer to the isomorphy class of the cartesian closure X of a chord X, we will speak of its cartesian type. For the 15 possible cartesian types we use the symbols (arrangement like above):

. : . . .

.. :: .. .. ..

.. :: .. .. ..

... ::: ... ... ...

.... :::: .... .... ....

Any chord X is special if and only if its cartesian closure X is special. In the Appendix we list the 3- and 4-chords according to the their general and special cartesian types. The following considerations shed some light on the notion of chord ”perspectives”. For each chord X one may study the set-valued representable functors @X and X@, i.e., the images of X under the Yoneda embeddings of the category op CH into the functor categories SetsCH and SetsCH . We recall the deﬁnition of these functors: Deﬁnition 7 Fix a chord X ∈ |CH|. • The covariant functor X@ : Ch → Sets maps a chord Y to the set X@Y := A(X, Y ) of chord perspectives from X into Y and takes chord a perspective f ∈ Y1 , Y2 to the set map X@f : X@Y1 → X@Y2 with X@f (g) := f ◦ g . • The contravariant functor @X : Ch → Sets takes a chord Y to the set Y @X := A(Y, X) of chord perspectives from Y into X and takes a chord perspective f ∈ Y2 , Y1 to the set map f @X : Y1 @X → Y2 @X with f @X(g) := g ◦ f . 10

The functor X@ collects all chord perspectives starting from a ﬁxed viewpoint X with variable scope, whereas the functor @X collects all chord perspectives with a ﬁxed scope X and varying viewpoints. The functoriality is reﬂected in a natural control of the change of perspectives under scope change and viewpoint change respectively. In order to systematically refer to the images f (X) of a chord X under various tone perspectives f we deﬁne the map imgX : A → |CH| with imgX (f ) := f (X). Lemma 6 Fix a chord X ∈ |CH|. The collection of all Ximg @Y := imgX (X@Y ) for varying chords Y determines a covariant functor Ximg @ : CH → Sets. The family of the restrictions imgX |X@Y of imgX for varying chords Y deﬁnes a natural epimorphism imgX of the functor X@ onto the functor Ximg @. Proof: For a ﬁxed scope change f ∈ A(Y1 , Y2 ). The functor X@ yields the set map X@f : X@Y1 → X@Y2 mapping any g ∈ X@Y1 to f ◦ g. Now, suppose that g(X) is an element of imgX |X@Y1 , and that g (X) represents the same element, i.e., g(X) = g (X). Then Ximg @f (g(X)) can be deﬁned as f (g(X)), which in turn coincides with f (g (X)), and hence is well-deﬁned. X@Y1 imgX |X@Y1 ? Ximg @Y1 Ximg @f X@f X@Y2 imgX |X@Y2 ? - Ximg @Y2

As the diagram illustrates, imgX is a natural transformation. Its surjectivity at each scope Y is obvoius. Remark 4 The collection imgY (Y @X) for a ﬁxed scope chord X and varying viewpoint chords Y does not give rise to a contravariant functor from CH to Sets in a natural way. Consider, for example, the ﬁxed scope X = T, the two viewpoint chords Y1 = T, Y2 = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5}, and the tone perspective 0 2 ∈ A(Y2 , Y1 ) as a change of viewpoint. Suppose we are about to deﬁne the value F u(f ) : imgY1 (Y1 @X) → imgY2 (Y2 @X) of a candidate F u for such a functor. We look, for example, at the argument T = 0 1(Y1 ) = 1 1(Y1 ). But then there would be more than one natural value for F u(f )(T), namely 0 1(f (Y2 )) = {0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10} and 1 1(f (Y2 )) = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11}. Deﬁnition 8 Isomorphisms in the category CH are called chord symmetries, automorphisms are called selfsymmetries. We introduce the notations A∗ (X, Y ) := {f ∈ A∗ | f (X) ⊆ Y } for the set of selfsymmetries from X to Y , and we write A∗ (X) := A∗ (X, X) for the group of symmetries of a chord X.

11

The category CH consists of 157 isomorphy classes. These are called chord classes and are listed in [2], [4], [3]. Further, for each chord X one has an action conjX : A∗ (X) × A(X) → A(X) induced by the conjugation conj : A∗ × A → A (cf. Paragraph 2). The monoids A(X) of selfperspectives, the groups A∗ (X) of selfsymmetries as well as the resulting conjugation classes A(X)/conjX are studied in [4].

4

Harmonic morphemes

The considerations of this paragraph are based on the perspectivic incidence relation H between tone perspectives and chords. H = {(f, X)|X ∈ |CH| , f ∈ A(X)} ⊂ A × |CH|. Let us take a closer look at this relation in order to generalize the usual study of common chord tones2 to that of common chord perspectives. Technically, we build formal concepts on the basis of perspectivic incidence: Deﬁnition 9 Condider the following two maps: Ext : 2A → 2|CH| Int : 2|CH| → 2A with with Ext(M ) := {X | ∀f ∈ M : (f, X) ∈ H}, Int(U ) := {f | ∀X ∈ U : (f, X) ∈ H}.

A (formal) harmonic morpheme is an ordered pair (M, U ) ∈ 2A × 2|CH| satisfying Ext(M ) = U and Int(U ) = M . We introduce the following terminology: Ext and Int are called the (formal) harmonic extension and intension maps, respectively. The two ”coordinates” M and U of a harmonic morpheme (M, U ) are called the intension and the extension of this morphem. Harmonic morphemes can be obtained in two ways: 1. Start with any set U ⊆ |CH| of chords and construct the morpheme (Int(U ), Ext(Int(U )). The concatenation Ext ◦ Int : 2|CH| → 2|CH| is called the extensional completion 2. Start with any set M ⊆ A of tone perspectives and construct the morpheme (Int(Ext(M )), Int(M )). The concatenation Int ◦ Ext : 2A → 2A is called intensional saturation. Lemma 7 The intension of each harmonic morpheme is a monoid. The proof is straightforward. Let MON denote the set of all submonoids of A. According to the lemma, it would be suﬃcient to run through all monoids M ∈ MON in order to get

2 In functional harmony common chord tones indicate the possibility of functional synonymy of two chords.

12

all harmonic morphemes through M (Int(Ext(M ), Ext(M )). Let further MON s denote the subset of all saturated submonoids of the form Int(Ext(M )) ⊆ A. The set of all harmonic morphemes is parametrized by MON s . As a preliminary step of our investigation we study two maps int and ext in opposite direction, that are related to single chords rather than to sets of chords. MON int ext |CH|.

Recall that for singleton chordsets U = {X} one has Int({X}) = A(X), i.e., the intension of a single chord consists of its chord perspectives. We deﬁne: int : |CH| → MON with int(X) := Int({X}) = A(X).

A chord X can be fully reconstructed from its constant selfperspectives, i.e., from the tone perspectives b a ∈ A(X) with a = 0. Obviously b 0 is a chord perspective of X if and only if b ∈ X. This reconstruction can be expressed in terms of the evaluation at tone t, evt : A → T with evt (f ) = f (t).

The restriction of ev0 to T 0 yields a bijection between the 12 constant tone perspectives b 0 and the 12 tones b = b 0(0), b ∈ T. For any set M of tone perspectives we set M0 := M ∩ T 0 and [M ] := ev0 (M0 ). For monoids we introduce a separate symbol for this map: ext : MON (A) → |CH| with ext(M ) := [M ]

Remark 5 The set |CH| can be viewed as a retract of MON . The map ext is surjective and the composition ext ◦ int yields the identity map on |CH|. The lemma suggests to study the ﬁbers ext−1 (X) for all chords X in order to get a systematic overview over all morphemes. These ﬁbers are partially ordered according to the inclusion of morphemes and have an upper and a lower limit, which are characterized through the following proposition: Proposition 4 Let M ∈ MON be a monoid of tone perspectives. The saturated monoids Int(Ext(M0 )), Int(Ext(M )) and Int({ext(M )}) belong to the same ﬁber ext−1 (ext(M )) and one has the inclusions: Int(Ext(M0 )) ⊆ Int(Ext(M )) ⊆ Int({ext(M )}) Int(Ext(M0 )) is the inﬁmum and Int(ext(M )) the supremum of the partially ordered set of saturated monoids MON s ∩ ext−1 (ext(M )). Proof: The chord ext(M ) belongs to all three chordsets Ext(M0 ), Ext(M ) and {ext(M )}. Hence, the corresponding intensions contain no other constant tone perspectives than those in M0 , i.e., the three monoids indeed belong to 13

the same ﬁber ext−1 (ext(M )). Further these chord sets satisfy the inclusions {ext(M )} ⊆ Ext(M ) ⊆ Ext(M0 ), since M0 ⊆ M . Hence the corresponding intensions have inclusions in the reverse order. Finally, the inclusions hold independent of the particular choice of M ∈ ext−1 (ext(M )), deﬁning the same M0 and ext(M ). Deﬁnition 10 A chord X is called poor if the identity 0 1 and the constant tone perspectives x 0, x ∈ X, are its only selfperspectives, i.e., if int(X) = X 0 ∪ {0 1}. A chord X is said to be primitive if its selfperspectives are shared by all of its superchords, i.e., if Ext(int(X)) = Super(X) := {Y |X ⊆ Y }. The primitive morphemes, generated by primitive chords X, have the structure (int(X), Super(X)). Poor chords are always primitive, but there are also nonpoor primitive chords. To be more precise, among the 157 chord classes there are 31 classes, whose chords are primitive, but there are only 5 classes of poor chords. The latter are represented by {0, 1, 3}, {0, 1, 2, 4}, {0, 1, 2, 5}, {0, 1, 2, 3, 5}, {0, 1, 2, 4, 5}. In order to get the full picture of all harmonic morphemes one has to investigate all the saturated monoids within the partially ordered sets ext−1 (X), where X runs through representatives of the 157 chord classes. For this it is suﬃcient to calculate representatives for the conjugation classes MON s (X)/conjX of saturated monoids within MON s (X) := MON s ∩ ext−1 (X) under the conjugation action of the selfsymmetries A∗ (X) of X. These calculations have been carried out for all morphemes (Int(Ext(M )), Ext(M ), with M0 = ∅

by the help of a Mathematica notebook. On the whole, there are 25364 such morphemes. The detailed results cannot be published within this article.3 What remains, is the calculation of those morphemes with no constant tone perspectives in their intensions. The saturated groups have ﬁrst been described as ”musical” groups in [1]. The general case can be studied in a reﬁned way in terms of global morphemes (see next paragraph).

3 Contact

the author in order to get a textﬁle with the results or the program.

14

5

Harmonic Topology

The following topological constructions are studied by Guerino Mazzola (cf. [3], chapter 24) in the much more general situation of functorial local compositions and their endomorphisms. However, we recall some aspects within the narrow context of chords and chord perspectives. For a given set M ⊆ A of tone perspectives let M := {M ∈ MON |M ⊇ M } denote the set of all supermonoids of M . These sets M are called basic monoid neighbourhoods. Similarly, we call chord extensions Ext(M ) basic chord neighbourhoods. Lemma 8 The familiy of basic monoid neighbourhoods is closed with respect to intersection: For any M1 , M2 ⊆ A let M1 , M2 ∗ denote the monoid generated from M1 and M2 . One has (M1 ∪ M2 ) = M1 ∩ M2 = M1 , M2

∗

Similarly, the family of basic chord neighbourhoods is closed with respect to intersection: For any M1 , M2 ⊂ A one has Ext(M1 ∪ M2 ) = Ext(M1 ) ∩ Ext(M2 ) Deﬁnition 11 We introduce the following two topologies on chords and monoids: • The topology EX T on the set |CH| of all chords generated by the family of all basic chord neighbourhoods {Ext(M ) | M ∈ MON s } is called the harmonic extension topology. • The topology IN T on the set MON of all monoids of tone perspectives generated by the family of all basic monoid neighbourhoods {M | M ∈ MON } is called the harmonic intension topology. Proposition 5 The map int : |CH| → MON is continous with respect to the topologies EX T and IN T . Moreover, EX T is the inverse-image topology of IN T with respect to the map int. Proof: For any given monoid M and and any given chord X we have X ∈ int−1 (M ) ⇐⇒ int(X) ⊆ M ⇐⇒ X ∈ Ext(M ). Hence, int−1 (M ) = Ext(M ) . Remark 6 The map ext : MON → |CH| is not continous with respect to the topologies IN T and EX T . A general open set M in the topology IN T is characterized by the property M ∈ M =⇒ M ∈ M (∀M ⊇ M ). On the other hand, the minimal chord neighbourhood Ext(int(X)) of any non-primitive chord X does not contain all superchords of X. If Y ⊃ X is such a superchord with Y ∈ Ext(int(X)), we have X 0 ∈ ext−1 (Ext(int(X))) and Y 0 ⊃ X 0, but Y 0 ∈ ext−1 (Ext(int(X))). The non-continuity of ext reﬂects the essential diﬀerence between chords as objects of the category CH and chords just as sets. 15

The topologies IN T and EX T are rather exotic ones. In terms of the axioms of separation from general topology T0 , T1 , T2 , we have the following characterizations: Proposition 6 Both topologies IN T and EX T satisfy the T0 -axiom, but not the T1 -axiom. The closures of singletons are explicitly given as follows: • For any M ∈ MON one has M = M := {M ∈ MON | M ⊆ M }.

• For any X ∈ |CH| one has X = {X ∈ |CH| | Ext(int(X )) ⊆ Ext(int(X))}. Proof: Two monoids M1 , M2 , are not equal, if and only if M1 ∈ M2 or M2 ∈ M1 , hence the topology IN T is T0 . The same holds for any two chords and their minimal neighbourhoods: X1 = X2 if and only if X1 ∈ Ext(int(X2 )) or X2 ∈ Ext(int(X1 )). Hence the topology EX T is T0 . The closure M of a monoid M is the complement of the largest open set not containing M , i.e., M =(

M ⊆M

M

)c = {M | M ⊆ M }c = {M | M ⊆ M } = M

**Analogously, we ﬁnd for chords: X=(
**

X∈Ext(int(X ))

Ext(int(X )))c = {X | X ∈ Ext(int(X ))}

A set M of monoids is closed, if and only if M ∈ M implies M ∈ M for all M ⊆ M . Analogously, a set V of chords is closed if and only if X ∈ V implies X ∈ V for all X satisfying X ∈ Ext(int(X )). The closures X for the 157 representatives for all the chord classes are easily calculated. We mention that there are 14 classes, whose chords generate closed singletons X = {X}, namely the 1-chords, the 2-chords except {0, 6}, the 3chords except {0, 4, 8} and the 4-chord {0, 1, 2, 6}). On the other hand, the only chords generating all their subchords, i.e., X = Sub(X) := {Y ∈ |CH| | Y ⊆ X} are the 6 classes of aﬃne subspaces of T, namely 0T, 6T, 4T, 3T, 2T, T. The general chord neighbourhoods, i.e., unions of basic chord neighbourhoods Ext(M ), provide a good means to deﬁne global morphemes. Deﬁnition 12 Let IN T s denote the topology induced by IN T on the subset MON s of all saturated monoids. A global harmonic morphem is given as a pair (M, {Ext(M ) | M ∈ M}) consisting of a set M of saturated monoids as its local intensions and the corresponding family {Ext(M ) | M ∈ M} of basic chord neighbourhoods as its local extensions. The open set M ∈M Ext(M ) is called the extensional carrier of M. As an example, consider the global morpheme determined by M = {P, Q}, P = {4 8,0 4,0 0,4 0,0 1}, 16 Q = {1 3,4 9,1 0,4 0,0 1}.

The open set Ext(P ) ∪ Ext(Q) being covered by Ext(P ), Ext(Q), provides a suitable model for chords representing the same tonal function. Observe that the generated monoid P, Q ∗ = int({0, 1, 4}) is the intension of the ”CMajor-triad”. The extension Ext(int({0, 1, 4}))) contains only particular superchords of {0, 1, 4}, but not the ”parallel”-triad {0, 1, 3} or the ”counter”triad {1, 4, 5}. These and other prototypical representatives of the tonic triad {0, 1, 4} in functional harmony are suitably modelled by the global morpheme ({P, Q}, {Ext(P ), Ext(Q)}). An even more reﬁned ﬁltering of all chords in their partially ordered roles as ”fuzzy” representatives of a given chord X is suitably described in terms of the global morphem (int(X)s , {Ext(M ) | M ∈ int(X)s }). See [4] and [5] for a music theoretical discussion of this proposal. Another situation where global morphemes can be considered is the study of saturated monoids M ∈ MON s without constant tone perspectives. We give only a sketch of this procedure. For any monoid M of tone perspectives one has the relation ΓM = {(s, t) ∈ T × T | ∃f ∈ M withf (s) = t} M0 = ∅ implies that the equivalence closure of ΓM splits into more than one chord as equivalence classes. The stable images ImM (Xi ) of these chords Xi (i = 1, , , , , n) under iterated application of the elements of M yield the minimal local placeholders ImM (Xi ) 0 for the missing global constant tone perspectives within M . The whole variety of candidates is given by collections of chords {Yi ∈ Ext(M ) | ImM (Xi ) ⊆ Yi ⊆ Xi }, where i runs at least over two indices between 1 and n.

6

Perspectivic Interpretation of Voice Leadings

The last two paragraphs were solely dedicated to the study chord selfperspectives. This ﬁnal paragraph now focusses on an idea concerning the possible syntactic roles of chord perspectives in the study of chord successions and voice leading. While chords are just sets of tones, one is often interested in the distribution of tones along an ensemble of k voices. The simultaneous presence of tones within these voices can be represented in terms of vectors, which are called k-voicings: t1 . v = . . . tk In order to describe a k-voice leading, where, from an melodic point of view, k voices make their individual tone-steps simultaneously, or where, from an harmonic point of view, one has a succession of two k-voicings, one can conveniently switch between the 3 interpretations of k × 2 − matrices, 17

s1 . σ= . . sk

t1 . , . . tk

σmelo =

(s1 . . . (sk

t1 ) tk )

,

σharmo

s1 t1 . . = . . . . . sk tk

Explorative studies suggest to interpret voice-leadings σ as follows: Consider the functions πk : Tk → |CH| mapping voicings to the underlying chords 1 2 πk ((t1 , ..., tk )) := {t1 , ..., tk } and let σharmo and σharmo denote the ﬁrst and the second voicing of σharmo , respectively. We distinguish two interpretations: • In the causal interpretation of the voice leading σ one considers the chord perspectives 1 2 σcaus := A(πk (σharmo ), πk (σharmo ))

i i and attributes to each coordinate σmelo = (si , ti ) the subset σcaus of those chord perspectives f ∈ σcaus satisfying f (si ) = ti .

**• In the ﬁnal interpretation of the voice leading σ one considers the chord perspectives 2 1 σf in := A(πk (σharmo ), πk (σharmo ))
**

i i and attributes to each coordinate σmelo = (si , ti ) the subset σf in of those chord perspectives f ∈ σf in satisfying f (ti ) = si . i i The sets σcaus and σf in are never empty, because they always contain exactly one constant tone perspective ti 0 or si 0. The following diagrams show three examples:

**Example 1 Typical 4-voice leading of the succession G - C 5 0 1 1 σ= 2 4 1 0
**

8 5

5 1

10

8

- 0 - 1 - 4 - 0

S A T B

5 1

8, 5 9

0 1 4 0

10

3

5

8

2

11

3, 8 4

2

2

1

3

1

1, 8 4

1

1, 1 4

i On each arrow from left to right we list the non-constant elements of σcaus , and i on each arrow from right to left we list the non-constant elements of σf in .

18

**Example 2 Typical 4-voice leading of the 5 11 σ= 1 2
**

8

succession G7 - C 0 4 1 0

5

5

8

8

- 0 - 4 - 1

S A T B

5 11 1

6, 5 8, 5 9

0 4 1 0

11 1

8

4

11

3,

11

6

5

8

2

8

2

- 0

2

3, 2 9

**Example 3 Typical 4-voice leading of the 5 11 σ= 8 7
**

8

7 succession Db - C 0 4 1 0

5

8

8

5

- 0 - 4 - 1

S A T B

5

7

3, 5 6

0

9, 7 10

11 8

8

4

11 8

1, 7 4,

11

6,

11

4 1 0

7

1, 5 3,

11

9

7

4

7

- 0

7

1, 7 4, 7 10

The main idea behind these perspectivic interpretations is to provide a link between single tone successions within the voices and chord perspectives between the chords that are connected through the speciﬁc voicings. A systematic investigation of all typical and rare voice leadings from or to a ﬁxed chord X on the background of the functor Ximg @ will be subject of a future study.

19

References

[1] Mazzola, G.: Gruppen und Kategorien in der Musik, Heldermann, Berlin 1985. [2] Mazzola, G.: Die Geometrie der T¨ne, Birkh¨user, Basel 1990. o a [3] Mazzola, G.: The Topos of Music, Birkh¨user, Basel 2002 (to appear). a [4] Noll, Th: Morphologische Grundlagen der abendl¨ndischen Harmonik, a Musikometrika 7, Brockmeyer, Bochum 1997. [5] Noll, Th: Harmonische Morpheme, Musikometrika 8, Brockmeyer, Bochum 1998. [6] Noll, Th., Nestke, A.: Die Apperzeption von T¨nen, Electronic Jouro nal of the GMTH 2002 (http://www.gmth.de, to appear).

7

Appendix: Chordicon

Table 1: General 3- and 4-chords of cartesian type Class qq q q q qq q q q q q q qq q q qq q q TP-Table q q q Representatives

::

10

31

20

Table 2: General 3- and 4-chords of cartesian type Class TP-Table q qq q q qq qq 12 q qq q q 22 q q qq qq q q q 25 q q q qq q q q q q qq 26 q qq q q q q q q q 29 q q q q q q Representatives

:::

9 q q

Table 3: General 3- and 4-chords of cartesian type Class q q q 11 qq q q 28 qq q q q q q q q q q q q TP-Table q q q q q q q Representatives

.. .. ..

30

21

Table 4: General 4-chords of cartesian type Class TP-Table qqqqqq q q qqqq 27 qqqqqqqq 33

::::

Representatives

24 q q qq qq qq qq q q

Table 5: General 4-chords of cartesian type Class q q q 08 q q qq 18 q q qq 19 qqq qq q q 20 qqq q 23 q q q TP-Table q q Representatives

... ... ...

32

q qqq qq q q q

q q

22

Table 6: General 3- and 4-chords of cartesian type Class TP-Table q qq q q q qq qq q q 21 q Representatives

.... .... ....

17 q q

q

Table 7: Special 3-chords of cartesian type Class TP-Table qq qqq q q qq qqq q q qq qqq q q

...

Representatives

15

Table 8: Special 4-chords of cartesian type Class TP-Table qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq

....

Representatives

37

Table 9: Special 3- and 4-chords of cartesian type Class TP-Table qq qq qq qq qq qq q q q q qq qq qq qq q qq qq qq qq qq qq qq q qq qq qq qq Representatives

::

14

36

23

Table 10: Special 3- chords of cartesian type Class q q q q q qq q q TP-Table qq qq qq qqq qqq qqq qq qq qq qq qq qq Representatives

. . .

16

Table 11: Special 3- and 4-chords of cartesian type Class TP-Table q qq qq q q q q q q q qq q q q q q qq q q q q q q qq q q q qq q q qq qq q qq q qq q q qqq q q q Representatives

.. .. ..

13

34

35

24

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