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TRNG I HC NNG NGHIP H NI TRUNG TM GIO DC TH CHT V TH THAO

BI GING NI DUNG L THUYT CHUYN NGNH GIO DC TH CHT

Ngi bin son: ThS. NGUYN XUN C

H NI - 2012

MC LC
MC LC..................................................................................................................................................i BI 1 : GIO DC TH CHT TRONG TRNG HC....................................................................1

I. Mt s khi nim v GDTC....................................................................................1 1. Gio dc th cht (GDTC).....................................................................................1 2. Pht trin th cht .................................................................................................2 3. Hon thin th cht.................................................................................................2 4. Hc vn th cht.....................................................................................................2 5. Vn ho th cht v Th thao.................................................................................2 II. V tr ca sc kho.................................................................................................4 1. Khi nim v sc kho...........................................................................................4 2. V tr ca sc kho.................................................................................................5 III. GDTC trong nh trng i hc...........................................................................6 IV. Nhim v v yu cu hc tp GDTC trong nh trng i hc...........................8 1. Nhim v................................................................................................................8 2. Yu cu..................................................................................................................9 V. Cc hnh thc GDTC.............................................................................................9
BI 2: TC DNG CA TP LUYN TH DC TH THAO.........................................................10 VI SC KHO C TH.....................................................................................................................10

I. Thc tin qu trnh sinh trng pht dc nng cao trnh chc nng c th......10 1. S nh hng ca tp luyn th dc th thao i vi h vn ng.......................10 2. S nh hng ca tp luyn th dc th thao i vi h thng h hp.................13 3. S nh hng ca tp luyn th dc th thao i vi chc nng ca h tun hon16 4. S nh hng ca tp luyn th dc th thao i vi h tiu ho.........................18 5. nh hng ca th dc th thao i vi h thng thn kinh................................19 II. Thc tin pht trin nng lc ca no, nng cao hiu xut hc tp, cng tc.......21 1. Rn luyn thn th nng cao nng lc hot ng tr lc.......................................21 2. Tp luyn th dc th thao nng cao hiu qu cng tc v hc tp......................22
BI 3: CC QUY LUT KHOA HC TRONG TP LUYN TH THAO.......................................23

I. Xp sp khi lng vn ng hp l....................................................................23 II. Sp xp hp l cng vn ng......................................................................24 III. Sp xp hp l thi gian vn ng.....................................................................25
BI 4: CC NGUYN TC TP LUYN TH DC TH THAO....................................................27

I. Hiu r v bn thn thc s cu th.......................................................................27 II. Xy dng nim tin, ch tin th........................................................................28 III. Tp luyn ton din, ch trng hiu qu thc t.................................................28 IV. Kin tr thng xuyn tp luyn.........................................................................29 V. K hoch hp l, tun t, tng dn......................................................................29 VI. Tun theo quy lut t bo v sc kho...............................................................30
BI 5: NHNG CH TRONG TP LUYN TH DC TH THAO............................................31

I. Lm tt cng tc chun b v thn th v tm l...................................................31 II. Ch trang phc tp luyn..................................................................................31


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III. Chun b dng c tp luyn................................................................................31 IV. Lm quen vi dng c sn bi............................................................................31 V. Tnh hnh thi tit, kh hu..................................................................................32 VI. Khi ng..........................................................................................................32 VII. Cc vn trong vn ng...............................................................................32 VIII. Th lng..........................................................................................................33 IX. Tm sau vn ng..............................................................................................33
BI 6: K HOCH TP LUYN TH DC TH THAO.................................................................35 BI 7: GIO DC CC T CHT TH LC....................................................................................37

I. Cc phng php gio dc sc mnh....................................................................37 II. Cc phng php gio dc sc nhanh.................................................................39 III. Cc phng php gio dc sc bn....................................................................40
BI 8 : CHN THNG TRONG TH THAO V V SINH TP LUYN TDTT.........................43

I. Chn thng trong th thao...................................................................................43 1. Khi nim............................................................................................................. 43 2. Nguyn nhn ca cc chn thng v nguyn tc phng................................43 2.1. Nguyn nhn ca chn thng th thao.............................................................43 2.2. Nguyn tc phng chn thng....................................................................45 3. Cp cu chn thng th thao..............................................................................47 II. V sinh tp luyn th dc th thao.......................................................................49 1. V sinh v nhim v ca v sinh tp luyn..........................................................49 2. V sinh c nhn....................................................................................................50 III. CC YU CU V V SINH I VI A IM V DNG C TP LUYN TH DC TH THAO............................................................................................55 IV. CC BIN PHP V SINH B TR NHM PHC HI V NNG CAO SC KHE V KH NNG LM VIC......................................................................56

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BI 1 : GIO DC TH CHT TRONG TRNG HC I. Mt s khi nim v GDTC. 1. Gio dc th cht (GDTC) GDTC l mt b phn ca gio dc ni chung, cng nh cc ngnh gio dc khc, GDTC bao gm nhng nhim v gio dc, gio dng thng qua qu trnh s phm hoc thc hin di hnh thc t hc. Trong GDTC c hai b phn c th c bn l ging dy cc ng tc (cc hnh vi vn ng) v gio dc cc t cht th lc (cc nng lc th cht). Ni cch khc c im GDTC l ging dy k thut ng tc v bi dng th lc cho ngi hc. Phng tin c bn ca GDTC l cc bi tp GDTC. Thng qua cc bi tp, ngi tp tip thu c cc k nng, k xo vn ng v cc kin thc c lin quan vi chng cn thit cho cuc sng nh: Chy, nhy, nm, bn, v... phc v cho cc mn th dc, th thao, phc v cuc sng lao ng v bo v t quc. ng thi thng qua lng vn ng ca cc bi tp m kch thch v iu chnh s pht trin cc c tnh t nhin ca c th: Sc nhanh, sc mnh, sc bn... Nh cc bi tp GDTC ta c th thay i c hnh thi chc nng ca cc b phn c th, to ra nhng bin i thch nghi ngy cng tng ln ca c th nh: Hon thin cc chc nng iu chnh ca h thn kinh, lm tng trng c bp, tng thm kh nng chc phn ca h tim mch v h h hp. Ging dy ng tc v gio dc cc t cht th lc l hai mt khc nhau ca qu trnh GDTC. Chng c quy lut vn ng ring nhng n c lin quan cht ch, b sung cho nhau (th lc tt gip cho vic thc hin bi tp k thut c d dng, ngc li k thut tt, gip cho vic thc hin bi tp th lc c hiu qu, thnh tch cao hn). Thc hin trong qu trnh GDTC, ni dung ging dy ng tc v gio dc cc t cht th lc thng c tin hnh song song trong tng bi tp. trong vic phn u t thnh tch th thao cao th th lc v k thut l hai yu t rt quan trng v cn thit. C th ni th lc l nn tng, cn k thut l phng tin t c thnh tch vn ng cao trong hot ng GDTC.

2. Pht trin th cht L qu trnh bin i v hnh thnh cc tnh cht t nhin v hnh thi chc nng c th trong i sng t nhin v x hi. Pht trin th cht ca mi ngi ph thuc vo nhng c im sinh hc, iu kin sng gio dc t nhin. Cc ch s nh gi trnh pht trin th cht l: Chiu cao, cn nng, lng ngc, dung tch phi... v ng thi l mc pht trin cc t cht th lc v kh nng chc phn c th con ngi. 3. Hon thin th cht L mc quy nh theo thi gian v pht trin th lc, sc kho, s pht trin ton din nng lc th cht ca tng c th ( y bao gm c t cht th lc ln k nng vn ng) ph hp vi nhng yu cu hot ng ca con ngi trong nhng iu kin c th ca lao ng sn xut, quc phng, i sng x hi nhm m bo nng xut lao ng v ko di tui th. Thi gian y c th l mt giai on ngn nh: Tng bui tp, c th l di nh mt nm, hai nm... trong nh trng c th l mt hc k, mt nm hc, hay mt kho hc. Hon thin th cht, hon thin tri thc, hon thin nhn cch l nhng vn rt rng ln, khng c gii hn cui cng, m con ngi phi phn u sut i khng ngng vn ti nhng mc tiu pht trin cao hn. 4. Hc vn th cht Bao gm nhng hiu bit chung, nhng kin thc ca nhng ngnh hc c lin quan vi mn hc GDTC. Trong GDTC L lun v phng php GDTC l ti liu quan trng nht, n nghin cu ton din cc quy lut hot ng ca GDTC, n cung cp nhng kin thc, cc phng tin v phng php c hiu qu thc hnh GDTC, thc hin vic rn luyn pht trin cc t cht th lc, k nng, k xo vn ng, nng cao thnh tch th thao v nhn cch con ngi. L lun v phng php GDTC l s tng hp v ng thi pht trin ca mt s ngnh khoa hc khc nh: Trit hc, gio dc hc, tm l hc, x hi hc, sinh l hc, ton, vt l, c hc, ho sinh hc v y hc... 5. Vn ho th cht v Th thao L mt b phn ca vn ho ni chung, l mt loi hnh hot ng c bit, nhm hon thnh cc t cht th lc, nng khiu, tng cng sc kho v

kh nng lm vic. Cc yu t ca hot ng ny l cc bi tp pht trin th lc c lin quan cht ch vi qu trnh hnh thnh v pht trin nn vn ho, gio dc chung ca loi ngi. GDTC l b phn cu trc nn vn ho th cht. Vn ho th cht l tng hp gi tr vt cht v tinh thn ca x hi loi ngi. S pht trin rng khp ph bin hin nay ca cc mn th thao khc nhau; ngh thut, dng c, cc tr chi vn ng, xut hin a dng v phong ph, cc bi tp th cht lm giu ngha ca gi tr vn ho chung ca nhn loi thng qua cc hnh thc cu trc mi ca nn vn ho th cht. Vn ho th cht l mt b phn hu c ca nn vn ho x hi, c ni dung cu trc c bit qua vic s dng hp l s vn ng nh mt phng tin hiu qu chun b th lc nhm p ng yu cu thc t cuc sng. iu ho v pht trin tnh trng sc kho ca con ngi bao gm; cc hnh thc vn ng c mc ch, s tng hp cc thnh tu khoa hc x hi, t nhin trong vic hnh thnh h thng nhng phng tin, phng php v iu kin nhm pht trin kh nng hot ng ca cc th h trong x hi nhn o chn chnh. Vn ho th cht l mt trong nhng phng tin hiu qu pht trin ton din v hi ho nhn cch, l yu t x hi nhm tin ti hon thin th cht con ngi. So vi GDTC, khi nim v vn ho th cht rng v tng hp hn. Th thao l dng hot ng ca vn ho th cht mang tnh c bit, l hot ng vn ho x hi, l phng tin v phng php hiu qu cng c sc kho v hon thin th cht, chun b cho con ngi lao ng v hot ng x hi, pht trin phm cht, ch , o c v gio dc thm m, m rng quan h quc t, cng c ho bnh v hu ngh gia cc dn tc, cc quc gia. c im ca th thao l loi hot ng thi u, l s dng cc phng tin hiu qu, gp phn hnh thnh v hon thin nhng nng lc th cht tinh thn nht nh ca con ngi. Trong x hi, th thao c coi nh mt yu t c ngha gio dc ln lao. Th thao c phn ra: Th thao thnh tch cao v th thao qun chng. Th thao thnh tch cao l vic sp xp mt cch c h thng cc bi tp, chu k hun luyn, phng tin hng dn v cc cuc thi u vi mc tiu nhm gii quyt nhim v nng cao ti a thnh tch th thao theo hng tch cc v m rng phm vi s lng ngi tp, gm nhng bi tp th cht di cc hnh thc a dng (th dc th hnh, in kinh nh, bi, du lch, cc bi tp theo tiu chun rn luyn thn th...). Vi mc ch ngh ngi tch cc, loi tr s cng thng

thn kinh, cng c sc kho, nng cao kh nng lm vic v thc y c s hon thin th cht trn c s tiu chun rn luyn thn th (RLTT) v ng cp vn ng vin. II. V tr ca sc kho 1. Khi nim v sc kho Sc kho l g? Th no l ngi c sc kho? Hin nay cn nhiu quan nim, nhiu cch hiu khc nhau. C kin ch trng v mt c bp c kin ch trng v mt sinh hot ca c quan ni tng. C kin li cho rng: n kho, ng kho, thn th to ln l kho mnh. Song thc t c ngi tm vc to ln, to bo m ang lm bnh, cng c ngi n kho, ng kho, cao ln li lm vic khng c lu, chng mt mi... Theo N vicp nh sinh l hc ngi Nga th ngi c sc kho l: Ngi c trng thi sinh vt hc bnh thng, m bo cho c th c th tin hnh lao ng, hc tp v hot ng x hi khc nhau trong nhng iu kin nht nh. Hay ni mt cch khc nh t chc y t (Sc kho) th gii OMS nhn mnh n khi nim v sc kho v a ra mt nh ngha hon chnh: Sc kho l mt trng thi tho mi, y v th cht, tinh thn v x hi, sc kho khng ch b hp vo ngha l khng c bnh hay thng tt. Nh vy mt con ngi kho mnh phi c nhng iu kin sau y: - C th pht trin lnh mnh, tc l cc h thng chc nng nh h thn kinh, tun hon, h hp, vn ng... u lnh mnh, khng c bnh tt v hot ng bnh thng. - C th pht trin cn i v nhp nhng theo tng la tui. Cc ch s sinh l pht trin bnh thng nh: Chiu cao, cn nng, s o vng ngc, c bp chn tay ti thiu phi t mc trung bnh ca ngi Vit Nam. - Phi c th lc ton din, pht trin ng u, cn i t cht ca c th. Chng ta u bit trong mi con ngi u c cc t cht nh: Sc nhanh, sc mnh, sc bn, tc v s kho lo. Nhng do hon cnh sng, do s pht trin ca mi con ngi khc nhau m cc t cht trn pht trin khng ging nhau. C ngi c sc mnh, nhng sc bn li khng c; C ngi c tc nhng sc mnh li khng c... Do vy mun cho cc t cht trn pht trin mt cch ng u mi con ngi th phi rn luyn. y mt con ngi kho mnh, ngi ta mun cp n s pht trin cn i v ton din ny. - Thn kinh hot ng bnh thng, lun lun c cm hng hng phn

trong cuc sng lao ng v hc tp. 2. V tr ca sc kho C th con ngi l mt khi thng nht, mt t chc ht sc tinh vi, hot ng theo mt quy lut sinh vt hc nht nh. Cuc sng ca con ngi c th tn ti v lao ng trong mt thi gian tng i di, c th ti 100 nm. Song ch ch c mt phn nh nhn loi sng c vi thi gian trn. a s mt sc lao ng hoc cht la tui tr hn. Khoa hc cho thy, con ngi suy yu v cht khng ngoi cc nguyn nhn sau: - Bnh tt - Tai nn - Qu trnh pht trin t nhin ca c th. Nn loi tr nguyn nhn do chin tranh v cc tai nn do thin nhin (bo lt, ng t..) th ta hy xem ti sao ngi ta khng t c kh nng sng hn 100 nm. Cn xem xt vn ny trn hai mt sinh vt v x hi. V mt sinh vt hc ngi ta c kh nng sng 120 150 tui, nhng ngi ta cht non khng t c kh nng ni trn l do ngi ta sinh sng trong mt x hi khng tt, thiu n, thiu mc, thiu nhng kin thc v phng tin cn thit bo v sc kho, phng nga bnh tt. thi i ng thu xa, tui th trung bnh ca con ngi ch t 16 18 tui. n th k th 16 Chu u, tui th trung bnh l 20 tui. th k th 18 l 26 tui v n nm 1900 l 32 tui. n nm 2000 tui th trung bnh ca nhiu nc vt qua con s 75. Tui th trung bnh ca ngi ta tng ln r rt khi iu kin sng, lm vic v ngh ngi c ci thin. Nga nm 1897, tui th trung bnh l 32. Sau cch mng thng mi, tui th trung bnh Lin X trc y tng ln: nm 1926 l 44: nm 1963 ln ti 70 v nm 1972 t mc 75. Ngy nay do khoa hc k thut pht trin rt mnh m, con ngi ngn chn c nhiu nguyn nhn tai nn v tp trung nghin cu chng cc bnh tt, y li s gi nua, tng thm s hot ng cho c th. ng gp cho cc bin php GDTC c mt vai tr rt quan trng. N c nh hng rt ln ti vic tng cng th cht, tng sc khng i vi mi trng, vi bnh tt v gp phn y li qu trnh lo ho ca c th. Nh vy nhn loi rt quan tm n sc kho, c s vt cht v cng qu gi ca x hi.

Nm 1978 mt hi ngh th gii gm 150 nc hp ti ALma Ata( Lin X c) di s bo tr ca t chc Y t th gii OMS v qu nhi ng Lin Hip Quc UNICEF bn v vic tng cng chm sc sc kho cho nhn dn cc nc. Hi ngh thng qua mt bn tuyn ngn quan trng: Tuyn ngn ALma Ata vi khu hiu: Sc kho cho mi ngi n nm 2000. Tuyn ngn ALma Ata tot ln t tng ch o ln ca thi i trong lnh vc bo v sc kho l; - Mun xy dng kinh t, y mnh sn xut, y li ngho kh, xy dng hnh phc cho mi ngi, mt yu t quan trng l sc kho, ngha l con ngi. - Sc kho l quyn li c bn ca con ngi, vic t ti mt tnh trng sc kho cao nht l mt mc tiu quan trng i hi s tham gia ca nhiu lnh vc x hi v kinh t. Mt trong nhng mc tiu x hi quan trng ca cc chnh ph, cng ng th gii trong sut mt thp k ti l: T nay n nm 2000 phi em li cho mi ngi mt tnh trng sc kho cho php h sng mt cuc sng hu ch v mt kinh t v x hi. Cng vi cng ng th gii. ng v nh nc ta rt quan tm n vic bo v v pht trin sc kho cho nhn dn. Ngay t khi nc ta mi ginh c c lp, Bc H ra li ku gi ton dn tp th dc. Trong ngi dy: ... Mi mt ngi dn yu t, tc l lm cho c nc yu t mt phn. Mi mt ngi dn mnh kho tc l gp phn cho c nc mnh kho.... xy dng con ngi mi, con ngi pht trin ton din, kt hp nhun nhuyn gia s phong ph v tinh thn, s lnh mnh v o c v s hon thin v th cht. l ngun hnh phc ln lao ca mi con ngi, ng thi c ngha chin lc ca c mt dn tc. III. GDTC trong nh trng i hc Nh ca chng ta l nh trng i hc XHCN. M ta bit GDTC cng l mt hot ng x hi. N ra i cng vi s ra i ca x hi loi ngi v n cng c tnh giai cp ca n. - Trong x hi c nh ch : N l, phong kin, GDTC nhm mc ch o to ra nhng chin binh bo v quyn li cho giai cp thng tri, phc v cho s xm lc v bnh trng lnh a ca bn vua cha v ch n.

- Trong nh trng di ch t bn, GDTC c pht trin v c t chc cht ch, sn bi c trang b hin i. Song trong cc nh trng i hc TBCN ch con nh giu c, mi c iu kin hc tp, cn i a s con em nhn dn lao ng cha c iu kin bc ti trng. - Trong ch XHCN ca chng ta, ngay t ngy ginh c chnh quyn ng v nh nc ta coi con ngi l vn qu nht ca x hi. Bo v v bi dng sc kho, gio dc v pht trin th cht cho con ngi l mc tiu phn u ca ton ng v ton dn ta. V vy trong tt c cc ngh quyt ca ng t trc n nay xuyn sut v nht qun v cch t vn gio dc lp ngi mi ca t nc xy dng bo v t quc. l: Con ngi Vit nam l con ngi pht trin ton din, c cuc sng tp th v cuc sng c nhn hi ho, phong ph.... Nh vy con ngi Vit Nam l con ngi c pht trin mt cch ton din v y . Mc tiu pht trin nhn cch ca con ngi Vit Nam c ngh quyt ln th 4 kho VII ca BCHTW ng Cng Sn Vit Nam nu r: Mt con ngi pht trin cao v tr tu, cng trng v th cht, phong ph v tinh thn, trong sng v o c, c kh nng v lao ng, c tnh tch cc chnh tr - x hi. C s l lun khoa hc bin chng cho chng ta thy rng: Vt cht l ngun gc ca s sng. C th l c s ca tm hn, tr tu gia vt cht v tinh thn c mi lin h bin chng hai chiu rt cht ch. C th cng trng nui dng mt tinh thn p , lnh mnh. Ngc li tinh thn p , lnh mnh lm cho c th c iu kin t bo v v pht trin. Nguyn c th tng Phm Vn ng dy: ... Mun c sc kho phi lm vic, trong c vic cc k quan trng l phi c th dc, phi c th thao.... Nh vy mc tiu cn phi t c ca ngi cn b khoa hc k thut trong cc trng i hc ca chng ta l: - Pht trin cao v tr tu - Cng trng v th cht - Trong sch v o c, phong ph v tinh thn c kh nng lao ng v c tnh tch cc chnh tr - x hi. Nhng mt trn l mt tng th hu c trong con ngi cn b KHKT mi ca t nc. V vy mc ch ca GDTC trong cc trng i hc l gp phn thc hin mc tiu o to i ng cn b KHKT, qun l kinh t v vn ho x hi, pht trin hi ho, c th cht cng trng, p ng yu cu chuyn

mn, ngh nghip v c kh nng tip cn vi thc tin lao ng, sn xut ca nn kinh t th trng. GDTC trong nh trng l qu trnh hot ng thng nht v ng thi gia hai mt: Ging dy, hc tp v rn luyn. Ging dy l thng qua gio vin truyn th nhng kin thc k thut, phng php vn ng c bn cn thit ngi hc sinh c kh nng t vn ng, t rn luyn. Hc tp rn luyn l qu trnh mi hc sinh t ch ng, tch cc vn ng nhng kin thc hc, tip thu c rn luyn, bin qu trnh o to ca nh trng thnh qu trnh t rn luyn mt cch sng to c hiu qu. GDTC c tnh c th r rt, n c tnh c lp ring, song n li gn b hu c vi cc mt hot ng, rn luyn, gio dc nhng con ngi pht trin ton din. Mc v cc lnh t khc ca giai cp v sn th gii nh gi rt cao vic GDTC, t GDTC ngang hng vi cc mt gio dc khc. Coi l b phn khng th thiu c trong ton b cng tc gio dc. N cn l mt iu kin sng ca con ngi. Trc y Mc tng tin on rng: Trong nn gio dc tng lai, lao ng v khoa hc s chim v tr ngang nhau. Th dc th thao, lao ng chn tay v lao ng tr c s phi h tr cho nhau. Bi v l phng php duy nht pht trin con ngi ton din v cng l bin php ng tin cy nht tng cng sc sn xut x hi... IV. Nhim v v yu cu hc tp GDTC trong nh trng i hc 1. Nhim v - m bo s pht trin lnh mnh, cn i v hnh thi v chc nng c th ca ngi hc sinh. Nng cao nng lc th cht c kh nng chng nhng nh hng c hi ca mi trng xung quanh. - Cung cp cho sinh vin nhng kin thc l lun c bn v ni dung v phng php luyn tp TDTT, k nng vn ng v k thut c bn ca mt s mn th thao thch hp. Trn c s bi dng s dng cc phng tin t rn luyn thn th, tham gia tch cc vo vic tuyn truyn v t chc cc hot ng TDTT ca nh trng v x hi. - Thng qua hc tp v rn luyn TDTT, rn luyn ngi hc sinh c o c, ch, lng dng cm, tc phong nhanh nhn, tinh thn tp th, c thm m

gp phn pht trin tr tu con ngi mi. Thng qua m xy dng nim tin, li sng tch cc, lnh mnh, tinh thn t gic hc tp v rn luyn thn th, chun b sn sng phc v sn xut v bo v t quc. 2. Yu cu - Trn c s nm vng nhng l lun v phng php rn luyn, cng nh nhng hiu bit v k thut c bn ca TDTT, ngi hc sinh phi p dng c vo trong luyn tp hng ngy. - Nng cao thc t gic trong hc tp rn luyn th lc tng bc c hon thin - Tp mt cch khoa hc, ton din v c h thng cc bi tp v GDTC, cng nh thc hin nghim tc nhng yu cu v quy nh ca gio vin hng dn. V. Cc hnh thc GDTC GDTC trong cc nh trng i hc phi c tin hnh bng cc hnh thc sau y: 1. Gi hc TDTT - Gi hc TDTT chnh kho l hnh thc c bn ca GDTC, c tin hnh trong k hoch ging dy vi thi gian 150 tit c phn ra trong 5 hc k. - Gi hc tp TDTT ngoi kho nhm cng c hon thin cc bi tp chnh kho c tin hnh vo gi t hc ca hc sinh, gio vin c th phu o nu hc sinh yu cu. 2. Bi tp th dc v sinh chng mt mi hng ngy 3. Cc hnh thc hot ng th thao qun chng; ngoi gi hc bao gm luyn tp trong cc cu lc b. Cc i i biu tng mn th thao, tham gia cc cuc thi u th thao trong v ngoi trng. 4. Gi t luyn tp ca sinh vin

BI 2: TC DNG CA TP LUYN TH DC TH THAO VI SC KHO C TH I. Thc tin qu trnh sinh trng pht dc nng cao trnh chc nng c th Th cht tt l iu kin m bo cho sc kho tt. Rn luyn th thao c th thc tin qu trnh trao i cht cc c quan, t chc trong c th, t hon thin nng cao chc nng cc b phn, c quan trong c th. Th cht c biu hin nhiu phng din, n bao gm tnh trng pht dc ca cc c quan b phn trong c th, trnh v nng lc hot ng c bn v cc t cht c th, nng lc thch nghi vi hon cnh mi trng bn ngoi y, chng ta nhn t gc s nh hng ca th dc th thao i vi chc nng ca h vn ng, h thng h hp, h thng tun hon v h thng thn kinh bn v tp luyn th dc th thao tng cng th cht nh th no? 1. S nh hng ca tp luyn th dc th thao i vi h vn ng Cc hot ng thng thng ca con ngi u l da vo h vn ng. Thng xuyn tp luyn th dc th c th tng cng c cc cht ca xng, tng cng sc mnh c bp, tng cng tnh n nh v bin hot ng ca cc khp, t m nng lc hot ng ca c th c nng ln, xng v khp c cu to thnh. Xng trong c th l mt kt cu kin c, n bao gm hn 200 chic xng, nhng chic xng cu to thnh mt chic khung gi c tc dng bo v cho cc c quan b phn bn trong ca c th nh no, tim, phi Xng cn c mt chc nng khc na l to mu cho c th. Do vy, s sinh trng v trng thnh ca xng khng ch c tc dng quan trng i vi hnh thi c th m cn c s nh hng quan trng i vi nng lc vn ng v lao ng ca con ngi. Rn luyn thn th c th ci bin kt cu ca xng, thng xuyn tp luyn th dc th thao c th tng cng cc cht trong xng. Tp luyn th dc th thao lm cho c bp c tc dng li ko v p lc i vi xng l cho xng khng ch bin ho v phng din hnh thc m cn lm cho tnh c gii ca xng c nng ln. S bin i th hin r rt nht trn phng din hnh thi ca xng l: C bp bm ngoi xng tng ln nhiu, cht lin kt

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cc lp ngoi ca xng cng t c tng ln, s sp xp ca cc cht mm (xp) bn lp trong ca xng cng cn c vo p lc v lc ko ca c m thch nghi. y chnh l s tng ln v s kin c ca xng, t c th chu ng c ph ti ln, nng cao nng lc chng chu p lc, trng lng ln, s ko di v xoay chuynca xng. V d: Vn ng vin th dc thc hin ng tc ko tay x n. Khi thc hin ng tc ny, hai tay ca vn ng vin lun phi chu trng lc ca c th v lc ko tay ca c bp. Nu thng xuyn tp luyn ng tc ny s lm cho xng ca hai tay c s thch nghi vi vic chu ng 2 lc k trn v t nng lc chu ti ca xng 2 tay c nng ln. Cng nh th, i vi cc ng vin cu lng, bn sng th tay thun s to v kho hn, cc vn ng vin nhy cao, nhy xa, xng chn s kho hn ngi thng iu ny ni r mt vn : Thng xuyn tp luyn th dc th thao th s pht trin ca xng c nng ln r rt. Thng xuyn tp luyn th dc th thao s y mnh s pht trin chiu cao ca cc em thiu nin nhi ng. Chiu cao hoc tc trng thnh c quyt nh bi tc tng trng ca thi k di xng ca cc em thiu nin nhi ng. i vi s pht trin ca xng th u mt xng l ht sc quan trng. Thng xuyn tp luyn th dc th thao s tng nhanh tc tun hon mu, t m tng c lng vt cht dinh dng m s pht trin m u mt xng i hi. Thng xuyn tp luyn th dc th thao cn c th nh hng n h thng ni phn tit l kch thch s sinh trng ca u mt xng, do vy m thc y s chuyn ho vitamin D, tng cng s cung cp cc nguyn liu to ra xng, iu ny c li cho pht trin v trng thnh ca xng. Cn c vo iu tra, khi so snh nhng ngi thng xuyn tp luyn th dc th thao v nhng ngi khng thng xuyn tp luyn cho thy chiu cao chnh lch t 4-8 cm.. Trc khi c th trng thnh, thng qua tp luyn th dc th thao c th ci thin s cung cp mu ca xng, tng cng s trao i cht, kch thch s pht trin ca xng, lm cho s ct ha c din ra lin tc. ng thi rn luyn thn th vi cc loi ng tc cng c tc dng kch thch rt tt i vi s pht trin ca xng, c th thc y phn tit kch thch t cng c tc dng thc y vic pht trin chiu cao ca cc em hc sinh la tui 10-14 gia trng TDTT chuyn nghip v trng khng chuyn.

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Ni cc xng trong c th kt ni vi nhau v cng da vo hot ng gi l khp, bao gm c dy chng v c. Dy chng c tc dng gia tng s kin c cho khp, cn c th khng nhng c th gia tng s kin c cho khp m cn c tc dng li ko lm cho khp vn ng. Khp l u mi quan trng cho s lin kt cc xng vi nhau. Tp luyn th dc th thao mt cch khoa hc, h thng va c tc dng lm tng tnh n nh ca khp, va c th tng cng s linh hot v bin ca khp. Tp luyn th dc th thao c th gia tng mt v dy ca mt khp, ng thi cng lm pht trin cc c bao quanh khp, tng cng sc mnh cho khp v dy chng bao quanh khp. Do vy, c th lm tng thm tnh n nh v kin c ca khp, tng cng cho khp lc chng li cc ph ti tc ng ln khp. V d: Trong khi biu din xic, c mt din vin cao ln pha di cn mt s din vin khc th ng ln trn anh ta thc hin mt s tit mc, nh vy cc khp ca v din vin cao ln ny phi gnh chu mt p lc ln tng ng vi tng trng lng ca s din vin kia. Khi tng cng tnh n nh v kin c ca khp, do v khp, dy chng v c bao quanh khp c tng cng v tnh n hi v tnh co dui th bin v tnh linh hot ca khp cng khng ngng c tng cng. Trong biu din mn th dc t do, cc khp ca VV hot ng vi bin rt ln v nh lm ng tc un cu vng hay xoc ngang, nu nh khng thng xuyn tp luyn s khng th thc hin c. Bt k vn ng no ca con ngi u biu hin bi hot ng ca c bp, do vy s pht trin ca c bp l ht sc quan trng i vi vic nng cao nng lc lao ng v vn ng. Rn luyn thn th s ci bin c bp mt cch r rt, lm cho s lng si c tng ln t m th tch bp c tng ln. ngi bnh thng th trng lng c bp chim 35- 45% trng lng c th, nhng thng qua tp luyn th dc th thao c th tng ln n 50%. trung hc v tiu hc c rt nhiu em chn, tay, ngc khng thy c bp, ch cn thng xuyn tp luyn th dc th thao th hin tng ny s gim i, thay vo l mt c th kho mnh v p. Khi tp luyn, c bp v xng c tng cng hot ng, s cung cp mu c tng ln, Prtin v dinh dng c tng cng, nng lc d tr ca c cng tng ln, s lng si c tng ln, v vy m bp c to dn ln, sc mnh ca c bp cng theo m tng ln. Do cc t bo c c tng cng, nng

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lc kt hp vi xy tng ln, kh nng d tr cc cht dinh dng v ng tng ln, s lng mao mch trong c bp tng ln nhiuiu ny thch ng vi cc yu cu ca lao ng v hot ng. Thng qua tp luyn th dc th thao cn c th nng cao nng lc khng ch c h thng thn kinh i vi h thng c bp, iu ny th hin bi tc phn ng, chun xc v tnh nhp iu u c nng ln. Khi c bp lm vic, s tiu hao nng lng c gim xung nhng hiu qu vn c nng ln. Nhng iu ny lm cho sc mnh, tc , sc bn v tnh linh hotu tt hn nhiu so vi ngi bnh thng. Ngoi ra vn cn gip cho c th phng trnh c cc loi chn thng do s hot ng kch lit ca c bp trong qu trnh tp luyn hay trong hot ng i sng hng ngy. 2. S nh hng ca tp luyn th dc th thao i vi h thng h hp Chc nng ca h thng h hp mnh hay yu ph thuc bi nng lc CO2 ca c th, khi tp luyn th dc th thao c th i hi nhiu hn v Oxy, chnh v vy m tn s h hp tng ln. p ng nhu cu trn, cc c quan ca h thng h hp bt buc phi ci thin nng lc lm vic ca bn thn. Do vy, tin hnh tp luyn th dc th thao trong thi gian di c th nng cao nng lc hp th Oxy, t nng cao c chc nng ca cc c quan trong h thng h hp, ci thin c nng h thng h hp. Qu trnh hot ng sng ca con ngi l mt qu trnh tiu hao nng lng, nng lng c ly t ngun d tr cc cht trong c th. Nhng vt cht d tr ny khi c em ra bin i thnh nng lng i hi phi c mt qu trnh Oxy ho, do vy, c th bt buc phi khng ngng s dng Oxy t mi trng bn ngoi v th ra CO2. Qu trnh trao i ny gi l qu trnh h hp. H thng h hp bao gm phi, kh qun, mi.. trong phi l ni trao i kh, cn li u l ng h hp. C th khi trong trng thi yn tnh mi pht i hi 0,25- 0,3 ml kh, nh vy ch cn 1/20 s ph nang trong phi hot ng l c th p ng. Nu c nh vy trong thi gian di th nhng ph nang khng c s dng s b thoi ho i, t chc nng ca h thng h hp s gim i mnh m v rt d mc bnh. Bng: S khc bit v chc nng h hp gia ngi thng v ngi thng xuyn lp luyn th dc th thao Chc nng h hp c ci thin mt s mt sau:

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1. C h hp c pht trin dn, c lc, c sc bn, c th chu ng vi lng vn ng ln. C h hp ch yu l c honh cch, c gian sn, ngoi ra cn c thm c bng, khi ht th su cc nhm c ngc lng cng c tc dng ph tr. Tp luyn th dc th thao thng xuyn s tng cng c h hp do vy m chu vi lng ngc tng ln nhiu. S trng thnh ca c h hp lm cho bin ca ng tc h hp ln ln, h hp ngi bnh thng khi ht vo ht sc v th ra ht sc s chnh lch v chu vi lng ngc khng nhiu (gi l h hp km) ch c 5-8 cm, ngi thng xuyn tp luyn th dc th thao s khc bit ny l c th ln ti 9-16 cm. V vy tin hnh tp luyn th dc th thao thng xuyn l c li cho vic nng cao chc nng ca h thng h hp. 2. Dung tch sng tng ln, tng cng hp th xy v thi CO2. Dung tch sng l mt ch tiu quan trng nh gi trnh sc kho v s sinh trng pht dc ca thiu nin nhi ng. Thng xuyn tp luyn th dc th thao c bit l lm cc ng tc gp dui ngc c th lm cho sc mnh ca c h hp c tng cng, lng ngc to ln iu ny c li cho s sinh trng pht dc ca t chc phi, cng nh s khuych trng ca phi t lm cho dung tch sng tng ln. Ngoi ra khi tp luyn th dc th thao vi cc vn ng ht th mang tnh thng xuyn cng c th thc y s tng trng ca dung tch sng; ngi bnh thng dung tch sng ch khong 3500 ml, nhng ngi thng xuyn tp luyn th dc th thao tnh n hi ca phi tng ln r rt, sc mnh ca c h hp tng nhiu, dung tch sng ln hn ngi bnh thng khong 1000 ml. 3. Tng cng su h hp. ngi bnh thng h hp nng v nhanh, khi yn tnh tn s yn tnh khong 12-18 ln/ pht, ngi thng xuyn tp luyn th dc th thao h hp su v chm lc yn tnh tn s h hp khong 8-12 ln/ pht. Nh vy c ngha l cc c h hp c nhiu thi gian ngh ngi. S khc bit ny cn biu hin r nt hn trong khi vn ng. V d: Trong cng mt iu kin, cng mt lng vn ng (vn ng nh nhng) ngi bnh thng tn s h hp ln ti khong 32 ln/pht, mi ln h hp dung lng ch khong 300 ml, trong mt pht tng dung lng h hp

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l 300 ml 32= 9600 ml. Nhng vn ng vin tn s h hp li l 16 ln/ pht, mi ln h hp dung lng t 600 ml, tng dung lng trong 1 pht thu c l 600 ml 16= 9600 ml. T thng k trn c th thy, ngi bnh thng v vn ng vin trong cng 1 pht th dung lng h hp l tng ng. Nhng trn thc t, th s giao i xy v CO2 li khc nhau bi l mi ln h hp th c khong 150 ml khng kh c lu li trong ng h hp m khng th vo trong ph bo tin hnh giao i. Do lng kh giao i s l: ngi bnh thng: (300 ml - 150 ml) 32 = 4800 ml. vn ng vin l: (600 ml - 150 ml) 16 = 7200 ml. iu ny cho thy khi c bp lm vic th nhu cu v xy tng ln, ngi bnh thng s phi tng tn s h hp p ng nhu cu do vy khi vn ng thng th gp. Nhng vn ng vin do v c nng h hp c nng ln, h hp su. Trong cng mt iu kin nh nhau, tn s h hp cha cn tng cao th p ng nhu cu khng kh giao i do c th lm vic c trong thi gian di m khng d mc bnh. Ngoi ra, do kt qu ca tp luyn th dc th thao lu di ci thin c chc nng ca h thng h hp v cc h thng khc (h thng thn kinh, h thng tun hon) nng cao nng lc nh CO2 v hp th xy khi trao i kh, lm cho vn ng vin khi hot ng kch lit vn c th pht huy chc nng ca h h hp ( ngi bnh thng kh c th t c). Do vy m lm cho qu trnh xy ho cc vt cht nng lng cng thm hon thin. iu ny m bo cho vic cung cp y nng lng khi vn ng. Ngi bnh thng khi thc hin cc bi tp th dc th thao vic trao i xy c th t c 60% tng s kh khi h hp. Nhng sau khi tri qua tp luyn th dc th thao th nng lng trao i ny c nng ln r rt khi hot ng vn ng nhu cu xy tng ln vn c th p ng c nhu cu ca c th m khng lm cho c th thiu kh qu mc. Tp luyn th dc th thao cn c th rn luyn con ngi nng cao c nng lc chu ng n dng kh (kh nng chu ng thiu xy). Trong iu kin thiu xy vn c th kin tr thc hin cc hot ng c bp phc tp. V d nh: VV leo ni trong iu kin ni cao thiu xy, khng ch phi duy tr cc hot ng duy tr tnh mng m cn phi khng ngng hon thnh

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nhim v leo ln nh ni y kh khn. 3. S nh hng ca tp luyn th dc th thao i vi chc nng ca h tun hon Mt h thng tun hon tt l iu kin bt buc phi c cho mt c th cng trng kho mnh. Tp luyn th dc th thao c th nng cao chc nng ca tim, tng nhanh tc tun hon mu, nng cao c chc nng ca h thng huyt qun. H thng tun hon l do tim, mu v h thng huyt qun to thnh v vy m gi l h thng tun hon mu. Tim l ni pht ra ng lc lm cho mu lu ng, huyt qun l con knh dn mu i khp ni trong c th, mu th ph trch vic vn chuyn dinh dng, xy, cc sn phm thi ca qu trnh trao i cht v CO2. Tim c tc dng lm cho mu lun lu ng trong huyt qun mang xy v cc cht dinh dng cho cc t chc, t bo, ng thi em cc cht thi ca qu trnh trao i cht sn sinh ra cng nh CO2 ra ngoi phi, thn v da Tp luyn th dc th thao c tc dng rt tt i vi cc c quan, h thng trong c th, i vi h thng huyt qun cng nh vy. Khi tin hnh tp luyn th dc th thao s tiu hao nng lng v cc sn phm tha ca qu trnh trao i cht tng ln trong c th. Lc ny i hi phi nng cao chc nng ca tim, tng nhanh tt lu truyn mu, ng thi nng cao chc nng ca h tun hon. V d: Trong hot ng cc mn chy di, bng , bng r hay bi liu c th lm cho chc nng ca h thng tun hon t c s tng cng r rt, lm cho c tim dy ln, tn s mch v huyt p gim, lm cho h tun hon c tp luyn, kt cu, chc nng c c s ci thin ch yu biu hin cc phng din sau: a. Tng cng tnh vn ng ca tim. Tp luyn th dc th thao lm tng cng mu ca c tim, lm cho c tim c nhiu vt cht dinh dng hn. Do tp luyn th dc th thao c tim dn dn c tng cng, thnh tim dy ln, th tch khoang tim tng ln (ngi bnh thng khong 700ml, VV l 1000ml). Do vy th tch khoang tim ca VV ln hn mt cht so vi ngi bnh thng. Hin tng ny c gi l ph i tim mang tnh vn ng Ngi thng xuyn tp luyn th dc th

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thao do tp luyn thng k, c khoang tim s to v kho dn ln, dng my chuyn mn xem xt c th thy khoang tim ca h to hn mt cht so vi ngi thng, ngoi hnh y n, c tim pht trin, lc co bp tim tng ln, dung lng tim cng tng ln nhiu, do vy m mi ln co bp tim lng mu c y ra khi tim (lu lng tm thu) cng tng ln. b. Tn s mch gim v chm khi yn tnh. ngi bnh thng tn s mch vo khong 70-80 ln/pht, thng xuyn tp luyn th dc th thao tn s mch p ch khong 50-60ln/pht, cc vn ng vin u t c khi gim xung ti 40ln/pht. iu ny l do VV lu lng tm thu tng ln do tn s mch gim xung nhng vn cung cp cho nhu cu trao i cht ca ton b c th. Trong trng thi yu tnh, lu lng pht m c th i hi khong 75ln. Trong khi lu lng tm thu VV khong 90ml, tim ch cn co bp khong 50 ln l cung cp mu cho c th. Tn s mch gim xung do m tim c nhiu thi gian ngh ngi. c.Tit kim ho trong lm vic ca tim. Tin hnh vn ng nh nhng, cng mt lng vn ng, tn s mch p v bin bin i huyt p ngi thng xuyn tp luyn th dc th thao nh hn ngi bnh thng v khng d b mt mi, hi phc nhanh. Ngi khng thng xuyn tp luyn s i hi tn s mch cao hn, do thi gian ngh ngi ca tim ngn i, rt d mt mi, sau khi vn ng thi gian hi phc cng cn di hn. Nguyn nhn ch yu l ngi thng xuyn tp luyn c lc co bp tim ln hn, lu lng tm thu ln hn, do ch cn tng mt cht tn s mch l c th p ng yu cu, ng thi do vic tp luyn th dc th thao lm cho huyt qun bo v v duy tr tt s lu truyn ca mu nn cc VV nh nhng, bin bin ho v tn s mch v huyt p u nh hn so vi ngi bnh thng. Hin tng ny c gi l hin tng tit kim ho. d. Khi hot ng kch lit, chc nng ca tim c th t ti trnh cao. Ngi thng xuyn tp luyn th dc th thao th chc nng ca tim rt tt, l c tim kho, dung lng tim ln, lc co bp tim kho. Khi hot ng kch lit c th nhanh chng pht huy chc nng tim, c th t n mc m ngi thng khng th t ti. V d nh tn s mch p ca VV u t c th t ti 200-220

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ln/pht, lu lng pht c th t ti trn 40lt. Do vy c th m nhim c nhng cng vic hoc lao ng vi lng vn ng hun luyn hoc ph ti rt ln, trong khi ngi thng tn s mch p ti a ch t ti 180 ln/pht, lc ny lng mu tr v tim s gim xung do vy lu lng tm thu gim xung, tun hon mu v th cng gim hiu qu. Cng vi s tch lu cc sn phm ca trao i cht (axit lactic) lm cho kh c th duy tr c cng vic thm ch cn xut hin hin tng tc ngc, kh th, lon nhp tim, au us hi phc sau vn ng gim. e. Tng tnh dn truyn ca huyt qun. Tp luyn th dc th thao c th tng cng c tnh dn truyn mu ca thnh mch, iu ny l rt c li i vi ngi gi. ngi gi, cng vi s gia tng ca tui tc, tnh dn truyn ca mu thnh mch cng gim xung, chnh v vy m ngi gi thng hay mc cc bnh tui gi c bit l bnh cao huyt p. Ngi gi thng qua tp luyn th dc th thao c th tng cng tnh dn truyn mu ca thnh mch, t c th phng nga c cc bnh tui gi v bnh cao huyt p. Ngoi ra, y hc chng minh, thng xuyn tp luyn th dc th thao s lm tng hm lng hng cu, bch cu, c th cung cp kp thi dinh dng v xy cho c th, mang cc cht thi ca qu trnh trao i cht cng nh CO 2 ra ngoi. Cng vi mc sng ngy cng cao, nu nh khng thng xuyn tham gia tp luyn th dc th thao th bnh vn minh tt nhin s gia tng. Hin nay khng c t ngi cht v mc cc bnh v tim mch, Lin bang c 20 tr li y, s lng ngi cht v bnh tim chim 52%-53% tng s ngi cht. Theo ti liu thng k ca t chc y t th gii cng b nm 1984 s ngi cht do mc cc bnh v tim l mt trong nhng nguyn nhn dn n t vong chim t l cao nht. Do vy vic thng xuyn tp luyn th dc th thao ng mt vai tr ht sc quan trng trong vic gim t l ngi mc cc bnh lin quan n tim v h tun hon. 4. S nh hng ca tp luyn th dc th thao i vi h tiu ho D dy v rut l nhng c quan ch yu ca h thng tiu ho trong c th. Nng lc tiu ho ca d dy v rut tt s c nhng nh hng tt i vi sc kho con ngi. Thng xuyn tp luyn th dc th thao s nng cao c

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cng nng tiu ho ca d dy v rut, tng cng s kho mnh cho gan, ng thi cn c tc dng tr liu v phng nga mt s bnh v h thng tiu ha. Thng xuyn tp luyn, do nhu cu hot ng ca c bp nn d dy v rut phi tng cng chc nng tiu ho, lc ny dch v men tiu ho tng ln nhiu, s co bp ng dn truyn tiu ho cng c tng ln mnh m, tun hon mu d dy v rut cng c ci thin. Do pht sinh cc thay i nu trn m vic tiu ho thc n v hp th cc cht dinh dng c din ra thun li, mt khc do khi vn ng phi h hp su, c honh cch hot ng vi bin ln nn di chuyn nhiu xung pha di, c bng cng hot ng mnh, iu ny c tc dng mt xa cho d dy v rut. Do tp luyn th dc th thao c tc dng nng cao nng lc tiu ho ca d dy v rut nh vy nn c khng t ngi s dng tp luyn th dc th thao nh mt phng php tr liu i vi mt s bnh d dy v h thu c hiu qu nht nh. Gan l mt tng ln trong c th con ngi, n ng vai tr ht sc quan trng i vi h tiu ho, thng xuyn tp luyn th dc th thao chc nng ca gan c tng cng iu ny rt c li cho vic tiu ho thc n. Khi vn ng s tiu hao ngun nng lng d tr tng ln, khin cho gan phi hot ng tch cc hn t m chc nng gan c tp luyn thng xuyn v pht trin. Lng ng n trong gan ca vn ng vin v ngi thng v tc y ng n ra ngoi ca gan vn ng vin cng nhanh hn ngi thng. ng n gan l ht sc quan trng i vi s kho mnh ca gan, n c th bo v cho gan, v nguyn nhn ny m cc bc s thng yu cu nhng bnh nhn gan n nhiu hoa qu c ng. Chc nng gan vn ng vin l rt tt, kh nng khng vi bnh gan cng rt cao. ngi thng xuyn tp luyn th dc th thao th vic s dng ng n trong gan cng kinh t hn ngi thng. T nhng yu t trn c th thy tp luyn th dc th thao c th lm tng thm sc kho cho gan, m gan c kho th mi c th nng cao c nng lc lao ng v vn ng. 5. nh hng ca th dc th thao i vi h thng thn kinh H thng thn kinh khng ch cc loi hnh vi ca con ngi, thng xuyn tp luyn th dc th thao s lm nng cao nng lc lm vic ca cc t bo thn kinh i no, nng cao tnh linh hot v s hng phn ca h thng thn kinh, phn ng nhanh, tng thm tc linh hot v s chun xc nhp nhng ca ng tc. H thng thn kinh l do h thng trung khu v h thng

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thn kinh ngoi bin to thnh. Hnh thc hot ng ca chng nh sau: Sau khi c th tip nhn c tn hiu kch thch thng qua cc n ron thn kinh dn truyn n h thng trung khu thn kinh, sau khi h thng trung khu thn kinh phn tch, tng hp th cc xung ng hng phn s c dn truyn ti cc c quan t to ra cc phn ng tng ng. V d: Khi tham gia thi u bng r, trong tnh hung thin bin vn ho ca thi u trn sn i hi hon thnh ng tc kp thi v chun xc. ngi bnh thng tc phn ng l 0,4 giy tr ln, vn ng vin l 0,332 giy, i vi cc vn ng vin bng bn tc phn ng t ti 0,1 giy. Nhng vn ny u em li nhng li ch cho cng vic hay nhng hot ng sinh hot i thng. Ngoi ra thng xuyn tp luyn th dc th thao cn c th phng nga c bnh suy nhc thn kinh. Vn ng cn m bo cho vic gi cn bng gia hng phn v c ch ca i no, t phng nga c s pht sinh suy nhc thn kinh. Thng xuyn tp luyn th dc th thao c th lm cho s hng phn c tng cng, c ch cng thm su sc hoc lm cho hng phn v c ch c tp trung, nh vy nng cao c tnh linh hot ca qu trnh thn kinh. Khi tp luyn th dc th thao do trung khu vn ng hng phn cao lm cho ngoi vi sn sinh s c ch su sc, iu khin cho cc t bo thn kinh c ngh ngi tt. Tp luyn th dc th thao thng yu cu phi hon thnh nhng ng tc phc tp, c kh cao hn so vi cc hot ng thng ngy, v vy m c th bt buc phi ng vin chc nng ca bn thn n mc cao mi c th thch nghi c vi cc yu cu ca nhim v. Thng qua tp luyn thi gian di, khng ch c bp pht trin, do ng tc c lc, m tc , tnh mm do, s linh hotca ng tc cng c tng cng, i vi th lc lao ng th sc bn b cng c nng ln, kh nng phng bnh v kh nng thch nghi vi cc loi kch thch bn ngoi mi trng cng c nng ln. Bi l vn ng c tc dng rt tt i vi h thng thn kinh nn phn ln cc bc s thng ly tp luyn th dc th thao lm thnh mt phng php tr liu, c bit l iu tr cc tr ngi v chc nng ca h thng thn kinh- nguyn nhn dn n cc bnh thn kinh. M mt s chuyn gia v bnh thn kinh m mt lp gi l vn ng d phng cho mt s ngi b suy nhc thn kinh nh, trong lp ny h ly chy b thay cho vic

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dng thuc. Tri qua mt tun tp luyn th c 60%- 85% bnh nhn xut hin du hiu hi phc. II. Thc tin pht trin nng lc ca no, nng cao hiu xut hc tp, cng tc Tp luyn th dc th thao ngoi vic pht trin th lc v th cht ra, n cn pht trin nng lc ca no, nng cao hiu sut cng tc. Thng xuyn tp luyn th dc th thao c th nng cao nng lc lm vic ca i no, ci thin qu trnh thn kinh, t tng cng tr lc v kh nng ghi nh ca c th, ng thi thng qua tp luyn th dc th thao cng c th iu tit mt cch c hiu qu cng tc v hc tp, t lm tng hiu sut cng vic v hc tp. Con ngi khi pht trin chu s nh hng ca 3 yu t di truyn, hon cnh sng v gio dc. Cc yu t di truyn ca c th nh kt cu, hnh thi, cm quan, h thng thn kinh l nhng iu kin tin ca s pht trin t nhin hay sinh l ca con ngi. Trong khi tri thc, ti nng, tnh cch, s yu thch ca con ngi c hnh thnh bi s nh hng ca gio dc v hon cnh sng. Gio dc y ng nhin trong bao gm c ni dung GDTC. Thc tin chng minh tp luyn th dc th thao c tc dng thc y s pht trin v mt tr lc, nhn thc, ti nng ca con ngi, ng thi cng c tc dng nng cao hiu sut hc tp. 1. Rn luyn thn th nng cao nng lc hot ng tr lc Tr lc hiu theo ngha thng thng l ly nng lc t duy lm ht nhn, n l s tng ho ca nng lc nhn thc, n bao gm nng lc quan st, nng lc ghi nh, nng lc tng tng Tr lc l sn vt ca s kt hp gia di truyn, s nh hng ca gio dc, iu kin sng v s n lc c nhn. Thc t chng minh trnh tr lc ca con ngi c mi tng quan vi di truyn (c ngi cho rng c th t ti 65%, thm ch ti 80%), c mi tng quan mt thit vi hon cnh x hi, gio dc, iu kin gia nh, mt bng kinh t Khng th xem nh tc dng ca tp luyn th dc th thao i vi s pht trin tr lc, c ngy cng nhiu cc nh nghin cu bo co v vn ny. Cc kt qu nghin cu chng minh, nng lc ghi nh v tr lc l mt loi mang c tnh vt cht ho hc, do mt loi phn t Prtin a vt cht cu thnh, s vn ng ca nhng vt cht ny c lin quan n trng thi lm vic ca i no, cng thch nghi vi iu kin lm vic th cng tt, i no bo lu cc tin

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tc bn ngoi cng kin c, s lin h gia cc tin tc cng r nt i vi s phn bit cc tin tc cng r rng mch lc. Nhng hin tng ny bnh thng chng ta hay gi l mn cm. S thch nghi gia mt i no tt vi iu kin cng tc c th hin hai mt sau: - Cung cp y mu trong no. - Thch nghi vi trng thi hng phn. 2. Tp luyn th dc th thao nng cao hiu qu cng tc v hc tp Hc tp cc tri thc vn ho khoa hc l nhng hot ng thn kinh cao cp ca i no. Trong qu trnh hc tp i hi i no phi hot ng t duy cng thng cao v lin tc, nhng hot ng da vo s chuyn ho tng h khng ngng v s cn bng gia hai chc nng hng phn v c ch ca t bo thn kinh. Nu lm vic trong thi gian qu di cc t chc no s sn sinh ra tc dng c ch bo v, lc ny hiu sut lm vic ca no s gim xung, biu hin ra ngoi l nng lc ch v t duy km, nng hn l chng mt, au ulc ny i hi phi ngh ngi. Ngh ngi c hai kiu, l ngh ngi tiu cc (ng) v ngh ngi tch cc (tp luyn th dc th thao). Khi tp luyn th dc th thao cc t bo thn kinh vn ng s c hng phn cao, mt khc lm gia tng thm s c ch cc t bo ghi nh v t duy t lm cho s mt mi mt i. Do vn ng lm cho h tun hon hot ng tch cc dn n cc t bo c cung cp dinh dng v xy y hn, lm thc y mnh m hn vic o thi sn phm tha ca qu trnh trao i cht, iu ny rt c li cho chc nng hi phc ca c th. Tm li, tin hnh tp luyn th dc th thao mt cch khoa hc khng nhng c tc dng rn luyn th cht v th lc cho c th m cn c tc dng rt ln i vi vic thc tin v nng cao cc hot ng ca no. Thng xuyn tp luyn th dc th thao c th nng cao chc nng ca cc c quan trong c th, thc y qu trnh sinh trng v pht dc thanh thiu nin, pht trin cc t cht c th, nng cao nng lc hot ng c bn ca con ngi..

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BI 3: CC QUY LUT KHOA HC TRONG TP LUYN TH THAO Tp luyn th dc thao khng ch nng cao sc kho v nng lc c th m cn nng cao nhng nng lc hot ng c bn trong i sng hng ngy. Tuy nhin vic la chn ni dung, cng , phng php tp luyn khng thch hp s c tc hi i vi sc kho con ngi. Do vy, chng ta khng th ni tham gia tp luyn th dc th thao l nht nh s c hiu qu tt trong vic nng cao sc kho. Tp luyn th dc th thao mt cch khoa hc c ngha l nhng nguyn tc chun bt buc ngi tham gia tp luyn phi tun theo. Tp luyn ci g, tp nh th no, tp bao nhiu l nhng vn quan trng u tin ca tp luyn th dc th thao khoa hc. Ni dung ch yu ca n l s iu chnh phi hp cn bng gia cng vn ng v lng vn ng. I. Xp sp khi lng vn ng hp l Lng vn ng l ch lng ph ti vn ng, n l mt trong nhng nhn t then cht cho vic m bo hiu qu vn ng, n l c s nng cao nng lc vn ng, c th con ngi thng thng m ni phn ng vi lng vn ng th khng kch lit m t t nhng n sn sinh nhng nh hng rt su sc i vi cc mc thch nghi ca cc h thng c quan, ng thi s thch ng ca c th i vi lng vn ng l tng i n nh v s gim dn kh nng thch nghi din ra cng rt chm chp. Lng vn ng thch nghi l mt thut ng c tnh cht tng i ch khng phi tuyt i bi v n tu theo ngi m bin i. Trong thc tin vn ng c gi l lng vn ng thch nghi n l mt kch thch lm cho c th chu ng c mt trnh nht nh, va l lng vn ng m c th c th tip nhn hoc hon thnh. Do vy, khi tin hnh tp luyn th dc th thao nht nh phi cn c vo la tui, gii tnh, th chtca bn thn tng hp tnh trng. T sp xp lng vn ng thch hp. - Phng php tnh lng vn ng: Tn s mch sau vn ng - Tn s mch trc vn ng Cng thc tnh = Tn s mch trc vn ng nh gi: Nu t t 71% tr ln th lng vn ng l ln, t 51%-71% th l lng vn ng trung bnh, di 51% th l lng vn ng nh. 100%

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II. Sp xp hp l cng vn ng Nhng kch thch ca cng vn ng c th lm cho c th phn ng mnh lit c th nng cao nhanh chng trnh c nng ca cc c quan trong c th t sn sinh ra s nh hng mang tnh thch nghi mt cch su sc, nhng ng trn phng din tng i m ni s thch nghi ca c th c sn sinh mt cch khng n nh v vng chc th rt d mt i. Cng vn ng qu nh th hiu qu tp luyn thu c khng cao. Nu cng vn ng qu cao th c hi cho sc kho c th. nhng ngi khc nhau c nhng nng lc vn ng khc nhau. V vy khi vn ng th cng khng th nh nhau. Cng vn ng thng thng c xc nh bng phng php sau: a. Phng php xc nh bng o nhp tim Nhp tim trong mt phm vi nht nh (110-170 ln/pht) s c nhng mi tng quan mt thit vi cng vn ng. Do vy, tn s mch p c th c s dng nh 1 ch tiu nh gi v khng ch cng vn ng (Xem bng 1). Bng 1: Bng quan h gia cng vn ng v tn s mch Tui 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 60 60 60 60 60 60 10 74 73 72 71 70 69 20 88 86 84 82 80 78 Cng vn ng % 30 40 50 60 70 102 116 130 144 158 99 102 125 138 151 96 98 120 132 144 93 94 105 126 137 90 90 110 120 130 87 87 105 114 123 80 172 164 156 148 140 132 90 186 177 168 159 150 141 100 200 190 180 170 160 150

b. Phng php nh gi t l % tn s nhp tim ti a - Nhp tim ti a = 220 - tui - Cch nh gi: i vi cc VV chuyn nghip trong tp luyn nn khng ch 85-95% mch p ti a. i vi vn ng a kh nn khng ch mc cng vn ng 65-85% tn s mch ti a. i vi ngi bnh thng trong vn ng a kh th khng ch mc cng vn ng 6075% tn s mch ti a c. Phng php tnh mt tng nhp tim Da vo 3 mc th cht kho, bnh thng v yu phn bit, khng

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ch cng vn ng. + Tn s mch sau vn ng - Tn s mch yn tnh 60 ln/pht nhm th cht kho. + Tn s mch sau vn ng - Tn s mch yn tnh 40 ln/pht nhm th cht bnh thng. + Tn s mch sau vn ng - Tn s mch yn tnh 20 ln/pht nhm th cht yu. d. Phng php nh gi bng cm gic ch quan - Da vo mt mt mi ca bn thn iu chnh cng tp luyn, y l mt loi phng php n gin nht (xem bng 2). Bng 2: Bng xc nh cng theo ch quan Cm gic vn ng ch quan Yn tnh V cng nh nhng Rt nh nhng Nh nhng C du hiu tiu hao sc Tiu hao sc Rt tiu hao sc Tiu hao sc v cng III. Sp xp hp l thi gian vn ng - Thi gian vn ng bao gm: Thi gian mt ln vn ng lin tc v tn sut tham gia vn ng. Thi gian mt ln vn ng lin tc chu s nh hng ca cng vn ng, lng vn ng, tn sut tham gia hot ng. Do vy, khi xc nh thi gian mt ln hot ng nn tng hp, kho st vic sp xp hp l cc nhn t. Thng thng, khi rn luyn sc kho, thi gian tp luyn ca mt ln l 20 pht tr ln mi c th thu c nhng hiu qu tt ca tp luyn. Cc kt qu nghin cu cho thy tn sut vn ng l mt ln trong mt tun th hiu qu Cng tng i (%) 0.0 7.1 14.3 21.4 28.6 35.7 42.9 50.0 57.2 64.3 71.5 78.6 85.8 90 100 Tn s mch tng i (l/p) 70 90 110 130 150 170 190 200

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vn ng khng c tch lu, thng xuyn xut hin hin tng c bp b au; mt tun hai ln hiu qu tp luyn c tch ly nhng khng r rt; mt tun ba ln, hiu qu tp luyn tch ly r rt; mt tun nm ln, hiu qu vn ng c nng ln vi bin ln. Khi vn ng rn luyn c th c th cn c vo tnh hnh c th ca bn thn nh: Tnh trng c th, mc ch, thi gian la chn tn sut vn ng hp l cho bn thn. Vn then cht l to thnh mt thi quen vn ng v tr thnh cuc sng vn ng ho. - Sp xp hp l lng vn ng, cng vn ng, thi gian vn ng chnh l mu cht nng cao hiu qu tp luyn, s phi hp ba yu t trn c th xem bng sau (bng 3). Bng 3: Nguyn tc tn s vn ng v thi gian duy tr cng vn ng
Ni dung i tng Ngi b bnh mn tnh, hoc thi k hi phc sau khi cha bnh Ngi lao ng tr c, thi k hi phc sau khi cha bnh, ngi b bnh mn tnh Ngi lao ng tr c, thi k hi phc sau khi cha bnh, ngi b bnh mn tnh Ngi thng xuyn tp luyn, ngi lao ng tr c. Ngi thng xuyn tp luyn Vn ng vin Cng vn ng (%) 40-50 Tn s Thi gian vn ng (pht) 1-5 Ch Dng c cha bnh (in tm ) Dng c cha bnh (in tm ) Dng c cha bnh (in tm ) Theo di thng thng Khng theo di Khng theo di cn cn

2ln/ngy

50-60

12ln/ngy 34ln/ngy 35ln/tun 35ln/tun 36ln/tun

20-30

60-70

20-60

60-70

30-60

60-80 70-90

60-80 60-120

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BI 4: CC NGUYN TC TP LUYN TH DC TH THAO - Nguyn tc tp luyn th dc th thao l nhng nguyn tc chun m mi ngi tham gia tp luyn th dc th thao u phi tun th trong qu trnh tp luyn. Ngha l nhng khi qut v nhng tng kt kinh nghim tp luyn th dc th thao trong thi gian di, n cng phn nh quy lut khch quan ca tp luyn th dc th thao. Thc t tp luyn th dc th thao cho chng ta thy bt k mt hnh vi tp luyn th dc th thao c hiu qu sm thng l kt qu ca vic t gic hay khng t gic tun theo mt s nguyn tc tp luyn. Vic tp luyn th dc th thao khng th tch ri nhng nguyn tc tp luyn ng n, bt buc phi hiu v nm bt cng nh tun theo nhng nguyn tc tp luyn th dc th thao. I. Hiu r v bn thn thc s cu th Nguyn tc xut pht t thc t l ch vic tp luyn th dc th thao, rn luyn thn th ly vic cn c vo tnh trng thc t ca bn thn c nhn v hon cnh bn ngoi xc nh mc ch tp luyn, la chn mn th thao thch hp, sp xp hp l thi gian vn ng v lng vn ng y chnh l nguyn tc nng cao kh nng thch nghi ca c th bt buc phi tun theo. - Trc ht tp luyn th dc th thao phi c cn c vo thc trng bn thn. Trc khi tp luyn phi hiu r tnh trng ca bn thn (bao gm: gii tnh, tui tc, th cht v sc kho), c c nhng phng thc tp luyn ph hp. C nh vy mi nng cao c hiu qu mang tnh thc t (hiu qu thc t). Khi tp luyn cn xut pht t nhng tnh trng thc t ca bn thn c c la chn c mc ch v xc nh c nhng mn th thao, phng php tp luyn, sp xp thi gian tp luyn v lng vn ng. Trc mi ln tp luyn, u cn phi tin hnh nh gi tnh trng sc kho ca bn thn, t lm cho c th c th tip nhn c kh v cng ca mn th thao. Nu i ngc li quy lut c bn ny th khng nhng khng t c hiu qu tp luyn m thm ch cn lm tn hi n sc kho c th. - Tip theo, xut pht t thc t ca iu kin, hon cnh, thi gian bn ngoi, khi tin hnh tp luyn th dc th thao, mt mt cn cn c vo tnh trng thc t bn thn, mt khc vn cn phi cn c theo iu kin bn ngoi nh ma, kh hu, a im, kh ti m vn dng phng php tp luyn khoa hc, la chn c cc mn th thao, thi gian tp luyn, lng vn ng hp l

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mi c th thu c hiu qu tp luyn cao. VD: Vo ma ng nn coi trng pht trin t cht sc bn v sc mnh vo ma xun; thu th nn ch trng tin hnh cc mn mang tnh k thut, trong ma h nng bc th bi li l mn th thao l tng nht. Trc khi hun luyn sc mnh cn phi kim tra k cng cc dng c tp luyn trnh c nhng pht sinh v nhng s c gy chn thng. II. Xy dng nim tin, ch tin th Tp luyn th dc th thao l qu trnh t bn thn tp luyn, t bn thn hon thin. Nu nh khng t gic th ngi khc cng bt lc. Tp luyn th dc th thao c th nng cao sc kho mt cch c hiu qu. Ngy nay, cc sinh vin i hc nhn thc y sc khe l nhng yu t c bn trong nhng t cht nhn ti ca x hi tng lai. Vic nng cao sc kho khng ch l nhu cu ca c nhn m cn l ca mt s mnh lch s m thi i, x hi giao ph cho sinh vin. Xc nh r c tnh mc ch ca tp luyn nh vy mi c th hnh thnh nim say m, s hng phn bin th dc th thao c th tr thnh mt b phn thit yu trong cuc sng. T gic trong tp luyn th dc th thao v trong qu trnh tp luyn th dc th thao c c s vui v, sng khoi. Mi ngi u c mt c tnh ring, do vy, trong tp luyn th dc th thao s t c hiu qu trong vic chin thng bn thn, chin thng mi kh khn th thch. III. Tp luyn ton din, ch trng hiu qu thc t Nguyn tc tp luyn ton din l ch thng qua tp luyn th dc th thao lm cho hnh thi c th, chc nng, t cht c th v t cht tm l u c pht trin ton din, hi ho. C th l mt th thng nht hu c, chc nng ca cc c quan, h thng trong c th c s lin quan v nh hng tng h vi nhau. Ni dung v phng php bi tp c la chn trong tp luyn th dc th thao nn c gng c s ton din i vi c th, khin cho cc t cht c th v chc nng ca cc c quan, h thng trong c th c pht trin ton din, do vy la chn ni dung v bin php thc hin khng c qu n iu bi v mi loi ni dung hay bin php thc hin u c nh hng mang tnh cc b i vi c th. Ni dung v bin php tp luyn nn phong ph a dng, nn trnh tp luyn nhng bi tp ch pht trin mt loi t cht no . Trong mi ln tp luyn th dc th thao c th dng mt mn no lm chnh, s cn li l nhng ni dung tp luyn ph.

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VD: Nhng ngi yu thch tp luyn th dc thm m nn tin hnh ng thi vic tp luyn pht trin sc mnh c bp vi vic tp luyn pht trin sc bn a kh v t cht mm do, lm cho c th c c s rn luyn ton din. IV. Kin tr thng xuyn tp luyn Mun t c mc ch tp luyn, bt buc phi thng xuyn tham gia tp luyn th dc th thao. Ghi nh rng Ba ngy nh c, hai ngy treo li; Mt ngy nng, mi ngy ma s khng bao gi t c hiu qu. Tp luyn th dc th thao l c tnh lin tc v tnh h thng ca n, ch c thng xuyn tham gia tp luyn th dc th thao, sp xp hp l nhng mn vn ng m bn thn yu thch v hng th, lp ra mt k hoch rn luyn c th mt cch khoa hc mi c th khng ngng tng cng th cht c hiu qu. Cc thc nghim khoa hc chng minh nhng ngi khng thng xuyn tham gia tp luyn th dc th thao hoc nhng ngi tp luyn th dc th thao b d gia chng u lm cho chc nng, t cht c th v k thut vn ng sn c ca bn thn gim st r rt. Rn luyn thn th m b gia chng, thi gian cng di th s mt i cng r rt hn. Do vy, rn luyn c th trong thi gian ngn s khng th c c hiu qu r rt, cng khng th hy vng Mt ngy lm, ngn nm hng, m ch c thng xuyn tham gia tp luyn th dc th thao mi c th nng cao hiu qu tp luyn th dc th thao. nm vng c mt k thut vn ng cng i hi phi kin tr lu di. Con ngi c mt s lng ln cc nron thn kinh trong i no cn phi thng qua vic tp luyn lp li vi cc hnh thc c nh lin tc tin hnh cc kch thch i vi nhng nron thn kinh ny mi c th hnh thnh mt phn ng vi hnh thc c nh trong i no, l ng lc nh hnh. Sau khi ng lc nh hnh c kin lp th ngi tp c th hon thnh bi tp mt cch thun thc, nhun nhuyn, nu nh khng kin tr tp luyn th nhng phn ng iu kin c th hnh thnh phn ng s khng t c pht trin kp thi m s dn dn mt i, s ghi nh cc ng tc cng qun i. V. K hoch hp l, tun t, tng dn Nguyn tc tun t tng dn ch yu l ch khi sp xp ni dung, kh, thi gian v lng vn ng tp luyn cn cn c vo quy lut pht trin ca c th v nguyn l ca lng vn ng hp mc, c k hoch, c tin trnh tng bc nng cao yu cu lm cho c th khng ngng thch nghi, th cht tng bc c nng cao.

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u tin tng dn lng vn ng. Tin hnh qu trnh rn luyn th dc th thao tun t l qu trnh c th thch ng i vi s bin ho ca hon cnh bn trong v bn ngoi, l mt qu trnh bin i t t, t lng sang cht. Khi tng lng vn ng cn tng t nh ti ln, tng dn tng bc. Khi giai on bt u tp luyn th dc th thao hoc giai on hi phc sau tp luyn, cng vn ng nh, thi gian ngn, mt i hi khng cn qu cao. Khi c th sn sinh s thch ng i vi mt lng vn ng nht nh, th sau kch thch ca lng vn ng ny i vi c s tr thnh nh, do vy cn gia tng thi gian tp luyn v s ln tp luyn thch hp, lm cho c th sn sinh ra c nhng thch ng, t gip cho trnh vn ng ca bn thn c tng ln. - Ni dung tp luyn cng nn tun t tng dn. Ni dung tp luyn cng cn tng dn kh (t n gin n phc tp), yu cu v cc ng tc nn t d n kh, tng bc tng dn kh, trc ht nn xem xt n cc ng tc n gin, d lm, d thc hin, d c th thu c hiu qu tp luyn. mi ln tp luyn cng nn bt u tp luyn t nhng ng tc n gin, cng khng ln, sau tng dn kh ng tc v lng vn ng. Trong tp luyn th dc th thao ch c th tun theo nhng quy lut pht trin c bn v tm sinh l ca con ngi, cn c vo trng thi sc kho ca bn thn, sp xp thch nghi mt cch khoa hc i vi lng vn ng v ni dung tp luyn mi c th thu c hiu qu cao trong tp luyn. VI. Tun theo quy lut t bo v sc kho Mun t c hiu qu tp luyn tht tt bt buc phi tun theo nhng quy lut khoa hc trong tp luyn, ng thi tng cng s gim st ca bn thn, bo v sc kho ca bn thn. Khi tp luyn cn thc hin tt nhng hot ng chnh l chun b cho hot ng, phi ch kim tra sc kho nh k, an ton vn ng, m bo v sinh tp luyn v nhng thi quen tt v tp luyn khoa hc, c bit l i vi thi k kinh nguyt cc n sinh vin, cn tng cng s ch v linh hot trong sp xp lng vn ng v ni dung tp luyn. T bo v sc kho, t gim st bn thn trong tp luyn th dc th thao l vn ht sc quan trng. Tng cng t bo v sc kho c th lm gim bt nhng chn thng vn ng khng cn thit. T theo di bn thn, c th kp thi nm vng c nhng thng tin v tnh trng bin i c th, mc mt mi, tnh trng sc kho, tnh hnh hon thnh tt k hoch v hiu qu tp luyn, t lm cho vic tp luyn cng c thm tnh xc thc.

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BI 5: NHNG CH TRONG TP LUYN TH DC TH THAO I. Lm tt cng tc chun b v thn th v tm l Hot ng th dc th thao v cc hot ng khc l khng ging nhau. Trc khi tp luyn nht nh phi lm tt cng tc chun b v c th v tm l. Hiu r v tnh trng c th bn thn, iu chnh tt trng thi tm l, iu quan trng nht l cng tc chun b hot ng cc nhc. II. Ch trang phc tp luyn Yu cu c bn v y phc trong hot ng th dc th thao l gn nh, trong khi vn ng phi c gng ht mc c th khng mc qu nhiu, qun o qu nng nh hng n nng lc vn ng. Ngoi ra, trng im phi l tin. Khi la chn trang phc nn la chn nhng trang phc rng ri, nh nhng hoc nhng trang phc c tnh n hi. Tt nht l nhng trang phc th dc th thao. Khng nn chn nhng trang phc qu cht v n s hn ch phm vi hot ng ca khp trong hot ng, nh hng n vic pht huy trnh k thut, khng th t c mc ch tp luyn d nh. Khi xem v la chn y phc tp luyn cn ch nguyn tc t dy n mng. Nn cn c vo tnh trng pht nhit ca c th trong qu trnh vn ng cn nhc vic ci b o ngoi sau khi vn ng, phi mc qun o ngoi kp thi bi l vn ng tot m hi ra rt nhiu rt d dn n cm lnh. III. Chun b dng c tp luyn Trc khi tin hnh tp luyn th dc th thao cn phi lm tt cng tc chun b dng c tp luyn m mn th thao yu cu. VD: Nh khn mt, nc ung, vt dng hng ngy Chun b y tin hnh tht tt. IV. Lm quen vi dng c sn bi Trc khi tp luyn th dc th thao cn phi tin hnh xem xt, hiu r v dng c sn bi tp luyn, ng thi cn phi kim tra nhng dng c s s dng v sn bi xem c vn g khng, c ph hp khng, kim tra iu kin xung quanh xem c g nh hng n tp luyn hay khng. C gng gim ti mc ti thiu nhng s kin, vn ny sinh ngoi mun trong qu trnh tp luyn.

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V. Tnh hnh thi tit, kh hu Tnh hnh thi tit, kh hu l mt nhn t khng th khng ch trong tp luyn th dc th thao, iu kin thi tit, kh hu tt s m bo tt cho tp luyn th dc th thao c tin hnh bnh thng. Cn phi kp thi nm bt iu kin thi tit trong qu trnh tp luyn, c gng trnh tp luyn th dc th thao nhng khi nhit cao v tia hng, t ngoi mnh trnh vic pht sinh cc hin tng cm nng v nhng chn thng v da do tia hng, t ngoi qu mnh to nn trong qu trnh tp luyn. Ngoi ra, cn ch s nh hng ca ma trong qu trnh tp luyn. Trong nhng ngy ma, c gng la chn mn th thao cho php tp luyn trong nh, trnh nhng pht sinh nh m, cm lnhdo b nhim nc ma hay b nhng chn thng pht sinh trong qu trnh tp luyn di tri ma l do sn bi trn t gy ra. ng thi, cn phi c bit ch vic tin hnh tp luyn th dc th thao trong c th thi tit lnh. Hiu r c im, chc nng c th trong hon cnh c th, lm tt cng tc chun b ph hp. VI. Khi ng Trc khi tin hnh nhng vn ng ti a, bt buc phi lm tt nhng bi tp khi ng. Khi ng tt c th lm nng cao s hng phn ca h thng trung khu thn kinh v khc phc tnh ca chc nng cc c quan ni tng, cng phng nga c s pht sinh chn thng vn ng, iu chnh tt trng thi vn ng. Khi khi ng cn ch c im ca mn th thao s tp luyn, coi trng b phn hot ng tng ng, sau khi ng cc khp cn li, lm cho trng thi c th tng dn, t ti trng thi vn ng. V tin hnh vn ng hy lm tt khi ng. VII. Cc vn trong vn ng a. Cc im v h hp ln hai. Trong khi chy cc c ly trung bnh v di thng xut hin sau khi chy mt thi gian khng lu hin tng tc ngc, kh th, cm gic chn nng, ng tc khng cn nhp nhnghin tng ny gi l Cc im. Cc im xut hin l do khi c th chuyn i t trng thi tng i n nh sang trng thi hot ng kch lit, chc nng ca trng thi vn ng chuyn ho sang trng thi lm vic, nhng cc c quan ni tng (VD h thng h hp, h tun hon) tnh vn cao trong thi gian ngn khng th pht huy chc nng

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hot ng mc cao nht, khin cho c th thiu xy, mt lng ln Axit lattc v CO2 c tch t lm cho mi quan h gia trung khu thn kinh thc vt v ty sng b thay i v nhp iu phi hp, gp phi tnh trng dng tm thi, do vy m xut hin Cc im. Sau khi xut hin Cc im ch cn gim tc chy thch hp, ht th su, kin tr vi ng tc chy v trc th nhng cm gic khng tt do Cc im to ra s mt i, ng tc s nhp nhng, nh nhng c lc tr li, nng lc lm vic li bt u c nng ln, hin tng ny c gi l H hp ln hai. b. Ch tnh hp l gia lng vn ng v cng vn ng . Trong vn ng cn phi ch tnh hp l gia lng vn ng v cng vn ng. Cn c vo thc trng c th xy dng mt k hoch vn ng tng ng, sp xp lng vn ng v cng vn ng, khi bt u khng nn qu ln trnh vic pht sinh nhng chn thng. Cng khng nn qu nh, bi nu qu nh s khng t c hiu qu tp luyn, nn la chn tp luyn vi lng vn ng v cng vn ng thch hp. Khi xut hin tnh trng mt mi nn iu chnh k hoch tp luyn, lm cho lng vn ng v cng vn ng tng ng vi trng thi c th, nh vy s c tc dng tt hn i vi vic nng cao sc kho v th cht ngi tp. VIII. Th lng Th lng l mt phng php tiu gim mt mi, thc tin s phc hi th lc ca c th. Thng thng m ni, sau khi con ngi tham gia vo cc hot ng kch lit m dng hot ng ngay lp tc th s kh c th trnh khi vic pht sinh hin tng chng mt, b ngt, thm ch cn dn ti nhng hu qu nghim trng kh lng. Do vy, khi kt thc cc vn ng, bt buc phi thc hin cc vn ng th lng, lm cho con ngi chuyn t trng thi vn ng cng thng sang trng thi tng i yn tnh. Vn , thng thng rt nhiu ngi khng bit tnh quan trng ca th lng sau tp luyn, thng khng coi trng th lng sau vn ng do vy khuyn co vi mi ngi: Sau vn ng, c bit l sau nhng vn ng kch lit, nht nh phi tin hnh th lng. IX. Tm sau vn ng Sau vn ng khng c tm nc lnh hoc bi li. Sau nhng hot ng kch lit, nhit c th tng cao, cc huyt qun ca c bp v da ang gin cng, lng mu ang tng cao, nu tm lnh ngay s lm cho huyt qun lp

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tc co li, mt mt s lm cho mu tr v tim tng ln t ngt, mt khc lm cho ca ming ca huyt qun thu nh li, sc cn tun hon tng ln gy nhng kh khn cho tim co bp, huyt p s tng ln cao. iu ny rt bt li i vi sc kho. Sau vn ng, nn tin hnh tm vi nc m l mt phng php tiu tr mt mi n gin v d thc hin nht. Tm nc m c th thc y s tun hon ca mu trong ton thn, iu tit s lu thng mu, tng cng trao i cht, c li i vi vic vn chuyn cc cht dinh dng trong c th v tiu tr cc cht o thi. Nc m vo khong 40- 44 C l thch hp, thi gian tm khong 10- 15 pht.

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BI 6: K HOCH TP LUYN TH DC TH THAO Bt lun xut pht t nhng cng vic no u cn phi xc nh r c tnh mc ch v k hoch t m, tin hnh tp luyn th dc th thao cng khng nm ngoi nhng yu cu trn. Tp luyn khng c mc ch khng c k hoch tt nhin cng c th em li mt s hiu qu nhng nhng hiu qu rt thp. Tp luyn th dc th thao c tin hnh da vo mt k hoch nht nh c th khc phc c tnh m qung v phin din trong tp luyn th dc th thao, c li trong vic nng cao cht lng th dc th thao cho vic hnh thnh cc thi quen tt trong cuc sng. - Mt k hoch hun luyn hon chnh bao gm mc tiu tp luyn, ni dung, phng php tp luyn, thi gian tp luyn ng trn phng din hnh thc m ni, k hoch hun luyn gm c: K hoch hun luyn nm, k hoch hun luyn theo ma, k hoch hun luyn thng v k hoch hun luyn tun - Khi ch nh k hoch tp luyn bt buc phi qun trit ton din v cc nguyn tc c bn trong tp luyn, ng thi cn nhng k hoch tp luyn phi n gin, r rng, c th, thc t, trng im. - Vic tp luyn th dc th thao ca sinh vin, trc ht cn phi c k hoch lu di, thi k ang trong trng, cn nm vng k nng th thao g, cn lm cho trnh th thao ca bn thn t n mc no, nng cao sc kho c th n mc no Cn phi c mt k hoch tng th, mc tiu tng th, cn c vo mc tiu tng th ny xc nh ch tiu c th ca tng nm, tng hc k. C nh vy, mi c th nng cao c hiu qu. - Vic xc nh v thc thi k hoch tp luyn nm ca c nhn cn xc nh c mc tiu d nh. Xut pht t nhng iu kin, tnh hnh thc t v mt th cht, hc tp, sinh hot ca c nhn, ng thi cng cn phi n lc kho st ti cc nhn t sn bi, dng c kh hu Ngi cha tri qua h thng tp luyn, vic xc nh k hoch nm nn ly vic pht trin ton din v sc mnh c th, tng cng chc nng tim, phi lm thnh mc ch. - K hoch tp luyn tun ca c nhn l mt loi thng xuyn s dng nht. Vic sp xp k hoch c th, thng thng hay ly k hoch tp luyn tun lm n v v bt c lc no cng c th ly tnh trng thc t tin hnh iu chnh. Sp xp ni dung tp luyn nn ch tnh khoa hc v tnh mc ch. Thng thng, nn sp xp tp luyn tc v linh hot trc, tp luyn

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sc mnh sp xp sau; sp xp cc bi tp c cng nh, lng vn ng nh trc. Cc bi tp c lng vn ng ln, cng ln sp xp sau, tp luyn k thut cn tin hnh t n gin n phc tp, t d n kh, ngoi ra cn phi ch n vic sp xp phi hp tp luyn i vi chn v tay (Xem bng 1). Bng 1: Bng k hoch tp luyn tun ca c nhn
Tun 1 1.Tp theo th dc trn truyn Th dc hnh, pht bui thanh hay sng th dc thm m. 2.Chy 12 pht Thi cc Th dc quyn hoc gia gi th dc 10trn truyn 15pht hnh, pht thanh Gi hc Gi hc th TDTT dc 50pht Tp 1.Khi luyn ng 8ngoi 10pht kho 2.Tp 50luyn k 60pht thut c bn hoc thi u cc mn bng 3.Th lng Tun 2 Tun 3 Tun 4 1.Tp theo th dc trn 1.Thi cc truyn hnh, quyn pht thanh 2.Tp x kp (5 hay th dc 4 t) thm m. 2.Chy 12 pht Thi cc Thi cc quyn quyn hoc hoc th dc th dc trn trn truyn hnh, truyn hnh, pht thanh pht thanh Gi hc th dc Tun 5 1.Tp theo th dc trn truyn hnh, pht thanh hay th dc thm m. 2.Chy 12 pht Thi cc quyn hoc th dc trn truyn hnh, pht thanh Tun 6 1.Thi cc quyn 2.Nm sp chng y (5 4 t)

1.Thi cc quyn 2.Co tay x n (6 4 t)

Thi cc quyn hoc th dc trn truyn hnh, pht thanh

Thi cc quyn hoc th dc trn truyn hnh, pht thanh

Gi hc th Gi hc th Gi hc th Gi hc th dc dc dc dc 1.Khi ng 810pht 2.Tp sc mnh. a.Tp luyn i vi tay nm sp chng y cng 50% (5ln 4t) b.Tp luyn sc mnh chn gnh t ng ln ngi xung, cng 50% (8ln 6t) 3.Th lng

1.Khi ng 8- 1.Khi ng 1.Khi ng 1.Khi 10pht 8-10pht 8-10pht ng 810pht 2..Tp sc 2.Tp luyn 2.Tp tc . 2.Tp mnh. k thut c a.Chy bc luyn k a..Tp luyn tay: bn hoc thi nh (30m 3 thut c Chng y bt u cc mn t) bn hoc cng 50% bng b.Chy nng thi u cc 3.Th lng (6ln 5 t) cao i (30m mn bng 3.Th lng b.Tp sc mnh 2 t) chn: Gnh t c.Chy cu ng ln ngi thang (15bc xung cng 4lt) 50%, tp (8ln 3.Th lng 6 t) 3.Th lng

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BI 7: GIO DC CC T CHT TH LC Bn cnh cc yu t hiu bit, o c, ch, k thut v chin thut, th lc l mt trong nhng nhn t quan trng nht quyt nh hiu qu hot ng ca con ngi, trong c th dc th thao. Hn na rn luyn (pht trin) th lc li l mt trong hai c im c bn, ni bt ca qu trnh GDTC. Bi vy, nhng ngi thng xuyn tp luyn th dc th thao rt cn c nhng hiu bit v bn cht, cc quy lut v phng php rn luyn chng. Trong l lun v phng php th dc th thao, t cht th lc (t cht vn ng) l nhng c im, mt, phn tng i ring bit trong th lc ca con ngi v thng c chia thnh nm loi c bn: Sc mnh, sc nhanh, sc bn, kh nng phi hp ng tc v do. Do cc hot ng, ngh nghip, cc mn th thao ngy cng phc tp, ng v tinh vi nn cu trc v yu cu v th lc cng rt khc nhau. Di y chng ti ch trnh by nhng c s chung ban u v cc khi nim, nhim v v cc phng tin rn luyn sc mnh. I. Cc phng php gio dc sc mnh 1. Khi nim sc mnh: L kh nng con ngi sinh ra lc c hc bng sc mnh c bp, ni cch khc, sc mnh ca con ngi l kh nng khc phc lc i khng bn ngoi hoc khng li n bng s n lc ca c bp. 2. Nhim v v phng tin rn luyn sc mnh: Nhim v chung ca qu trnh rn luyn sc mnh nhiu nm l pht trin ton din v m bo kh nng pht huy cao sc mnh trong cc hnh thc hot ng vn ng khc nhau. Nhim v c th ca rn luyn sc mnh l: - Tip thu v hon thin cc kh nng thc hin cc hnh thc sc mnh c bn: Sc mnh tnh lc v ng lc, sc mnh n thun v sc mnh tc , sc mnh khc phc v sc mnh nhng b. - Pht trin cn i sc mnh ca tt c cc nhm c ca h vn ng. - Pht trin nng lc s dng hp l sc mnh trong cc iu kin khc nhau. Ngoi ra tu iu kin c th ca mi hot ng m ra cc nhim v rn luyn sc mnh chuyn mn.

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rn luyn sc mnh ngi ta s dng cc bi tp sc mnh, tc l cc ng tc vi lc i khng. Cn c vo tnh cht lc i khng, cc bi tp sc mnh c chia thnh hai nhm. + Cc bi tp vi lc i khng bn ngoi: Cc bi tp vi dng c nng. Cc bi tp vi lc i khng ca ngi cng tp. Cc bi tp vi lc n hi. Cc bi tp vi lc i khng ca mi trng bn ngoi (Chy trn ct, trn mn ca). + Cc bi tp khc phc trng lng c th. Ngoi ra, trong rn luyn sc mnh, ngi ta cn s dng rng ri cc bi tp khc phc trng lng c th cng thm vi trng lng ca vt th bn ngoi. 3. Cc khuynh hng, phng php c bn trong rn luyn sc mnh: Nh trn nu, trong rn luyn sc mnh l to ra kch thch ln i vi hot ng ca c. Trong thc t, thng c 3 cch to cng c ti a. -Lp li cc hn lng i khng cha ti mc ti a. -S dng lng i khng ti a. -S dng trng lng cha ti mc ti a vi tc cc i 3.1. S dng lng i khng ti mc ti a vi s ln lp li cc hn. Phng php n lc lp li c nhng u im sau: * Tng sc mnh cng vi s ph i c bp. Khi lng vn ng ln tt yu s dn n nhng bin i mnh m trong qu trnh trao i cht. - Tng tin din c nh tp luyn gi l ph i vn ng. Ni chung cc si c khng phn chia. Trong trng hp c bit mi thy mt s rt t si c b phn chia nh. Vi s ph i qu ln, c th dn ti hin tng tch c theo chiu dc mt cch c hc, nhng chng ta vn c chung dy chng. * S dng lng i khng cha ti mc ti a s hn ch c hin tng p kh lng ngc. * Bi tp vi lng i khng cha ti mc ti a to kh nng kim tra k thut tt hn. * i vi ngi mi tp s dng phng php n lc lp li hn ch c chn thng. * Tiu hao nng lng tng i ln cng c li vi bui tp theo xu

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hng sc kho. Phng php n lc lp li c nhng nhc im sau: * Khng c li th v mt nng lng. * Hiu qu ca phng php thp hn so vi s dng lng i khng ti a. 3.2. S dng lng i khng ti a v gn ti a: Trong trng hp cn tng sc mnh c bp nhng hn ch c hin tng tng khi lng ca n, ngi ta thng tp luyn theo xu hng th 2 xu hng s dng lng i khng ti a v gn ti a. 3.3. S dng cc bi tp tnh trong rn luyn sc mnh. II. Cc phng php gio dc sc nhanh 1. Khi nim sc nhanh: L mt t hp thuc tnh chc nng ca con ngi, n quy nh ch yu v trc tip c tnh tc ng tc cng nh thi gian phn ng vn ng. 2. Phng php rn luyn sc nhanh phn ng vn ng. 2.1. Phng php rn luyn sc nhanh phn ng vn ng n gin. Phng php ph bin nht trong rn luyn sc nhanh phn ng vn ng n gin l tp lp li phn ng vi cc tn hiu xut hin t ngt. VD: Lp li nhiu ln vi ting sng lnh, chy i hng theo tn hiu. i vi ngi mi tp, phng php lp li nhanh chng em li kt qu tt, sau sc nhanh phn ng n nh v rt kh c th pht trin thm. 2.2. Phng php rn luyn sc nhanh phn ng vn ng phc tp. Phng ng vn ng phc tp thng gp trong th thao gm hai loi: Phn ng i vi vt th di ng v phn ng la chn. * Trong phn ng i vi vt th di ng th k nng quan st gi vai tr c bn. pht trin k nng quan st, ngi ta s dng cc bi tp phn ng i vi vt di ng, yu cu tp luyn c gia tng thng qua tc vt th, tng tnh bt ng v rt ngn c ly.VD: Tr chi vn ng vi bng nh. *Phn ng la chn xy ra khi cn chn mt trong s nhng ng tc c th p li s thay i hnh vi ca i phng hoc s bin i tnh hung. VD: VV u kim khi phng th c th la chn mt trong nhng ng tc c th s dng tu theo ng tc tn cng ca i phng. Tnh phc tp ca phn ng la chn ph thuc vo tnh hung c th.

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2.3. Phng php rn luyn tc : Tc ti a m con ngi c th pht huy trong ng tc o khng ch ph thuc vo sc nhanh m cn ph thuc vo nhiu nhn t khc nh sc mnh ng lc, linh hot khp, mc hon thin k thut. V vy, rn luyn sc nhanh ng tc cn kt hp cht ch vi rn luyn cc t cht th lc khc v hon thin k thut. T c th tch bit hai xu hng trong rn luyn tc . - Nng cao tn s ng tc. - Hon thin cc nhn t nh hng ti tc ti a. III. Cc phng php gio dc sc bn 1. Khi nim sc bn: L kh nng thc hin mt hot ng vi cng cho trc, hay l nng lc duy tr kh nng vn ng trong thi gian di nht m c th c th chu ng c. 2. Cc phng php pht trin sc bn: 2.1. Nhng nhim v v yu cu: Sc bn trong vn ng th lc b chi phi bi rt nhiu nhn t. Do pht trin sc bn, phi gii quyt hng lot nhim v nhm hon thin v nng cao nhng nhn t . Trong s nhng nhn t chi phi sc bn phi k n: K thut th thao hp l, bo m pht huy c hiu qu v ng thi tit kim c nng lng trong khi vn ng. Nng lc duy tr trong thi gian di trng thi hng phn ca cc trung tm thn kinh. Kh nng hot ng cao ca h tun hon v h hp. Tnh tit kim ca cc qu trnh trao i cht. C th c ngun nng lng ln. S phi hp hi ho trong hot ng ca cc chc nng sinh l. Kh nng chu ng chng li cm gic mt mi nh n lc ch. Nng cao sc bn thc cht l qu trnh lm cho c th thch nghi dn dn vi lng vn ng ngy cng ln. iu ny i hi ngi tp phi c ch kin tr, chu ng nhng cm gic mt mi i khi rt nng l v cm gic nhm chn do tnh n iu ca bi tp. Mt khc, i hi c s tch lu, thch nghi dn dn v ko di lin tc trong nhiu nm. Nhng nn nng, g p, t chy giai on chng nhng khng em li kt qu, m cn c hi i vi ngi tp. - Nng cao sc bn chung l c s nng cao sc bn chuyn mn v nng cao nng lc vn ng ca c th ni chung. Tp luyn c h thng s

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nng cao c sc bn mt cch ng k. 2.2. Cc yu t lng vn ng trong tp luyn nng cao sc bn. Tt c cc phng tp luyn nng cao sc bn trong cc mn th thao c chu k u da trn s kt hp ca 5 yu t c bn ca lng vn ng. l: Tc hay cng bi tp; thi gian thc hin bi tp; thi gian ngh gia qung; tnh cht ngh ngi gia qung; s ln lp li. 2.3. Phng php nng cao kh nng a kh. Kh nng a kh ca c th l kh nng to ra ngun nng lng cho hot ng c bp thng qua qu trnh xy ho cc hp cht giu nng lng trong c th. nng cao kh nng a kh cn gii quyt 3 nhim v: Nng cao kh nng hp th xy ti a, nng cao kh nng ko di thi gian mc hp th xy ti a, lm cho h thng tun hon v h hp nhanh chng t c mc hot ng vi hiu xut cao. Cc phng php ch yu c s dng nng cao kh nng a kh ca c th l phng php ng u lin tc, phng php bin i v phng php lp li. 2.4. Phng php nng cao kh nng ym kh. Kh nng ym kh l kh nng vn ng ca c th trong iu kin da vo cc ngun cung cp nng lng ym kh (cc phn ng phng nng lng khng c s tham gia ca xy). Nng cao kh nng a kh cng l yu t quan trng nng cao kh nng ym kh to iu kin thun li cho vic thc hin nhng hot ng ym kh. Tuy nhin nhim v chnh y l tng cng kh nng gii phng nng lng nh cc phn ng phn hu Photphocratin v phn hu glucza, ng thi nng cao kh nng chu ng trng thi n xy mc cao. Cc bi tp nhm hon thin c ch gii phng nng lng t Photphocratin c nhng c im sau: - Cng hot ng gn ti mc ti a hoc thp hn mt cht. - Thi gian ngh gia qung t 2 - 3 pht. - S dng hnh thc ngh ngi tch cc. - S ln lp li tu thuc vo trnh tp luyn ca ngi tp, sao cho tc khng b gim. hon thin c ch gluc phn (tc nng cao kh nng ym kh ca c

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th) cn p dng nhng bi tp c nhng c im sau y. - Cng vn ng (tc di chuyn) xp x ti a. - Thi gian mi ln lp li c th t 20 giy n 2 pht (cc c ly bi 200m, cc c ly chy t 200m 600m). - Khong cch ngh ngi nn gim dn sau mi ln lp li. VD Gia ln th nht v th hai ngh 5-8pht, ln th hai v ln th 3 t 3-4pht. - Tnh cht ngh ngi trong trng hp ny khng cn phi l ngh ngi tch cc, nhng cng cn trnh trng thi hon ton l yn tnh.. - S ln lp li trong hot ng c qung ngh gim dn thng khng qu 3-4 ln. Trn y trnh by cc phng php tc ng c chn lc n nhng c ch ym kh ring bit. Trong thc t, cc phng php c p dng thng mang tnh tng hp hn; Kt hp nhng tc ng nhm nng cao kh nng a kh vi kh nng ym kh. Bi v kh nng a kh l c s pht trin nhng kh nng ym kh, cn c ch gluc phn l c s pht trin c ch phtphocratin. ng thi cc phn ng ym kh l nhn t quan trng kch thch pht trin kh nng a kh.

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BI 8 : CHN THNG TRONG TH THAO V V SINH TP LUYN TDTT I. Chn thng trong th thao 1. Khi nim L cc chn thng sy ra trong qu trnh tp luyn v thi u th dc th thao. Chn thng trong th thao khc vi cc chn thng trong sinh hot v lao ng ch n c lin quan trc tip vi cc nhn t v iu kin tp luyn th thao nh cc mn th thao, k hoch hun luyn, ng tc k thut, trnh tp luyn... 2. Nguyn nhn ca cc chn thng v nguyn tc phng Tm hiu v nm vng quy lut pht sinh chn thng th thao l iu cn thit i vi mi gio vin th dc th thao, hc sinh, sinh vin v nhng ngi yu thch hot ng th dc th thao.S dng cc bin php an ton c hiu qu l cch tt nht trong cng tc phng, lm gim ti mc thp nht t l chn thng th thao, m bo sc kho cho ngi tham gia hot ng th dc th thao. 2.1. Nguyn nhn ca chn thng th thao Nguyn nhn gy ra chn thng th thao c rt nhiu. Da vo cc t liu nghin cu, tng hp cc nguyn nhn chn thng th thao trong nc v ngoi nc hin nay, c th phn thnh hai mt: Nguyn nhn c bn v nguyn nhn tim n (nguyn nhn dn dt). a. Nguyn nhn c bn (nguyn nhn trc tip hoc nguyn nhn chung). T tng khng coi trng hoc thiu tri thc phng. S pht sinh cc chn thng th thao gn lin vi vic thiu cc tri thc cn thit v vic phng chn thng ca nhng t chc hot ng th dc th thao, gio vin, hng dn vin v nhng ngi thng xuyn tham gia tp luyn th dc th thao. Nhng thiu st trong khi ng: Thiu st trong khi ng dn n chn thng c nhng tnh hung sau y: + Khng khi ng hoc khi ng khng y . Tp luyn v thi u cng thng khi h thng thn kinh v cc h thng chc nng khc cha c pht ng mt cch y (c th cha c lm nng ln).

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+ S kt hp gia ni dung khi ng vi ni dung bui hc, ni dung hun luyn khng thch ng, thiu phn khi ng chuyn mn, chc nng ca cc b phn gnh vc nng, trng lng cha c ci thin. + Lng vn ng khi ng qu ln. Do lng vn ng phn khi ng qu ln nn va mi bt u bc vo vn ng chnh thc sn sinh cm gic mt mi, chc nng c th khng vo trng thi tt m bt u gim xung. + Thi gian cch qung gia khi ng v vn chnh qu di. Khi thi gian cch qung qu di s lm cho tc dng sinh l do khi ng to ra gim i hoc mt hn. Trnh hun luyn km. Trng thi c th khng tt. l ng v ngh khng tt, b m hoc chn thng cha lnh hon ton hc mt mi v khi chc nng c th gim st... Phng php t chc khng tho ng. Vi phm quy tc th thao. Khng tun th lut thi u, khng phc tng trng ti, c tnh phm quy hoc a nghch trong gi ging dy hun luyn Sn bi dng c, trang phc khng ph hp yu cu v sinh an ton, kh hu thi tit xu. b. Nguyn nhn tim nca chn thng (Nguyn nhn dn dt). Nguyn nhn dn dt ca chn thng l do hai nhn t tim n v sinh l, gii phu ca cc b phn c th no v c im k thut ca bn thn mn th thao quyt nh. Ch khi c s tc ng ca nguyn nhn trc tip th nhng yu t tim n ny mi tr thnh nguyn nhn dn ti chn thng. C rt nhiu nhn t ni ti khc nhau v quy lut pht sinh chn thng ca mi nhn t ny cng rt khc nhau. c im gii phu sinh l. Chn thng c mi quan h nht nh vi c im gii phu ca b phn cc b no , VD: Khp vai khi vn ng, b vai d c st, chn p vo cc t chc xung quanh m to ra chn thng. c im v la tui. B phn hay b chn thng v t l pht sinh chn thng cc la tui khc nhau cng khc nhau. VD: Khi ng mng chm t hoc bt k s xoay trong hoc xoay ngoi mnh m ca xng i, hoc vi tc dng ca lc bn ngoi ging nhau th ngi gi d b gy xng i hn l i tng thanh thiu nin. c im ca k thut bn thn mn th thao. Do c im v yu cu

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k thut, cc mn th thao bao gi cng c s khc nhau v lng vn ng phi chu ng i vi cc b phn c th. V vy i vi mi mn th thao c th u c nhng v tr d b chn thng ring ca n. * Tm li, nguyn nhn gy nn cc chn thng th thao tng i phc tp. Thng thng l kt qu tng hp ca nguyn nhn c bn v nguyn nhn tim n. 2.2. Nguyn tc phng chn thng 1. Tng cng gio dc v mc ch ca th dc th thao: Nhng ngi tham gia tp luyn th dc th thao cn khng ch nhn thc c mc ch ca tp luyn TDTT l tng cng th cht, thc y s pht trin c th, nng cao trnh k thut th thao, m cn nhn thc c rng ch c bo m c sc kho mi c th trnh c nhng chn thng trong tp luyn TDTT. Hiu nhng kin thc c lin quan v vn chn thng. Tng cng gio dc tnh t chc k lut. 2. Sp xp hp l qu trnh tp luyn v thi u. Tm hiu k trng tm v nhng ni dung kh ca bui tp. i vi nhng ni dung kh nm vng, nhng khu m ngi tp d mc sai lm hoc nhng ng tc c nhiu nguy c xy ra chn thng th phi c s chun b, d phng tt m bo an ton cho tp luyn. 3. Phi khi ng tt. Mc ch ca khi ng l nng cao tnh hng phn ca h thng cc trung khu thn kinh, tng cng chc nng ca cc h thng c quan, khc phc tnh sinh l ca cc chc nng, chun b tt kh nng c th cho phn tp luyn chnh. 4. Tng cng bo him v t bo him. Bo him l mt bin php quan trng ngn nga chn thng khi tin hnh nhng ng tc trn khng v nhng ng tc c kh ln. Trong lc tp luyn ch cn hi ni lng hoc bo him khng tho ng l c th xy ra chn thng nht l trong th dc dng c. Ngi tham gia tp luyn th dc th thao cn phi hc c phng php t bo him, khi ri t cao xung mt t cn phi co gi, hai chn khp song song, khi trng tm khng vng c nguy c b ng th phi lp tc ci u, gp khuu tay cun trn thn ngi li, dng vai v lng tip ng thi theo ln

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vng.

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5. Tng cng cng tc kim tra y hc v ch v sinh sn bi dng c. i vi nhng ngi thng xuyn tham gia tp luyn th dc th thao cn phi nh k tin hnh kim tra th lc, sc kho... trng tm kim tra l o chc nng tim phi v xt nghim mu, nc tiu quan st v tm hiu s bin i chc nng c th trong tp luyn v sau thi u. i vi nhng ngi mc mt s bnh mn tnh cng cn phi tng cng quan st, kim tra y hc v kim tra sc kho nh k cng nh kim tra b sung, ngn cm ngi c bnh hoc ngi cha c tp luyn y tham gia hoc thi u cng thng. 3. Cp cu chn thng th thao Cp cu l vic x l mang tnh ti ch, khn cp, chnh xc i vi s c chn thng pht sinh ngoi mun hoc t ngt. Mc ch ca cp cu l cu tnh mng v trnh chn thng tip, phng ming chn thng b nhim trng, gim bt s au n ca ngi b chn thng, ngn nga bnh nng ln v to iu kin vn chuyn bnh nhn n bnh vin... iu tr tip. Trong mc ny chng ti ch nu mt s phng php cp cu chn thng thng gp trong tp luyn th dc th thao sau. A. Cp cu chy mu. C mt s phng php sau: - Phng d cao chi b thng: Cm vo chi b thng nng ln cao, lm cho v tr b chy mu cao hn tim t lm cho huyt p v tr b xut huyt gim xung gim bt s chy mu. - Phng php kp bng hai ngn tay gia: Ngi b chy mu t cm mu bng cch dng hai ngn gia co gp li ri kp cht vo ch chy mu. - Phng php bng p: Trc ht dng thuc st trng, gc ph ln, sau dng bng qun p li. - Phng php gp chi thm m: Dng cp cu cng tay, bn tay, cng chn, bn chn. Dng mt cun bng hoc mt nm bng t vo ch lm () khp khuu hoc khp gi, sau gp cng tay hoc cng chn ri dng bng qun hnh s 8 c nh li. B. Cp cu chong. Chong l triu chng tng hp xy ra khi c th b mt kch thch mnh lit lm cho chc nng tun hon b gim mnh hoc ri lon. Phng php cp cu:

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- Cho ngh ngi yn tnh. - Cho ung nc. - Gi m v trnh nng nng. - Phng nga ng h hp b tr ngi. - Chng au. - Chm cu, bm huyt. - Phng php huyt c bit. - Bng b, c nh. C. X l ti ch trng hp sai khp. Sai khp l trng thi din khp b mt kt ni bnh thng. Cch x l sai khp: - Khi b sai khp, bin php l tng l lp tc tin hnh th php phc khp (ko nn a vo khp) nh vy ngi chn thng s t au v t l thnh cng cao. - Phng php c nh khp khuu, khp vai b sai khp. Khi khp vai b sai trt, dng 2 chic bng tam gic gp thnh bng rng, mt khn dng buc treo cng tay cn khn kia vng qua cnh tay bn b chn thng ri buc sang pha bn di nch ca bn tay lnh. Khi khp khuu b sai trt, dng np bng st un cong 1 gc thch hp t vo sau khuu tay ri dng bng qun li c nh. D. Th thut h hp nhn to v xoa bp tim ngoi lng ngc. L mt bin php li dng cc thao tc h hp nhn to duy tr s trao i kh ca c th nhm ci thin trng thi thiu xy ng thi thi ra CO 2, thc y c quan h hp c th t ch h hp. - Phng php v thao tc. Khi thao tc cn ngi b nn nm nga trn tm g cng hoc trn mt t, ngi lm nhim v cp cu dng hai bn tay chng ln nhau. Ci bn tay c t khu vc ranh gii gia xng ngc vi 1/3 ngoi xng sn (ch khng c ln phn li xng sn st bng) khuu tay dui thng. Da vo trng lng ca thn trn v sc mnh c cnh tay, n p theo nhp vo xng ngc, Khi p thng xung xng ngc cn c s dn p lm cho xng ngc lm xung 3-4cm, i vi nhi ng c th p nh hn, nhp n p tim mi pht t 60-80 ln, nhi ng khong 100 ln. i vi nn nhn b ngng c h hp v tim nn ng thi tin hnh c hai

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vic h hi thi ngt v xoa bp tim. Nu nh ch c mt ngi thao tc th t l p tim vi h hp l 15: 2 tin hnh thay i lp i lp li. Nu c hai ngi thao tc th 1 ngi p tim, 1 ngi h hi c 5 ln p tim th 1 ln thi ngt, v c th lun phin nhau tin hnh. E.Cp cu nn nhn b ui nc. ui nc l ch ngi b nn ton thn chm trong nc, ng h hp b nc bt li hoc do hng b co cng dn ti ngt th m chong ngt di nc. - Cch x l: i vi ngi ui nc sau khi c cu a ln b, trc tin nn nhanh chng lm sch cc cht m ri v cc vt cn ng li trong mm, mi ngi b ui; Nu c rng gi cng cn phi tho b ra ngoi trnh ri vo kh qun lm tng thm ngt th, ni rng dy tht lng, c o, tip xc ngc nn nhn ln cho nc chy ra. Cch xc nc c th l: Ngi cp cu ngi 1 chn qu, 1 chn chng ngi b ui nc nm sp vt ngang i ca chn chng sao cho u ngi ui nc di thp nc trong khoang ming, kh qun, phi v d dy chy ra. Vic xc nc phi tin hnh nhanh chng tranh th tng pht giy cho vic h hi thi ngt, xoa bp tim ngoi lng ngc. II. V sinh tp luyn th dc th thao 1. V sinh v nhim v ca v sinh tp luyn V sinh l khoa hc v sc kho v xy dng nhng iu kin thch hp nhm bo v v tng cng sc kho ca con ngi phng bnh tt. Mc ch ca v sinh l nghin cu cc nh hng ca mi trng sng i vi sc kho v kh nng hot ng ca con ngi. Xy dng c s khoa hc v cc iu kin ti u duy tr sc kho v ko di tui th. Trong qu trnh pht trin, v sinh hc chia ra thnh nhiu phn mn gii quyt cc nhim v c th; V sinh lao ng, v sinh hc ng, v sinh thc phm, v sinh th dc th thao. V sinh TDTT nghin cu tc ng ca cc yu t mi trng i vi c th ngi tp, n c v tr quan trng trong qu trnh GDTC. Cc kin thc v sinh hc khng ch gp phn hn ch nhng nh hng xu ca mi trng i vi c th ngi tp, m cn to c s khoa hc s dng cc yu t mi trng, lm tng hiu qu tp luyn, nng cao trng thi sc kho chung v

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phng chn thng. Trong qu trnh GDTC, hc sinh cn nm vng cc kin thc v v sinh c nhn v v sinh cng cng, bit cch s dng c hiu qu cc kin thc y trong sinh hot, hc tp v lao ng, trong vic t chc tham gia cc hot ng TDTT. V sinh TDTT bao gm cc phn v sinh c nhn, v sinh mi trng, v sinh bi tp, dng c khi tp luyn v thi u TDTT v cc phng php v sinh nhm hi phc v nng cao kh nng lm vic. 2. V sinh c nhn V sinh c nhn bao gm cc vn sp xp hp l thi gian biu hng ngy, v sinh thn th, v sinh trang phc. Nhng hiu bit v v sinh c nhn khng ch cn thit i vi mi ngi m cn c ngha x hi to ln, bi mi c nhn l mt phn nh ca x hi. nu b qua cc yu cu v sinh c nhn c th lm lan truyn cc bnh dch trong tp th. Ni dung chnh ca v sinh c nhn l xy dng c np sng v sinh lnh mnh, sp xp hp l gia lao ng v ngh ngi, tp luyn TDTT, v sinh n ung, v sinh ng, v sinh thn th, trang phc, khc phc cc thi nghin xu. A. Sp xp thi gian biu hng ngy hp l gia lao ng v ngh ngi C s ca vic sp xp l da trn quy lut v nhp sinh hc ca c th. y l quy lut quan trng ca t nhin. Nh ta bit tt c cc qu trnh sng c trng cho sinh vt u bin i c tnh nhp iu. Nhiu chc nng ca c th, k c kh nng hot ng th lc, bin i tun theo quy lut nhp ngy, m. Cc cng trnh nghin cu cho thy kh nng hot ng th lc km nht vo khong thi gian t 2 gi n 5 gi v t 12 gi n 14 gi. V c th mnh nht t 8 n 12 gi v t 14 n 17 gi hng ngy. Yu t thi im nh hng r rt n hiu qu ca cc qu trnh sinh ho xy ra trong c th. V d: Nu hng ngy n cm vo mt g nht nh th vo thi im dch tiu ho s tit ra nhiu, lm cho vic tiu ho thc n d dng hn. Hoc nu tin hnh lao ng tr c hoc lao ng chn tay vo mt gi nht nh trong ngy th vo thi gian kh nng hot ng tr c hoc chn tay s tng ln.

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Li ch ca vic sp xp thi gian biu hng ngy: - m bo cc quy lut nhp sinh hc ca c th to iu kin ti u cho c th hot ng v hi phc nng cao kh nng lao ng v tp luyn. - Lm cho hot ng ca ngi thc hin thi gian biu c hiu qu v kinh t. - Lm cho c th kp thi pht huy cc kh nng d tr ca mnh hot ng theo quy lut ca phn x c iu kin. Chng ta khng th xy dng mt thi gian biu chung cho mi ngi, v iu kin sng, sinh hot, lao ng, hc tp ca mi ngi khng ging nhau. Song cc nguyn tc v sinh c bn ca thi gian biu hng ngy phi c bo m y . l cc nguyn tc: - Hng ngy ng dy vo mt gi nht nh. - Tp th dc bui sng v lm v sinh thn th (ra mt, nh rng, tm...) u n. - n vo mt gi nht nh. - Hc tp, lm vic vo nhng gi nht nh. - Tp luyn TDTT hp l, t nht 2 ln mt tun, mi ln 2 gi. - Hng ngy ng t nht 8 gi. i ng vo mt gi nht nh. Trong thi gian biu hng ngy cn phi dnh thi gian cho ngh ngi. V c t nht 2 gi trong ngy lm vic hoc ngh ngi ngoi tri. Vic xy dng v thc hin thi gian biu hng ngy mt cch nghim tc c tc dng rt nhiu trong vic gio dc v rn luyn ch, tnh t chc k lut. B. V sinh gic ng + Gic ng c ngha c bit i vi s hi phc kh nng lm vic ca c th. N l mt loi hnh ngh ngi khng th thay th. Nu thiu gic ng c tc hi hn c n. Ngi ta th nghim cc con ch c th nhn n 25 ngy m vn sng, cn nu khng c ng ch 5 ngy n cht. + Din bin c th trong gic ng: H thn kinh khng phn ng vi cc kch thch, tim p chm i, huyt p gim, tn s h hp gim, c bp th lng, trao i cht gim, nng lng tiu hao t, trong c th xy ra qu trnh hi phc, nht l trong cc t bo thn kinh. C th c ngh ngi hon ton v kh nng lm vic c hi phc li. Nhng iu cn bit m bo cho gic ng c cht lng tt - Khng nn ng sau khi va kt thc mt cng vic tr c hoc chn tay

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cng thng. Tt nht l trc khi i ng nn lm mt vic g nh nhng hoc do chi, hoc c mt vi trang sch. Phng ng phi thong mt, ging chiu phi sch s. - Gic ng cn phi di v lin tc vo ng mt thi gian nht nh to thi quen bun ng khi n gi. Tt nht nn ng sm dy sm. - Phi m bo iu kin cn thit cho gic ng nh s yn tnh, nh sng... Nn nh rng gic ng c ngha quan trng ti cuc sng. Nu thiu ng thng xuyn s b suy nhc t bo thn kinh, lm gim kh nng lm vic v sc khng ca c th. Thi gian ca gic ng ph thuc vo nhiu yu t nh tui tc, trng thi sc kho, c im c nhn... i vi ngi ln thi gian ng trung bnh hng ngy khong 8 gi. C. V sinh n ung C ngi cho rng n nhiu, ung nhiu, cht lng cc mn n v ung ngon l hp l. Thc ra n ung hp l bao gm: - Chn thc n hp l v - n ung ng quy nh v sinh Ngay c trong iu kin cn kh khn v kinh t th trng th tng trn cng cn c qun trit. N cho php chng ta pht huy ti a gi tr dinh dng ca thc n. C s khoa hc ca vic la chn thc n phi c mt t l ti u cc cht dinh dng c bn, ph hp vi nhu cu ca c th. m bo cht bao gm m ng vt v thc vt (theo t l 60% v 40%), m ng vt v m thc vt (80% v 20%), ng phc tp v ng n gin (70% v 30%). Ngoi ra thc n cn phi c rau, mui khong, vitamin v nc. Sau nhng hot ng tr c v c bp cng thng cn b sung vo ba n thm ng, vitamin. Nhng iu nn bit vi ch n ung: - Cn phi n vo mt gi nht nh to ra phn x tit dch nhm m bo tiu ho tt thc n. Nn n trc khi tp t nht 2 gi v sau khi tp 30 pht n 40 pht. Tt nht nn n ba ba mt ngy vo thi im sng, tra, chiu (theo t l 20%, 40%, 40% khu phn n hng ngy), Ba n chiu phi n trc khi ng t nht 2 gi v nn n nhng thc n d tiu bi trong khi ng tiu ho chm, nu thc n lu lu trong ng tiu ho, d ln men lm ri lon tiu ho.

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Ngoi ra nu n qu nhiu v n mun (gn gi i ng) lm cho gic ng khng tt, nh hng ti kh nng lm vic ca ngy hm sau. Khi n nn tp trung, khng ch vo vic khc, khng c sch bo, nhng cu chuyn trao i khi n phi nh nhng, khng gy cng thng v xc ng qu mc v chng c th gy ri lon tiu ho. Khng nn s dng qu nhiu gia v trong khi n, nht l cc cht gy kch thch mnh. Thc n khng nn qu nng v qu lnh v phi ch bin v sinh, d tiu ho. Thc n phi cn bng nng lng. Nng lng do thc n cung cp phi tng ng vi lng lng tiu ho. n qu nhiu cng khng c l v s dn n hin tng bo ph. lm ri lon qu trnh tro i cht, lm pht sinh mt s bnh. c bit l bnh tim mch. Ung cng c ngha quan trng trong ch n ung hp l. Nhu cu ca mt ngi khong 2-2,5 lt nc hng ngy, i vi ngi lao ng nng v tp luyn th dc th thao, nhu cu cn cao hn na. Tuy nhin ung nc qu nhiu cng c hi cho c th. Lng nc tha lm tng bi tit m hi, tng trng ti cho tim v thn, nht l ung nc nhiu trc khi i ng. Cn lu ung nc khng lm gim cm gic kht ngay lp tc v nc ch thm vo mu v t chc sau khi ung t 10-15 pht, v vy khi kht nn xc ming ri ung t t, tng ngm nh. Vo ma h, khi tp luyn ra nhiu m hi nn pha thm mt t mui vo nc b li s mui b bi tit ra. D. V sinh thn th V sinh thn th c ngha quan trng trong vic lm c th hot ng tt, tng cng qu trnh trao i cht, pht trin kh nng lm vic tr c v chn tay, phng bnh tt. a) Chm sc da Da l c quan phc tp v quan trng ca c th. Da m nhim nhiu chc nng nh bo v mi trng bn trong c th, bi tit cc sn phm trao i cht, iu ho thn nhit, da c rt nhiu tn cng ca h thn kinh v vy n m bo cho c th thng tin thng xuyn v tc ng ca nhiu yu t mi trng. Tt c cc chc nng nu trn ca da ch hot ng c bnh thng nu da kho v sch. Da bn v c bnh nh hng xu ti trng thi sc kho chung ca mi ngi. Cch chm sc da c bn l tm ra hng ngy. Cc b phn nh c, mt

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cn phi ra vo bui sng v trc khi i ng. Tay chn phi c ra thng xuyn. Sau mi bui tp th dc th thao nht thit phi tm. Ngoi tc dng lm sch tm cn c tc dng hi tnh i vi h thn kinh tim mch, tng cng trao i cht, thc y qu trnh hi phc. Hiu qu hi phc ca tm s rt cao. Nu c kt hp xoa bp nh. b) Chm sc rng ming Cn phi gi rng ming thng xuyn sch s, trc khi i ng v sng dy phi nh rng. Sau khi n xong phi xc ming, trnh thc n cng qu, nng qu hoc lnh qu, bi nhng th lm hng men rng. Cng vy, trnh dng rng cn vt cng hay m np chai... E.V sinh trang phc Trang phc ngoi vic lm p, cn bo v c th khi cc tc ng xu ca mi trng v cc tn thng c hc, gi cho c th sch s. Qun o phi nh v thun tin cho hot ng, phi to ra c vng vi kh hu cn thit ngoi b phn c th c che ph. Bi vy trang phc phi bo m cc tnh cht thong kh, gi nhit, thm nc v cc tnh cht vt l khc. Trang phc phi ph hp vi cc yu cu s dng v kh hu c th. Trang phc th thao c cc yu cu c th thuc vo tnh cht tp luyn v yu cu ca lut l thi u trong tng mn th thao. N phi nh v khng cn tr hot ng ca c th, thong kh v thm m hi tt. Trang phc tp luyn th thao ch nn s dng trong tp luyn v thi u th thao. Chng phi sch, p v c mu sc ph hp. G. Tc hi ca cc thi quen nghin xu Nghin thuc l, thuc lo, ru bia v cht ma tu... rt c hi cho sc kho v hn ch kh nng lm vic. i vi ngi tp luyn th dc th thao, cc thi nghin nh hng trc tip ti thnh tch thi u. Cc thi nghin hon ton tri vi cng tc GDTC. a) Tc hi ca thi nghin thuc l Trong khi thuc l, k c qua u lc cha nhiu cht c nh nictin. xt ccbon v.v... c bit l nictin. Nhiu s liu nghin cu cho thy nghin thuc l nh hng xu ti h thn kinh. Ngi nghin thng au u, chng mt, mt ng, kh nng lm vic tr c v chn tay u gim. Ht thuc

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gy ra nhiu bnh v tim mch v h hp, k c ung th. Thng k chng minh 95% trng hp ung th ng h hp l do ht thuc l. Thuc l c tc hi ln i vi ngi tp luyn th dc th thao ngoi chc nng tim mch v h hp, n cn lm gim tc phn x, lm ri lon kh nng phi hp ng tc. b) Tc hi ca nghin bia ru Nghin ru, bia v cc ung c cn khc lm nh hng ti sc kho v kh nng lm vic r rt. Cn trong ru, bia tuy lu li trong mu khng lu, song cc c quan quan trng nh no, tim, gan cn c th tn ti li t 28 gi n 15-16 ngy. Tc hi ca ru, bia u tin nh hng xu ti h thn kinh trung ng. Mt lng rt nh ru, bia lm ri lon s cn bng gia cc qu trnh hng phn v c ch trong no do chng hn ch qu trnh c ch. V vy s hng phn sau khi ung ru, bia hon ton khng phi do qu trnh hng phn c kch thch m l do qu trnh c ch trong no b st km. S hng phn do ru, bia gy nn ch l hng phn gi. Sau khi un ru bia, kh nng tr c gim. Ngi ung ru bia khng th suy ngh nhanh, khng tp trung, d phm sai lm. Kh nng lm vic c bp cng b ri lon, tc phn x vn ng gim, lc co c gim. chnh xc ca ng tc gim r rt do s phi hp gia cc c b ri lon. Ung ru bia l nguyn nhn ca rt nhiu tai nn trong sn xut cng nh trong sinh hot. Ngi nghin ru bia s dn n ri lon nng n v c, h tim mch, gan, ng tiu ho v cc c quan khc. X gan do nghin ru gy ra c t l t vong cao. Nghin ru l nguyn nhn gy t vong cao, ng th ba trong tt c cc nguyn nhn, ch sau bnh tim mch v ung th. Ru bia lm gim hiu qua tp luyn th dc th thao. Tc ca vn ng vin gim 20% sau khi ung na lt bia v thnh tch thi u gim 2030%... Ni chung ton b cc t cht th lc v k nng vn ng u gim st cc mc khc nhau di tc ng ca ru v bia. III. CC YU CU V V SINH I VI A IM V DNG C TP LUYN TH DC TH THAO Tp luyn th dc th thao l mt b phn cu thnh ca h thng t chc lao ng khoa hc. N c ngha to ln trong vic nng cao nng xut lao ng v tng cng sc kho. Cc hnh thc tp luyn th dc th thao c tin hnh

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cc a im khc nhau, nhng cc a im phi tho mn cc iu kin v sinh tp luyn. C th l: - Phi rng, c th thc hin y cc ni dung ca bi tp mt cch thoi mi. - Khng c kh nng gy ra trn thng cho ngi tp. - Khng kh thong mt, khng cha kh c. - Lng bi t hn t l 1mg bi/ lm3 khng kh. - Ting n phi nh hn 70 xiben. - m khng cao hn so vi khng kh bn ngoi. - B mt phi bng phng, khng trn v thot nc tt khi tri ma. V dng c tp luyn th dc th thao: Dng c yu cu phi t tiu chun quy nh v hnh dng, trng lng v cht liu vt liu. Tt nht nn s dng cc dng c c sn xut theo tiu chun. Dng c tp luyn th dc th thao phi ph hp vi la tui v gii tnh ca ngi tp. IV. CC BIN PHP V SINH B TR NHM PHC HI V NNG CAO SC KHE V KH NNG LM VIC nng cao sc kho v kh nng lm vic ngoi cc bin php c bn l thi gian biu hng ngy hp l, ch n ung khoa hc v tp luyn th dc th thao thng xuyn, cn c mt s bin php khc cng c tc dng tt i vi cc c quan, h c quan v cc h c quan ca c th. Cc bin php c gi l cc bin php v sinh b tr. l cc bin php: Tm, ra bng nc khc nhau, xng hi, xoa bp, th khng kh ion ho cc loi, tm in, s dng dc phm. Nhng s dng ph bin, an ton l phng php xoa bp. Xoa bp c th ngi khc xoa bp cho mnh hoc t mnh xoa bp. l bin php hi phc v nng cao kh nng lm vic hu hiu, c s dng t lu trong y hc. Tc dng xoa bp tc ng ln c quan cm th thn kinh nm trong da v dy chng, gy nh hng ti ton b h thng thn kinh. Ngi Trung Quc ch trng n tc ng ca xoa bp ln cc huyt, l cc nt ca h kinh lc trong c th. Thng qua c th lm bin i trng thi chc nng ca tt c cc c quan trong c th Tng cng tun hon, h hp, tng cng kh nng hot ng c bp, cung cp xy v cc cht dinh dng cho c, dy chng, tng linh hot ca khp. Lm cho c th sau khi xoa bp cm gic khoan khoi, kh nng hi phc nhanh hn. Xoa bp v t xoa bp c chia ra lm cc loi hnh khc nhau:

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- Xoa bp m dung. - Xoa bp v sinh. - Xoa bp th thao. Xoa bp c th tin hnh trn ton thn hoc mt b phn ca c th (cc b). Cc k thut xoa bp (ng tc xoa bp) gm c: xoa vut, xoa xt, bp ln, n, nho bp, v vo, mit bng, m, rung, c ng tch cc, tiu cc. Khi t xoa bp c th s dng cc k thut xoa vui, xt, bp, nho bp, mit, rung, c ng cc khp. Cc ng tc k thut xoa bp cn c tin hnh theo mt trnh t nht nh. Thng bt u bng xoa vut, sau n xt bp, tip theo l nho bp m rung. Gia cc ng tc xoa bp v cui bui xoa bp thng dng ng tc xoa vut. Xoa bp nu ng tc chm v nh nhng s c tc dng an thn, c th th gin, do bt au. Tri li nu thao tc mnh v nhanh su c th lm c cng ln, co li kch thch c th. K thut xoa bp chia mt cch tng i lm 2 loi: - Xt, bp, n nh t t, v v rung nh. - Loi ng tc kch thch nh dung mnh, chm, m, g, vo hoc ch xt mnh, lc c khi c ln. Khi tin hnh xoa bp v t xoa bp cn ch n cc quy tc sau: Khng xoa bp khi b st cao, khi c bnh vim nhim ang tin trin, khi chy mu, hay e do chy mu, khi c bnh ngoi da, khi mt mi qu sc. - Xoa bp phi tin hnh theo chiu t ngoi vo trong, theo ng bch huyt khuu tay, nch, u gi, bn. Khng xoa bp ln cc ng bch huyt. - Khi xoa bp b phn c xoa bp phi th lng hon ton v ci b ht qun o. - T xoa bp ton thn, bt u t bn chn, bp chn, ln u gi, ln i, mng sau n lng, c, u, ngc, bng, cui cng l hai bn tay. - Trc khi xoa bp phi ra tay sch s, mng tay ct ngn, ngi c xoa bp phi tm ra sch s. Ni xoa bp phi thong mt, trnh gi la. Thi gian v k thut xoa bp c th bin i tu thuc vo mc ch xoa bp v c im ca ngi c xoa bp.

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CU HI N TP
1. Anh, ch hiu g v mn hc GDTC. t c ch ch ca mn hc, em xy dng k hoch tp luyn v thc hin n nh th no? 2. Anh, ch hiu th no l GDTC? Nu cc hnh thc GDTC. Trong ch XHCN ca chng ta ngy hm nay, theo anh, ch GDTC c hiu nh th no? 3. Nguyn tc tp luyn TDTT l g? Nu cc nguyn tc tp luyn TDTT. Theo Anh, ch nguyn tc no l cn bn, hy trnh by nguyn tc . 4. Nhng ch trong tp luyn TDTT? Trong cc ch trn anh, ch thy ci no l quan trng nht? Nu v trnh by kin ca Anh, ch. 5. Nu k hoch tp luyn TDTT? Anh, ch hy trnh by mt k hoch tun i vi c nhn mnh. 6. Nu k hoch tp luyn TDTT? Trong cuc sng sinh hot hng ngy, anh, ch sp xp thi gian biu cho hc tp v tp luyn th thao trong ngy nh th no? Trnh by k hoch . 7. Nu s nh hng ca tp luyn TDTT i vi h thng h hp. Theo Anh, ch hiu th no l cu trc gi hc TDTT? 8. Sc kho l g? Vai tr ca n i vi sinh vin trong nh trng i hc ni ring v i vi cuc i cuc sng ni chung? Lm th no c sc kho nh mong mun? 9. Sc kho l g? Cc yu t nh hng ti sc kho? Hy xy dng k hoch tp luyn cng c v nng cao sc kho. 10.Cu trc gi hc TDTT? Nu bn cht ca gi hc? L sinh vin anh, ch th hin nh th no trong gi hc GDTC? 11.Hy nu cc phng php GDTC? L sinh vin anh, ch s dng cc phng php nh th no? 12.Hy nu cc nguyn tc v phng php GDTC? L sinh vin anh, ch thc hin cc nguyn tc nh th no trong gi hc GDTC? (trong qu trnh tp luyn TDTT trng) 13.Cc t cht th lc c trng ca con ngi? Hy nu khi nim, phn loi. Phng php gio dc sc nhanh? Lin h vi bn thn 14.Cc t cht th lc c trng ca con ngi? Hy nu khi nim, phn loi.Phng php gio dc sc mnh? Lin h vi bn thn 15.Cc t cht th lc c trng ca con ngi? Hy nu khi nim, phn loi.Phng php gio dc sc bn? Lin h vi bn thn 16.Huyt p? Cch o huyt p? ngha ca n? Gi s anh, ch mc bnh huyt p cao (hoc thp) anh, ch lp k hoch tp luyn nh th no iu tr bnh ny? 17.Mch p? Cch ly mch? Cc ch s ca n lc ngh ngi (yn tnh) v trong vn ng. Din bin ca ch s mch p trong gi hc TDTT? Gi

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s anh, ch mc bnh tim mch anh, ch ra phng php tp luyn nh th no? 18.Hy cho bit kt qu kim tra sc kho ban u khi vo trng. Cch o cc ch s c bn. Hy lp s t theo di sc kho? Nhng iu g em cn ch khi tp luyn TDTT? 19.Hy cho bit mn th thao m anh, ch yu thch nht: c im v tm tt lch s? Em lp k hoch tp luyn mn th thao nh th no khi hc ti trng? 20.Phn x? Phn loi phn x? C ch hnh thnh phn x? c th thch nghi vi mi trng hc tp v cng tc tt, anh, ch s dng qu thi gian trng nh th no? 21.C ch cung cp nng lng cho c th khi tp luyn TDTT? Hy cho bit sn phm trung gian v sn phm cui cng ca qu trnh trao i cht v nng lng? Khi tp luyn TDTT anh, ch cn ch nht iu g v trang phc v mi trng? 22. Hi phc l g? Cc bin php thc y nhanh qu trnh phc hi trong tp luyn v sau tp luyn TT? Nu cc v d c th 23. Hy nu cc chn thng thng gp trong tp luyn TDTT? Cch x l v bin php phng nga? 24. Gi s anh, ch mc mt cn bnh no ? Phng php iu tr n theo y hc c truyn? Cc bi thuc dn gian m anh, ch bit? Hy vch k hoch tp luyn TDTT khc phc cn bnh ? 25. Khi nim chn thng? Nguyn nhn v cc nguyn tc phng? Trong qu trnh tp luyn th thao c mt sinh vin b lt c chn, l anh, ch trong trng hp y anh, ch s x l nh th no? 26. Khi nim chn thng? Nu cc phng php cp cu chn thng trong th thao. Trong qu trnh tp luyn th thao, c mt sinh vin b chy mu ngoi. L anh, ch trong trng hp y s x l nh th no? 27. V sinh tp luyn TDTT? Sp xp thi gian biu hng ngy gia lao ng v ngh ngi th no l hp l? Bn thn anh, ch sp xp thi gian nh th no? 28. V sinh tp luyn TDTT? Lm th no c c gic ng v n ung khoa hc? p dng i vi bn thn ca anh, ch. *D kin thi:- hnh thc t lun ( vit 3 n 5 trang ) -phn kin thc c bn: 6 im -phn t duy sng to : 4 im

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