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Load Management

IT PAYS TO
KNOW YOUR
ELECTRIC BILL

BUT, HAVE YOU DONE THIS REGULARLY?

WHAT HAPPENS TO YOUR BILL WHEN THE


METER IS NOT READ?

METER READING EXERCISE

4/15/04 18:15
4/15/04 21:45
4/16/04 1:15

4/16/04 15:15
4/16/04 18:45
4/16/04 22:15
4/17/04 1:45
4/17/04 5:15

Max kW: 145


time:4/18/2004 11:30

4/16/04 8:15

Avg. kW: 86
total kWhrs: 12,008
Avg. kWhrs per day: 2,073

4/16/04 4:45

4/16/04 11:45

4/17/04 8:45
4/17/04 12:15
4/17/04 15:45
4/17/04 19:15

4/18/04 2:15

time

kW
95.0
85.5
72.0
72.0

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4/18/04 9:15
4/18/04 12:45
4/18/04 16:15
4/18/04 19:45
4/18/04 23:15
4/19/04 2:45
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4/19/04 9:45
4/19/04 13:15

Amount
127,485.95
114,827.36
114,802.72
117,992.55

4/19/04 16:45
4/19/04 20:15
4/19/04 23:45
4/20/04 3:15
4/20/04 6:45
4/20/04 10:15
4/20/04 13:45
4/20/04 17:15
4/20/04 20:45
4/21/04 0:15
4/21/04 3:45
4/21/04 7:15

EOB - SB2
4/15 14:45-4/21 9:30

4/17/04 22:45

Sample Load Profile

160

140

120

100

80

60

40

kWh
18,880
16,990
18,190
18,880

Sample Cost Comparison

kW Requiremnet
4/15/04 14:45

kW Demand
Billing Demand
the highest 15 minutes average demand measured
during the billing period.

d
e
m
a
n
d

525 kW

15

30

45

Time, in minutes

Load Factor
It is a measure of the efficiency in
the way we used electricity.
Mathematically, it is the ratio
between the average demand and
the maximum demand

Load Factor =

kWh

Average
Demand

24 hrs x # of days x max. demand

Load Management/Scheduling

Start-up Scheduling
Load Shifting
Peak Clipping
Efficient Use of Energy

Start--up Scheduling
Start
2 ovens 47 kW each
simultaneous = 47 + 47 = 94 kW
staggered
= 47 + 15 = 62 kW
savings
=
32 kW
Oven kW Profile
50.00
45.00
40.00

Power Requirement (kW)

35.00
30.00
25.00
20.00
15.00
10.00
5.00

Duration 6.07 days


Peak kW 47 10/30/03 4:00
Average kW 2
kWh/day 52

0.00
12:00:00 22:30:00 9:00:00 19:30:00 6:00:00 16:30:00 3:00:00 13:30:00 0:00:00 10:30:00 21:00:00 7:30:00 18:00:00 4:30:00
10/29/03 10/29/03 10/30/03 10/30/03 10/31/03 10/31/03 11/1/03 11/1/03 11/2/03 11/2/03 11/2/03 11/3/03 11/3/03 11/4/03
Date/Time

Load Shifting
-shifting of operation of loads from peak to off- peak period
- time of use (TOU) rates implementation

Peak Clipping
- manual or automatic shedding-off of non-critical loads

Efficient Use of Energy


Q: What are being saved?
kW

time

Exceptions
Consumers without kW demand charges
Residential and General Service
Government Hospital & Metered Streetlight
Flat (Rate) Streetlight
Consumers with actual registered kW less than
the Guaranteed Minimum Billing Demand

Exceptions
Is there a Guaranteed Minimum Billing
Demand (GMBD) in your contract?
Usually, GMBD is 60 to 70% of contracted.
Are you paying for the GMBD which you are
not utilizing? Or are you paying only for what
you use?

Thank You!