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NHM I

CHUYN : PHP QUAY


I. Cc khi nim m u (Ch nh ngha trong phng )
1. nh ngha v php bin hnh. - -2/2


2

d
M
M'
a. nh ngha 1( theo nh x)
Gi P l tp hp tt c cc im trong mt phng
Mt nh x f: P P c gi l mt php bin hnh trong mt phng nu
tha mn cc iu kin sau:
i) Vi M, N bt k thuc P, nu M N th f(M) f(N). Ngha l f n
nh
ii) Vi mi M thuc P lun xc nh c M thuc P sao cho f(M) =
M. Ngha l f ton nh
Nh vy f l mt song nh.
Nu gi H l mt tp con ca P.
Khi : H = {M = f(M) / M thuc H} c gi l nh ca hnh H qua
php bin hnh f. H c gi l to nh ca H qua php bin hnh f.
b. nh ngha 2 ( theo hnh hc ph thng )
Php bin hnh trong mt phng l quy tc t tng ng mi im M ca
mt phng vi mt im M xc nh duy nht ca mt phng c gi l
php bin hnh trong mt phng.
Lu : Php bin hnh bin mi im M trong mt phng thnh chnh
n c gi l php bin hnh ng nht.
2. nh ngha v php di hnh.
a. nh ngha 1 (theo nh x)
Gi f: P P l mt php bin hnh trong mt phng. Khi f c gi l
mt php di hnh nu vi M, N bt k thuc P th MN = MN. Trong M
= f(M); N = f(N)
b. nh ngha 2 ( Theo SKG hnh hc lp 11 )
Php di hnh l php bin hnh bo ton khong cch gia 2 im bt k.
3. nh nha v php quay.
trnh by khi nim v php quay ta a ra khi nim v gc nh
hng v mt phng nh hng.
nh ngha: Gc to bi 2 tia ox, oy co phn bit th t tia u v
tia cui c gi l gc nh hng.
Nu tia ox l tia u, tia oy l tia cui th ngi ta k hiu gc nh
hng l (ox, oy).

a
x
y
O

Mt phng nh hng nu trong 2 chiu quay ca 1 tia xung quanh mi
im ca n c chn 1 chiu lm chiu dng, 1 chiu l chiu m.
Ta chn chiu (+): l chiu ngc chiu kim ng h.
Tnh cht ca gc nh hng trong mt phng nh hng.
+)cho 2 gc nh hng
,
1 2

khi :
1 2

nu cng ln,
cng hng va
2
1

nu cng ln, ngc hng.
+) Nu ox quay ti oy theo chiu dng th (ox, oy) > 0.
Nu ox quay ti o ytheo chiu m th (ox, oy) < 0.
+)

= (ox, oy) th

+ k c gi l gc nh hng suy rng (k


Z) . Gc nh hng suy rng bng nhau nu hiu ca chng l k. Nh
vy:

+ k =

.
+) H thc Saclo v gc nh hng.
Cho h
1
, h
2,.,
h
n
l cc tia trong mt phng. Khi :
(h
1
, h
2
) + (h
2
, h
3
) + +(h
n
, h
1
) = 2k.
Sau y s a ra nh ngha php quay.

M'
O
M
Gi thit chung : Cho mtt phng nh hng P. Trong mt phng ly
im O v gc nh hng

.
a. nh nga 1: Gi f: P P l 1 php bin hnh. Khi f c
gi l 1 php quay tm O, gc

nu tha mn:
i) f(0) = 0
ii) m 0. t M=f(M) th OM=OM v (OM, OM) =

b. nh ngha 2: Php bin hnh trong mt phng bin im O


thnh chnh n, bin im M khc O thnh M sao cho: OM=OM v (OM,
OM) c gi l php quay tm O gc

.
K hiu php quay tm O gc

l:
o
Q

O c gi l tm quay, gc nh hng

c gi l gc
quay c chiu dng l chiu quay ngc kim ng h.
Lu :
+) Cc trng hp c bit:

= k2 th
o
Q

l php ng nht.

= (2k+1) th
o
Q

l php i xng
tm O.
+) Nu php quay
o
Q

vi gc nh hng dng th php quay


o
Q


vi gc nh hng theo chiu m l php quay nghch o ca
o
Q

o
o
Q

l
php ng nht.
+) Cc cch xc nh 1 php quay:
Cch 1: Cho bi tm O v gc quay

.
Cch 2: Cho bi tm O v cp im tng ng M,M cch u tm O.
Cch 3: Cho 2 cp im tng ng tha mn: Cc ng trung trc ca cc
on thng ni cc cp im khng trng nhau.
II. Tnh cht.
nh l quan trng: Php quay l 1 php di hnh.
Chng minh


O
B
A
B'
A'

Theo nh ngha php quay l mt php bin hnh nn chng minh
php quay l php di hnh ta chng minh php quay bo ton khong cch
gia 2 im bt k. Tht vy:
Trong mt phng vi 2 im A, B bt k. Php quay
o
Q

: A
a
A
B
a
B
TH1: A hoc B trng vi O. D dng thy: AB=AB
TH2: A, B khc O. Ta c: (OA, OA) = (OB, OB) =

.
Theo h thc Salo vi gc nh hng ta c:
(OA, OB) + (OB, OA) = (OB, OA) + (OA, OB) =

(OA, OB) = (OA, OB)

OAB = OAB (c-g-c)

AB =AB
1. Php quay mang y tnh cht ca 1 php di hnh.
a. Php quay bin 3 im thng hng thnh 3 im thng hng.

C'
B'
A'
A
C
O
B
Chng minh
Trong mt phng cho 3 im A, B, C thng hng trong B nm gia A v C
Php quay
o
Q

: AA
BB
CC
Khi AB = AB
BC = BC
M A, B, C thng hng nn AB + BC = AC

AB + BC = AC

A, B, C thng hng v im B nm gia A, C


T tnh cht trn ta c cc tnh cht sau:
i) Php quay bin ng thng thnh ng thng


d
d'
B'
A'
C'
O
B A
C
Cho d l ng thng trong mt phng,
o
Q

l 1 php quay. Trn d ly 2 im


A, B
o
Q

: A

A
BB
Ta chng minh C A, B d o
Q

(C) = C th C AB
Tht vy A, B, C

3 im A, B, C thng hng

A, B, C thng hng

C AB hay nh ca d qua
o
Q

l ng thng d
ii) Php quay bin 2 ng thng ct nhau ti A thnh 2 ng
thng ct nhau ti
o
Q

(A), bin 2 ng thng song song thnh


2 ng thng song song.
Chng minh :
Gi d
1
, d
2
l 2 ng thng phn bit trong mt phng
Kh nng 1: d
1

d
2

o
Q

: d
1
d
1

2
d

2
d

d2
d1
d2'
d1'
A'
A

Gi s d
1

d
2
= A

1
2
A d
B d

'


1
2
( ) '
( ) '
Q A d
o
Q A d
o

'


d
1

d
2
= ( ) Q A
o

Kh nng 2: d
1

d
2

d
1

d
2
=

d1
d2
d1'
d2'
O
Gi s d
1

d
2

d
1

d
2

( ) Q A
o

d
1

d
2

v l


'
1
d
//
'
2
d
iii) Php quay bin tia thnh tia.
Gi Ax l tia trong mt phng vi im M

Ax.
Gi
o
Q

: Aa A
Ma M
Ta chng minh ( ) Q Ax
o

= Ax
Ngha l: N

Ax. ( ) Q N
o

tia Ax

N'
M'
B'
A'
A
B
O
M N

+ TH1: N nm gia A v M

N nm gia A, M

tia AM hay Ax.


+TH2: N

Ax sao cho M nm gia A, N.

M nm gia A, N.

tia AM.

pcm.
iv) Php bin hnh bin tam gic thnh tam gic bng n.
Chng minh.

A'
C'
B'
B
C
A
O
Trong mt phng cho ABC v
Q
o

: A
a
A
Ba B
Ca C
V c ABC

A, B, C khng thng hng

A, B, C khng thng hng.

c ABC.
Xt ABC v ABC c: AB=AB
AC=AC
BC=BC.

ABC = ABC(c.c.c)
v) Bin on thng thnh on thng bng n
Suy ra t nh ngha
vi) Php quay bo ton gc gia 2 tia, gia 2 ng thng ct
nhau
Chng minh:
+ Gc gia 2 tia: Trong mt phng cho gc

xAy 0 to bi 2 tia Ax, Ay.


Php quay Q
o

: Axa Ax
Aya Ay
Ta chng minh:

' ' ' x A y xAy .
Tht vy trn 2 tia Ax, Ay ly 2 im B, C


xAy BAC
.
Gi B, C l nh ca B, C qua Q
o

Ax, C

Ay


' ' ' ' ' x A y B AC
Li c: ABC = ABC (theo iv)


' ' ' BAC B A C


' ' ' x A y xAy

pcm.
Gc gia 2 ng thng ct nhau
Trong mt phng cho 2 ng thng xx, yy sao cho xx

yy=A

To thnh tia Ax, Ay, Ax, Ay v php quay bo ton gc gia cc tia

Php quay bo ton gc gia

(Ax', ') Ay ,

(Ax, ) Ay

Bo ton gc gia 2 ng thng.


vii) Php quay bin ng trn thnh ng trn bng n.bin tm
ng trn thnh tm ng trn kia.
Chng minh

R
R
M'
A'
A
O
M
Trong mt phng cho (A; R) php quay Q
o

: Aa A.
Khi : M

(A; R) gi M= ( ) Q
o
M

AM=AM=R

(A; R)
viii) Php quay bo ton tch v hng ca 2 vecto
Trong mt phng cho 2 vecto
AB
uuuur
,
CD
uuuur
Q
o

: Aa A
Ba B
Ca C
Da D
AB
uuuur
a
' ' A B
uuuuuur
CD
uuuur
a
' ' C D
uuuuuur
(tnh cht iii)
AB
uuuur
.
CD
uuuur
=|
AB
uuuur
|.|
CD
uuuur
|cos(
AB
uuuur
,
CD
uuuur
)
Ta c: |
AB
uuuur
|=|
' ' A B
uuuuuur
|, |
CD
uuuur
|=|
' ' C D
uuuuuur
|
Ta chng minh:

( , ) AB CD
uuuuur uuuur
=

( ' ', ' ') A B C D


uuuuuuur uuuuuur
T A k
AE
uuuur
:
AE
uuuur
=
CD
uuuur
. Gi E= ( ) Q
o
E

' ' A E
uuuuuur
=
' ' C D
uuuuuur
( v php quay bin ng thng song song thnh ng
thng song song v bo ton ln ca on thng).

( , ) AB CD
uuuuur uuuur
=

( , ) AB AE
uuuuur uuuur
=

( ' ', ' ') A B A E


uuuuuuur uuuuuur
=

( ' ', ' ') A B C D


uuuuuuur uuuuuur

Ngoi ra ta cn c nhng tnh cht d thy nh sau:


+) Php quay bo ton v tr ca 3 tia chung gc ngha l tia Az nm gia 2
tia Ax,Ay th qua php quay tia Az nm gia 2 tia Ax, Ay
+) Php quay bo ton t s k ca mt im trn on thng ngha l M

AB: MA= k MB th qua : MA= k MB


+) Php quay bin trng tm,trc tm,giao ca 3 ng phn gic ca
tam gic thnh trng tm,trc tm,giao ca 3 ng phn gic ca tam gic
nh
+) Php quay bin ng knh,day cung ca ng trn thnh ng
knh,dy cung ca ng trn tng ng bng nhau
+) Php quay bo ton t s ca 2 on thng cng phng
+) php quay bo ton din tch,chu vi ca cc hnh
b,Tch ca php quay v mt php di hnh bt k l mt php
di hnh
gi f l php quay, g l php di hnh bt k trong mt phng,chng minh fog
l mt php di hnh.
Gi A,A l 2 im bt k thuc mt phng

f
gof
g
AB A'B'
A''B''
f: A

A g : A

A
B

B B

' '
" "
' ' " "
AB A B
AB A B
A B A B


'

M A= gof(A) ,B= gof(B)


= > g0f l php di hnh
T ta cng c : -tch ca n php quay l mt php di hnh
c. Tch ca php quay vi cc php di hnh khc c tnh kt hp
Gi g,h,f l cc php di hnh bt k ta cm:
(gof)of=go(hof)
Gi M l im bt k thuc mt phng:
f :
' " "'
f h g
M M M M
Ta c (goh)of=goh(f(M))=goh(M)=go(h(M))=g(M)=M
Li c hof(M)=h(f(M))=h(M)=M

go(hof)(M)=g(hof(M))=G(M)=M

(goh)of=go(hof)
2.Cc tnh cht ring ca php quay
a. Cho ,ng thng d i qua O khi nh ca d l d cng i qua O
v gc nh hng gia d v dl
o
' <90
180 - ' > 90
90 ' =90
o
n u
n u
n u

'

o
o o
vi 0 <

<180
o
Chng minh: *

-
d
d'
d
d'
A'
A'
O
O
A
A
+ O


0
( ) Q O

d m
0
Q

(O)=O

d
+ trn d ly A t A=
0
Q

(A)

( , ') OA OA
. 0 <

<
2

(d,d)=

( , ') OA OA =

.
2

<

(d,d)=

( , ') OA OA =

=
2

=> (d,d) =

( , ') OA OA =
2

b. A,B l nh ca 2 im A,B bt k trong mt phng qua th


0
Q


th

( , ' ') AB A B
uuur uuuuur
=

(0 <

<180)
chng minh:
+TH1: A

0 d dng thy

d'
d
A'
B'
A
B
O
+TH2: A,B

0
0
Q

: A

A , B

B
Gi d l ng thng qua O nhn AB
uuur
l VTCP.Gi d l nh ca d qua
php quay
0
Q

gc (d,d) =

(theo a) v d nhn ' ' A B


uuuuur
lm VTCP

( , ' ') AB A B
uuur uuuuur
=

( , ') d d = (pcm)

c.Tch ca 2 php quay cng tm l mt php quay c cng tm vi


gc quay l tng cc gc quay ca 2 php quay
chng minh:

M''
M'
M
gi
0
Q

,
0
Q

l 2 php quay trong mt phng


0
Q

:M

OM=OM ,

( , ') OM OM =

0
Q

: M

OM=OM ,

( ', '') OM OM =

OM=OM (cng bng OM)


( , '') OM OM =

( , ') OM OM +

( ', 0 '') OM M =
+

0
Q

0
0
Q

l php quay tm O,gc quay


+
Nhn xt : hp thnh ca n php quay c tm quay O trng nhau l
mt php quay tm O gc quay l tng gc quay ca cc php quay
d. Tch ca 2 php quay khng cng tm l mt php quay vi gc
quay bng tng ca 2 gc quay v l mt php tnh tin nu tng 2 gc
bng nhau.
Chng minh phn sau
III. Lin h gia cc php quay v cc php di
hnh.
1) Tch ca 2 php i xng trc theo th t c 2 trc d
1
, d
2
ct nhau ti
im O l php quay tm O gc quay

=2(d
1
, d
2
)
Chng minh:

2
d2
d1
H'
M''
H
M'
O
M
Gi (d
1
), (d
2
) l php i xng trc vi 2 trc l d
1
, d
2
, O = d
1

d
2
Trong mt phng ly M bt k O

(d
1
): Ma M

d
1
l ng trung trc ca MM

OM=OM v O

d
1
Gi H = MM

d
1

(OM, OM)=2(OH, OM) (1)


(d
2
): M a M
d
2
l trung trc ca MM

OM=OM
Gi H=MM
(OM, OM)=2(OM, OH) (2)
T (1) v (2) suy ra: OM=OM (cng = (OM) ) v
(OM, OM)=(OM, OM)+(OM, OM)=2(OH, OM)+(OM, OM)=2(OH,
OH)=2(d
1
, d
2
).

(d
2
)o (d
1
): Ma M l php quay tm O gc

=2(d
1
, d
2
)
Nhn xt: Hp thnh ca mt s chn cc php i xng trc c trc ng
quy l 1 php quay.
2) o li1:: Mi php quay tm O gc

0 u c th phn tch bng


nhiu cch khc thnh tch ca 2 php i xng vi 2 trc ct nhau ti O.
Chng minh

/2
d2
d1
M'
M
Ta ly (d
2
) l 1 ng thng ty i qua O
t d
2
= 2
o
Q

(d
1
, d
2
)=
2

, d
1

d
2
=O
Theo (1) ta c: (d
2
)o (d
1
)=
o
Q

o
Q

thnh tch ca 2 php i xng.


V d
1
bt k

c th phn tch bng nhiu cch


3) T kt qu trn ta chng minh c: Tch ca 2 php quay
1
1
O
Q

,
2
2
O
Q


vi O
1
, O
2
l 1 php quay vi gc
1 2
+
, tm O=d

d
1
.Trong :d=
1
2
( , )
1 2
O
Q O O

hoc l 1 php tnh tin nu


1 2
0 +
Chng minh:

1+2
-2/2
1/2
1
2
d3
d2
d1
O
M''
M'
O2
M
O1
Gi
1
1
O
Q

,
2
2
O
Q

l 2 php quay vi O
1
O
2
,
,
1 2

0
t d
2
=O
1
O
2

O
1

d
2
, O
2

d
2
Theo 2) ta c th phn tch
1
1
O
Q

=(d
2
)o(d
1
)

2
2
O
Q

=(d
3
)o(d
2
)
Vi d
1
=
1
2
O
Q

(d
2
), d
3
=
1
2
O
Q

(d
2
)

1
1
O
Q

o
2
2
O
Q

=((d
3
)o(d
2
))o((d
2
)o(d
1
))= (d
3
)o(d
1
)
C: d
2
=
1
2
O
Q

(d
3
)

(d
3
, d
2
)=
2
2

d
1
=
1
2
O
Q

(d
2
)

(d
2
, d
1
)=
1
2

(d
1
, d
3
)=
1
2

+
2
2

TH1: (d
1
, d
3
) 0

1 2
0 +
1
1
O
Q

o
2
2
O
Q

= (d
3
)o(d
1
) l php quay tm O=d
1

d
3
gc quay l
2(d
1,
d
3
)=
1 2
+

TH2: (d
1
, d
3
) =0

1 2

(d
3
)o(d
1
) l php tnh tin vecto v
r

1
1
O
Q

o
2
2
O
Q

l php tnh tin.


Nhn xt:
1 2
+
=
0
180

Tch l php i xng tm.
4) Tch ca 1 php tnh tin v 1 php quay gc

l 1 php quay gc

.
Chng minh*


/2

v
d2
d1
d3
-v/2
M''
M'
L
K
O
M

Cho php tnh tin T theo vecto
0 v

php quay
O
Q

( 0 ) chng
minh QoT l 1 php quay.
Phn tch
v
T

thnh tch 2 php i xng (d


1
), (d
2
) c d
1
//d
2
trong d
2

qua O vung gc vi phng
v

d
1
=
2
v
T

(d
2
)

v
T

= (d
1
)o (d
2
)
C O

d
2
nn phn tch
O
Q

= (d
3
)o (d
2
) vi d
3
=
O
Q

(d
2
).
Khi ta c
v
T

: ((d
3
)o (d
2
))o ((d
2
)o (d
1
))= (d
3
)o (d
1
) l 1 php
quay

QoT l 1 php quay gc quay

tm O=d
1

d
2
Nhn xt: L lun tng t ta thy ToQ cng l 1 php quay tm O vi
gc quay

trong OO hay QoTToQ.


IV.Biu thc ta ca php quay
1.S dng mc tiu afin trong
Trong
2
E vi im O cho trc chn mc tiu trc chun
{ }
1 2
; , O E E
(*)ly O lm gc .ta c :
- f(O) = O|
(*)
= (0,0)
- t E
1
=f(E) ,E
2
= f(E
2
)

f
ur
(
1
OE
uuuur
)=
'
1
OE
uuuur
=
'
1
E
|
(*)
=(a
1
, b
1
)
f
ur
(
2
OE
uuuur
)=
'
2
OE
uuuur
=
'
2
E
|
(*)
=(a
2
, b
2
)

ma trn trn trc giao la :


1 1
2 2
a b
A
a b
1

1
]
- f l php di hnh

2
.
T
A A I
1 1 1 2
2 2 1 2
2 2
1 1 1 2 1 2
2 2
1 2 1 2 2 2
2 2
1 1
2 2
2 2
1 2 1 2
1 0
.
0 1
1 0 . .
0 1 . .
1
1
. . 0
a b a a
a b b b
a b a a b b
a a b b a b
a b
a b
a a b b
1 1 1

1 1 1
] ] ]
1 + + 1

1 1
+ +
] ]
+

+
'

Li c
1 1
2 2
a b
A
a b

=1

1 2 2 1
. . 1 a b a b
Khi tn ti
[ ]
0, 2
sao cho :
1
2
os
sin
a c
a


'

v
1
2
sin
os
b
b c


'

os sin
sin os
c
A
c


1

1

phng trnh cua php quay f l :


'
1 1 2
'
2 1 2
. os .sin
.sin . os
x x c x
x x x c



'
+


Chn tm quay la O(0,0)
2.S dng h trc ta Oxy

x
M
M'
Trong h ta Oxy cho M(x,y), tm nh ca Mqua
0
Q


=(OM,Ox)


.cos
.sin
x OM
y OM


'

cos
sin
x
OM
y
OM

'

t M=
0
Q

(M)=(x,y)

OM =OM ,(OM,OM)=

(Ox,OM)=
+
TH1 :0 <
+


' .cos( ) .cos( )
' '.sin( ) .sin( )
x OM OM
y OM OM


+ +
'
+ +

' .(cos cos sin sin )


' .(sin cos sin cos )
x OM
y OM



'
+

' .( .cos .sin ) cos sin


' .( .cos .sin ) cos sin
x y
x OM x y
OM OM
y x
y OM y x
OM OM

'

+ +

Cc trng hp khc tng t


php quay tm O trng gc ta bin M(x,y)

M(x,y) vi

'
'
. os .sin
.sin . os
x x c y
y x y c



'
+


Lu :
+) Bng php dch chuyn tm vi O(a,b) bt k ta c

' ( ) cos ( ) sin
' ( ) sin ( ) cos
x x a y b a
y x b y b b


+ +
'
+ +


+)M(x,y) qua
0
Q

=M(x,y) th
' cos sin
' sin cos
x x y
y x y


+
'
+


V.Bi tp
Lu khi lm bi tp v php quay
+ Chn cch v hnh bi ton sao cho khi thc hin tng php quay ring bit
l php quay chiu dng
+Nu trong bi ton c s dng tch cc php quay th vic tm tm l quan
trng nht
+Nhiu bi ton m trong gi thit xut hin yu t c bit nh gc 30 ,60
di bn gi tng dng php quay
Mt s dng ton in hnh
* Dng 1 : S dng php quay lm bi ton dung hnh
Nh ta bit hnh H l mt tp con ca ca P- tp hp cc im
trong mt phng

H l mt tp hp im.V vy dng hnh H thng


thng ta dng cc im ca H.
dng im M i khi d dng nu ta dng c nh Mca M qua
1 php di no tch cc php bin hnh.Ta da vo c trng ca im
cn dng v tnh cht ca php bin hnh chn php bin hnh hp l
Cc bc: - bc 1: phn tch
- bc 2: dng hnh
- bc 3: chng minh
- bc 4: bin lun
Bi ton 1:*
Cho ABC,dim M thucAB. Dng trn BC ,AC cc im N,P tng
ng sao cho tha mn 2 iu kin: MP=MN,ng trn qua A,M,P tip
xc vi MN
Phn tch:

P
N
C'
A'
A
B
C
M

Gi s ta dng c 2 im M,P tha man yu cu ca bi ton ngha l
MP=MN v MN l tip tuyn ca ng trn qua A,M,P ti M.khi :
+ta c:

NMP =

MAP
(cng chn

MB
)
m MP=MN nn xc nh c php quay :

Q
M

: N

P vi =

BAC c nh

N la to nh ca P qua php quay


Q
M

+li c P

AC nn N

AC l to nh ca AC qua
Q
M

, trong

Q
M

: A

A
C

C
M N

BC nn suy ra N l giao ca BC v AC
Cch dng:
- Dng A,C l to nh ca A,C qua php
Q
M

ngha l: MA=MA, MC
=MC ,(MA,MA)=(MC,MC)=

-Xc nh giao im ca AC vi BC
-T P =
Q
M

(N)
Chng minh:
Q
M

: A

A
C

C
N=BC

AC

AC

P =
Q
M

(N)

AC
(NM,MP)=

, MP=MN

tha mn iu kin N , P

BC, AC ,MP =MN


CM: MN l tip tuyn ca ng trn ngoi tip ca AMP
Xt ng trn (O) ngoi tip AMP c

MAP
l gc ni tip chn

MP

N

(O) ,

PMN =

MAP
=

MN l tip tuyn ca ng trn (O)


.Bin lun: . v ABC cho trc , M cho trc

A
=

c dnh


Q
M

l xac nh
A,C xc nh A,C cng xc nh v duy nht

N xc nh duy nht

P xc nh
Bi ton 2:
Trong mt phng cho gc nhn APX . Hy ch ra cch dung mt hnh
vung ABCD sao cho P nm trn cnh BC v P nm trn phn gic ca

BAQ , vi Q= PX

CD
V bi tp lin quan n gc vung,hnh vung co cc canh bng
nhau nn ta ngh ti php quay
Phn tch:
Gi s dng c hnh vung ABCD tha mn iu kin ton.
V cc nh ca hnh vung hon ton dng c nu ta xc nh c
im Q nn ta s phn tch mi lin h ca im Q vi nhng iu c

X
D'
P' C' Q
B
C
A
D
P
Vi im A c nh ta xt
90
A
Q
: B
a
D
Gi C,D,P l nh ca C,D,P qua
90
A
Q
=>
90
( )
A
Q ABCD
= ADCD
P

BC qua
90
A
Q
P

DC
V php quay bo ton gc nn :

' BPA DP A
(1)
Li c :

' ' 90 90 QAP PAP PAQ PAD BAP
o o
(2)
T (1) v (2) =>

' ' QAP DP A
M AD QD ( v ABCD l hnh vung
P

DC)
=> Q,D,P thng hng
=>

' ' DP A QP A
=> APQ l tam gic cn ti Q
=> AQ= QP
= > Q thuc trung trc AP
Cch Dng :
- xc nh P =
90
A
Q
o
(P)
-V ng trung trc ca AP
Q

PX , Q

d => Q = PX

d
- Dng tia Ay :

yAP PAQ
- t P k ng thng d Ay
=> B = d

Ay
- D =
90
( )
A
Q B
C =
90
( )
B
Q A

=> Hnh vung cn tm

X
1
Y 3
4
5
6
2
D
C
B
Q
A
P
P'
Chng Minh : vi cch dng trn d thy: Q = PX

CD , P

BC
Ta chng minh AP l phn gic

BAQ
P=
90
( )
A
Q P
=>

' BPA AP D
D=
90
( )
A
Q B

ABP vung ti P =>

90 BPA BAP +
o
=>

' 90 AP D BAP +
o
(1)
Li c :

' ' 90 PAP PAQ QAP +
o
M Q thuc trung trc ca AP => QAP cn ti Q
=>

' ' QAP QP A
=>

' 90 PAQ QP A +
o
(2)
Li c: PB AB => PD AD => Q,D,P thng hng
Q

CD => QD AD
=> QPA = DPA (3)
T (1) (2) (3) =>

BAP PAQ (pcm)
Bin lun : v AP cho trc nn AP =
90
( )
A
Q AP
l xc nh v duy nht

Q bng giao ca AX v trung trc ca AP l xc nh v duy nht

cc im B ,C,D l xc nh duy nht .T ta c hnh vung ABCD



*Dng 2: Bi tp chng minh
S dng php quay hay php di hnh lm bi ton chng minh,ta c
th chng minh c rt nhiu bi ton nh: chng minh gc , chng
minh on thng bng nhau,chng minh cc on thng vung gc,song
song ,ng quy,thng hng.
-Trong trng hp chng minh hnh H=H ta ch cn ra ch ra tn ti
mt php di hnh bin H - >H. Cc yu t gc bng nhau,on thng
bng nhau l nhng yu t hng ta ngh ti php quay
*Cch gii: -Bc 1: Thc hin mt php di hnh thch hp
-Bc 2: Sdng cc tnh cht ca pht di hnh gi quyt
yu cu bi tp
Bi ton 1:*
Cho ABC , qua A dng tam gic vun cn ABE v AFC .Gi M l
trung im ca BC v AM

EF = H.
Chng minh AH l ng cao ca tam gic AEF
Phn tch bi ton:
ABE, AFC vung cn
=>(AB,AE)=(AF,AC)=90
0
,AB=AE,AF=AC
iu khin ta ngh ti

90
A
Q : B

F,F

C
Ta s s dng
90
A
Q chng minh AH EF
Li gii

M

Gi D =
90
A
Q (C)

AD =AC v (AC,AD)=
0
90
hay AC AD
Li c: AFC vung cn

AF AC,AF=AC

A,D,thng hng v l trung im ca DF (AD=AF)


Gi M =
90
A
Q (M)

(AM,AM)=
0
90
hay AM AM (1)
M trung im ca BC qua
90
A
Q : B

E
C

D
M

M trung im ca ED
Xt EDF cn A,M l trung im ca DF v ED

AM // EF (2)
T (1) v (2)

EF AM
M EF

AM =H

AH l ng cao ca AEF
Bi ton 2:
V pha ngoi ca ABC v cc hnh vung BCMN v AQPC. Chng
minh khi c nh 2 im A,B cho C thay i th cc ng thng NQ lun
lun i qua mt im c nh
Phn tch
Theo bi ra: A, B l 2 im c nh

chng minh NQ i qua im c nh ta s xc nh im c nh


da vo A, B
Ta li c AQPC, BCMN l hnh vung nn ta xc nh c php quay
0
90
A
Q v
0
90
B
Q ta s da vo 2 php quay tm im c nh m QN i
qua.
Li gii

-45
45
O
C
B
A
N
M
Q
P
AQPC l hnh vung

AQ=AC,
0
( , ) 90 AQ AC

0
90
A
Q
: Q C (1)
BCMN l hnh vung

BN=BC v
0
( , ) 90 BC BN

0
90
B
Q
: C N (2)
T (1) v (2)

0
90
A
Q o
0
90
B
Q : QN m
0
90
A
Q o
0
90
B
Q l php quay tm O,
gc quay
0 0 0
90 90 180 +

0
180
:
O
Q Q N

0
( , ) 180 OQ ON

QN.
Xc inh im O xem O c phi l im c nh
Theo tnh cht ca php quay O=d

d
Trong : d=
0
45
( )
A
Q AB

, d=
0
45
( )
B
Q AB

ABO vung cn ti O

O l im thuc ng trung trc ca AB sao cho ABO vung cn

O l im c nh
Vy QN lun i qua im O c nh.
Bi ton 3:
Cho hnh vung ABCD. T nh A ca hnh vung v 2 tia Ax, Qy qua
min trong ca hnh vung. Gi M, K tng ng l hnh chiu ca B, D
ln Ax, N, L tng ng l hnh chiu ca B, D ln Ay. CMR: KL=MN, KL
MN.
Phn tch.
chng minh MN=KL, KLMN ta cn tm 1 php quay Q gc quay
0
90
bin MN
N L
xc nh php quay Q ta phi xc nh tm quay O thng l nhng im
c nh c bit trong bi ton.
Theo bi ra ta thy ABM=DAK

AM=DK, BM=AK, AMB=DKA = 90 (*)

Nu
0
90
' O
Q : M K th t (*) ta d on

0
90
' O
Q : A D
B A

OA=OB=OD
' O O
l tm hnh vung
T nhng l lun trn ta c li gii sau:
Li gii:

O
M
N
L
K
A
D
B
C

Xt ABM v DAK c: AMB=DAK=


0
90
AB=AD( cnh ca hnh vung)
ABM=DAK(cng ph vi BAM)

ABM = DAK

MA=KD, MB=KA, MAB=ADK (1)


Li c
0
90
O
Q : B A, A D (vi O l tm ca hnh vung)
Gi s:
0
90
O
Q (M)=M

MA=MD, MB=MA, MAB=MDA (2)


T (1) v (2)

0
90
O
Q
(M)=K. (1)

Tng t ta c ABN=DAL(c.g.c)

AL=DL, BN=AL, BAN=ADL

0
90
O
Q
(N)=L (2)
T (1) v (2)

0
90
O
Q : M K
N L
Nn MN=KL, (MN, KL)=
0
90
hay MN KL
*Dng 3 : Bi ton qu tch.
Tm tp hp M c tnh cht

no thc ra l tm 1 hnh F c tnh


cht

. tm tp hp H da php di hnh f ngi ta thng chuyn v


tm tp hp nh F ca F qua php di hnh trong F l d dng tm hn
so vi F. Do tnh cht 1.1 ca php di ta se suy ra F=
1
( ') f F

V php di hnh l 1 song nh nn ta ch cn lm phn thun.


Thng thng c 2 cch tm qu tch im M.
Cch 1:
Bc 1: Ch ra php di hnh f: M M
Bc 2: Xc nh qu tch im M gi s l F.
Bc 3: Quy tch ca M l nh ca F qua f.
Cch 2:
Bc 1: Bng thc nghim d on v qu tch M cn tm ( dng 1 s im
c bit khi M di chuyn) gi s l F.
Bc 2: Xc nh im F sao cho f: F F.
Bc 3: Vi M bt k thuc F chng minh tha mn bi tp nu f(M)
thuc F th qu tch l F=f(F).
Bi ton 1:
Cho na ng trn ng knh AB, gi C l im chy trn na
ng trn trn AC ly im D sao cho: AD=CB. Tim qu tch im C thay
i.
Phn tch
Qu tch im D tha mn: D

AC, AD=CB

php quay
0
90
P
Q : B A
C D
M qu tch im C l na ng trn ng knh AB

qu tch im D l nh ca na ng trn ng knh AB qua


0
90
P
Q
Li gii:

E
D
P
O
C
A
B

Ta c: C thuc na ng trn ng knh AB

AC BC
M D

AC

AD BC.
Nu chn chiu nh hng ngc kim ng h th ta c (BC, AD)=
0
90
.
Li c AD=BC nn s tn ti php quay Q vi gc quay
0
90 tm t l P
0
90
P
Q

: B A
C D

Ta xc nh tm P ca php quay trn


0
90
P
Q

B A

(PB, PA)=
0
90

P nm trn mt phng b AB
cha na ng knh AB.
(PB, PA)=
0
90

APB=
0
90
=ACB

APCB l t gic ni tip.


M A, B, C thuc na ng trn ng knh AB.

P thuc na ng trn ng knh AB.


Li c: PA=PB

P l im chnh gia ca cung

ACB
V C chy trn na ng trn ng knh AB nn qu tch im C l na
ng trn ng knh AB.
0
90
P
Q

: C D nn qu tch im O l nh ca na ng trn ng knh


AB.

Xc nh nh ca na ng trn ng knh AB qua


0
90
P
Q

nh ca ng knh AB qua
0
90
P
Q

: P thuc na ng trn ng knh AB

P thuc na ng trn nh
t E =
0
90
P
Q

(A)

(AP, EP) =
0
90 , AP = EP

E thuc na mt phng b l AB.


A =
0
90
P
Q

(B)

(AB, AE) =
0
90

AE AB

E thuc tip tuyn ca ng trn ng knh AB ti A.


M php quay bin na ng trn thnh na ng trn, ng knh ca
ng trn thnh ng knh ca ng trn.

nh ca na ng trn ng knh AB qua


0
90
P
Q

l na ng trn
ng knh AE cha P.
Vy qu tch im D l na ng trn ng knh AE trong E thuc tip
tuyn ca ng trn ti A ly na trn ng trn ng knh AE l phn
i qua im chnh gia ca cung

ACB
.
Bi ton 2:*
Cho ABC u. Tm tp hp im M trong tam gic sao cho:
MA
2
+MB
2
= MC
2
.
Phn tch
Gi thit ABC u nn ta c: AB = AC = BC.
A = B = C =
0
60
.

Ngh ti php quay gc


0
60
hoc
0
60
im M tha mn biu thc MA
2
+MB
2
= MC
2
lin quan ti ln, m php
quay li bo ton khong cch.

Ta ngh ti vic tm nh ca cc im c nh trong biu thc ri thay vo


biu thc v tm ra qu tch.
Li gii:

60
150
150
M'
B
A
C
M
Gi nguyn VP ca biu thc ta biu din VP ca biu thc qua php quay
sao cho VT c lin quan ti VP.
Ta thy:
0
60
( )
A
Q B C ,
0
60
( )
B
Q A C

.
Ta s chn php quay sao cho c th biu din MA
2
, MB
2
qua C, M l nh
ca M.
Chn
0
60
A
Q : B C
M M

MB = MC, MA = MA
(AM, AM) =
0
60

AMM u

MM = MA

MA
2
+MB
2
= MC
2
.

MC
2
+MM
2
= MC
2

MMC vung ti M(nh l pitago)

CMM=
0
90

AMC = CMM + AMM =


0
90
+
0
60
=
0
150
Nh vy
0
60
A
Q : A A
M M
B C

AMB AMC

AMB =
0
150

M thuc cung nh cha gc


0
150 dng trn dy AB
o li: Nu M thuc cung trn th MA
2
+MB
2
= MC
2
* Dng 4: Cc bi ton nh lng ,bi tp cc tr
Bng vic thit lp cc php quay,php di hnh ta tnh ton c cc
yu t trong mt hnh
Bi ton 1: *
Khong cch t im P c nh ti 2 im A,B ca mt tam gic u 2
v 3.Xc nh khong cch ln nht t P ti C.
Nhn xt: Bi ton c cc yu t khin ta ngh ti php quay l:

ABC
u c cc cnh bng nhau v cc gc bng
60
o
Bi lm:
Xt
60
A
Q
o
: B

C
Gi s: P

P
Ta c : PP + PC PC

PC ln nht khi PC= PP+PC

PC
Ta tnh di PC=PP+PC

60
A
Q
o
(P)=P

APP u

PP=AP=2
60
A
Q
o
: B

CP=BB=3
P

PC ln nht : PC= PP+CP=2+3=5


Bi ton 2:
cho lc gic u ABCDEF ,gi M v H l trung im ca CD v DE,L
l giao im ca BM v BH. Chng minh:
ABL MDHL
S S

Phn tch : - php quay bo ton din tch nn chng minh
ABL MDHL
S S

ta s biu din
,
ABL MDHL
S S
qua cc din tch bng nhau
- theo bi ra
Y
ABCDEF la lc gic u v cc im s ni tip ng trn
tm O.Khi OA=OB=OC=OD=OE =OF v gc tm chn cc cung l cc
cnh ca lc gic c s o bng
60
o
.Nh vy qua php quay tm O gc quay
60 t
o
hai nh k nhau l nh ca nhau.Ta s da vo nhng phn tch gii
ton
Bi lm :

-60
L
H
M
B
C
D
E
F
O
A
t th t cc nh theo chiu ngc kim ng h ta c:

60
O
Q

: A

B, B

C, C

D, D

E, E

F, F

A
Li c:

OCD=

ODE (hai tam gic u bng nhau)


OM=OH v (OM,OH)=-
60
o

60
O
Q

: M

60
O
Q

:
Y
ABCM


Y
BCDH


ABCM BCDH
S S

ABL BCML LMDH BCML


S S S S + +

ABL LMDH
S S
pcm
Bi ton 3:
Cho tam gic nhn ABC.Tm tp hp cc im M sao cho tng khong
cch t M n cc nh ca tam gic l nh nht ngha l: MA+MB+MC
nh nht
Phn tch : Gi s M l im nm trong tam gic tha mn MA+MB+MC
nh nht.Ta s tm mt php di hnh thch hp v biu din tng trn qua cc
php di hnh y vi iu kin tng sau khi c biu din c th nh gi
c v tr ca M suy ra tng c im M

ta chn php quay Q gc quay


60
o
v tm quay l mt trong 3 nh ca
tam gic .Ga s l nh A khi r rng AMM u nn AM=AM=MM

tng qua php quay s biu din c qua M v nh M ca n


Bi lm :

120
120
M'
C'
B'
B
A
M
C
Gi s M l im nm trong

ABC
Xt
60
A
Q
o
.Ga s:
60
A
Q
o
: B

B,C

C,M

MB = MB, MC = MC, MA = MA
C (AM,AM) =
60
o

MAM u

MA=MM

MA+MB+MC = BM+MM+MC

AM+MB+MC nh nht

BM+MM+MC nh nht

ng gp khc BMMC l mt don thng



BMA
+

' AMM
=

' MM A
+

' ' AM C
=
0
180

BMA
=

' ' AM C
=
0
120
V php quay bn ton gc nn

AMC
=
0
120

BMA
=

AMC
=

BMC
=
0
120

M l giao im ca cung cha gc


0
120
chn trn cc on AB,BC,AC

ABC nhn

M nm trong tam gic


o li: vi im M xc nh nh trn ta chng minh c
MA+MB+MC nh nht
Dng 5: H trc ta vi php quay
Bi ton 1:
Trong h trc ta Oxy cho 2 ng thng
d
1
:x+2y-4=0 ,d
2:
x+2y-1=0
xc nh trn d
1
,d
2
hai im A,B sao cho

OAB vung cn ti O
(th t cc nh theo hng dng)
Nhn xt : OAB vung cn ti O => (OA,OB)
90
o
,OA=OB
=> Php quay
90
o
Q
o
: A B
Ad
1
=> Bd
1
l nh ca d
1
qua
90
o
Q
o

Li c B

d
2
=> B = d
1
d
2
=> A=
90
O
Q

o
(B).T ta c li gii:
Bi lm :
- tm nh d
1
ca d
1
qua php quay
90
O
Q
o
- Ly M(4,0)

d
1
,t M=
90
o
Q
o
(M) ta c:
- Ta ca M l
'
'
(4 0) os90 (0 0)sin90 0
(4 0)sin90 (0 0) os90 0
M
M
x c
y c
+

'
+ +

o o
o o
=>M(0,4)
1
' d
=
90
1
( )
O
Q d
o
=>(
1, 1
' d d
)=
90
o
=>
1 1
' d d
=> phng trnh ca
1
' d
l :2x-y+c=0
M

1
d
=>M(0,4)

1
' d
T ta c phng trnh ca
1
d
l : 2x-y+4=0
- xc nh giao im C ca

1
' d
v d
2
l nghim ca h
2 4 0
2 1 0
x y
x y
+

'

=>C(
7 6
,
5 5

)
-xc nh nh B ca C qua
90
A
Q

o
7 6 6
( 0). os90 ( 0)sin90
5 5 5
7 6 7
( 0)sin90 ( 0) os90
5 5 5
B
B
x c
y c

'

o o
o o
=>B(
6 7
,
5 5

)
Theo cch xc nh ta c OC=OB ,

BOC
=
90
o
=>OBC l tam gic vung
Ta xt xem B

1
d
khng :v C=d
1

2
d
=>C

d
1
, d
1
=
90
1
( )
O
Q d
=>d
1
=
90
0 1
( ') Q d

=>
90
O
Q

o
(C)
1
d
=>B
1
d
Vy hai im BC cn tm l
B(
6 7
,
5 5

), C=(
7 6
,
5 5

)
Bi ton 2 : *
Trong mt phng ta oxy cho hnh vung ABCD( th t nh
theo hng dng) c tm O, nh C (0;1) cho im
1 1
;
2 2
N
_

,
. Xc
nh ta ca M nm gia A, B sao cho : MB=CN.
Gii
Nhn xt : Hnh vung ABCD bit nh C v tm O

Ta hon ton xc nh c ta tt c cc nh ca hnh vung qua


0
90
0
Q .
Bi tp cn tm M nm gia AB sao cho MB=CN
M: C=
0
90
0
( ) Q B . Nn nu t M=
0
90
0
( ) Q M th MC=MB

MC=CN.
T ta s xc nh c ta ca M.
Lu : nu N

BC th hoc M

N, hoc C l trung im ca MN.


Bi lm

x
y
M(1/2,1/2)
N(1/2,1/2)
B(1,0)
A(0,-1)
D(-1,0)
C(0,1)
Ta c
0
90
0
Q : A B
B C
C D
D A.
M O(0;0), C(0;1)

D=
0
90
0
( ) Q C c ta D(-1;0)
A=
0
90
0
( ) Q D
A(0;-1)
B=
0
90
0
( ) Q A
B(1;0).
Xc nh v tr ca
1 1
;
2 2
N
_

,
vi BC.
B(1;0), C(0;1)

phng trnh BC: x + y = 1

BC v nm gia BC.
Gi M=
0
90
0
( ) Q M v M nm gia A, B nn M nm ga BC v
MB=MC( v php quay bo ton khong cch gia 2 im).
Li c: MB=CN

CM=CN

N(v N, M cng nm gaB, C v MC=MC)

M (1/2,-1/2)
*Dng 6: Cc bi s dng lin h gia cc php bin
hnh
Bi ton 1 :*
cho tam gic ABC u ,im M bt k khac A,B,C gi
M
1
=
BC
(M) , M
2
=
CA
(M), M
3
=
AB
(M).
Chng minh BM
1
M
3
;
CM
1
M
3
Nhn xt :
- Ba php i xng trc
BC
,
CA
,
AB
c cc trc i xng BC,CA,AB i
mt ct nhau =>tch 2 trong 3 php i xng trc bt k cho ta 1 php
quay.Ta s da vo nhn xt trn chng minh 2 tam gic ng dng
Bi lm :
Ta c
CA
o
BC
l mt php quay tm C= AB BC ,gc quay
( , ) 120 BC CA
o

CA
(M) = M
2
=>
CA
(M
2
) = M

BC
0
CA
(M
2
)=
BC
(M)=M
1

120
C
Q
:M
2

M
1

CM
1
M
2
cn ti C v

0
1 2
120 CM M
(1)
Li c:
BC
0
AB
l php quay tm B =BCAB ,gc quay 2(AB,BC)=
0
120
C
AB
(M)=M
3

AB
(M
3
)=M

BC
0
AB
(M
3
)=
BC
(M)=M
1
=>
120
B
Q :M
3

M
1
=>

BM
1
M
3
cn ti B v

0
1 3
120 M BM
(2)
T (1) v (2) =>BM
1
M
3

CM
1
M
2
(c.c.c)
Bi ton 2:
Cho ng trn O, im A c nh trn ng trn .C l im thay i
trn ng trn .Cho im C c nh.Dng tam gic vung ABC. M t
qu tch ca im B khi c di ng
Phn tch :

-45
45
B'
B
M
A
C
Ga s dng c tam gic vung cn ti B
=>Trong ABC,AC l cnh ln nht
Gi M l im thuc AC: AM=AB
=>
AM
AC
=
2
2
AB
AC

v

0
45 MAB
T
AM
AC
=
2
2
=>php v t tm A t s
2
2
: C

M
Th1: (AM,AB)=
0
45
=>
45
A
Q :M

B
Nh vy B nh ca C qua tch ca php v t tm A t s
2
2
v php quay
45
A
Q
TH 2: (AM,AB)=-
0
45
=>
45
A
Q

:M

B
=>B l nh ca C qua tch ca php v t tm At s
2
2
v php quay
45
A
Q


*Cch dng:
-dng nh ca C qua php v t tm A t s
2
2
,t l M
-Thc hin php quay
45
A
Q hoc
45
A
Q

.khi nh ca M l im B cn dng
*Chng minh:
Theo cch dng im M ta c :
2
2
AM
AC

,M

AC
Theo cch dng nh B ca M qua php quay tm A gc quay
0
45 t

Ta c: AM = AB v
0
45 BAM
=>
2
2
AB
AC

v

BAC
=
0
45
Trong

ABC c: BC
2
= AB
2
+ AC
2
- 2.AB.AC.cos
0
45
=AB
2
+ (
2
2
AB)
2
-2.AB.
2
2
.AB.
2
2
= AB
2
+ 2AB
2
- 2AB
2
=AB
2
=> BC = AB =>

BAC cn ti B => BC = AB =
2
2
AC
=> BC
2
+AB
2
= (
2
2
AC)
2
+(
2
2
AC)
2
= AC
2
=>

ABC vung cn ti B
Bin lun: V AC c nh => im M l hon ton xc nh v duy nht =>
B l tn ti v xc nh
Bi ton 3:
Cho hnh vung ABCD(th t cc nh cng chiu kim ng h) c
tm I.Trn tia BC ly im E : BE=AI.Xc nh php di hnh bin A

B,I

E
Nhn xt : V mi quan h gia A,B,I,E
- I l tm ca hnh vung ABCD
=> I thuc trung trc ca AB
- AI = BE => BI = BE
=> B thuc trung trc ca EF
Nh vy : gi d,d l trung trc ca AB,IE
Ta c: B =
d
(A) ,E =
d
(I) ,I =
d
(I) ,B =
d
(B)
Dn ti li gii sau:
Bi lm:

-45
d
d'
O
E
I
B
D
C
A
Gi d l trung trc ca AB => I

d
=>
d
: A

B (1)
I

I
Gi d l trung trc ca IE => B

d (v BI=BE)
=>
d
: I

E
B

B (2)
T (1) v (2) =>
d
o
d
(A) =
d
(
d
(A)) =
d
(B)=B

d
o
d
(I) =
d
(
d
(I)) =
d
(I) = E
=>
d
o
d
: A

B
I

E
t 0 =
' d d
=>
d
o
d
l php quay Q tm O gc
2( , ') d d
Tm gc


o
Q

: A

B =>
( , ) 45 AI BE
o
I

E
=> php di hnh A

B , I

E l php quay gc 45
o
,tm quay l
giao ca 2 ng trung trc ca AB v EI
V: Php quay trong n 2 phng.
1. Php quay quanh 1 ng thng trong khng gian.
a. nh ngha.
Trong khng gian cho php bin hnh f, ng thng d v gc nh hng

. Khi f c gi l php quay quanh ng thng d nu vi M bt k.


t M=f(M) th M, M

mt phng (P) vung gc vi (d) ti O sao cho:


OM=OMv (OM, OM) =

. c gi l php quay quanh trc d, gc


quay

.
K hiu:
d
Q

.

a
a
P
Q
d
M'
M
N'
N
O
b. Tnh cht
nh l: Php quay xung quanh 1 trc l php di hnh.
i) Php quay xung quanh 1 trc mang y tnh cht ca 1 php di hnh.
Ngoi nhng tnh cht nh nu php quay trong mt phng ta c thm cc
tnh cht sau:
+) Php quay bin mt phng thnh mt phng, na mt phng thnh na
mt phng.
+) Php quay bo ton gc nh din, tam din, gc gia 2 mt phng
+) Php quay bo tn s song song ca 2 mt phng.
ii) M

d ta c
d
Q

: MM => d l ng thng kp.


iii) (P)

th
d
Q

: (P)(P).
Nu
2 ( ) k k
th
0 ( ) M d P
u khng phi l im
kp.
iv) Tch ca 2 php i xng qua mt phng (P), (Q) ct nhau theo ng
thng l php quay quanh ng thng (d).
c. Biu thc ta .*
Trong E
3
cho ng thng (d).
Chn mc tiu trc chun { }
,
0 1 2 3
; , E E E E
(*) vi E
0,
E
1

(d)
f(E
0
)=E
0
/(*)=(0;0)
f(E
1
)=E
1
. t E
2
=f(E
2
), E
3
=f(E
3
).
Ta c:
( )
( ) 1;0;0
1 1
' f OE OE


2 2
2 2
( ) 0; ; ' f OE OE a b
_

,



3
3 3
( ) 0; ; ' f OE OE a b
_

,


3
=>Ma trn trc chun
2 2
3 3
1 0 0
0
0
A a b
a b
1
1

1
1
]
f l php di hnh=>A.A
T
=I
n.

2 2
1 2 2 3 2 3
2 2
2 3 2 3 3 3
1 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
a b a a b b
a a b b a b
1 1
1 1
+
1 1
1 1 + +
] ]

2 2
2 2
2 2
3 3
2 3 2 3
1
1
0
a b
a b
a a b b
+

+
'

(1)
Li c |A|=1 =>
2 2
3 3
1 0 0
0 1
0
a b
a b

=> a
2
b
3
- a
3
b
2
= 1 (2)
T (1) v (2) => [0;2]:
2 2
3 3
os sin

sin os
a c b
v
a b c



' '


Li c |A|=1 =>
2 2
3 3
1 0 0
0 1
0
a b
a b

=> a
2
b
3
- a
3
b
2
= 1 (2)
T (1) v (2) => [0;2]:
2 2
3 3
os sin

sin os
a c b
v
a b c



' '


1 0 0
0 os sin
0 sin os
A c
c


1
1

1
1
]
=> Phng trnh php quay x=A
T
x
'
1 1
'
2 2 3
'
3 2 3
cos . sin .
sin . os .
x x
x x x
x x c x



'

=> l gc quay . + = 0 l php ng nht.


+ = l php i xng qua d
2) Php quay quanh (n 2) phng trong E
3
a. nh ngha
Cho php di hnh f: E
n
E
n
c gi l php quay quanh (n 2) - phng
nu: M(P) th f(M) = M (P)
b. Tnh cht quan trng.
Mi php quay quanh m 2 phng u c th xem l tch ca 2 php i
xng qua 2 siu phng ( c th chn bng nhiu cch )
Ngc li ca 2 php i xng qua 2 siu phng ct nhau theo (n 2) phng
u l 1 php quay quanh .
c. Biu thc ta ca php quay quanh (n 2) phng .
Trong E
n
cho (n 2) phng .
Chn mc tiu trc chun {E
0
, E
1
, E
2
,,E
n
} sao cho:
0 1 2
2
, ,...,
,
n
n n
E E E
E E


'

=>f(E
i
)=i i=0,,n-2
Gi s E
j
= f(E
j
) j= n,, n 1 ta c:
'
( ) (0, 0,...,1, 0,...) 1, 2
1
f OE OE i n
i



'
( ) (0,...0, , )
1 1 1 1
f OE OE a b
n n




'
( ) (0,...0, , )
2 2
f OE OE a b
n n



=>Ma trn trc chun A
L lun tng t trong E
3
ta cng rt c l: (0;2) sao cho:
1 1
2 2
os sin

sin os
a c b
v
a b c



' '


=> Ma trn A=>phng trnh l x=A
T
x
Khi c gi l gc quay: + =0=> f l php ng nht.
+ = l php i xng qua
*Ti liu :
1,Tuyn chn 400 bi ton 11 ( PGSTS u Th Cp)
2,Cc php bin hnh trong mt phng (Nguyn Mng Hy)
3,Cc PP gii ton s cp HH10 (Phan Huy Hi)
4,Hnh hc s cp (Bolya)