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1.2.3.3.1.
, , , Schrdinger,

.
:
15 1:
. n (principal quantum number)
n
Bohr.
1, 2, 3, 4,.............,
. n,
, .

(7) n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7.
,
. n =

, .
. l (Subshell quantum number)
l
()
n
. l
,
n 0, 1, 2, 3,......., (n-1). ,

n.
s, p, d and f
0, 1, 2, 3.

.

3.
. ml (Orbital quantum number)
,

( ),
.
ml l +l.
, s (l=0) , p
(l=1), d (l=2) f (l=3).
, spin,
.
. spin ms (Orbital quantum number)

.

(spin). ,
,
.
, 1.11 ,
spin ms 21 21+
.
16 1:
spin ms
.
, ,
.

1.11. .

1.2.3.3.2.


,
. , 2p
p ().
,
1.1.

1.1.

n
1
2
1
3
1
2
4
1
2
3

l
0

ml
0

0
-1,0,+1
0
-1,0,+1
-2,1,0,+1,+2
0
-1,0,+1
-2,1,0,+1,+2
-3,2,1,0,+1,+2,+3

0
p
0

s
3
s
p

d
0

5
s
p
d

2x1=2
2
1
2x1=2
2x3=6
8
1
2x1=2
3
2x3=6
2x5=10
18
1
2x1=2
3
2x3=6
5
2x5=10
2x7=14
32

,

.
1.12.
, 90%, .
s
. s ,
, n.
, s ()
,
17 1:

1.12. .

18 1:
n1 p
. p
x, y, z
. ,
p px, py, pz.
p
.
n3 d ,
.

. ,
, x, y
.
,
4522yxd x, y, z
. ,
1.12. , d , ,
z
by
. yzxzxyd,d,d2zd
f
. 1.13,
f .

1.13. f .

1.2.3.3.3.


:
1 Pauli