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Instructor’s & Student Guides This project, developed for the University Consortium on Instructional Shake Tables has been generously contributed by: Shirley J. Dyke Associate Professor Department of Civil Engineering Washington University in St. Louis
***** INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE *****
INTRODUCTION TO DYNAMICS OF STRUCTURES
A PROJECT DEVELOPED FOR THE UNIVERSITY CONSORTIUM ON INSTRUCTIONAL SHAKE TABLES
Required Equipment: • Instructional Shake Table • Two Story Building • Three Accelerometers • MultiQ Board • Power Supply • Computer • Software: Wincon and Matlab
Developed by: Mr. Juan Martin Caicedo (email@example.com) Ms. Sinique Betancourt Dr. Shirley J. Dyke (firstname.lastname@example.org) Washington University in Saint Louis
This project is supported in part by the National Science Foundation Grant Nos. DUE–9950340 and CMS–9733272. Additional support is provided by the Mid-America Earthquake Center (NSF EEC-9701785) and Washington University.
you must add the following directory to the MATLAB path before proceeeding with this experiment (c:\matlabr11\toolbox\rtw).0 Experimental Procedure: Sample Results and Discussion 4.2 Half power bandwidth method NOTE: If you do not have the Real-Time Workshop installed on your computer.3 Damping estimation 4. Natural frequencies. INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE 1 Washington University in St.3. mode shapes and damping ratios for a scaled structure are obtained experimentally. Figure 2: Typical Transfer Functions 4.1 Random excitation and transfer function calculation Figure 1: Typical Recorded Time Histories. 4.2 Determination of mode shapes Figure 3: Diagram of Mode Shapes of Test Structure 4.1 Exponential decay Figure 4: Free response of test structure in (a) Mode 1 and (b) Mode 2. Contents of Instructor’s Guide 4. Louis .3.INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE Introduction to Dynamics of Structures Structural Control & Earthquake Engineering Laboratory Washington University in Saint Louis Objective: The objective of this experiment is to introduce students to principles in structural dynamics through the use of an instructional shake table.
5 1 Acceleration (g) 0.15 -0. first and second floor for the white noise input.1 Transfer function calculation Please answer the following questions. b) acceleration at ground level. Introduction to Dynamics of Structures 2 Washington University in St.5 -1 -1.05 0 -0.5 Acceleration (g) 0 -1 -2 0 50 100 Time (sec) 150 -2 0 50 100 Time (sec) 150 Figure 1.15 0.1 Displacement (in) 0. (a) Chirp Displacement Command to Shake Table Displacement command 0.0 Experimental Procedure: Sample Results and Discussion 4. c) first floor acceleration. Louis . Typical time history records for a) shake table command signal.5 0 50 100 Time (sec) 150 (c) 1st Floor Acceleration Record First Floor Acceleration 2 1 (d) 2nd Floor Acceleration Record First Floor Acceleration 2 1.1 -0. • How many natural frequencies does the structure have? • What are the values of the natural frequencies? • Are these values the same in the two transfer functions? Why or why not? ANSWER Figure 1 provides example acceleration records obtained from the ground.2 0.05 -0.5 Acceleration (g) 0 -0.2 0 50 100 Time (sec) 150 (b) Ground Acceleration Record Ground Acceleration 0.5 0 -0.4. and d) second floor acceleration.
The two values are the same in both plots. The system has two natural frequencies.8 Hz. ANSWER The mode shapes of the test structure are shown in figure 3.Second Floor Acceleration 50 0 -50 0 2 4 6 Frequency (Hz) 8 10 Figure 2.2 Determination of Mode Shapes Please do the following. The first mode has zero nodes and the second mode has one node. 4. The natural frequencies of this structure are: 2 Hz and 5. Introduction to Dynamics of Structures 3 Washington University in St. • Sketch each of the mode shapes of the structure. Sample transfer function plots for the test structure.First Floor Acceleration 50 0 -50 0 2 4 6 8 10 Transfer Function Ground .Amplitude (dB) Amplitude (dB) Transfer Function Ground . • Obtain the number of nodes in each mode shape. Louis . Figure 2 provides typical transfer functions for the test structure. • Does this result satisfy equation (35)? Explain. Test Structure First Mode Second Mode Figure 3. Diagram of mode shapes for the test structure.
Louis . ANSWER (a) First Mode Responses First Floor .Second Mode 10 15 20 Time (sec) 25 30 Figure 4.5 -1 0 5 10 15 20 Time (sec) 25 30 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 5 10 15 20 Time (sec) 25 30 (b) Second Mode Responses First Floor . ANSWER To use the decrement method.2.5 -1 -1.5 0 -0. the following calculations are performed.4.5 0 Acceleration (g) 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 5 10 15 20 Time (sec) 25 30 0 5 Second Floor .1 Exponential decay Please do the following. • What is the damping ratio obtained using this method? • Compare this damping ratio with that obtained in 4.First Mode 4 1 Acceleration (g) Acceleration (g) 0.3. Free response of test structure in (a) Mode 1 and (b) Mode 2.3. Introduction to Dynamics of Structures 4 Washington University in St.Second Mode Second Floor .3 Damping estimation 4.5 1 Acceleration (g) 0.First Mode 1.5 0 -0.
498 -----------y2 δ 0.778 -----------y –3 δ 1.469 MODE 2: floor 1: y 1 = 1. • From the transfer functions obtained in 4.721 y1 ln ---ln 0.= 5.= -----------------.1 estimate the damping ratio using the half power bandwidth method described in 2.2.549 × 10 –3 ζ = ----2π 2π 2π y1 ln ---ln 1.716 × 10 –3 = ---------ζ = ----2π 2π 2π y1 ln ---ln 0.186 × 10 ζ = ----2π 2π 2π 4.920 floor 2: y 1 = 1.985 y 2 = 1.920 δ 2 .985 -----------y 1.= -----------------.348 2 .3.= 5.= -----------------.= ---------ζ = ----2π 2π 2π y1 ln ---ln 1.469 .363 -----------y δ0.= 9.348 floor 2: y 1 = 0.363 y 2 = 0. What is the damping ratio associated with each natural frequency? • Compare the damping values for each of the two modes.MODE 1: (using y-values from MATLAB plots) floor 1: y 1 = 0. • Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these two methods? Introduction to Dynamics of Structures 5 Washington University in St.721 2 .= ---------.299 × 10 – 3 .= 6. Louis .= -----------------.4.778 y 2 = 1.498 y 2 = 0.= ---------.2 Bandwidth method ANSWER Please do the following.
. New York. N.73 f b = 5. 1997 Introduction to Dynamics of Structures 6 Washington University in St.Using the bandwith method. K. Prentice Hall. Chapman & Hall. Dynamics of Structures. M.= 2. MODE 1: (estimating values from plots) f a = 1. Prentice Hall. 1990 PAZ. N. Structural Dynamics. J.= 1. and 2) interpolation is required to estimate the half-power points.035 fb – fa . The half-power bandwidth technique results in significant errors when the damping in the system is small because: 1) the actual peak in the transfer function is difficult to capture. On the other hand. A.... 5. 1995 HUMAR. Dynamics of Structures.J.85 fb – fa . L. the following calculations are performed. the decrement technique is more effective for lightly damped systems. Louis .5% ζ 1 = -------------fb + f a MODE 2: (estimating values from plots) f a = 5.935 f b = 2.0 References CHOPRA.04% ζ 2 = -------------fb + fa The computed damping values are approximately the same order of magnitude using both methods.J..
wustl. .wustl.INTRODUCTION TO DYNAMICS OF STRUCTURES A PROJECT DEVELOPED FOR THE UNIVERSITY CONSORTIUM ON INSTRUCTIONAL SHAKE TABLES http://ucist.wustl. DUE–9950340.edu) Washington University in Saint Louis This project is supported in part by the National Science Foundation Grant No. Juan Martin Caicedo (email@example.com/ Required Equipment: • Instructional Shake Table • Two Story Building • Three Accelerometers • MultiQ Board • Power Supply • Computer • Software: Wincon and Matlab Developed by: Mr. Sinique Betancourt Dr.edu) Ms. Dyke (firstname.lastname@example.org. Shirley J.
and strong winds. To perform the experiment you will use a bench-scale shake table to reproduce a random excitation similar to that of an earthquake.Introduction to Dynamics of Structures Structural Control & Earthquake Engineering Laboratory Washington University in Saint Louis Objective: The objective of this experiment is to introduce you to principles in structural dynamics through the use of an instructional shake table. and then this will be extended to a multi degree of freedom (MDOF) structure. This section will provide these concepts.0 Introduction The dynamic behavior of structures is an important topic in many fields. while mechanical engineers must understand dynamics to isolate or control the vibration of machinery. Similarly. for the single story building shown in figure 1 we assume the floor is rigid compared to the two columns. In this experiment. 2. hurricanes. Natural frequencies. x. Aerospace engineers must understand dynamics to simulate space vehicles and airplanes. including the development of the differential equation of motion and its solution for the damped and undamped case.0 Theory: Dynamics of Structures To understand the experiment it is necessary to understand concepts in dynamics of structures. you will test a small test building of two floors to observe typical dynamic behavior and obtain its dynamic properties. an understanding of structural dynamics is important in the design and retrofit of structures to withstand severe dynamic loading from earthquakes. For example. of the floor. or to identify the occurrence and location of damage within an existing structure. Louis . First. the building shown in figure 2 has two degrees of freedom because we need to describe the movement of each floor separately in order to describe the movement of the whole structure. the behavior of a single degree of freedom (SDOF) structure will be discussed. the displacement of the structure is going to be completely described by the displacement. mode shapes and damping ratios for a scaled structure will be obtained experimentally. The number of degrees of freedom is defined as the minimum number of variables that are required for a full description of the movement of a structure. In civil engineering. Thus. Time records of the measured absolute acceleration responses of the building will be acquired. 1. Introduction to Dynamics of Structures 1 Washington University in St.
the damping force f d ( t ) . · is the first derivative of the displacement with respect to time (velocity) and x ·· is the where the x second derivative of the displacement with respect to time (acceleration).x2 p(t) m x m y x Figure 1. the damping is modeled by the shock absorber (c) and the mass of the floor is modeled by the mass (m). One degree of freedom structure. The forces include the spring force f s ( t ) . 2. the external dynamic load on the structure.c y x x1 m k. Figure 3b shows the free body diagram of the structure. p(t) k. Summing the forces shown in figure 3b we obtain ·· = p ( t ) – cx · – kx ΣF = m ⋅ x ·· + cx · + kx = p ( t ) mx where the mass m and the stiffness k are greater than zero for a physical system. Two degree of freedom structure. mass with spring and damper fs fd fi p(t) p(t) b. p ( t ) . In this model. the lateral stiffness of the columns is modeled by the spring (k).1 One degree of freedom We can model the building shown in figure 1 as the simple dynamically equivalent model shown in figure 3a. free body diagram Figure 3. Louis . These forces are defined as: fs = k ⋅ x · fd = c ⋅ x ·· fi = m ⋅ x (1) (2) (3) x k m c a. (4) (5) Introduction to Dynamics of Structures 2 Washington University in St. Dynamically equivalent model for a one floor building. and the inertial force f i ( t ) .c Figure 2.
2. Introduction to Dynamics of Structures 3 Washington University in St. Using cos ( –α ) = cos ( α ) and sin ( – α ) = – sin ( α ) we have x ( t ) = A cos ( ω n t ) + Ai sin ( ω n t ) + B cos ( ω n t ) – Bisin ( ω n t ) or.1 Undamped system Consider the behavior of the undamped system (c=0). m The solution of equation (5) for the undamped case is x ( t ) = Ae ωn i t + Be –ωn i t (12) (10) (8) (9) (7) αt (6) (11) where A and B are constants based on the initial conditions. x Using equations (6) and (7) in equation (5) and making p ( t ) equal to zero we obtain m α 2 e αt + k eαt = 0 eαt [ mα2 + k ] = 0 .1. From differential equations we know that the solution of a constant coefficient ordinary differential equation is of the form x( t) = e and the acceleration is given by ·· ( t ) = α 2 e α t . and the natural frequency ω n is defined as ωn = k--. m (13) Using Euler’s formula and rewriting equation (12) yields e i α t = cos α t + i sin α t x ( t ) = A ( cos ( ω n t ) + i sin ( ω n t ) ) + B ( cos ( – ω n t ) + isin ( – ω n t ) ) x ( t ) = A cos ( ω n t ) + Ai sin ( ω n t ) + B cos ( – ω n t ) + Bisin ( – ω n t ) . Equation (9) is satisfied when –k α 2 = ----m kα = ± i --. Louis (14) (15) (16) (17) .
x (22) (23) (21) Using equations (21). Letting A + B = C and A – B = D we obtain x ( t ) = C ( cos ω n t ) + Di ( sin ω n t ) (18) (19) where C and D are constants that are dependent on the initial conditions of x(t). The homogenous solution of the differential equation is of the form x( t ) = eαt and · ( t ) = α e αt x ·· ( t ) = α 2 e α t . Louis . From equation (19) it is clear that the response of the system is harmonic.x ( t ) = ( A + B ) cos ( ω n t ) + ( A – B ) i sin ( ω n t ) . to zero. From equation (13) the natural frequency. p(t).1. ωn 2. Tn . Its units are radians/sec. Solving for α we have – c ± c 2 – 4km α 1. The value of ω n describes the frequency at which the structure vibrates and is called the natural frequency. This solution is called the free vibration response because it is obtained by setting the forcing function. The vibration of the structure can also be described by the natural period. 2 = -------------------------------------2m Defining the critical damping coefficient as c cr = and the damping ratio as 4km (26) (25) (24) Introduction to Dynamics of Structures 4 Washington University in St. The period of the structure is the time that is required to complete one cycle given by π Tn = 2 -----.2 Damped system (20) Consider the response with a nonzero damping coefficient c ≠ 0 . (22) and (23) in equation (5) and making the forcing function p ( t ) equal to zero we have eαt[ mα2 + cα + k ] = 0 . ω n . is determined by the stiffness and mass of the structure.
2 = – ζω n ± i ω n 1 – ζ 2 . the damped natural frequency. Comparing the solutions of the damped structure in equation (19) and the undamped structure in equation (33). Louis .c ζ = -----c cr we can rewrite equation (25) α 1. Response of damped structures. This term forces the response to be shaped with an exponential envelope as shown in figure 4.05 (5%). the solution for the differential equation of motion for a damped unforced system is x ( t ) = Ae –ζω n t e – i ωd t + Be –ζωn t e i ωd t . we notice that the difference is in the presence of the term e –ζω n t . ω d . ω n . e –ζω n t term (exponential envelope) time T 2π T ≅ ----ωd Figure 4. Defining the damped natural frequency as ωd = ωn 1 – ζ 2 equation (28) can be rewritten as α 1. 2 = – ζω n ± i ω d . Civil structures typically have low damping ratios of less than 0. or x ( t ) = e –ζω n t ( Ae –i ωd t + Be i ωd t ) Using equation (14) (Euler’s formula) x ( t ) = e –ζω n t ( C cos ( ω d ) t + Di sin ( ω d ) t ) (27) (28) (29) (30) (31) (32) (33) where C and D are constants to be determined by the initial conditions. Thus. is typically close to the natural frequency. Thus. Introduction to Dynamics of Structures 5 Washington University in St.
Each natural frequency. φ n . p(t) is a vector of external forces. (34) will have n natural frequencies.2 Multiple degree of freedom systems A multiple degree of freedom structure and its equivalent dynamic model are shown in figure 5.Summary: In this section you learned basic concepts for describing a single degree of freedom system (SDOF). For example. In the followings section you will extend these concepts to the case of multiple degree of freedom systems. (35) p1(t) p2(t) p3(t) p4(t) m m m m Figure 5. damping and stiffness of the structure. has an associated mode shape vector. 2. and x is a vector of displacements. and n natural frequencies. Diagram of mode shapes for a four degree of freedom structure. damping. Multiple degree of freedom system and dynamic model. The number of nodes is related with the natural frequency number by \#nodes = n – 1 where n is the frequency number associated with the mode shape. The solution to this differential equation has 2n terms. Louis . The differential equations of motion of a multiple degree of freedom system is ·· + Cx · + Kx = p ( t ) Mx (34) where M. which describes the deformation of the structure when the system is vibrating at each associated natural frequency. The structure described by Eq. and stiffness matrices of size n × n. Node Mode #1 1st frequency (lowest) Mode #2 Mode #3 Mode #4 4th frequency Figure 6. the mode shapes for the four degree of freedom structure in figure 5 are shown in figure 6. ω n . A node is a point that remains still when the structure is vibrating at a natural frequency. A system with n degrees of freedom has mass. C and K are matrices that describe the mass. Introduction to Dynamics of Structures 6 Washington University in St.
Here the magniNatural frequencies. and provides the ratio of the structural response to the input loading at each frequency. stiffness and damping. as shown in Figure 7.3 Frequency Domain Analysis The characteristics of the structural system can also be described in the frequency domain. Louis . Two commonly used methods to determine the damping in structures are the logarithmic decrement method and the half power bandwidth method. damping should be determined through experiments. Introduction to Dynamics of Structures 7 Washington University in St. The Fourier transform of a signal x(t) is defined by X( f) = ∫–∞ x ( t ) e ∞ – i2 π ft dt (36) and is related to the Fourier transform of the derivatives of this function by · ( t ) ] = i2 π fX ( f ) [x ··( t ) ] = – ( 2 π f ) X ( f ) [x Plugging this into the equation of motion (equation (5)) for the SDOF system. f. we obtain [ – ( 2 π f ) m + i2 π fc + k ] X ( f ) = P ( f ) 2 2 (37) (38) (39) and the ratio of the frequency domain representation of the output to the frequency domain representation of the input is determined (f) = [ k – ( 2 π f ) 2 m + i2 π fc ] –1 H( f) = X --------. The logarithmic decrement technique obtains the damping properties of a structure from a free vibration test using time domain data. or transfer function. (40) is graphed. tude of the complex function in Eq. P(f) (40) dB = 20 log ( Amplitude ) (41) Amplitude (dB) which is called the complex frequency response function. One decibel is defined as Frequency (Hz) Peak(s) in the transfer function correspond to the natural frequencies of the structure. Transfer function.2. The X axis represents frequency (in either radians per second or Hz) and the Y axis is provided in decibels. For purposes of this experiment you will assume that the only damping present in the structure is due to viscous damping.4 Experimental determination of the damping in a structure A structure is characterized by its mass. The half power bandwidth method uses the transfer function of the structure to determine the amount of damping for each mode. Note that this is a function of the frequency. The first two may be obtained from the geometry and material properties of the structure. However. Figure 7. Figure 7 shows an example of a transfer function for a two degree of freedom structure. 2.
Figure 8 shows a free vibration record of a structure.1 Exponential decay Using free vibration data of the acceleration of the structure one may obtain the damping ratio. δ . Using equations (43) and (44) in equation (42) y1 Ce –ζωn t .= ---------2π 2π Introduction to Dynamics of Structures 8 Washington University in St.4. Amplitude (42) y1 y2 time Figure 8. and T is the period of the system.= ln ---------------------------δ = ln ---n y2 Ce –ζωn ( t + T ) and when the damping ratio is small. The logarithmic decrement.= ζω T . From the solution of the damped system (equation (33)) we can say that y 1 and y 2 can be written as y 1 = Ce – ζωn t y 2 = Ce – ζωn ( t + T ) (43) (44) where the constant C includes the terms of the sine and cosines in equation (33). Solving for ζ y1 ln ---y2 δ ζ = ----. Free vibration of a damped system. between two peaks is defined as y1 δ = ln ---y2 where y 1 and y 2 are the amplitudes of the peaks.2. Louis (45) (46) (47) . can be approximated as δ ≅ 2 πζ .
2 Half power bandwidth method The second method to obtain an estimation of the damping of a structure is the half power bandwidth method. The method consists of determining the frequencies at which the amplitude of the transfer function is A 2 where A1 A 2 = -----2 (48) and A 1 is the amplitude at the peak. Louis . 2. Then the damping ratio ζ is obtained using the formula fb – f a ζ = -------------fb + f a (49) The damping ratio associated with each natural frequency can be obtained using the half power bandwidth method. Introduction to Dynamics of Structures 9 Washington University in St. A1 Amplitude A1 A 2 = -----2 fa fb Frequency (Hz) Figure 9.Using equation (47) we can obtain the damping ratio ζ of the structure using the amplitude of the signal at two consecutive peaks in a free vibration record of displacement or acceleration. In contrast to the previous method. The frequencies f a and f b associated with the half power points on either side of the peak are obtained.4. as shown in figure 9. Half Power Bandwidth method. the half power bandwidth method uses the transfer function plot to obtain the damping.
distance. A power supply is used to provide current to the accelerometers and to the shake table. we are going to use acceleration sensors to obtain records of acceleration over time for a simple model of a building. Accelerometers are attached to each floor of the test structure to measure accelerations. In civil engineering applications the most common types of sensors measure displacement.3.1 Required Equipment • Data acquisition system (MultiQ board and computer) • Instructional shake table • Standard test structure • Three accelerometers (one on the shake table) • Power unit for sensors and shake table • Relevant cables • Software: Wincon and Matlab (signal processing toolbox required) • Passive control device (optional. force and strain. With this instrument. be sure that all the accelerometers are facing in the same direction as the ground accelerometer). For a more detailed guide on how to operate the shake table see the “Bench-Top Shake Table User’s Guide” available in the University Consortium of Instructional Shake Tables web page (http://ucist.2 Data Acquisition System A data acquisition system is used to obtain measurements of physical quantities using sensors. Louis . The data acquisition system consists of a computer and a MultiQ board.wustl. acceleration. To make this connection use the appropriate cable to connect the “From MultiQ” on the power supply to the “Shaker X” on the MultiQ board. To enable the shake table. These measurements may be temperature. Photos of the experimental components are shown in figure 10.0 Experimental Setup: Equipment 3. instructions provided) 3.3 Shake Table Figure 11 shows the bench-scale shake table used to excite the structure.cive. and the second floor accelerometer should be connected at “S3”. It is controlled by a computer which has the capability to excite the building with different types of signals including sine wave. etc. acceleration. The shake table stops when the deadman button is released. This small shake table is a uniaxial shake table with a design capacity of 25 pounds.edu/) Introduction to Dynamics of Structures 10 Washington University in St. one must depress the deadman button. The ground accelerometer should be connected at “S1”. A safety circuit is provided which stops the shake table in case it travels beyond the range of operation. (Hint: Also. it is also possible to reproduce an earthquake and study the characteristics of structures under specific earthquakes. wind. 3. In this experiment. the first floor accelerometer should be connected at “S2”. The MultiQ board should be connected to the power supply as well. random or step signals. pressure. The accelerometers are connected to the power supply.
Deadman button. Louis . Test structure. A small shock absorber can be attached to the structure as a passive control device and an active mass driver can be adapted to the structure as an active control device. Introduction to Dynamics of Structures 11 Washington University in St. 3. Figure 11.MultiQ Board Computer Power supply Sensor (accelerometer) Figure 10. Figure 13. The building’s height is 50 centimeters (19.68 inches) per floor and has a weight of 2 kilograms per floor. The test structure is a simple model of a two story building. Bench scale shake table. Data acquisition system.4 Test Structure Figure 12.
Now you are ready to begin the experiment. including • Ground excitation to first floor • Ground excitation to second floor Introduction to Dynamics of Structures 12 Washington University in St. Graphs of the acceleration responses obtained with the data acquisition system will appear. The left and right indicator lights on the power supply should stop blinking. Double click on the shortcut <sample>. 6. 3.). On the computer. “Obtain data”. MultiQ board. 5. Two transfer functions will be computed. Click the third button “Plot transfer functions”. shake table. 7. The program will ask you if you can download the program and you should select “yes”. Check that all the connections are correct (accelerometers. to run a sine sweep excitation. • The deadman switch must be depressed to excite the shake table. Louis . • Turn the power supply off if you turn off or reboot the computer. 2. 4. Double click on the file <boot. use Windows Explorer to open UCIST directory: C:/UCIST/boot 4. Figure 14. This will take a few seconds. This program will start matlab and a figure window with a menu will appear (see figure 14). Three plots should appear. one for the acceleration on the ground (shake table) and one for each floor of the building. Menu. When the Wincon server starts hit the “Start” button to perform the calibration. to calculate the transfer functions. • It may be necessary to reboot the computer if it locks up during the test.1 Transfer function calculation 1.exe>. etc. 8.0 Experimental Procedure Important Notes: Safe Operation of the Shake Table • The “safety override” button on the power supply should ALWAYS remain in the off position. Click on the second button. Hit the “Start” button on the Wincon server to generate the excitation.4. Turn on the power supply and wait to see that the right and left indicator lights blink. Calibrate and center the shake table by clicking the first button of the menu “Calibrate shake table” (see figure 14). Press this button and hold it before you begin each segment of the experiment (before you hit the “Start” button on the Wincon server).
Also. Remember that the data in the plot is in decibels.3. • Does this result satisfy equation (35)? Explain. A new window will appear with two dials. • Sketch each of the mode shapes of the structure. Excite the building with each of the natural frequencies obtained in Section 4. You will use the transfer function data to obtain the damping ratio using the half-power bandwidth method. The sinusoidal excitation lasts for 30 seconds. Zoom in on the peaks in the transfer functions and make a printout of these plots so that you can obtain the peaks and the half-power points from the graphs. change the frequency of the excitation slowly. The value of the frequency chosen appears above the control dial. Louis .1. • Obtain the number of nodes in each mode shape.2 Determination of Mode Shapes In Section 4. Make sure that the structure is at rest before starting the excitation. or you will lock up the computer. “Sine Wave Excitation Test” (see figure 14).1 you found the natural frequencies of the test structure. This tool is provided so that you can graphically determine the frequencies of the structure. Please do the following. Use the next button of the menu. Be sure to hit “quit” when you have identified all of the frequencies. Now you are going to identify the mode shapes of the structure using a sine wave excitation.When the plots are displayed another menu will appear. 4.1 Exponential decay In this test you will excite the structure with a finite duration sinusoidal excitation to examine the free response in each mode of the structure.3 Damping estimation 4. Please answer the following questions. • How many natural frequencies does the structure have? • What are the values of the natural frequencies? • Are these values the same in the two transfer functions? Why or why not? 4. Please keep the amplitude low as you are exciting the structure at resonance. and Introduction to Dynamics of Structures 13 Washington University in St. You should identify the natural frequencies of the structure using this tool. Turn the frequency indicator that appears on the screen until you reach the value you are looking for. One dial allows you to change the frequency and the second allows you to change the amplitude.
1 to determine the damping in the structure. • Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these two methods? 5. will perform this test. Dynamics of Structures.1. Please do the following.2 Half Power Bandwidth method Use the half power bandwidth method (section 2. When you hit this button a control panel will appear and you must insert the frequency into the blue box for each test.3. L. Be sure that the structure is at rest before performing this test... Please do the following. J. M. When the test is over. 4. Prentice Hall.2. N. Then a record of the acceleration of the two floors of the structure will appear. The next button on the menu. Prentice Hall. 1995 HUMAR. A. New York.4. 1997 Introduction to Dynamics of Structures 14 Washington University in St.2) and transfer function obtained in section 4.2.1 estimate the damping using the half power bandwidth method described in 2.4.0 References CHOPRA. Dynamics of Structures. What is the damping ratio associated with each natural frequency? • Compare the damping values for each of the two modes. You must then hit the “Start” button on the Wincon server to begin the excitation. Using these records obtain the damping ratio using the exponential decay method described in 2.3. • What is the damping ratio obtained using this method? • Compare this damping ratio with that obtained in 4.J. N. Do this test for each mode of the structure. “Free Vibration Test” (See figure 14). Chapman & Hall.J....then the structure is in free vibration. Louis . Structural Dynamics. K. • From the transfer functions obtained in 4. a plot will appear for the free vibration portion of the response. 1990 PAZ.4.