\


.

\

+
+
=
+
+
Rather than memorize this entire formula, its best just to remember the first step and then
multiply out the numerator and the denominator as usual.
Examples: Express the following in the form bi a + .
1.
i
i
+
2
8
2.
i
i
2
5 6 +
SQUARE ROOTS OF NEGATIVE NUMBERS
If r is negative, then the principal square root of r is
r i r =
The two square roots of r are r i and r i .
We usually write b i instead of i b to avoid confusion with bi .
Examples:
1. = 1 2. = 16 3. = 3
Special care must be taken when performing calculations involving square roots of negative
numbers. Although ab b a = when a and b are positive, this is not true when both are
negative. For example,
6 6 3 2 3 2
2
= = = i i i
but ( )( ) 6 3 2 =
so ( )( ) 3 2 3 2 =
When multiplying radicals of negative numbers, express them first in the form r i (where 0 > r )
to avoid possible errors of this type.
Example
Evaluate
9 2
36
and express in the form bi a +
Practice (Write all answers in the form bi a + .)
1. Evaluate
i
i
+
4
12 3
2. Write the multiplicative inverse of i 4 2+ in the form bi a + .
3. Evaluate
2 1
8 2
+
+