Supplemental Notes


The Book of Daniel
Chapters 1 - 6

Chuck Missler
© 1994 Koinonia House Inc. Page Page 1 1

Tape Listing
Tape 1: Chapter 1 - Dare to be a Daniel
Introduction to the Book: background, authentication, etc.

Tape 2: Chapter 2 - Nebuchadnezzar’s Dream
The poly-metallic image—an overview of all of Gentile dominion on the Planet Earth. Daniel and his three friends avoid death penalty and get promoted.

Tape 3: Chapter 3 - Bow or Burn
Nebuchadnezzar’s ego trip; the worship of his image; the fiery furnace.

Tape 4: Chapter 4 - Nebuchadnezzar’s Testimony
The only chapter in the Bible written by a Gentile king; published throughout the known world.

Tape 5: Chapter 5 - The Fall of Babylon
The “handwriting on the wall” and the fall of Babylon to the Persians.

Tape 6: The Mystery of Babylon
Babylon in Bible prophecy; its ultimate destruction, an update on current events, the “Mystery Babylon” of Revelation.

Tape 7: Chapter 6 - Daniel in the Lion’s Den.
How Daniel avoided the “mark of the beast.”

Tape 8: The Magi
A supplemental study on the background on the “Magi” and their role in the birth of Jesus Christ.

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Why Daniel?
1. One of my favorites: impact on my early years. Discovery: Message System; tightly engineered in theme, structure, details; interdependence. Thus, 66 books, written by 40 authors over thousands of years, yet evidences integrity of design and demonstrates an origin from outside the domain of time. (See our related Briefing Packages, The E.T. Scenario, Beyond Time and Space, et al.) One of the few books that describes Gentile history, in advance. It is as timely as tomorrow’s newspaper. It contains the most amazing passages in the entire Bible.



When Written?
Doesn’t really matter. It’s in the Septuagint translation of the Old Testament (LXX): 285-270 B.C. (Latin: septuaginta, “70.”) 72 elders of Israel, 6 from each tribe, during the reign of Ptolemy II, Philadelphus (285-244 B.C.) in Alexandria (Letter of Aristeas). Many NT quotes from LXX; including in the Letter to Hebrews. Thus, in widespread use three centuries before Christ was born. The mathematical precision yields undeniable proof of His Deity. Acts 17:11: Don’t believe anything Chuck Missler tells you. Check it out for yourself!

Daniel in the Critics Den
No other book is as vindicated by history. Too specific to yield to attempts to discredit it. Josephus: During Alexander’s conquest of Jerusalem, 332 B.C., Priest Jaddua showed him references to himself in Daniel; city spared. R. Kodewey, 1899-1917: excavations of Nebuchadnezzar’s palace, etc. Banquet hall found, 173' x 56'. (Rebuilt by Saddam Hussein.) Daniel had to be an eyewitness. See Chapter 5.

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Ultimate authentication: Jesus quotes Daniel 3X; “Daniel the Prophet.” Other Observations: Quoted 3X in Ezekiel (Ezek 14:14, 20; 28:3); classed with Noah, Job, etc. Nothing evil spoken of him. (Only two: Joseph and Daniel: both executives); vs. David, et al. Foreign words: 15 Persian words; 3 Greek words. Expected from Daniel’s position. As a teenager, deported; served at court; survived into Persian Empire. Chapters: 2-7: 4: 8-12:

in Chaldean (Gentile focus). written by a Gentile King! focus on Israel.

Organization: 1-6 Narrative; history. 7-12 Visions. Raised under King Josiah’s revival; good environment; an example. Sabbath Year concept: Lev 25, 26; 490 years: failed; “owed” God 70: 2 Chr 36:21-22. 70 x 7: Four such periods in Israel’s history.

The “Seventy Sevens” of Israel
1) Abraham to the Exodus Promise (Gen 12:4) Gal 3:17 75 years + 430 505 Ishmael, usurper (Gen 16:16; 21:5) -15 = 490 594 +7 601 8 18 20 7 18 40 -111 = 490

2) Exodus to the Temple Begun: 1 Kgs 6 - 8 Completed: 1 Kgs 6:38 Servitudes: Mesopotamia Moabites Canaanites Midianites Ammonites Philistines Judges 3:8 3:12-14 4:2,3 6:1 10:7,8 13:1
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3) The Temple to the Edict of Artaxerxes 1 Kgs 8:1-66 1005 B.C. Neh 2:1 445 B.C. Babylonian Captivity 560 -70 = 490

4) Artaxerxes to the Second Coming Artaxerxes to the 1st Advent “The Sixty Nine Weeks” (69 x 7) = 483 [Church parenthesis] ? +7 = 490 The “Seventieth Week” Isa 39:5-7; Jer 25:8-12; 27:6-8; 29:10.

1st Siege of Nebuchadnezzar: “Servitude of Nation”
Battle of Carchemesh: 606 B.C.; Nebuchadnezzar vs Pharaoh Necco W bank of Euphrates; Jer 46:1-6. Jehoikim fettered (2 Chr 36:5-8). Jehoikim released as a vassal; Temple plundered (for museum); hostages (Daniel et al.) taken. (Daniel of Royal line? Ch 1:4). Begins “Servitude of the Nation”; 70 years to the day.

2nd Seige of Nebuchadnezzar
Jehoikim ignores Jeremiah’s counsel, rebels. 5 year battle; Jehoikim dies; Jer 22:17-19. Jehiachin (“Jeconiah”) son reigns until siege over. Jer 22:24-30. (Blood curse avoided by Christ’s virgin birth. See Footprints of the Messiah.) His son captured; 10,000 captives; 1000 skilled artisans; etc. 2 Kgs 24:1-4. His uncle, Zedekiah, installed as vassal. Jeremiah and Ezekiel prophesy; but false prophets again prevail. Ego trip leads to:

3rd Siege of Nebuchadnezzar
“Desolations of Jerusalem” 587 B.C.; (also 70 years; but not coterminous with “Servitude.”) Contradictory prophecies: Jer 32:5, 39:7; Ezek 12:13; 2 Kgs 25:6,7. God does not deal in approximations. City and Temple destroyed 2 Kgs 24:17-20; 25:1-21.

A Provocative Conjecture
Ezekiel 4:1-8: 430 years of judgment predicted. 430 - 70 years captivity = 360 unaccounted for? Leviticus 26:18, 21, 24, 28:
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Multiply by seven? 360 x 7 = 2520 years. 360 day years: Genesis 7:24, 8:3,4, etc.; 42 months; 3 1/2 years; 1260 days; being equivalent in Revelation, etc. 2520 years360 = 907,200 days. 2483 years365 = 906,295 days, + ?

What about leap years?
The Julian year is 11 minutes 10.46 seconds longer than the mean solar year. Therefore the Julian calendar contains 3 leap years too many every 4 centuries. An error of 11 days occurred as of 1752 A.D. and was corrected by the Gregorian reform, which declared September 3 to be September 14, 1752, and reckoning 1700, 1800, and 1900 as common years and 2000 as a leap year. Dividing 2483 by 4 = 621, with 18 too many (3 excess every 4 centuries); 11 have already been corrected for by the Gregorian reform: 18 - 11 = 7; 621 - 7 = 614. 2483 years365 = 906,295 days plus, for leap years 9 months 21 days 2520 years360

614 days 270 days 21 days 907,200 days

Don’t confuse the “Servitude of the Nation” with the “Desolations of Jerusalem.” The “Desolations of Jerusalem” was punishment for not yielding to the “servitude”: Jeremiah 27:6, 8, 11; 38:17-21. Cf. Jeremiah 29:10; Daniel 9:2. Both the “Servitude of the Nation” and the “Desolations of Jerusalem” were predicted to last 70 years, but these were also 360-day years: 70 years360 = 25,200 days = 69 years365 less 2 days.

Servitude of the Nation:
606 B.C. + 69 years = 537 B.C. If July 23, 537 B.C. was the release from the Servitude of the Nation, then -537y 7m 23d (no “year 0”): 1 2483y 9m 21d 1948 5 14 which is May 14, 1948. It was on this date that David Ben Gurion declared on international radio, and using Ezekiel as his authority, the re-establishment of Israel as the new Jewish homeland.
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Desolations of Jerusalem:
587 B.C. + 69 years = 518 B.C. If August 16, 518 B.C. was the completion of the Desolations of Jerusalem, then -518y 8m 16d (no “year 0” 1 B.C. to 1 A.D.) 1 2483y 9m 21d 1967 6 7 which is June 7, 1967, when, as a result of the “Six Day War,” Israel regained control of the Old City of Jerusalem for the first time since the time of Christ. Nebuchadnezzar began the period known as the “times of the Gentiles.” Cf. Luke 21:24. Jer 25:9; Nebuchadnezzar is “my servant”! Dan 2:21. No king from the line of David has ruled over Israel since the Babylonian captivity.

Chapter 1
1] Who gave them into Neb’s hand? Shinar = Babylon (7X). Eunuchs = Officer. Potiphar was “Eunuch”; Master of Palace Servants; Gen 37:36. No blemish; top grade; teachable; 3 yr post-Graduate school. Babylon: sciences; astronomy; 360 degrees; 60 secs/ min; 60 minutes/hour; etc. 360-day year. (For more on Stonehenge; Great Pyramid, and the Planet Mars, see Monuments: Sacred or Profane. For more on the Zodiac, the Hebrew Mazzeroth, see Signs in the Heavens.)

Children of Judah
Hebrew names: Daniel; “God is my Judge” Hananiah: “Beloved of the Lord” Mishel: “Who is as God” Azariah: “The Lord is My Help” Babylonian names: Beltashazzar: “Prince of Bel” Shadrach: “Illumined by the Sun God” Mishech: “Who is like unto the Moon God” Abednego: “Servant of Nego, a shining fire”
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Dare to Be a Daniel
Peer pressure among teenagers; non-kosher kitchen. What would YOU do? Nothing? Change everyone? “Purposed in his heart”; our most important stewardship. Officer’s fear was justified. Nebuchadnezzar known to put out eyes (after killing progeny); Jer 39:6,7; make their houses into dung hills; roasted officers over a fire, etc. Jer 29:22.) 12] 10 days: 10 always a test, measurement, testimony. Not “vegetarian”: not violating dietary laws; sacrificed to idols. King’s food. Not prisoner’s ration. Elite corps; His diet; wine, etc. Lev 11:1-47 (44); 17:10-14; 1 Cor 8:11-13; Acts 10:12-15. Withdrawal; not confrontational. “Knelt about the time of evening oblation.” Temple in ruin 200 miles away; demonstrates Daniel’s heart. In the most pagan of empires: kept himself blameless before the Lord. 20] Judges give them a “10.” Upstaging just beginning. Competition was not trivial. 21] Forecast: Cyrus the Persian. Daniel endured beyond all present. Every episode also prophetic for you and I.

Daniel Chapter 2
Nebuchadnezzar’s Dream
[Chapter 1 through 2:3: in Hebrew...] Nebuchadnezzar’s perspective: young successful victor; conquered the known world! Old staff inherited. Does he trust them? Calibration test emerges; most famous in history. Job description: “Chaldeans” = title, Advisory leadership. 3] Chapter 2:4 through Chapter 7 is in Aramaic, the Gentile language, not Hebrew. 4] Dissembling ( v. 9): Professional development program explained more clearly... Negotiations concluded.
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5] Dissembling: note v. 9. 10] Indeed! Isa 41:21-23. 18] (No committees, task force, or research projects.) The God of Heaven, vs “gods of heaven”; Prayer: Jer 33:3; Ps 37:5; Phil 4:6-7; Heb 13:15; Jas 1:5; 1 Pet 5:7. 20] Praise (7). Job 12:13-22; Ps 31:15; 41:13; 75:6; 103:1,2; 113:1,2. 22] 1 Cor 2:9-11. 23] Mt 11:25; 7:6. 25] Typical bureaucratic “humility.” 28] Cf Joseph: Gen 40:8; 41:16. “Latter Days” 14X OT. Messianic Age: Hos 3:5; Isa 2:2; Mic 4:1. Israel: Gen 49:1; Num 24:14; Deut 4:30; 31:29; 2nd Coming: Jer 48:47; 49:39; 23:20; 30:24; Magog: Ezek 38:16. NT: Acts 2:17-21; Joel 2:28-32; Last Days: Jn 6:39,40,44,54; 7:37; 11:24; 12:48; 2 Tim 3:1; Heb 1:2; Jas 5:3; 2 Pet 3:3; Last Time: 1 Pet 1:5,20; 1 Jn 2:18; Jude 18. 29] Prophetic significance identified. 31] “Times of the Gentiles”; Luke 21:24; Hos 3:4, 5 [vs. “Fullness of Gentiles”: Luke 19:42; until Rom 11:25; James’ summary: Acts 15:13-17 (Amos 9:11-12).] Four Metals: Gold Silver Bronze Iron Iron + Clay Specific Gravity: 19.5 10.5 8.0 5.0 1.9

38] Extent of rule! by God of Heaven. Babylon = “City of Gold.” Isa 14:4

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39] Fall to Persians. Dan 5:28,31; 6:28; 8:20; 70 years fulfilled: 2 Chr 36:20,21. Succeeded by Greece: Dan 8:21; 11:2. 40] 4th Kingdom (Cf. Dan 7:7; 9:26.) 41] Divided into pieces. Divided elements recombine: Dan 2:42-44. 42] Re-collected, but mixed with hasap, clay (brittle pottery fragments) Clay = people: Job 10:9; 13:12; 33:6; Isa 29:16; 45:9; 64:8; Jer 18:46; Rom 9:21. 45] Stone cut without Hands: (supernatural) Ex 17:3-6; 33:22; Ps 118:22; Isa 8:14; 28:16; Zech 3:9 (Cf. Rev 5:6); Mt 21:43,44; Acts 4:11; Rom 9:33; 1 Cor 10:4; 1 Pet 2:4-8. Broke in pieces: Ps 2:9; 110:5; Rev 2:6-9. All 3: Iraq, Iran, Greece recent... Mountain: Isa 2:2; 9:6; Luke 1:32,33; Rev 17:9-11.

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Preview: Daniel Chapter 7
Four (only) Beasts
(Detailed in notes for Chapter 7.) 1] Lion with eagle’s wings; a new heart given to Nebuchadnezzar (Dan 4). 2] Bear, with three ribs: Babylon, Egypt, Lydia: unsuccessful defensive alliance against Medes & Persians. 3] Leopard with four wings, four heads: Lysimachus: North: Thrace, Bithynia (Turkey); Ruled from Pergamos; Cassandra: West: Greece, Macedonia; ruled from Pella; Seleucus: East: Syria, Persia, Babylonia, India; Ruled from Antioch; Ptolomey: South: Egypt, Palestine, Arabia; ruled from Alexandria. (Expanded in Daniel 8, 11) 4] iron teeth? Ten horns identified in v. 24. “little horn”; title of the Coming World Leader. [vv. 9-14: The Second Coming of Christ] 17] Only 4 kingdoms. We’re seeing the 4th. 21] He prevailed against them! Cf. Mt 16:18. Church “gap” between vv. 23 & 24? 24] Time, times (2) and 1/2= 3 1/2 years; 42 months; 1260 days. Other References: Dan 9:24-27; Rev 13; 14:9-11;17; 18; Zech 5:511. See also The Mystery of Babylon, MidEast Update, The Seventy Weeks of Daniel, An Empire Reborn, and The Sword of Allah, by Chuck Missler, Koinonia House.

Gold: 606 B.C. 587 B.C. Battle of Carchemesh; Nebuchadnezzar establishes Babylonian Empire. 3rd Siege; Destruction of Jerusalem.
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Silver: 537 B.C. Ugbaru conquers Babylon for Cyrus, establishing Persian Empire. Completes 70 years “Servitude of Nation.” End of the “Desolations of Jerusalem.” Decree of Artaxerxes to authorizes the wall to be rebuilt. Bronze: 332 B.C Battles of Marathon, Alexander the Great conquers the Persian Empire. Iron, Phase One: 68 B.C. 44 B.C. 31 B.C. 64 A.D. 284 Rome emerges as the largest and most ruthless empire with Julius Caesar as Emperor. Julius Caesar assassinated. Battle of Actium establishes Octavius as Caesar Augustus. Nero begins his persecutions. Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianius divides empire into two. (Two legs, east and west?) The disintegration begins. 312 Constantine established as Emperor; Christianity declared state religion; transfers capital to Byzantium in the east; dies in 337. Germanic tribes sack Rome. Empire breaks into pieces... [Interval of the Church]

518 B.C. 445 B.C.

455 476

Iron, Phase Two: “mixed with clay” 1951 1957 Treaty of Paris: European Coal and Steel Community established as a multinational entity. March 25: Treaty of Rome: European Economic Community and European Atomic Energy Community established.
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1958 1959

March 19: European Parliament established. Belgium, Luxemberg, & Netherlands form a single BeNeLux group. July: Commissions of EEC, ECSC, and Euratom, merge into “European Community.” Denmark, Ireland, and United Kingdom join. Greece, Spain, and Portugal also join subsequently. Six European Free Trade Association nations agree to combine with the E.C. in 1993. Maastricht Treaty signed: single foreign policy; single military; single currency.





European Union
Original 6: France Germany Italy (Benelux Countries): Netherlands Belgium Luxembourg


Britain Ireland Denmark Greece Spain Portugal (German Reunification) Austria Finland Sweden

1981: 1986:

1991: 1995:

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National Anthem
Beethoven’s Ninth (“Choral”) Symphony, in D minor, Op. 125. Choral stanzas adapted by Beethoven from Shiller’s Ode to Joy: Freude, Tochter aus Elysium Deine Zauber binden wieder, Was die Mode streng getheilt; Alle Menschen werden Brueder, Wo dein sanfter Fluegel weilt...

In English (Translation by Louis Untermeyer): Joy, O daughter of Elysium, Thy pure magic frees all others Held in Custom’s rigid rings; Men throughout the world are brothers In the haven of thy wings... For a more complete update on Europe, see An Empire Reborn?

Daniel 3 Bow or Burn
18-23 years later? Traditions and children had grown. Rivals’ Revenge. [CBS Prime Time TV Special, Ancient Secrets of the Bible II.]

All Gold. 60 x 6 cubits. (What’s a cubit? 18 in.?) [Colossus at Rhoedes = 70 cubits high.] 6 = 7 - 1 = number of man. 6th day of Genesis; Goliath measured in 6’s; 1 Sam 17:4-7; 6 steps for Solomon’s throne; 6 + 1: Menorah. In our society: Man is deified: Humanism. Ultimate: Rev 13. Dura = “enclosed by a wall”; 6 miles SE of Babylon. CBS: (Dr. Wm Shea, Prof OT): 1956, published cuneiform tablets by British Museum: revolt in 596 B.C. may have set the stage for the reaffirmation and swearing support of Nebuchadnezzar.
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2] Officials (Aramaic, Greek) princes: Arabian ‘ahashdarpan, Greek satrap; chief rep. or admn of king; governors, segan, prefect; military; commanders, captains, peha, governor (civil); judges; adargazar, counsellor, arbitrator; treasurers, qedabar, treasurer, counsellors, detabar, lawyers; sheriffs, tiptay, magistrates, judge.; 5] [If you follow “heavy metal” music, this “hot” music group gives “Metallica” a whole new meaning! The Christian equivalent would be “Deliverance,” and that is, after all, what happens with Christ in the picture as the three young men soon discover!] 6] tanup: execution furnace. Enforced state religion: Rev 13:4-15; 14:911; 19:20; 20:4; 2 Thess 2:4. CBS: Dr. Ron Charles (designed for Owens Corning Corporation): [His design: two story, 32 ft. high, 20 ft in chamber, 12 brick baking chamber. Backdraft killed 7? Cold spots?] 12] Shadrach, “illumined by the Sun God” Hananiah, “Beloved of the Lord” Meshech, “Who is like unto the Moon God” Mishael, “Who is God” Abed-nego, Servant of Nego (“Shining Fire”) Azariah, “The Lord is my help” CBS Special: 5 side clay prism found in Babylon, now on display at the Istanbul Museum: lists grouped by titles: Ha-nu-nu, Chief of the Royal Merchants, a variation of Hananiah, or Shadrach; Mushal-emarduk: (less marduk) = Meshach. Ardi-nabu, Secretary to the Crown Prince; an alternative form of Abed-Nego; Prohibited in the Torah: Ex 20:4,5; Lev 26:1; Deut 16:22. 14] 2nd chance? They must have been favored. 17] Faithful “remnant”: Isa 1:9; Rom 11:5. Ps 2:5; Rev 7:14. 18] Though He slay me, yet will I trust in Him: but I will maintain mine own ways before Him. Job 13:15 Also, Acts 4:19. “Our God is a consuming fire” Heb 12:29; Deut 4:24. 19] Seven times?... 25] bar elahin, son of the gods (pl) (Aramaic); Elohim is always plural!
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“Angel” of v. 28. Theophany. Walking around loose! Furnace: N. Iraq: brick furnaces, size of city block; pitch, sulfur; + bellows. [Since Nebuchadnezzar’s Palace has been rebuilt, has Saddam Hussein also built one of these?] 26] El Elyon, possessor of Heaven and Earth Nebuchadnezzar’s views amplified in Ch.4! 27] [defeats “coldspot” theories] Bindings lost. Blessed loss. Many of God’s servants never know the fulness of spiritual liberty till they are cast into the midst of the furnace. Go into the furnace. Christ is in the furnace with you. Though the smell of fire had not passed on them, it must have left a glow on their countenances and a glory on their persons which we find nowhere else. Henceforth they are called “the three holy children.” 29] Nebuchadnezzar is mover and shaker.

Prophetic Types
Daniel 3 vs. Revelation 13
Image: Rev 13:11 (14,15) 18; Mt 24:15. Nebuchadnezzar =? Antichrist? Babel, Nimrod = one religion. One religion = Rev 17; 2 Thess 2:4. Mark of the Beast? vs. Ezek 9:4? Cf. “seal” of the Holy Spirit Cf. barcodes? Microchips inserted? 3 youths: Israel? 144,000? Rev 7, 15:2. Fiery furnace = Tribulation? Isa 43:1,2; Dan 9. Men destroyed by flames: 2 Thess 2:8; Rev 20:10; 19:20. Fire: God’s Presence Pathway Precepts

Ex 3:1-4 Ex 13:21 Ex 19:16-18 (cf 20:1-17)
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Punishment Power Protection Prophecy

Gen 19:23-24; Lev 10:2 1 Kgs 18:24 Dan 3:25 2 Thess 1:6-10; 2 Pet 3:10; Luke 17:29,30

Where’s Daniel?
Absent on affair of state? Istanbul prism: lists three; but no mention of Daniel! Church? Not mentioned after Rev 4:1. [Other “Type” examples: Gen 22. Where’s Isaac?]

Daniel 4
The Affadavit of a Gentile King! An statutory edict officially published throughout the world. (Issued in 562 B.C., the year he recovered from insanity.) [One of the longest chapters in Daniel.] [Cf. the words of Elihu: Job 33:12-17.) 8] Daniel + Belteshazzar: remember, the edict went all over the world... “Master of magicians” = scholars... cf. Ezek 28:3 ref: confirms a 6th century Daniel.

Tree of the World
A man: Ps 1:3; 37:35; 52:8; 92:12; Isa 56:3; Jer 17:8. Assyria: Ezek 31:3-18. Mustard “tree” in Mt 13:31-32. Olive tree: Israel; Rom 11:16-24. 2 Kgs 14:9; Ps 1:3; 37:35; 52:8; 92:12; Ezek 17. Ezek 31: Assyrian and Egyptian Pharaoh are compared to cedar of Lebanon. Transplanted shoot: Ezek 17:22ff; 22:24; stump: Isa 11:1. Immediate application: Nebuchadnezzar. Prophetic: ecumenical outreach of Babylonianism and Gentile power in the last days and final overthrow. (Seven years of insanity and confusion!?) Conversion took place after the 7 years of madness. The tree did not sprout again until after it had been cut down... Acts 15:14-17; “take out” of them a people for his name... “after this I will return”...
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14] “His” branches...his...his... 15] “times” = “years” 7:25. 17] Councils in heaven: 1 Kgs 22:19-22; Job 1:6-12; 2:1-6. Powers that be are ordained of God; Rom 13:1. 28] The Dream Fulfilled.

Origin: Gen 10:8-10, Nimrod, the first world dictator. Herodotus: 15 miles square; 350 ft wall, 87 ft wide (6 chariots abreast!?); 2nd wall, moat; 250 watchtowers, 100 ft above the wall; Tower of Bel (Bab-El) 600 ft!? Banquet hall: 56 x 173 ft. The magnificence of Babylon led to Nebuchadnezzar’s downfall. He still had a major ego problem and a Babylonian inscription has been discovered that highlights this:1 I, Nebuchadnezzar, King of Babylon, I am the son of Nabopolassar, King of Babylon. I who erected the Ezida Temple, I who built Procession Street, The Street of the Forgiven Son, The Street of Nebu, And paged it with shimmering stones. Nebu, you the divine minister, Grant me immortality.

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Hanging Gardens of Semiramis = one of the 7 wonders of the ancient world. (Saddam Hussein has offered prizes if anyone can figure out how they were irrigated...) [Has a prophetic destiny at the end of the age. See Chap. 5.]

God hates it. Prov 6; 1 Cor 4:6,7; Phil 2:3-4; 1 Tim 6:4-10,17; James 4:13-17; Prov 16:5; 16:18; 21:24; 26:12; 29:23. [Why? Satan’s fall: Isa 14:4-14] One of the most dangerous things in life is when things are going well. Our mistakes are our lessons; our pains and sorrows are our credentials.

Lycanthropy: (Greek: lykos, “wolf”; anthropos, “Man”)
Mental disorder in which the patient believes he is a wolf or some other animal. Stimulated by the once widespread superstition of a supernatural condition in which men actually assume the physical form of werewolves or other animals. Linked with belief in animal guardian spirits, vampires, totemism, witches, and werewolves. Folklore, fairy tales, and legends of many nations and peoples show evidence of lycanthropic belief. Romans called anyone who was supposed to have been turned into a wolf by means of magic spells or herbs versipellis (“turnskin”). Widely believed in Europe during the Middle Ages.2 Boanthropy: an ox... Raymond Harrisons observed a case in British mental institution in 1946. Early ‘20s; hospitalized for 5 years; fitted description in 4:33. 3 Eusebius references from Abydenus, a Greek historian of 268 B.C., aspects of Nebuchadnezzar’s insanity, being on the roof, and other details. Josephus attributes to the Babylonian historian Berosus, a Chaldean priest of the time of Alexander the Great, a definite reference concerning a strange malady suffered by Nebuchadnezzar before his death.4 Berosus learned Greek, opened a school, and had Abydenus as one of his pupils. He wrote 3 books on Chaldean history; fragments are preserved in Josephus and Eusebius. Talmud: care provided by Daniel.
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Prayer of Nabonidus: found in Cave 4 at Qumran: “The words of the prayer that Nabonidus, the king of A[ssyria and Ba]bylon, the [great] king, prayed [when he was smitten] with a malignant disease by the decree of the [Most High God] in [the city of] Tema. I was smitten for seven years and from [men] I was put away. But when I confessed my sins and my faults, He [God] allowed me (to have) a soothsayer. This was a Jewish [man of the exiles in Babylon. He] explained (it) and wrote (me) to render honor and g[reat glor]y to the name of the [Most High God]...”5 Words in common to both accounts: pitgam, “decree, decision”; gaz rayya, “soothsayer, diviner.” (Aramic nbny in Cave 4 = Nabodnidus? (nbnd); confused with nbkd, Nebuchadnezzar.) 34] Restoration... Summary by Daniel: 5:20-21. Saved? A heart given unto him: 7:4. 37] The last we read of Nebuchadnezzar. After his restoration, he lived about one year. His son Evil-merodach succeeded him as Babylon’s next ruling monarch; Jer 9:23-24.

Chapter 5: The Fall of Babylon
The Relevance of Babylon
First mention: Genesis 2:14. Mentioned over 300 times in the Bible. Alluded to 3 times in Christ’s genealogy. Presently 100 kilometers (62 miles) south of Baghdad.

The Origin of Babylon
The first world dictator: Nimrod (“Rebel”). The classical translation of Genesis 10:9 is misleading: “a mighty hunter in defiance of the Lord.” Nimrod built the famous Tower of Babel as the centerpiece of his rebellion against God. (“Bav” = gate; “El” = God. Babel = “Gateway to the gods”). This was the beginning of the city of Babylon. (This ziggurat was later rebuilt by Nebuchadnezzar as Etemenanki, “the building which is the foundation of heaven and earth.”)
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God disrupted this rebellious coalition through the “confusion of tongues” in Genesis 11. This rebellion against God is still with us. The residuals from Babylon include most of the traditions of idol worship, astrology, and the occult that continue to the present day. The original Biblical significance of the zodiac (or “Mazzeroth”) was corrupted by the Babylonian religious system and continues in all cultures to this day. (See our Briefing Package, Signs in the Heavens.)

The Battle of the Nine Kings
In Genesis 14 we find Abraham’s dramatic rescue of his nephew Lot in the Battle of the Nine Kings. There were four attacking kings from southern Mesopotamia who defeated five kings of the plain. The four kings had, for 12 years, been under the leadership of Cherdorlaomer, the King of Elam. It is provocative that in the list which introduces these kings in Genesis 14:1, the one mentioned first is Amraphel, King of Shinar (Babylon), one of the secondary kings at the time.

First Mention of Jerusalem
Also in Genesis 14, after Abraham’s stunning victory, we encounter a mysterious character Melchizedek, King of Salem (Ps 110; Heb 5, 7, etc.), a location later to be known as Jerusalem (Ps 76:1,2; 2 Sam 18:18). This begins an antithetical relationship between Jerusalem and Babylon that climaxes with the destruction of Babylon in the “Day of Lord” (Revelation 16 - 19) and with the presentation of the “New Jerusalem” in Revelation 21.

The Early Years
Assyria rose to power in the second millennium B.C. and emerged as the dominant power until the rise of the Chaldeans in the seventh century B.C. Various early kings appointed governors over the city of Babylon before the Amorite invasion led to the founding of the first Semitic dynasty of Babylon under Sumu-abum (1894 B.C.). The sixth king of the line, Hammurabi (1792-1750 B.C.) enlarged the city and made it a prosperous capital and trading center. Hammurabi and his son, Samsu-iluna, reigned from 1749 to 1712 B.C. It was during this
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period that the nation Israel was living in Egypt. Soon the south was in revolt and by the end of his reign, the founder of a new dynasty in the marshlands in the south, Iliman, controlled Babylonia as far north as Nippur. This new dynasty was known as Sealand, and for over a 100 years the Sealanders held an effective political force holding the south against the Kassites and others who were eventually to supplant them on the Babylonian throne. With the capture of the city by the Hittites, (1595 B.C.) and then the subsequent occupation by the Kassites who ruled for some 400 years. During the first millennium B.C., Babylon endured as a minor tribal center, and as a mere pawn of Assyrian politics.

An Instrument Of Judgment
King Hezekiah’s victory over the Assyrians: Isaiah 36 and 37. Hezekiah falls victim to his pride and takes credit for God’s handiwork. 2 Kings 20:12-18. God announces that He will bring judgement upon the nation Israel by having Babylon take them captive as slaves. Isaiah 39. Jeremiah predicted that the Babylonian Captivity of the Jews was to last 70 years, and it did. Jeremiah 25:11, 12. Failure to keep the Sabbath of the land for 490 years (70 times 7) was the cause for the particular period of 70 years of captivity (2 Chronicles 36:21). (Cf. “70 times 7” Mt 18:22.)

The Rise of Nebuchadnezzar
In 627 B.C. a governor of the Sealands (modern Kuwait), Nabopolassar, rallied the tribes and broke out from besieged Erech and cleared Babylon from the Assyrians for the last time. Six weeks later the people of Babylon invited Nabopolassar to be their king. Nabopolassar’s son, Nebuchadnezzar, used the city as a base from which he marched on many campaigns to Syria and Palestine. He was destined to bring in the Chaldean dynasty’s finest hours and Babylon’s most famous period.

The Battle of Carchemish
In 612 B.C. the combined forces of Babylonians, Medes, and Scythians attacked and destroyed the Assyrian capital of Nineveh. The only
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remaining power of significance was the Egyptians. The Babylonian Chronicle records the defeat of Pharaoh Necco and the Egyptians at the famous battle at Carchemish and the then-known world was under Babylonian rule.

Conquest of Jerusalem
In 606 B.C. Nebuchadnezzar succeeded in his siege of Jerusalem and Jehoiakim of Judah became his vassal. Jehoiakim would also revolt three years later, 2 Kgs 24:1; Dan 1:1,2. Nebuchadnezzar’s first expedition was before he ascended to the throne; Nebuchadnezzar’s first year was concurrent with Jehoiakim’s fourth year, Jeremiah 25:1. This is in agreement with Clinton, Pussey, Anderson (p.229240.) This initiated a 70-year period known Biblically as the “servitude of the nation.” It was in this first siege that Daniel and his three friends were deported as teenagers to be educated there and to serve at the Babylonian court. These “hostages” might help assure the continued loyalty of the vassal king in Jerusalem. Despite Jeremiah’s warnings, Jehoiakim rebelled three years later after the Egyptians had beaten the Babylonian army in open battle. Nebuchadnezzar besieged Jerusalem a second time, seized Jehoiakim, and appointed a king of his own choice, Zedekiah; 2 Kgs 25:1; Jer 39:1; 52:4; Ezek24:1. Babylonian Chronicle, as quoted in D. J. Wiseman, Chronicles of Chaldean Kings (626-556 B.C.) in the British Museum, 1956. The capture of Jehoiachin and his substitution by a Babylonian nominee, Mattaniah-Zedekiah, accords with the Biblical accounts of the same events. 2 Kgs 24:10-17; 2 Chr 36:5-10; Jer 37:1. Skilled craftsmen from Judah were deported to assist the immense building program then current at Babylon, where in Esagalia and other temples the spoils of war were dedicated to be displayed on state occasions; 2 Chr 36:7; Dan 5:3. Tablets from the vaulted rooms by the Ishtar Gate include four listing rations given to “Yau’kin of Judah.” Five sons of Jehoichin are also mentioned as well as five carpenters from Judah, presumably captives from the siege of Jerusalem. Again, despite Jeremiah’s repeated warnings, Zedekiah also rebelled, which led to the third and final siege by Nebuchadnezzar, and the complete destruction of Jerusalem. This initiates the period known as
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the “desolations of Jerusalem” that also lasted exactly 70 years. Many commentators make the mistake of treating the “servitude of the nation” and the “desolations of Jerusalem” as synonyms since they both were predicted to be 70 years in duration. The “desolations of Jerusalem” was a punishment for not yielding to the “servitude.” Jeremiah 27:6, 8, 11; 38:17-21; Cf. Jeremiah 29:10, Daniel 9:2.

Nebuchadnezzar’s Successors
Nebuchadnezzar’s death was followed by a steady weakening of the regime. His successor, Amel-Marduk (“Evil-Merodach” of 2 Kings 25:27; Jeremiah 52:31), ruled but two years and was replaced in 560 B.C. after an army coup by the commander in chief, Neriglissar (Nergal-Sharezer of Jeremiah 39:3), son-in-law of Nebuchadnezzar. After frequent absences from active service, he was, in turn, ousted, and his weak son Labashi-Marduk lasted only a few months before another coup d’etat brought Nabonidus to the throne. Soon after his election, Nabonidus led the army to Palestine and Northern Arabia, leaving his son Belshazzar as co-regent in Babylon. Nabonidus’ decision to stay in Arabia resulted from his unpopularity at home as much as from his desire to found a settlement there with exiles from Palestine. In Babylon there had been inflation brought on both by the continuing military expenditure and by the extensive program of public works begun by Nebuchadnezzar. This inflation rate amounted to 50% between 560 B.C. and 530 B.C., resulting in widespread famine. In the last year of Nabonidus, the Babylon Chronicle (British Museum) records that the idols of the cities around Babylon, except Borsippa, Kutha, and Sippar, were brought in, an action taken only at the sign of impending war. This cylinder, one of 4 bearing the same text found at the four corners of the ziggurat at Ur, is inscribed in Babylonian cuneiform: prayer to the moon-god Sin, to whom the Ziggurat is consecrated; mentions “Belshazzar, the son first (born) the offspring of my heart (body).” Inscriptions designate Daniel as “the 3rd Ruler in the kingdom.” (5:29)

The Rise of Cyrus
Cyrus II (“the Great,” 559-530 B.C.) was the founder of the Achaemenid Persian Empire that continued for two centuries until the time of
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Alexander the Great (331 B.C.). Cyrus’ father, Cambyses I (600-559 B.C.), was king of Anshan, a region in eastern Elam. His mother was Mandane, a daughter of Astyages, king of Media (585 -550 B.C.) When Cambyses I died in 559 B.C., Cyrus inherited the throne of Anshan and, after unifying the Persian people, attacked his father-inlaw, the weak and corrupt Astyages. The Median general Harpagus, whom Astyages had previously wronged, deserted the king and brought his army to the side of the young Cyrus. Astyages was soon captured and the Persians took the capital city of Ecbatana in 550 B.C. without a battle. (This was also to be the result at Babylon 11 years later.) Cyrus succeeded in welding the Medes and Persians into a unified nation. Moving swiftly to the west, he absorbed all the Median territories as far as the Halys River in Asia Minor. When Croesus, the fabulously wealthy king of Lydia, refused to recognize the sovereignty of Medo-Persia, Cyrus defeated him in battle and took over his empire in 546 B.C. Seven years later, he was ready to launch the great assault against Babylon itself. Babylon was in no position to resist a Medo-Persian invasion in the year 539 B.C. During the preceding fourteen years, Nabonidus the king had not so much as visited the capital city, leaving the administration of the metropolis to his profligate son Belshazzar, to whom he also “entrusted the kingship.” (“Verse Account of Nabonidus,” Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts, 313.) Nabonidus further weakened the empire by incurring the displeasure of the powerful Babylonian priesthood. Toward the end of September, the armies of Cyrus, under the able command of Ugbaru, district governor of Gutium, attacked Opis on the Tigris River and defeated the Babylonians. This gave the Persians control of the vast canal system of Babylon. On October 10, Sippar was taken without a battle and Nabonidus fled. Two days later, on October 12, 539 B.C., Ugbaru’s troops were able to enter Babylon without a battle. Herodotus describes how the Persians diverted the River Euphrates into a canal upriver so that the water level dropped “to the height of the middle of a man’s thigh,” which thus rendered the flood defenses useless and enabled the invaders to march through the river bed to enter by night. (Herodotus 1.191.)

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The Handwriting on the Wall
The Talmud suggests that the writing was vertical and backwards: (Aramaic, like Hebrew, reads from right to left. We’ve reversed the chart to read backwards for Western readers): Mene, Mene, Tekel, Peres.

Mene: numbered, reckoned. “God hath numbered thy kingdom and finished it.” Your number is up. Tekel: weighed. “Thou art weighed in the balances, and art found wanting.” Peres: (rendered “upharsin”: “u” is Aramaic for “and”; “pharsin” is the plural form of “peres.”) broken, divided. “Thy kingdom is divided, and given to the Medes and the Persians.” (By implying a different vowel, “paras” rather than “peres.” It also becomes a play on words: paras was the word for Persia.)
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God’s Personal Letter to Cyrus
Cyrus was able to boast that the conquest was almost bloodless with no significant damage to the city. Daniel (who lived at least until the third year of Cyrus) presented Cyrus with the writings of Isaiah (Josephus, Antiq. XI, i.2) that includes a letter addressed to Cyrus by name, written 150 years earlier: Isaiah 44:27 - 45:7. The famous Steele of Cyrus: “...without any battle, he entered the town, sparing any calamity...I returned to sacred cities on the other side of the Tigris, the sanctuaries of which have been ruins for a long time...and established for them permanent sanctuaries. I also gathered all their former inhabitants and returned to them their habitations.” This cylinder, discovered by Hormuzd Rassam in the 19th century, can presently be seen in the British Museum in London.

The Jews were actually encouraged by Cyrus to return to Jerusalem and to rebuild their temple (2 Chr 36:22; Ezra 1:1-4). Furthermore, he gave them back the vessels that Nebuchadnezzar had plundered from Solomon’s Temple and he contributed financially to the construction of their second temple. About 50,000 Jews responded to this royal proclamation and returned to Jerusalem under the leadership of Zerubbabel. A year later, on July 23, 537 B.C., the return of Jewish exiles under Zerubbabel got under way just seventy years after the captivity began just as Jeremiah had predicted. The foundations of the second Temple
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were laid by the spring of 536 B.C. It was a successor, Artaxerxes I (465 - 423 B.C.) who issued the specific decree concerning the rebuilding of the walls of Jerusalem. This decree is the trigger for one of the most remarkable prophecies in the Bible: the famous “Seventy Sevens” of Daniel 9.

The Decline
The Achaemenids
Cyrus claimed the title “King of Babylon” and made his son Cambyses to act as his viceroy in Babylon in 538 B.C. Things remained peaceful until his death in 522 B.C. In the reign of Darius II (521-486 B.C.) a further return of exiles to Jerusalem was allowed. His rule did not go unchallenged and several local Babylonians controlled the city for varying periods, usually taking the throne-name of “Nebuchadnezzar” to bolster their claims. Thus Nidintu-Bel (“Nebuchadnezzar III”) held sway October-December 522 B.C. Araka (“Nebuchadnezzar IV”) was put to death November 27, 521 B.C. Darius introduced a rigid royal control with local administrative reforms aimed at curbing corruption and establishing a courier system between Babylon and other capitals. He built himself a palace (Apadana), a house for his crown prince, and an arsenal. In the fourth year of Xerxes (485-465 B.C.) the Babylonians made another attempt to gain their independence. Bel-shimanni and Shamash-eriba claimed the throne in 482 and this revolt was suppressed with much cruelty and damage to Babylon. On his visit in 460 B.C., Herodotus reported that the city was virtually intact, however. Xerxes and his successors (Artaxerxes I - Darius III, 464-332) had little to spare for Babylon amid their lengthy and expensive wars with Greece. Irrigation work was neglected and the diversion of trade to the main Persian road from Sardis to Susa aided the decline of the city’s influence.

The Rise of Greece
On October 1, 331 B.C. Alexander (III, “the Great”) was welcomed by
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the Babylonians when he entered the city after his victory over the Medes at Gaugamela. He was acclaimed king and on his return from the east nine years later he planned extensive renovations including the creation of a port for the city large enough for 1000 warships. Though the site of Esagila was cleared, work ceased on Alexander’s ambitious plans at his death in Babylon on June 13, 323 B.C. The career of Alexander is detailed in Daniel 8. His successors, in Daniel 11. His four key generals divided it among themselves: Cassander took over Greece and Macedonia; Lysimachus took Thrace and Bithynia; Seleucus took Syria, Babylonia, and portions all the way to India; Ptolemy took Egypt, Palestine, and Arabia. The subsequent struggles among his generals did not leave the city unscathed. Seleucus, who claimed the title of king in 305 B.C. was acknowledged from 311 when all documents were dated by his “era.” The foundation of a new rival capital city, Selucia, on the River Tigris expedited the decline of the ancient metropolis. The dispersal of Jews from Babylon is reported by Josephus. (Antiq. XVIII, ix 6-9.)

Atrophy and Decay
The city subsequently underwent a gradual decay, even though the ruins remained occupied. Documents on clay from a school for priests in the city continued at least until 100 A.D. Early in the first century A.D. a colony of merchants from Palmyra brought brief prosperity, but they left about 75 A.D. (Garner, p 7-8.) The city was visited by Trajan in 115 A.D. Babylon was first reported deserted by Septimus Severus 84 years later. As recently as the 1800’s the village of Hillah, containing over 10,000 inhabitants, stood on the site of ancient Babylon. (Rich, p.157.) In the late nineteenth century, the German archeologist Robert Koldewey conducted extensive studies at Babylon and the four Arab villages situated on the site. Babylon had been inhabited for some time even before his arrival. The great prophecies concerning the city
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of Babylon in Isaiah chapters 13 and 14 and Jeremiah 50 and 51 have never been fulfilled.

The Destruction of Babylon
The Prophecies of Isaiah
In Isaiah 13 and 14, the destruction of Babylon is predicted. In vigorous terms, Isaiah describes how Babylon will be destroyed and then will never again be inhabited. This identifies the time of the destruction as that particular period known as the “Day of The Lord” that is mentioned throughout the scripture and is associated with the final day of God’s vengeance. (Joel 2:10; Mal 4:5; Dan 12:1; Mt 24:21-22.) When God destroys Babylon, he will destroy all the evil in the world.

Isaiah 13
10] This exact imagery is used in Revelation 6 to describe the judgment of the Tribulation just before the Second Coming. 11] This startling idea parallels Matthew 24:21-22. We can’t say that the world’s population has been on the brink of annihilation before. 13] This clearly is yet future. 17] This reference to the Medes is one of the reasons why many have viewed this as referring to the events of 539 B.C. However, nothing prohibits the Medes from being involved in the future. The Medes were a people who occupied the mountainous area of northwestern Iran and northeastern Iraq, presently occupied by the Kurds today. They have been fighting Turkey, Iran, and Iraq in an attempt to establish their own independent country of Kurdistan. Hundreds of Kurdish women and children were the victims of Saddam Hussein’s poison gas attacks in 1987 and 1988 and the hatred by the Medes for the Babylonians runs deep. 19] “The glory of the Babylonians’ pride”: not Rome, nor allegorical: literally, the Chaldeans’ pride. Overthrown like Sodom and Gomorrah, that is, with “fire from heaven.” This has yet to happen to Babylon. 20] After the Fall of Babylon under the Persians, it was inhabited, even by Alexander and subsequently.
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Isaiah 14
1] It is also important to note that this judgment on Babylon will take place at a time when Israel is resettled in their own land from many nations. This cannot be applied to the fall of Babylon to the Persians, during which Israel was still in captivity and in exile from the land. 22] Clearly, this is part of God’s climactic scenario as part of the “Day of the Lord” and is part of the final scenes at the end of the “Seventieth Week” of Daniel 9, and that is highlighted in Matthew 24 and Revelation 6 through 19.

The Prophecies of Jeremiah
50:1-3] Does the “nation from the north” refer to Magog or the Russians? 50:4] Again, the spiritual position of Israel is described. 50:9] Again, it appears to be an alliance of many nations that are coming against Babylon. 50:10-3] Again, the absence of subsequent habitation marks this event as yet future. 50:15] Again, the period of time is the “Day of Vengeance” of God, a time of climax described throughout the Scripture and yet future. 50:20] The repeated references to the forgiveness of Israel imply a time that is after the New Testament period alluded to in Romans 11:25. It certainly cannot be applied to Israel at the time of her return from the Babylonian captivity (Zech 12:10; 13:1). 50:40] A repeated comparison to the overthrow of Sodom and Gomorrah, which has never yet happened to Babylon. 50:41, 46] A multinational force, not just the Persians. 51:7] A reading of the language clearly links this with Revelation 17 and 18. 51:26] Again, a reference to the non-reuse of remaining materials. When Robert Koldewey arrived in Babylon in the late 1800’s, he found
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entire sections of the old city being mined for bricks. (Kodewey, p.168.) 51:45] Again, remarkably similar language as in Revelation 17 and 18. The destruction of Babylon predicted by both Isaiah and Jeremiah has never been fulfilled.

Revelation 17
Notice that the prostitute is not the beast, but rides the beast. She initially exploits the beast, but is eventually destroyed by him. (Rev 17:16,17.) The reference to the “cup” is another link with Jeremiah, et al. Again, note the distinction between the Woman and the Beast. Mystery Babylon as a false religious system is here identified with the city of Rome from the first century until this present hour.

Revelation 18
The destruction of Mystery Babylon continues in Chapter 18, with commercial as well as religious overtones. Notice that there are three groups that bemoan her fall: kings, merchants, and those who trade by sea. Notice that here are 28 literal commodities listed: perhaps this is to prevent us from allegorizing these references (see chart on next page). The clear references to Rome, in both religious and commercial terms, have caused most commentators to identify “Mystery Babylon” as the Roman religious system commingled with the emerging European Community. This allegorical view has overlooked the reemergence of a literal city of Babylon as well.

Babylon Reemerges?
The strange vision in Zecharaiah 5:5-15 suggests that there will be an appropriate time when the commercial and religious power center of the Planet Earth will, once again, migrate back to its original site of the literal city of Babylon.
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Note that the “ephah” and the “talent” were the standard commercial measures of volume and weight, respectively. The two carriers had the “wings of a stork” which is an unclean bird. The captive woman called “wickedness” may be a reference to the harlot of Revelation 17 and 18.

“Mystery Babylon”
All forms of occultic practices have had their origins in the original city of Babylon. Isaiah chapter 47 brings this out clearly. (See also Hislop in bibliography.) Tammuz, the son of Nimrod and his queen, Semiramis, was identified with the Babylonian Sun God, and worshipped following the winter solstice, about December 22.
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As Babylon was conquered by subsequent empires, this entire religious system was transplanted, first to Pergamos (Rev 2:12-17) and then to Rome. When Constantine established Christianity as the official state religion of Rome, many of the religious traditions and practices of the earlier pagan worship were adapted and incorporated into the resulting system. As the Babylonian religious system was integrated with Christian ceremonial observances, many of our traditions surrounding Christmas emerge. The Babylonian worship of Ishtar, the Golden Egg of Astarte, and the fertility rites of spring give us Easter (“Ishtar,” the mother goddess of Babylon). The calendar year-end on October 31, and its associated occultic rituals, gave us our Halloween. Many ancient cultures (Celts, Druids, et al.) observed October 31, the Eve of Samhain, as their year-end. This was related to worship of Baal (Mars) and may have been stimulated by the perturbation of the orbit of the earth associated with the planet Mars. See our Briefing Package, The Signs in the Heavens. Most of what we associate with pagan Rome had its origins in ancient Babylon. It was the appearance of these idolatrous influences that has evoked the intense criticism of Roman Catholicism by Protestant commentators over the centuries (Rev. 2:18-19). To equate “Mystery Babylon” with the Papacy, however, may be a myopic oversimplification It appears more likely that it is an “ecumenical” integration of all the world’s religions, including the ancient Babylonian occult forms that presently masquerade as the “New Age.”

The Conspiracy Theories
Bab-El, Babylon, Nimrod: Pantheism; Polytheism; Occult; Kabbalah; Gnostics, et al. ZendAvesta; India; Egypt, etc. Knights Templar (Protection for the Crusaders). HQ: Jerusalem, Acra, Cypress. Wealth; Lands. Corruption (at beginning? later?). 1100-1300: Satan Worship. Catholics reluctant; ultimately they burn at stake; movement goes underground. 1500s re-emerge: Rosecrucians; Order of the Rose. 1600s, 1700s: Secret societies within secret societies. May 1, 1776: “Illuminati”; Adam Weishaupt, Prof of Law, Univ of Englestasdt, Bavaria.
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1870: “Merger” with the Freemasons. Open worship of Satan; hidden from rank and file. 33 levels of secrecy. their own libraries!

Great Seal of the United States
Designed and accepted in 1782 by Freemasons; influenced by European mysticism; put on the dollar bill by Henry A. Wallace, VP under FDR. Wallace fascinated by the occult. Annuit Coeptis: Novus Ordo Seclorum Announcing the birth of... New Order World

Eagle: Egyptian Sun god Amun Ra; Egyptians, Greeks, and Persians: eagle sacred to the sun. Eagle was the Living Symbol of Mendes, a representative of the Sun. (Nine tail feathers: Inner Circle of Nine of the Illuminati?) 32, 33 wing feathers: 32 degrees of the Scottish Rite of Freemasonry; 33 on the left: the honorary 33rd degree. All Seeing Eye: The Open Eye of Egypt; Symbol of Osiris; Ubiquity of Masonic Law; Sun God is associated with Lucifer.

Council for Foreign Relations 1921
Dream: One World Government; 3000 members; members must not divulge meetings; no minutes taken. Control of most senior officials for decades? Spin-offs: Bilderbergers (Castle) - Europe; David Rockefeller; Major Media; Tri-Lateral Commission; Europe/Japan/U.S.; One World Government. Signs? (Satan loves symbols). Crescent Moon: Shriners. Islam, Vatican. (See our Briefing Package, The Sword of Allah.)

Federal Reserve (A private corporation)
Fears of Thomas Jefferson, et al: Control of the currency; thus, explicitly prohibited in The Constitution.
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Not “one” conspiracy (except in the Satanic sense)—many. [Any preoccupation with other than the Bible seems to open avenues of corruption of even the most well-intentioned pursuits.]

Babylon Today
Nebuchadnezzar V?
Saddam Hussein was born in 1937 in the village of Tikrit, 100 miles north of Baghdad on the Tigris River. (About 800 years earlier, Saladin, the greatest Muslim warrior of the twelfth century, was born in the same village. It was Saladin’s capture of Jerusalem in 1187 that resulted in the Third Crusade.) Saddam Hussein’s exploits on behalf of the Baath Party became legend and when they seized control in 1968, Saddam Hussein, at the age of 31, became a leader in Iraq. A few weeks after becoming president of Iraq in 1979, he executed some of his closest friends and fellow members of the ruling Baath Party.

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Saddam Hussein has spent almost 20 years—60 million bricks, and many hundreds of millions of dollars—rebuilding the city of Babylon as a deliberate stratagem to identify himself with the Nebuchadnezzar of old. Part of his strategy is to vigorously build his Babylonian identity to appeal to the entire Arab world to unite against Israel and the “infidel West.” Between 1983 and 1988, Iraq spent $34 billion to outfit and modernize Saddam’s army.

Progress to date
Perhaps of greatest interest is the southern palace that includes Nebuchadnezzar’s throne room where the famous “handwriting on the wall” took place in Daniel 5. This very large ceremonial room has been used for various state occasions over the past several years. A replica of the famed Ishtar Gate, the main Processional Way, the Ninmakh Temple, the Ishtar Temple and others are all presently in the process of being completed. The Tower of Babel is being planned as a hotel, with plans for connecting to a monorail around the city. Also being completed is the 4000 seat Greek Theatre (originally established during the reign of Alexander) as well as other facilities.

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Daniel 6
1] Faith: Lockjaw in the Lion’s Den Heb 11:33 Sampson Judg 14:5,6 David 1 Sam 17:34-36; Ps 57:4,7; 58:6 Benaiah 2 Sam 23:20

Daniel: at least 83 years old; over 60 years in public office; still in a position of honor. Darius, the Mede? 1) Cyrus himself? Donald J. Wiseman of the British Museum 2) Cambyses, son of Cyrus? Charles Boutfolower 3) Gubaru, appointed to rule over Babylon by Cyrus? John Whitcomb. [See Wood, p.154] “Darius” may be an honorable title, meaning “holder of the scepter.” Used of five later Persian rulers. The return of the Jews was made in Cyrus’ 1st year, 538/537 B.C. (2 Chr 36:22; Ezra 1:1,2); probably only a few months before the Lion’s Den. Ezra 1:2-4; 6:3-5: Temple to be rebuilt (Cyrus helped finance). Jews free to go; others to assist financially. Nebuchadnezzar’s booty returned. (Was it Daniel’s influence and role that influenced Cyrus?) “Satraps” = “Kingdom Protectors.” 4] No evil recorded of Daniel; Rev 14:1-5; Rev 7:1-4 [Jealousy leads men to attack a colleague who is more competent than themselves. A man in the Kingdom of God will prompt the kingdom of this world to drive its members to display a more extreme bitterness in their assault.] The emerging persecution of the “Religious fundamentalists” and “dangerous religious cultists,” et al.
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(Remember the Waco Massacre! Randy Weaver at Ruby Creek, etc.) 5] Laws of submission Lk 20:25; Rom 13:1; 1 Pet 2:3; Acts 5:29 vs. Law of Persians vs. Law of God 7] Assumed “divinity” of kings derives from ancient legends from Gen 6: demigods. Examples: Babylonian, Persian, Greek, Seleucid, and Roman empires. We’ll see it again. “den” = gob, from Heb. verb gub, to dig: a pit or cistern. 10] Prayer (cf. Ch 2, 6, 9) A habit; Jer 29:1-12 windows habitually open. Solomon: pray toward their land (2 Chr 6:36-39; 1 Kgs 8:33,35,38,44,48). David (Ps 5:7; 28:2; also 1 Kgs 8:54; Ezra 9:5). New Testament (Jn 4:21-24). 3X/day? (Ps 55:16,17). Knees? Lord: Lk 22:41 Stephen: Acts 7:60 Peter: Acts 9:40 Paul: at Miletus Acts 20:36 at Tyre Acts 21:5 [Honored for not kneeling in Chap 3; also 1 Kgs 8:54; Ezek 9:5.] Note: Praise not absent, even with pending danger. Our own country was founded by men who knew and believed in the power of prayer. 12] They bugged his apartment. 13] Did he sign? Why did they ask first? 14] Knew Daniel for more than a year... Aramaic word order places Daniel first in the sentence, the stressed position: “And as for Daniel, he set his mind to deliver him.” 15] Monarchy not absolute. Diodorus Siculus records a similar paradox with King Darious III. Also Esther 1:19; 8:8.

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16] “whom you serve continually”: what a witness! 17] Both rings would be needed to remove the stone. Parallels with Christ: By law to die Stone, sealed Power of resurrection

John 19:7. Mt 27:62-66. Phil 3:10. Also Acts 5:17-22; 12:5-10, 18.

18] Sleepless in the palace... 19] Daniel was not kept from his hour of trial! 22] By faith (Heb 11:33). Secret of safety: the Breastplate of righteousness (but whose?) Angels: Ps 91:11; Heb 1:14; Ps 34:7; Ps 103:20. 24] Kindred also: Ammianus Marcellinus confirms this Persian custom. Dathan, Abiram, Korah: Num 16 Mosaic law more lenient: Deut 24:16 Principle of lex talionis: False witnesses: Haman

Deut 19:16-21 Est 7:9-10

Aramaic, and other early languages, have a singularly strong idiom for “slander”: “eat the pieces of a man.” (Found in the Assyrian and Amarna letters.) When Daniel came out the next morning, he was the gainer: The king approved him, admired him, loved him. Everybody heard of it; what awe he must have inspired. The king was not regarded as half as much a “god” as Daniel. The counselors never troubled him again. The lions had taken care of them. 25] Satan’s attempt to extinguish the light of the Living God in Babylon: Cf. Rev 12... Wrath restrained: “Surely the wrath of man shall praise thee: the remainder of wrath shalt thou restrain.” Ps 76:10.

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28] 1 Chr 22:13.

Faithful remnant: Edward Dennett (1893), A.C. Gaebelein, G.H. Lang, H.A. Ironside, O.B. Greene, P.R. Newell. Foreshadows a Man of Sin, claiming divine honors, under penalty of death: Rev 7:3,14; 12:13-17; Mt 24:13-14; Mk 13:13. Regathered the Second time: Isa 11:11; Jer 30:3-7; Isa 13:1-13; 43:6,7; Ezek 36:24ff; Lk 21:20,24; Rom 11:25; Zech 13:8,9... Dan 6:4 Cf. Rev 14:1-5. “Roaring Lion”: 1 Pet 5:8; 2 Tim 4:17; Rev 13:2. Daniel did not receive the “mark of the Beast.” Cf. Seal of 144,000 in Rev 7, 14.

Safety in persecution....! Faithfulness of God Inspiring faith of one consecrated Blessing of obeying God rather than men Reward of separation God is equal to every emergency “Thou shalt prosper, if thou takest heed”

1 Chr 22:13

Magi Traditions
Eastern tradition: 12. Christmas: Jan 6. Western tradition: 3. Epiphany: Jan 6. 3rd century: Kings bearing gifts, Ps 72:10, 68:29. 6th century chronicle, (Exerpia Latina Garbari): Bithisarea, Melichior, Gathaspa, Balthasar Melchior Gasper
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Bede (673-735): three sons of Noah--Asia, Africa, Europe--Shem, Ham, Japheth. 14th century Armenian tradition: Balthasar Melchior Gasper King of Arabia King of Persia King of India

Relics attributed to them discovered in the 4th century; transferred from Constantinople to Milan, 5th century; to Cologne by Frederick Barbarossa in 1162 where they remain enshrined. From Latinized form of Magoi (Herodotus, 1:101); Ancient Greek transliteration of the Persian original (Sing., magus, “magic”). However, “Magicians” (a profession, rather than citizenship or cultural link) are presented in Acts as vile men without standing or morals: Simon Magus in Samaria, Acts 8:9-24: Elymas Magus at Paphos on the Island of Cyprus associated with Sergius Paulsu the proconsul (Inter. Dict. 3:222).

Persian Cult
Rab-mag, Chief of the Magi. (Untranslated title of Nergal-shar-ezer in Nebuchadnezzar’s court, Jer 39:3,13.) Magi of lesser rank in Dan 2:10, 27; 4:7,9; 5:11. Cf. Magi are Median (vs. Chaldean). Title of Daniel (Dan 4;9; 5:11); His Jewish appointment may have had repercussions among the hereditary Median priesthood, leading to the plot of Daniel 6. Persian magi credited with profound and extraordinary religious knowledge. (Babylonian magi often considered imposters.) Established as the state religion of Persia by Darius the Great, after some Magi who were considered to be expert in the interpretation of dreams had been attached to the Median court. (Oneiromancy, not astrology, is the key skill mentioned by Herodotus, et al. I.107, 120; VII.19.) It was in this dual capacity, whereby civil and political counsel was invested with religious authority, that the Magi became the supreme priestly caste of the empire.
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In the tri-lingual inscription of Bisitun: Darius I (The Great) (550-486 B. C.; reigned 522-486); Three languages: Elamite, Akkadian/ Babylonian, Old Persian/Aramaic. (Speaks of his speedy and final triumph over a revolt of Magi in 522 B.C.) Not originally followers of Zoroaster (Encyc. Britannica 7:691) The subsequent syncretistic Magian religion of Archaemenid days had much in common with the religion of the Jews: Each had its monotheistic concept of one beneficent creator, author of all good, who, in turn, was opposed by a malevolent evil spirit. Each had its hereditary priesthood which became the essential mediator between God and man by virtue of a blood sacrifice. Each depended upon the wisdom of the priesthood in divination (The Urim and Thummim of the Levite, the barsoms, small bundles of divining rods); mutually held concepts of clean and unclean forms of life. Developed into an hereditary priesthood, serving several religions; the priestly caste during Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanian periods.

NT Magi (Matthew 2:1-12)
Political Background: Since the days of Daniel, the fortunes of both the Persian and the Jewish nation had been closely intertwined. Both nations had in their turn fallen under Seleucid domination in the wake of Alexander’s conquests. Subsequently both had regained their independence: the Jews under Maccabean leadership, and the Persians as the dominating ruling group within the Parthian empire. It was at this time that the Magi, in their dual priestly and governmental office, composed the upper house of the council of the Megistanes (“magistrates”?) whose duties included the absolute choice and election of the king of the realm. It was, therefore, a group of Persian-Parthian king makers who entered Jerusalem in the latter days of the reign of Herod. Herod’s reaction was understandably one of fear when one considers the background of Roman-Parthian rivalry that prevailed during his lifetime.

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Pompey, the first Roman conqueror of Jerusalem in 63 B.C. had attacked the Armenian outpost of Parthia. In 55 B.C. Crassus led Roman legions in sacking Jerusalem and in a subsequent attack on Parthia proper. The Romans were decisively defeated at the battle of Carrhae with the loss of 30,000 troops, including their commander. The Parthians counterattacked with a token invasion of Armenia, Syria, and Palestine. Nominal Roman rule was reestablished under Antipater, the father of Herod, who in his turn retreated before another Parthian invasion in 40 B.C. Mark Antony reestablished Roman sovereignty in 37 B.C., and like Carssus before him also embarked on a similarly ill-fated Parthian expedition. His disastrous retreat was followed by another wave of invading Parthians which swept all Roman opposition completely out of Palestine (including Herod himself, who fled to Alexandria and then to Rome). With Parthian collaboration Jewish sovereignty was restored and Jerusalem was fortified with a Jewish garrison. Herod by this time secured from Augustus Caesar the title of “King of the Jews.” However, it was not for three years, including a five months’ siege by Roman troops, that the king was able to occupy his own capital city. Herod had thus gained the throne of a rebellious buffer state which was situated between two mighty contending empires. At any time his own subjects might conspire in bringing the Parthians to their aid. At the time of the birth of Christ, Herod may have been close to his final illness. Augustus was also aged; and Rome, since the retirement of Tiberius, was without any experienced military commander. ProParthian Armenia was fomenting revolt against Rome (which was successfully accomplished within two years). The time was ripe for another Parthian invasion of the buffer provinces, except for the fact that Parthia itself was racked by internal dissension. Phraates IV, the unpopular and aging king, had once been deposed and it was not improbable that the Persian Magi were already involved in the political maneuvering requisite to choosing his successor. It is possible that the Magi might have taken advantage of the king’s lack
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of popularity to further their own interests with the establishment of a new dynasty which could have been implemented if a sufficiently strong contender could be found. At this time it was entirely possible that the Messianic prophecies of the OT, culminating in the writings of Daniel, one of their own Magians, was of profound motivating significance. The promise of divinely imposed world dominion at the hands of a Jewish monarch was more than acceptable to them. (Their own Persian and Medo-Persian history was studded with Jewish nobles, ministers, and counselors; and in the great Achaemenid days some of the kings themselves were apparently of Jewish blood.) In Jerusalem the sudden appearance of the Magi, probably traveling in force with imaginable oriental pomp, and accompanied by adequate calvary escort to insure their safe penetration of Roman territory, certainly alarmed Herod and the populace of Jerusalem. It would seem as if these Magi were attempting to perpetrate a border incident which could bring swift reprisal from Parthian armies. Their request of Herod regarding him who “has been born king of the Jews” (Mt 2:2) was a calculated insult to him who had contrived and bribed his way into that office. In the providence of God, the Messianic prophecy of the kingdom was not then fulfilled; the Magi “being warned in a dream” (a form of communication most acceptable to them) departed to their own country with empty hands. Within two years Phraataces, the parricide son of Phraates IV, was duly installed by the Magi as the new ruler of Parthia. Later: Philo of Alexandria, Cicero, and Philo, and others, record that Magi were attached to senior Roman courts with acknowledged gifts and standing.

Star of Bethlehem?
Balaam’s prophecy in Num 24:17? Num 24:17 and Isa 60:3 not quoted by Matthew. (Note Simon Bar Cocheba, “Son of the Star.”) Conjunctions? Kepler suggested that the conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn in the constellation of Pisces in 7 B.C. (Wrong date: 2 B.C. 4 B.C. suggested from an erroneous inference from Josephus.) (See
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Signs in the Heavens for a discussion of the Hebrew Mazzeroth and the Zodiac.). * * * Endnotes: 1. 2. 3. Los Angeles Times, Sept. 6, 1990. Encyclopedia Britannica, 7:582; 18:912. Walvoord. Other examples: D.H. Tuke, Dictionary of Psychological Medicine, P.5, 752; Dr. D. R. Burrell, American Journal of Insanity, April, 1894, pp. 493-504. Josephus, Contra Apion, I, 20 (Thackery’s translation). J.T. Milik, Ten Years of Discovery in t he Wilderness of Judea, pp. 36, 37.

4. 5.

Commentaries on Daniel
Anderson, Sir Robert Anderson, The Coming Prince, Hodder & Stoughton, London, 1895. A classic work on the Seventy Weeks Prophecy of Daniel 9. Baldwin, Joyce G., Daniel, Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries, InterVarsity Press, Downers Grove, Illinois, 1978. Barnes, Albert, “Daniel,” 2 Vols. Notes on the Old Testament. Ed. by Robert Frew. Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, 1950 Bloomfield, Arthur E., The End of the Days, Bethany Fellowship, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1961. Charles, Robert H., Apocrypha and Pseudipigrapha of the Old Testament in English, Vol 2. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1913. Culver, Robert D., Daniel and the Latter Days, Moody Press, Chicago, 1954 DeHaan, Martin R., Daniel the Prophet, Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, 1947. Driver, Samuel R., The Book of Daniel, University Press, Cambridge, 1900. Faucsset, A.R., The Book of Daniel, A Critical and Experimental Commentary, Vol. IV. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1945. Feinberg, Charles, Premillennialism or Amillennialism? Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1936.
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Gaebelein, Arno C., The Prophet Daniel, Our Hope Publishers, New York, 1911. Hartman, Louis F., and Di Lella, Alexander A., The Book of Daniel, Doubleday & Company, Garden City, New York, 1977. Ironside, Henry A., Lectures on Daniel the Prophet, Loizeaux Bros., New York, 1920. Keil, Carl F., The Book of the Prophet Daniel, Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament, translated by M.G. Easton. T. & T. Clark, Edinburgh, 1891. Larkin, Clarence, The Book of Daniel, Clarence Larkin, Philadelphia, 1929. Leupold, Herbert C., Exposition of Daniel, Baker Book House, Grand Rapids Michigan, 1969. McClain, Alva J., Daniel’s Prophecy of the Seventy Weeks, Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1940. Newell, Philip R., Daniel: the Man Greatly Beloved and His Prophecies, Moody Press, Chicago, Ill., 1962. Pentecost, J. Dwight, Things to Come, Dunham Publishing Co., Findlay, Ohio, 1958. Pritchard, James B., ed., Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament, Princeton University Press, Princeton, N. J., 1950. Pusey, Edward B., Daniel the Prophet, Funk & Wagnalls, New York, 1891. Strauss, Lehman, The Prophecies of Daniel, Loizeaux Bros., Neptune N.J., 1965. Walvoord, John F., Daniel, The Key to Prophetic Revelation, Moody Press, Chicago, Illinois, 1971. Whitcomb, John C., Jr., Darius the Mede, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1959. Wilson, Robert Dick, Studies in the Book of Daniel, Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1979. Wiseman, Donad J., The Chronicles of the Chaldean Kings (626-556 B.C.), Trustees of the British Museum, London, 1956. Wood, Leon, A Commentary on Daniel, Zondervan, Grand Rapids, Michigan 1973 Young, Edward J., The Prophecy of Daniel, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1949.

Allen, Kenneth W., “The Rebuilding and Destruction of Babylon,” Bibliotheca Sacra, January 1976.
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Dyer, Charles H., The Rise of Babylon, Tyndale House Publishers, Wheaton, Illinois, 1991. Gordon G. Garner, Curses and Prophecies, Buried History 9 (March 1973). Grayson, A.K., Assyrian and Babylonian Chronicles, Texts from Cuneiform Sources, J.J. Augustin Publisher, Locust Valley, N.Y, 1975. Hislop, Alexander, The Two Babylons, Loizeaux Brothers, Neptune New Jersey, 1916. King, Leonard W., A History of Babylon, From the Foundation of the Monarchy to the Persian Conquest, Ams Press, New York, 1969 (Reprinted from the edition of 1915, London. Koldewey, Robert, The Excavations at Babylon, trans. Agnes S. Johns, Macmillan and Company, London, 1914. MacQueen, James G., Babylon, Robert Hale, London, 1964. Oates, Joan, Babylon, Thames and Hudson, London, 1979. Pritchard, James B., ed., Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament, Princeton University Press, Princeton, N. J., 1950. Rich, Claudius J., Babylon and Persepolis, Duncan & Malcolm, London, 1839. Seignobobs, Charles, The World of Babylon, Leon Amiel Publisher, Paris, 1975. Snaith, Norman H., The Jews from Cyrus to Herod, Abingdon Press, New York. Wiseman, Donad J., The Chronicles of the Chaldean Kings (626-556 B.C.), Trustees of the British Museum, London, 1956.

Conspiracy Theory of History
Epperson, A. Ralph, The Unseen Hand, Publius Press, Tucson AZ, 1985. McAlvany, Don A., Toward a New World Order, Western Pacific, Phoenix AZ, 1992. McManus, John F., The Insiders, The John Birch Society, Appleton, WI, 1992. Morey, Robert, The Truth About Masons, Harvest House, Eugene OR 1993. A well researched, more balanced view of Masonic history. Quigley, Carroll, Tragedy and Hope, McMillan Press, 1972. (Taken out of print by the Rockefellers.)

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Supplemental Notes:

The Book of Daniel
Chapters 7 -12

Chuck Missler
© 1994 Koinonia House Inc.

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Tape Listing - Volume 2
Tape 1: Chapter 7 - The Times of the Gentiles
The four empires which climax Gentile dominion on the Earth.

Tape 2: European Update
An update of the emergent European Suprastate.

Tape 3: Chapter 8 - The Ram and The Goat
The succession of the Persian and Greek Empires and the rise of Alexander the Great. Foreshadowings of the final World Ruler.

The Seventy Weeks of Daniel
The most amazing prophecy in the Bible.

Tape 4: Chapter 9A - The 69 Weeks
The Angel Gabriel predicts the precise day on which Jesus presented Himself as the “Meshiach Nagid” (The Messiah the King).

Tape 5: Chapter 9B - The 70th Week of Daniel
The mysterious interval between the 69th and 70th “weeks” of Daniel and the final seven years of world history.

The Final Vision
Tape 6: Chapter 10 - The Dark Side
The spooky glimpse of the spiritual warfare that lies behind world events.

Tape 7: Chapter 11 - Coming Future Kingdoms
The amazing prediction of the conflicts between the Ptolemaic and Seleucid Empires and the emergence of the final World Leader.

Tape 8: Chapter 12 - The Climax of All History
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Daniel 7
“Times of the Gentiles”
Begins the Second Division of the Book: Daniel’s Visions. Chapter: 7 8 9 10-12

1st yr of Balshazzar (after Chapter 4, before 5) 3rd yr of Balshazzar (before 5) 1st yr of Darius [3rd yr of Cyrus?]

The most comprehensive and detailed prophecy of future events to be found anywhere in the Old Testament. Cf. Dan 2, Rev 13, 17. Daniel 2 (Man’s View): human progress; bright, shiny (emphasizes unity). (Review notes on Chapter 2.) Daniel 7 (God’s View): voracious beasts (emphasizes diversity). 1] Nabonidus made Belshazzar his co-regent in his 3rd year: 553 B.C. Daniel was about 67 years old. Nebuchadnezzar had died 9 years earlier (Daniel 5 occurs 14 years later). “Sum”: essential summary. (This the first vision given directly to Daniel.) 2] “I saw”: 9X this chapter— “was beholding.” “Four winds”: Rev 7. Hurt God’s elect during trib? Lord’s rebuke? Eph 2:2? Job 1:19. (Wind: 120 refs: 90 OT, 30 NT.) “Great Sea”: Mediterranean? Num 34:6-7; Josh 1:4; 9:1; 15:11,12,47; 23:4; Ezek 47, 48:28 (all four empires on the coast...) Symbolic? Isa 8:7-8; 17:12-13; 27:1; 57:20; Jer 6:23; 46:7-9; 47:2; Rev 13:1; 17:1, 15. 4] Lion + eagle: both regal. Winged lion on gates of Babylon (British Museum); Jer 4:7; 48:40; 49:19-22; 50:17, 43-44; Lam 4:19; Ezek 17:3,12; Hab 1:8. Man’s heart: Dan 4?
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5] Bear: less regal; ponderous; ungraceful (Xerxes: 2.5 million men!). Unbalanced: Cf. Dan 8:3, two horns. One-sided union; Media already swallowed up by Persia by 550 B.C. Three Ribs: Babylon, Egypt, Lydia defeated (Isa 13:17,18). 6] Lion devours; the bear crushes; the leopard springs upon its prey. Four heads: Cassander: Greece & Macedonia Lysimachus: Thrace & Bithynia (Asia Minor) Seleucus: Syria, Babylonia (>India) Ptolemy: Egypt, Palestine, Arabia Petrea Composite of three animals: Hos 13:5-8! Rev 13:2; 1 Sam 17:34-36; Prov 28:15; Jer 5:6; Amos 5:9. 7] Rome: Occupation of Sicily in 241 B.C., victory in the first Punic conflict. Mediterranean becomes a Roman lake by the beginning of second century B.C. Spain conquered first; then Carthage at the battle of Zama in N. Africa, 202 B.C.; Subjugates are north of Italy; they then moved east, conquering Macedonia, Greece, and Asia Minor. Pompey swept into Jerusalem in 63 B.C. after destroying remnants of the Seleucid Empire (Syria). (Cf. Chapter 11 notes.) Following decades: Empire controls southern Britain, France, Belgium, Switzerland, and Germany west of the Rhine River. Grew for four centuries, peaking in A.D. 117. Declined slowly, beginning in the third century; left Britain in A.D. 407; Rome sacked by the Visigoths in 410. It was not until A.D. 1453 that the last Roman or Byzantine ruler was killed in battle and Mohammed II conquered Constantinople. Cf. v. 24; Rev 17:12. Remains until replaced by Kingdom of Heaven: 26, 27. 10 nations: Compare Dan 2:31-35; 40-45; 7:7-8; 19-24; Rev 13:1-2; 17:3,7,12-18. 8] “Little Horn”: First mention in Daniel.

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“before”: behehewn, between. “Plucked up by the roots”: agar, uprooted gradually. “Eyes, mouth” = an individual. “Big Mouth”: v.11; Rev 11:36; 13:5,6. [See list of allusions to the Coming World Leader at the end of the notes on Chapter 11.] Coming of the Son of Man in Glory: Cf. Rev 4,5... 9] Ancient of Days: 3 times in this chapter. Rema, located, placed (not “cast”). [Thrones, plural. Where are the 24 elders? (Church hidden in OT; Mt 13:34,35; Eph 3:5,9.)] Fire: Ex 3:2; 19:18 Consuming fire: Deut 4:24 (Heb 12:29); 9:3. Jesus: 2 Thess 1:8; Ps 18:8; 104:4; 50:3; Ez 1:4; 13:21; Rev 4:5 (note 15:2). Sodom and Gomorrah:, Gen 19:24; Nahab and Abihu, Lev 10:2; Isa 66:15-16.

Fiery Stream: Ez 1, 10:1. Throne: Ex 24:10. 10] Books: Ex 32:32. Isa 65:6 Evil deeds; Mal 3:16, Book of Remembrance; Dan 12:1; Luke 10:20; [Note: Rev 20:10, 12-15 after millennium? how Rev 10:20? Dan 7:10!]

11] Rev 19:19-21. 12] Joel 3:1-2; Mt 25:31-46; Rev 1:13; Mk 14:61. Continue for a season: survive in another form in the kingdom that replaces them. Absorbed by Rome: Greece in Lysimachus’ kingdom, Seleucus’ in Ptolemy’s, Egypt in

146 B.C.; 133 B.C.; 64 B.C.; 31 B.C.

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Reappear in recent times: Greece reappears in 1830; Egypt in 1922; Turkey (Lysimachus and part of Seleucus’) in 1924; The rest of Seleucus’ kingdom(s): Afghanistan, 1921; Iran, 1925; Lebanon, 1930; Jordan, 1946; Pakistan, 1947; Israel, 1948. “Son of Man” only OT use for Christ (Chapter 3?) Son receives the Father’s gift: Ps 2:6-9; will rule over all nations: Ps 72:11; Rev 19:15-16 (cf. 7:9-12; Rev 4,5; Isa 6:1-3; Ez 1:4-28; 10:114). Clouds: OT: Ex 13:21; 19:9; 24:16; 34:5; Lev 16:2; 1 Kgs 8:10-11; Ps 18:11,12; 78:14; 97:2-4; Isa 19:1; Jer 4:13; Ezek 10:4; Nah 1:3. NT: Mt 17:5; 24:30; Lk 21:27; Acts 1:9,11; Mk 14:61,62; Mt 26:64; 1 Thess 4:17; Rev 1:7; 14:14. 14] Kingdom: Dan 2:44,45; Isa 9:6; 11:3-5; Mic 4:1-7; 5:2-5; Zech 14:9,16,17; Mt 24,25; Mk 14:61,62; Lk 1:32,33; 2 Thess 2:6-10; Rev 19, 20:1-4. God’s purpose: Eph 1:10; Phil 2:10,11; 1 Cor 15:27-28. 15] “Body”: nidneh, sheath. “Troubled”: behal, alarm. 17] Melech, malku: king, kingdom. 18] Saints: qaddishin, “Holy Ones” (7X). OT: Mt 27:52,53; Ex 19:6. NT: 1 Cor 1:2; Eph 1:1; Phil 1:1, etc. Tribulation: Rev 13:7; see v. 21. 20] That “mouth” again...

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21] War with saints, 2/3 fall: Zech 13:8,9. Jerusalem falls: Zech 14:1,2. Prevail, overcome? (also Rev 13:7; 11:3; 12:6; 13:5) vs. Mt 16:18; Rev 2, 3 (1 Jn 5:5!).

The Coming World Leader
24] “out of” this kingdom: Arise (“1 hour”: Rev 17:12); “another” (11th) after them...diverse from the others... 25] [Big Mouth again...] “Against”: le’tsad, “at the side of”: (2 Thess 2:4). Change the Law (singular) Gen 1:4; 17:21; 18:14. The “Roman” Empire will cease to exist when the Little Horn is judged. Time, times, the dividing of time: Dan 7:25 (Dan 4:16, 23, 25) [times = a dual, later lost in Aramaic]1 3½ years Dan 12:7 42 months Rev 11:2; 13:5 1260 days Rev 11:3; Dan 12:6 ½ “week” Dan 9:27 27] Everlasting kingdom: Deut 28:1-44; Isa 65:17-25; 2 Tim 2:12; Rev 5:10; 20:6. 28] (First sentence: Angel finishes; began in v. 23.) Daniel: “Color me shocked.” [Text changes from Aramaic back to Hebrew. Distinguishes the two major programs of God in the OT.]

Daniel 8
The Ram and the Goat
Now the text reverts back to Hebrew: “Third section” = Israel. Two years after vision of Dan 7; 12 years before Belshazzar’s feast in Chapter 5. 1] Third year: 51 B.C. At Shushan in the palace: Susa, 150 miles north of head of Persian Gulf, midway between Ecbatgana and Persepolio; later main residence of Persian kings. Susa served as the capital of Elamites in antiquity. Famous palace begun by Darius I and later enlarged. Code of Hammurabi found there in 1901.

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230 miles east of Babylon. Daniel projected to a town little known at that time, destined to be capital of Persian empire, home of Esther, city of Nehemiah, Neh 1:1; Est 1:2, 5; 2:3, 5. “Awake?” Many opinions. Josephus believes he was actually there. Also Keil, Rosenmuller, Bertholdt. Others: in a vision? Montgomery, Syriac, Vulgate, John Calvin. Cf. Ezekiel 8:3; 40:1ff to Jerusalem; Rev 17:3, John in the wilderness. 3] Two horns, unequal. W-N-S. v. 20: Medo-Persia. One empire, not two. Keil: Guardian spirit of Persian kingdom in the form of a ram with clean feet, sharp-pointed horns; The Persian king, at the head of his army, wore the head of ram instead of the diadem. (Ammianus Marcellinus, fourth century historian.) Zodiac: Persia = Aries, the Ram; Greece = Capricorn, the goat (L. caper, goat; cornu, horn.) Shared with Syria from Seleucid monarchy. 5] “buck of the goats”: v.21 First king: Alexander the Great. Onehorned goat was a symbol for the ancient Macedonians. Alexander crossed the Hellespont with 35,000 troops, first met and defeated the Persians at the Granicus River in Asia Minor in May 334 B.C. 1½ years later, the battle at Issus near the NE tip of Mediterranean Sea, Nov 333 B.C.; Finally broken at Gaugamela (Arbella) near Nineveh in Oct 331 B.C. 8] Great horn broken: Died at 32, dissipated life, drunken debauch, at Babylon (11 years after leaving home country). Empire took 22 years to divide. Cassander: Macedonia and Greece. Lysimacus: Thrace, Bithynia, most of Asia Minor: Phrygia, Lydia, Mysia. Seleucus: Syria, lands to the east, including Babylonia to India; declined during Seleucus II, beginning 246 B.C.; converted to a Roman province by Pompey in 64 B.C. Ptolemy: Egypt, Cyrene, Coele-Syria, Arabia Petraea, southern parts of Asia Minor. (A fifth contender: Antigonus, soon defeated, 301 B.C.) 9] Little Horn. S: Egypt;

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E: Medo-Persia, Armenia; Pleasant Land: Dan 11:16,41,45; Jer 3:19; Ezek 20:6,15; Mal 3:12. Antiochus Epiphanes, 8th King of the Syrian dynasty, 175-164 B.C. (1 Macc 1:10; 6:16); infamous brother of Cleopatra. Ascended the throne following the murder of his brother, the former king, Seleucus Philopator. The son of Seleucus, Demetrius, the rightful heir to the throne still lived but was held as hostage in Rome. Antiochus succeeded in obtaining the throne largely through flattery and bribery (11:21). Not even rightful heir; once crowned, assumed “Epiphanes,” “Illustrious.” (See also notes on Chapter 11.) ‘Erets hatstsebi (“glorious land”) taken from the Ptolemies in a series of battles between Antiochus III, the father, and Ptolemy V in 202198 B.C. 10] Host: people of God (Gen 15:5; 22:17; Dan 12:3; Mt 13:43). 11] Desolation of Sanctuary: the “Abomination of Desolation.” (Controversies begin here...11-14; 20-26.) Stopped morning and evening sacrifices. “Daily sacrifices”: tamid, applies to the daily offerings (Cf. Ex 29:38ff; Num 28:3ff). “And the king sent letters by messengers to Jerusalem and the cities of Judah; he directed them to follow customs strange to the land, to forbid burnt offerings and sacrifices and drink offerings in the sanctuary, to profane Sabbaths and feasts, to defile the sanctuary and the priests, to build altars in sacred precincts and shrines for idols, to sacrifice swine and unclean animals, and to leave their sons uncircumcised. They were to make themselves abominable by everything unclean and profane, so that they should forget the law and change all the ordinances. And whoever does not obey the command of the king shall die.” 1 Maccabees 1:44-49 (cf. Dan 9:27) “one saint speaking” = “awesome numberer”? 14] “2,300 days?” Year-day? Seventh Day Adventists: 1884, 2nd Coming? 24-hour days?

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171 B.C., Onias III (Sept 6?), the legitimate high priest murdered; pseudo-priest assumed power. Onias III had been removed from office and replaced by his wicked brother, Jason, who had bribed Antiochus for the position. In 172 B.C. another brother, Menelaus, succeeded in replacing Jason by promising a larger bribe. In 171, Menelaus murdered the good Onias III who had rebuked him for giving away and selling many of the gold utensils of the Temple. 2 Macc 4:7-50. (Actual desecration, Dec 25, 167 B.C. re: John 10:22, coins found with title “Epiphanes.”) 164 B.C.: Death of Antiochus. [Not precise day.] 6y 3m 20d Evening-Mornings (‘ereb boker) = (1150 days)? (110 days short of 3½ years.) 17] “Gabriel”: First mention in the Bible of an Angel by name. Gaber, man; El, God (Dan 9:21; Lk 1:19, 26). “Michael,” Dan 10:13, 21; 12:1; Jude 9; Rev 12:7. 18] Deep Sleep: aroused (cf. Ezek 1:28-2:2). [“Out of body” view from Babylon?] Indignation (also Dan 11:36): God’s anger against Israel. v.17, 19: time of end? Cf. Dan 9:27; 11:35ff. Is the Little Horn of 7 = Little Horn of 8? = Willful King of Chapter 11? Not identical, except as types: one of the 4th; other one of the 3rd, empires. The third kingdom not Rome. 8:15-17: A dual fulfillment? Scofield, Louis T. Talbot, William Kelly, Nathaniel West, Joseph A. Seiss. [Temple always destroyed on 9th of Av, Tisha B’av...] King of Javan (melek yawan) = Greece (Gen 10:2,4; Isa 66:19; Ezek 27:13). 23-25] 1) He is to appear in the later times of Israel’s history, 8:23; 2) Through alliance with other nations, he achieves worldwide influence, 8:24; 3) A peace program helps his rise to power, 8:25;
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4) Extremely intelligent and persuasive, 8:23; 5) Characterized by Satanic control, 8:24; 6) Great adversary against Israel and the prince of princes, 8:24-25; 7) A direct judgment from God terminates his rule (“Terminator III”), 8:25; He will appear in the later time of their kingdom: when transgressors are come to the full (?); forcing punishment (Israel themselves); Gen 15:16; Mt 23:32; 1 Thess 2:16; Cf. Gen 15:13-16; As the days of Noah: Gen 6:5-13. Cf. “We will not have this man to reign over us”: Lk 19:14. Interprets dark sentences (1 Kgs 10:1). Broken without hand: Antiochus died of a foul disease. Different character than Little Horn of Daniel 7? Roman, not Greek! King of the North = Syria; Dan 11:6-15? Assyrian of Micah 5:5-6? Or will the Antichrist come out of Syria? 23] Absorbed by Rome: See current summary on page 54. 26] “Preserve”: shut up. 27] Immediate resumption of duties: was Daniel in Babylon all the time? [Still worked for Belshazzar? Or Nabonidus?] time of the end 17 latter time...appointed... 19 latter time 23 Matthew 24:15, Mark 13:14: 200 years after!... Indignation? Deut 29:24-28; adultery of unprincipled woman: Ezek 16:32; Hosea 1-4...Amos 9:8. Strange work, Isa 28:21; Dan 9:24.
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Daniel 9
The Seventy Weeks
The Most Amazing Passage in the Bible!

LXX Background: Daniel was part of the Old Testament which was translated into Greek 285 - 270 B.C. Although Daniel is one of the most authenticated books of the Bible, this serves to easily establish its existence long before the events it predicts. Matthew 24 - The Confidential Briefing: Four disciples came to Jesus for a confidential prophecy briefing on His Second Coming: Matthew 24 & 25; Mark 13 & 14, and Luke 21 & 22. Jesus highlighted this very passage as the key to prophecy in Matthew 24:15. Responsible to understand. Note Jewishness: “Pray that your flight be not on the Sabbath Day.” [Daniel 9: Time, 538 B.C. Feast of Chapter 5 between Chapters 8 & 9.] 1] Darius: Uncle of Cyrus? “...was made”: passive. [Same as Chapter 6?]

[Review Daniel presenting Isaiah 44, 45 to Cyrus.] Here he was reading Jeremiah’s prophecy. 2] Daniel took it literally! [Jer 25:11,12; 29:10] 67 of 70 years had passed... YHWH: 7X in this chapter only. 3] Prayer (for that which was certain?): Daniel is, again, our example: in the Word and in Prayer! (Prayers: Ezra 9; Nehemiah 9?) Fasting: Mt 9:14,15; Acts 13:2,3; 14:23; 1 Cor 7:5; 2 Cor 6:5; 11:27. 5] “We have sinned...”: (Only two in OT of which no evil spoken of... Joseph and Daniel.)

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11] National destiny determined by their behavior (2 Chr 7:14)! 16] Focus: Jerusalem. 17-19] Note the increasing tempo of the verbs of action... 20] “The Interrupted Prayer of the OT” (2/3 of chapter). 21] “man”: ish, servant. Gabriel: Always on a mission of Messianic announcement. “Beginning”: Dan 8:15-16. 23] “Beloved”: Abraham, disciples: “friends” => prophecy. Daniel, John: “beloved” => apocalyptic details.

The Seventy Weeks
24] shabu’im = sevens, “week.” (Gen 29:26-28; Lev 25, 26.) hatak, determined, reckoned.

Scope (Verse 24)
1) The focus of the passage is on the Jews, not the Church or the Gentile world. 2) The six major items listed have yet to be completed. to finish the transgressions; to make an end of sins; to make reconciliation for iniquity; to bring in everlasting righteousness; to seal up (close authority of) the vision; to anoint the godesh gadashim, the Holy of Holies. Unfulfilled in 2000 years (therefore, are not contiguous!).

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The Structure of the Passage
24] The Scope of the entire passage. 25] The 69 Weeks. 26] The Interval Between the 69th & 70th Week . The key to understanding this passage is to realize that the 70 “Weeks” are not all contiguous. (At least 40 years +...) 27] The 70th Week.

Background: Sabbatical Years
Note: focus of entire prophecy is Israel, not the Gentile world (Daniel 9:24). Seventy “Sevens” imply weeks of years (Gen 29:27, et al.). Sabbath for the land ordained: Lev. 25:1-22; 26:33-35; Deut 15; Ex 23:10, 11. Failure to keep the sabbath of the land was basis for 70 years captivity: 2 Chr 36:19-21.

The 69 Weeks (Verse 25)
360-Day Years (Background): All ancient calendars were based on a 360-day calendar: Assyrians, Chaldeans, Egyptians, Hebrews, Persians, Greeks, Phoenicians, Chinese, Mayans, Hindus, Carthaginians, Etruscans, Teutons, etc. All these calendars were based on a 360-day year; typically, twelve 30-day months. (In ancient Chaldea, their calendar was based on a 360-day year and it is from this Babylonian tradition that we have 360 degrees in a circle, 60 minutes to an hour, 60 seconds in each minute.)

All Calendars Change in 701 B.C?
In 701 B.C., all calendars appear to have been reorganized. Numa Pompilius, the second King of Rome, reorganized the original calendar of 360 days per year, by adding 5 days per year. King Hezekiah, Numa’s contemporary, reorganized his Jewish calendar by adding a month each Jewish leap year (on a cycle of 7 every 19 years).
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(A fascinating conjecture as to the cause of this calendar change is detailed in Signs in the Heavens, a Briefing Package exploring the possible orbital antics of the Planet Mars.) The Biblical Calendar uses 360-day years (Gen 7:24; 8:3,4, etc. In Revelation, 42 months = 3 1/2 years = 1260 days, etc.). We are indebted to Sir Robert Anderson’s milestone work for this insight.

The Trigger: (terminus ad quo)
The Decrees to “Rebuild Jerusalem”? 1) Cyrus, 537 B.C., Ezra 1:2-4; 2) Darius, Ezra 6:1-5, 8, 12; 3) Artaxerxes, 458 B.C,. Ezra 7:11-26; 4) Artaxerxes, 445 B.C., Neh 2:5-8, 17, 18. (1) (2) & (3) were to build the Temple. Only the last one (4) was to rebuild the city, the walls, etc. Note: rehob, “street”; haruts, moat, fortification. Why “7 + 62”? Time to build the city? Time to close the OT canon? Time between testaments?

The Target (terminus ad quem)
The Meshiach Nagid: “The Messiah the King.” The prediction is to the presentation of the Messiah the King (“Nagid” is first used of King Saul). On several occasions in the New Testament when they attempted to take Jesus as a King, He invariably declined, “Mine hour is not yet come.” (Jn 6:15; 7:30, 44; etc.) Then one day, He arranges it. The Triumphal Entry: All four Gospels, Mt 21:1-9; Mk 11:1-10; Lk 19:29-39; Jn 12:12-16. Nisan 10: “take to everyone a lamb.” Jesus deliberately arranges to fulfill Zech 9:9. This is the only day He allows them to proclaim Him King (Luke 19:38). The Pharisees assure our noticing the significance! Hallel Psalm: Ps 118:26. Jesus held them accountable to recognize this day. (Luke 19:41-44).
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This was the 10th of Nisan, prior to the Passover on the 14th of Nisan, 32 A.D.: (Luke 3:1: Tiberius appointed, 14 A.D.; 15th year = 29 A.D.; 4th Passover, 32 A.D. (April 6). See the chart on next page. [Other examples of Precision: Gen 8:4, Noah’s new beginning, 7th month, 17th day. (Exodus 12:2: Nisan becomes 1st month). Jesus resurrected on anniversary of the “New Beginning” under Noah!]

Interval (Verse 26)
26] After the 69th, before the 70th: Karat, execution; death penalty (Lev 7:20; Ps 37:9; Prov 2:22). “Not for Himself”: nothingness: rejection, substitution. “Flood”: diaspora. Titus Vespasian: 38 years later; (not 3½!). An interval, or gap, clearly required by v. 26: events described are after the 69th and prior to the 70th week: Messiah “cut off” (karat = executed); Sanctuary destroyed, etc. 38 years are included with the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 A.D. 1900 years have transpired so far. Interval also implied: Dan 9:26; Isa 61:1,2 (re: Lk 4:18-20); Rev 12:5,6. Also: Isa 54:7; Hos 3:4,5; Amos 9:10,11; (Acts 15:13-18); Micah 5:2,3; Zech 9:9,10; Luke 1:31,32; 21:24. Interval defined: Luke 19:42 until Rom 11:25. This interval is the period of the Church, an era kept secret in OT: Mt 13:34,35; Eph 3:5,9. “Israel” is never used of the Church (73X). [Gal 6:16 misunderstood, by ignoring the kai in the Greek which clearly distinguishes the two groups.] Heresy: Romans 9-11. It seems that the Lord deals with Israel and the Church mutually exclusively. [The example of a Chess Clock...] The Church: (Our need: Ecclesiology, not Eschatology!) Born at Pentecost: Col 1:18; 1 Cor 12:13; Acts 1:5, 11:15-16. Prerequisites— Atonement: Mt 16:18, 21; Resurrection: Eph 1:20-23; Ascension: Eph 4:7-11 (Spiritual gifts only after ascension).
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Mystery Character: Body Concept: Eph 3:3-5,9 Indwelling every believer: Col 1:26-27 Bride of Christ: Eph 5:22-32 Rapture: 1 Cor 15:50-58 One “New Man”: (Cf. Rev 12:5...) Distinguished: Eph 2:15

1 Cor 10:32

70th Week (verse 27)
“Midst of the week” - The most documented period of time in the Bible. Time, times, the dividing of time (Dan 7:25; 4:16, 23, 25). [Times = a dual, later lost in Aramaic]2 3½ years Dan 12:7 42 months Rev 11:2; 13:5 1260 days Rev 11:3; Dan 12:6 ½ “week” Dan 9:27 Which “Prince”? Antecedent: “The Prince that shall come...” After death of Nero, General Galba was recalled to become Emperor. A conspiracy had him assassinated. After Galba, Ortho was made emperor; he was unfit and committed suicide. After revolution and political instability, the general-in-command of the Roman-Israeli expedition was recalled to restore order and become Emperor: General Vespasian, father of Captain Titus who remained general in charge of the siege. Just a few days before the final assault on Jerusalem, Vespasian was crowned Emperor of the Roman Empire, making Titus a prince. The Covenant Enforced with “The Many” - “The many” is an idiom for Israel. This is the “Covenant with Hell,” Isa 28:15; Zech 11:15-17 etc.

The Abomination of Desolation
Historical precedent: 167 B.C., Antiochus IV (“Epiphanes”) desPage 66

ecrated the Temple, erecting a pagan idol in the Holy of Holies; incited the Maccabbean Revolt, which succeeded in rededicating the Temple. This is still commemorated at Hanukkah. (Authenticated by the Holy Spirit: John 10:22.) The sacrifices and oblations cease; 2 Thess 2:4. These require a Temple previously consecrated in Jerusalem. (Preparations have begun!)

The Great Tribulation
This “Time of Jacob’s Trouble” climaxes in the “Day of the Lord”: Isa 61:2; Zech 12, 14; Rev 19:19; et al. (Note that this is 3 1/2 years, not 7, as is so often assumed.) Revelation 6 through 19 is essentially an elaboration of the events during the “70th Week” of Daniel 9.

Historical Review
The issue of Imminence (80 anti-Nicene references, 325 A.D.). Upon conversion of Constantine: Edict of Toleration made Christian Church official state religion in A.D. 325. Premillennial view of Christ became unpopular with Roman leadership. Allegorical methods adopted by third century theologian Origen; Augustine adopted the amillennial view; it becomes the dominant view of the Roman Catholic Church. Many of the Protestant reformers failed to adequately challenge these views from the medieval Church. A literal interpretation was favored by Irenaeus, Sir Isaac Newton, et al. The perception of the “gap” of Dan 9:26 appears in the Epistle of Barnabas, A.D. 100 and other early writings. [Did not begin with Emmanuael Lacunza (Ben Ezra), 1812; Edward Irving, 1816; Margaret McDonald, 1830; or J.N. Darby (1820).] Other early writers: Irenaeus, Against Heresies; Hippolytus, a disciple of Irenaeus, (second century) (Ante Nicene Fathers, Vol v. p.182.); Justin Martyr, Dialogue with Trypho.

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Later writers: Peter Jurieu, 1687, Approaching Deliverance of the Church, (courtesy of Grant Jeffrey); Philip Doddridge’s Commentary on the New Testament, 1738; Dr. John Gill’s Commentary on the New Testament, 1 Thessalonians 4:15-17, 1748; James Macknight’s Commentary on the Apostolical Epistles, 1763; Thomas Scott’s Commentary on the Holy Bible, 1792.

Timing of the Rapture (Greek, harpazo, Latin, rapturo)
1) 70th Week is defined by the enforcement of a covenant with the Coming World Leader (Dan 9:27). 2) The Leader cannot enforce the covenant until after he appears in power. 3) He cannot even appear until after the Restrainer (the Holy Spirit as He indwells the Church) is removed: 2 Thess 2:7-9. 4) Therefore, the rapture of the Church precedes (by an indeterminate amount) the entire 70th Week, not just the Great Tribulation.

Is the “70th Week” Near?
Israel Now Regathered as a Nation: On May 14, 1948, Israel was re-established exactly as the Bible predicted. On June 6, 1967, Israel regained control of Biblical Jerusalem, the “Old City.” Temple Being Rebuilt: This is explicitly predicted three times in the New Testament (Mt 24:15; 2 Thess 2:4; Rev 11:1, 2.) This Temple is a prerequisite for the desecration described by Daniel and Jesus as the “Abomination of Desolation.” After 1900 years a Temple is now being prepared to be built in Jerusalem. Babylon Being Rebuilt: Isaiah 13 & 14, Jeremiah 50 & 51, and Revelation 17 & 18, describe the destruction of the city of Babylon as a climactic event at the end of the “70th Week.” Although Babylon was conquered by the Persians, it was never destroyed in the manner that the Bible has detailed. (Saddam Hussein has spent over 20 years rebuilding the city of Babylon on its traditional site.) European Suprastate Emerging: The confederation of almost 30 European countries is setting the stage for the very scenarios predicted in Daniel 2 and 7.
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Russia and the Islamic Invasion Imminent: Russia (“Magog” of Ezekiel 38 & 39) and the Moslem republics of Iran and those of Central Asia (which this passage has detailed) now appear to be setting the stage for the very events that Ezekiel so clearly described. The apparent use of nuclear weapons in Ezekiel 39 is also descriptive of current technology. It is our view that this battle could happen at any time, and would thus set up the need for the famous “peace treaty” of the Biblical scenario.

The “Seventy Sevens” of Israel
1) Abraham to the Exodus Promise (Gen 12:4) Gal 3:17 Ishmael, (Gen 16:16;21:5) 75 years +430 505 -15 490 years

2) Exodus to the Temple Begun: 1 Kgs 6 - 8 Completed: 1 Kgs 6:38; Servitudes: Mesopotamia Moabites Canaanites Midianites Ammonites Philistines Judges 3:8 3:12-14 4:2,3 6:1 10:7,8 13:1 594 +7 601 8 18 20 7 18 40 -111 490 years

3) The Temple to the Edict of Artaxerxes 1 Kgs 8:1-66 Neh 2:1 Babylonian Captivity 1005 B.C. 445 B.C. 560 -70 490 years

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4) Artaxerxes to the Second Coming Artaxerxes to the 1st Advent “The Sixty Nine Weeks” [Church interval] The Seventieth Week”

483 ? +7 490 years

Daniel 10
The Dark Side
Chapter 10 = a prelude and introduction to three chapters: 10-12. A spooky glimpse of the Invisible World, and the Invisible War in hyperspace. [See our briefing package, Beyond Perception, for a review of the current implications of quantum physics.] “Angel” = angelos, military messenger. A unique form of created being; not preexistent, but with formidable capabilities. 1] Dan 1:21, “unto the first year of King Cyrus”; official public career; “third year” out of public life. [Cf. John on Patmos.] Two years after “return” (2 Chr 36:23,32; Ezra 1:1-3) vs. Ezek 2:64,65, Neh 7:62. Only 49,697 return (“first yr”). Daniel still there? (Retired? ill? over 80 years old.) 2] “First month”: Nisan, (Abib, Ex 23:15). He completes his fasting on the 24th. He started on the 3rd of Nisan. The month of Nisan: 1-2, Feast of Rejoicing: New Year (1 Sam 20:18,19,34). 10, Presentation of lamb(s). 14, Passover. 15-21, Feast of Unleavened Bread. Daniel was not on an “absolute” fast (healthy); Lord commands. Who was visitor? “Sent...” 7] (What scared them?) Cf. Saul on the Damascus Road: others heard, unintelligibly. 8] “Corruption”: awareness of his lack of holiness; Cf. Isa 6.
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9] “Deep sleep”: Cf. Adam in Genesis 2. 12] From the 1st day (3 wks before). 13] But... (withstood for 21 days!) Blocked by a lineman... Warfare: withheld; conflict. “Prince of the Kingdom of Persia”(?) Prince: Cf. Michael, a chief “prince” (Eph 6:11,12). [Role of fasting?] Michael: Dan 10:13, 21; Dan 12:1; Jude 9; Rev 12:7. Strength: Ex 4:10-12; Isa 6:6,7. 20] Now I will return... (Michael holding him off?) Prince of Greece?

Heb 13:2 (men) entertained unawares: Created beings: Saw world created: Bodies: Gen 18; Judg 13 Eph 1:20-21; Col 1:16 Job 38:4-10 1 Cor 15:38-40, 44; Luke 20:27-36 (Acts 23:8)

Ministry of angels: Lord: Birth Lk 2:8-14 Temptation Mt 4:1-11 (note ownership of world!) Transfiguration Mt 17:1-8 Resurrection Lk 22:39-46 Ascension Acts 1:10-11 Return Mt 13:39; 24:31 Guardian? Slay 185,000! Desire to learn: Mt 18:10 2 Kgs 19:35; Isa 37:36 Job 1; 2 Chr 18

Satan: His angels cast out (Rev 12:9; 12:4) “stars” (1/3); Isa 14:12-17; Five “I will’s” [pride!] Ezek 28:11-18; Numero Uno; “sum,” epitome; “thou has been in Eden”?

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OT: Lev 17:7; Deut 32:17; 2 Chr 11:15; Ps 106:36-37; Isa 13:21; 34:14. NT: Mt 12:45,43; Mk 1:23-27; Lk 4:33; 1 Tim 4:1; Rev 16:14; 1 Cor 10:20-21. Books: Ex 32:32; Ps 139:15,16; Ps 69:22-28. All living; erased when unrepentant. Book of Life: Rev 13:8; 21:27. Book of Remembrance: Mal 3:16! Records: Ez 9:2, 11. Who? Rev 1:13-16 Lord? vs. 13!? Ezek 1:13,14. Lord strengthened 2X; Mt 4:11; Lk 22:43. 7-8] Acts 9:3-7 (John 13:25,29?) [Lehman Strauss: First Book, Yes; 10 yrs later, No] Loners: Abraham Jacob Joshua Elijah Ezekiel Paul Gen 13:14-18; 18 Gen 32:24 Josh 5:13-15 1 Kgs 17:1-7 Ezek 1:1-28 Gal 1:11-17

Eph 6:10-1; (chained to Roman soldier? or Isa 52:7, 59:17). Rom 8:38-39: Principalities (8X); = governments. Satan: Prince (of this world) 3X: Jn 12:31; 14:30; 16:11. [Luke 4:5 ownership!] Prince (of devils) 2X: Mt 9:34; 12:24. Michael: Jude 9? 1 Thess 4:16! Why was body needed? (Mt 17? Rev 11?) Don’t be fearful (Rev 21:8!). Greater is He that is in you... Isa 24:21: Punish the “high ones.” Romans 8:28-39 (“check that it is still there”). 3 Unclean Spirits (out of mouths) Mouth: Rev 16:13-14 David Ps 51:15; Jer 1:3-9; Isa 6:5-7

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18] Strengthen (3X?): Gethsemane (Mt 26:39-44; Mk 14:35-41); Angel (Lk 22:39-44). 20] Medo-Persians continue 200 years after vision. [Time domain = ?] Acts 1:8? Three altogether? 11-15] 18-21] Ch 12:5 Ch 12:6

Another Angel? Another.. (2) “Man”

To Consider
1) Suppose Daniel had stopped fasting after 20 days? 2) Is there a “Prince of the Power of the U.S.”? You have an opportunity to “be a Daniel.” You can undertake a spiritual mission on behalf of the U.S. Jonah & Nineveh: 40 days until “ground zero.”

Chapter 11
Coming Future Kingdoms
Chapter 11 chronicles 150 years of warfare between the Ptolemies and the Seleucids. (Verses 2-20 has past. Verses 36-45 are clearly future. Verses 21-35 apparently has elements of both.) 1] The angel (of Chapter 10) announces three kings: Cyrus, Cambyses, and Darius Hystapes (Smerdis).3 (He helped establish Darius as king in the first year of his reign.) 2] The fourth king, Xerxes, would instigate trouble with the Greeks (486-465 B.C.) (He appears to be Ahasureus of Ezra 4:6, Esther 1:112.) He instituted tax reforms, became very powerful, trained over 2 million warriors for 4 years, built special barges, and attacked Greece in 480 B.C. He crossed the Hellespont in 7 days. This attack laid the basis for the vendetta that Alexander exploited later. 3] The rise of the Greeks, under Alexander the Great, was detailed in Chapter 8.
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4] Alexander died without a qualified heir. His half brother, Philip Arrhidaeus, was mentally defective. His two sons (illegitimate Hercules, by Basina, the daughter of Darius, and Young Alexander, posthumously by Roxana) were murdered within 13 years after their father’s death. After 22 years of fighting, Alexander’s four generals divided up the Empire (as detailed in the notes on Chapter 7). 5] Ptolemy I Soter taking Egypt and Seleucus Nicator taking Syria led to 150 years of warfare, and the repeated trampling through Israel. Chapter 11 chronicles this warfare between the “King of the South” (Egypt) and the “King of the North” (Syria) that continued until Rome marched east and the conquests of Pompey established Roman rule over the area. The continued attempts by Bible critics to “late date” this passage is a testimony to its accuracy. Ptolemy Soter I Soter (323-285 B.C.) was one of Alexander’s wisest and most capable generals and grew very powerful, but now Ptolemy II Philadelphus (285-245 B.C.) grew even more powerful. It was under Ptolemy II’s rule that the great library was established at Alexandria and the translation of the Old Testament into Greek (the “Septuagint” translation) was commissioned. The famed mathematician Euclid taught geometry in Ptolemy’s court. Ptolemy I captured Jerusalem in 321 B.C. on the Sabbath day without resistance.4 However, in 316 B.C. Israel was lost to Ptolemy’s rival, Antigonus. After the Battle of Gaza in 312 B.C., Ptolemy reclaimed it. Seleucus I Nicator (312-281 B.C.), who cooperated with Ptolemy, made himself the master of Babylon and established the Seleucid Empire, ruling from Antioch. 6] “end of years” = after a lapse of several years (2 Chr 18:2; Dan 11:8,13). A political marriage was arranged between Antiochus II Theos (262-246 B.C.) and Ptolemy II Philadelphus’s daughter, Bernice. Antiochus was required to divorce his own wife, Laodiceia, to facilitate this arrangement. Bernice was unable to prevail against her rival Laodiceia who poisoned Antiochus, murdered Bernice, and set her elder son, Seleucus II Callinicus, on the throne (246 - 226 B.C.). [Note: this occurs after the Septuagint translation of the OT (285-270 B.C.), which included the book of Daniel!] 7] Ptolemy III Euergetes (245-221 B.C.), the brother of murdered Bernice,
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invaded Syria, seized the port of Antioch, and overran Seleucus’ empire as far as Babylon. 8] His spoils for Egypt included 4000 talents of gold, 40,000 talents of silver, and 2500 idols.5 These included some carried from Egypt by Cambyses 280 years earlier. He continued more years than his rival: 24 years vs. 20. 9] After 2 years Seleucus reorganized and marched south against Egypt, got clobbered, and returned to Antioch with only a small remnant of his army. 10] The sons of Seleucus II were Seleucus III Ceraunus (226-223 B.C.), who was murdered during a campaign in Asia Minor, and Antiochus III (“The Great”) (223-187 B.C.) who recovered the fortress of Seleucia, the province of Coele-Syria, Tyre, and then resumed the war with Egypt.6 In 312 B.C. a large Egyptian army, led by Ptolemy IV Philopator (221203 B.C.), marched through Judea until it was met in Lebanon by Antiochus who routed it and captured many Judean cities both west and east of the Jordan. Initially, the army of Ptolemy IV was larger than that of Antiochus III. In the spring of 219 B.C., at the battle at Raphia (20 miles south of Gaza), Antiochus commanded 60,000 men and Ptolemy, 70,000. Antiochus was defeated with a loss of 10,000 infantry and 300 cavalry. Ptolemy, indolent and dissolute, signed a peace treaty with Antiochus III. Ptolemy IV celebrated his victory by a tour of the eastern Mediterranean provinces including Jerusalem. He was prevented from entering the Holy of Holies by paralysis. Returning to Egypt, he took out his chagrin and humiliation by persecuting the Egyptian Jews. 13] After the death of Ptolemy IV, his son, four years old, succeeded him as Ptolemy V Epiphanes (203-181 B.C.). Twelve years after the Battle of Raphia, Antiochus III set out with a greater army than before for the conquest of Egyptian territory. 14] The many that stood up against the King of the South included Antiochus and his ally, Philip of Macedon, as well as risings among the vassals of Egypt. In 200 B.C., an Egyptian mercenary named
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Scopas attempted to wrest Judea from Antiochus. After a temporary success, he was defeated by 100,000 troops at Sidon in 198 B.C. None were able to stand against Antiochus III (“The Great”). 16] (“The glorious land” is Judea, cf. Dan 8:9; Jer. 3:19.) 17] In 197 B.C., Antiochus III set out with a fleet to attack Cilicia, Lycia, and Caria, which were under Egyptian control. However, he encountered a disastrous defeat by an upstart power rising on the banks of the Tiber: Rome. Antiochus’ daughter, Cleopatra, was given in a political marriage to Ptolemy (arranged in 197, consummated in 193 B.C., the groom being 10 years old) along with Coele-Syria, Phoenicia, and Judea as dowry, and in the hopes that he could eventually annex Egypt. He was disappointed, however, as she became a devoted wife instead and sided with Egypt (and her new ally, Rome). In 196 B.C., Antiochus had turned toward the west in Greece, Asia Minor, and crossed the Hellespont to seize part of Thrace. It was Hannibal, the Carthaginian general, who encouraged Antiochus III to fight with the Romans. In 191 B.C., Antiochus was defeated by the Romans at Thermopylae. In 190 B.C. his army of 80,000 suffered an ignominious defeat in a decisive battle near Smyrna where the Roman commander, Lucius Scipio, forced him to renounce all claims in Europe and Asia Minor.7 He had to surrender all territory west of the Taurus Mountains and pay a heavy tribute of 15,000 talents (over 30 million dollars). He was ruined. 19] He took it all out on the northeastern part of his kingdom, plundering the temples in his realm. 20] Seleucus IV Philopater (187-175 B.C.) succeeded Antiochus III, giving his son Demetrius as a hostage in the place of his brother Antiochus, and to meet heavy Roman tribute, oppressed Israel through taxation.8 After 12 years of rule, he is murdered by his treasurer, Heliodorous, who hoped to take over but is out-intrigued by Antiochus IV (“Epiphanes”)175-164 B.C. 21] Legitimate candidates might have included Demetrius, the son of the Seleucus IV, held as a hostage in Rome, or the younger son, also named Antiochus, who was still a baby in Syria. Antiochus IV was the brother of Seleucus IV, who had also been a hostage for his father
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in Rome for 14 years. Just prior to the murder of his brother by Heliodorus, he had been recalled to Antioch. His brother died before he reached the capital, and with the help of the king of Pergamum, and posing as the guardian of young Antiochus who was in Syria, Antiochus IV, with numerous intrigues, gained the throne. 22] “Prince of the covenant” refers to the murder of Onias III, the High Priest in 171 B.C.9 23] Unlike his fathers, Antiochus IV robbed the richest places of the country under his control. He attacked his enemies when they least expected it. There was a power contest between Antiochus’ two nephews, Ptolemy VI Philometer (181-145 B.C.) and Ptolemy VII Euergetes (Physicon) for control of Egypt. 25] After the death of his mother, Cleopatra, Ptolemy IV Philometer received bad advice regarding Antiochus IV who swept over his army. When Antiochus conquered Ptolemy Philopater, the Alexandrians brought his brother Ptolemy Physcon to the Egyptian throne. 27] Antiochus took Philometer under his protection. As uncle and nephew, they eat together at one table and, with lies, discussed policy with one another. 28] Antiochus returned from his first Egyptian campaign with great riches and turned his attention to despoiling the Temple in Jerusalem.10 29] In his second campaign against Egypt, Antiochus was less successful and failed to take Alexandria. Furthermore, he encountered the Roman navy. 30] Chittim, or Kittim, is found in the Dead Sea Scrolls as a general reference to the people of the Mediterranean, Cyprus in particular. The Roman fleet of Caius Popillius Laenas sailed from Cyprus to Egypt after a stunning Roman victory over Perseus of Macedon near Pydna, south of Thessalonica.11 The intimidation of the Romans caused Antiochus to return in humiliation to Syria and, looking for someone to take it out on, he then focused on oppressing the Jews. 31] The famed “abomination of desolation” now takes place.12 (Two centuries later Jesus predicted this would occur again in the future. It
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requires the Temple, the preparations for which have begun.) 32] The opposition led to the Maccabean revolt, and the ultimate rededication of the Temple (celebrated to this day at Hanukkah) and the period of the Hasmoneans. [In verses 1-35, approximately 135 prophetic statements have been counted. This is an impressive introduction to the section which follows.] The remainder of the chapter, verses 36 - 45, has yielded a number of diverse views. Some have attempted to restrict the passage to the historical Antiochus IV, and while his meglamania lends itself to such views, the language seems to go far beyond that. The “Willful King” has been identified by Ibn-Ezra with Constantine the Great; Rashi and Calvin understood him to represent the Roman Empire; Jerome, Theodoret, Luther, J.N. Darby and most “Pre-trib” scholars see him as the Antichrist. The similarity to other prophetic passages are striking: 2 Thess 2, etc.

He Will Be:
An intellectual genius: Dan 7:20; 8:23; Ezek 28:3 An persuasive orator: Dan 7:20; Rev 13:2 A shrewd political manipulator: Dan 11:21 A successful commercial genius: Dan 8:25; Rev 13:17; Ps 52:7; Dan 11:38, 43; Ezek 28:4,5 A forceful military leader: Dan 8:24; Rev 6:2; Rev 13:4; Isa 4:16 A powerful organizer: Rev 13:1,2; 17:17 A unifying religious guru: 2 Thess 2:4 (“Allah”?); Rev 13:3, 14, 15 See also: Psa 10, 52, 55; Isa 10,11,13,14; Jer 49-51; Zech 5; Rev 18.

Jew or Gentile?
Some believe this leader will be a Jew: Ezek 21:25-27; Ezek 28:2-10 (of the circumcision); Dan 11:36,37; Jn 5:43 (allos, not heteros: thus, a Jew, not a Gentile); received by Israel, Jn 5:43; Ps 55. Some believe he will be a Gentile: Roman Prince, etc. [Remember, there are two players in Rev 13.]
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The Leader will be the Son of Satan: Gen 3:15; Isa 27:1; Ezek 28:1219; Rev 13. (Other allusions to this Coming World Leader are in the list below.) Verses 40-45 seem to outline the “Armageddon Scenario” of the final conflict climaxing in Rev. 16, 19, etc. Chapter 12 continues, with a clear description of the Tribulation period.

Allusions to the Antichrist
Old Testament: (33) Adversary Ps 74:8-10; Isa 59:19; Lam 4:11,12; Amos 3:11 Assyrian Isa 10:5,12 Belial Nahum 1:15 Bloody and Deceitful Man Ps 5:6 Branch of the Terrible Ones Isa 25:5; (Cf. Isa 14:19) Chief Prince Ex 38:2 Crooked Serpent Job 26:13; Isa 27:1 Cruel One Jer 30:14,23 Destroyer of the Gentiles Jer 4:7 Enemy Ps 55:3; Jer 30:14, 23 Evil Man Ps 140:1 Head over many countries Ps 110:6 Head of Northern Army Joel 2:20 Idol Shepherd Zech 11:16, 17 King of Princes Hos 8:10 King of Babylon Isa 14:11-20; (Cf. 30:31-33) Little Horn Dan 7:8-11, 21-26; 8:9-12, 23-25 Man of the Earth Ps 10:18 Merchant, with balances of deceit Hos 12:7 Mighty Man Ps 52:1 Nail Isa 22:25 Prince that shall come Dan 9:26 Prince of Tyre Ezek 28:2-10 Profane Wicked Prince of Israel Ezek 21:25-27 Proud Man Hab 2:5 Rod of God’s anger Isa 10:5 Seed of the Serpent Gen 3:15 Son of the Morning Isa 14:12 Spoiler, Destroyer Isa 16:4,5 Vile Person Dan 11:21
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Violent Man Wicked, Wicked One Wilful King New Testament: (13) Angel of the Bottomless Pit Antichrist, Pseudo-Christ Beast False Prophet Father of the lie Lawless One Man of Sin One come in his own name Prince of Darkness Son of Perdition Star Unclean Spirit Vine of the earth

Ps 140:1, 10, 11 Ps 9:17; 10:2,4; Isa 11:4; Jer 30:14, 23 Dan 11:36

Rev 9:11 1 Jn 2:22 Rev 11:7; 13 Rev 13 Jn 8:44; 2 Thess 2:11 2 Thess 2:8 2 Thess 2:3 Jn 5:43 1 Thess 5 2 Thess 2:3 Rev 8:10; 9:1 Mt 12:43 Rev 14:18

Judas Reincarnated?
(Some believe he is Judas Iscariot reincarnated: Ps 55:11-14; Death & Hell: Isa 28:18, Rev 6:8; Mt 12:41-43; Jn 17:12; Jn 6:7; 2 Thess 2:3; Acts 1:25, with Rev 11:7.) He emerges out of the Abousso, Rev 11:7

Nomenclature Issues
“Pre/Mid/Post-Tribulation” Views:

Millennium Begins

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Daniel 12
The Climax of All History
Closes Section Three of the book: Chapters 10-12. (Remember: Chapter 12 is in Hebrew—Israel is the focus.) Refers to Daniel’s people, not the Church (Dan 9:16, 19, 24, 24; 10:14; 12:1).

Summary: 11:36 - 12:3
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) A world ruler. A world religion. A world war. A time of tribulation for Israel. Deliverance for the people of God at the end of the tribulation. Resurrection and judgment. Reward of the righteous.

1] “At that time” (3X) What time? (Dan 9:27). be, “during” = continuation. Michael (“your prince”) = the angel who oversees Israel. Mentioned 4X in Scripture. Who is he always battling? Satan (Rev 12:7-9). Note “dignity”: Jude 9; Cf. Dan 10:13-21. Satan is a created being... vs. “Christ & Satan.” vs. traditions: Milton, Dante, Goethe, et al. Where does he rule? not Hell: here! We’re on his turf. Paradox: ignoring vs. over-reaction...

“Time of Trouble”
Jesus quotes (Mt 24:21; Mk 13:19(!); Rev 7:14). “Time of Jacob’s trouble”: Deut 4:30; Jer 30:7; Joel 2:2; Zech 13:8 (parallel to Dan 11:40-45); Cf. Ex 9:18, 24). Israel to “pass under the rod” Ezek 20:34-38; “Furnace of affliction” Ezek 22:18-22; Only 1/3 spared Zech 13:8,9

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Woman of Rev 12 (Satan cast out: Rev 12:10.) No longer able to accuse. Thy people (2X) shall be delivered...”: Dan 7:18, 27; Zech 12:10; 13:8-9; Jer 30:7,11; Rev 12:6-7. (This is the Hebrew portion of the book.) Also, Isa 14:12-17; Job 1:6; 2:1-7; Zech 3:1-5; cf. Ruth, “threshing floor scene” in Chapter 3. [Visit Yad Vashem; “Never Again” = futile...] Abomination of Desolation: (“seen” throughout Judea?) Mt 24:15; Dan 12:11.

Rapture: Only the Church?
“Written in the book” Not all prepared Israel “unblinded” Ex 32:32, 33; Ps 69:28; Lk 10:20 Rev 13:8; 17:8; 20:15; 21:27 Ezek 20:33-38 Rom 11:25

Blotted out? Ex 32:31-33; Ps 69:28; (cf. Rev 3:5; overcomers in 1 John 5:5). [Distinctive: not all “saints” or “elect” are the same.] 2] Elect? (Mt 24:22); 144,000 (Rev 7:4); Saved (Rom 11:26). “Israel, Mine Elect” (Isa 45:4); Isa 11:11; 27:12-13; Jer 30:7; Ezek 37:21-28; Hos 3:4-5; Amos 9:11-15. NT “God’s Elect”: Rom 8:33; Col 3:12. [John the Baptist: Mt 11:11,12.] “Spiritual resurrection”? Dead in sins (Eph 2:1; 4:18); quickened by the Word of God (Rom 10:17; Heb 4:12); passed from death to life (Jn 5:24; Eph 2:5-6). “National resurrection”? Isa 26:12-19; Jer 16:14-15; Ezek 20:33-44; 37:1-28 (Gaebelein, Kelly, Ironside: national, not bodily(?); to support OT at rapture). Second Resurrection? Eph 4:8-10; 1 Pet 3:18-20; Mt 27:52-53; Isa 61:1,2; 2 Cor 5:1-8; Rev 20:5,6; “Many”: but not “all.”
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Abraham Job Isaiah Hosea of Christ

Gen 22:5; Heb 11:19 Job 19:25-26 Isa 26:19(!) Hos 13:14 Ps 16:9-10

There seems to be no passage in Scripture which teaches that the OT saints will be raised at the time the church is raptured; before the final tribulation. Hebrew sharply separates two classes of resurrection: “And many from among the sleepers of the dust of the earth shall awake; these shall be unto everlasting life; but those, the rest of the sleepers, those who do not awake at this time, shall be unto shame and everlasting contempt.” (Tregelles, Culber, Seiss, Nathaniel West) Rev 20:5, 12-13 Shame, contempt: olam (everlasting) modifies both. An eternal state for the wicked! “First Resurrection” is a class, not an event: Christ, the firstfruits of them that slept; the rapture; and the two witnesses are all in the “first” resurrection. 3] This is the first occurrence of “everlasting life” in the OT? Ps 16:10; 49:15; Isa 25:8; 26:19; Hos 13:14; Heb 11:17,18; cf. Dan 11:33. Jewish “teachers”: Dan 11:33-35; Rev 7:4-8; 11:2-12. “brightness of the expanse”: Zachar, to be brilliant. “lights”: Mt 5:14-16; Jn 5:35; Eph 5:8; 2 Cor 4:6; 1 Cor 15:41-42. 4] “Revealed” in last days; primary application to “the time of the end.” The Book of Revelation is not sealed. Rev 22:10; 1:3

[If Knowledge doubles each decade? then, 50% of all “knowledge” has been added these past 10 years!?]

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Hebrew hadda’at, “the knowledge,” i.e. this prophecy. Link with v.3 (vs. Amos 8:12). Israel’s blindness to be relieved (Rom 11:25). Sealing: made secure; preserved; until end (11:35,40). “to/fro” = search: 2 Chr 16:9; Jer 5:1; 49:3; Amos 8:12; Zech 4:10. (Daniel was now over 80 years old.) 5] Jesus is “man” in linen? Two others were probably angels. Two witnesses: Deut 19:15; 31:28; 2 Cor 13:1. Oath: Gen 14:22; Deut 32:40; Rev 10:5-7. 7] 3 1/2 years (Dan 7:25; 12:7; Rev 11:2; 13:5); 1260 days; 42 months; mid-week... 8] Daniel did not understand. (Theory of inspiration!?) 9] “Go” (mental attitude): Words sealed. 10] Wicked will not understand (1 Cor 2:14; 21 Thess 2:11; Rev 22:11,12). 11] 30 days between 1260 and 1290 unrevealed. Tamid, regular ceremonies (8:11; 11:21). Zeus/Jupiter Olympus; 2300 were literal. 12] 45 days: judgments? Ezek 20:34-38; Mt 25:31-46 Start of Millennium? Borders of Gen 15:18? So closes the most comprehensive prophetic revelation in the OT. * * * Notes: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Walvoord, p. 176, note 83. ibid Herodotus III. 89-97. Josephus, Antiquities XII. i. 1. Polybius, Histories V. 38. Polybius, Histories, II. 71. Appian, Roman History: The Syrian Wars, XI. i. 5; XI. vii. 38. 2 Maccabees 3:1-12, 24-31. 2 Maccabees 4:30-35.
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10. 1 Maccabees 4:30-35. 11. Livy’s Annales, XLIV. 37. 12. 2 Maccabees 5:11-18; 6:1-11. Josephus, Antiquities, XII. ii. 6.

Supplemental Bibliography
Eastman, Mark, and Smith, Chuck, The Search for Messiah, The Word for Today, Costa Mesa, CA, 1993. Faulstich, E.W., History, Harmony & Daniel, Chronology Books, Spencer IA, 1988. Fruchtenbaum, Arnold G., Israelology, Ariel Ministries, Tustin, CA, 1989. Jeffrey, Grant R., Messiah, Frontier Research Publications, Toronto, Ontario, 1991. Missler, Chuck, Expositional Commentary on Revelation, 4 Volumes, Koinonia House, 1993.

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About The Cover Design
The “Front” cover:
The Greek border: “I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the ending, saith the Lord, which is, and which was, and which is to come, the Almighty (Revelation 1:8).” The center design element symbolizes the Word of God Incarnate, illuminated by the Holy Spirit.

The “Back” cover: (the “front” to the Jewish reader)
The Hebrew border: “Hear O Israel: The Lord our God is one Lord: and thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might (from the Sh’ma, Deut 6:4-5).” The center design represents the Burning Bush, made up of Hebrew letters which proclaim “the Eternal One cannot lie.”

The Spine:
The spine includes a Menorah from the Old Testament, a Maranatha Dove suggesting the New Testament, and the Koinonia House logo at the base.

Koinonia House P.O. Box D Coeur d’Alene Idaho 83816-0347 1-800-KHOUSE-1 ISBN 1-880532-09-3
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