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2.2.

:
.) (electron loosing),
.) (electron gaining),
.) (electron sharing).
:
.) ,

,
.) ,

,
.)
.
,


.
.) (Ionic bond),



.
.) (Covalent bond),



.
.) (Metallic bond),

( )

.
2:

44
2.2.1. (Ionic bond)
,

.


.
2.2.1.1.
(NaCl).

1s22s22p63s1,

,

.

,

, .

( 1.2) (Ne),

1s22s22p6.

,
,
. ,
3s ,
+1
Na+.
.

,

11 ,
, ,
, 10 .
1s22s22p63s23p5.
T

,
.
( 1.2) (Ar)
1s22s22p63s23p6. ,
,
,
Cl-
1 .

.
,


,
Na+ Cl-.


,

. ,

,

.



. , NaCl

( )

( ),

,
2.11.


,

,

.
2:

45

2.11. .



(Coordination Number).
,
Na+/Cl- 1:1,

.

1:1,

.


, ,
.


,
2.12.
2.12. .

2.2.1.2.

,

.



2:

46
(Bond density distribution),


. 2.13

LiF,


(Li) (F).


,
.
2.13.
LiF.
2.13

Li F
Li F.
Li 1s22s1 2s



. 2.13

Li

(-0,002au),

2s Li F.
,




(+0,002 au),

Li F.

Li.

1s (

Li)

.

F
,

.




Li F ,
.
F


,

. ,
2:

47
Li


,
.
,




,
.

,


,

,
.
2.2.2. (covalent bond)

.


.

.
2.2.2.1. Lewis
Lewis

.



. , (
)
,
.
,
,
.
,


.

(Octet Rule) Lewis
.


(Cl2).
1s22s22p63s23p5,
. ,

,

,
.

Cl + Cl Cl Cl

1s22s22p2,

. ,


,
CCl4,
u960 .
2:

48

C + 4 Cl C Cl

Cl
Cl
Cl



.

, .

.

1s22s22p4,
.
, 2 ,


,
.

O +O O O

.
1s22s22p3,

. ,

2

, .

N +N N N


.
:
o e
,

1s
.
o 3 ,4 ,5 ,6 7

.

d

.


.

SF6 PCl5 ICl3 XeF4




12
10
10
12
o () (Be)



2:

49

, ______
.
BeCl2 BF3 BCl3 SnCl2


4
6
6
6
o

, .
2 Cl2


11
17
19


.
,

. ,


,

.
.



.

(H2O),



,
2.14.
,



.

.

(coordinative covalent bond
or dative bond).
,
.
u951 ,

, .
,
,

.

.

.

(
&4.3.5)

, .

,
,

. ,

, ,

, :
2:

- . ,
, p

- .
,
-,

.
,


.
p
,
,

.

.
2.2.3.

,

.

:

,
,
,
,
,

(cubic close-packed),
(hexagonal closepacked)
(cubic body-centered) .
( )
.


( )

( ). ,



. ,
,


( )
( )



.
u964

.
2.2.3.1.
1900, Drude,
,


,

. 1923 Lorentz,


,

.
, ,


,
2.56.
(Free
electron theory).
2:

83

2.56.







.
, ,

.


,
2.57.
2.57.

.

2.2.3.2.

,

. ,
(Li)

.
1s22s12po,

2s . u956 Li2,
,
, 1s2, *1s2, 2s2,
2.58.
2s2 ,
*2s
.
2:

84

Li3. 2s

,
,

- , 2.58.

-
.
2s

- Li3
,
.

.




.
,



,
2.58.
2.58.
.

,

,
(continuum)
(band),
2.58.
2:

85

.) 2s
,
.)

,
.)
.)


( )

( ) ( 2.59).
,
Li

.
2.59. Li.



,
.


.
,

,


. ,

,
,
.
(..
),

.
Li ,

(

) ,


.
, 1s22s2,

2s2 .

, ,
2 ,

.
2s
,
2.60. , ,

2s ,
;
2:

86

2s
2p ,
2p
,
2.60.
2s 2p
160kJ/mol,
, 2s
2p
,

2.60. ,
2p
2s
,
. ,

(2s
) (2p
),
.


.
2.60. Be.