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bna@a

paa
Glycosides


.


.
) (Aglican

: ) (Glycon ]

[
) ( ...
). (H2O
( - :
-

- . .
-
- .
-
.

( - :
-
.
-
.

- .
- .
- ) ( .
- .
( - :
-
. Digitoxin

-
.
- -
- .
( - : The Glycosides Linkase
.

] [
.
. :
glycosides

C6H11O5

C6H11O5

O H - OH

glycosides

C6H11O5

C6H11O5

S H - OH

glycosides

C6H11O5

C6H11O5

N H - OH

glycosides

C6H11O5

C6H11O5

C H - OH

( - :
:
( ) ( .Gentiopicrin
( ) ( . Aesculin

( ) ( .

( ) . (Anthroocyanins
( ) - (.
( ) - ( .
(- : Aglycan

) . (OH

) (OH ] [Hydroguinone, CH3OH ... glucose

:
: Heterosides -
(Nansugar) . ) Rutin,
. (Digitoxine
: Holosides - ) (Aglican
) (Sugar ) (Lactose , Leparine

) (Aglican
:
( = ). (Arbutin
( = ). (Salicin
( = ). (Gluco-aloe-emodin
( = ). (Vanillin

( = ).(Digitoxin
( = ). (Digitonin
( = ). (Sinigrin
( = )(Amygdalin

( = )(Rutin
( = ).(Daphnin
(- :

:

(
( .
( .

:
. )

.

: -:
( - .
(
freez drying .

( Ammonium Sulphate
.
Acid hydrolysis
.
:
Lead acetate

.

.
Crystallization
.



:
-

.
-
.
-

) Hexan & Petroleum

( Ether


.

:


CH2OH

OH


) (


) (

) (

HO

H
C=O

1)Flavonoid
2)Flavone
3)Flavonal

N CH

( Alcoholic Glycosides
:
- ) ( Salicin ) ( Salix
) . ( Poplar barks

) ( Emulsin

CH2OH

CH2OH

OC6H11O5

OH
C6H11O6

) Salingirin(Salicyl alcohol


salix

poplar parks

( Phenolic Glycosides

.
. Arbutin

. ( UVA-URSI ) Arctostaphylos

+
) ( Hydroquinone . Emulsin
OC6H11O5

OH

C6H11O6

H2O

)(Arbutin
OH

OH
Hydroquinone


Bear-berry

arctostaphylos
uva-ursi
Arbutin
Citru Fruets

Heperidin
Roaceons

plants
phloridzin
Baptisin
Baptisia

Iridin Iris

( Anthraquinone

) (

Aglycon
Anthracene .
) (
Laxative glycosides

) (


Aloe vera

Senna

Rhubarb

Aloin

Barbaloin

) (
Sennoside A&B
Emodin

-
-

Aloemodin

F.glumosa
)(Delile
Rhamnuse
perchiana

OH
O

OH

OH

OH

CH2OH

CH2OH

CH

C
H C OH
O

OH

OH C H

H C OH
H C

OH

Barbaloin
ALOES

CH2OH

OH

CH2OH

Aloin

CASSIA PULPS

C6H11O5
OH

COOH

COOH

COOH

CH2OH
O
Aloemodin

OH

Sennoside A

Senna

C6H11O5

OH

OH
Barbaloin
Cascaroside A,B

OH

R=H
R=C6H11O5
CH2OR

H C6H11O5

* Cascaroside A&B are obtical isomers of barbaloin.


C&D are obtical isomers of chrysaloin.
* Hydrolysis of the total glycosides yields Rhmnose and glucose . 1=1.

of habitual Constipatin , where it not only .* It is a Cathartic Correction


acts as a laxative but restores natural tone to the colon.
( Saponin Glycosides

Saponin

Emulsion
Surface tension .
-

Heamolysis .
. :
-

Steroidal Saponins

Triterpenoidal

Sex harmones

Steroidal Structure


.

Glycyrrhizin (Liquorice

) Root
.

LIQUORICE ROOT

COOH
H

glucuronic acid O

Glycyrrhetic acid
( Glycyrrhizin=mixture of calcium and sodium
salts of glycyrrhizinic acid
)

( Solasonine Solanum
Glyco-alkaloids .
) (

Glycyrrhetic acid


. Glucuronic
:


Liquorice
root

Glycyrrhizin

Solanum

Soapwort

Humulus
Lupulus
Saponaria
officinalis L
G.Struthium

Solasonine
Lupulin
Humulone

( Steroidal glycosides

Cardiotonic glycosides
. Diuretic

Lactone ring ) (
. .
Digitalis Cardinolids

Squill . scilldienolides
) glucose Rhaminose
Digitoxose ( Cymarose

Deoxy Sugars
.
* :
- . Cardinolides
( Digitoxin

Gitoxin

Digitalis Leaves
O

CH3

CH3

OH

Digitoxin

O-Digitoxos

Gitalin

- Scilladienoides
( ) (

) (Scillarin A , Scillarin B

White sqill

SQUILL

OH
O
Rhamnose_glucose
Scillaren A

White
squill

Nerium
oleander

Fagopyrum
esculantum


Digitalis


Digitoxin
Gitoxin
Gitalin
) ( Scillarin
)( A&B

Oleandrin
Niriin

Rutin

Lanatoside A, B, C .

) ( A ) (
Digitoxin ) ( B Digoxin .

( ) Thioglycosides ( Sulphur glycosides



Aglycon .
.
:

( Sinigrin
Black Mustard
Myrosin

SINIGRIN H2O

Allyl isothianate + glucose

Myrosin

( Sinalbin
White Mustard
. = + +
+ .
Reactianary Drugs
CH3O
CH=CHCOOH2N(CH2)3H2SO4

GLUCOSE_S=C=NH2C

O
CH3O

Sinalbin
CH2NCS
Acrinyl isothiocyanate
) (Parahydroxybenzyl isothiocyanate
OH


Brassica alba

Brassica nigra

Sinigrin

Sinalbin

( Aldelydic glcocides
:
- Vanillin
Vanilia Pods
OCH3
OH
Vanilin
) ( Vanilia Pods
CHO


Vanilia pods


Vanillin

( Cyanogenetic glycosides

Hydrocyanic acid
. Reactionary drugs
:
- Amygdalin Bitter Almond
- Linamarin Linseed
H

H
C OC6H10O5
C6H10O6

H2O

CN

C OC6H10O4OC6H11O5
CN

Amygdalin

H2O

C6H10O6

C OH

C=O

CN

Mandelonitrile

Benzaldehyde

HYDROLYSIS OF AMYGDALIN

HCN


Bitter
Almond
Linseed

Amygdalin

Linamarin
Broomcorn

A.Sorghum
Sorghum
bicolor L.

( Flavonoid glycosides
Aglycon Flavonoid .
Benzopyrone Chromone


.

*
.

* Flavonoid
:
- Flavone glycoside
Flavone Apiin
Parsly Celery
- Flavonol glycosides
Fiavonol Rutin
Buckweat

- Flavanone glycoside
Flavanone Hesperidin

. Citrus Fruits

OH
O

Flavone

Flavanol

Flavanone
OH

OCH3

OH
OH

OH

Rotinose
C12H21O9

O
Hesperidin

HO

O_Glocos_Apioze

OH

OH

HO

Apiin

Rutin


Parsly


Apiin

Celery

Fagopyrum
esculantum

Citrus
Fruits

Hesperidin

Abiin

Rutin

Ammi
vinaga

Ruta
graveolens


Crocin

Picrocrocin
khillin
khillol
Rutin

summer adonis

//

Tree of heaven

Lebbek tree

//

Jericho-roses

Camomill
//

Aloes

// /

Santonica

///

Mountain spinach
Desert date
//

//

/// Butterfly tree

/
/

// Birch

/
/

Mustard

Bryonia
Caper

Shepherd's purse

Cassia pulp


Senna

//

/ /
/
/
).(
//

Colocynth

)(/

//

Hawthorn

//

Saffron

Foxglove

Native hops

/ Lablab beans

/ /

/ Sky flower

/ Loqust

Hemlock geranium

/ Sanke root

// // Fagonia
Liquarice

/
/ Common ivy

Show flower

//

Roselle

/ Fog fruit

/ Mullberry
/
Water cress

).(/

//

Oleander

//

Nicotiana

Nigella

Knot-grass

/ /

Poplar

Rhubarb

Madder

//

Butcher's broom

Rue

//

Willow

/ /

Elder
Cow-herb

/ Sida

Spanich

Tamarin

Squill

).(//

//

Black-leaved mullein
Pigeon's grass
/

Violet