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The Peter Lorre Handbook - Everything you need to know about Peter Lorre

The Peter Lorre Handbook - Everything you need to know about Peter Lorre

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Published by Emereo Publishing
Lorre caused an international sensation with his portrayal of a serial killer who preys on little girls in the German film M (1931). He later became a popular featured player in Hollywood crime films and mysteries (in particular with Humphrey Bogart and Sydney Greenstreet), and, though frequently typecast as a sinister foreigner, became star of the successful Mr. Moto detective series.This book is your ultimate resource for Peter Lorre. Here you will find the most up-to-date information, photos, and much more.In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about Peter Lorre's Early life, Career and Personal life right away. A quick look inside: Peter Lorre, 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea (1954 film), Alfred Hitchcock, All Through the Night (film), Arsenic and Old Lace (film), Background to Danger, Barry Nelson, Basil Rathbone, Bertolt Brecht, Birth of a Notion (film), Black Angel, Carola Neher, Casablanca (film), Casbah (film), Casino Royale (Climax!), Casino Royale (novel), Celia Lovsky, Charlie Chan, Claude Rains, Climax!, Confidential Agent, Congo Crossing, Corpse Bride, Crack-Up (1936 film), Crime and Punishment (1935 American film), Der Verlorene, Double Confession, Eugene Weingand, Film noir, Five Fingers (TV series), Five Weeks in a Balloon (film), Fritz Lang, George Raft, Hair-Raising Hare…and more pages!Contains selected content from the highest rated entries, typeset, printed and shipped, combining the advantages of up-to-date and in-depth knowledge with the convenience of printed books. A portion of the proceeds of each book will be donated to the Wikimedia Foundation to support their mission.
Lorre caused an international sensation with his portrayal of a serial killer who preys on little girls in the German film M (1931). He later became a popular featured player in Hollywood crime films and mysteries (in particular with Humphrey Bogart and Sydney Greenstreet), and, though frequently typecast as a sinister foreigner, became star of the successful Mr. Moto detective series.This book is your ultimate resource for Peter Lorre. Here you will find the most up-to-date information, photos, and much more.In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about Peter Lorre's Early life, Career and Personal life right away. A quick look inside: Peter Lorre, 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea (1954 film), Alfred Hitchcock, All Through the Night (film), Arsenic and Old Lace (film), Background to Danger, Barry Nelson, Basil Rathbone, Bertolt Brecht, Birth of a Notion (film), Black Angel, Carola Neher, Casablanca (film), Casbah (film), Casino Royale (Climax!), Casino Royale (novel), Celia Lovsky, Charlie Chan, Claude Rains, Climax!, Confidential Agent, Congo Crossing, Corpse Bride, Crack-Up (1936 film), Crime and Punishment (1935 American film), Der Verlorene, Double Confession, Eugene Weingand, Film noir, Five Fingers (TV series), Five Weeks in a Balloon (film), Fritz Lang, George Raft, Hair-Raising Hare…and more pages!Contains selected content from the highest rated entries, typeset, printed and shipped, combining the advantages of up-to-date and in-depth knowledge with the convenience of printed books. A portion of the proceeds of each book will be donated to the Wikimedia Foundation to support their mission.

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Published by: Emereo Publishing on Apr 15, 2013
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reservedISBN:9781486481521
List Price: $19.99


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  • Peter Lorre
  • 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea (1954 film)
  • Alfred Hitchcock
  • Sir Alfred Hitchcock
  • All Through the Night (film)
  • Arsenic and Old Lace (film)
  • Background to Danger
  • Barry Nelson
  • Basil Rathbone
  • Bertolt Brecht
  • Birth of a Notion (film)
  • Black Angel
  • Carola Neher
  • Casablanca (film)
  • Casbah (film)
  • Casino Royale (Climax!)
  • Casino Royale (novel)
  • Celia Lovsky
  • Charlie Chan
  • Claude Rains
  • Climax!
  • Confidential Agent
  • Congo Crossing
  • Corpse Bride
  • Crack-Up (1936 film)
  • Crime and Punishment (1935 American film)
  • Der Verlorene
  • Double Confession
  • Eugene Weingand
  • Film noir
  • Five Fingers (TV series)
  • Five Weeks in a Balloon (film)
  • Fritz Lang
  • George Raft
  • Hair-Raising Hare
  • Hans Albers
  • Helen Longworth
  • Hell Ship Mutiny
  • Here's Hollywood
  • High and Low (1933 film)
  • Hollywood Canteen
  • Hollywood Forever Cemetery
  • Hotel Berlin
  • Humphrey Bogart
  • I Was an Adventuress
  • James Bond
  • John P. Marquand
  • Kaaren Verne
  • Karl Freund
  • Kenneth Bianchi
  • Kurt Gerron
  • Lancer Spy
  • Le Chiffre
  • Mad Love (1935 film)
  • Meet Me in Las Vegas
  • Mr. Moto
  • Mr. Moto's Gamble
  • Mr. Moto's Last Warning
  • Mr. Moto’s Last Warning
  • Mr. Moto Takes a Chance
  • Mr. Moto Takes a Vacation
  • Muscle Beach Party
  • My Favorite Brunette
  • Mysterious Mr. Moto
  • Passage to Marseille
  • Quicksand (1950 film)
  • Racketeer Rabbit
  • Rope of Sand
  • Scent of Mystery
  • Son of Frankenstein
  • Stephen Greif
  • Strange Cargo (1940 film)
  • Stranger on the Third Floor
  • Sydney Greenstreet
  • Tales of Terror
  • Thank You, Mr. Moto (film)
  • The Beast with Five Fingers
  • The Big Circus
  • The Boogie Man Will Get You
  • The Boogie Man Will Get You
  • The Buster Keaton Story
  • The Chase (1946 film)
  • The Comedy of Terrors
  • The Conspirators
  • The Constant Nymph (1943 film)
  • The Cross of Lorraine
  • The Eternal Jew (1940 film)
  • The Face Behind the Mask (1941 film)
  • The Jazz Butcher
  • The Maltese Falcon (1941 film)
  • The Man Who Knew Too Much (1934 film)
  • Article Sources and Contributors
  • Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
  • License

Topic relevant selected content from the highest rated entries, typeset, printed

and shipped.
Combine the advantages of up-to-date and in-depth knowledge with the con-
venience of printed books.
A portion of the proceeds of each book will be donated to the Wikimedia
Foundation to support their mission: to empower and engage people around
the world to collect and develop educational content under a free license or in
the public domain, and to disseminate it efectively and globally.
Te content within this book was generated collaboratively by volunteers.
Please be advised that nothing found here has necessarily been reviewed by
people with the expertise required to provide you with complete, accurate
or reliable information. Some information in this book maybe misleading
or simply wrong. Te publisher does not guarantee the validity of the infor-
mation found here. If you need specifc advice (for example, medical, legal,
fnancial, or risk management) please seek a professional who is licensed or
knowledgeable in that area.
Sources, licenses and contributors of the articles and images are listed in the
section entitled “References”. Parts of the books may be licensed under the
GNU Free Documentation License. A copy of this license is included in the
section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License”
All used third-party trademarks belong to their respective owners.
Peter Lorre 1
20,000 Leagues Under the Sea (1954 film) 7
Alfred Hitchcock 15
All Through the Night (film) 38
Arsenic and Old Lace (film) 40
Background to Danger 44
Barry Nelson 46
Basil Rathbone 50
Bertolt Brecht 58
Birth of a Notion (film) 76
Black Angel 78
Carola Neher 80
Casablanca (film) 82
Casbah (film) 100
Casino Royale (Climax!) 102
Casino Royale (novel) 106
Celia Lovsky 115
Charlie Chan 116
Claude Rains 127
Climax! 133
Confidential Agent 139
Congo Crossing 141
Corpse Bride 143
Crack-Up (1936 film) 147
Crime and Punishment (1935 American film) 148
Der Verlorene 149
Double Confession 151
Eugene Weingand 152
Film noir 152
Five Fingers (TV series) 179
Five Weeks in a Balloon (film) 181
Fritz Lang 185
George Raft 190
Hair-Raising Hare 197
Hans Albers 200
Helen Longworth 205
Hell Ship Mutiny 206
Here's Hollywood 208
High and Low (1933 film) 210
Hollywood Canteen 211
Hollywood Forever Cemetery 214
Hotel Berlin 225
Humphrey Bogart 227
I Was an Adventuress 248
James Bond 250
John P. Marquand 268
Kaaren Verne 275
Karl Freund 277
Kenneth Bianchi 279
Kurt Gerron 282
Lancer Spy 284
Le Chiffre 285
Mad Love (1935 film) 289
Meet Me in Las Vegas 294
Mr. Moto 295
Mr. Moto's Gamble 302
Mr. Moto's Last Warning 304
Mr. Moto Takes a Chance 307
Mr. Moto Takes a Vacation 309
Muscle Beach Party 311
My Favorite Brunette 315
Mysterious Mr. Moto 317
Passage to Marseille 319
Quicksand (1950 film) 322
Racketeer Rabbit 324
Rope of Sand 326
Scent of Mystery 327
Son of Frankenstein 329
Stephen Greif 332
Strange Cargo (1940 film) 341
Stranger on the Third Floor 343
Sydney Greenstreet 346
Tales of Terror 350
Thank You, Mr. Moto (film) 353
The Beast with Five Fingers 355
The Big Circus 357
The Boogie Man Will Get You 359
The Buster Keaton Story 362
The Chase (1946 film) 363
The Comedy of Terrors 365
The Conspirators 367
The Constant Nymph (1943 film) 370
The Cross of Lorraine 372
The Eternal Jew (1940 film) 374
The Face Behind the Mask (1941 film) 383
The Jazz Butcher 385
The Maltese Falcon (1941 film) 388
The Man Who Knew Too Much (1934 film) 398
Article Sources and Contributors 401
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 410
Article Licenses
License 413
Peter Lorre
Peter Lorre
Peter Lorre
Born László Löwenstein
26 June 1904
Rózsahegy (now Ružomberok), Austria-Hungary (now Slovakia)
Died 23 March 1964 (aged 59)
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Occupation Actor
Years active 1929–64
Spouse(s) Celia Lovsky
Kaaren Verne
Anne Marie Brenning
(1953–64) 1 child
Peter Lorre (26 June 1904 – 23 March 1964) was a Austrian-American actor.
Lorre caused an international sensation with his portrayal of a serial killer who preys on little girls in the German
film M (1931). He later became a popular featured player in Hollywood crime films and mysteries (in particular with
Humphrey Bogart and Sydney Greenstreet), and, though frequently typecast as a sinister foreigner, became star of
the successful Mr. Moto detective series.
Early life
Lorre was born László Löwenstein on 26 June 1904, as the first child of Jewish couple Alajos Löwenstein and
Elvira Freischberger, in the Austrian-Hungarian town of Ružomberok in present-day Slovakia, then known by its
Hungarian name Rózsahegy. His parents had recently moved there, following his father's appointment as chief
bookkeeper at a local textile mill. Besides working as a bookkeeper, Alajos Löwenstein also served as a lieutenant in
the Austrian army reserve, which meant that he was often away on military manoeuvres.
When Lorre was four
years old, his mother died, probably of food poisoning, leaving Alajos with three very young sons, the youngest only
a couple of months old. He soon remarried, to his wife's best friend, Melanie Klein, with whom he had two more
children. However, Lorre and his stepmother never got on, and this coloured his childhood memories.
At the outbreak of the Second Balkan War in 1913, Alajos moved the family to Vienna, anticipating that this would
lead to a larger conflict and that he would be called up. He was, at the outbreak of World War I in 1914, and served
on the Eastern front during the winter of 1914-1915, before being put in charge of a prison camp due to heart
Peter Lorre
Acting career
In Europe (1922-1935)
Lorre began acting on stage in Vienna at the age of 17, where he worked with the Viennese Art Nouveau artist and
puppeteer Richard Teschner. He then moved to the then German town of Breslau, and later to Zürich in Switzerland.
In the late 1920s, the young and short (165 cm ()) actor moved to Berlin, where he worked with German playwright
Bertolt Brecht, including a role in Brecht's Mann ist Mann and as Dr Nakamura in the musical Happy End (music by
composer Kurt Weill), alongside Brecht's wife Helene Weigel and co-stars Carola Neher, Oskar Homolka and Kurt
The actor became much better known after director Fritz Lang cast him as a child killer in the film M (1931). In 1932
he appeared alongside Hans Albers in the science fiction film F.P.1 antwortet nicht about an artificial island in the
When the Nazis came to power in Germany in 1933, Lorre took refuge first in Paris and then London, where he was
noticed by Ivor Montagu, Alfred Hitchcock's associate producer for The Man Who Knew Too Much (1934), who
reminded the director about Lorre's performance in M. They first considered him to play the assassin in the film, but
wanted to use him in a larger role, despite his limited command of English at the time,
which Lorre overcame by
learning much of his part phonetically. He also was featured in Hitchcock's Secret Agent (1936).
Hollywood (1935-1964)
Lorre soon settled in Hollywood, where he specialized in playing sinister foreigners, beginning with Mad Love
(1935), directed by Karl Freund. He starred in a series of Mr. Moto movies, a parallel to the better known Charlie
Chan series, in which he played John P. Marquand's character, a Japanese detective and spy. He did not enjoy these
films — and twisted his shoulder during a stunt in Mr. Moto Takes a Vacation — but they were lucrative for the
studio. In 1939, he was cast in the role performed by Basil Rathbone in Son of Frankenstein; Lorre was forced to
decline the part owing to illness. In 1940, Lorre co-starred with fellow horror actors Bela Lugosi and Boris Karloff in
the Kay Kyser movie You'll Find Out.
Left to right: Sydney Greenstreet and Lorre in The Maltese Falcon (1941),
the first of their nine films together.
Lorre enjoyed considerable popularity as a featured
player in Warner Bros. suspense and adventure
films. Lorre played the role of Joel Cairo in The
Maltese Falcon (1941) and portrayed the character
Ugarte in Casablanca (1942).
Lorre made nine
movies altogether with Sydney Greenstreet
counting The Maltese Falcon and Casablanca,
most of them variations on the latter film,
including Background to Danger (1943, with
George Raft); Passage to Marseille (1944,
reuniting them with Casablanca stars Humphrey
Bogart and Claude Rains); The Mask of Dimitrios
(1944, with character actor Greenstreet receiving
top billing); The Conspirators (1944, with Hedy
Lamarr and Paul Henreid); Hollywood Canteen
(1944); Three Strangers (1946), a suspense film
about three people who are joint partners on a winning lottery ticket starring top-billed Greenstreet, Geraldine
Fitzgerald, and third-billed Lorre cast against type by director Jean Negulesco as the romantic lead; and Greenstreet
Peter Lorre
and Lorre's final film together, suspense thriller The Verdict (1946), director Don Siegel's first movie, with
Greenstreet and Lorre finally billed first and second, respectively.
Lorre also branched out (without Greenstreet) into comedy with the role of Dr. Einstein in Frank Capra's version of
Arsenic and Old Lace (released in 1944), and starring Cary Grant and Raymond Massey. In 1941, Peter Lorre
became a naturalized citizen of the United States.
Writing in 1944, film critic Manny Farber described what he called Lorre's "double-take job," a characteristic
dramatic flourish "where the actor's face changes rapidly from laughter, love or a security that he doesn't really feel
to a face more sincerely menacing, fearful or deadpan."
After World War II, Lorre's acting career in Hollywood experienced a downturn, whereupon he concentrated on
radio and stage work. In Germany he co-wrote, directed and starred in Der Verlorene (The Lost One, 1951), an art
film in the film noir idiom. He then returned to the United States where he appeared as a character actor in television
and feature films, often parodying his 'creepy;' image.
In 1954, he was the first actor to play a James Bond villain when he portrayed Le Chiffre in a television adaptation
of Casino Royale, opposite Barry Nelson as an American James Bond. (In the spoof-film version of Casino Royale,
British comedian Ronnie Corbett comments that SMERSH includes among its agents not only Le Chiffre, but also
"Peter Lorre and Bela Lugosi".) Lorre starred alongside Kirk Douglas and James Mason in 20,000 Leagues under the
Sea (1954() around this time.
In 1959, Lorre appeared in NBC's espionage drama Five Fingers, starring David Hedison, in the episode "Thin Ice".
He appeared in a supporting role in the 1961 film, Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea and, in the same year, he was
interviewed on the NBC program Here's Hollywood. In this period he worked with Roger Corman on several
low-budget films, including two of the director's Edgar Allen Poe cycle (Tales of Terror, 1962 and The Raven,
Marriages and family
He was married three times: Celia Lovsky (1934 – 13 March 1945, divorced); Kaaren Verne (25 May 1945 – 1950,
divorced) and Anne Marie Brenning (21 July 1953 – 23 March 1964, his death). In 1953, Brenning bore his only
child, Catharine. In later life, Catharine made headlines after serial killer Kenneth Bianchi confessed to police
investigators after his arrest that he and his cousin and fellow "Hillside Strangler" Angelo Buono, disguised as police
officers, had stopped her in 1977 with the intent of abducting and murdering her, but let her go upon learning that
she was the daughter of Peter Lorre. It was only after Bianchi was arrested that Catharine realised whom she had
Catharine died in 1985 of complications arising from diabetes.
Health and death
Peter Lorre
Peter Lorre's crypt at Hollywood Forever Cemetery
Lorre had suffered for years from chronic gallbladder troubles,
for which doctors had prescribed morphine. Lorre became
trapped between the constant pain and addiction to morphine to
ease the problem. It was during the period of the Moto films
that Lorre struggled and overcame his addiction.
Abruptly gaining a hundred pounds in a very short period and
never fully recovering from his addiction to morphine, Lorre
suffered many personal and career disappointments in his later
years. He died in 1964 of a stroke. Lorre's body was cremated
and his ashes were interred at the Hollywood Forever Cemetery
in Hollywood. Vincent Price read the eulogy at his funeral.
Legacy and mimicry
Lorre has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, at 6619 Hollywood Boulevard.
Lorre's distinctive accent and large-eyed face became a favorite target of comedians and cartoonists. In particular,
several Warner Bros. cartoons used a caricature of Lorre's face with an impression by Mel Blanc, including Birth of
a Notion, Hair-Raising Hare and Racketeer Rabbit. An additional impression is Howard Morris' voicing of the
character Weirdly Gruesome in several episodes of "The Flintstones" dating from about 1964.
In 1963 actor Eugene Weingand, who was unrelated to Lorre, attempted to trade on his slight resemblance to the
actor by changing his name to "Peter Lorie", but his petition was rejected by the courts. After Lorre's death, however,
he referred to himself as Lorre's son.
The incident was dramatized in Peter Lorre vs. Peter Lorre, a 45-minute
radio play written/produced by Michael Button, directed by Toby Swift and broadcast on BBC Radio 4's Afternoon
Play on 10 May 2010 and again on 11 January 2013. The cast starred Stephen Greif as Peter Lorre, Peter Marinker
as Lester Salkow, Kerry Shale as Robert Shutan, John Chancer as Curtis Gemmil, Helen Longworth, Kenneth
Collard, Nathan Osgood and John Rowe.
Books and comics
In the early 1940s, the adventures of Batman and Robin appeared in daily newspapers. One story, The Two-Bit
Dictator of Twin Mills, drawn by Batman co-creator Bob Kane, featured a hitman called Jojo who was, according to
writer Al Schwartz, made to look like Lorre.
Films, television, and music
Al Stewart referenced Peter Lorre in the first verse of his 1976 hit single, "Year of the Cat": On a morning from a
Bogart movie/in a country where they turn back time/you go strollng through the crowd like Peter Lorre
contemplating a crime.
Musician and filker Tom Smith won a Pegasus award for Best Classic Filk Song in 2006 entitled "I Want to be Peter
Lorre" which appears on his filk album "Homecoming: MarCon 2005", which includes his vocal impersonation of
the actor.
The Jazz Butcher's song "Peter Lorre" was first featured on the group's Conspiracy album, which was released in
May 1986.
The stop motion film Corpse Bride features "The Maggot", a small green worm who lives inside the title character's
head. His features and voice (provided by Enn Reitel) are caricatures of Peter Lorre. "From the very beginning Tim
wanted the Maggot to be a Peter Lorre-esque character, and we had a good time working with that and it went
Peter Lorre
through various design changes," said co-director Mike Johnson in the book Tim Burton's Corpse Bride: An
Invitation to the Wedding.
On September 11, 2007 Brooklyn-based punk band The World/Inferno Friendship Society released a full-length
album about Lorre called Addicted to Bad Ideas: Peter Lorre's Twentieth Century, which traces Lorre's film career,
drug addiction, and death. It has been performed at the Famous Spiegeltent. The album was subsequently adapted
into a multi-media stage production directed by Jay Scheib, which premiered at Webster Hall in New York City on
January 9, 2009, and went on to play major arts festivals around the world, including Spoleto Festival USA
(Charleston, SC), Luminato Festival (Toronto), Noorderzon Festival (Groningen, Holland) and Theaterformen
(Hanover, Germany).
• Die Verschwundene Frau (1929) (uncredited) • Mr. Moto in Danger Island
• The Verdict (1946)
• Der weiße Teufel (1930) aka The White Devil • Mr. Moto Takes a Vacation
• The Beast with Five Fingers (1946)
• Mann ist Mann (1931) aka A Man's a Man • Strange Cargo (1940) • My Favorite Brunette (1947)
• M (1931) • I Was an Adventuress (1940) • Casbah (1948)
• Bomben auf Monte Carlo (1931) aka Bombs Over
Monte Carlo
• Island of Doomed Men (1940) • Rope of Sand (1949)
• Die Koffer des Herrn O.F. (1931) • Stranger on the Third Floor
• Quicksand (1950)
• Fünf von der Jazzband (1932) • You'll Find Out (1940) • Double Confession (1950)
• Schuß im Morgengrauen (1932) • Der Ewige Jude (1940) (archive
• Der Verlorene (1951) (also wrote and directed)
• Der weiße Dämon (1932) aka Dope • The Face Behind the Mask
• Beat the Devil (1953)
• Stupéfiants (1932) • Mr. District Attorney (1941) • Casino Royale, a 1954 episode of the television
series Climax!
• F.P.1 antwortet nicht (1932) • They Met in Bombay (1941) • 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea (1954)
• Les Requins du pétrole (1933) • The Maltese Falcon (1941) • Around the World in Eighty Days (1956)
• Du haut en bas (1933) • All Through the Night (1941) • Meet Me in Las Vegas (1956) (uncredited)
• Was Frauen träumen (1933) • Invisible Agent (1942) • Congo Crossing (1956)
• Unsichtbare Gegner (1933) • The Boogie Man Will Get You
• The Buster Keaton Story (1957)
• The Man Who Knew Too Much (1934) • Casablanca (1942) • Silk Stockings (1957)
• Mad Love (1935) • The Constant Nymph (1943) • The Story of Mankind (1957)
• Crime and Punishment (1935) • Background to Danger (1943) • The Sad Sack (1957)
• Secret Agent (1936) • The Cross of Lorraine (1943) • Hell Ship Mutiny (1957)
• Crack-Up (1936) • Passage to Marseille (1944) • The Big Circus (1959)
• Nancy Steele Is Missing! (1937) • The Mask of Dimitrios (1944) • Scent of Mystery (1960)
• Think Fast, Mr. Moto (1937) • Arsenic and Old Lace (1944) • Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea (1961)
• Lancer Spy (1937) • The Conspirators (1944) • Tales of Terror (1962)
• Thank You, Mr. Moto (1937) • Hollywood Canteen (1944) • Five Weeks in a Balloon (1962)
• Mr. Moto's Gamble (1938) • Hotel Berlin (1945) • The Raven (1963)
• Mr. Moto Takes a Chance (1938) • Confidential Agent (1945) • The Comedy of Terrors (1964)
• I'll Give a Million (1938) • Three Strangers (1946) • Muscle Beach Party (1964)
• Mysterious Mr. Moto (1938) • Black Angel (1946) • The Patsy (1964)
• Mr. Moto's Last Warning (1939) • The Chase (1946)
Peter Lorre
[1] Stephen D. Youngkin: The Lost One: A Life of Peter Lorre (2005), (pages 5 and 6) (http:// books. google.co.uk/
books?id=YZyhz28GVoIC&pg=PA448& redir_esc=y#v=snippet&q="The following year he accepted"&f=false)
[2] Stephen D. Youngkin: The Lost One: A Life of Peter Lorre (2005), (pages 7 and 8) (http:/ / books. google.co.uk/
books?id=YZyhz28GVoIC&pg=PA448& redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q="second balkan war"& f=false)
[3] "The Man Who Knew Too Much (1934)" (http:/ / www. tcm. com/ thismonth/ article. jsp?cid=104984& mainArticleId=201941). Tcm.com. .
Retrieved 2009-06-11.
[4] [4] Ugarte is a small part, but a crucial one: it is he who gives Rick the 'Letters of Transit', taken from two German couriers, to hold. Rick
assumes that Ugarte killed the couriers to get the letters, and tells Ugarte that he is "a little more impressed" with him.
[5] [5] Farber, Manny, The New Republic, July 10, 1944
[6] Schwarz, Ted. The Hillside Strangler, p. 212. Quill Driver Books. 2004. ISBN 1-884956-37-8
[7] http:/ / www.findagrave.com/ cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=pv&GRid=6456994& PIpi=20314347
[8] "Peter Lorre" (http:// www. classicimages. com/ past_issues/ view/?x=/ 1998/ april98/ peterlorre.html) on Classic Images past issues, 1998
[9] Youngkin, Stephen D. (2005). The Lost One: A Life of Peter Lorre (http:/ / books.google. com/ books?id=YZyhz28GVoIC&
pg=PA448#v=onepage&q=& f=false). University Press of Kentucky. p. 448. ISBN 0-8131-2360-7. .
[10] Youngkin, Stephen D. (2005). The Lost One: A Life of Peter Lorre (http:// books.google.com/books?id=YZyhz28GVoIC&pg=PA442&
dq="Eugene+ Weingand"#PPA442,M1). University Press of Kentucky. p. 443. ISBN 0-8131-2360-7. . "After the actor's death, however, he
brazenly began passing himself off as Lorre's son, repeatedly contradicting his earlier testimony."
[11] Batman: The Dailies 1944-1945, ISBN 0-87816-130-9, ISBN 978-0-87816-130-0
[12] "Lyrics: I Want To Be Peter Lorre" (http:// www. tomsmithonline.com/ lyrics/ peter_lorre.htm). Tom Smith Online. . Retrieved
[13] Conspiracy (album) – The Jazz Butcher (official website). (http:/ / www. jazzbutcher.com/ htdb/ albums/ conspiracy.html)
Further reading
• Peter Lorre. Midnight Marquee Press. 1999. ISBN 1-887664-30-0.
• Youngkin, Stephen D., James Bigwood, and Raymond Cabana (1982). The Films of Peter Lorre. Citadel Press.
ISBN 0-8065-0789-6.
• Youngkin, Stephen D. (2005). The Lost One: A Life of Peter Lorre (http:// books. google. com/
books?isbn=0813123607). University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 0-8131-2360-7.
External links
• Peter Lorre (http:// www. imdb. com/ name/ nm48/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Peter Lorre (http:/ / www. findagrave.com/ cgi-bin/fg. cgi?page=gr&GRid=643) at Find a Grave
• Peter Lorre (http:/ / www. allrovi.com/ name/ p100174) at AllRovi
• Watch Peter Lorre in Fritz Lang's M (http:/ / tesla. liketelevision. com/ liketelevision/ tuner.php?channel=834&
format=movie& theme=guide)
• The Lorre Library of Sound (http:// www. ealasaid. com/ fan/ lorrelibrary)
• The Peter Lorre Companion (http:/ / www. peterlorrecompanion.com/ )
• Photographs of Peter Lorre (http:/ / film.virtual-history.com/ person.php?personid=132)
• The Lodger (http:/ / www. archive.org/ download/ MysteryintheAir/ Mita_470814_ep07The_Lodger.mp3) on
Mystery in the Air, 1947, starring Peter Lorre and Agnes Moorehead
• Listen to Jack Benny Show 1941-03-09 (402) Guest Peter Lorre - Murder at the Racquet Club (http:/ /
jack_benny. podomatic.com/ entry/2011-03-10T23_44_39-08_00)
• Listen to Jack Benny Podcast 1946-03-24 (579) Guest Peter Lorre - I Stand Condemned (http:// jack_benny.
podomatic. com/ entry/2011-03-22T12_19_28-07_00)
• Mystery in the Air (1947) (http:// www. otr.net/ ?p=mita)
20,000 Leagues Under the Sea (1954 film)
20,000 Leagues Under the Sea (1954 film)
20,000 Leagues Under the Sea
Original theatrical poster
Directed by Richard Fleischer
Produced by Walt Disney (uncredited)
Screenplay by Earl Felton
Story by Jules Verne (novel)
Starring •• Kirk Douglas
•• James Mason
•• Paul Lukas
•• Peter Lorre
Music by Paul Smith
Cinematography Franz Planer
Editing by Elmo Williams
Studio(s) Walt Disney Productions
Distributed by Buena Vista Distribution
Release date(s) •• December 23, 1954
Running time 127 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Budget $4.3 million (estimated; nearly $9M with print and advertising)
Box office
20,000 Leagues Under the Sea is a 1954 adventure film starring Kirk Douglas as Ned Land, James Mason as
Captain Nemo, Paul Lukas as Professor Pierre Aronnax, and Peter Lorre as Conseil. It was the first science fiction
film produced by Walt Disney Productions, as well as the only science fiction film produced by Walt Disney
It was also the first feature length Disney film to be distributed by Buena Vista Distribution. The film has
become the best-known adaptation of the book of the same name by Jules Verne, and cited as an early example of
the genre of steampunk.
This film is also Disney's fifth live-action film overall.
In the year 1868, rumors of a sea monster attacking ships in the Pacific Ocean have created apprehension and fear
among sailors, disrupting the shipping lanes. Prof. Pierre M. Aronnax and his assistant, Conseil, are on their way to
Saigon but are forced to cancel the voyage because shipping companies fear the "monster". The U.S. government
invites Aronnax onto an expedition to either prove or disprove the monster's existence. One of their fellow crew is
the cocky master harpooneer Ned Land.
After months of fruitless searching, the monster is spotted one night. The ship fires at it with cannons, and it
immediately charges. Ned and Aronnax are thrown overboard, and Conseil goes in after Aronnax. The warship,
burning and helpless, drifts silently and no one on board answers when the overboard passengers cry for help. The
three drift in the ocean, eventually finding a strange-looking metal vessel, and realize the "monster" is a man-made
"submerging boat", that seems to have been deserted. Inside, Aronnax wanders down into the Salon, where he finds a
massive viewing window and sees an underwater funeral taking place, presumably for a man on the submerging boat
20,000 Leagues Under the Sea (1954 film)
who was killed by the expeditionary ship's guns.
When the submarine crew returns to their ship, they capture the three castaways. The captain introduces himself as
Nemo, master of the Nautilus. He returns Ned and Conseil to the deck, while Aronnax, whom he recognizes for his
work and research, is allowed to stay. He tempts Aronnax to remain with him, but Aronnax prefers to share his
companions' fate. Nemo submerges the Nautilus with the three stowaways on the deck. But when he sees that all
three are still alive, he orders them to be brought back into the submarine, saying, "I've found out what I wanted to
know", i.e. that Aronnax was sincerely willing to die with his companions rather than abandon them. After dinner
that night, Nemo takes them all on an underwater expedition to gather supplies, but Ned tries to salvage a treasure
chest from a sunken wreck, almost getting attacked by a shark.
Later on, Nemo takes Aronnax to the penal colony island of Rura Penthe. Nemo reveals he was once a prisoner there
himself, as were many of the crew of the Nautilus. The prisoners there are loading a munitions ship. It embarks at
sunset, whereupon the Nautilus rams it, destroying its munitions cargo and killing the entire crew. When confronted
by Aronnax, an anguished Nemo says that his actions have just saved thousands from death in war; he also discloses
that this "hated nation" had tortured his wife and son to death in an attempt to force him to reveal the secrets of his
work. Meanwhile, Ned discovers the coordinates of Nemo's secret island base, Vulcania, and releases messages in
bottles, hoping somebody will find them and free him from captivity.
Off the coast of New Guinea, the Nautilus gets stranded on a reef. Ned is surprised when Nemo freely allows him to
go ashore with Conseil, ostensibly to collect specimens. Ned goes off alone inland to explore avenues of escape.
While kneeling at a pool to drink he sees a number of human skulls on stakes. Unbeknownst to him he has been
spotted by a cannibal in a nearby tree. Realizing his danger, Ned runs for his life and rejoins Conseil as they are
chased back to the Nautilus. Despite remaining aground, Nemo is unconcerned and the cannibals are repelled from
the ship by electrical charges circulated on its hull. Captain Nemo is furious at Ned for not following his orders, and
confines him to the submarine's brig as punishment.
A warship approaches, firing and striking the submarine just as it breaks free of the reef. It descends into the depths,
where it attracts the attentions of a giant squid. The electric charge fails to repel the monster, so Nemo and his men
are forced to surface in order to fight and dislodge the beast. During the battle, Nemo is caught in one of the squid's
tentacles; Ned, having escaped from captivity in the struggle and in spite of his hatred for the captain (due to
experiencing the destruction of the munitions ship from earlier), jumps to Nemo's rescue and saves his captor's life.
As a result, Nemo has a change of heart; he claims now to want to make peace with the outer world, by sharing his
secrets of the sea. However, this is to be short-lived.
As the Nautilus nears Vulcania, Nemo finds the island surrounded by warships, whose marines are converging on his
hideout. As Nemo goes ashore, Ned attempts to identify himself as the author of the bottled messages to no avail.
Aronnax realizes this and becomes furious, recognizing that Nemo will destroy all evidence of his discoveries. Sure
enough, Nemo plants a bomb in his hideout, but is mortally wounded from a slug to the back while returning to the
Nautilus. After haphazardly navigating the submarine away from Vulcania, Nemo announces he will be "taking the
Nautilus down for the last time." Loyal to Nemo to the very end, his entire crew declare that they will accompany
their captain in death.
Aronnax, Conseil, and Ned are taken forcibly to their cabins. The Nautilus's crew also retreat to their own cabins, at
Nemo's instructions. Ned breaks loose, overcomes the first mate (who has tried to stop him), escapes to the now
deserted bridge, and manages to surface the Nautilus, hitting a reef in the process and causing the ship to begin
flooding rapidly. In his final moments, Nemo staggers to a viewing window, collapses, and looks at his beloved
ocean one last time as he dies.
Aronnax tries to go back and retrieve his journal, which contains a detailed account of the voyage, but the urgency of
their escape obliges Ned to knock him unconscious and carry him out. The companions witness Vulcania destroyed
in an explosion. Aronnax's diary of the voyage is also lost forever, and when Ned apologizes for having hit him, the
Professor replies "Perhaps you did mankind a service, Ned". The shock from the explosion causes the Nautilus to
20,000 Leagues Under the Sea (1954 film)
sink even more quickly, and as it disappears beneath the waves forever, Nemo's last words to Aronnax echo: "There
is hope for the future. And when the world is ready for a new and better life, all this will someday come to pass, in
God's good time."
• Kirk Douglas as Ned Land
• James Mason as Captain Nemo
• Paul Lukas as Professor Pierre Arounax
• Peter Lorre as Conseil
• Robert J. Wilke as Nautilus's First Mate
• Ted de Corsia as Captain Farragut
• Carleton Young as John Howard
• J. M. Kerrigan as Billy
• Percy Helton as Coach driver
• Ted Cooper as Abraham Lincoln's First Mate
• Fred Graham as Casey
20,000 Leagues Under the Sea was filmed at various locations in Bahamas and Jamaica, with the cave scenes filmed
beneath what is now the Xtabi Resort on the cliffs of Negril.
Filming began in spring of 1954.
Some of the
location filming sequences were so complex that they required a technical crew of over 400 people. The film
presented many other challenges as well. The famous giant squid attack sequence had to be entirely re-shot as it was
originally filmed as taking place at dusk and in a calm sea.
It was filmed again, this time taking place at night and
during a huge gale, both to increase the drama and to better hide the cables and other mechanical workings of the
animatronic squid.
Cost overruns during production made the film very expensive for a Disney production,
although by no means as expensive as other recent releases: Joan of Arc (1948) had cost $4.6 million; Quo Vadis
(1951) had an estimated budget of $7.6 million.
The Nautilus as envisioned by Harper Goff for
the 1954 Walt Disney film.
20,000 Leagues Under the Sea received positive reviews from
was the second highest grossing film of the year (behind
White Christmas),
earning $8 million in rentals in North America
and has become a notable classic film of the Disney corporation.
Audiences fondly remember it primarily for its giant-squid battle
sequence as well as the Nautilus itself and James Mason's portrayal of
The film currently holds a 91% approval rating at the review
aggregation website Rotten Tomatoes, with the consensus being: "One
of Disney's finest live-action adventures, 20,000 Leagues Under the
Sea brings Jules Verne's classic sci-fi tale to vivid life, and features an awesome giant squid."
The film was also highly praised for the performances of the leading actors.
This was the first time that major
international stars such as Kirk Douglas, James Mason, and Peter Lorre had appeared in a Disney film, although
Robert Newton, a well-known actor in British films, had played Long John Silver in Disney's Treasure Island
(1950), and Richard Todd, another well-known star of British films, had appeared in a Disney Technicolor
live-action version of The Story of Robin Hood and His Merrie Men (1952). Mason especially was singled out for his
performance of Captain Nemo. Many people who had first seen him on-screen in the film identify him most strongly
20,000 Leagues Under the Sea (1954 film)
with this role.
Upon the film's original release, New York Times film critic Bosley Crowther gave the film a generally positive
review by stating that, "As fabulous and fantastic as anything he has ever done in cartoons is Walt Disney's "live
action" movie made from Jules Verne's '20,000 Leagues Under the Sea.' Turned out in CinemaScope and color, it is
as broad, fictitiously, as it is long (128 minutes), and should prove a sensation—at least with the kids."
In his
controversial 1967 biography The Disney Version, the usually prickly critic Richard Schickel, stated that James
Mason was "superbly cast as the mad inventor Captain Nemo".
Modern-day film critic Steve Biodrowski said that the film is "far superior to the majority of genre efforts from the
period (or any period, for that matter), with production design and technical effects that have dated hardly at all."
Biodrowski also added that the film "may occasionally succumb to some of the problems inherent in the source
material (the episodic nature does slow the pace), but the strengths far outweigh the weaknesses, making this one of
the greatest science-fiction films ever made."
Disneyland used the original sets as a walk-through attraction from 1955 to 1966. Walt Disney World Resort's Magic
Kingdom also had a dark ride named 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea: Submarine Voyage from 1971 to 1994 which
consisted of a submarine ride, complete with the giant squid attack. For this ride, voice artist Peter Renaday stood in
for James Mason in the role of Captain Nemo.
In 1994, a walkthrough attraction at Disneyland Paris, named Les
Mystères du Nautilus, opened, and a dark ride at Tokyo DisneySea was created in 2001.
Awards and nominations
The film won two Academy Awards and was nominated for one more.
In addition, the film's DVD was
nominated for a Saturn Award:
• Academy Awards (1954)
Won: Best Art Direction – Color (John Meehan, Emile Kuri)
Won: Best Special Effects (John Hench, Joshua Meador)
Nominated: Best Film Editing (Elmo Williams)
• Saturn Awards (2004)
Nominated: Best Classic Film DVD Release
The film's primary art designer, Harper Goff, who designed the Nautilus, was not a member of the Art Directors
Union in 1954 and therefore, under a bylaw within the Academy of Motion Pictures, he was unable to receive his
Academy Award for Art Direction.
Record albums
Rather than an authentic soundtrack recording of the film's score or dialogue, two vinyl studio cast record albums
were released to coincide with the film's first two releases. Both albums contained condensed and heavily altered
versions of the film's script without the usage of any of the film's cast for character voices. In addition, both albums
were narrated by Ned Land as opposed to Aronnax, who narrated the film and the original novel. Neither album
mentioned Nemo as actually being "cracked" (i.e. insane), as the film does, and considerably sanitized the character
by omitting any mention of him killing anyone and even having him sing sea chanties with his crew. The albums
also had Nemo surviving at the end and releasing Ned, Arronax, and Conseil out of gratitude for their saving his
In this version, Ned, Aronnax and Consel were not shipwrecked because the Nautilus rammed the ship they
were on, but because a hurricane came up.
The first album was issued in 1954 in conjunction with the film's original release, and starred William Redfield as
the voice of Ned. This album, a book-and-record set, was issued as part of RCA Victor's Little Nipper series on two
45-RPM records.
The second album, released by Disneyland Records in 1963 in conjunction with the film's first
20,000 Leagues Under the Sea (1954 film)
was issued on one 33⅓ RPM 12-inch LP with no accompanying booklet and no liner notes – the usual
practice with most Disneyland label albums. It contained much more of the film's plot, but with many of the same
alterations as the first album, so this recording was technically a remake of the earlier one. The cast for the 1963
album was uncredited. Neither album listed the film's credits or made any mention of the film's cast.
A single for the film's most memorable song "A Whale of a Tale", written by Norman Gimbel and Al Hoffman and
sung by Kirk Douglas, was also released in 1954 under the Decca Children's Series label. The song "And the Moon
Grew Brighter and Brighter", which Douglas had sung in the movie Man Without a Star (written by Lou Singer and
Jimmy Kennedy), was the B-side. Both songs can be found on the 2008 digital release of the film's soundtrack.
the film, Johann Sebastian Bach's Toccata and Fugue in D minor is played by Nemo on the Nautilus's organ, but
James Mason's playing is actually dubbed by an anonymous organist.
Official soundtrack
20,000 Leagues Under the
Sea (Soundtrack)
Soundtrack album by Various Artists
Released January 29, 2008
Genre Soundtrack
Length 1:18:23
Label Walt Disney
Producer Randy Thorton
On January 29, 2008, Walt Disney Records released a 26-track digital album containing the music of Paul Smith's
original soundtrack score to 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea plus both sides of the "A Whale of a Tale" single, as well
as a digital booklet companion that explores the music of the film. This was the first official release of the film score
and was initially available only through the iTunes Store.
Intrada released the same soundtrack on CD in
Track listing
No. Title Artist Length
1. "Main Title (Captain Nemo’s Theme)" Paul Smith 2:26
2. "Street Fight" Paul Smith 1:04
3. "Aboard the Abraham Lincoln / Hunting the Monster" Paul Smith 2:28
4. "A Whale of a Tale" Kirk Douglas 2:09
5. "The Monster Attacks" Paul Smith 2:21
6. "Deserted Sub / Burial / Captured" Paul Smith 9:14
7. "Fifty Fathoms / The Island of Crespo" Paul Smith 8:45
8. "Storm at Sea / Nemo Plays" Paul Smith 2:25
9. "Strange Man of the Seas" Paul Smith 4:04
10. "Nemo’s Torment" Paul Smith 0:59
11. "Justified Hate" Paul Smith 1:29
12. "Searching Nemo’s Cabin" Paul Smith 4:02
13. "Ned’s Bottles" Paul Smith 0:43
20,000 Leagues Under the Sea (1954 film)
14. "Ashore at New Guinea" Paul Smith 2:54
15. "Native Drums / Back to the Nautilus" Paul Smith 3:08
16. "Submerge" Paul Smith 1:45
17. "The Giant Squid" Paul Smith 6:53
18. "Ambush at Vulcania" Paul Smith 4:47
19. "Nemo Wounded" Paul Smith 2:43
20. "Escape from Vulcania" Paul Smith 3:41
21. "Finale / Deep Is the Mighty Ocean" Paul Smith 0:56
22. "A Whale of a Tale (Single)" Kirk Douglas 2:11
23. "And the Moon Grew Brighter and Brighter (Single B-Side)" Kirk Douglas 2:35
24. "A Whale of a Tale" Bill Kanady 2:24
25. "A Whale of a Tale" The Wellingtons 2:07
26. "A Whale of a Tale (Reprise)" Kirk Douglas 0:11
Total length: 1:18:23
On January 6, 2009, Variety reported that a remake entitled 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea: Captain Nemo was being
planned with Joseph McGinty Nichol, a.k.a. "McG", attached to direct. The film serves as an origin story for the
central character, Captain Nemo, as he builds his warship, the Nautilus.
McG has remarked that it will be "much
more in keeping with the spirit of the novel" than Richard Fleischer's film, in which it will reveal "what Aronnax is
up to and the becoming of Captain Nemo, and how the man became at war with war itself."
It was written by Bill
Marsilli, with Justin Marks and Randall Wallace brought in to do rewrites.
It was to be produced by Sean Bailey
with McG's Wonderland Sound and Vision.
McG once suggested that he wanted Will Smith for the Captain Nemo role, but he has reportedly turned down the
As a second possible choice, McG had mentioned Sam Worthington, whom he worked with on
Terminator Salvation, though they did not ever discuss it seriously. However, the project was later shelved in
November 2009 with McG backing out of directing.
During the 2010 San Diego Comic-Con, director David Fincher announced plans of directing 20,000 Leagues Under
the Sea for Walt Disney Pictures based on a script by Scott Z. Burns.
[1] Box Office Report (http:// www. boxofficereport.com/ database/ 1954.shtml), Revenue Database – 1954.
[2] Film Reference (http:/ / www. filmreference.com/ Writers-and-Production-Artists-De-Edo/Disney-Walt. html), Walt Disney filmography.
[3] William Higham. "What The Hell Is Steampunk?" (http:/ / www. huffingtonpost.co. uk/ william-higham/
steampunk-what-the-hell-is-it_b_1015192. html). Archived (http:// www. webcitation. org/ 65WWXvsnz) from the original on February 17,
2012. . Retrieved February 15, 2012.
[4] IMDB (http:// www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0046672/ trivia), Movie location information.
[5] "In a league of its own" (http:/ / web. archive.org/ web/ 20100906042231/ http:/ / d23. disney. go.com/ articles/
120309_NF_FEAT_20000LeaguesDaveSmithD23.html). D23 (Disney). The Walt Disney Company. December 3, 2009. Archived from the
original (http:// d23. disney. go. com/ articles/ 120309_NF_FEAT_20000LeaguesDaveSmithD23.html) on 6 September 2010. . Retrieved
August 18, 2010.
[6] SUNSET SQUID FIGHT – 20,000 Leagues – unused monster sequence – YouTube (http:// www. youtube.com/ watch?v=Pf_acgvdKmE&
feature=related) Footage of the original, rejected giant squid attack sequence
[7] The DVD Journal | Reviews : 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea: Special Edition (http:// www. dvdjournal.com/ reviews/ 00/ 20000leagues.
shtml), 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea: Special Edition DVD
20,000 Leagues Under the Sea (1954 film)
[8] Young, Mark (writer), Rhys-Davies, John (narrator) (May 20, 2003). The Making of 20000 Leagues Under the Sea (http:// www. imdb.com/
title/ tt0368002/ ) (documentary). Buena Vista Home Entertainment. . Retrieved August 18, 2010.
[9] "The Screen in Review; '20,000 Leagues' in 128 Fantastic Minutes" (http:// movies.nytimes.com/movie/
review?res=9D05E6DD1F3EE03BBC4C51DFB467838F649EDE). The New York Times (The New York Times Company). December 24,
1954. . Retrieved August 16, 2010.
[10] "20,000 Leagues Under the Sea DVD Review" (http:// web. archive.org/ web/ 20090422135302/ http:/ / www. hollywoodreporter.com/ hr/
search/ article_display. jsp?vnu_content_id=1893152). The Hollywood Reporter. May 22, 2003. Archived from the original (http:// www.
hollywoodreporter. com/ hr/search/ article_display. jsp?vnu_content_id=1893152) on April 22, 2009. . Retrieved August 16, 2010.
[11] "All Time Domestic Champs", Variety, 6 January 1960 p 34
[12] Widescreen Museum (http:// www. widescreenmuseum. com/ widescreen/ wingcs3.htm) – The CinemaScope Wing 3.
[13] "20,000 Leagues Under the Sea Movie Reviews, Pictures" (http:/ / web. archive. org/web/ 20090514045824/ http:/ / www. rottentomatoes.
com/ m/ 1000079-20000_leagues_under_the_sea/ ). Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. Archived from the original (http:// www.rottentomatoes. com/
m/ 1000079-20000_leagues_under_the_sea/ ) on May 14, 2009. . Retrieved July 30, 2010.
[14] DVD Talk (http:/ / www. dvdtalk. com/ reviews/ 6327/ 20000-leagues-under-the-sea-se/), 20,000 Leagues Under The Sea: Special Edition.
[15] Solar Navigator (http:/ / www. solarnavigator.net/ films_movies_actors/ 20,000_leagues_under_the_sea. htm), 20,000 Leagues Under the
Sea overview.
[16] Eccentric Cinema (http:/ / eccentric-cinema.com/ cult_movies/ 20k_leagues_under_the_sea.htm), 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea overview.
[17] http:/ / www.amazon. com/ Disney-Version-Life-Times-Commerce/dp/ 1566631580/ ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1352573252&
sr=1-1&keywords=the+ disney+ version+ richard+schickel
[18] Hollywood Gothique: Captain Nemo Double Bill (http:// cinefantastiqueonline.com/ 2007/ 08/ 25/
hollywood-gothique-captain-nemo-double-bill/ )
[19] 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea (http:// www. 20kride. com/ photos_below.html) – The Ride.
[20] New York Times (http:/ / movies. nytimes. com/ movie/ 159/ 20-000-Leagues-Under-the-Sea/awards), Academy Awards.
[21] TCM (http:/ / www. tcm. com/ thismonth/ article/?cid=152601& mainArticleId=153673), Spotlight – 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea.
[22] http:/ / www.youtube. com/ watch?v=ex89G23PnbM& feature=related
[23] http:/ / www.kiddierecords. com/ mgac/ index_2. htm
[24] Amazon (http:/ / www. amazon. com/ Disneys-Leagues-Under-Little-Nipper/dp/ B00198VIO4), Walt Disney's 20,000 Leagues Under the
Sea (Little Nipper Story Book Album).
[25] Rate Your Music (http:/ / rateyourmusic.com/ label/ disneyland_records) – Label: Disneyland Records.
[26] Soundtrack Collector (http:// www. soundtrackcollector. com/ catalog/ soundtrackdetail.php?movieid=16545), Soundtrack Details: 20,000
Leagues Under the Sea.
[27] iTunes Store (http:/ / itunes. apple. com/ us/ album/ 20-000-leagues-under-sea-soundtrack/id272257616), 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea
(Soundtrack) by Various Artists.
[28] Intrada (http:/ / store.intrada.com/ s. nl/ it. A/ id. 7230/ .f), Soundtrack Details: 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea
[29] Michael Fleming (January 6, 2009). "McG to direct Disney's 'Leagues'" (http:/ / www. variety.com/ article/VR1117998080.
html?categoryid=1236&cs=1& query=20,000+leagues+ under+the+sea). Variety. . Retrieved February 13, 2009.
[30] Christina Radish (August 7, 2009). "Director McG Gives IESB an Update on 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea and Says it's Action Packed!"
(http:// iesb. net/ index. php?option=com_content& view=article&
IESB.com. Archived (http:// www. webcitation. org/ 5ix1CbAP0) from the original on August 11, 2009. . Retrieved August 9, 2009.
[31] "Randall Wallace to Rewrite Captain Nemo" (http:// www. comingsoon. net/ news/ movienews. php?id=56966). Comingsoon.net. July 8,
2009. . Retrieved July 8, 2009.
[32] Marc Graser (February 11, 2009). "Justin Marks rewriting 'Nemo'" (http:/ / www. variety.com/ article/VR1118000058.
html?categoryid=1043&cs=1). Variety. Archived (http:// web. archive.org/web/ 20090216201002/ http:/ / variety.com/ article/
VR1118000058. html?categoryid=1043&cs=1) from the original on 16 February 2009. . Retrieved February 13, 2009.
[33] Jim Vejvoda (January 15, 2009). "Finding McG's Nemo" (http:// uk.movies. ign. com/ articles/ 945/ 945281p1.html). IGN. . Retrieved
August 9, 2009.
[34] Clint Morris (August 21, 2009). "Exclusive : Sam downplays Nemo" (http:// www. moviehole.net/ 200920432-exclusive-sam-on-nemo).
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[35] Eric Goldman (August 7, 2009). "McG Talks T5" (http:// uk.movies. ign.com/ articles/ 101/ 1011868p1.html). IGN. . Retrieved August 9,
[36] MTV Movies Blog (http:// moviesblog. mtv. com/ 2010/ 07/ 28/
exclusive-david-fincher-confirms-that-work-continues-on-20000-leagues-under-the-sea/ ), EXCLUSIVE: David Fincher Confirms That Work
Continues On 20,000 Leagues Under The Sea.
20,000 Leagues Under the Sea (1954 film)
External links
• 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea (1954 film) (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0046672/) at the Internet Movie
• 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea (http:/ / www. dbcult. com/ movie-database/ 20000-leagues-under-the-sea-1954/)
at DBCult Film Institute (http:/ / www. dbcult.com/ )
• 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea (http:/ / www. tcm. com/ tcmdb/ title.jsp?stid=20642) at Turner Classic Movies
• 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea (http:/ / ia600306.us. archive.org/9/ items/ FavoriteStory/
FS_47-12-20_ep015-20000_Leagues_Under_the_Sea.mp3) on Favorite Story: December 20, 1947
Alfred Hitchcock
Alfred Hitchcock
Sir Alfred Hitchcock
Studio publicity photo
Born Alfred Joseph Hitchcock
13 August 1899
Leytonstone, London, England
Died 29 April 1980 (aged 80)
Bel Air, California, United States
Other names Hitch
The Master of Suspense
Alma mater Salesian College,
St Ignatius' College
Occupation Film director, film producer
Years active 1921–76
Influenced by
D. W. Griffith, Fritz Lang, Lev Kuleshov, Sergei Eisenstein,
F. W. Murnau
Influenced Brian De Palma, François Truffaut, Steven Spielberg, Martin Scorsese, Claude Chabrol, M. Night Shyamalan, Tim Burton,
Mel Brooks, Michael Mann, David Lynch, Park Chan-wook, Dario Argento, John Carpenter, William Friedkin, Jonathan
Demme, David Fincher, Sam Raimi
Roman Catholic
Spouse(s) Alma Reville (m. 1926–1980; his death)
Children Patricia Hitchcock
Sir Alfred Joseph Hitchcock, KBE (13 August 1899 – 29 April 1980)
was an English film director and
He pioneered many techniques in the suspense and psychological thriller genres. After a successful
career in British cinema in both silent films and early talkies, billed as England's best director, Hitchcock moved to
Hollywood in 1939.
Over a career spanning more than half a century, Hitchcock fashioned for himself a distinctive and recognisable
directorial style.
He pioneered the use of a camera made to move in a way that mimics a person's gaze, forcing
viewers to engage in a form of voyeurism.
He framed shots to maximise anxiety, fear, or empathy, and used
innovative film editing.
His stories often feature fugitives on the run from the law alongside "icy blonde" female
Alfred Hitchcock
Many of Hitchcock's films have twist endings and thrilling plots featuring depictions of violence,
murder, and crime. Many of the mysteries, however, are used as decoys or "MacGuffins" that serve the film's themes
and the psychological examinations of the characters. Hitchcock's films also borrow many themes from
psychoanalysis and feature strong sexual overtones. Through his cameo appearances in his own films, interviews,
film trailers, and the television program Alfred Hitchcock Presents, he became a cultural icon.
Hitchcock directed more than fifty feature films in a career spanning six decades. Often regarded as the greatest
British filmmaker, he came first in a 2007 poll of film critics in Britain's Daily Telegraph, which said:
"Unquestionably the greatest filmmaker to emerge from these islands, Hitchcock did more than any director to shape
modern cinema, which would be utterly different without him. His flair was for narrative, cruelly withholding crucial
information (from his characters and from us) and engaging the emotions of the audience like no one else."
The magazine MovieMaker has described him as the most influential filmmaker of all time,
and he is widely
regarded as one of cinema's most significant artists.
Early life
Born on 13 August 1899 in Leytonstone, London, England, Hitchcock was the second son and the youngest of three
children of William Hitchcock (1862–1914), a greengrocer and poulterer, and Emma Jane Hitchcock (née Whelan;
1863–1942). Named Alfred after his father's brother, Hitchcock was brought up as a Roman Catholic and was sent to
Salesian College
and the Jesuit Classic school St Ignatius' College in Stamford Hill, London.
His mother
and paternal grandmother were of Irish extraction.
He often described a lonely and sheltered childhood
worsened by his obesity.
Around the age of 5, according to Hitchcock, he was sent by his father to the local police station with a note asking
the officer to lock him away for five minutes as punishment for behaving badly.
Harsh treatment and wrongful
accusations are found frequently in Hitchcock's films.
When Hitchcock was 15, his father died. In the same year, Hitchcock left St. Ignatius to study at the London County
Council School of Engineering and Navigation in Poplar, London.
After leaving, he became a draftsman and
advertising designer with a cable company called Henley's.
During the First World War, Hitchcock was rejected
for military service because of his obesity – sometimes thought to have been caused by a glandular condition.
Nevertheless the young Hitchcock signed up to a cadet regiment of the Royal Engineers in 1917. His military stint
was limited: he received theoretical briefings, weekend drills and exercises. Hitchcock would march around Hyde
Park and was required to wear puttees, which he could never master how to wrap around his legs properly.
While working at Henley's, Hitchcock began to dabble creatively. After the company's in-house publication, The
Henley Telegraph, was founded in 1919, he often submitted short articles and eventually became one of its most
prolific contributors. His first piece was "Gas" (1919), published in the first issue, in which a young woman imagines
that she is being assaulted one night in Paris – only for the twist to reveal that it was all just a hallucination in the
dentist's chair, induced by the anaesthetic. His second piece was "The Woman's Part" (1919), which involves the
conflicted emotions a husband feels as he watches his wife, an actress, perform onstage.
"Sordid" (1920)
surrounds an attempt to buy a sword from an antiques dealer, with another twist ending. The short story "And There
Was No Rainbow" (1920) was Hitchcock's first brush with possibly censurable material. A young man goes out
looking for a brothel, only to stumble into the house of his best friend's girl. "What's Who?" (1920), while humorous,
was also a forerunner to the famous Abbott and Costello "Who's on First?" routine. "The History of Pea Eating"
(1920) was a satirical disquisition on the various attempts people have made over the centuries to eat peas
successfully. His final piece, "Fedora" (1921), was his shortest and most enigmatic contribution. It also gave a
strikingly accurate description of his future wife, Alma (whom he had not yet met).
During this period, Hitchcock became intrigued by photography and started working in film production in London,
working as a title card designer for the London branch of what would become Paramount Pictures.
In 1920, he
received a full-time position at Islington Studios with its American owner, Famous Players-Lasky, and their British
Alfred Hitchcock
successor, Gainsborough Pictures,
designing the titles for silent movies.
His rise from title designer to film
director took five years.
Inter-war British career
Hitchcock's last collaboration with Graham Cutts led him to Germany in 1924. The film Die Prinzessin und der
Geiger (UK title The Blackguard, 1925), directed by Cutts and co-written by Hitchcock, was produced in the
Babelsberg Studios in Potsdam near Berlin. Hitchcock also observed part of the making of F. W. Murnau's film Der
letzte Mann (1924).
He was very impressed with Murnau's work and later used many techniques for the set design
in his own productions. In his book-length interview with François Truffaut, Hitchcock/Truffaut (Simon and
Schuster, 1967), Hitchcock also said he was influenced by Fritz Lang's film Destiny (1921).
Hitchcock (right) during the making of Number
Hitchcock's first few films faced a string of bad luck. His first directing
project came in 1922 with the aptly titled Number 13.
production was cancelled because of financial problems;
the few
scenes that had been finished at that point have been lost. In 1925,
Michael Balcon
of Gainsborough Pictures gave Hitchcock another
opportunity for a directing credit with The Pleasure Garden made at
UFA Studios
in Germany; the film was a commercial flop.
Hitchcock directed a drama called The Mountain Eagle (possibly
released under the title Fear o' God in the United States). This film was
also eventually lost.
In 1926, Hitchcock's luck changed with his first
thriller, The Lodger: A Story of the London Fog.
The film, released
in January 1927, was a major commercial and critical success in the
United Kingdom.
As with many of his earlier works, this film was influenced by Expressionist techniques
Hitchcock had witnessed first-hand in Germany.
Some commentators regard this piece as the first truly
film, incorporating such themes as the "wrong man".
Following the success of The Lodger, Hitchcock hired a publicist to help strengthen his growing reputation. On 2
December 1926, Hitchcock married his assistant director, Alma Reville, at the Brompton Oratory in South
Kensington, London.
Their only child, daughter Patricia, was born on 7 July 1928. Alma was to become
Hitchcock's closest collaborator, but her contributions to his films (some of which were credited on screen)
Hitchcock would discuss only in private, as she was keen to avoid public attention.
In 1929, Hitchcock began work on his tenth film Blackmail. While the film was still in production, the studio, British
International Pictures (BIP), decided to convert it to sound. As an early 'talkie', the film is often cited by film
historians as a landmark film,
and is often considered to be the first British sound feature film.
With the
climax of the film taking place on the dome of the British Museum, Blackmail began the Hitchcock tradition of using
famous landmarks as a backdrop for suspense sequences. It also features one of his longest cameo appearances,
which shows him being bothered by a small boy as he reads a book on the London Underground.
In the PBS
series The Men Who Made The Movies,
Hitchcock explained how he used early sound recording as a special
element of the film, stressing the word "knife" in a conversation with the woman suspected of murder.
During this
period, Hitchcock directed segments for a BIP musical film revue Elstree Calling (1930) and directed a short film
featuring two Film Weekly scholarship winners, An Elastic Affair (1930). Another BIP musical revue, Harmony
Heaven (1929), reportedly had minor input from Hitchcock, but his name does not appear in the credits.
In 1933, Hitchcock was once again working for Michael Balcon
at Gaumont-British Picture Corporation.
first film for the company, The Man Who Knew Too Much (1934), was a success and his second, The 39 Steps
(1935), is often considered one of the best films from his early period.
This film was also one of the first to
introduce the "MacGuffin". In The 39 Steps, the MacGuffin is a stolen set of design plans. Hitchcock told French
director François Truffaut:
Alfred Hitchcock
There are two men sitting in a train going to Scotland and one man says to the other, "Excuse me, sir,
but what is that strange parcel you have on the luggage rack above you?", "Oh", says the other, "that's a
Macguffin.", "Well", says the first man, "what's a Macguffin?", The other answers, "It's an apparatus for
trapping lions in the Scottish Highlands.", "But", says the first man, "there are no lions in the Scottish
Highlands.", "Well", says the other, "then that's no Macguffin."
Hitchcock's next major success was his 1938 film The Lady Vanishes, a fast-paced film about the search for a kindly
old Englishwoman Miss Froy (Dame May Whitty), who disappears while on board a train in the fictional country of
By 1938, Hitchcock had become known for his alleged observation, "Actors are cattle". He once said that he first
made this remark as early as the late 1920s, in connection to stage actors who were snobbish about motion pictures.
However, Michael Redgrave said that Hitchcock had made the statement during the filming of The Lady Vanishes.
The phrase would haunt Hitchcock for years to come. During the filming of his 1941 production of Mr. & Mrs.
Smith, Carole Lombard brought some heifers onto the set with name tags of Lombard, Robert Montgomery, and
Gene Raymond, the stars of the film, to surprise the director. Hitchcock said he was misquoted: "I said 'Actors
should be treated like cattle'."
Lauded in Britain where he was dubbed "Alfred the Great" by Picturegoer magazine, by the end of the 1930s
Hitchcock's reputation was beginning to soar overseas, with a New York Times feature writer stating; "Three unique
and valuable institutions the British have that we in America have not. Magna Carta, the Tower Bridge and Alfred
Hitchcock, the greatest director of screen melodramas in the world."
Variety magazine referred to him as,
"probably the best native director in England."
David O. Selznick signed Hitchcock to a seven-year contract
beginning in March 1939, and the Hitchcocks moved to Hollywood.
In Hollywood, the suspense and the gallows humour that had become Hitchcock's trademark in film continued to
appear in his productions. The working arrangements with Selznick were less than ideal. Selznick suffered from
constant money problems, and Hitchcock was often displeased with Selznick's creative control over his films. In a
later interview, Hitchcock summarised the working relationship thus:
Alfred Hitchcock with Chandran Rutnam
(Centre) and Sri Lankan Film Maker Anton
Wickremasinghe at the Academy Awards in Los
[Selznick] was the Big Producer. [ . . . ] Producer was
king, The most flattering thing Mr. Selznick ever said
about me—and it shows you the amount of control—he
said I was the "only director" he'd "trust with a film".
Selznick lent Hitchcock to the larger studios more often than producing
Hitchcock's films himself. In addition, Selznick, as well as fellow
independent producer Samuel Goldwyn, made only a few films each
year, so he did not always have projects for Hitchcock to direct.
Goldwyn had also negotiated with Hitchcock on a possible contract,
only to be outbid by Selznick. Hitchcock was quickly impressed with
the superior resources of the American studios compared with the
financial limits he had often faced in England.
With the prestigious Selznick picture Rebecca in 1940, Hitchcock
made his first American movie, set in a Hollywood version of England and based on a novel by English author
Daphne du Maurier. The film starred Laurence Olivier and Joan Fontaine. This Gothic melodrama explores the fears
of a naïve young bride who enters a forbidding English country mansion and struggles to adapt to the severe
formality and emotional coldness she finds there. The film won the Academy Award for Best Picture of 1940.
The statuette was given to Selznick, as the film's producer.
The film did not win the Best Director award for
Alfred Hitchcock
There were additional problems between Selznick and Hitchcock, with Selznick known to impose restrictive rules on
Hitchcock. At the same time, Selznick complained about Hitchcock's "goddamn jigsaw cutting", which meant that
the producer did not have nearly the leeway to create his own film as he liked, but had to follow Hitchcock's vision
of the finished product.
Rebecca was the fourth longest of Hitchcock's films, at 130 minutes, exceeded only by
The Paradine Case (132 minutes), North by Northwest (136 minutes), and Topaz (142 minutes).
Hitchcock's second American film, the European-set thriller Foreign Correspondent (1940), based on Vincent
Sheean's Personal History and produced by Walter Wanger, was nominated for Best Picture that year. Hitchcock and
other British subjects felt uneasy living and working in Hollywood while their country was at war; his concern
resulted in a film that overtly supported the British war effort.
The movie was filmed in the first year of the
Second World War and was inspired by the rapidly changing events in Europe, as fictionally covered by an
American newspaper reporter portrayed by Joel McCrea. The film mixed footage of European scenes with scenes
filmed on a Hollywood back lot. The film avoided direct references to Nazism, Germany, and Germans to comply
with Hollywood's Production Code censorship.
1940s films
Cary Grant and Ingrid Bergman in Notorious
Hitchcock's films during the 1940s were diverse, ranging from the
romantic comedy Mr. & Mrs. Smith (1941) to the courtroom drama
The Paradine Case (1947) to the dark and disturbing film noir Shadow
of a Doubt (1943).
In September 1940, the Hitchcocks bought the 200-acre ( km
Cornwall Ranch near Scotts Valley in the Santa Cruz Mountains. The
ranch became the primary residence of the Hitchcocks for the rest of
their lives, although they kept their Bel Air home. Suspicion (1941)
marked Hitchcock's first film as a producer as well as director. The
film was set in England, and Hitchcock used the north coast of Santa
Cruz, California, for the English coastline sequence.
This film was
to be actor Cary Grant's first time working with Hitchcock, and it was one of the few times that Grant would be cast
in a sinister role.
Joan Fontaine
won Best Actress Oscar
and the New York Film Critics Circle Award
for her "outstanding performance in Suspicion". Grant plays an irresponsible English con man whose actions raise
suspicion and anxiety in his shy young English wife (Fontaine).
In a notable scene, Hitchcock uses a lightbulb to
illuminate what might be a fatal glass of milk that Grant is bringing to his wife. In the book the movie is based on
(Before the Fact by Francis Iles), the Grant character is a killer, but Hitchcock and the studio felt Grant's image
would be tarnished by that ending. Though a homicide would have suited him better, as he stated to François
Truffaut, Hitchcock settled for an ambiguous finale.
Saboteur (1942) was the first of two films that Hitchcock made for Universal, a studio where he would continue his
career during his later years. Hitchcock was forced to use Universal contract players Robert Cummings and Priscilla
Lane, both known for their work in comedies and light dramas.
Breaking with Hollywood conventions of the
time, Hitchcock did extensive location filming, especially in New York City, and depicted a confrontation between a
suspected saboteur (Cummings) and a real saboteur (Norman Lloyd) atop the Statue of Liberty. That year he also
directed Have You Heard?, a photographic dramatisation of the dangers of rumours during wartime, for Life
Shadow of a Doubt (1943), Hitchcock's personal favourite of all his films and the second of the early Universal
was about young Charlotte "Charlie" Newton (Teresa Wright), who suspects her beloved uncle Charlie
Oakley (Joseph Cotten) of being a serial murderer. Critics have said that in its use of overlapping characters,
Alfred Hitchcock
dialogue, and closeups it has provided a generation of film theorists with psychoanalytic potential, including Jacques
Lacan and Slavoj Žižek. Hitchcock again filmed extensively on location, this time in the Northern California city of
Santa Rosa, during the summer of 1942. The director showcased his personal fascination with crime and criminals
when he had two of his characters discuss various ways of killing people, to the obvious annoyance of Charlotte.
Working at 20th Century Fox, Hitchcock adapted a script of John Steinbeck's that recorded the experiences of the
survivors of a German U-boat attack in the film Lifeboat (1944). The action sequences were shot in a small boat in
the studio water tank. The locale also posed problems for Hitchcock's traditional cameo appearance. That was solved
by having Hitchcock's image appear in a newspaper that William Bendix is reading in the boat, showing the director
in a before-and-after advertisement for "Reduco-Obesity Slayer".
While at Fox, Hitchcock seriously considered directing the film version of A. J. Cronin's novel about a Catholic
priest in China,
The Keys of the Kingdom, but the plans for this fell through. John M. Stahl ended up directing the
1944 film, which was produced by Joseph L. Mankiewicz and starred Gregory Peck, among other luminaries.
Returning to England for an extended visit in late 1943 and early 1944, Hitchcock made two short films for the
Ministry of Information, Bon Voyage and Aventure malgache. Made for the Free French, these were the only films
Hitchcock made in the French language, and "feature typical Hitchcockian touches".
In the 1990s, the two films
were shown by Turner Classic Movies and released on home video.
In 1945, Hitchcock served as "treatment advisor" (in effect, a film editor) for a Holocaust documentary produced by
the British Army. The film, which recorded the liberation of Nazi concentration camps, remained unreleased until
1985, when it was completed by PBS Frontline and distributed under the title Memory of the Camps.
Hitchcock worked for Selznick again when he directed Spellbound (1945), which explored psychoanalysis
featured a dream sequence designed by Salvador Dalí. Gregory Peck plays amnesiac Dr. Anthony Edwardes under
the treatment of analyst Dr. Peterson (Ingrid Bergman), who falls in love with him while trying to unlock his
repressed past.
The dream sequence as it appears in the film is shorter than was originally envisioned, which was
to be several minutes long, because it proved to be too disturbing for the audience. Two point-of-view shots were
achieved by building a large wooden hand (which would appear to belong to the character whose point of view the
camera took) and out-sized props for it to hold: a bucket-sized glass of milk and a large wooden gun. For added
novelty and impact, the climactic gunshot was hand-coloured red on (some copies of) the black-and-white film.
Some of the original musical score by Miklós Rózsa (which makes use of the theremin) was later adapted by the
composer into a concert piano concerto.
Grant and Bergman in Notorious (1946)
Notorious (1946) followed Spellbound. According to Hitchcock, in his
book-length interview with François Truffaut, Selznick sold the
director, the two stars (Grant and Bergman) and the screenplay (by Ben
Hecht) to RKO Radio Pictures as a "package" for $500,000 due to cost
overruns on Selznick's Duel in the Sun (1946). Notorious starred
Hitchcock regulars Ingrid Bergman and Cary Grant, and features a plot
about Nazis, uranium, and South America. It was a huge box office
success and has remained one of Hitchcock's most acclaimed films. His
use of uranium as a plot device led to Hitchcock's being briefly under
FBI surveillance. McGilligan writes that Hitchcock consulted Dr.
Robert Millikan of Caltech about the development of an atomic bomb.
Selznick complained that the notion was "science fiction", only to be confronted by the news stories of the
detonation of two atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan in August 1945.
After completing his final film for Selznick, The Paradine Case (a courtroom drama that critics found lost
momentum because it apparently ran too long and exhausted its resource of ideas), Hitchcock filmed his first colour
film, Rope (1948). Here Hitchcock experimented with marshaling suspense in a confined environment, as he had
done earlier with Lifeboat (1943). Appearing to have been shot in a single take, Rope (1948) was actually shot in 10
Alfred Hitchcock
takes ranging from four and a half to 10 minutes each; a 10-minute length of film being the maximum a camera's
film magazine could hold at the time. Some transitions between reels were hidden by having a dark object fill the
entire screen for a moment. Hitchcock used those points to hide the cut, and began the next take with the camera in
the same place. Featuring James Stewart in the leading role, Rope was the first of four films Stewart would make
with Hitchcock. It was based on the Leopold and Loeb case of the 1920s. Somehow Hitchcock's cameraman
managed to move the bulky, heavy Technicolor camera quickly around the set as it followed the continuous action of
the long takes.
Under Capricorn (1949), set in nineteenth-century Australia, also used the short-lived technique of long takes, but to
a more limited extent. He again used Technicolor in this production, then returned to black-and-white films for
several years. For Rope and Under Capricorn, Hitchcock formed a production company with Sidney Bernstein
called Transatlantic Pictures, which became inactive after these two unsuccessful pictures. Hitchcock continued to
produce his own films for the rest of his life.
1950s: Peak years
James Stewart and Grace Kelly in Rear Window
Hitchcock filmed Stage Fright (1950) in the UK. For the first time, he
matched one of Warner Bros.'
most popular stars, Jane Wyman,
with the sultry German actress Marlene Dietrich. Hitchcock used
several prominent British actors, including Michael Wilding, Richard
Todd, and Alastair Sim. This was Hitchcock's first production for
Warner Bros., which had distributed Rope and Under Capricorn,
because Transatlantic Pictures was experiencing financial
With the film Strangers on a Train (1951), based on the novel by
Patricia Highsmith, Hitchcock combined many elements from his
preceding films. He approached Dashiell Hammett to write the dialogue but Raymond Chandler took over, then left
over disagreements with the director.
Two men casually meet, one of whom speculates on a foolproof murder
technique. He suggests that two people, each wishing to do away with someone, should each perform the other's
murder. Farley Granger's role was as the innocent victim of the scheme, while Robert Walker, previously known for
"boy-next-door" roles, played the villain.
MCA head Lew Wasserman, whose client list included James Stewart, Janet Leigh and other actors who would
appear in Hitchcock's films, had a significant impact in packaging and marketing Hitchcock's films beginning in the
After I Confess (1953) with Montgomery Clift, three popular films starring Grace Kelly followed. Dial M for
Murder (1954) was adapted from the stage play by Frederick Knott. Ray Milland plays the scheming villain, an
ex-tennis pro who tries to murder his unfaithful wife Grace Kelly for her money. When she kills the hired assassin in
self-defense, Milland manipulates the evidence to pin the death on his wife. Her lover, Mark Halliday (Robert
Cummings), and Police Inspector Hubbard (John Williams), work urgently to save her from execution.
experimented with 3D cinematography. The depth effect was utilised in a major way only in one key scene. The
public was growing weary of 3D by the time of the film's release, however, and it was shown in 3D only in a few
first-run engagements. The 3D version has been revived occasionally, including a brief reissue in some major US
cities in the 1980s. The film marked a return to color productions for Hitchcock.
Hitchcock then moved to Paramount Pictures and filmed Rear Window (1954), starring James Stewart and Kelly
again, as well as Thelma Ritter and Raymond Burr. Stewart's character, a photographer based on Robert Capa, must
temporarily use a wheelchair; out of boredom he begins observing his neighbours across the courtyard, and becomes
convinced one of them (Raymond Burr) has murdered his wife. Stewart tries to sway both his glamorous
Alfred Hitchcock
model-girlfriend (Kelly), whom screenwriter John Michael Hayes based on his own wife, and his policeman buddy
(Wendell Corey) to his theory, and eventually succeeds.
As with Lifeboat and Rope, the principal characters were
almost entirely confined to a small space, in this case Stewart's tiny studio apartment overlooking a massive
courtyard. Hitchcock used close-ups of Stewart's face to show his character's reactions to all he sees, "from the comic
voyeurism directed at his neighbours to his helpless terror watching Kelly and Burr in the villain's apartment".
The third Kelly film, To Catch a Thief (1955), set in the French Riviera, paired her with Cary Grant. He plays retired
thief John Robie, who becomes the prime suspect for a spate of robberies in the Riviera. An American heiress played
by Kelly surmises his true identity, tries to seduce him. "Despite the obvious age disparity between Grant and Kelly
and a lightweight plot, the witty script (loaded with double entendres) and the good-natured acting proved a
commercial success."
It was Hitchcock's last film with Kelly. She married Prince Rainier of Monaco in 1956, and
the residents of her new land were against her making any more films.
Hitchcock successfully remade his own 1934 film The Man Who Knew Too Much in 1956. This time, the film
starring Stewart and Doris Day, who sang the theme song, "Que Sera, Sera (Whatever Will Be, Will Be)", which
won the Oscar for Best Original Song and became a big hit for her. They play a couple whose son is kidnapped to
prevent them from interfering with an assassination. As in the 1934 film, the climax takes place at the Royal Albert
Hall, London.
James Stewart and Kim Novak in Vertigo (1958)
The Wrong Man (1957), Hitchcock's final film for Warner Bros., was a
low-key black-and-white production based on a real-life case of
mistaken identity reported in Life Magazine in 1953. This was the only
film of Hitchcock's to star Henry Fonda. Fonda plays a Stork Club
musician mistaken for a liquor store thief who is arrested and tried for
robbery while his wife (newcomer Vera Miles) emotionally collapses
under the strain. Hitchcock told Truffaut that his lifelong fear of the
police attracted him to the subject and was embedded in many
Vertigo (1958) again starred Stewart, this time with Kim Novak and Barbara Bel Geddes. Stewart plays "Scottie", a
former police investigator suffering from acrophobia, who develops an obsession with a woman he is shadowing
(Novak). Scottie's obsession leads to tragedy, and this time Hitchcock does not opt for a happy ending. The film
contains a camera technique developed by Irmin Roberts that has been copied many times by filmmakers, wherein
the image appears to "stretch". This is achieved by moving the camera in the opposite direction of the camera's
zoom. It has become known by many nicknames, including Dolly zoom, "Zolly," "Hitchcock Zoom," and "Vertigo
Although the film is widely considered a classic today, Vertigo met with negative reviews and poor box office
receipts upon its release, and was the last collaboration between Stewart and Hitchcock.
Although ranked second
(behind Citizen Kane) for almost 50 years the film was voted top by critics in the 2012 Sight & Sound decade poll. It
was premiered in the San Sebastián International Film Festival,
where Hitchcock won a Silver Seashell.
Cary Grant in North by Northwest (1959)
By this time, Hitchcock had filmed in many areas of the United
He followed Vertigo with three more successful films. Two
are also recognised as among his best movies: North by Northwest
(1959) and Psycho (1960). The third film was The Birds (1963).
In North by Northwest, Cary Grant portrays Roger Thornhill, a
Madison Avenue advertising executive who is mistaken for a
government secret agent.
He is hotly pursued by enemy agents
across America, apparently one of them being Eve Kendall (Eva Marie
Saint), in fact working undercover.
Alfred Hitchcock
From 1960
Psycho is almost certainly Hitchcock's best-known film.
Produced on a constrained budget of $800,000, it was
shot in black-and-white on a spare set.
The unprecedented violence of the shower scene, the early death of the
heroine, the innocent lives extinguished by a disturbed murderer were all hallmarks of Hitchcock and have been
copied in many subsequent horror films.
After completing Psycho, Hitchcock moved to Universal, where he made
the remainder of his films.
The Birds, inspired by a Daphne du Maurier short story and by a news story about a mysterious infestation of birds
in California, was Hitchcock's 49th film.
He signed up Tippi Hedren as his latest blonde heroine opposite Rod
Taylor. The scenes of the birds attacking included hundreds of shots mixing live and animated sequences. The cause
of the birds' attack is left unanswered, "perhaps highlighting the mystery of forces unknown".
Decades later,
Hedren called Hitchcock a misogynist and said that Hitchcock effectively ended her career by keeping her to an
exclusive contract for two years when she rebuffed his sexual advances.
In 2012, Hedren described Hitchcock
as a "sad character"; a man of "unusual genius", yet "evil, and deviant, almost to the point of dangerous, because of
the effect that he could have on people that were totally unsuspecting."
In response, a Daily Telegraph article
quoted several actresses who worked with Hitchcock, including Eva Marie Saint, Doris Day and Kim Novak, all of
them appearing to refute Hedren's account of him.
The latter two films had unconventional soundtracks, both orchestrated by Bernard Herrmann: the screeching strings
played in the murder scene in Psycho were unusually dissonant, and The Birds dispensed with conventional
instruments, instead using an electronically produced soundtrack and an unaccompanied song by schoolchildren (just
before the attack at the Bodega Bay School). These films are considered his last great films, after which critical
opinion was usually against his new films, although some critics, such as Robin Wood and Donald Spoto, contend
that Marnie (1964) is first-class Hitchcock, and some have argued that Frenzy is unfairly overlooked.
Failing health reduced Hitchcock's work during the last two decades of his career. He filmed two spy thrillers set
with Cold War-related themes. The first, Torn Curtain (1966), with Paul Newman and Julie Andrews, displays the
bitter end of the twelve-year collaboration between Hitchcock and composer Bernard Herrmann. Herrmann was fired
when Hitchcock was unsatisfied with his score. Topaz (1969), based on a Leon Uris novel, is partly set in Cuba.
Both received mixed reviews from critics.
Hitchcock at work on location in San
Francisco for Family Plot
In 1972, Hitchcock returned to England to film his penultimate film Frenzy.
After two only moderately successful espionage films, the plot marks a return to
the murder thriller genre of earlier in his career, and is based upon the novel
Goodbye Piccadilly, Farewell Leicester Square. The plot centres on a serial
killer in contemporary London. In a very early scene there is dialogue that
mentions two actual London serial murder cases: the Christie murders in the
early 1950s, and the Jack the Ripper murders in 1888. The basic story recycles
his early film The Lodger. Richard Blaney (Jon Finch), a volatile barkeeper with
a history of explosive anger, becomes the prime suspect for the "Necktie
Murders," which are actually committed by his friend Bob Rusk (Barry
This time, Hitchcock makes the victim and villain twins, rather than
opposites, as in Strangers on a Train. Only one of them, however, has crossed
the line to murder.
For the first time, Hitchcock allowed nudity and profane
language, which had before been taboo, in one of his films. He also shows rare
sympathy for the chief inspector and his comic domestic life.
Biographers have noted that Hitchcock had always
pushed the limits of film censorship, often managing to fool Joseph Breen, the longtime head of Hollywood's
Production Code. Many times Hitchcock slipped in subtle hints of improprieties forbidden by censorship until the
mid-1960s. Yet Patrick McGilligan wrote that Breen and others often realised that Hitchcock was inserting such
things and were actually amused as well as alarmed by Hitchcock's "inescapable inferences".
Beginning with
Alfred Hitchcock
Torn Curtain, Hitchcock was finally able to blatantly include plot elements previously forbidden in American films
and this continued for the remainder of his film career.
Family Plot (1976) was Hitchcock's last film. It relates the escapades of "Madam" Blanche Tyler, played by Barbara
Harris, a fraudulent spiritualist, and her taxi driver lover Bruce Dern, making a living from her phoney powers.
William Devane, Karen Black and Cathleen Nesbitt co-starred. It is the only Hitchcock film scored by John
Williams. Based on the Victor Canning novel The Rainbird Pattern, the novel's tone is more sinister and dark than
what Hitchcock wanted for the film. Screenwriter Ernest Lehman originally wrote the film with a dark tone but was
pushed to a lighter, more comical tone by Hitchcock. The film went through various titles including Deceit and
Missing Heir. It was changed to Family Plot at the suggestion of the studio.
Last project and death
Near the end of his life, Hitchcock had worked on the script for a projected spy thriller, The Short Night,
collaborating with screenwriters James Costigan and Ernest Lehman. Despite some preliminary work, the story was
never filmed. This was caused primarily by Hitchcock's own failing health and his concerns over the health of his
wife, Alma, who had suffered a stroke. The script was eventually published posthumously, in a book on Hitchcock's
last years.
Hitchcock died in his Bel Air home of renal failure at 9:17 am on 29 April 1980. According to a Catholic priest who
attended him at this time, shortly before he died he returned to the Catholic faith, from which he had been distant for
many years.
He was survived by his wife and their daughter. Hitchcock's funeral service was held at Good
Shepherd Catholic Church
in Beverly Hills, after which his body was cremated and his remains were scattered
over the Pacific Ocean.
Themes, plot devices and motifs
Hitchcock returned several times to cinematic devices such as suspense, the audience as voyeur, and his well-known
"MacGuffin," a plot device that is essential to the characters on the screen, but is irrelevant to the audience. Thus, the
MacGuffin was always hazily described (in "North By Northwest," Leo G. Carroll describes James Mason as an
Signature appearances in his films
Hitchcock appeared briefly in most of his own films. For example, he is seen struggling to get a double bass onto a
train (Strangers on a Train), or walking dogs out of a pet shop (The Birds), as a shadow (Family Plot) and sitting at a
table in a photograph (Dial M for Murder).
Psychology of characters
Hitchcock's films sometimes feature characters struggling in their relationships with their mothers. In North by
Northwest (1959), Roger Thornhill (Cary Grant's character) is an innocent man ridiculed by his mother for insisting
that shadowy, murderous men are after him. In The Birds (1963), the Rod Taylor character, an innocent man, finds
his world under attack by vicious birds, and struggles to free himself of a clinging mother (Jessica Tandy). The killer
in Frenzy (1972) has a loathing of women but idolises his mother. The villain Bruno in Strangers on a Train hates
his father, but has an incredibly close relationship with his mother (played by Marion Lorne). Sebastian (Claude
Rains) in Notorious has a clearly conflictual relationship with his mother, who is (correctly) suspicious of his new
bride Alicia Huberman (Ingrid Bergman). Norman Bates has troubles with his mother in Psycho.
Hitchcock heroines tend to be lovely, cool blondes who seem proper at first but, when aroused by passion or danger,
respond in a more sensual, animal, or even criminal way. The famous victims in The Lodger are all blondes. In The
39 Steps, Hitchcock's glamorous blonde star, Madeleine Carroll, is put in handcuffs. In Marnie (1964), the title
Alfred Hitchcock
character (played by Tippi Hedren) is a thief. In To Catch a Thief (1955), Francie (Grace Kelly) offers to help a man
she believes is a burglar. In Rear Window, Lisa (Grace Kelly again) risks her life by breaking into Lars Thorwald's
apartment. The best-known example is in Psycho where Janet Leigh's unfortunate character steals $40,000 and is
murdered by a reclusive psychopath. Hitchcock's last blonde heroine was—years after Dany Robin and her
"daughter" Claude Jade in Topaz—Barbara Harris as a phony psychic turned amateur sleuth in his final film, 1976's
Family Plot. In the same film, the diamond smuggler played by Karen Black could also fit that role, as she wears a
long blonde wig in various scenes and becomes increasingly uncomfortable about her line of work.
Some critics and Hitchcock scholars, including Donald Spoto and Roger Ebert, agree that Vertigo represents the
director's most personal and revealing film, dealing with the obsessions of a man who crafts a woman into the
woman he desires. Vertigo explores more frankly and at greater length his interest in the relation between sex and
death than any other film in his filmography.
Hitchcock often said that his favourite film (of his own work) was Shadow of a Doubt.
Style of working
Hitchcock once commented, "The writer and I plan out the entire script down to the smallest detail, and when we're
finished all that's left to do is to shoot the film. Actually, it's only when one enters the studio that one enters the area
of compromise. Really, the novelist has the best casting since he doesn't have to cope with the actors and all the
rest." In an interview with Roger Ebert in 1969, Hitchcock elaborated further:
Once the screenplay is finished, I'd just as soon not make the film at all... I have a strongly visual mind. I
visualise a picture right down to the final cuts. I write all this out in the greatest detail in the script, and then I
don't look at the script while I'm shooting. I know it off by heart, just as an orchestra conductor needs not look
at the score... When you finish the script, the film is perfect. But in shooting it you lose perhaps 40 percent of
your original conception.
In Writing with Hitchcock, a book-length study of Hitchcock's working method with his writers, author Steven
DeRosa noted that "Although he rarely did any actual 'writing', especially on his Hollywood productions, Hitchcock
supervised and guided his writers through every draft, insisting on a strict attention to detail and a preference for
telling the story through visual rather than verbal means. While this exasperated some writers, others admitted the
director inspired them to do their very best work. Hitchcock often emphasised that he took no screen credit for the
writing of his films. However, over time the work of many of his writers has been attributed solely to Hitchcock’s
creative genius, a misconception he rarely went out of his way to correct. Notwithstanding his technical brilliance as
a director, Hitchcock relied on his writers a great deal."
Storyboards and production
Hitchcock's films were strongly believed to have been extensively storyboarded to the finest detail by the majority of
commentators over the years. He was reported to have never even bothered looking through the viewfinder, since he
did not need to, though in publicity photos he was shown doing so. He also used this as an excuse to never have to
change his films from his initial vision. If a studio asked him to change a film, he would claim that it was already
shot in a single way, and that there were no alternate takes to consider.
However, this view of Hitchcock as a director who relied more on pre-production than on the actual production itself
has been challenged by the book Hitchcock at Work, written by Bill Krohn, the American correspondent of Cahiers
du cinéma. Krohn, after investigating several script revisions, notes to other production personnel written by or to
Hitchcock alongside inspection of storyboards, and other production material, has observed that Hitchcock's work
often deviated from how the screenplay was written or how the film was originally envisioned. He noted that the
myth of storyboards in relation to Hitchcock, often regurgitated by generations of commentators on his movies, was
Alfred Hitchcock
to a great degree perpetuated by Hitchcock himself or the publicity arm of the studios. A great example would be the
celebrated crop-spraying sequence of North by Northwest which was not storyboarded at all. After the scene was
filmed, the publicity department asked Hitchcock to make storyboards to promote the film and Hitchcock in turn
hired an artist to match the scenes in detail.
Even when storyboards were made, scenes that were shot differed from it significantly. Krohn's extensive analysis of
the production of Hitchcock classics like Notorious reveals that Hitchcock was flexible enough to change a film's
conception during its production. Another example Krohn notes is the American remake of The Man Who Knew Too
Much, whose shooting schedule commenced without a finished script and moreover went over schedule, something
that, as Krohn notes, was not an uncommon occurrence on many of Hitchcock's films, including Strangers on a
Train and Topaz. While Hitchcock did do a great deal of preparation for all his movies, he was fully cognizant that
the actual film-making process often deviated from the best-laid plans and was flexible to adapt to the changes and
needs of production as his films were not free from the normal hassles faced and common routines utilised during
many other film productions.
Krohn's work also sheds light on Hitchcock's practice of generally shooting in chronological order, which he notes
sent many films over budget and over schedule and, more importantly, differed from the standard operating
procedure of Hollywood in the Studio System Era. Equally important is Hitchcock's tendency to shoot alternate takes
of scenes. This differed from coverage in that the films were not necessarily shot from varying angles so as to give
the editor options to shape the film how he/she chooses (often under the producer's aegis). Rather they represented
Hitchcock's tendency of giving himself options in the editing room, where he would provide advice to his editors
after viewing a rough cut of the work. According to Krohn, this and a great deal of other information revealed
through his research of Hitchcock's personal papers, script revisions and the like refute the notion of Hitchcock as a
director who was always in control of his films, whose vision of his films did not change during production, which
Krohn notes has remained the central long-standing myth of Alfred Hitchcock.
His fastidiousness and attention to detail also found its way into each film poster for his films. Hitchcock preferred to
work with the best talent of his day—film poster designers such as Bill Gold and Saul Bass—and kept them busy
with countless rounds of revision until he felt that the single image of the poster accurately represented his entire
Approach to actors
"The length of a film should be directly related to the endurance of the human bladder."
—Alfred Hitchcock
Similarly, much of Hitchcock's supposed dislike of actors has been exaggerated. Hitchcock simply did not tolerate
the method approach, as he believed that actors should only concentrate on their performances and leave work on
script and character to the directors and screenwriters. In a Sight and Sound interview, he stated that, 'the method
actor is OK in the theatre because he has a free space to move about. But when it comes to cutting the face and what
he sees and so forth, there must be some discipline'.
During the making of Lifeboat, Walter Slezak, who played
the German character, stated that Hitchcock knew the mechanics of acting better than anyone he knew. Several
critics have observed that despite his reputation as a man who disliked actors, several actors who worked with him
gave fine, often brilliant performances and these performances contribute to the film's success.
For Hitchcock, the actors, like the props, were part of the film's setting, as he said to Truffaut:
In my opinion, the chief requisite for an actor is the ability to do nothing well, which is by no means as
easy as it sounds. He should be willing to be utilised and wholly integrated into the picture by the
director and the camera. He must allow the camera to determine the proper emphasis and the most
effective dramatic highlights.
Alfred Hitchcock
Regarding Hitchcock's sometimes less than pleasant relationship with actors, there was a persistent rumour that he
had said that actors were cattle. Hitchcock addressed this story in his interview with François Truffaut:
I'm not quite sure in what context I might have made such a statement. It may have been made...when
we used actors who were simultaneously performing in stage plays. When they had a matinee, and I
suspected they were allowing themselves plenty of time for a very leisurely lunch. And this meant that
we had to shoot our scenes at breakneck speed so that the actors could get out on time. I couldn't help
feeling that if they'd been really conscientious, they'd have swallowed their sandwich in the cab, on the
way to the theatre, and get there in time to put on their make-up and go on stage. I had no use for that
kind of actor.
Carole Lombard, tweaking Hitchcock and drumming up a little publicity, brought some cows along with her when
she reported to the set of Mr. and Mrs. Smith.
In the late 1950s, French New Wave critics, especially Éric Rohmer, Claude Chabrol and François Truffaut, were
among the first to see and promote Hitchcock's films as artistic works. Hitchcock was one of the first directors to
whom they applied their auteur theory, which stresses the artistic authority of the director in the film-making
Hitchcock's innovations and vision have influenced a great number of filmmakers, producers, and actors. His
influence helped start a trend for film directors to control artistic aspects of their movies without answering to the
movie's producer.
Awards and honours
Hitchcock was a multiple nominee and winner of a number of prestigious awards, receiving two Golden Globes,
eight Laurel Awards and five lifetime achievement awards, as well as being five times nominated for, albeit never
winning, an Academy Award as Best Director. His film Rebecca (nominated for 11 Oscars) won the Academy
Award for Best Picture of 1940—particularly notable as another Hitchcock film, Foreign Correspondent, was also
nominated that same year.
In addition to these, Hitchcock received a knighthood in 1980 when he was appointed a Knight Commander of the
Most Excellent Order of the British Empire (KBE) by Queen Elizabeth II in the 1980 New Year Honours.
by a reporter why it had taken the Queen so long, Hitchcock quipped, "I suppose it was a matter of carelessness".
An English Heritage blue plaque, unveiled in 1999, marks where Sir Alfred Hitchcock lived in London at 153
Cromwell Road, Kensington and Chelsea, SW5.
Television, radio, and books
Along with Walt Disney, Hitchcock was among the first prominent motion picture producers to fully envisage just
how popular the medium of television would become. From 1955 to 1965, Hitchcock was the host and producer of a
television series titled Alfred Hitchcock Presents.
While his films had made Hitchcock's name strongly
associated with suspense, the TV series made Hitchcock a celebrity himself. His irony-tinged voice and signature
droll delivery, gallows humour, iconic image and mannerisms became instantly recognisable and were often the
subject of parody.
The title-theme of the show pictured a minimalist caricature of Hitchcock's profile (he drew it himself; it is
composed of only nine strokes), which his real silhouette then filled. His introductions before the stories in his
program always included some sort of wry humour, such as the description of a recent multi-person execution
hampered by having only one electric chair, while two are now shown with a sign "Two chairs—no waiting!" He
directed a few episodes of the TV series himself, and he upset a number of movie production companies when he
insisted on using his TV production crew to produce his motion picture Psycho. In the late 1980s, a new version of
Alfred Hitchcock Presents was produced for television, making use of Hitchcock's original introductions in a
Alfred Hitchcock
colourised form.
The series used a curious little tune
by the French composer Charles Gounod (1818–1893),
the composer of
the 1859 opera Faust, as the theme for his television programs, after it was suggested to him by composer Bernard
Herrmann. Arthur Fiedler and the Boston Pops Orchestra included the piece, Funeral March of a Marionette, on one
of their extended play 45-rpm discs for RCA Victor during the 1950s.
Alfred Hitchcock Presents was parodied by Friz Freleng's 1961 cartoon The Last Hungry Cat, which contains a plot
similar to Blackmail.
Hitchcock appears as a character in the popular juvenile detective book series, Alfred Hitchcock and the Three
Investigators. The long-running detective series was created by Robert Arthur, who wrote the first several books,
although other authors took over after he left the series. The Three Investigators—Jupiter Jones, Bob Andrews and
Peter Crenshaw—were amateur detectives, slightly younger than the Hardy Boys. In the introduction to each book,
"Alfred Hitchcock" introduces the mystery, and he sometimes refers a case to the boys to solve. At the end of each
book, the boys report to Hitchcock, and sometimes give him a memento of their case.
When the real Hitchcock died, the fictional Hitchcock in the Three Investigators books was replaced by a retired
detective named Hector Sebastian. At this time, the series title was changed from Alfred Hitchcock and the Three
Investigators to The Three Investigators.
At the height of Hitchcock's success, he was also asked to introduce a set of books with his name attached. The series
was a collection of short stories by popular short-story writers, primarily focused on suspense and thrillers. These
titles included Alfred Hitchcock's Anthology, Alfred Hitchcock Presents: Stories to be Read with the Door Locked,
Alfred Hitchcock's Monster Museum, Alfred Hitchcock's Supernatural Tales of Terror and Suspense, Alfred
Hitchcock's Spellbinders in Suspense, Alfred Hitchcock's Witch's Brew, Alfred Hitchcock's Ghostly Gallery, Alfred
Hitchcock's A Hangman's Dozen and Alfred Hitchcock's Haunted Houseful. Hitchcock himself was not actually
involved in the reading, reviewing, editing or selection of the short stories; in fact, even his introductions were
ghost-written. The entire extent of his involvement with the project was to lend his name and collect a check.
Some notable writers whose works were used in the collection include Shirley Jackson (Strangers in Town, The
Lottery), T.H. White (The Once and Future King), Robert Bloch, H. G. Wells (The War of the Worlds), Robert Louis
Stevenson, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Mark Twain and the creator of The Three Investigators, Robert Arthur.
In a similar manner, Hitchcock's name was licensed for a digest-sized monthly, Alfred Hitchcock's Mystery
Magazine, which has been published since 1956.
Hitchcock also wrote a mystery story for Look magazine in 1943, "The Murder of Monty Woolley". This was a
sequence of captioned photographs inviting the reader to inspect the pictures for clues to the murderer's identity;
Hitchcock cast the performers as themselves, such as Woolley, Doris Merrick and make-up man Guy Pearce, whom
Hitchcock identified, in the last photo, as the murderer. The article was reprinted in Games Magazine in
November/December 1980.
In September 2010, BBC Radio 7 broadcast a series of five fifteen-minute programs entitled The Late Alfred
Hitchcock Presents with Michael Roberts impersonating Alfred Hitchcock for introductory/concluding comments
and reading the stories in his own voice.
These five stories were originally intended for the television series, but
were rejected because of their rather gruesome nature:
• "The Waxwork" by A. M. Burrage (broadcast 13 September 2010)
• "Sredni Vashtar" by Saki (broadcast 14 September 2010)
• "The Perfectionist" by Margaret St. Clair (broadcast 15 September 2010)
• "Being a Murderer Myself" by Arthur Williams (broadcast 16 September 2010)
• "The Dancing Partner" by Jerome K. Jerome (broadcast 17 September 2010)
Alfred Hitchcock
• Number 13 (1922) (unfinished) • The Man Who Knew Too Much (1934) • Under Capricorn (1949)
• Always Tell Your Wife (1923) (unfinished) • The 39 Steps (1935) • Stage Fright (1950)
• The Pleasure Garden (1925) • Secret Agent (1936) • Strangers on a Train (1951)
• The Mountain Eagle (1926) (lost) • Sabotage (1936) • I Confess (1953)
• The Lodger: A Story of the London Fog (1927) • Young and Innocent (1937) • Dial M for Murder (1954)
• The Ring (1927) • The Lady Vanishes (1938) • Rear Window (1954)
• Downhill (1927) • Jamaica Inn (1939) • To Catch a Thief (1955)
• The Farmer's Wife (1928) • Rebecca (1940) • The Trouble with Harry (1955)
• Easy Virtue (1928) • Foreign Correspondent (1940) • The Man Who Knew Too Much (1956)
• Champagne (1928) • Mr. & Mrs. Smith (1941) • The Wrong Man (1956)
• The Manxman (1929) • Suspicion (1941) • Vertigo (1958)
• Blackmail (1929) • Saboteur (1942) • North by Northwest (1959)
• Juno and the Paycock (1930) • Shadow of a Doubt (1943) • Psycho (1960)
• Murder! (1930) • Lifeboat (1943) • The Birds (1963)
• Elstree Calling (1930) • Aventure malgache (1944) • Marnie (1964)
• The Skin Game (1931) • Bon Voyage (1944) • Torn Curtain (1966)
• Mary (1931) • Spellbound (1945) • Topaz (1969)
• Rich and Strange (1931) • Notorious (1946) • Frenzy (1972)
• Number Seventeen (1932) • The Paradine Case (1947) • Family Plot (1976)
• Waltzes from Vienna (1933) • Rope (1948)
Frequently cast actors and actresses
7 films
• Clare Greet: Number 13 (1922), The Ring (1927), The Manxman (1929), Murder! (1930), The Man Who Knew
Too Much (1934), Sabotage (1936), Jamaica Inn (1939)
6 films
• Leo G. Carroll: Rebecca (1940), Suspicion (1941), Spellbound (1945), The Paradine Case (1947), Strangers on a
Train (1951), and North By Northwest (1959)
5 films
• Hannah Jones: Downhill (1927), Champagne (1928), Blackmail (1929), Murder! (1930), and Rich and Strange
4 films
• Donald Calthrop: Blackmail (1929), Murder! (1930), Juno and the Paycock (1930), and Number Seventeen (1932)
• Cary Grant: Suspicion (1941), Notorious (1946), To Catch a Thief (1955), and North By Northwest (1959)
• Edmund Gwenn: The Skin Game (1931), Waltzes from Vienna (1934), Foreign Correspondent (1940), and The
Trouble with Harry (1955)
• Phyllis Konstam: Champagne (1928), Blackmail (1929), Murder! (1930), and The Skin Game (1931)
• John Longden: Blackmail (1929), Juno and the Paycock (1930), The Skin Game (1931), and Young and Innocent
• James Stewart: Rope (1948), Rear Window (1954), The Man Who Knew Too Much (1956), and Vertigo (1958)
Alfred Hitchcock
3 films
• Ingrid Bergman: Spellbound (1945), Notorious (1946), Under Capricorn (1949)
• Charles Halton: Foreign Correspondent (1940), Mr. & Mrs. Smith (1941), Saboteur (1942)
• Patricia Hitchcock: Stage Fright (1950), Strangers on a Train (1951), Psycho (1960)
• Ian Hunter: The Ring (1927), Downhill (1927), Easy Virtue (1928)
• Grace Kelly: Dial M for Murder (1954), Rear Window (1954), and To Catch a Thief (1955)
• Basil Radford: Young and Innocent (1937), The Lady Vanishes (1938), Jamaica Inn (1939)
• John Williams: The Paradine Case (1947), Dial M for Murder, (1954), To Catch a Thief (1955)
Frequent collaborators
Actors and actresses
•• Sara Allgood
•• Murray Alper
•• Ingrid Bergman
•• Paul Bryar
•• Donald Calthrop
•• Leonard Carey
•• Leo G. Carroll
•• Edward Chapman
• Joseph Cotten (Actor – Hitchcock Movies & TV Series)
• Hume Cronyn (also as writer)
•• Violet Farebrother
•• Bess Flowers
•• Cary Grant
•• Clare Greet
•• Edmund Gwenn
•• Gordon Harker
•• Tom Helmore
• Patricia Hitchcock (daughter)
•• Ian Hunter
•• Isabel Jeans
•• Hannah Jones
•• Malcolm Keen
•• Grace Kelly
•• Phyllis Konstam
•• John Longden
•• Percy Marmont
• Vera Miles (Actress – Hitchcock Movies & TV Series)
•• Basil Radford
•• Jeffrey Sayre
•• Mary Scott
•• James Stewart
•• John Williams
•• Tippi Hedren
•• Charles Bennett
Alfred Hitchcock
•• James Bridie
•• Joan Harrison
•• John Michael Hayes
•• Ben Hecht
•• Angus MacPhail
• Eliot Stannard (9 films)
Film crew
• Fred Ahern – Production Manager
• Michael Balcon – Producer
• Jack Barron – Makeup
• Saul Bass – Main titles design
• Robert F. Boyle – Art Director/Production Designer
• Henry Bumstead – Art Director
• Robert Burks – Cinematographer
• Herbert Coleman – Assistant Director/Producer
• Jack E. Cox – Cinematographer
• Graham Cutts – Director
• Lowell J. Farrell – Assistant Director
• Charles Frend – Film Editor
• Bill Gold – Film poster designer
• Hilton A. Green – Assistant Director
• Bobby Greene – First Assistant Camera
• Edith Head – Costume Designer
• Bernard Herrmann – Music Composer
• J. McMillan Johnson – Art Director/Production Designer
• Barbara Keon – Production Assistant
• Emile Kuri – Set Decoration
• Bryan Langley – Cinematographer/Assistant Camera
• Louis Levy – Musical Director/Music Composer
• Norman Lloyd – Producer/Director
• John Maxwell – Producer
• Daniel McCauley – Assistant Director
• Frank Mills – Assistant Director
• George Milo – Set Decoration
• Ivor Montagu – Editor/Producer
• Hal Pereira – Art Director
• Alec Patterson – Make-up/Special effects artist
• Michael Powell – Still Photographer/Assistant Camera
• Alma Reville (wife) – Assistant Director/Writer
• Rita Riggs – Costume Designer
• Peggy Robertson – Assistant
• Emile de Ruelle – Film Editor
• William Russell – Sound Recordist
• David O. Selznick – Producer
• Harry Stradling – Cinematographer/Director of Photography
• Lois Thurman – Script Supervisor
• Dimitri Tiomkin – Music Composer
Alfred Hitchcock
• George Tomasini – Film Editor
• Joseph A. Valentine – Cinematographer
• Gaetano di Ventimiglia – Cinematographer
• Waldon O. Watson – Sound Recordist
• Franz Waxman – Music Composer
• Albert Whitlock – Matte Painter
• William H. Ziegler – Film Editor
Portrayals in film and television
• Anthony Hopkins, in the 2012 film Hitchcock.
• Toby Jones, in the 2012 HBO telefilm The Girl.
• Roger Ashton-Griffiths, in the 2014 film Grace of Monaco.
(Keith Staskiewicz wrote in Entertainment Weekly about the 2012 films, "...Hitchcock was depicted in his twin
biopics as either a charming but troubled genius or a monstrous sexual obsessive...")
[1] Irving Singer, Three Philosophical Filmmakers: Hitchcock, Welles, Renoir, MIT Press, 2004, p. 9.
[2] Patrick McGilligan, "Alfred Hitchcock: A Life in Darkness and Light", Regan Books, 2003
[3] Hamilton, Fiona. The Times (London). http:// www. timesonline.co. uk/ tol/ comment/ faith/article4686649.ece.
[4] Mogg, Ken. "Alfred Hitchcock" (http:// archive. sensesofcinema. com/ contents/ directors/ 05/ hitchcock.html). Senses of Cinema.
Sensesofcinema.com. . Retrieved 18 July 2010.
[5] "Obituary". Variety (Variety). 7 May 1980.
[6] Life, 19 June 1939, p. 66: Alfred Hitchcock: England's Best Director starts work in Hollywood (http:// books.google. com/
books?id=b0kEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA66& lpg=PA66&dq=alfred+hitchcock+ englands+ best+ director+starts+ work+in+hollywood&
source=bl& ots=zLFR62HJHG& sig=p6sH_Vuhm-VRZmTJyG__NgbPKSo& hl=en& sa=X& ei=xqxtUPiQCYGX0QX9vIGgCg&
ved=0CFUQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q=alfred hitchcock englands best director starts work in hollywood&f=false). Retrieved 4 October 2012
[7] Lehman, David (April/May 2007). "Alfred Hitchcock's America" (http:/ / www. americanheritage.com/ articles/ magazine/ ah/ 2007/ 2/
2007_2_28.shtml). American Heritage. . Retrieved 21 July 2010.
[8] Bays, Jeff (December 2007). "Film Techniques of Alfred Hitchcock" (http:// www.borgus.com/ think/ hitch. htm). Borgus.com. Borgus
Productions. . Retrieved 13 July 2010.
[9] Whitington, Paul (18 July 2009). "NOTORIOUS! (Hitchcock and his icy blondes)" (http:/ / www. independent.ie/ entertainment/ books/
notorious-hitchcock-and-his-icy-blondes-1435652.html). The Irish Independent. . Retrieved 13 July 2010.
[10] Avedon, Richard (14 April 2007). "The top 21 British directors of all time" (http:// www. telegraph.co. uk/ culture/film/ starsandstories/
3664474/ The-top-21-British-directors-of-all-time.html). The Daily Telegraph (UK). . Retrieved 8 July 2009. "Unquestionably the greatest
filmmaker to emerge from these islands, Hitchcock did more than any director to shape modern cinema, which would be utterly different
without him. His flair was for narrative, cruelly withholding crucial information (from his characters and from the audience) and engaging the
emotions of the audience like no one else."
[11] "British Directors" (http:// www. rssfilmstudies. co.uk/ british-directors). RSS Film studies. . Retrieved 11 June 2008.
[12] Wood, Jennifer (6 July 2002). "The 25 Most Influential Directors of All Time" (http:/ / www. moviemaker.com/ directing/ article/
the_25_most_influential_directors_of_all_time_3358/). MovieMaker. Moviemaker.com. Archived (http:// web. archive.org/ web/
20110608025225/http:/ / www. moviemaker.com/ directing/ article/the_25_most_influential_directors_of_all_time_3358/) from the original
on 8 June 2011. . Retrieved 26 April 2011.
[13] "The Directors' Top Ten Directors" (http:// www. bfi.org. uk/ sightandsound/ topten/poll/ directors-directors.html). British Film Institute.
Archived (http:// web. archive.org/ web/ 20110514093259/ http:/ / www. bfi. org.uk/ sightandsound/ topten/poll/ directors-directors.html)
from the original on 14 May 2011. . Retrieved 10 May 2011.
[14] Alfred Hitchcock profile at FilmReference.com (http://www. filmreference.com/ Directors-Ha-Ji/Hitchcock-Alfred.html)
[15] "Death and the Master" (http:/ /www. vanityfair.com/ hollywood/ classic/ features/ death-and-the-master-199904). Vanity Fair. April 1999.
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[18] Spoto, Donald (1999). The Dark Side of Genius: The Life of Alfred Hitchcock. Da Capo Press. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-306-80932-3.
[19] Patrick McGilligan, pp. 18–19
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[22] Patrick McGilligan, pp. 7–8
[23] Patrick McGillang, p. 25. The school is now part of Tower Hamlets College.
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[25] Alfred Hitchcock. A life in Darkness. pp. 25–26.
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Alfred Hitchcock
• Leff, Leonard J: The Rich and Strange Collaboration of Alfred Hitchcock and David O. Selznick in Hollywood.
University of California Press, 1999
• Leitch, Thomas: The Encyclopedia of Alfred Hitchcock (ISBN 978-0-8160-4387-3). Checkmark Books, 2002. A
single-volume encyclopaedia of all things about Alfred Hitchcock.
• McGilligan, Patrick: Alfred Hitchcock: A Life in Darkness and Light. Regan Books, 2003. A comprehensive
biography of the director.
Further reading
• Auiler, Dan: Hitchcock's notebooks: an authorised and illustrated look inside the creative mind of Alfred
Hitchcock. New York, Avon Books, 1999. Much useful background to the films.
• Barr, Charles: English Hitchcock. Cameron & Hollis, 1999. On the early films of the director.
• Conrad, Peter: The Hitchcock Murders. Faber and Faber, 2000. A highly personal and idiosyncratic discussion of
Hitchcock's oeuvre.
• DeRosa, Steven: Writing with Hitchcock. Faber and Faber, 2001. An examination of the collaboration between
Hitchcock and screenwriter John Michael Hayes, his most frequent writing collaborator in Hollywood. Their
films include Rear Window and The Man Who Knew Too Much.
• Deutelbaum, Marshall; Poague, Leland (ed.): A Hitchcock Reader. Iowa State University Press, 1986. A
wide-ranging collection of scholarly essays on Hitchcock.
• Durgnat, Raymond: The strange case of Alfred Hitchcock Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1974 OCLC
1233570 (http:// www. worldcat.org/ oclc/ 1233570)
• Durgnat, Raymond; James, Nick; Gross, Larry: Hitchcock British Film Institute, 1999 OCLC 42209162 (http:/ /
www.worldcat.org/oclc/ 42209162)
• Durgnat, Raymond: A long hard look at Psycho London: British Film Institute Pub., 2002 OCLC 48883020
(http:/ / www. worldcat.org/ oclc/ 48883020)
• Giblin, Gary: Alfred Hitchcock's London. Midnight Marquee Press, 2006, (Paperback: ISBN 978-1-887664-67-7)
• Gottlieb, Sidney: Hitchcock on Hitchcock. Faber and Faber, 1995. Articles, lectures, etc. by Hitchcock himself.
Basic reading on the director and his films.
• Gottlieb, Sidney: Alfred Hitchcock: Interviews. University Press of Mississippi, 2003. A collection of Hitchcock
• Grams, Martin, Jr. & Wikstrom, Patrik: The Alfred Hitchcock Presents Companion. OTR Pub, 2001, (Paperback:
ISBN 978-0-9703310-1-4)
• Haeffner, Nicholas: Alfred Hitchcock. Longman, 2005. An undergraduate-level text.
• Hitchcock, Patricia; Bouzereau, Laurent: Alma Hitchcock: The Woman Behind the Man. Berkley, 2003.
• Krohn, Bill: Hitchcock at Work. Phaidon, 2000. Translated from the award-winning French edition. The
nitty-gritty of Hitchcock's filmmaking from scripting to post-production.
• Leff, Leonard J.: Hitchcock and Selznick. Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1987. An in-depth examination of the rich
collaboration between Hitchcock and David O Selznick.
• McDevitt, Jim; San Juan, Eric: A Year of Hitchcock: 52 Weeks with the Master of Suspense. Scarecrow Press,
2009, (ISBN 978-0-8108-6388-0). A comprehensive film-by-film examination of Hitchcock's artistic
development from 1927 through 1976.
• Modleski, Tania: The Women Who Knew Too Much: Hitchcock And Feminist Theory. Routledge, 2005 (2nd
edition). A collection of critical essays on Hitchcock and his films; argues that Hitchcock's portrayal of women
was ambivalent, rather than simply misogynist or sympathetic (as widely thought).
• Mogg, Ken. The Alfred Hitchcock Story. Titan, 2008 (revised edition). Note: the original 1999 UK edition, from
Titan, and the 2008 re-issue world-wide, also from Titan, have significantly more text than the 1999 abridged US
Alfred Hitchcock
edition from Taylor Publishing. New material on all the films.
• Moral, Tony Lee: Hitchcock and the Making of Marnie. Scarecrow Press, 2005 (2nd edition). Well researched
making of Hitchcock's "Marnie".
• Paglia, Camille. The Birds. British Film Institute, January 2008 ISBN 978-0-85170-651-1
• Rebello, Stephen: Alfred Hitchcock and the Making of Psycho. St. Martin's, 1990. Intimately researched and
detailed history of the making of Psycho,.
• Rohmer, Eric; Chabrol, Claude. Hitchcock, the first forty-four films (ISBN 978-0-8044-2743-2). F. Ungar, 1979.
First book-long study of Hitchock art and probably still the best one.
• Rothman, William. The Murderous Gaze. Harvard Press, 1980. Auteur study that looks at several Hitchcock films
• Spoto, Donald: The Art of Alfred Hitchcock. Anchor Books, 1992. The first detailed critical survey of Hitchcock's
work by an American.
• Spoto, Donald: The Dark Side of Genius. Ballantine Books, 1983. A biography of Hitchcock, featuring a
controversial exploration of Hitchcock's psychology.
• Taylor, Alan: Jacobean Visions: Webster, Hitchcock and the Google Culture, Peter Lang, 2007.
• Truffaut, François: Hitchcock. Simon and Schuster, 1985. A series of interviews of Hitchcock by the influential
French director.
• Vest, James: Hitchcock and France: The Forging of an Auteur. Praeger Publishers, 2003. A study of Hitchcock's
interest in French culture and the manner by which French critics, such as Truffaut, came to regard him in such
high esteem.
• Weibel, Adrian: Spannung bei Hitchcock. Zur Funktionsweise der auktorialen Suspense. (ISBN
978-3-8260-3681-1) Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann, 2008
• Wikstrom, Patrik & Grams, Martin, Jr.: The Alfred Hitchcock Presents Companion. OTR Pub, 2001, (Paperback:
ISBN 978-0-9703310-1-4)
• Wood, Robin: Hitchcock's Films Revisited. Columbia University Press, 2002 (2nd edition). A much-cited
collection of critical essays, now supplemented and annotated in this second edition with additional insights and
changes that time and personal experience have brought to the author (including his own coming-out as a gay
• Youngkin, Stephen D. (2005). The Lost One: A Life of Peter Lorre. University Press of Kentucky.
ISBN 978-0-8131-2360-8. Contains interviews with Alfred Hitchcock and a discussion of the making of The Man
Who Knew Too Much (1934) and Secret Agent (1936), which co-starred classic film actor Peter Lorre.
External links
• Alfred Hitchcock (http:// ftvdb.bfi.org.uk/ sift/ individual/ 153) at the BFI
• Alfred Hitchcock (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ name/ nm33/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Alfred Hitchcock (http:/ / www. allrovi.com/ name/ p94487) at AllRovi
• Alfred Hitchcock (http:/ / tcmdb. com/ participant/participant.jsp?participantId=87065) at the TCM Movie
• Alfred Hitchcock (http:/ / www. screenonline.org.uk/ people/ id/ 446568) at the British Film Institute's
All Through the Night (film)
All Through the Night (film)
All Through the Night
theatrical release poster
Directed by Vincent Sherman
Produced by Hal B. Wallis
Jerry Wald
Screenplay by Leonard Spigelgass
Edwin Gilbert
Story by Leo Rosten
Leonard Spigelgass
Starring Humphrey Bogart
Conrad Veidt
Kaaren Verne
Music by Adolph Deutsch (score)
Song: "All Through the
Arthur Schwartz (music)
Johnny Mercer (lyrics)
Cinematography Sidney Hickox
Editing by Rudi Fehr
Release date(s) December 2, 1941 (US)
Running time 107 minutes
Country United States
Language English
All Through the Night is a light-hearted thriller film released by Warner Brothers in 1941, starring Humphrey
Bogart, Conrad Veidt and Kaaren Verne, and featuring many of the Warner Bros. company of character actors. It
was directed by Vincent Sherman.
An elderly baker named Miller (Ludwig Stossel) is murdered by a sinister stranger (Peter Lorre). A trail leads on to a
nightclub singer, Leda Hamilton (Kaaren Verne) who reveals that she and Miller have been in thrall to an
organization of Nazi fifth columnists led by Ebbing (Conrad Veidt). She is helped by a well-meaning sports
promoter, Alfred "Gloves" Donahue (Humphrey Bogart), who himself is suspected of murdering a nightclub owner
(Edward Brophy), and has to track down those responsible to prove his innocence.
All Through the Night (film)
• Humphrey Bogart as Alfred "Gloves" Donahue • Phil Silvers as Waiter
• Conrad Veidt as Ebbing • Barton MacLane as Marty Callahan
• Kaaren Verne as Leda Hamilton • Edward Brophy as Joe Denning
• Jane Darwell as Mrs. Donhue • Martin Kosleck as Steindorf
• Frank McHugh as Barney •• Jean Ames as Annabelle
• Peter Lorre as Pepi • Ludwig Stossel as Mr. Miller
• Judith Anderson as Madame •• Irene Seidner as Mrs. Miller
• William Demarest as Sunshine • James Burke as Forbes
• Jackie Gleason as Starchy
Cast notes
• Phil Silvers and Jackie Gleason owe their presence in the film to the direct intervention of Warner Bros. studio
head Jack Warner, who personally phoned director Vincent Sherman to insure that they would be added to the
Producer Hal Wallis made All Through the Night as a "companion piece" to his earlier anti-Nazi melodrama,
Underground, despite the poor box office of the prior film.
Humphrey Bogart was not the first person considered for the lead in the film: it was originally supposed to be played
by Walter Winchell, the noted gossip columnist who would later be the narrator for the TV series The Untouchables.
When Winchell could not get the time off to make the film, Wallis offered it to George Raft, and then, when Raft
turned it down, to Bogart.
Olivia De Havilland and Marlene Dietrich were considered for the female lead.
The scene in which Bogart and William Demarest confuse a room full of Nazi sympathizers with doubletalk was not
part of the original script, but was invented by director Sherman, who filmed it despite the objections of producer
Wallis. Wallis ordered it removed from the film, but Sherman left a small segment of it in, and when preview
audiences reacted positively to it, Wallis backed down and told Sherman to put the entire scene back in.
[1] Frankel, Mark. "All Through the Night" (article) (http:// www. tcm. com/ tcmdb/ title/ 2526/ All-Through-the-Night/articles. html#00) on
[2] "Notes" (http:// www. tcm. com/ tcmdb/ title/ 2526/ All-Through-the-Night/notes. html) on TCM.com
External links
• All Through the Night (http:// www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0034449/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• All Through the Night (http:/ / tcmdb.com/ title/ title. jsp?stid=2526) at the TCM Movie Database
Arsenic and Old Lace (film)
Arsenic and Old Lace (film)
Arsenic and Old Lace
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Frank Capra
Produced by Frank Capra
Jack L. Warner
Screenplay by Julius J. Epstein
Philip G. Epstein
Based on The play by
Joseph Kesselring
Starring Cary Grant
Josephine Hull
Jean Adair
Raymond Massey
Music by Max Steiner
Cinematography Sol Polito
Editing by Daniel Mandell
Distributed by Warner Bros.
Release date(s) • September 23, 1944 (USA)
Running time 118 min.
Country United States
Language English
Budget $1,120,175 US (est.)
Arsenic and Old Lace is a 1944 film directed by Frank Capra based on Joseph Kesselring's play of the same name.
The script adaptation was by twins Julius J. Epstein and Philip G. Epstein.
Capra actually filmed the movie in
1941, but it was not released until 1944, after the original stage version had finished its run on Broadway. The lead
role of Mortimer Brewster was originally intended for Bob Hope, but he couldn't be released from his contract with
Capra had also approached Jack Benny and Ronald Reagan before going with Cary Grant. Boris Karloff played
Jonathan Brewster, who "looks like Karloff", on the Broadway stage, but he was unable to do the movie as well
because he was still appearing in the play during filming, and Raymond Massey took his place.
In addition to Grant as Mortimer Brewster, the film also starred Josephine Hull and Jean Adair as the Brewster
sisters, Abby and Martha, respectively. Hull and Adair as well as John Alexander (who played Teddy Roosevelt)
were reprising their roles from the 1941 stage production.
Hull and Adair both received an eight-week leave of
absence from the stage production that was still running, but Karloff did not as he was an investor in the stage
production and its main draw. The entire film was shot within those eight weeks. The film cost just over $1.2 million
of a $2 million budget to produce.
Arsenic and Old Lace (film)
Despite having written several books describing marriage as an "old-fashioned superstition", Mortimer Brewster
(Cary Grant) falls in love with Elaine Harper (Priscilla Lane), who grew up next door to him in Brooklyn, and, on
Halloween day, they marry. Immediately after the wedding, Mortimer visits the eccentric but lovable relatives who
raised him and who still live in his old family home: his elderly aunts Abby (Josephine Hull) and Martha (Jean
Adair), and his brother Teddy (John Alexander), who believes he is Theodore Roosevelt. Each time Teddy goes
upstairs, he yells "Charge!" and takes the stairs at a run, imitating Roosevelt's famous charge up San Juan Hill.
Mortimer finds a corpse hidden in a window seat and assumes that Teddy has committed murder under some
delusion, but his aunts explain that they are responsible ("It's one of our charities"). They explain in the most
innocent terms that they have developed what Mortimer calls the "very bad habit" of ending the presumed suffering
of lonely old bachelors by serving them elderberry wine spiked with arsenic, strychnine and "just a pinch of
cyanide". The bodies are buried in the basement by Teddy, who believes he is digging locks for the Panama Canal
and burying yellow fever victims.
To complicate matters further, Mortimer's brother Jonathan (Raymond Massey) arrives with his alcoholic
accomplice, plastic surgeon Dr. Herman Einstein (Peter Lorre). Jonathan is a murderer trying to escape the police
and find a place to dispose of the corpse of his latest victim, a certain Mr. Spenalzo. Jonathan's face, as altered by
Einstein while drunk, looks like Boris Karloff's in his makeup as Frankenstein's monster. This resemblance
frequently noted, much to Jonathan's annoyance. Jonathan, upon finding out his aunts' secret, decides to bury
Spenalzo in the cellar (to which Abby and Martha object vehemently, because their victims were all nice gentlemen
while Mr. Spenalzo is a stranger and a "foreigner") and soon declares his intention to kill Mortimer.
While Elaine waits at her family home next door for Mortimer to take her on their honeymoon, Mortimer makes
increasingly frantic attempts to stay on top of the situation, including multiple efforts to alert the bumbling local cops
to the threat Jonathan poses, as well as to get the paperwork filed that will have Teddy declared legally insane and
committed to a mental asylum (giving him a safe explanation for the bodies should the cops find them, and
preventing his aunts from creating any more victims because they will no longer have any place to bury the bodies).
He also worries that he will go insane like the rest of the Brewster family. As he puts it, "Insanity runs in my family,
practically gallops!" While explaining this to Elaine, he claims they've been crazy since the first Brewsters came to
America as pilgrims.
But eventually Jonathan is arrested, while Teddy is safely consigned to an asylum and the two aunts insist upon
joining him. Finally, Abby and Martha inform Mortimer that he is not biologically related to the Brewsters after all:
his real mother was the aunts' cook and his father had been a chef on a steamship. In the film's closing scene, after
lustily kissing Elaine and before whisking her away to their honeymoon, he gleefully exclaims "I'm not a Brewster,
I'm a son of a sea cook!"
This is a Hollywood Production Code bowdlerization of the line in the play: "I'm a
As appearing in Arsenic and Old Lace, (main roles and screen credits identified):
• Cary Grant as Mortimer Brewster
• Priscilla Lane as Elaine Harper Brewster
• Josephine Hull as Aunt Abby Brewster
• Jean Adair as Aunt Martha Brewster
• Raymond Massey as Jonathan Brewster
• Peter Lorre as Dr. Herman Einstein
• John Alexander as "Teddy Roosevelt" Brewster
• Jack Carson as Officer Patrick O'Hara
Arsenic and Old Lace (film)
• John Ridgely as Officer Sanders
• Edward McNamara as Police Sgt. Brophy
• James Gleason as Police Lt. Rooney
• Edward Everett Horton as Mr. Witherspoon
• Grant Mitchell as Reverend Harper
Veteran character actor Charles Lane appears as a photographer at City Hall trying to get a picture of Mortimer
Brewster getting a marriage license at the beginning of the film.
The contemporary critical reviews were uniformly positive. The New York Times critic summed up the majority
view, "As a whole, Arsenic and Old Lace, the Warner picture which came to the Strand yesterday, is good macabre
Variety declared, "Capra's production, not elaborate, captures the color and spirit of the play, while the able
writing team of Julius J. and Philip G. Epstein has turned in a very workable, tightly-compressed script. Capra's own
intelligent direction rounds out."
Twenty-four years after the film was released, Charles Higham and Joel Greenberg wrote Hollywood in the Forties
where they stated that "Frank Capra provided a rather overstated and strained version of Arsenic and Old Lace".
American Film Institute recognition
• 2000: AFI's 100 Years... 100 Laughs #30
Radio adaptation
Arsenic and Old Lace was adapted as a radio play for the November 25, 1946, broadcast of The Screen Guild
Theater with Boris Karloff and Eddie Albert, and the January 25, 1948, broadcast of the Ford Theatre.
[1] [1] McGilligan 1986, p. 170.
[2] Atkinson, Brooks. "Review: Arsenic and Old Lace." (http:/ /theater.nytimes. com/ mem/theater/ treview. html?id=1077011429180&
html_title=&tols_title=& byline=& fid=NONE) The New York Times,January 11, 1941.
[3] As stated in an episode of This Is Your Life, Karloff was actually an investor and a producer of the stage play who received royalties
whenever it was performed.Nixon, Rob. "The big idea behind Arsenic and Old Lace." (http:/ / www. tcm. com/tcmdb/title/ 577/
Arsenic-and-Old-Lace/ articles. html) Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved: June 25, 2012.
[4] "Notes: Arsenic and Old Lace." (http:// www. tcm. com/ tcmdb/ title/577/ Arsenic-and-Old-Lace/notes. html) Turner Classic Movies.
Retrieved: June 25, 2012.
[5] "Special feature section." Arsenic and Old Lace , DVD release: 65025.1B.
[6] The reference to Karloff was originally a self-referential joke due to the veteran actor renown for monster roles playing the character of
Jonathan Brewster on stage.
[7] "Arsenic and Old Lace Synopsis." (http:/ / www. gbproductions. org/archives/ 2002/ arsenicsynop. html) gbproductions.org. Retrieved:
October 24, 2009.
[8] "Credits: Arsenic and Old Lace." (http:// www. tcm. com/ tcmdb/ title/ 577/ ) Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved: June 25, 2012.
[9] P.P.K. "Movie Review: Arsenic and Old Lace (1944)". (http:/ / movies. nytimes. com/ movie/
review?res=9C0CE1D7163FEE3BBC4A53DFBF66838F659EDE) The New York Times, September 2, 1944.
[10] "Arsenic and Old Lace." (http:// www. variety.com/ review/ VE1117788758?refcatid=31) Variety, December 31, 1943.
[11] [11] Higham and Greenberg 1968, p. 161.
• Capra, Frank. Frank Capra, The Name Above the Title: An Autobiography. New York: The Macmillan Company,
1971. ISBN 0-306-80771-8.
• Higham, Charles and Joel Greenberg. Hollywood in the Forties. London: A. Zwemmer Limited, 1968.
Arsenic and Old Lace (film)
• McGilligan, Pat, ed. Backstory: Interviews with Screenwriters of Hollywood's Golden Age. Berkeley, California:
University of California Press, 1986. ISBN 0-520-05689-2.
External links
• Arsenic and Old Lace (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0036613/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Arsenic and Old Lace (http:/ / www. allrovi.com/movies/ movie/ v2908) at AllRovi
• Arsenic and Old Lace (http:/ / tcmdb.com/ title/ title. jsp?stid=577) at the TCM Movie Database
• Historic reviews, photo gallery at CaryGrant.net (http:// www.carygrant.net/ reviews/ arsenic. html)
• Arsenic and Old Lace (http:/ / ia700508.us. archive.org/ 0/ items/ ScreenGuildTheater/
Sgt_46-11-25_ep323_Arsenic_and_Old_Lace.mp3) on Screen Guild Theater: November 25, 1946
Background to Danger
Background to Danger
Background to Danger
Directed by Raoul Walsh
Produced by Jerry Wald
Written by W.R. Burnett
Eric Ambler (novel)
Starring George Raft
Brenda Marshall
Sydney Greenstreet
Peter Lorre
Music by Frederick Hollander
Cinematography Tony Gaudio
Editing by Jack Killifer
Distributed by Warner Bros. Pictures
Release date(s) •• July 3, 1943
Running time 80 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Background to Danger is a 1943 film starring George Raft and featuring Brenda Marshall, Sydney Greenstreet, and
Peter Lorre.
Based on the novel of the same title by Eric Ambler and set in politically neutral Turkey (an atmospheric studio
version), the screenplay was credited to W.R. Burnett, although William Faulkner also contributed. The movie was
directed by Raoul Walsh.
The film was designed to capitalize on the runaway success of Casablanca, which had also featured Lorre and
Greenstreet. The Russian operative positively portrayed by Brenda Marshall shows an exaggerated degree of
cooperation, and the film has a slight pro-Soviet bias akin to Warners' Mission to Moscow from the same year.
• George Raft as Joe Barton
• Brenda Marshall as Tamara Zaleshoff
• Sydney Greenstreet as Col. Robinson
• Peter Lorre as Nikolai Zaleshoff
• Osa Massen as Ana Remzi
• Turhan Bey as Hassan
Background to Danger
[1] [1] The Hollywood propaganda of World War II, by Robert Fyne, page 105
External links
• Background to Danger (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0035659/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Background to Danger (http:/ / www. allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/ v3690) at AllRovi
Barry Nelson
Barry Nelson
Barry Nelson
Nelson in 1962
Born Robert Haakon Nielsen
April 16, 1917
San Francisco, California, United States
Died April 7, 2007 (aged 89)
Bucks County, Pennsylvania, United States
Occupation Actor
Years active 1941–1990
Spouse(s) Teresa Celli (divorced)
Nansilee Hoy (1992–2007)
Barry Nelson (April 16, 1917 – April 7, 2007)
was an American actor, noted as the first actor to portray Ian
Fleming's secret agent James Bond.
Early life
Nelson was born Robert Haakon Nielsen in San Francisco, California, of Norwegian ancestry, the son of Betsy (née
Christophsen) and Trygve Nielsen.
(His year of birth has been reported variously, but his 1943 Army enlistment
record and his 1993 voter registration records certify 1917 as the correct year of his birth.)
He began acting in
school at the age of fifteen. He graduated from the University of California, Berkeley in 1941 and, because of his
theatrical efforts in school, was almost immediately signed to a motion picture contract by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Barry Nelson
As an MGM contract player, Nelson made his screen debut in the role as Paul Clark in Shadow of the Thin Man
(1941) starring William Powell and Myrna Loy, with Donna Reed.
He followed that with his role as Lew Rankin
in the film noir crime/drama Johnny Eager (1942) starring Robert Taylor and Lana Turner.
He played the lead in
an MGM second feature war film A Yank on the Burma Road. (1942)
During his military service in World War II, Nelson debuted on the Broadway stage in one of the leading roles,
Bobby Grills, in Moss Hart's play Winged Victory (1943).
His next Broadway appearance was as Peter Sloan in
Hart's Light Up the Sky (1948), which was a first-rate success.
He went on to appear on Broadway with Barbara
Bel Geddes in the original Broadway production of The Moon is Blue; he was the last surviving original cast member
of the production. During the play's run he also starred in a CBS half-hour drama called The Hunter, premiering in
July 1952. He played Bart Adams, a wealthy young American whose business activities involved him in a series of
adventures. He also appeared opposite Lauren Bacall in the Abe Burrows comedy Cactus Flower in 1965
and with
Dorothy Loudon in The Fig Leaves Are Falling in 1969. Another Broadway role, that of Gus Hammer in The Rat
Race (1949),
kept Nelson away from the movies again, but after it closed he starred in the dual roles as Chick
Graham and Bert Rand in The Man with My Face (1951), which was produced by Ed Gardner of radio fame.
He was the first actor (and the first non European before George Lazenby who was the second) to play James Bond
on screen, in a 1954 adaptation of Ian Fleming's novel Casino Royale on the television anthology series Climax!
(preceding Sean Connery's interpretation in Dr. No by eight years).
Reportedly this was considered a pilot for a
possible James Bond television series, though it's not known if Nelson intended to continue playing the character.
Nelson played James Bond as an American named "Jimmy Bond".

At that time, no one had ever heard of James Bond ... I was scratching my head wondering how to play it. I hadn't read the book or anything
like that because it wasn't well known.

—Nelson in a 2004 interview with Cinema Retro.
The program also featured Peter Lorre as the primary villain, Le Chiffre; Nelson later noted Lorre was the reason he
took the role.
Originally broadcast live, the production was believed lost until a kinescope emerged in the 1980s. It
was subsequently released to home video, and is currently available on DVD as a bonus feature with the 1967 film
adaptation of the novel.
Nelson appeared as Grant Decker in "Threat of Evil", a 1960 episode of CBS's anthology series The DuPont Show
with June Allyson. His additional television credits include guest appearances on Alfred Hitchcock Presents, Ben
Casey, The Twilight Zone (episode "A Nice Place to Visit"), and Dr. Kildare. He appeared regularly on television in
the 1960s, having been one of the What's My Line? mystery guests and later serving as a guest panelist on that
popular CBS quiz show. Nelson appeared in both the stage and screen versions of Mary, Mary.
In 1978, he was
nominated for a Tony Award for Best Actor in a Musical for his role as Dan Connors in The Act (1977) with Liza
His final appearance on Broadway was as Julian Marsh in 42nd Street (1986).
William Goldman, in
his 1968 book The Season, called Nelson a consummately professional actor.
"He was a very naturalistic, believable actor," said his agent, Francis Delduca. "He was good at both comedy and the
serious stuff."
Among his other film credits were Airport and The Shining (as the hotel manager who interviews Jack Nicholson for
a job opening), and he also appeared on such television series as Murder, She Wrote, Dallas and Magnum, P.I. More
recently, Nelson and his second wife spent a lot of time travelling.
He planned to write a couple of books about his
time on stage and in Hollywood.
From 1964 to 1966, he hosted portions of the NBC Radio program Monitor.
Barry Nelson
Personal life
Nelson had two wives, actress Teresa Celli, married in 1951 and later divorced, and Nansilee ("Nansi") Hoy, to
whom he was married until his death. Nelson and his second wife divided their time between homes in New York
and France.
Until his death, Nelson could be seen publicly at American Civil War shows across America. He was
a close friend of tenor Mario Lanza.
According to his widow Nansi, Barry Nelson died on April 7, 2007, while traveling in Bucks County, Pennsylvania,
nine days before his 90th birthday. The cause of death was not disclosed.
Partial filmography
Year Film Role
1941 Shadow of the Thin Man Paul Clark
1942 Johnny Eager Lew Rankin
Dr. Kildare's Victory Samuel Z. Cutter
The Affairs of Martha Danny O'Brien
A Yank on the Burma Road Joe Tracey
1943 The Human Comedy Fat, first soldier
Bataan F.X. Matowski
A Guy Named Joe Dick Rumney
1944 Winged Victory Bobby Crills
1951 The Man with My Face Charles "Chick" Graham/Albert "Bert" Rand
1954 Casino Royale "007" James Bond
1956 The First Traveling Saleslady Charles Masters
1963 Mary, Mary Bob McKellaway
1970 Airport Capt. Anson Harris
1972 Pete 'n' Tillie Burt
1980 The Shining Stuart Ullman
[1] Risling, Greg (2007-04-13). "Actor Barry Nelson Dies at 89" (http:// www. washingtonpost. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/2007/ 04/ 13/
AR2007041301701.html). The Associated Press. . Retrieved 2007-04-13.
[2] J.C. Maçek III (2012-10-5). "The Non-Bonds: James Bond's Bitter, Decades-Long Battle... with James Bond" (http:// www. popmatters.
com/ pm/ column/ 163228-the-non-bonds-james-bonds-bitter-decades-long-battle-with-james-bond/). PopMatters. .
[3] "Barry Nelson Biography (1925-)" (http:/ / www. filmreference.com/ film/ 10/ Barry-Nelson. html). Filmreference.com. .
[4] [4] National Archives and Records Administration. U.S. World War II Army Enlistment Records, 1938-1946
[5] [5] Los Angeles County Voter Registration Record, Venice, California, 1993
[6] McLellan, Dennis (2007-04-14). "First Bond starred on Broadway with Bacall, Minnelli, Bel Geddes" (http:/ / web. archive.org/web/
20070517105400/http:/ / www. thenewstribune. com/ 358/ story/ 38811.html). Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original (http:// www.
thenewstribune. com/ 358/ story/ 38811. html) on 2007-05-17. . Retrieved 2007-04-14.
[7] "First James Bond star dies aged 89" (http:// www. metro.co. uk/ fame/article.html?in_article_id=45258&in_page_id=7& in_a_source=).
Metro. 2007-04-14. . Retrieved 2007-04-14.
[8] "Barry Nelson" (http:/ / www. ibdb. com/ person. asp?id=15762). Internet Broadway Database. Archived (http:// web. archive.org/ web/
20070418170559/ http:/ / www. ibdb. com/ person.asp?ID=15762) from the original on 18 April 2007. . Retrieved 2007-04-14.
[9] "Barry Nelson (1920-2007)" (http:/ / www. mi6. co. uk/ sections/ articles/ obituary_nelson.php3). MI6.co.uk. 2007-04-13. . Retrieved
Barry Nelson
[10] Zydel, Devin (2007-04-13). "Barry Nelson (1920-2007)" (http://commanderbond.net/ article/4235). CommanderBond.net. Archived
(http:// web. archive. org/web/ 20070518163039/ http:/ / commanderbond.net/ article/ 4235) from the original on 18 May 2007. . Retrieved
External links
• Barry Nelson (http:// www. imdb. com/ name/ nm625167/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Barry Nelson (http:/ / www. ibdb.com/ person.asp?ID=15762) at the Internet Broadway Database
• Barry Nelson obituary at MI6.co.uk (http:/ / www. mi6. co.uk/sections/ articles/ obituary_nelson. php3)
Basil Rathbone
Basil Rathbone
Basil Rathbone
from the trailer for the film Tovarich (1937)
Born Philip St. John Basil Rathbone
13 June 1892
Johannesburg, South African Republic
Died 21 July 1967 (aged 75)
New York City, New York,
United States
Occupation Actor
Years active 1911–67
Spouse(s) Marion Foreman (1914–1926; divorced; 1 child)
Ouida Bergère (1926–1967; his death; 1 adopted daughter)
Philip St. John Basil Rathbone, MC (13 June 1892 – 21 July 1967) was a South African-born British actor. He
rose to prominence in the UK as a Shakespearean stage actor and went on to appear in over 70 films, primarily
costume dramas, swashbucklers and, occasionally, horror films. He frequently portrayed suave villains or morally
ambiguous characters, such as Murdstone in David Copperfield (1935) and Sir Guy of Gisbourne in The Adventures
of Robin Hood (1938). His most famous role, however, was heroic—that of Sherlock Holmes in fourteen Hollywood
films made between 1939 and 1946 and in a radio series. His later career included Broadway, self-ironic film and
television work; he received a Tony Award in 1948 as Best Actor in a Play.
Early life
Born as Philip St. John Basil Rathbone in Johannesburg to English parents, Edgar Philip Rathbone, a mining
engineer and scion of the Liverpool Rathbone family, and Anna Barbara (née George), a violinist, he had two older
half-brothers, Harold and Horace, as well as two younger siblings, Beatrice and John. The Rathbones fled to Britain
when Basil was three years old after his father was accused by the Boers of being a British spy near the onset of the
Second Boer War at the end of the 1890s.
Rathbone was educated at Repton School in Repton, Derbyshire and was employed by the Liverpool and Globe
Insurance Companies.
On 22 April 1911, Rathbone made his first appearance on stage at the Theatre Royal, Ipswich, Suffolk, as Hortensio
in The Taming of the Shrew, with Sir Frank Benson's No. 2 Company, under the direction of Henry Herbert. In
Basil Rathbone
October 1912, he went to America with Benson's company, playing such parts as Paris in Romeo and Juliet, Fenton
in The Merry Wives of Windsor, and Silvius in As You Like It. Returning to Britain, he made his first appearance in
London at the Savoy Theatre on 9 July 1914, as Finch in The Sin of David. That December, he appeared at the
Shaftesbury Theatre as the Dauphin in Henry V. During 1915, he toured with Benson and appeared with him at
London's Court Theatre in December as Lysander in A Midsummer Night's Dream.
At the end of 1915, he was called up via the Derby Scheme into the British Army as a private with the London
Scottish Regiment, joining a regiment that also counted in its ranks his future professional acting contemporaries
Claude Rains, Herbert Marshall and Ronald Colman at different points through the conflict. After basic training with
the London Scots in early 1916 he received a commission as a lieutenant in the 2nd Battalion of the Liverpool
Scottish, where he served as an intelligence officer and eventually attained the rank of captain. During the war,
Rathbone displayed a penchant for disguise—a skill which he coincidentally shared with what would become
perhaps his most memorable character, Sherlock Holmes. On one occasion, in order to have better visibility,
Rathbone convinced his superiors to allow him to scout enemy positions during daylight rather than at night, as was
the usual practice to minimize the chance of detection. Rathbone completed the mission through his skillful use of
camouflage. In September 1918, he was awarded the Military Cross for "conspicuous daring and resource on
His younger brother, John, was killed in action during the war.
During the Summer Festival of 1919, he appeared at Stratford-upon-Avon with the New Shakespeare Company
playing Romeo, Cassius, Ferdinand in The Tempest and Florizel in The Winter's Tale; in October he was at London's
Queen's Theatre as the aide-de-camp in Napoleon, and in February 1920 he was at the Savoy Theatre in the title role
in Peter Ibbetson with huge success.
During the 1920s, Rathbone appeared regularly in Shakespearean and other roles on the British stage. He began to
travel and appeared at the Cort Theatre, New York, in October 1923 in a production of The Swan opposite Eva Le
Gallienne, which made him a star on Broadway. He toured in the United States in 1925, appearing in San Francisco
in May and the Lyceum Theatre, New York, in October. He was in the US again in 1927 and 1930 and again in
1931, when he appeared on stage with Ethel Barrymore. He continued his stage career in Britain, returning late in
1934 to the US, where he appeared with Katharine Cornell in several plays.
Rathbone was once arrested in 1926 along with every other member of the cast of The Captive, a play in which his
character's wife left him for another woman. Though the charges were eventually dropped, Rathbone was very angry
about the censorship because he believed that homosexuality needed to be brought into the open.
He commenced his film career in 1925 in The Masked Bride, appeared in a few silent films, and played the detective
Philo Vance in the 1930 film The Bishop Murder Case, based on the best-selling novel. Like George Sanders and
Vincent Price after him, Rathbone made a name for himself in the 1930s by playing suave villains in costume
dramas and swashbucklers, including David Copperfield (1935) as the abusive stepfather Mr. Murdstone; Anna
Karenina (1935) as her distant husband, Karenin; The Last Days of Pompeii (1935) portraying Pontius Pilate;
Captain Blood (1935); A Tale of Two Cities (1935), as the Marquis St. Evremonde; The Adventures of Robin Hood
(1938) playing his best-remembered villain, Sir Guy of Gisbourne; The Adventures of Marco Polo (1938); and The
Mark of Zorro (1940) as Captain Esteban Pasquale. He also appeared in several early horror films: Tower of London
(1939), as Richard III, and Son of Frankenstein (1939), portraying the dedicated surgeon Baron Wolf von
Frankenstein, son of the monster's creator, and, in 1949, was also the narrator for the segment "The Wind in the
Willows" in the animated feature, The Adventures of Ichabod and Mr. Toad.
He was admired for his athletic cinema swordsmanship (he listed fencing among his favourite recreations). He
fought and lost to Errol Flynn in a duel on the beach in Captain Blood and in an elaborate fight sequence in The
Adventures of Robin Hood. He was involved in noteworthy sword fights in Tower of London, The Mark of Zorro,
and The Court Jester (1956). Despite his real-life skill, Rathbone won only once onscreen, in Romeo and Juliet
Basil Rathbone
(1936). Rathbone earned Academy Award nominations for Best Actor in a Supporting Role for his performances as
Tybalt in Romeo and Juliet (1936) and as King Louis XI in If I Were King (1938). In The Dawn Patrol (1938), he
played one of his few heroic roles in the 1930s, as a Royal Flying Corps (RFC) squadron commander brought to the
brink of a nervous breakdown by the strain and guilt of sending his battle-weary pilots off to near-certain death in the
skies of 1915 France. Errol Flynn, Rathbone's perennial foe, starred in the film as his successor when Rathbone's
character was promoted.
According to Hollywood legend, Rathbone was Margaret Mitchell's first choice to play Rhett Butler in the film
version of her novel Gone with the Wind. The reliability of this story may be suspect, however, as on another
occasion Mitchell chose Groucho Marx for the role, apparently in jest. Rathbone actively campaigned for the role,
however, but to no avail.
Despite his film success, Rathbone always insisted that he wished to be remembered for his stage career. He said that
his favourite role was that of Romeo.
The Sherlock Holmes films
Basil Rathbone as Sherlock Holmes
Rathbone is most widely recognised for his many
portrayals of Sherlock Holmes. In a radio interview
Rathbone recalled that Twentieth Century-Fox producer
Gene Markey proposed a film version of Sir Arthur
Conan Doyle's The Hound of the Baskervilles, and when
asked who could possibly play Holmes, Markey
incredulously replied, "Who?! Basil Rathbone!" The film
was so successful that it spawned a series. Fourteen
feature films were made between 1939 and 1946, all of
which co-starred Nigel Bruce as Dr. Watson. The first
two films, The Hound of the Baskervilles and The
Adventures of Sherlock Holmes (both produced by Fox in
1939), were set in the late Victorian times of the original
stories. Later installments, produced by Universal
Pictures, beginning with Sherlock Holmes and the Voice
of Terror (1942), were set in contemporary times, and
some had World War II-related plots. Rathbone and
Bruce also reprised their film roles in a radio series, The
New Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, which began in
October 1939. Rathbone appeared in the radio series as
long as the film series was active, but after the films
lapsed in 1946, Rathbone ceded his radio part to Tom
Conway. Conway and Bruce carried on with the series
for two seasons, until both dropped out in July 1947.
The many sequels typecast Rathbone, and he was unable to remove himself completely from the shadow of Holmes.
However, in later years, Rathbone willingly made the Holmes association, as in a TV sketch with Milton Berle in the
early 1950s, in which he donned the deerstalker cap and Inverness cape. In the 1960s, in his Sherlock Holmes
costume, he appeared in a series of TV commercials for Getz Exterminators ("Getz gets 'em, since 1888!'").
Rathbone also brought Holmes to the stage in a play written by his wife Ouida. Thomas Gomez, who had appeared
as a Nazi ringleader in Sherlock Holmes and the Voice of Terror, played the villainous Professor Moriarty. Nigel
Bruce was too ill to take the part of Dr. Watson, and it was played by Jack Raine. Bruce's absence depressed
Basil Rathbone
Rathbone, particularly after Bruce died on 8 October 1953, while the play was in rehearsals. The play ran for only
three performances.
Later career
In the 1950s, Rathbone appeared in two spoofs of his earlier swashbuckling villains: Casanova's Big Night (1954)
opposite Bob Hope and The Court Jester (1956) with Danny Kaye. He appeared frequently on TV game shows and
continued to appear in major films, including the Humphrey Bogart comedy We're No Angels (1955) and John Ford's
political drama The Last Hurrah (1958).
Rathbone also appeared on Broadway numerous times. In 1948, he won a Tony Award for Best Actor for his
performance as the unyielding Dr. Austin Sloper in the original production of The Heiress, which featured Wendy
Hiller as his timid, spinster daughter. He also received accolades for his performance in Archibald Macleish's J.B., a
modernisation of the Biblical trials of Job.
Through the 1950s and 1960s, he continued to appear in several dignified anthology programmes on television. To
support his second wife's lavish tastes, he appeared as a panelist on the television game show The Name's the Same
(in 1954), and he also took roles in cheap film thrillers of far lesser quality, such as The Black Sleep (1956), Queen of
Blood (1966), The Ghost in the Invisible Bikini (1966, with comic Harvey Lembeck joking, "That guy looks like
Sherlock Holmes"), Hillbillys in a Haunted House (1967, also featuring Lon Chaney Jr and John Carradine.), and his
last film, a low-budget, Mexican horror film called Autopsy of a Ghost (1968).
He is also known for his spoken word recordings, including his interpretation of Clement C. Moore's "The Night
Before Christmas". Rathbone's readings of the stories and poems of Edgar Allan Poe are collected together with
readings by Vincent Price in Caedmon Audio's The Edgar Allan Poe Audio Collection on CD. Rathbone also made
many other recordings, of everything from a dramatised version of Oliver Twist to a recording of Prokofiev's Peter
and the Wolf (with Leopold Stokowski conducting) to a dramatised version of Charles Dickens's A Christmas
On television he appeared in two musical versions of Dickens's A Christmas Carol: one in 1954, in which he played
Marley's Ghost opposite Fredric March's Scrooge, and the original 1956 live-action version of The Stingiest Man In
Town, in which he starred as a singing Ebenezer Scrooge.
In the 1960s, he also toured with a one-man show titled (like his autobiography) In and Out of Character. In this
show, he recited poetry and Shakespeare as well as giving reminiscences from his life and career (e.g., the humorous,
"I could have killed Errol Flynn any time I wanted to!"). As an encore, he recited Vincent Starrett's famous poem
Vincent Price and Rathbone appeared together, along with Boris Karloff, in Tower of London (1939) and The
Comedy of Terrors (1964). The latter was the only film to feature the "Big Four" of American International Pictures'
horror films: Price, Rathbone, Karloff and Peter Lorre. Rathbone also appeared with Price in the final segment of
Roger Corman's 1962 anthology film Tales of Terror, a loose dramatisation of Poe's "The Facts in the Case of M.
Basil Rathbone has three stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame: one for films, at 6549 Hollywood Boulevard; one
for radio, at 6300 Hollywood Boulevard; and one for television, at 6915 Hollywood Boulevard in Hollywood.
Personal life
Rathbone married actress Ethel Marion Foreman in 1914. They had one son, Rodion Rathbone (1915–1996), who
had a brief Hollywood career under the name John Rodion. The couple divorced in 1926. In 1924 he was involved in
a brief relationship with Eva Le Gallienne. In 1927, he married writer Ouida Bergère; the couple adopted a daughter,
Cynthia Rathbone (1939–1969). The American actor Jackson Rathbone is a distant relation (a third cousin, several
times removed).
Another distant relation was Henry Rathbone, the U.S. Army officer who, along with his fiancée,
Basil Rathbone
was Abraham Lincoln's guest in the Presidential box at Ford's Theatre when Lincoln was assassinated.
During Rathbone's Hollywood career, Ouida Rathbone, who was also her husband's business manager, developed a
reputation for hosting elaborate expensive parties in their home, with many prominent and influential people on the
guest lists. This trend inspired a joke in The Ghost Breakers (1940), a film in which Rathbone does not appear:
During a tremendous thunderstorm in New York City, Bob Hope observes that "Basil Rathbone must be throwing a
party". British actress Mrs. Patrick Campbell described Rathbone as "two profiles pasted together".
As cited in the
same autobiography, Mrs. Campbell would later refer to him as, "a folded umbrella taking elocution lessons."
Rathbone died suddenly of a heart attack in New York City in 1967 at age 75. He is interred in a crypt in the Shrine
of Memories Mausoleum at Ferncliff Cemetery in Hartsdale, New York.
Year Title Role
1921 Innocent Amadis de Jocelyn
The Fruitful Vine Don Cesare Carelli
1923 The School for Scandal Joseph Surface
The Loves of Mary, Queen of Scots Undetermined Subordinate Role
1924 Trouping with Ellen Tony Winterslip
1925 The Masked Bride Antoine
1926 The Great Deception Rizzio
1929 The Last of Mrs. Cheyney Lord Arthur Dilling
1930 The Bishop Murder Case Philo Vance
This Mad World Paul Parisot
A Notorious Affair Paul Gherardi
The Flirting Widow Colonel John "Johnny" Vaughn-Smith
The Lady of Scandal Edward, Duke of Warrington
The Lady Surrenders Carl Vandry
Sin Takes a Holiday Reginald "Reggie" Durant
1932 A Woman Commands Capt. Alex Pastitsch
After the Ball Jack Harrowby
1933 One Precious Year Derek Nagel
Loyalties Ferdinand de Levis
1935 David Copperfield Mr. Murdstone
Anna Karenina Karenin
The Last Days of Pompeii Pontius Pilate
A Feather in Her Hat Captain Randolph Courtney
Kind Lady Henry Abbott
Captain Blood Levasseur
A Tale of Two Cities Marquis St. Evremonde
Basil Rathbone
1936 Private Number Thomas Wroxton
Romeo and Juliet Tybalt - Nephew to Lady Capulet
The Garden of Allah Count Ferdinand Anteoni
1937 Love from a Stranger Gerald Lovell
Confession Michael Michailow, aka Michael Koslov
Make a Wish Johnny Selden
Tovarich Commissar Dimitri Gorotchenko
1938 The Adventures of Marco Polo Ahmed
The Adventures of Robin Hood Sir Guy of Gisbourne
If I Were King King Louis XI
The Dawn Patrol Major Brand
1939 Son of Frankenstein Baron Wolf von Frankenstein
The Hound of the Baskervilles Sherlock Holmes
The Sun Never Sets Clive Randolph
The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes Sherlock Holmes
Rio Paul Reynard
Tower of London Richard - Duke of Gloucester
1940 Rhythm on the River Oliver Courtney
The Mark of Zorro Captain Esteban Pasquale
1941 The Mad Doctor Dr. George Sebastian
The Black Cat Montague Hartley
International Lady Reggie Oliver
Paris Calling Andre Benoit
1942 Fingers at the Window Cesar Ferrari, alias Dr. H. Santelle
Crossroads Henri Sarrou
Sherlock Holmes and the Voice of Terror Sherlock Holmes
1943 Sherlock Holmes and the Secret Weapon Sherlock Holmes
Sherlock Holmes in Washington Sherlock Holmes
Above Suspicion Sig von Aschenhausen
Sherlock Holmes Faces Death Sherlock Holmes
Crazy House Sherlock Holmes (Cameo appearance)
1944 The Spider Woman Sherlock Holmes
The Scarlet Claw Sherlock Holmes
Bathing Beauty George Adams
The Pearl of Death Sherlock Holmes
Frenchman's Creek Lord Rockingham
1945 The House of Fear Sherlock Holmes
The Woman in Green Sherlock Holmes
Pursuit to Algiers Sherlock Holmes
Basil Rathbone
1946 Terror by Night Sherlock Holmes
Heartbeat Professor Aristide
Dressed to Kill Sherlock Holmes
1949 The Adventures of Ichabod and Mr. Toad Narrator (segment "The Wind in the Willows")
1954 Casanova's Big Night Lucio / Narrator
1955 We're No Angels Andre Trochard
The Court Jester Sir Ravenhurst
1956 The Black Sleep Sir Joel Cadman
1958 The Last Hurrah Norman Cass, Sr.
1961 Mystic Prophecies and Nostradamus Narrator
The Magic Sword Lodac
1962 Ponzio Pilato Caiaphas
Tales of Terror Carmichael (segment "The Facts in the Case of M. Valdemar")
Two Before Zero Narrator
1964 The Comedy of Terrors John F. Black, Esq.
1965 Voyage to the Prehistoric Planet Prof. Hartman, Lunar 7
1966 Queen of Blood Dr. Farraday
The Ghost in the Invisible Bikini Reginald Ripper
1967 Hillbillys in a Haunted House Gregor
Autopsia de un fantasma Canuto Perez
1986 The Great Mouse Detective Sherlock Holmes (overdubbed voice)
[1] The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 30997. p. 13166 (http:// www. london-gazette.co.uk/ issues/ 30997/ supplements/ 13166). 5
November 1918.
[2] "New York Times: Reaction to 'The Captive', 1926-1927 - OutHistory" (http:// outhistory.org/wiki/
New_York_Times:_Reaction_to_"The_Captive",_1926-1927). outhistory.org. 2012 [last update]. . Retrieved 25 September 2012.
[3] Basil Rathbone, Master of Stage and Screen: Biography (http:/ / www. basilrathbone.net/ biography/ )
[4] Basil Rathbone: Master of Stage and Screen - Recordings (http:/ / www. basilrathbone.net/ recordings).
[5] Jackson Rathbone profile, detailing blood relationship to Basil Rathbone (http:// www. dailyrecord.co. uk/ showbiz/ celebrity-interviews/
2010/ 08/ 08/ vampire-star-jackson-rathbone-on-his-family-ties-to-legendary-swashbuckler-86908-22473663)
[6] Basil Rathbone, In and Out of Character (New York: Doubleday, 1962).
• Who's Who in the Theatre - "The Dramatic List," edited by John Parker, 10th edition revised, London, 1947,
pp. 1183–1184.
Basil Rathbone
External links
• Basil Rathbone (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ name/ nm1651/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Basil Rathbone (http:/ / www. ibdb. com/ person.asp?ID=4443) at the Internet Broadway Database
• Biography (http:// www. basilrathbone.net/ biography/)
• Basil Rathbone (http:/ / www. virtual-history.com/ movie/ person/ 2712/ basil-rathbone) at Virtual History
• Basil Rathbone bio (http:/ / www. searchmytrash. com/ articles/ basilrathbone(11-10).shtml) on (re)Search my
• Hollywood's South African–born Actors of the 1930s and 1940s by Ross Dix-Peek (see here (http:/ / peek-01.
livejournal.com/ 1525. html))
Bertolt Brecht
Bertolt Brecht
Bertolt Brecht
Born 10 February 1898
Augsburg, German Empire
Died 14 August 1956 (aged 58)
East Berlin, East Germany
Occupation Playwright, theatre director, poet
Nationality German
Citizenship German
Genres Epic theatre · Non-Aristotelian drama
Notable work(s) •• The Threepenny Opera
•• Life of Galileo
•• Mother Courage and Her Children
•• The Good Person of Szechwan
•• The Caucasian Chalk Circle
•• The Resistible Rise of Arturo Ui
Spouse(s) • Marianne Zoff (1922–27)
• Helene Weigel (1930–56)
Children • Frank Banholzer (1919–43)
• Hanne Hiob (1923–2009)
• Stefan Brecht (1924–2009)
• Barbara Brecht-Schall (de) (born 1930)
Bertolt Brecht (German: [ˈbɛɐ̯tɔlt ˈbʁɛçt] ( listen); born Eugen Berthold Friedrich Brecht; 10 February 1898 – 14
August 1956) was a German poet, playwright, and theatre director.
One of the greatest dramatists of the 20th century, Brecht made equally significant contributions to dramaturgy and
theatrical production, the latter particularly through the huge impact of the tours undertaken by the Berliner
Ensemble – the post-war theatre company operated by Brecht and his wife, long-time collaborator and actress
Helene Weigel.
Bertolt Brecht
Life and career
Bavaria (1898–1924)
Bertolt Brecht was born in Augsburg, Bavaria (about 80 km/ mi north-west of Munich), to a devout Protestant
mother and a Catholic father (who had been persuaded to have a Protestant wedding). The modest house where he
was born is today preserved as a Brecht Museum.
His father worked for a paper mill, becoming its managing
director in 1914.
Thanks to his mother's influence, Brecht knew the Bible, a familiarity that would impact on his
writing throughout his life. From her, too, came the "dangerous image of the self-denying woman" that recurs in his
Brecht's home life was comfortably middle class, despite what his occasional attempt to claim peasant
origins implied.
At school in Augsburg he met Caspar Neher, with whom he formed a lifelong creative
partnership, Neher designing many of the sets for Brecht's dramas and helping to forge the distinctive visual
iconography of their epic theatre.
When he was 16, the First World War broke out. Initially enthusiastic, Brecht soon changed his mind on seeing his
classmates "swallowed by the army".
On his father's recommendation, Brecht sought a loophole by registering for
an additional medical course at Munich University, where he enrolled in 1917.
There he studied drama with Arthur
Kutscher, who inspired in the young Brecht an admiration for the iconoclastic dramatist and cabaret-star Frank
From July 1916, Brecht's newspaper articles began appearing under the new name "Bert Brecht" (his first theatre
criticism for the Augsburger Volkswille appeared in October 1919).
Brecht was drafted into military service in the
autumn of 1918, only to be posted back to Augsburg as a medical orderly in a military VD clinic; the war ended a
month later.
In July 1919, Brecht and Paula Banholzer (de) (who had begun a relationship in 1917) had a son, Frank. In 1920
Brecht's mother died.
Karl Valentin as the barber in Mysteries of a
Barbershop (1923).
Some time in either 1920 or 1921, Brecht took a small part in the
political cabaret of the Munich comedian Karl Valentin.
diaries for the next few years record numerous visits to see Valentin
Brecht compared Valentin to Chaplin, for his "virtually
complete rejection of mimicry and cheap psychology".
Writing in
his Messingkauf Dialogues years later, Brecht identified Valentin,
along with Wedekind and Büchner, as his "chief influences" at that
But the man he [Brecht writes of himself in the third person]
learnt most from was the clown Valentin, who performed in a
beer-hall. He did short sketches in which he played refractory
employees, orchestral musicians or photographers, who hated their employers and made them look ridiculous.
The employer was played by his partner, Liesl Karlstadt, a popular woman comedian who used to pad herself
out and speak in a deep bass voice.
Brecht's first full-length play, Baal (written 1918), arose in response to an argument in one of Kutscher's drama
seminars, initiating a trend that persisted throughout his career of creative activity that was generated by a desire to
counter another work (both others' and his own, as his many adaptations and re-writes attest). "Anyone can be
creative," he quipped, "it's rewriting other people that's a challenge."
Brecht completed his second major play,
Drums in the Night, in February 1919.
In 1922 while still living in Munich, Brecht came to the attention of an influential Berlin critic, Herbert Ihering (de):
"At 24 the writer Bert Brecht has changed Germany's literary complexion overnight"—he enthused in his review of
Brecht's first play to be produced, Drums in the Night—"[he] has given our time a new tone, a new melody, a new
Bertolt Brecht
vision. [...] It is a language you can feel on your tongue, in your gums, your ear, your spinal column."
November it was announced that Brecht had been awarded the prestigious Kleist Prize (intended for unestablished
writers and probably Germany's most significant literary award, until it was abolished in 1932) for his first three
plays (Baal, Drums in the Night, and In the Jungle, although at that point only Drums had been produced).
citation for the award insisted that:
Poster for the Riverside Shakespeare
Company's production of Brecht and
Lion Feuchtwanger's Edward II.
New York City, 1982.
"[Brecht's] language is vivid without being deliberately poetic, symbolical
without being over literary. Brecht is a dramatist because his language is
felt physically and in the round."
That year he married the Viennese opera-singer Marianne Zoff. Their
daughter—Hanne Hiob (1923–2009)—was a successful German actress.
In 1923, Brecht wrote a scenario for what was to become a short slapstick film,
Mysteries of a Barbershop, directed by Erich Engel and starring Karl
Despite a lack of success at the time, its experimental inventiveness
and the subsequent success of many of its contributors have meant that it is now
considered one of the most important films in German film history.
In May of
that year, Brecht's In the Jungle premiered in Munich, also directed by Engel.
Opening night proved to be a "scandal"—a phenomenon that would characterize
many of his later productions during the Weimar Republic—in which Nazis blew
whistles and threw stink bombs at the actors on the stage.
In 1924 Brecht worked with the novelist and playwright Lion Feuchtwanger
(whom he had met in 1919) on an adaptation of Christopher Marlowe's Edward
II that proved to be a milestone in Brecht's early theatrical and dramaturgical development.
Brecht's Edward II
constituted his first attempt at collaborative writing and was the first of many classic texts he was to adapt. As his
first solo directorial début, he later credited it as the germ of his conception of "epic theatre".
That September, a
job as assistant dramaturg at Max Reinhardt's Deutsches Theater—at the time one of the leading three or four
theatres in the world—brought him to Berlin.
Weimar Republic Berlin (1925–33)
In 1923 Brecht's marriage to Zoff began to break down (though they did not divorce until 1927).
Brecht had
become involved with both Elisabeth Hauptmann and Helene Weigel.
Brecht and Weigel's son, Stefan, was born
in October 1924.
In his role as dramaturg, Brecht had much to stimulate him but little work of his own.
Reinhardt staged Shaw's
Saint Joan, Goldoni's Servant of Two Masters (with the improvisational approach of the commedia dell'arte in which
the actors chatted with the prompter about their roles), and Pirandello's Six Characters in Search of an Author in his
group of Berlin theatres.
A new version of Brecht's third play, now entitled Jungle: Decline of a Family, opened
at the Deutsches Theater in October 1924, but was not a success.
Bertolt Brecht
'In the asphalt city I'm at home. From the very start
'Provided with every last sacrament:
'With newspapers. And tobacco. And brandy
'To the end mistrustful, lazy and content.
Bertolt Brecht, "Of Poor BB".
At this time Brecht revised his important "transitional poem", "Of Poor BB".
In 1925, his publishers provided him
with Elisabeth Hauptmann as an assistant for the completion of his collection of poems, Devotions for the Home
(Hauspostille, eventually published in January 1927). She continued to work with him after the publisher's
commission ran out.
In 1925 in Mannheim the artistic exhibition Neue Sachlichkeit ("New Objectivity") had given its name to the new
post-Expressionist movement in the German arts. With little to do at the Deutsches Theater, Brecht began to develop
his Man Equals Man project, which was to become the first product of "the 'Brecht collective'—that shifting group
of friends and collaborators on whom he henceforward depended."
This collaborative approach to artistic
production, together with aspects of Brecht's writing and style of theatrical production, mark Brecht's work from this
period as part of the Neue Sachlichkeit movement.
The collective's work "mirrored the artistic climate of the
middle 1920s," Willett and Manheim argue:
with their attitude of Neue Sachlichkeit (or New Matter-of-Factness), their stressing of the collectivity
and downplaying of the individual, and their new cult of Anglo-Saxon imagery and sport. Together the
"collective" would go to fights, not only absorbing their terminology and ethos (which permeates Man
Equals Man) but also drawing those conclusions for the theatre as a whole which Brecht set down in his
theoretical essay "Emphasis on Sport" and tried to realise by means of the harsh lighting, the
boxing-ring stage and other anti-illusionistic devices that henceforward appeared in his own
In 1925, Brecht also saw two films that had a significant influence on him: Chaplin's The Gold Rush and Eisenstein's
Battleship Potemkin.
Brecht had compared Valentin to Chaplin, and the two of them provided models for Galy
Gay in Man Equals Man.
Brecht later wrote that Chaplin "would in many ways come closer to the epic than to the
dramatic theatre's requirements."
They met several times during Brecht's time in the United States, and discussed
Chaplin's Monsieur Verdoux project, which it is possible Brecht influenced.
In 1926 a series of short stories was published under Brecht's name, though Hauptmann was closely associated with
writing them.
Following the production of Man Equals Man in Darmstadt that year, Brecht began studying
Marxism and socialism in earnest, under the supervision of Hauptmann.
"When I read Marx's Capital", a note by
Brecht reveals, "I understood my plays." Marx was, it continues, "the only spectator for my plays I'd ever come
'For us, man portrayed on the stage is significant as a social function. It is not his relationship to himself, nor his relationship to God, but his
relationship to society which is central. Whenever he appears, his class or social stratum appears with him. His moral, spiritual or sexual conflicts
are conflicts with society.
Erwin Piscator, 1929.
In 1927 Brecht became part of the "dramaturgical collective" of Erwin Piscator's first company, which was designed
to tackle the problem of finding new plays for its "epic, political, confrontational, documentary theatre".
collaborated with Piscator during the period of the latter's landmark productions, Hoppla, We're Alive! by Toller,
Rasputin, The Adventures of the Good Soldier Schweik, and Konjunktur by Lania.
Brecht's most significant
contribution was to the adaptation of the unfinished episodic comic novel Schweik, which he later described as a
"montage from the novel".
The Piscator productions influenced Brecht's ideas about staging and design, and
Bertolt Brecht
alerted him to the radical potentials offered to the "epic" playwright by the development of stage technology
(particularly projections).
What Brecht took from Piscator "is fairly plain, and he acknowledged it" Willett
The emphasis on Reason and didacticism, the sense that the new subject matter demanded a new
dramatic form, the use of songs to interrupt and comment: all these are found in his notes and essays of
the 1920s, and he bolstered them by citing such Piscatorial examples as the step-by-step narrative
technique of Schweik and the oil interests handled in Konjunktur ('Petroleum resists the five-act
Brecht was struggling at the time with the question of how to dramatize the complex economic relationships of
modern capitalism in his unfinished project Joe P. Fleischhacker (which Piscator's theatre announced in its
programme for the 1927–28 season). It wasn't until his Saint Joan of the Stockyards (written between 1929–1931)
that Brecht solved it.
In 1928 he discussed with Piscator plans to stage Shakespeare's Julius Caesar and Brecht's
own Drums in the Night, but the productions did not materialize.
1927 also saw the first collaboration between Brecht and the young composer Kurt Weill.
Together they began to
develop Brecht's Mahagonny project, along thematic lines of the biblical Cities of the Plain but rendered in terms of
the Neue Sachlichkeit's Amerikanismus, which had informed Brecht's previous work.
They produced The Little
Mahagonny for a music festival in July, as what Weill called a "stylistic exercise" in preparation for the large-scale
piece. From that point on Caspar Neher became an integral part of the collaborative effort, with words, music and
visuals conceived in relation to one another from the start.
The model for their mutual articulation lay in Brecht's
newly-formulated principle of the "separation of the elements", which he first outlined in "The Modern Theatre is the
Epic Theatre" (1930). The principle, a variety of montage, proposed by-passing the "great struggle for supremacy
between words, music and production" as Brecht put it, by showing each as self-contained, independent works of art
that adopt attitudes towards one another.
Stamp from the former East Germany depicting
Brecht and a scene from his Life of Galileo.
In 1930 Brecht married Weigel; their daughter Barbara Brecht was
born soon after the wedding.
She also became an actress and
currently holds the copyrights to all of Brecht's work.
Brecht formed a writing collective which became prolific and very
influential. Elisabeth Hauptmann, Margarete Steffin, Emil Burri, Ruth
Berlau and others worked with Brecht and produced the multiple
teaching plays, which attempted to create a new dramaturgy for
participants rather than passive audiences. These addressed themselves
to the massive worker arts organisation that existed in Germany and
Austria in the 1920s. So did Brecht's first great play, Saint Joan of the
Stockyards, which attempted to portray the drama in financial
This collective adapted John Gay's The Beggar's Opera, with Brecht's
lyrics set to music by Kurt Weill. Retitled The Threepenny Opera (Die
Dreigroschenoper) it was the biggest hit in Berlin of the 1920s and a
renewing influence on the musical worldwide. One of its most famous
lines underscored the hypocrisy of conventional morality imposed by
the Church, working in conjunction with the established order, in the
face of working-class hunger and deprivation:
Erst kommt das Fressen
Dann kommt die Moral.
First the grub (lit. "eating like animals, gorging")
Then the morality.
Bertolt Brecht
The success of The Threepenny Opera was followed by the quickly thrown together Happy End. It was a personal
and a commercial failure. At the time the book was purported to be by the mysterious Dorothy Lane (now known to
be Elisabeth Hauptmann, Brecht's secretary and close collaborator). Brecht only claimed authorship of the song
texts. Brecht would later use elements of Happy End as the germ for his Saint Joan of the Stockyards, a play that
would never see the stage in Brecht's lifetime. Happy End's score by Weill produced many Brecht/Weill hits like
"Der Bilbao-Song" and "Surabaya-Jonny".
The masterpiece of the Brecht/Weill collaborations, Rise and Fall of the City of Mahagonny (Aufstieg und Fall der
Stadt Mahagonny), caused an uproar when it premiered in 1930 in Leipzig, with Nazis in the audience protesting.
The Mahagonny opera would premier later in Berlin in 1931 as a triumphant sensation.
Brecht spent the last years of the Weimar-era (1930–1933) in Berlin working with his "collective" on the Lehrstücke.
These were a group of plays driven by morals, music and Brecht's budding epic theatre. The Lehrstücke often aimed
at educating workers on Socialist issues. The Measures Taken (Die Massnahme) was scored by Hanns Eisler. In
addition, Brecht worked on a script for a semi-documentary feature film about the human impact of mass
unemployment, Kuhle Wampe (1932), which was directed by Slatan Dudow. This striking film is notable for its
subversive humour, outstanding cinematography by Günther Krampf, and Hanns Eisler's dynamic musical
contribution. It still provides a vivid insight into Berlin during the last years of the Weimar Republic. The so-called
"Westend Berlin Scene" in the 1930 was an important influencing factor on Brecht, playing in a milieu around
Ulmenallee in Westend with artists like Richard Strauss, Marlene Dietrich and Herbert Ihering.
By February 1933, Brecht’s work was eclipsed by the rise of Nazi rule in Germany.
Nazi Germany and World War II (1933–1945)
Unhappy the land where heroes are needed.
Galileo, in Brecht's Life of Galileo (1943)
Fearing persecution, Brecht left Germany in February 1933, when Hitler took power. After brief spells in Prague,
Zurich and Paris he and Weigel accepted an invitation from journalist and author Karin Michaelis to move to
Denmark, where they settled in a house in Svendborg on the island of Funen. This became the residence of the
Brecht family for the next six years, where they often received guests including Walter Benjamin, Hanns Eisler and
Ruth Berlau. During this period Brecht also travelled frequently to Copenhagen, Paris, Moscow, New York and
London for various projects and collaborations.
When war seemed imminent in April 1939, he moved to Stockholm, Sweden, where he remained for a year.
Hitler invaded Norway and Denmark, and Brecht was forced to leave Sweden for Helsinki in Finland, where he
waited for his visa for the United States until 3 May 1941.
During the war years, Brecht became a prominent writer of the Exilliteratur.
He expressed his opposition to
the National Socialist and Fascist movements in his most famous plays: Life of Galileo, Mother Courage and Her
Children, The Good Person of Szechwan, The Resistible Rise of Arturo Ui, The Caucasian Chalk Circle, Fear and
Misery of the Third Reich, and many others.
Brecht also wrote the screenplay for the Fritz Lang-directed film Hangmen Also Die! which was loosely based on the
1942 assassination of Reinhard Heydrich, the Nazi Reich Protector of German-occupied Prague, number-two man in
the SS, and a chief architect of the Holocaust, who was known as "The Hangman of Prague."
It was Brecht's only
script for a Hollywood film: the money he earned from the project enabled him to write The Visions of Simone
Machard, Schweik in the Second World War and an adaptation of Webster's The Duchess of Malfi. Hanns Eisler was
nominated for an Academy Award for his musical score. The collaboration of three prominent refugees from Nazi
Germany – Lang, Brecht and Eisler – is an example of the influence this generation of German exiles had on
American culture.
Bertolt Brecht
Cold War and final years in East Germany (1945–1956)
Brecht and Weigel on the roof of the
Berliner Ensemble during the
International Workers' Day
demonstrations in 1954.
In the years of the Cold War and "Red Scare", Brecht was blacklisted by movie
studio bosses and interrogated by the House Un-American Activities
Along with about 41 other Hollywood writers, directors, actors
and producers, he was subpoenaed to appear before the HUAC in September
1947. Although he was one of 19 witnesses who declared that they would refuse
to appear, Brecht eventually decided to testify. He later explained that he had
followed the advice of attorneys and had not wanted to delay a planned trip to
Europe. Dressed in overalls and smoking an acrid cigar that made some of the
committee members feel slightly ill, on 30 October 1947 Brecht testified that he
had never been a member of the Communist Party.
He made wry jokes
throughout the proceedings, punctuating his inability to speak English well with
continuous references to the translators present, who transformed his German
statements into English ones unintelligible to himself. HUAC Vice Chairman
Karl Mundt thanked Brecht for his co-operation. The remaining witnesses, the
so-called Hollywood Ten, refused to testify and were cited for contempt. Brecht's
decision to appear before the committee led to criticism, including accusations of
betrayal. The day after his testimony, on 31 October, Brecht returned to Europe.
In Chur in Switzerland, Brecht staged an adaptation of Sophocles' Antigone, based on a translation by Hölderlin. It
was published under the title Antigonemodell 1948, accompanied by an essay on the importance of creating a
"non-Aristotelian" form of theatre. An offer of his own theatre (completed in 1954) and theatre company (the
Berliner Ensemble) encouraged Brecht to return to Berlin in 1949. He retained his Austrian nationality (granted in
1950) and overseas bank accounts from which he received valuable hard currency remittances. The copyrights on his
writings were held by a Swiss company.
At the time he drove a pre-war DKW car—a rare luxury in the austere
divided capital.
Though he was never a member of the Communist Party, Brecht had been deeply schooled in Marxism by the
dissident communist Karl Korsch. Korsch's version of the Marxist dialectic influenced Brecht greatly, both his
aesthetic theory and theatrical practice. Brecht received the Stalin Peace Prize in 1954.
Brecht wrote very few plays in his final years in East Berlin, none of them as famous as his previous works. He
dedicated himself to directing plays and developing the talents of the next generation of young directors and
dramaturgs, such as Manfred Wekwerth, Benno Besson and Carl Weber. Some of his most famous poems, including
the "Buckow Elegies", were written at this time.
At first Brecht supported the measures taken by the East German government against the Uprising of 1953 in East
Germany, which included the use of Soviet military force. In a letter from the day of the uprising to SED First
Secretary Walter Ulbricht, Brecht wrote that: "History will pay its respects to the revolutionary impatience of the
Socialist Unity Party of Germany. The great discussion [exchange] with the masses about the speed of socialist
construction will lead to a viewing and safeguarding of the socialist achievements. At this moment I must assure you
of my allegiance to the Socialist Unity Party of Germany."
Bertolt Brecht
Graves of Helene Weigel and Bertolt Brecht in
the Dorotheenstadt cemetery
Brecht's subsequent commentary on those events, however, offered a
different assessment—in one of the poems in the Elegies, "Die
Lösung" (The Solution), Brecht writes:
After the uprising of the 17th of June
The Secretary of the Writers Union
Had leaflets distributed in the Stalinallee
Stating that the people
Had forfeited the confidence of the government
And could win it back only
By redoubled efforts. Would it not be easier
In that case for the government
To dissolve the people
And elect another?
Brecht died on 14 August 1956 of a heart attack at the age of 58. He is buried in the Dorotheenstädtischer cemetery
on Chausseestraße in the Mitte neighbourhood of Berlin, overlooked by the residence he shared with Helene Weigel.
Theory and practice of theatre
From his late twenties Brecht remained a lifelong committed Marxist who, in developing the combined theory and
practice of his "epic theatre", synthesized and extended the experiments of Erwin Piscator and Vsevolod Meyerhold
to explore the theatre as a forum for political ideas and the creation of a critical aesthetics of dialectical materialism.
Statue of Brecht outside the Berliner
Ensemble's theatre in Berlin.
Epic Theatre proposed that a play should not cause the spectator to identify
emotionally with the characters or action before him or her, but should instead
provoke rational self-reflection and a critical view of the action on the stage.
Brecht thought that the experience of a climactic catharsis of emotion left an
audience complacent. Instead, he wanted his audiences to adopt a critical
perspective in order to recognise social injustice and exploitation and to be
moved to go forth from the theatre and effect change in the world outside. For
this purpose, Brecht employed the use of techniques that remind the spectator
that the play is a representation of reality and not reality itself. By highlighting
the constructed nature of the theatrical event, Brecht hoped to communicate that
the audience's reality was equally constructed and, as such, was changeable.
Bertolt Brecht
Brecht's modernist concern with drama-as-a-medium led to his refinement of the "epic form" of the drama. This
dramatic form is related to similar modernist innovations in other arts, including the strategy of divergent chapters in
James Joyce's novel Ulysses, Sergei Eisenstein's evolution of a constructivist "montage" in the cinema, and Picasso's
introduction of cubist "collage" in the visual arts.
One of Brecht's most important principles was what he called the Verfremdungseffekt (translated as
"defamiliarization effect", "distancing effect", or "estrangement effect", and often mistranslated as "alienation
This involved, Brecht wrote, "stripping the event of its self-evident, familiar, obvious quality and
creating a sense of astonishment and curiosity about them".
To this end, Brecht employed techniques such as the
actor's direct address to the audience, harsh and bright stage lighting, the use of songs to interrupt the action,
explanatory placards, and, in rehearsals, the transposition of text to the third person or past tense, and speaking the
stage directions out loud.
In contrast to many other avant-garde approaches, however, Brecht had no desire to destroy art as an institution;
rather, he hoped to "re-function" the theatre to a new social use. In this regard he was a vital participant in the
aesthetic debates of his era—particularly over the "high art/popular culture" dichotomy—vying with the likes of
Adorno, Lukács, Ernst Bloch, and developing a close friendship with Benjamin. Brechtian theatre articulated popular
themes and forms with avant-garde formal experimentation to create a modernist realism that stood in sharp contrast
both to its psychological and socialist varieties. "Brecht's work is the most important and original in European drama
since Ibsen and Strindberg," Raymond Williams argues, while Peter Bürger dubs him "the most important materialist
writer of our time."
Brecht was also influenced by Chinese theatre, and used its aesthetic as an argument for Verfremdungseffekt. Brecht
believed, "Traditional Chinese acting also knows the alienation effect, and applies it most subtly.
... The [Chinese]
performer portrays incidents of utmost passion, but without his delivery becoming heated."
Brecht attended a
Chinese opera performance and was introduced to the famous Chinese opera performer Mei LanFang in 1935.
However, Brecht was sure to distinguish between Epic and Chinese theatre. He recognized that the Chinese style was
not a "transportable piece of technique,"
and that Epic theatre sought to historicize and address social and
political issues.
Brecht left the Berliner Ensemble to his wife, the actress Helene Weigel, which she ran until her death in 1971.
Perhaps the most famous German touring theatre of the postwar era, it was primarily devoted to performing Brecht's
plays. His son, Stefan Brecht, became a poet and theatre critic interested in New York's avant-garde theatre. Brecht
has been a controversial figure in Germany, and in his native city of Augsburg there were objections to creating a
birthplace museum. By the 1970s, however, Brecht's plays had surpassed Shakespeare's in the number of annual
performances in Germany.
There are few areas of modern theatrical culture that have not felt the impact or influence of Brecht's ideas and
practices; dramatists and directors in whom one may trace a clear Brechtian legacy include: Dario Fo, Augusto Boal,
Joan Littlewood, Peter Brook, Peter Weiss, Heiner Müller, Pina Bausch, Tony Kushner, Robert Bolt and Caryl
In addition to the theatre, Brechtian theories and techniques have exerted considerable sway over certain strands of
film theory and cinematic practice; Brecht's influence may be detected in the films of Jean-Luc Godard, Lindsay
Anderson, Rainer Werner Fassbinder, Joseph Losey, Nagisa Oshima, Ritwik Ghatak, Lars von Trier, Jan Bucquoy
and Hal Hartley.
Bertolt Brecht
Brecht in fiction
• In the 1930 novel Success, Brecht's mentor Lion Feuchtwanger immortalized Brecht as the character Kaspar
• In the 2006 film The Lives of Others, a Stasi agent is partially inspired to save a playwright he has been spying on
by reading a book of Brecht poetry that he had stolen from the artist's apartment.
• Brecht at Night by Mati Unt, transl. Eric Dickens (Dalkey Archive Press, 2009)
• In the Günter Grass play The Plebeians Rehearse the Uprising (1966), Brecht appears as "The Boss", rehearsing
his version of Shakespeare's Coriolanus against the background of worker unrest in Berlin in 1953.
Collaborators and associates
Collective and collaborative working methods were inherent to Brecht's approach, as Fredric Jameson (among
others) stresses. Jameson describes the creator of the work not as Brecht the individual, but rather as 'Brecht': a
collective subject that "certainly seemed to have a distinctive style (the one we now call 'Brechtian') but was no
longer personal in the bourgeois or individualistic sense." During the course of his career, Brecht sustained many
long-lasting creative relationships with other writers, composers, scenographers, directors, dramaturgs and actors;
the list includes: Elisabeth Hauptmann, Margarete Steffin, Ruth Berlau, Slatan Dudow, Kurt Weill, Hanns Eisler,
Paul Dessau, Caspar Neher, Teo Otto, Karl von Appen, Ernst Busch, Lotte Lenya, Peter Lorre, Therese Giehse,
Angelika Hurwicz, Carola Neher and Helene Weigel herself. This is "theatre as collective experiment [...] as
something radically different from theatre as expression or as experience."
List of collaborators and associates
•• Karl von Appen •• Erwin Faber •• Theo Lingen
•• Walter Benjamin •• Lion Feuchtwanger •• Peter Lorre
•• Eric Bentley •• Therese Giehse •• Ralph Manheim
•• Ruth Berghaus •• Alexander Granach •• Carola Neher
•• Ruth Berlau •• Elisabeth Hauptmann •• Caspar Neher
•• Berliner Ensemble •• Paul Hindemith •• Teo Otto
•• Benno Besson •• Oskar Homolka •• G W Pabst
•• Arnolt Bronnen •• Angelika Hurwicz •• Erwin Piscator
• Emil Burri (de) • Herbert Ihering (de) •• Margarete Steffin
•• Ernst Busch •• Fritz Kortner •• Carl Weber
•• Paul Dessau •• Fritz Lang •• Helene Weigel
•• Slatan Dudow •• Wolfgang Langhoff •• Kurt Weill
•• Hanns Eisler •• Charles Laughton •• John Willett
•• Erich Engel •• Lotte Lenya •• Hella Wuolijoki
Bertolt Brecht
• Stories of Mr. Keuner (Geschichten vom Herrn Keuner (de))
• Threepenny Novel (Dreigroschenroman, 1934)
Entries show: English-language translation of title (German-language title) [year written] / [year first produced]
• Baal 1918/1923 • Round Heads and Pointed Heads (Die Rundköpfe und die
Spitzköpfe) 1931–34/1936
• Drums in the Night (Trommeln in der Nacht) 1918–20/1922 • The Horatians and the Curiatians (Die Horatier und die
Kuriatier) 1933–34/1958
• The Beggar (Der Bettler oder Der tote Hund) 1919/? • Fear and Misery of the Third Reich (Furcht und Elend des
Dritten Reiches) 1935–38/1938
• A Respectable Wedding (Die Kleinbürgerhochzeit) 1919/1926 • Señora Carrar's Rifles (Die Gewehre der Frau Carrar)
• Driving Out a Devil (Er treibt einen Teufel aus) 1919/? • Life of Galileo (Leben des Galilei) 1937–39/1943
• Lux in Tenebris 1919/? • How Much Is Your Iron? (Was kostet das Eisen?) 1939/1939
• The Catch (Der Fischzug) 1919?/? • Dansen (Dansen) 1939/?
• Mysteries of a Barbershop (Mysterien eines Friseursalons) (screenplay)
• Mother Courage and Her Children (Mutter Courage und ihre
Kinder) 1938–39/1941
• In the Jungle of Cities (Im Dickicht der Städte) 1921–24/1923 • The Trial of Lucullus (Das Verhör des Lukullus) 1938–39/1940
• The Life of Edward II of England (Leben Eduards des Zweiten von
England) 1924/1924
• The Judith of Shimoda (Die Judith von Shimoda) 1940
• Downfall of the Egotist Johann Fatzer (Der Untergang des Egoisten
Johnann Fatzer) (fragments) 1926–30/1974
• Mr Puntila and his Man Matti (Herr Puntila und sein Knecht
Matti) 1940/1948
• Man Equals Man (Mann ist Mann) 1924–26/1926 • The Good Person of Szechwan (Der gute Mensch von Sezuan)
• The Elephant Calf (Das Elefantenkalb) 1924–26/1926 • The Resistible Rise of Arturo Ui (Der aufhaltsame Aufstieg des
Arturo Ui) 1941/1958
• Little Mahagonny (Mahagonny-Songspiel) 1927/1927 • Hangmen Also Die! (screenplay) 1942/1943
• The Threepenny Opera (Die Dreigroschenoper) 1928/1928 • The Visions of Simone Machard (Die Gesichte der Simone
Machard ) 1942–43/1957
• The Flight across the Ocean (Der Ozeanflug); originally Lindbergh's
Flight (Lindberghflug) 1928–29/1929
• The Duchess of Malfi 1943/1943
• The Baden-Baden Lesson on Consent (Badener Lehrstück vom
Einverständnis) 1929/1929
• Schweik in the Second World War (Schweyk im Zweiten
Weltkrieg) 1941–43/1957
• Happy End (Happy End) 1929/1929 • The Caucasian Chalk Circle (Der kaukasische Kreidekreis)
• The Rise and Fall of the City of Mahagonny (Aufstieg und Fall der Stadt
Mahagonny) 1927–29/1930
• Antigone (Die Antigone des Sophokles) 1947/1948
• He Said Yes / He Said No (Der Jasager; Der Neinsager) 1929–30/1930–? • The Days of the Commune (Die Tage der Commune)
• The Decision (Die Maßnahme) 1930/1930 • The Tutor (Der Hofmeister) 1950/1950
• Saint Joan of the Stockyards (Die heilige Johanna der Schlachthöfe)
• The Condemnation of Lucullus (Die Verurteilung des Lukullus)
• The Exception and the Rule (Die Ausnahme und die Regel) 1930/1938 • Report from Herrnburg (Herrnburger Bericht) 1951/1951
• The Mother (Die Mutter) 1930–31/1932 • Coriolanus (Coriolan) 1951–53/1962
• Kuhle Wampe (screenplay) 1931/1932 • The Trial of Joan of Arc of Proven, 1431 (Der Prozess der
Jeanne D'Arc zu Rouen, 1431) 1952/1952
• The Seven Deadly Sins (Die sieben Todsünden der Kleinbürger)
• Turandot (Turandot oder Der Kongreß der Weißwäscher)
Bertolt Brecht
• Don Juan (Don Juan) 1952/1954
• Trumpets and Drums (Pauken und Trompeten) 1955/1955
• "The Solution" ("Die Lösung")
• "Children's Hymn" ("Kinderhymne")
Theoretical works
• The Modern Theatre is the Epic Theatre (1930)
• The Threepenny Lawsuit (Der Dreigroschenprozess) (written 1931; published 1932)
• The Book of Changes (fragment also known as Me-Ti; written 1935–1939)
• The Street Scene (written 1938; published 1950)
• The Popular and the Realistic (written 1938; published 1958)
• Short Description of a New Technique of Acting which Produces an Alienation Effect (written 1940; published
• A Short Organum for the Theatre ("Kleines Organon für das Theater", written 1948; published 1949)
• The Messingkauf Dialogues (Dialogue aus dem Messingkauf, published 1963)
[1] The introduction of this article draws on the following sources: Banham (1998, 129); Bürger (1984, 87–92); Jameson (1998, 43–58);
Kolocotroni, Goldman and Taxidou (1998, 465–466); Williams (1993, 277–290); Wright (1989, 68–89; 113–137).
[2] http:/ / www.augsburg. de/ index. php?id=2905
[3] [3] Thomson (1994).
[4] Thomson (1994, 22–23). See also Smith (1991).
[5] See Brecht's poem "Of Poor B.B." (first version, 1922), in Brecht (2000b, 107–108).
[6] [6] Thomson (1994, 24) and Sacks (xvii).
[7] Thomson (1994, 24). In his Messingkauf Dialogues, Brecht cites Wedekind, along with Büchner and Valentin, as his "chief influences" in his
early years: "he," Brecht writes of himself in the third person, "also saw the writer Wedekind performing his own works in a style which he
had developed in cabaret. Wedekind had worked as a ballad singer; he accompanied himself on the lute." (1965, 69). Kutscher was "bitterly
critical" of Brecht's own early dramatic writings (Willet and Manheim 1970, vii).
[8] [8] Thomson (1994, 24) and Willett (1967, 17).
[9] [9] Willett and Manheim (1970, vii).
[10] [10] Sacks (1994, xx) and McDowell (1977).
[11] [11] McDowell (2000).
[12] [12] Willett and Manheim 1970, x.
[13] Brecht (1965, 69–70).
[14] [14] Quoted in Thomson (1994, 25).
[15] Herbert Ihering's review for Drums in the Night in the Berliner Börsen-Courier on 5 October 1922. Quoted in Willett and Manheim (1970,
[16] See Thomson and Sacks (1994, 50) and Willett and Manheim (1970, viii–ix).
[17] [17] Herbert Ihering, quoted in Willett and Manheim (1970, ix).
[18] [18] McDowell (1977).
[19] [19] Culbert (1995).
[20] Thomson (1994, 26–27), Meech (1994, 54–55).
[21] Meech (1994, 54–55) and Benjamin (1983, 115). See the article on Edward II for details of Brecht's germinal 'epic' ideas and techniques in
this production.
[22] Brecht was recommended for the job by Erich Engel; Carl Zuckmayer was to join Brecht in the position. See Sacks (1994, xviii), Willett
(1967, 145), and Willett and Manheim (1970, vii).
[23] [23] Ewen (1967, 159) and Völker (1976, 65).
[24] [24] Thomson (1994, 28).
[25] [25] Hayman (104) and Völker (1976, 108).
[26] According to Willett, Brecht was disgruntled with the Deutsches Theater at not being given a Shakespeare production to direct. At the end of
the 1924–1925 season, both his and Carl Zuckmayer's (his fellow dramaturg) contracts were not renewed. (Willett 1967, 145). Zuckmayer
Bertolt Brecht
relates how: "Brecht seldom turned up there; with his flapping leather jacket he looked like a cross between a lorry driver and a Jesuit
seminarist. Roughly speaking, what he wanted was to take over complete control; the season's programme must be regulated entirely
according to his theories, and the stage be rechristened 'epic smoke theatre', it being his view that people might actually be disposed to think if
they were allowed to smoke at the same time. As this was refused him he confined himself to coming and drawing his pay." (Quoted by
Willett 1967, 145).
[27] [27] Willett (1967, 145).
[28] [28] Willett and Manheim (1979, viii).
[29] [29] Willett and Manheim point to the significance of this poem as a marker of the shift in Brecht's work towards "a much more urban,
industrialized flavour" (1979, viii).
[30] [30] Willett and Manheim (1979, viii, x).
[31] Willett and Manheim (1979, viii); Joel Schechter writes: "The subjugation of an individual to that of a collective was endorsed by the
affirmations of comedy, and by the decision of the coauthors of Man is Man (Emil Burri (de), Slatan Dudow, Caspar Neher, Bernhard Reich,
Elisabeth Hauptmann) to call themselves 'The Brecht Collective'." (1994, 74).
[32] [32] Willett (1978).
[33] Willett and Manheim (1979, viii–ix).
[34] [34] Willett and Manheim (1979, xxxiii).
[35] [35] Schechter (1994, 68).
[36] [36] Brecht (1964, 56).
[37] [37] Schechter (1994, 72).
[38] [38] Sacks (1994, xviii).
[39] Thomson (1994, 28–29).
[40] Brecht (1964, 23–24).
[41] Erwin Piscator, "Basic Principles of a Sociological Drama" in Kolocotroni, Goldman and Taxidou (1998, 243).
[42] Willett (1998, 103) and (1978, 72). In his book The Political Theatre, Piscator wrote: "Perhaps my whole style of directing is a direct result
of the total lack of suitable plays. It would certainly not have taken so dominant form if adequate plays had been on hand when I started"
(1929, 185).
[43] [43] Willett (1978, 74).
[44] See Brecht's Journal entry for 24 June 1943. Brecht claimed to have written the adaptation (in his Journal entry), but Piscator contested that;
the manuscript bears the names "Brecht, [Felix] Gasbarra, Piscator, G. Grosz" in Brecht's handwriting (Willett 1978, 110). See also Willett
(1978, 90–95). Brecht wrote a sequel to the novel in 1943, Schweik in the Second World War.
[45] Willett (1998, 104). In relation to his innovations in the use of theatre technology, Piscator wrote: "technical innovations were never an end
in themselves for me. Any means I have used or am currently in the process of using were designed to elevate the events on the stage onto a
historical plane and not just to enlarge the technical range of the stage machinery. This elevation, which was inextricably bound up with the
use of Marxist dialectics in the theatre, had not been achieved by the plays themselves. My technical devices had been developed to cover up
the deficiencies of the dramatists' products" ("Basic Principles of a Sociological Drama" [1929]; in Kolocotroni, Goldman and Taxidou [1998,
[46] Willett (1978, 109–110). The similarities between Brecht's and Piscator's theoretical formulations from the time indicate that the two agreed
on fundamentals; compare Piscator's summation of the achievements of his first company (1929), which follows, with Brecht's Mahagonny
Notes (1930): "In lieu of private themes we had generalisation, in lieu of what was special the typical, in lieu of accident causality.
Decorativeness gave way to constructedness, Reason was put on a par with Emotion, while sensuality was replaced by didacticism and fantasy
by documentary reality." From a speech given by Piscator on 25 March 1929, and reproduced in Schriften 2 p. 50; Quoted by Willett (1978,
107). See also Willett (1998, 104–105).
[47] Willett (1998, 104–105).
[48] [48] Willett (1978, 76).
[49] The two first met in March 1927, after Weill had written a critical introduction to the broadcast on Berlin Radio of an adaptation of Brecht's
Man Equals Man. When they met, Brecht was 29 years old and Weill was 27. Brecht had experience of writing songs and had performed his
own with tunes he had composed; at the time he was also married to an opera singer (Zoff). Weill had collaborated with Georg Kaiser, one of
the few Expressionist playwrights that Brecht admired; he was married to the actress Lotte Lenya. Willett and Manheim (1979, xv).
[50] Willet and Manheim (1979, xv–xviii). In Munich in 1924 Brecht had begun referring to some of the stranger aspects of life in post-putsch
Bavaria under the codename "Mahagonny". The Amerikanismus imagery appears in his first three "Mahagonny Songs", with their Wild West
references. With that, however, the project stalled for two and a half years. With Hauptmann, who wrote the two English-language
"Mahagonny Songs", Brecht had begun work on an opera to be called Sodom and Gomorrah or The Man from Manhattan and a radio play
called The Flood or 'The Collapse of Miami, the Paradise City', both of which came to underlie the new scheme with Weill. See Willett and
Manheim (1979, xv–xvi). The influence of Amerikanismus is most clearly discernible in Brecht's In the Jungle of Cities.
[51] In this respect, the creative process for Mahagonny was quite different from The Threepenny Opera, with the former being durchkomponiert
or set to music right through, whereas on the latter Weill was brought at a late stage to set the songs. See Willett and Manheim (1979, xv).
[52] Willett and Manheim (1979, xvii) and Brecht (1964, 37–38).
[53] "Barbara Brecht-Schall – About This Person" (http:// movies. nytimes. com/ person/ 642308/ Barbara-Brecht-Schall). The New York Times.
. Retrieved 26 July 2011.
Bertolt Brecht
[54] Brecht Chronology, International Brecht Society (http:// wiu. edu/ users/ brecht10/brecht_english/ brecht_chronology.html)
[55] [55] Exilliteratur.
[56] [56] Brecht_HUAC_hearing
[57] GradeSaver: ClassicNote: Biography of Bertolt Brecht (http:/ / www. gradesaver.com/ classicnotes/ authors/ about_bertolt_brecht.html)
[58] Letter published in the Neues Deutschland, 21 June 1953.
[59] Brecht (2000b, 440). The poem was first printed in Die Welt in 1959 and subsequently in the Buckow Elegies in the West 1964. It was first
published in the GDR in 1969; Helene Weigel insisted on its inclusion in a collected edition of Brecht's works.
[60] On these relationships, see "autonomization" in Jameson (1998, 43–58) and "non-organic work of art" in Bürger (1984, 87–92).
Willett observes: "With Brecht the same montage technique spread to the drama, where the old Procrustean plot
yielded to a more "epic" form of narrative better able to cope with wide-ranging modern socio-economic themes.
That, at least, was how Brecht theoretically justified his choice of form, and from about 1929 on he began to
interpret its penchant for "contradictions", much as had Eisenstein, in terms of the dialectic. It is fairly clear that in
Brecht's case the practice came before the theory, for his actual composition of a play, with its switching around of
scenes and characters, even the physical cutting up and sticking together of the typescript, shows that montage was
the structural technique most natural to him. Like Hašek and Joyce he had not learnt this scissors-and-paste method
from the Soviet cinema but picked it out of the air" (1978, 110).
[61] Brooker (1994, 193). Brooker writes that "the term 'alienation' is an inadequate and even misleading translation of Brecht's Verfremdung.
The terms 'de-familiarisation' or 'estrangement', when understood as more than purely formal devices, give a more accurate sense of Brecht's
intentions. A better term still would be 'de-alienation'".
[62] [62] Brecht, quoted by Brooker (1994, 191).
[63] [63] Brecht (1964, 138).
[64] [64] The quotation from Raymond Williams is on page 277 of his book (1993) and that from Peter Bürger on page 88 of his (1984).
[65] [65] "Brecht on Theatre: The Development of an Aesthetic" Translated and Edited by John Willett, page 91
[66] [66] "Brecht on Theatre: The Development of an Aesthetic" Translated and Edited by John Willett, page 92
[67] Hsia, Adrian ([northern] Summer 1983). "Bertolt Brecht in China and His Impact on Chinese Drama" (http:// www. jstor.org/ stable/
40246399). Comparative Literature Studies (Penn State University Press) 20 (2): 231–245. .
[68] [68] "Brecht on Theatre: The Development of an Aesthetic" Translated and Edited by John Willett, page 95
[69] [69] "Brecht on Theatre: The Development of an Aesthetic" Translated and Edited by John Willett, page 96
[70] On Jan Bucquoy, see Jan Bucquoy, La vie est belge; Le paradis, là, maintenant, tout de suite!, (2007), p. 98: Sans illusion car j'avoue que
mon but dans la vie c'était de monter Mère Courage de Berthold Brecht au théâtre de l'Odéon à Paris. Au lieu de ça ce sont les escaliers du
Dolle Mol que j'ai plutôt bien descendus. C'est le destin.. English translation: It was my destiny that I never would bring Mother Courage and
Her Children to the Odéon Theatre in Paris.
[71] Ritwik Ghatak first translated Brecht into Bengali, before then making use of some of his key theories in the later films Cloud-Capped Star
and Subarna-Rekha. See Banglapedia: Film, Feature (http:// banglapedia.search. com.bd/ HT/ F_0076. htm). Retrieved 27 July 2006.
[72] Jameson (1998, 10–11). See also the discussions of Brecht's collaborative relationships in the essays collected in Thomson and Sacks
(1994). John Fuegi's take on Brecht's collaborations, detailed in Brecht & Co. (New York: Grove, 1994; also known as The Life and Lies of
Bertolt Brecht) and summarized in his contribution to Thomson and Sacks (1994, 104–116), offers a particularly negative perspective;
Jameson comments "his book will remain a fundamental document for future students of the ideological confusions of Western intellectuals
during the immediate post-Cold War years" (1998, 31); Olga Taxidou offers a critical account of Fuegi's project from a feminist perspective in
"Crude Thinking: John Fuegi and Recent Brecht Criticism" in New Theatre Quarterly XI.44 (Nov. 1995), p. 381–384.
[73] [73] The translations of the titles are based on the standard of the Brecht Collected Plays series (see bibliography, primary sources). Chronology
provided through consultation with Sacks (1994) and Willett (1967), preferring the former with any conflicts.
Bertolt Brecht
Primary sources
Essays, diaries and journals
• Brecht, Bertolt. 1964. Brecht on Theatre: The Development of an Aesthetic. Ed. and trans. John Willett. British
edition. London: Methuen. ISBN 0-413-38800-X. USA edition. New York: Hill and Wang. ISBN 0-8090-3100-0.
• 2000a. Brecht on Film and Radio. Ed. and trans. Marc Silberman. British edition. London: Methuen. ISBN
• 2003a. Brecht on Art and Politics. Ed. and trans. Thomas Kuhn and Steve Giles. British edition. London:
Methuen. ISBN 0-413-75890-7.
• 1965. The Messingkauf Dialogues. Trans. John Willett. London: Methuen, 1985. ISBN 0-413-38890-5.
• 1990. Letters 1913–1956. Trans. Ralph Manheim. Ed. John Willett. London: Methuen. ISBN 0-413-51050-6.
• 1993. Journals 1934–1955. Trans. Hugh Rorrison. Ed. John Willett. London and New York: Routledge, 1996.
ISBN 0-415-91282-2.
Drama, poetry and prose
• Brecht, Bertolt. 1994a. Collected Plays: One. Ed. John Willett and Ralph Manheim. Bertolt Brecht: Plays, Poetry,
Prose Ser. London: Methuen. ISBN 0-413-68570-5.
• 1994b. Collected Plays: Two. Ed. John Willett and Ralph Manheim. London: Methuen. ISBN 0-413-68560-8.
• 1997. Collected Plays: Three. Ed. John Willett. London: Methuen. ISBN 0-413-70460-2.
• 2003b. Collected Plays: Four. Ed. Tom Kuhn and John Willett. London: Methuen. ISBN 0-413-70470-X.
• 1995. Collected Plays: Five. Ed. John Willett and Ralph Manheim. London: Methuen. ISBN 0-413-69970-6.
• 1994c. Collected Plays: Six. Ed. John Willett and Ralph Manheim. London: Methuen. ISBN 0-413-68580-2.
• 1994d. Collected Plays: Seven. Ed. John Willett and Ralph Manheim. London: Methuen. ISBN 0-413-68590-X.
• 2004. Collected Plays: Eight. Ed. Tom Kuhn and David Constantine. London: Methuen. ISBN 0-413-77352-3.
• 1972. Collected Plays: Nine. Ed. John Willett and Ralph Manheim. New York: Vintage. ISBN 0-394-71819-4.
• 2000b. Poems: 1913–1956. Ed. John Willett and Ralph Manheim. London: Methuen. ISBN 0-413-15210-3.
• 1983. Short Stories: 1921–1946. Ed. John Willett and Ralph Manheim. Trans. Yvonne Kapp, Hugh Rorrison and
Antony Tatlow. London and New York: Methuen. ISBN 0-413-52890-1.
• 2001. Stories of Mr. Keuner. Trans. Martin Chalmers. San Francisco: City Lights. ISBN 0-87286-383-2.
Secondary sources
• [Anon.] 1952. "Brecht Directs". In Directors on Directing: A Source Book to the Modern Theater. Ed. Toby Cole
and Helen Krich Chinoy. Rev. ed. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon, 1963. ISBN 0-02-323300-1. 291- [Account of
Brecht in rehearsal from anonymous colleague published in Theaterarbeit]
• Banham, Martin, ed. 1998. "Brecht, Bertolt" In The Cambridge Guide to Theatre. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press. ISBN 0-521-43437-8. 129.
• Benjamin, Walter. 1983. Understanding Brecht. Trans. Anna Bostock. London and New York: Verso. ISBN
• Brooker, Peter. 1994. "Key Words in Brecht's Theory and Practice of Theatre". In Thomson and Sacks (1994,
• Bürger, Peter. 1984. Theory of the Avant-Garde. Trans. of Theorie der Avantgarde (2nd ed., 1980). Theory and
History of Literature Ser. 4. Trans. Michael Shaw. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN
• Calandra, Denis. 2003. "Karl Valentin and Bertolt Brecht". In Popular Theatre: A Sourcebook. Ed. Joel
Schechter. Worlds of Performance Ser. London and New York: Routledge. 189–201. ISBN 0-415-25830-8.
Bertolt Brecht
• Counsell, Colin. 1996. Signs of Performance: An Introduction to Twentieth-Century Theatre. London and New
York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-10643-5.
• Culbert, David. 1995. Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television (March). [Bibliographic information on
this article is missing at present – need article title, is this the author of article?, and page numbers]
• Davies, Steffan; Ernest Schonfield (2009). Davies, Steffan and Schonfield, Ernest. ed. Alfred Döblin: Paradigms
of Modernism. Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-021769-8.
•• Demčišák, Ján. 2012. "Queer Reading von Brechts Frühwerk". Marburg: Tectum Verlag. ISBN
• Demetz, Peter, ed. 1962. "From the Testimony of Berthold Brecht: Hearings of the House Committee on
Un-American Activities, 30 October 1947". Brecht: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views
Ser. Eaglewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-081760-0. 30–42.
• Diamond, Elin. 1997. Unmaking Mimesis: Essays on Feminism and Theater. London and New York: Routledge.
ISBN 0-415-01229-5.
• Eagleton, Terry. 1985. "Brecht and Rhetoric". New Literary History 16.3 (Spring). 633–638.
• Eaton, Katherine B. "Brecht's Contacts with the Theater of Meyerhold". in Comparative Drama 11.1 (Spring
1977)3-21. Reprinted in 1984. Drama in the Twentieth Century ed. C. Davidson. New York: AMS Press, 1984.
ISBN 0-404-61581-3. 203-221. 1979. "Die Pionierin und Feld-Herren vorm Kreidekreis. Bemerkungen zu Brecht
und Tretjakow". in Brecht-Jahrbuch 1979. Ed. J. Fuegi, R. Grimm, J. Hermand. Suhrkamp, 1979. 1985 19–29.
The Theater of Meyerhold and Brecht. Connecticut and New York: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-24590-8.
• Eddershaw, Margaret. 1982. "Acting Methods: Brecht and Stanislavski". In Brecht in Perspective. Ed. Graham
Bartram and Anthony Waine. London: Longman. ISBN 0-582-49205-X. 128–144.
• Ewen, Frederic. 1967. Bertolt Brecht: His Life, His Art and His Times. Citadel Press Book edition. New York:
Carol Publishing Group, 1992.
• Fuegi, John. 1994. "The Zelda Syndrome: Brecht and Elizabeth Hauptmann". In Thomson and Sacks (1994,
• Fuegi, John. 2002. Brecht and Company: Sex, Politics, and the Making of the Modern Drama. New York: Grove.
ISBN 0-8021-3910-8.
• Giles, Steve. 1998. "Marxist Aesthetics and Cultural Modernity in Der Dreigroschenprozeß". Bertolt Brecht:
Centenary Essays. Ed. Steve Giles and Rodney Livingstone. German Monitor 41. Amsterdam and Atlanta, GA:
Rodopi. ISBN 90-420-0309-X. 49–61.
• Giles, Steve. 1997. Bertolt Brecht and Critical Theory: Marxism, Modernity and the Threepenny Lawsuit. Bern:
Lang. ISBN 3-906757-20-X.
• Hayman, Ronald. 1983. Brecht: A Biography. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-78206-1.
• Jameson, Fredric. 1998. Brecht and Method. London and New York: Verso. ISBN 1-85984-809-5.
• Jacobs, Nicholas and Prudence Ohlsen, eds. 1977. Bertolt Brecht in Britain. London: IRAT Services Ltd and TQ
Publications. ISBN 0-904844-11-0.
• Kolocotroni, Vassiliki, Jane Goldman and Olga Taxidou, eds. 1998. Modernism: An Anthology of Sources and
Documents. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-7486-0973-3.
• Krause, Duane. 1995. "An Epic System". In Acting (Re)considered: Theories and Practices. Ed. Phillip B.
Zarrilli. 1st ed. Worlds of Performance Ser. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-09859-9. 262–274.
• Leach, Robert. 1994. "Mother Courage and Her Children". In Thomson and Sacks (1994, 128–138).
•• Giuseppe Leone, "Bertolt Brecht, ripropose l'eterno conflitto dell'intellettuale fra libertà di ricerca e
condizionamenti del potere", su "Ricorditi...di me" in "Lecco 2000", Lecco, giugno 1998.
• McBride, Patrizia. "De-Moralizing Politics: Brecht's Early Aesthetics." Deutsche Vierteljahrsschrift für
Literaturwissenschaft und Geistesgeschichte 82.1 (2008): 85-111.
• Meech, Tony. 1994. "Brecht's Early Plays". In Thomson and Sacks (1994, 43–55).
Bertolt Brecht
• Mitter, Schomit. 1992. "To Be And Not To Be: Bertolt Brecht and Peter Brook". Systems of Rehearsal:
Stanislavsky, Brecht, Grotowski and Brook. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-06784-7. 42–77.
• McDowell, W. Stuart. 1977. "A Brecht-Valentin Production: Mysteries of a Barbershop." Performing Arts
Journal 1.3 (Winter): 2-14.
• McDowell, W. Stuart. 2000. "Acting Brecht: The Munich Years". In The Brecht Sourcebook. Ed. Carol Martin
and Henry Bial. Worlds of Performance ser. London and New York: Routledge. 71–83. ISBN 0-415-20043-1.
• Müller, Heiner. 1990. Germania. Trans. Bernard Schütze and Caroline Schütze. Ed. Sylvère Lotringer.
Semiotext(e) Foreign Agents Ser. New York: Semiotext(e). ISBN 0-936756-63-2.
• Needle, Jan and Peter Thomson. 1981. Brecht. Chicago: U of Chicago P; Oxford: Basil Blackwell. ISBN
• Pabst, G.W. 1984. The Threepenny Opera. Classic Film Scripts Ser. London: Lorrimer. ISBN 0-85647-006-6.
• Reinelt, Janelle. 1990. "Rethinking Brecht: Deconstruction, Feminism, and the Politics of Form". The Brecht
Yearbook 15. Ed. Marc Silberman et al. Madison, Wisconsin: The International Brecht Society-University of
Wisconsin Press. 99–107.
• Reinelt, Janelle. 1994. "A Feminist Reconsideration of the Brecht/Lukács Debate". Women & Performance: A
Journal of Feminist Theory 7.1 (Issue 13). 122–139.
• Rouse, John. 1995. "Brecht and the Contradictory Actor". In Acting (Re)considered: A Theoretical and Practical
Guide. Ed. Phillip B. Zarrilli. 2nd ed. Worlds of Performance Ser. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-26300-X.
• Sacks, Glendyr. 1994. "A Brecht Calendar". In Thomson and Sacks (1994, xvii–xxvii).
• Schechter, Joel. 1994. "Brecht's Clowns: Man is Man and After". In Thomson and Sacks (1994, 68–78).
• Smith, Iris. 1991. "Brecht and the Mothers of Epic Theater". Theatre Journal 43: 491–505.
• Sternberg, Fritz. 1963. Der Dichter und die Ratio: Erinnerungen an Bertolt Brecht. Göttingen: Sachse & Pohl.
• Szondi, Peter. 1965. Theory of the Modern Drama. Ed. and trans. Michael Hays. Theory and History of Literature
Ser. 29. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1987. ISBN 0-8166-1285-4.
• Taxidou, Olga. 1995. "Crude Thinking: John Fuegi and Recent Brecht Criticism". New Theatre Quarterly XI.44
(Nov. 1995): 381–384.
• Taxidou, Olga. 2007. Modernism and Performance: Jarry to Brecht. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave
Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-4101-7.
• Thomson, Peter. 1994. "Brecht's Lives". In Thomson and Sacks (1994, 22–39).
• Thomson, Peter. 2000. "Brecht and Actor Training: On Whose Behalf Do We Act?" In Twentieth Century Actor
Training. Ed. Alison Hodge. London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-19452-0. 98–112.
• Thomson, Peter and Glendyr Sacks, eds. 1994. The Cambridge Companion to Brecht. Cambridge Companions to
Literature Ser. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-41446-6.
• Völker, Klaus. 1976. Brecht: A Biography. Trans. John Nowell. New York: Seabury P, 1978. Trans. of Bertolt
Brecht, Eine Biographie. Munich and Vienna: Carl Hanser Verlag. ISBN 0-8164-9344-8.
• Willett, John. 1967. The Theatre of Bertolt Brecht: A Study from Eight Aspects. Third rev. ed. London: Methuen,
1977. ISBN 0-413-34360-X.
• Willett, John. 1978. Art and Politics in the Weimar Period: The New Sobriety 1917–1933. New York: Da Capo
Press, 1996. ISBN 0-306-80724-6.
• Willett, John. 1998. Brecht in Context: Comparative Approaches. Rev. ed. London: Methuen. ISBN
• Willett, John and Ralph Manheim. 1970. Introduction. In Collected Plays: One by Bertolt Brecht. Ed. John
Willett and Ralph Manheim. Bertolt Brecht: Plays, Poetry and Prose Ser. London: Methuen. ISBN
0-416-03280-X. vii–xvii.
• Weber, Carl. 1984. "The Actor and Brecht, or: The Truth Is Concrete: Some Notes on Directing Brecht with
American Actors". The Brecht Yearbook 13: 63–74.
Bertolt Brecht
• Weber, Carl 1994. "Brecht and the Berliner Ensemble – the Making of a Model". In Thomson and Sacks (1994,
• Williams, Raymond. 1993. Drama from Ibsen to Brecht. London: Hogarth. ISBN 0-7012-0793-0. 277–290.
• Witt, Hubert, ed. 1975. Brecht As They Knew Him. Trans. John Peet. London: Lawrence and Wishart; New York:
International Publishers. ISBN 0-85315-285-3.
• Wright, Elizabeth. 1989. Postmodern Brecht. Critics of the Twentieth Century Ser. London and New York:
Routledge. ISBN 0-415-02330-0.
• Youngkin, Stephen D. 2005. The Lost One: A Life of Peter Lorre. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN
0-8131-2360-7. [Contains a detailed discussion of the personal and professional friendship between Brecht and
classic film actor Peter Lorre.]
• Wizisla, Erdmut. 2009. Walter Benjamin and Bertolt Brecht – The Story of a Friendship (http:// www.
librislondon. co. uk/ books/ 1870352785. html). Translated by Christine Shuttleworth. London / New Haven:
Libris / Yale University Press. ISBN 1-870352-78-5. ISBN 978-1-870352-78-9 [Contains a complete translation
of the newly-discovered Minutes of the meetings around the putative journal Krise und Kritik (1931)].
External links
• Brecht's works in English: A bibliography (http:// digital.library.wisc. edu/ 1711.dl/ BrechtGuide): The
bibliography of Bertolt Brecht's works in English translation aims to present a comprehensive listing of Brecht's
works published in English translation.
• The Brecht Yearbook (http:/ / digital.library.wisc. edu/ 1711.dl/ German.BrechtYearbook)
• The International Brecht Society (http:/ / german.lss. wisc. edu/ brecht/ )
• FBI files on Bertolt Brecht (http:/ / vault.fbi.gov/ Bertolt Brecht / )
• Brechts Werke, Bibliography (http:/ / www. lib. uchicago. edu/ efts/ BRECHT/ brecht.bib. html)
• A history of Mack the Knife by Joseph Mach at Brechthall (http:/ / mobydicks. com/ lecture/ Brechthall/ messages/
Birth of a Notion (film)
Birth of a Notion (film)
Birth of a Notion
Looney Tunes (Daffy Duck) series
Directed by Robert McKimson
Produced by Edward Selzer (uncredited)
Story by Warren Foster
Voices by Mel Blanc, Stan Freberg
Music by Carl Stalling, Milt Franklyn (uncredited)
Animation by John Carey
Izzy Ellis
Manny Gould
Thomas McKimson
Rod Scribner
Layouts by Cornett Wood
Backgrounds by Richard H. Thomas
Distributed by Warner Bros. Pictures
Release date(s) 12 April 1947 (USA)
Color process Technicolor
Running time 7 minutes
Language English
Birth of a Notion is a 1946-animated, 1947-released Looney Tunes (re-issued as a Blue Ribbon Merrie Melodies,
with the ending theme song still being that of the Looney Tunes) cartoon featuring Daffy Duck, as well as a dog
named "Leopold" and an unnamed mad scientist. Director Robert McKimson used his "Barnyard Dawg" character
design as Leopold, while the scientist is a caricature (both visually and vocally) of Peter Lorre. The title is a play on
Birth of a Nation but there is no other connection to that film.
Birth of a Notion is one of three shorts that had been scheduled for direction by Bob Clampett before he left Warner
Bros. Cartoons; the other two were Bacall to Arms and The Goofy Gophers, both of which were finished by Arthur
Davis. Mel Blanc voiced Daffy Duck, Leopold and Joe Besser Duck, while uncredited Stan Freberg voiced the mad
Daffy is not going to fly south for the winter like other ducks. He manages to con the rather simple-witted dog,
Leopold, into letting him stay for the winter by pretending to have saved Leopold's life. Unfortunately, Leopold's
master is a mad scientist who needs the wishbone of a duck for his experiment.
Daffy is insulted by the scientist's requirement and tries to get rid of him, while Leopold interferes to save his master.
At one point, Daffy throws a baseball bat at the scientist from behind, and Leopold grabs it but it hits him a little.
The scientist misunderstands, taking the bat away and breaking it into many pieces with his bare hands, while quietly
scolding Leopold before patting the terrified dog on the head and going up to bed. Daffy's assassination attempt fails
and the scientist turns the tables trying to kill Daffy with numerous booby traps around the house. Meanwhile
Leopold feels left out of the cartoon.
Birth of a Notion (film)
Daffy finally leaves, but the master wants a dog's wishbone, so Leopold flees as well. As Daffy tries to con his way
into another house, a grey duck is already occupying the place and kicks Daffy in the sky bound for south. On his
flight, he is surprised to find he has company: Leopold aided by a fan strapped to his back, is flying south too.
When this cartoon aired on the now-defunct WB! channel, Daffy's attempt to stab the mad scientist in his sleep was
Technical errors
Several syndicated prints had the Blue Ribbon ending sequence replaced by Associated Artists Productions; see The
Up-Standing Sitter for more info.
• Directed by: Robert McKimson
• Story: Warren Foster
• Animation: Fred Jones, Rod Scribner, Richard Bickenbach, Cal Dalton
• Musical direction: Carl W. Stalling
External links
• Birth of a Notion
at the Internet Movie Database
[1] http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0039189/
Black Angel
Black Angel
Black Angel
Directed by Roy William Neill
Produced by Tom McKnight
Roy William Neill
Written by Cornell Woolrich (novel)
Roy Chanslor
Starring Dan Duryea
June Vincent
Peter Lorre
Broderick Crawford
Constance Dowling
Wallace Ford
Junius Matthews
Distributed by Universal Pictures
Release date(s) August 2, 1946 (U.S. release)
Running time 81 min
Language English
Black Angel is a 1946 film noir, based on the novel The Black Angel by Cornell Woolrich. The film was director
Roy William Neill's last film.
A falsely convicted man's wife, Catherine (June Vincent), and an alcoholic composer and pianist, Martin (Dan
Duryea), team up in an attempt to clear her husband of the murder of a blonde singer, who is Martin's wife. Their
investigation leads them to face-to-face confrontations with a determined policeman (Broderick Crawford) and a
shifty nightclub owner (Peter Lorre), who Catherine and Martin suspect may be the real killer.
Dark City: The Film Noir, by Spencer Selby, calls Black Angel: "Important, stylish B-noir, featuring Dan Duryea as
the ironic central character."
Writer Cornell Woolrich hated this adaption of his story which, aside from the conclusion, differed greatly from his
Black Angel
Main cast
• Dan Duryea as Martin Blair
• June Vincent as Catherine Bennett
• Peter Lorre as Marko
• Broderick Crawford as Captain Flood
• Constance Dowling as Mavis Marlowe
• Wallace Ford as Joe
• Junius Matthews as Dr. Courtney
Pop culture
Theatre marquee featuring Black Angel, June
Black Angel is referenced in the 2006 noir-influenced film The Black
Dahlia starring Scarlett Johansson and Hilary Swank. It is the movie
shown playing at the cinema featured in the rainy street scene.
• Eddie Muller (1998). Dark City The Lost World of Film Noir. St.
Martin Press. ISBN 0-312-18076-4.
• Spencer Selby (1984). Dark City The Film Noir. mcFarland
Classics. ISBN 0-7864-0478-7.
External links
• Black Angel
at the Internet Movie Database
[1] http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0038360/
Carola Neher
Carola Neher
Carola Neher
Born November 2, 1900
Munich, Bavaria, Imperial Germany
Died June 26, 1942 (aged 41)
Sol-Iletsk, Soviet Union
Occupation Actress
Years active 1920–1931
Carola Neher (November 2, 1900 – June 26, 1942) was a German actress.
Neher was born in Munich to a music teacher in 1900. She started to work as a bank clerk in 1917. In the summer of
1920, she made her debut performance at the Baden-Baden theater without a specific stage education, later also
working at the theaters of Darmstadt, Nuremberg and at the Munich Kammerspiele. In 1924, Neher started to work
at the Lobe-Theater Breslau, where she met Therese Giehse and Peter Lorre. On May 7, 1925 she married Alfred
Henschke (the poet Klabund), who had followed her from Munich to Breslau, at that time already a well known and
successful poet. The first performance of his Circle of Chalk ("Der Kreidekreis") turned into her first great success.
In 1926 Neher went to Berlin to work with Bertolt Brecht. He wrote the role of Polly Peachum in The Threepenny
Opera, but late in rehearsals her husband died at Davos on August 14, 1928. She was therefore unable to appear at
the premiere, but acted the role of Polly in the later performances.
Brecht wrote several roles for her like Lilian Holiday in Happy End and the title role in his Saint Joan of the
Stockyards. Neher had also great success as Marianne in Ödön von Horváth's Tales from the Vienna Woods and
embodied and immortalized Polly in G.W. Pabst's film of The Threepenny Opera.
In 1932 she married Anatol Becker and left Germany after Adolf Hitler's ascension to power in spring 1933. She first
emigrated to Prague, where she worked at the New German Theater, but went on to the Soviet Union in 1934, where
she met Gustav von Wangenheim and worked with him at his German language cabaret Kolonne Links.
In 1936, throughout the Stalinist Great Purge, Wangenheim denounced Neher and her husband, Anatol Becker, as
she was arrested on July 25, 1936. Becker was executed in 1937; Neher was sentenced to ten years
in prison and sent to a gulag near Orenburg. The German army seized the gulag in October 1941. As a German
citizen, she was handed over to the Gestapo. Neher was then charged with High Treason for being a communist and
sent to the town of Ilezk near Orienburg (present-day Kazakhstan) in June 1942. She died in the prison there of
typhus July 26, 1942.
Her fate caused protests among other emigrants outside the Soviet Union, especially as Bertolt Brecht did not aid
Carola Neher
The Threepenny Opera (1931 film)
The Carola-Neher-Street in Berlin Hellersdorf is named after Neher.
• Matthias Wegner: Klabund und Carola Neher – eine Geschichte von Liebe und Tod. Rowohlt, Reinbek bei
Hamburg 1996. ISBN 3-87134-266-1
• Tita Gaehme: Dem Traum folgen. Das Leben der Schauspielerin Carola Neher und ihre Liebe zu Klabund..
Dittrich, Köln 1996. ISBN 3-920862-11-2.
• Guido von Kaulla: Und verbrenn in seinem Herzen: Die Schauspielerin Carola Neher und Klabund. Herder,
Freiburg/Br. 1984
• Michaela Karl: Carola Neher: Die Silberfüchsin. In: Bayerische Amazonen – 12 Porträts. Pustet, Regensburg
2004. ISBN 3-7917-1868-1. S. 168-189
[1] Hans Schoots, Living Dangerously - A Biography of Joris Ivens (http:// books. google.de/ books?id=JlcfbzDx9HEC& pg=PA107&
lpg=PA107& dq=carola+neher+wangenheim& source=web& ots=bE1jQ0_sy7& sig=yqCK8QxvkFnBN4E6IOyQHfQy1t0& hl=de&
sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=10&ct=result)
[2] [2] Reinhard Müller "Menschenfalle Moskau. Exil und stalinistische Verfolgung" Hamburg 2001
[3] http:/ / www.imdb. com/ name/ nm0624552/ bio]
[4] Walter Held „Stalins deutsche Opfer und die Volksfront“, in der Untergrund-Zeitschrift Unser Wort, Nr. 4/5, Oktober 1938, S. 7 f.; Michael
Rohrwasser, Der Stalinismus und die Renegaten, Die Literatur der Exkommunisten, Stuttgart 1991, S. 163
External links
• Carola Neher (http:// www. imdb. com/ name/ nm0624552/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Biography with pictures (German) (http:// www. fembio.org/ biographie.php/ frau/biographie/carola-neher/)
Casablanca (film)
Casablanca (film)
Trailer title card
Directed by Michael Curtiz
Produced by Hal B. Wallis
Screenplay by Julius J. Epstein
Philip G. Epstein
Howard Koch
Casey Robinson (uncredited)
Based on Everybody Comes to Rick's by
Murray Burnett
Joan Alison
Starring Humphrey Bogart
Ingrid Bergman
Paul Henreid
Music by Max Steiner
Cinematography Arthur Edeson
Editing by Owen Marks
Studio(s) Warner Bros.
Distributed by Warner Bros.
Release date(s) • November 26, 1942 (premiere)
• January 23, 1943 (general release)
Running time 102 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Budget $964,000
Box office $3.7 million
(initial US release)
Casablanca is a 1942 American romantic drama film directed by Michael Curtiz and based on the unpublished stage
play Everybody Comes to Rick's by Murray Burnett and Joan Alison. The film stars Humphrey Bogart, Ingrid
Bergman, and Paul Henreid; and features Claude Rains, Conrad Veidt, Sydney Greenstreet, Peter Lorre, and Dooley
Wilson. Set during World War II, it focuses on a man torn between, in the words of one character, love and virtue.
He must choose between his love for a woman and helping her Czech Resistance leader husband escape the
Vichy-controlled Moroccan city of Casablanca to continue his fight against the Nazis.
Story editor Irene Diamond convinced producer Hal Wallis to purchase the film rights of the play in January 1942.
Brothers Julius J. and Philip G. Epstein were initially assigned to write the script. However, despite studio resistance,
Casablanca (film)
they left after the attack on Pearl Harbor to work on Frank Capra's Why We Fight series. Howard Koch was assigned
to the screenplay until the Epsteins returned. Casey Robinson assisted with three weeks of rewrites, but his work
would later go uncredited. Wallis chose Curtiz to direct the film after his first choice, William Wyler, became
unavailable. Filming began on May 25, 1942, and ended on August 3, and was shot entirely at Warner Bros. Studios
in Burbank, and at Van Nuys Airport in Van Nuys.
Although Casablanca was an A-list film with established stars and first-rate writers, no one involved with its
production expected it to be anything out of the ordinary;
it was just one of hundreds of pictures produced by
Hollywood every year. Casablanca had its world premiere on November 26, 1942 in New York City, and was
released on January 23, 1943, in the United States. The film was a solid if unspectacular success in its initial run,
rushed into release to take advantage of the publicity from the Allied invasion of North Africa a few weeks earlier.
Despite a changing assortment of screenwriters frantically adapting an unstaged play and barely keeping ahead of
production, and Bogart attempting his first romantic leading role, Casablanca won three Academy Awards,
including Best Picture. Its lead character,
memorable lines,
and pervasive theme song
have all become
iconic; and the film consistently ranks near the top of lists of the greatest films of all time.
Cynical American expatriate Rick Blaine (Humphrey Bogart) is the proprietor of an upscale nightclub and gambling
den in Casablanca in early December 1941. "Rick's Café Américain" attracts a mixed clientele: Vichy French,
Italian, and Nazi officials; refugees desperate to reach the still neutral United States; and those who prey on them.
Although Rick professes to be neutral in all matters, it is later revealed he ran guns to Ethiopia to combat the 1935
Italian invasion and fought on the Loyalist side in the Spanish Civil War.
From left to right: Henreid, Bergman, Rains and
Petty crook Ugarte (Peter Lorre) shows up and boasts to Rick of
"letters of transit" obtained by murdering two German couriers. The
papers allow the bearer to travel around German-controlled Europe and
to neutral Portugal, and are thus almost priceless to the refugees
stranded in Casablanca. Ugarte plans to sell them at the club later that
night. Before the exchange can take place, however, he is arrested by
the local police under the command of Vichy Captain Louis Renault
(Claude Rains), an unabashedly corrupt official. Ugarte dies in custody
without revealing that he had entrusted the letters to Rick.
At this point, the reason for Rick's bitterness—his ex-lover, Norwegian
Ilsa Lund (Ingrid Bergman)—walks into his establishment. Upon spotting Rick's friend and house pianist, Sam
(Dooley Wilson), Ilsa asks him to play "As Time Goes By". Rick storms over, furious that Sam has disobeyed his
order never to perform that song, and is stunned to see Ilsa. She is accompanied by her husband, Victor Laszlo (Paul
Henreid), a renowned fugitive Czech Resistance leader. They need the letters to escape to America, where he can
continue his work. German Major Strasser (Conrad Veidt) comes to Casablanca to see that Laszlo does not succeed.
When Laszlo makes inquiries, Ferrari (Sydney Greenstreet), a major underworld figure and Rick's friendly business
rival, divulges his suspicion that Rick has the letters. In private, Rick refuses to sell at any price, telling Laszlo to ask
his wife the reason. They are interrupted when Strasser leads a group of officers in singing "Die Wacht am Rhein".
Laszlo orders the house band to play "La Marseillaise". When the band looks to Rick, he nods his head. Laszlo starts
singing, alone at first, then patriotic fervor grips the crowd and everyone joins in, drowning out the Germans. In
retaliation, Strasser has Renault close the club.
That night, Ilsa confronts Rick in the deserted café. When he refuses to give her the letters, she threatens him with a
gun, but then confesses that she still loves him. She explains that when they first met and fell in love in Paris, she
believed that her husband had been killed attempting to escape from a concentration camp. Later, while preparing to
Casablanca (film)
flee with Rick from the imminent fall of the city to the German army, she learned that Laszlo was alive and in
hiding. She left Rick without explanation to tend her ill husband.
Bogart and Bergman
With the revelation, the lovers are reconciled. Rick agrees to help,
leading her to believe that she will stay behind with him when Laszlo
leaves. When Laszlo unexpectedly shows up, having narrowly escaped
a police raid on a Resistance meeting, Rick has waiter Carl (S. K.
Sakall) spirit Ilsa away.
Laszlo, aware of Rick's love for Ilsa, tries to persuade him to use the
letters to take her to safety. When the police arrest Laszlo on a minor,
trumped-up charge, Rick convinces Renault to release him by
promising to set him up for a much more serious crime: possession of
the letters of transit. To allay Renault's suspicions, Rick explains he
and Ilsa will be leaving for America.
When Renault tries to arrest Laszlo as arranged, Rick forces him at gunpoint to assist in their escape. At the last
moment, Rick makes Ilsa board the plane to Lisbon with her husband, telling her she would regret it if she stayed,
"Maybe not today, maybe not tomorrow, but soon and for the rest of your life."
Major Strasser, tipped off by Renault, drives up alone. Rick shoots Strasser when he tries to intervene. When the
police arrive, Renault pauses, then tells them to "round up the usual suspects." Renault suggests to Rick that they join
the Free French at Brazzaville as they walk away into the fog.
Greenstreet (left) and Bogart
The play's cast consisted of 16 speaking parts and several extras; the
film script enlarged it to 22 speaking parts and hundreds of extras.
The cast is notable for its internationalism: only three of the credited
actors were born in the United States. The top-billed actors were:
• Humphrey Bogart as Rick Blaine. Earlier in his career, he had been
typecast as a gangster. High Sierra (1941) had allowed him to play
a character with some warmth, but Rick was his first truly romantic
• Ingrid Bergman as Ilsa Lund. Bergman's official website calls Ilsa
her "most famous and enduring role".
The Swedish actress's
Hollywood debut in Intermezzo had been well received, but her subsequent films were not major successes—until
Casablanca. Film critic Roger Ebert calls her "luminous", and comments on the chemistry between her and
Bogart: "she paints his face with her eyes".
Other actresses considered for the role of Ilsa included Ann
Sheridan, Hedy Lamarr and Michèle Morgan. Wallis obtained the services of Bergman, who was contracted to
David O. Selznick, by lending Olivia de Havilland in exchange.
• Paul Henreid as Victor Laszlo. Henreid, an Austrian actor who emigrated in 1935, was reluctant to take the role
(it "set [him] as a stiff forever", according to Pauline Kael
), until he was promised top billing along with
Bogart and Bergman. Henreid did not get on well with his fellow actors; he considered Bogart "a mediocre actor",
while Bergman called Henreid a "prima donna".
The second-billed actors were:
• Claude Rains as Captain Louis Renault. Rains was an English actor born in London. He had previously worked
with Michael Curtiz on The Adventures of Robin Hood. He later appeared in Alfred Hitchcock's Notorious with
Ingrid Bergman.
Casablanca (film)
• Conrad Veidt as Major Heinrich Strasser. He was a German actor who had appeared in The Cabinet of Dr.
Caligari before fleeing from the Nazis and ironically was best known for playing Nazis in U.S. films.
• Sydney Greenstreet as Signor Ferrari, a rival nightclub owner. Another Englishman, Greenstreet had previously
starred with Lorre and Bogart in his film debut in The Maltese Falcon.
• Peter Lorre as Signor Ugarte. Lorre, who was born in Austria-Hungary, had left Germany in 1933.
Also credited were:
• Curt Bois as the pickpocket. Bois was a German Jewish actor and another refugee. He had one of the longest
careers in film, making his first appearance in 1907 and his last in 1987.
• Leonid Kinskey as Sascha, the Russian bartender infatuated with Yvonne. He was actually born in Russia.
• Madeleine LeBeau as Yvonne, Rick's soon-discarded girlfriend. The French actress was Marcel Dalio's wife until
their divorce in 1942.
• Joy Page as Annina Brandel, the young Bulgarian refugee. The third credited American, she was studio head Jack
Warner's stepdaughter.
• John Qualen as Berger, Laszlo's Resistance contact. He was born in Canada, but grew up in America. He
appeared in many of John Ford's movies.
• S. Z. Sakall (credited as S. K. Sakall) as Carl, the waiter. He was a Hungarian actor who fled from Germany in
1939. His three sisters later died in a concentration camp.
• Dooley Wilson as Sam. He was one of the few American members of the cast. A drummer, he could not play the
piano. Hal Wallis had considered changing Sam to a female character (Hazel Scott and Ella Fitzgerald were
candidates), and even after shooting had been completed, Wallis considered dubbing over Wilson's voice for the
Notable uncredited actors were:
• Leon Belasco as a dealer in Rick's Cafe. A Russian-American character actor, he appeared in 13 films the year
Casablanca was released.
• Marcel Dalio as Emil the croupier. He had been a star in French cinema, appearing in Jean Renoir's La Grande
Illusion and La Regle de Jeu, but after he fled the fall of France, he was reduced to bit parts in Hollywood. He had
a key role in another of Bogart's films, To Have and Have Not.
• Helmut Dantine as Jan Brandel, the Bulgarian roulette player married to Annina Brandel. Another Austrian, he
had spent time in a concentration camp after the Anschluss, the annexation of Austria.
• William Edmunds as a contact man at Rick's. He usually played characters with heavy accents, such as Martini in
It's a Wonderful Life (1946).
• Gregory Gaye as the German banker who is refused entry to the casino by Rick. Gaye was a Russian-born actor
who went to the United States in 1917 after the Russian Revolution.
• Torben Meyer as the Dutch banker who runs "the second largest banking house in Amsterdam". Meyer was a
Danish actor.
• George London sings the Marseillaise. London was a Los Angeles born bass-baritone opera singer.
• Georges Renavent as Conspirator.
• Corinna Mura as the guitar player who sings a solo while Laszlo is consulting with Berger and later accompanies
the crowd on "La Marsaillaise".
• Dan Seymour as Abdul the doorman. He was an American actor who, at 265 pounds, often played villains,
including the principal one in To Have and Have Not, and one of the secondary ones in Key Largo, both opposite
• Norma Varden as the Englishwoman whose husband has his wallet stolen. She was a famous English character
• Jean Del Val as the French police radio announcer who (following the opening montage sequence) reports the
news of the murder of the two German couriers.
Casablanca (film)
• Leo White as the waiter Emile (not to be confused with the croupier Emil), from whom Renault orders a drink
when he sits down with the Laszlos. White was a familiar face in many Charlie Chaplin two-reelers in the 1910s,
usually playing an upper-class antagonist.
• Jack Benny may have had an unbilled cameo role (claimed by a contemporary newspaper advertisement
reportedly in the Casablanca press book
). When asked in his column "Movie Answer Man", critic Roger Ebert
first replied, "It looks something like him. That's all I can say."
In response to a follow-up question in his next
column, he stated, "I think you're right."
Part of the emotional impact of the film has been attributed to the large proportion of European exiles and refugees
among the extras and in the minor roles. A witness to the filming of the "duel of the anthems" sequence said he saw
many of the actors crying and "realized that they were all real refugees".
Harmetz argues that they "brought to a
dozen small roles in Casablanca an understanding and a desperation that could never have come from Central
The German citizens among them nevertheless had to keep curfew as enemy aliens. Ironically, they
were frequently cast as the Nazis from whom they had fled.
Some of the exiled actors were:
• Louis V. Arco as another refugee in Rick's. Born Lutz Altschul in Austria, he moved to America shortly after the
Anschluss and changed his name.
• Trude Berliner as a baccarat player in Rick's. Born in Berlin, she was a famous cabaret performer and film actress.
Being Jewish, she left Germany in 1933.
• Ilka Grünig as Mrs. Leuchtag. Born in Vienna, she was a silent movie star in Germany who came to America
after the Anschluss.
• Lotte Palfi as the refugee trying to sell her diamonds. Born in Germany, she played stage roles at a prestigious
theater in Darmstadt, Germany. She journeyed to America after the Nazis came to power in 1933. She later
married another Casablanca actor, Wolfgang Zilzer.
• Richard Ryen as Strasser's aide, Captain Heinze. The Austrian Jew acted in German films, but fled the Nazis.
• Ludwig Stössel as Mr. Leuchtag, the German refugee whose English is "not so good". Born in Austria, the Jewish
actor was imprisoned following the Anschluss, the annexation of Austria. When he was released, he left for
England and then America. Stössel became famous for doing a long series of commercials for Italian Swiss
Colony wine producers. Dressed in an Alpine hat and lederhosen, Stössel was their spokesman with the slogan,
"That Little Old Winemaker, Me!"
• Hans Twardowski as a Nazi officer who argues with a French officer over Yvonne. He was born in Stettin,
Germany (now Szczecin, Poland).
• Wolfgang Zilzer as a Free French agent who is shot in the opening scene of the movie, was a silent movie actor in
Germany who left when the Nazis took over. He later married Casablanca actress Lotte Palfi.
The film was based on Murray Burnett and Joan Alison's then-unproduced play Everybody Comes to Rick's.
Warner Bros. story analyst who read the play, Stephen Karnot, called it (approvingly) "sophisticated hokum",
story editor Irene Diamond convinced producer Hal Wallis to buy the rights in January 1942 for $20,000,
most anyone in Hollywood had ever paid for an unproduced play.
The project was renamed Casablanca,
apparently in imitation of the 1938 hit Algiers.
Although an initial filming date was selected for April 10, 1942,
delays led to a start of production on May 25.
Filming was completed on August 3, and the production cost
$1,039,000 ($75,000 over budget),
above average for the time.
The film was shot in sequence, mainly because
only the first half of the script was ready when filming began.
Casablanca (film)
This screenshot shows Humphrey Bogart in a
trenchcoat and fedora in the airport scene
The entire picture was shot in the studio, except for the sequence
showing Major Strasser's arrival, which was filmed at Van Nuys
Airport, and a few short clips of stock footage views of Paris.
The street used for the exterior shots had recently been built for
another film, The Desert Song,
and redressed for the Paris
flashbacks. It remained on the Warners backlot until the 1960s.
The set for Rick's was built in three unconnected parts, so the
internal layout of the building is indeterminate. In a number of
scenes, the camera looks through a wall from the cafe area into
Rick's office. The background of the final scene, which shows a
Lockheed Model 12 Electra Junior airplane with personnel
walking around it, was staged using midget extras and a
proportionate cardboard plane.
Fog was used to mask the
model's unconvincing appearance.
Nevertheless, the Disney's Hollywood Studios theme park in Orlando, Florida
purchased a Lockheed 12A for its Great Movie Ride attraction, and initially claimed that it was the actual plane used
in the film.
Film critic Roger Ebert called Hal Wallis the "key creative force" for his attention to the details of
production (down to insisting on a real parrot in the Blue Parrot bar).
The difference between Bergman's and Bogart's height caused some problems. She was some two inches (5 cm)
taller than Bogart, and claimed Curtiz had Bogart stand on blocks or sit on cushions in their scenes together.
Later, there were plans for a further scene, showing Rick, Renault and a detachment of Free French soldiers on a
ship, to incorporate the Allies' 1942 invasion of North Africa; however, it proved too difficult to get Claude Rains for
the shoot, and the scene was finally abandoned after David O. Selznick judged "it would be a terrible mistake to
change the ending."
The original play was inspired by a trip to Europe made by Murray Burnett in 1938, during which he visited Vienna
shortly after the Anschluss, where he saw discrimination by Nazis first-hand. In the south of France, he came across
a nightclub, which had a multinational clientele and the prototype of Sam, the black piano player.
In the play,
the Ilsa character was an American named Lois Meredith and did not meet Laszlo until after her relationship with
Rick in Paris had ended; Rick was a lawyer. To make Rick's motivation more believable, Wallis, Curtiz, and the
screenwriters decided to set the film before the attack on Pearl Harbor.
The first writers assigned to the script were the Epstein twins, Julius and Philip who, against the wishes of Warner
Brothers, left after the attack on Pearl Harbor at Frank Capra's request to work on the Why We Fight series in
Washington, D.C.
While they were gone, the other credited writer, Howard Koch was assigned to the script
and produced some thirty to forty pages.
When the Epstein brothers returned after a month, they were reassigned
to Casablanca and—contrary to what Koch claimed in two published books—his work was not used.
In the final
Warner Brothers budget for the film, the Epsteins were paid $30,416 and Koch $4,200.
The uncredited Casey Robinson assisted with three weeks of rewrites, including contributing the series of meetings
between Rick and Ilsa in the cafe.
Koch highlighted the political and melodramatic elements,
Curtiz seems to have favored the romantic parts, insisting on retaining the Paris flashbacks.
Wallis wrote the final
line ("Louie, I think this is the beginning of a beautiful friendship.") after shooting had been completed. Bogart had
to be called in a month after the end of filming to dub it.
Despite the many writers, the film has what Ebert
describes as a "wonderfully unified and consistent" script. Koch later claimed it was the tension between his own
approach and Curtiz's which accounted for this: "Surprisingly, these disparate approaches somehow meshed, and
perhaps it was partly this tug of war between Curtiz and me that gave the film a certain balance."
Julius Epstein
would later note the screenplay contained "more corn than in the states of Kansas and Iowa combined. But when
Casablanca (film)
corn works, there's nothing better."
The film ran into some trouble from Joseph Breen of the Production Code Administration (the Hollywood
self-censorship body), who opposed the suggestions that Captain Renault extorted sexual favors from his
supplicants, and that Rick and Ilsa had slept together in Paris.
Extensive changes were made, with several lines of
dialogue removed and/or altered, and all direct references to sex in the film removed. Additionally, when Sam
played "As Time Goes By" in the original script, Rick had remarked "What the —— are you playing?"
This line
implying a curse word was removed at the behest of the Hays Office, and both Renault's selling of visas for sex, and
Rick and Ilsa's previous sexual relationship were implied elliptically rather than referenced explicitly.
Wallis' first choice for director was William Wyler, but he was unavailable, so Wallis turned to his close friend
Michael Curtiz.
Curtiz was a Hungarian Jewish émigré; he had come to the U.S. in the 1920s, but some of his
family were refugees from Nazi Europe. Roger Ebert has commented that in Casablanca "very few shots... are
memorable as shots," Curtiz being concerned to use images to tell the story rather than for their own sake.
However, he had relatively little input into the development of the plot: Casey Robinson said Curtiz "knew nothing
whatever about story...he saw it in pictures, and you supplied the stories."
Critic Andrew Sarris called the film
"the most decisive exception to the auteur theory",
of which Sarris was the most prominent proponent in the
United States, to which Aljean Harmetz responded, "nearly every Warner Bros. picture was an exception to the
auteur theory".
Other critics give more credit to Curtiz; Sidney Rosenzweig, in his study of the director's work,
sees the film as a typical example of Curtiz's highlighting of moral dilemmas.
The second unit montages, such as the opening sequence of the refugee trail and that showing the invasion of France,
were directed by Don Siegel.
The Cross of Lorraine, emblem of
the Free French Forces
The cinematographer was Arthur Edeson, a veteran who had previously shot The
Maltese Falcon and Frankenstein. Particular attention was paid to photographing
Bergman. She was shot mainly from her preferred left side, often with a
softening gauze filter and with catch lights to make her eyes sparkle; the whole
effect was designed to make her face seem "ineffably sad and tender and
Bars of shadow across the characters and in the background
variously imply imprisonment, the crucifix, the symbol of the Free French Forces
and emotional turmoil.
Dark film noir and expressionist lighting is used in
several scenes, particularly towards the end of the picture. Rosenzweig argues
these shadow and lighting effects are classic elements of the Curtiz style, along
with the fluid camera work and the use of the environment as a framing
The music was written by Max Steiner, who was best known for the score for
Gone with the Wind. The song "As Time Goes By" by Herman Hupfeld had been part of the story from the original
play; Steiner wanted to write his own composition to replace it, but Bergman had already cut her hair short for her
next role (María in For Whom the Bell Tolls) and could not re-shoot the scenes which incorporated the song,
Steiner based the entire score on it and "La Marseillaise", the French national anthem, transforming them to reflect
changing moods.
Casablanca (film)
Particularly notable is the "duel of the songs" between Strasser and Laszlo at Rick's cafe. In the soundtrack, "La
Marseillaise" is played by a full orchestra. Originally, the opposing piece for this iconic sequence was to be the
"Horst Wessel Lied", a Nazi anthem, but this was still under international copyright in non-Allied countries. Instead
"Die Wacht am Rhein" was used. The opening bars of the "Deutschlandlied", the national anthem of Germany, is
featured throughout the score as a motif to represent the Germans, much as "La Marseillaise" is used to represent the
Other songs in the film include "It Had to Be You" from 1924 (music by Isham Jones, lyrics by Gus Kahn), "Shine"
from 1910 (music by Ford Dabney, lyrics by Cecil Mack and Lew Brown), "Avalon" from 1920 (music and lyrics by
Al Jolson, Buddy DeSylva and Vincent Rose), "Perfidia" by Alberto Dominguez, "The Very Thought of You" by
Ray Noble, and "Knock on Wood" (music by M.K. Jerome, lyrics by Jack Scholl), the only original song in the film.
The piano used in the movie was sold in New York City on December 14, 2012 at Sotheby's for more than $600,000
to an anonymous bidder.
Timing of release
Although an initial release date was anticipated for spring 1943,
the film premiered at the Hollywood Theater in
New York City on November 26, 1942, to coincide with the Allied invasion of North Africa and the capture of
In the 1,500-seat theater, the film grossed $255,000 over ten weeks.
It went into general release
on January 23, 1943, to take advantage of the Casablanca conference, a high-level meeting between Churchill and
Roosevelt in the city. It was a substantial but not spectacular box-office success, taking $3.7 million on its initial
U.S. release, making it the seventh best-selling film of 1943.
The Office of War Information prevented
screening of the film to troops in North Africa, believing it would cause resentment among Vichy supporters in the
Initial response
Casablanca received "consistently good reviews".
Bosley Crowther of The New York Times wrote, "The
Warners... have a picture which makes the spine tingle and the heart take a leap." The newspaper applauded the
combination of "sentiment, humor and pathos with taut melodrama and bristling intrigue". While he noted its
"devious convolutions of the plot", he praised the screenplay quality as "of the best" and the cast's performances as
"all of the first order".
The trade paper Variety commended the film's "combination of fine performances, engrossing story and neat
direction" and the "variety of moods, action, suspense, comedy and drama that makes Casablanca an A-1 entry at
the b.o."
"Film is splendid anti-Axis propaganda, particularly inasmuch as the propaganda is strictly a by-product
of the principal action and contributes to it instead of getting in the way."
The review also applauded the
performances of Bergman and Henreid and note that "Bogart, as might be expected, is more at ease as the bitter and
cynical operator of a joint than as a lover, but handles both assignments with superb finesse."
Some other reviews were less enthusiastic. The New Yorker rated it only "pretty tolerable".
Lasting impact
The film has grown in popularity. Murray Burnett called it "true yesterday, true today, true tomorrow".
By 1955,
the film had brought in $6.8 million, making it the third most successful of Warners' wartime movies (behind Shine
On, Harvest Moon and This is the Army).
On April 21, 1957, the Brattle Theater of Cambridge, Massachusetts,
showed the film as part of a season of old movies. It was so popular that it began a tradition of screening Casablanca
during the week of final exams at Harvard University which continues to the present day, and is emulated by many
Casablanca (film)
colleges across the United States. Todd Gitlin, a professor of sociology who himself attended one of these
screenings, had said that the experience was, "the acting out of my own personal rite of passage".
The tradition
helped the movie remain popular while other famous films of the 1940s have faded away, and by 1977, Casablanca
was the most frequently broadcast film on American television.
On the film's 50th anniversary, the Los Angeles Times called Casablanca's great strength "the purity of its Golden
Age Hollywoodness [and] the enduring craftsmanship of its resonantly hokey dialogue". The newspaper believed the
film achieved a "near-perfect entertainment balance" of comedy, romance, and suspense.
According to Roger Ebert, Casablanca is "probably on more lists of the greatest films of all time than any other
single title, including Citizen Kane" because of its wider appeal. Ebert opined that Citizen Kane is generally
considered to be a "greater" film but Casablanca is more loved.
Ebert said that he has never heard of a negative
review of the film, even though individual elements can be criticized, citing unrealistic special effects and the stiff
character/portrayal of Laszlo.
Rudy Behlmer emphasized the variety in the picture: "it's a blend of drama,
melodrama, comedy [and] intrigue".
Ebert has said that the film is popular because "the people in it are all so good" and that it is "a wonderful gem".
As the Resistance hero, Laszlo is ostensibly the most noble, although he is so stiff that he is hard to like.
other characters, in Behlmer's words, are "not cut and dried": they come into their goodness in the course of the film.
Renault begins the film as a collaborator with the Nazis, who extorts sexual favors from refugees and has Ugarte
killed. Rick, according to Behlmer, is "not a hero,... not a bad guy": he does what is necessary to get along with the
authorities and "sticks his neck out for nobody". Even Ilsa, the least active of the main characters, is "caught in the
emotional struggle" over which man she really loves. By the end of the film, however, "everybody is sacrificing."
There are a few dissenting reviewers. According to Pauline Kael, "It's far from a great film, but it has a special
appealingly schlocky romanticism..."
Umberto Eco wrote that "by any strict critical standards... Casablanca is a
very mediocre film." He viewed the changes the characters undergo as inconsistent rather than complex: "It is a
comic strip, a hotch-potch, low on psychological credibility, and with little continuity in its dramatic effects."
There is anecdotal evidence that Casablanca may have made a deeper impression among film-lovers than within the
professional movie-making establishment. In the November/December 1982 issue of American Film, Chuck Ross
claimed that he retyped the screenplay to Casablanca, only changing the title back to Everybody Comes to Rick's and
the name of the piano player to Dooley Wilson, and submitted it to 217 agencies. Eighty-five of them read it; of
those, thirty-eight rejected it outright, thirty-three generally recognized it (but only eight specifically as Casablanca),
three declared it commercially viable, and one suggested turning it into a novel.
Influence on later works
Many subsequent films have drawn on elements of Casablanca. Passage to Marseille reunited Bogart, Rains, Curtiz,
Greenstreet and Lorre in 1944, while there are many similarities between Casablanca and two later Bogart films, To
Have and Have Not (1944) and Sirocco (1951). Parodies have included the Marx Brothers' A Night in Casablanca
(1946), Neil Simon's The Cheap Detective (1978), and Out Cold (2001), while it provided the title for the 1995 hit
The Usual Suspects. Woody Allen's Play It Again, Sam (1972) appropriated Bogart's Casablanca persona as the
fantasy mentor for Allen's nebbishy character, featuring actor Jerry Lacy in the role of Bogart.
Casablanca itself was a plot device in the science-fiction television movie Overdrawn at the Memory Bank (1983),
based on John Varley's story, and made a similar, though much less pivotal, appearance in Terry Gilliam's dystopian
Brazil (1985). Warner Bros. produced its own parody of the film in the homage Carrotblanca, a 1995 Bugs Bunny
In Casablanca, a novella by Argentine writer Edgar Brau, the protagonist somehow wanders into Rick's
Café Americain and listens to a strange tale related by Sam.
Casablanca (film)
Casablanca has been subjected to many different readings. Semioticians account for the film's popularity by
claiming that its inclusion of a whole series of stereotypes paradoxically strengthens the film.
Eco explained:
Thus Casablanca is not just one film. It is many films, an anthology. [...] When all the archetypes burst in
shamelessly, we reach Homeric depths. Two clichés make us laugh. A hundred clichés move us. For we sense
dimly that the clichés are talking among themselves, and celebrating a reunion.
Eco also singled out sacrifice as one of the film's key themes: "the myth of sacrifice runs through the whole film."
It was this theme which resonated with a wartime audience that was reassured by the idea that painful sacrifice and
going off to war could be romantic gestures done for the greater good.
Koch also considered the film a political allegory. Rick is compared to President Franklin D. Roosevelt, who
gambled "on the odds of going to war until circumstance and his own submerged nobility force him to close his
casino (partisan politics) and commit himself—first by financing the Side of Right and then by fighting for it."
The connection is reinforced by the film's title, which means "white house".
Harvey Greenberg presents a Freudian reading in his The Movies on Your Mind, in which the transgressions which
prevent Rick from returning to the U.S. constitute an Oedipus complex, which is resolved only when Rick begins to
identify with the father figure of Laszlo and the cause which he represents.
Sidney Rosenzweig argues that such
readings are reductive, and that the most important aspect of the film is its ambiguity, above all in the central
character of Rick; he cites the different names which each character gives Rick (Richard, Ricky, Mr. Rick, Herr
Rick, boss, and so on) as evidence of the different meanings which he has for each person.
Because of its November 1942 release, the New York Film Critics decided to include the film in its 1942 award
season for best picture. Casablanca lost to In Which We Serve.
However, the Academy stated that since the film
went into national release in the beginning of 1943, it would be included in that year's nominations.
was nominated for eight Academy Awards, and won three. When the award for Best Picture was announced
producer Hal B. Wallis got up to accept, only to find Jack Warner had rushed onstage to take the trophy. Wallis later
recalled, "I had no alternative but to sit down again, humiliated and furious. ... Almost forty years later, I still haven't
recovered from the shock."
This incident would lead Wallis to leave Warner Bros. in April.
Award Category Nominee Result
16th Academy Awards Outstanding Motion Picture Warner Bros. (Hal B. Wallis, Producer) Won
Best Director Michael Curtiz Won
Best Actor Humphrey Bogart Nominated
Best Writing, Screenplay Julius J. Epstein, Philip G. Epstein, and Howard Koch Won
Best Supporting Actor Claude Rains Nominated
Best Cinematography Arthur Edeson Nominated
Best Film Editing Owen Marks Nominated
Best Music (Score of a Dramatic or Comedy Picture) Max Steiner Nominated
In 1989, the film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry as being deemed
"culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant". In 2005, it was named one of the 100 greatest films of the last
80 years by Time.com (the selected films were not ranked). The famed teacher of screenwriting, Robert McKee,
maintains that the script is "the greatest screenplay of all time".
In 2006, the Writers Guild of America, west
agreed, voting it the best ever in its list of the 101 greatest screenplays.
The film has been selected by the
Casablanca (film)
American Film Institute for many of their lists.
Year Category Nominee Rank
1998 AFI's 100 Years... 100 Movies 2
2001 AFI's 100 Years... 100 Thrills 37
2002 AFI's 100 Years... 100 Passions 1
2003 AFI's 100 Years... 100 Heroes and Villains Rick Blaine (hero) 4
2004 AFI's 100 Years... 100 Songs "As Time Goes By" 2
2005 AFI's 100 Years... 100 Movie Quotes 5, 20, 28, 32, 43, and 67 (see Quotations section below)
2006 AFI's 100 Years... 100 Cheers 32
2007 AFI's 100 Years... 100 Movies (10th Anniversary Edition) 3
Home media releases
Casablanca was initially released on Betamax and VHS by Magnetic Video and later by CBS/Fox Video (as United
Artists owned the rights at the time). It was next released on laserdisc in 1991, and on VHS in 1992—both from
MGM/UA Home Entertainment (distributing for Turner Entertainment), which at the time was distributed by Warner
Home Video. It was first released on DVD in 1997 by MGM, containing the trailer and a making-of featurette
(Warner Home Video reissued the DVD in 2000). A subsequent two-disc special edition, containing audio
commentaries, documentaries, and a newly remastered visual and audio presentation, was released in 2003.
An HD DVD was released on November 14, 2006, containing the same special features as the 2003 DVD.
Reviewers were impressed with the new high-definition transfer of the film.
A Blu-ray release with new special features came out on December 2, 2008; it is also available on DVD.
Blu-ray was initially only released as an expensive gift set with a booklet, a luggage tag and other assorted gift-type
items. It was eventually released as a stand-alone Blu-ray in September 2009. Warner Bros put the film into
moratorium in 2011 for an eventual re-release in 2012.
On March 27, 2012, Warner released a new 70th
Anniversary Ultimate Collector's Edition Blu-ray/DVD combo set. It includes a brand-new 4K restoration and new
bonus material.
Sequels and other versions
Almost from the moment Casablanca became a hit, talk began of producing a sequel. One titled Brazzaville (in the
final scene, Renault recommends fleeing to that Free French-held city) was planned, but never produced.
then, no studio has seriously considered filming a sequel or outright remake. François Truffaut refused an invitation
to remake the film in 1974, citing its cult status among American students as his reason.
Attempts to recapture
the magic of Casablanca in other settings, such as Caboblanco (1980), "a South American-set retooling of
Havana (1990),
and Barb Wire (1996), set in 2017, have been poorly received.
The novel As Time Goes By, written by Michael Walsh and published in 1998, was authorized by Warner.
The novel picks up where the film leaves off, and also tells of Rick's mysterious past in America. The book met with
little success.
David Thomson provided an unofficial sequel in his 1985 novel Suspects.
There have been two short-lived television series based upon Casablanca, both considered prequels. The first aired
from 1955 to 1956, with Charles McGraw as Rick and Marcel Dalio, who played Emil the croupier in the movie, as
Renault; it aired on ABC as part of the wheel series Warner Bros. Presents.
It produced a total of ten hour-long
episodes. Another, briefly broadcast on NBC in 1983, starred David Soul as Rick, Ray Liotta as Sacha, and Scatman
Crothers as a somewhat elderly Sam.
A total of five hour-long episodes were produced.
Casablanca (film)
There were several radio adaptations of the film. The two best-known were a thirty-minute adaptation on The Screen
Guild Theater on April 26, 1943, starring Bogart, Bergman, and Henreid, and an hour-long version on the Lux Radio
Theater on January 24, 1944, featuring Alan Ladd as Rick, Hedy Lamarr as Ilsa, and John Loder as Victor Laszlo.
Two other thirty-minute adaptations were aired: on Philip Morris Playhouse on September 3, 1943, and on Theater
of Romance on December 19, 1944, in which Dooley Wilson reprised his role as Sam.
Julius Epstein made two attempts to turn the film into a Broadway musical, in 1951 and 1967, but neither made it to
the stage.
The original play, Everybody Comes to Rick's, was produced in Newport, Rhode Island, in August
1946, and again in London in April 1991, but met with no success.
The film was adapted into a musical by the
Takarazuka Revue, an all-female Japanese musical theater company, and ran from November 2009 through February
Casablanca was part of the film colorization controversy of the 1980s,
when a colorized version aired on the
television station WTBS. In 1984, MGM-UA hired Color Systems Technology to colorize the film for $180,000.
When Ted Turner of Turner Entertainment purchased MGM-UA's film library two years later, he canceled the
request, before contracting American Film Technologies (AFT) in 1988. AFT completed the colorization in two
months at a cost of $450,000.
Turner later reacted to the criticism of the colorization, saying, "[Casablanca] is
one of a handful of films that really doesn't have to be colorized. I did it because I wanted to. All I'm trying to do is
protect my investment."
The Library of Congress deemed that the color change differed so much from the original film that it gave a new
copyright to Turner Entertainment. When the colorized film debuted on WTBS, it was watched by three million
viewers, not making the top-ten viewed cable shows for the week. Although Jack Matthews of the Los Angeles
Times called the finished product "state of the art", it was mostly met with negative critical reception.
It was
briefly available on home video. Gary Edgerton, writing for the Journal of Popular Film & Television criticized the
colorization, "... Casablanca in color ended up being much blander in appearance and, overall, much less visually
interesting than its 1942 predecessor."
Bogart's son Stephen said, "if you're going to colorize Casablanca, why
not put arms on the Venus de Milo?"
Several rumors and misconceptions have grown up around the film, one being that Ronald Reagan was originally
chosen to play Rick. This originates in a press release issued by the studio early on in the film's development, but by
that time the studio already knew that he was due to go work for the army, and he was never seriously
George Raft claimed that he had turned down the lead role. Studio records make clear, however, that
Wallis was committed to Bogart from the start.
Another well-known story is that the actors did not know until the last day of shooting how the film was to end. The
original play (set entirely in the cafe) ended with Rick sending Ilsa and Victor to the airport. During scriptwriting,
the possibility was discussed of Laszlo being killed in Casablanca, allowing Rick and Ilsa to leave together, but as
Casey Robinson wrote to Hal Wallis before filming began, the ending of the film "set up for a swell twist when Rick
sends her away on the plane with Victor. For now, in doing so, he is not just solving a love triangle. He is forcing the
girl to live up to the idealism of her nature, forcing her to carry on with the work that in these days is far more
important than the love of two little people."
It was certainly impossible for Ilsa to leave Laszlo for Rick, as the
production code forbade showing a woman leaving her husband for another man. The concern was not whether Ilsa
would leave with Laszlo, but how this result could be engineered.
The problem was solved when the Epstein
brothers, Julius and Philip, were driving down Sunset Boulevard and stopped for the light at Beverly Glen. At that
instant the identical twins turned to each other and simultaneously cried out, "Round up the usual suspects!"
the time they had driven past Fairfax and the Cahuenga Pass and through the Warner Brothers studio's portals at
Casablanca (film)
Burbank, in the words of Julius Epstein, "the idea for the farewell scene between a tearful Bergman and a suddenly
noble Bogart" had been formed and all the problems of the ending had been solved.
The confusion was probably caused by Bergman's later statement that she did not know which man she was meant to
be in love with. While rewrites did occur during the filming, Aljean Harmetz's examination of the scripts has shown
that many of the key scenes were shot after Bergman knew how the film would end: any confusion was, in Ebert's
words, "emotional", not "factual".
Errors and inaccuracies
The film has several logical flaws, the foremost being the two "letters of transit" which enable their bearers to leave
Vichy French territory. According to the audio, Ugarte says the letters had been signed by (depending on the
listener) either Free French General Charles de Gaulle or Vichy General Maxime Weygand. The English subtitles on
the official DVD read de Gaulle, while the French subtitles specify Weygand. Weygand had been the Vichy
Delegate-General for the North African colonies until a month before the film is set (and a year after it was written).
De Gaulle was the head of the Free French government in exile. A Vichy court martial had convicted de Gaulle of
treason in absentia and sentenced him to life imprisonment on August 2, 1940, so a letter signed by him would have
been of no benefit.
A classic MacGuffin, the letters were invented by Joan Allison for the original play and never
Even in the film, Rick suggests to Renault that the letters would not have allowed Ilsa to escape, let
alone Laszlo: "People have been held in Casablanca in spite of their legal rights."
In the same vein, though Laszlo asserts that the Nazis cannot arrest him as "This is still unoccupied France; any
violation of neutrality would reflect on Captain Renault," Ebert points out that "It makes no sense that he could walk
around freely....He would be arrested on sight."
Harmetz, however, suggests that Strasser intentionally allows
Laszlo to move about, hoping that he will tell them the names of Resistance leaders in occupied Europe in exchange
for Ilsa being allowed to leave for Lisbon.
Other mistakes include the wrong version of the flag for French Morocco and the fact no uniformed German troops
ever set foot in Casablanca during the Second World War.
According to Harmetz, in reality few of the refugees depicted would actually have gone to Casablanca.
usual route out of Germany was through Vienna, Prague, Paris, and London, although the film's technical advisor,
Robert Aisner, did follow the path to Morocco given in Casablanca's opening scene.
One of the lines most closely associated with the film—"Play it again, Sam"—is a misquotation.
When Ilsa
first enters the Café Americain, she spots Sam and asks him to "Play it once, Sam, for old times' sake." After he
feigns ignorance, she responds, "Play it, Sam. Play 'As Time Goes By'." Later that night, alone with Sam, Rick says,
"You played it for her, you can play it for me," and "If she can stand it, I can! Play it!"
Rick's toast to Ilsa, "Here's looking at you, kid", used several times, is not in the draft screenplays, but has been
attributed to something Bogart said to Bergman as he taught her poker between takes.
It was voted the 5th most
memorable line in cinema in AFI's 100 Years…100 Movie Quotes by the American Film Institute.
Six lines from Casablanca appeared in the AFI list, the most of any film (Gone with the Wind and The Wizard of Oz
tied for second with three apiece). The other five are:
• "Louis, I think this is the beginning of a beautiful friendship."—20th
• "Play it, Sam. Play 'As Time Goes By'."—28th
• "Round up the usual suspects."—32nd
• "We'll always have Paris."—43rd
• "Of all the gin joints in all the towns in all the world, she walks into mine."—67th
Casablanca (film)
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[112] Lawless, Jill (May 31, 2006). "'Mrs. Robinson' Returns in Sequel" (http:// web. archive.org/ web/ 20071012203236/ http:/ / cbsnews. com/
stories/ 2006/ 05/ 31/ ap/ entertainment/mainD8HUTL900.shtml). CBS News. Archived from the original (http:// www. cbsnews. com/
stories/ 2006/ 05/ 31/ ap/ entertainment/mainD8HUTL900.shtml) on October 12, 2007. . Retrieved 2007-08-13.
[113] "Casablanca (1955)" (http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0047719/ ). Internet Movie Database Inc. . Retrieved 2007-08-06.
[114] "Casablanca (1983)" (http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0084994/ ). Internet Movie Database Inc. . Retrieved 2007-08-06.
[115] [115] Harmetz 1992, p. 338
Casablanca (film)
[116] [116] Harmetz 1992, p. 331
[117] "『 カ サ ブ ラ ン カ 』 " (http:// kageki. hankyu. co. jp/ casablanca/ ). Takarazuka Revue Company. . Retrieved 2009-10-03.
[118] Krauthammer, Charles (January 12, 1987). "Casablanca in Color?" (http:// www. time. com/ time/ magazine/ article/0,9171,963207,00.
html). Time. . Retrieved 2007-08-06.
[119] Edgerton, Gary R. (Winter 2000). "The Germans Wore Gray, You Wore Blue". Journal of Popular Film & Television 27 (4): 24.
[120] [120] Harmetz 1992, p. 74
[121] Sklar, Robert (1992). City Boys: Cagney, Bogart, Garfield. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. p. 135. ISBN 0-691-04795-2.
[122] Behlmer 1985, pp. 206–207
[123] [123] Harmetz 1992, p. 229
[124] Epstein 1994, pp. 32–33
[125] Epstein 1994, pp. 33–35
[126] [126] Harmetz 1992, p. 55
[127] [127] Harmetz 1992, p. 208
[128] Fred R. Shapiro (January 15, 2010). "Movie Misquotations" (http:/ / www. nytimes.com/ 2010/ 01/ 17/ magazine/ 17FOB-onlanguage-t.
html). The New York Times Magazine. .
[129] Ben Child (May 11, 2009). "Darth Vader line is the daddy of film misquotes, finds poll" (http:// www. guardian.co. uk/ film/2009/ may/
11/ star-wars-movie-misquotes-poll). guardian.co.uk. .
[130] [130] Harmetz 1992, p. 187
[131] "AFI's 100 Years…100 Movie Quotes" (http:// www. afi.com/ 100years/ quotes. aspx). American Film Institute. . Retrieved November
15, 2011.
• Behlmer, Rudy (1985). Inside Warner Bros. (1935–1951). London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
ISBN 0-297-79242-3.
• Casablanca (Two-Disc Special Edition DVD) (2003) (with audio commentaries by Roger Ebert and Rudy
Behlmer and documentary Casablanca 50th Anniversary Special: You Must Remember This (http:/ / www. imdb.
com/title/ tt0280526/ ), narrated by Lauren Bacall).
• Epstein, Julius J. (1994). Casablanca. Imprenta Glorias: Fifty Copies Conceived and Illustrated by Gloria Naylor.
• Francisco, Charles (1980). You Must Remember This: The Filming of Casablanca. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey:
Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-977058-5.
• Gardner, Gerald (1988). The Censorship Papers: Movie Censorship Letters from the Hays Office, 1934 to 1968.
New York: Dodd Mead. ISBN 0-396-08903-8.
• Harmetz, Aljean (1992). Round Up the Usual Suspects: The Making of Casablanca—Bogart, Bergman, and
World War II. Hyperion. ISBN 1-56282-761-8.
• Koch, Howard (1973). Casablanca: Script and Legend. The Overlook Press. ISBN 0-87951-006-4.
• Lebo, Harlan (1992). Casablanca: Behind the Scenes. Fireside. ISBN 0-671-76981-2.
•• McGilligan, Pat (1986). Backstory: Interviews with Screenwriters of Hollywood's Golden Age. Berkeley and Los
Angeles: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-05666-3.
• Miller, Frank (1992). Casablanca – As Times Goes By: 50th Anniversary Commemorative. Turner Publishing Inc.
ISBN 1-878685-14-7.
• Robertson, James C. (1993). The Casablanca Man: The Cinema of Michael Curtiz London:Routledge. ISBN
• Rosenzweig, Sidney (1982). Casablanca and Other Major Films of Michael Curtiz. Ann Arbor, Mich.: UMI
Research Press. ISBN 0-8357-1304-0
Casablanca (film)
External links
• P.O.V. Number 14, December 2002 (pdf) (http:// pov. imv.au. dk/ pdf/ pov14. pdf) – issue of a film studies
journal that is entirely devoted to Casablanca
• Casablanca (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0034583/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Casablanca (http:/ / tcmdb.com/ title/ title.jsp?stid=610) at the TCM Movie Database
• Casablanca (http:/ / www. allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/ v8482) at AllRovi
• Casablanca (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes.com/ m/ 1003707-casablanca/ ) at Rotten Tomatoes
• Casablanca (http:/ / www. boxofficemojo.com/movies/ ?id=casablanca. htm) at Box Office Mojo
Streaming audio
• Casablanca (http:/ / ia700508.us. archive.org/0/ items/ ScreenGuildTheater/Sgt_43-04-26_ep141_Casablanca.
mp3) on Screen Guild Theater: April 26, 1943
• Casablanca (http:/ / ia700400.us. archive.org/20/ items/ Lux09/Lux_44-01-24_Casablanca. mp3) on Lux Radio
Theater: January 24, 1944
• Casablanca (http:/ / ia600409.us. archive.org/33/ items/ Romance_339/ Romance44-12-19083Casablanca.
mp3) on Theater of Romance: December 19, 1944
Casbah (film)
Casbah (film)
Directed by John Berry
Produced by Nat C. Goldstone
Written by Leslie Bush-Fekete
Story by Henri La Barthe (as Detective Ashelbe
Starring Yvonne De Carlo
Tony Martin
Music by Walter Scharf
Cinematography Irving Glassberg
Editing by Edward Curtiss
Studio(s) Marston Productions
Distributed by Universal Pictures
Release date(s) April 1948
Running time 94 minutes
Country  United States
Language English
Casbah (1948) is a musical film directed by John Berry, starring Yvonne DeCarlo and Tony Martin, and released by
Universal Studios.
Casbah is a musical remake of the 1938 film Algiers, which was in turn an American English-language remake of
the 1936 French film Pépé le Moko. The plot, which follows that of the 1938 film rather faithfully, deals with Pépé le
Moko (Tony Martin), who leads a gang of jewel thieves in the Casbah of Algiers, where he has exiled himself to
escape imprisonment in his native France. Inez (Yvonne De Carlo), his girl friend, is infuriated when Pépé flirts with
Gaby (Marta Toren), a French visitor, but Pépé tells her to mind her own business. Detective Slimane (Peter Lorre)
is trying to lure Pépé out of the Casbah so he can be jailed. Against Slimane's advice, Police Chief Louvain (Thomas
Gomez) captures Pépé in a dragnet, but his followers free him. Inez realizes that Pépé has fallen in love with Gaby
and intends to follow her to Europe. Slimane knows the same and uses her as the bait to lure Pépé out of the Casbah.
Cast and roles
• Yvonne De Carlo - Inez
• Tony Martin - Pépé Le Moko
• Peter Lorre - Slimane
• Märta Torén - Gaby
• Hugo Haas - Omar
• Thomas Gomez - Louvain
• Douglas Dick - Carlo
• Herbert Rudley - Claude
• Gene Walker - Roland
Casbah (film)
• Curt Conway - Maurice
In 1949, the film was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Original Song for the song "For Every Man There's
a Woman" by Harold Arlen (music) and Leo Robin (lyrics).
External links
• Casbah
at the Internet Movie Database
[1] http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0040214/
Casino Royale (Climax!)
Casino Royale (Climax!)
Casino Royale
Barry Nelson as James Bond
Format Live
Written by Ian Fleming (novel)
Charles Bennett
Anthony Ellis
Directed by William H. Brown Jr
Presented by William Lundigan
Starring Barry Nelson
Peter Lorre
Linda Christian
Michael Pate
Theme music composer Jerry Goldsmith
Language(s) English
Producer(s) Bretaigne Windhurst
Elliott Lewis (Associate)
Running time 48 minutes
Distributor CBS (TV airing)
MGM (DVD release)
Original channel CBS
First shown in
•• 21 October 1954
Casino Royale is a 1954 television adaptation of the novel of the same name by Ian Fleming. The show is the first
screen adaptation of a James Bond novel and stars Barry Nelson and Peter Lorre. Though this marks the first
onscreen appearance of the character of James Bond, Nelson's character is played as an American agent with
"Combined Intelligence" and is referred to as "Jimmy" by several characters.
The show was forgotten about after its initial showing until most of it was located in the 1980s by film historian Jim
Schoenberger, with the ending (including credits) found afterwards. The rights to the programme were acquired by
MGM at the same time as the rights for the 1967 film version of Casino Royale, clearing the legal pathway and
enabling them to make the 2006 film of the same name.
Act I "Combined Intelligence" agent James Bond comes under fire from an assassin: he manages to dodge the
bullets and enters Casino Royale. There he meets his British contact, Clarence Leiter, who remembers "Card Sense
Jimmy Bond" from when he played the Maharajah of Deauville. While Bond explains the rules of baccarat, Leiter
explains Bond's mission: to defeat Le Chiffre at baccarat and force his Soviet spymasters to "retire" him. Bond then
encounters a former lover, Valerie Mathis who is Le Chiffre's current girlfriend; he also meets Le Chiffre himself.
Casino Royale (Climax!)
Act II Bond beats Le Chiffre at baccarat but, when he returns to his hotel room, is confronted by Le Chiffre and his
bodyguards, along with Mathis, who Le Chiffre has discovered is an agent of the Deuxième, France's external
military intelligence agency at the time.
Act III Le Chiffre tortures Bond in order to find out where Bond has hidden the cheque for his winnings, but Bond
does not reveal where it is. After a fight between Bond and Le Chiffre's guards, Bond shoots and wounds Le Chiffre,
saving Valerie in the process. Exhausted, Bond sits in a chair opposite Le Chiffre to talk. Mathis gets in between
them and Le Chiffre grabs her from behind, threatening her with a concealed razor blade. As Le Chiffre moves
towards the door with Mathis as a shield, she struggles, breaking free slightly and Bond is able to shoot Le Chiffre.
• Barry Nelson - James Bond
• Peter Lorre - Le Chiffre
• Linda Christian - Valerie Mathis
• Michael Pate - Clarence Leiter
•• Eugene Borden - Chef De Partie
• Jean Del Val - Croupier
• Gene Roth - Basil
• Kurt Katch - Zoltan
•• Unknown actor - Zuroff
• William Lundigan - Host/Himself
In 1954 CBS paid Ian Fleming $1,000
($8,654 in 2013 dollars
) to adapt his first novel, Casino Royale, into a
one-hour television adventure
as part of their dramatic anthology series Climax Mystery Theater, which ran
between October 1954 and June 1958.
It was adapted for the screen by Anthony Ellis and Charles Bennett;
Bennett was best known for his collaborations with Alfred Hitchcock, including The 39 Steps and Sabotage.
to the restriction of a one hour play, the adapted version lost many of the details found in the book, although it
retained its violence, particularly in Act III.
The hour-long Casino Royale episode aired on 21 October 1954 as a live production and starred Barry Nelson as
secret agent James Bond, with Peter Lorre in the role of Le Chiffre
and was hosted by William Lundigan.
Bond character from Casino Royale was re-cast as an American agent, described as working for "Combined
Intelligence", supported by the British agent, Clarence Leiter; "thus was the Anglo-American relationship depicted in
the book reversed for American consumption".
Clarence Leiter was an agent for Station S, while being a combination of Felix Leiter and René Mathis. The name
"Mathis", and his association with the Deuxième Bureau, was given to the leading lady, who is named Valérie
Mathis, instead of Vesper Lynd.
Reports that towards the end of the broadcast "the coast-to-coast audience saw
Peter Lorre, the actor playing Le Chiffre, get up off the floor after his 'death' and begin to walk to his dressing
, do not appear to be accurate.
The production went mostly unnoticed upon release.
However, four years after the production of Casino Royale,
CBS invited Fleming to write 32 episodes over a two-year period for a television show based on the James Bond
Fleming agreed and began to write outlines for this series. When nothing ever came of this, however,
Fleming grouped and adapted three of the outlines into short stories and released the 1960 anthology For Your Eyes
Only along with an additional two new short stories.
Casino Royale (Climax!)
This was the first screen adaptation of a James Bond novel and was made before the formation of Eon Productions.
When MGM eventually obtained the rights to the 1967 film version of Casino Royale, it also received the rights to
this television episode.
The Casino Royale episode was lost for decades after its 1954 broadcast until a kinescope of it was located by film
historian Jim Schoenberger in 1981.
It also aired on TBS as part of a Bond film marathon. However, the VHS
release and TBS presentation did not include the full finale of the adaptation, which was at that point still lost.
Eventually, the missing footage (minus the last few seconds of the credits) was found and included on a Spy Guise &
Cara Entertainment VHS release. MGM subsequently included the truncated version on its DVD of the 1967 Casino
David Cornelius of Efilmcritic.com remarked that "the first act freely gives in to spy pulp cliché" and noted that he
believed Nelson was miscast and "trips over his lines and lacks the elegance needed for the role." He described Lorre
as "the real main attraction here, the veteran villain working at full weasel mode; a grotesque weasel whose very
presence makes you uncomfortable."
Peter Debruge of Variety also praised Lorre, considering him the source of
"whatever charm this slipshod antecedent to the Bond oeuvre has to offer", and complaining that "the whole thing
seems to have been done of the cheap". Debruge still noted that while the special had very few elements in common
with the Eon series, Nelson's portrayal of "Bond suggests a realistically human vulnerability that wouldn't resurface
until Eon finally remade Casino Royale more than half a century later."
[1] [1] Britton 2004, p. 30
[2] [2] Black 2005, p. 14
[3] Staff. Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–2012 (http:// www.minneapolisfed.org/community_education/ teacher/calc/ hist1800. cfm).
Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved 22 February 2012.
[4] [4] Lindner 2009, p. 14
[5] [5] Lycett 1996, p. 264
[6] "Now Pay Attention, 007: Introduction and Casino Royale '54" (http:// www. efilmcritic.com/ feature.php?feature=2920). Efilmcritic.com. .
Retrieved 30 September 2011.
[7] [7] Benson 1988, p. 11
[8] [8] Andreychuk 2010, p. 38
[9] Black, Jeremy (Winter 2002/2003). "'Oh, James'". National Interest (70): 106. ISSN 08849382.
[10] [10] Benson 1988, p. 7
[11] [11] Lycett 1996, p. 265
[12] "Death Takes a Powder" (http:// www. snopes. com/ radiotv/ tv/ deadman.asp). . Retrieved 9 May 2012.
[13] [13] Caplen 2010, p. 73
[14] [14] Pearson 1967, p. 312
[15] Poliakoff, Keith (2000). "License to Copyright - The Ongoing Dispute Over the Ownership of James Bond" (http:// www. cardozoaelj.net/
issues/ 00/ Poliakoff.pdf). Cardozo Arts & Entertainment Law Journal (Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law) 18: 387–436. . Retrieved 3
September 2011.
[16] [16] Benson 1988, p. 10
[17] [17] Rubin 2002, p. 70
[18] Debruge, Peter (11 May 2012). "Revisiting 'Casino Royale'" (http:/ / www. variety. com/ article/VR1118053859). Variety. . Retrieved 20
May 2012.
Casino Royale (Climax!)
• Andreychuk, Ed (2010). Louis L'Amour on Film and Television (http:// books. google.com/
books?id=ICrqx0NOLjoC& pg=PA38). McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-3336-0.
• Balio, Tino (1987). United Artists: the company that changed the film industry (http:/ / books. google. com/
books?id=9EeK5s3aw44C& pg=PA255). Univ of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 978-0-299-11440-4.
• Barnes, Alan; Hearn, Marcus (2001). Kiss Kiss Bang! Bang!: the Unofficial James Bond Film Companion.
Batsford Books. ISBN 978-0-7134-8182-2.
• Benson, Raymond (1988). The James Bond Bedside Companion. London: Boxtree Ltd.
ISBN 978-0-88365-705-8.
• Black, Jeremy (2005). The Politics of James Bond: from Fleming's Novel to the Big Screen. University of
Nebraska Press. ISBN 978-0-8032-6240-9.
• Britton, Wesley Alan (2004). Spy television (http:// books.google.co. uk/ books?id=Rl9nk8abyWcC&
lpg=PR7& ots=fjobDJ46Kj& dq="casino royale" "barry nelson"& lr& pg=PR4#v=onepage&q& f=false) (2 ed.).
Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-275-98163-1.
• Caplen, Robert A. (2010). Shaken & Stirred: The Feminism of James Bond (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/
books?id=y8p-qpJjPU4C& lpg=PP1& pg=PP1#v=onepage&q& f=false). Xlibris. ISBN 978-1-4535-1282-1.
• Chapman, James (1999). Licence To Thrill: A Cultural History of the James Bond Films. London/New York City:
I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-84511-515-9.
• Cork, John; Scivally, Bruce (2006). James Bond: The Legacy 007. Harry N. Abrams. ISBN 978-0-8109-8252-9.
• Lindner, Christoph (2009). The James Bond Phenomenon: a Critical Reader (http:// books. google. co. uk/
books?id=vbIrAQAAIAAJ) (2 ed.). Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-8095-1.
• Lycett, Andrew (1996). Ian Fleming. London: Phoenix. ISBN 978-1-85799-783-5.
• Macintyre, Ben (2008). For Yours Eyes Only. London: Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7475-9527-4.
• Pearson, John (1967). The Life of Ian Fleming: Creator of James Bond. London: Jonathan Cape.
• Pfeiffer, Lee; Worrall, Dave (1998). The Essential Bond. London: Boxtree Ltd. ISBN 978-0-7522-2477-0.
• Rubin, Steven Jay (2002). The James Bond films: a behind the scenes history. Westport, Conn: Arlington House.
ISBN 978-0-87000-523-7.
External links
• Casino Royale (1954) (http:// www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0310853/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• The Curious History of Casino Royale at MI6-HQ.com (http:/ / www. mi6-hq.com/ sections/ articles/
• Casino Royale (1954) Coverage at MI6-HQ.com (http:/ / www.mi6-hq.com/ sections/ movies/ cr_1954.php3)
Casino Royale (novel)
Casino Royale (novel)
Casino Royale
First edition cover, published by Jonathan Cape
Author(s) Ian Fleming
Cover artist Ian Fleming (devised)
Country United Kingdom
Language English
Series James Bond
Genre(s) Spy fiction
Publisher Jonathan Cape
Publication date 13 April 1953
Media type Print (hardback & paperback)
Pages 213
Followed by Live and Let Die
Casino Royale is Ian Fleming's first James Bond novel. It paved the way for a further eleven novels by Fleming
himself, in addition to two short story collections, followed by many "continuation" Bond novels by other authors.
The story details James Bond, Agent 007 of the "Secret Service", travelling to the casino at Royale-Les-Eaux in
order to bankrupt a fifth-columnist, Le Chiffre, the treasurer of a French union and a member of the Russian secret
service. Bond is supported in his endeavours by Vesper Lynd, a member of his own service, as well as Felix Leiter
of the CIA and René Mathis of the French Deuxième Bureau.
Since it was first published on 13 April 1953, Casino Royale has been adapted for the screen three times. The first
was a 1954 episode of the CBS television series Climax! with Barry Nelson as CIA agent "Jimmy Bond". The first
Casino Royale film was a 1967 spoof with David Niven playing "Sir James Bond", with the second being the
twenty-first official film in the Eon Productions film series starring Daniel Craig as James Bond, released in 2006.
Casino Royale has also been adapted as a comic strip in a British national newspaper, the Daily Express.
Casino Royale was written by Fleming in Jamaica over a period of around two months, largely from his own
experiences and imagination; he also devised the artwork for the cover. The book was given broadly positive reviews
by critics at the time and sold out in less than a month in the UK, although US sales upon release a year later were
much slower.
M, the Head of the Secret Service, assigns James Bond, Special Agent 007, to play against and bankrupt Le Chiffre,
the paymaster for a SMERSH-controlled trade union, in a high-stakes baccarat game at the Royale-Les-Eaux casino
in northern France. As part of Bond's cover as a rich Jamaican playboy, M also assigns as his companion Vesper
Lynd, personal assistant to the Head of Section S (Soviet Union). The French Deuxième Bureau and the CIA also
send agents as observers. The game soon turns into an intense confrontation between Le Chiffre and Bond; Le
Chiffre wins the first round, bankrupting Bond. As Bond contemplates the prospect of reporting his failure to M,
CIA agent Felix Leiter helps Bond and gives him an envelope with thirty-two million francs and a note: "Marshall
Aid. Thirty-two million francs. With the compliments of the USA." The game continues, despite the attempts of one
Casino Royale (novel)
of Le Chiffre's minders to kill Bond. Bond eventually wins, taking from Le Chiffre eighty million francs belonging
Desperate to recover the money, Le Chiffre kidnaps Lynd and subjects Bond to brutal torture, threatening to kill
them both if he does not get the money back. In the midst of the torture session, a SMERSH assassin bursts in and
kills Le Chiffre as punishment for losing the money. The agent does not kill Bond, saying that he has no orders so to
do, but cuts a Cyrillic 'Ш' (sh) to signify the SHpion (Russian for spy) into Bond's hand so that future SMERSH
agents will be able to identify him as such.
Lynd visits Bond every day as he recuperates in the hospital, and he gradually realises that he loves her; he even
contemplates leaving Her Majesty's Secret Service to settle down with her. When Bond is released, they spend time
together at a quiet guest house and eventually become lovers. One day they see a mysterious man named Gettler
tracking their movements, which greatly distresses Lynd. The following morning, Bond finds that she has committed
suicide. She leaves behind a note explaining that she had been working as an unwilling double agent for the MVD.
SMERSH had kidnapped her lover, a Polish RAF pilot, who had revealed information about her under torture;
SMERSH then used that information to blackmail her into helping them undermine Bond's mission, including her
own faked kidnapping. She had tried to start a new life with Bond, but upon seeing Gettler – a SMERSH agent – she
realised that she would never be free of her tormentors and that staying with Bond would only put him in danger.
Bond informs his service of Lynd's duplicity, coldly telling his contact, "The bitch is dead now."
Characters and themes
The lead character of Casino Royale is James Bond, an agent of the "Secret Service". For his protagonist, Fleming
appropriated the name of James Bond, author of the ornithology guide, Birds of the West Indies.
explained to the ornithologist's wife that "It struck me that this brief, unromantic, Anglo-Saxon and yet very
masculine name was just what I needed, and so a second James Bond was born".
He further explained that:
When I wrote the first one in 1953, I wanted Bond to be an extremely dull, uninteresting man to whom things
happened; I wanted him to be a blunt instrument ... when I was casting around for a name for my protagonist I
thought by God, (James Bond) is the dullest name I ever heard.
According to a Fleming biographer, Andrew Lycett, "within the first few pages Ian [Fleming] had introduced most of
Bond's idiosyncrasies and trademarks", which included his looks, his Bentley and his smoking and drinking habits.
The full details of Bond's martini were kept until chapter seven of the book and Bond eventually named it "The
Vesper", after Vesper Lynd.
'A dry martini,' he said. 'One. In a deep champagne goblet.'
'Oui, monsieur.'
'Just a moment. Three measures of Gordon's, one of vodka, half a measure of Kina Lillet. Shake it very well
until it's ice-cold, then add a large thin slice of lemon peel. Got it?'
'Certainly monsieur.' The barman seemed pleased with the idea.
'Gosh, that's certainly a drink,' said Leiter.
Bond laughed. 'When I'm ... er ... concentrating,' he explained, 'I never have more than one drink before dinner.
But I do like that one to be large and very strong and very cold, and very well-made. I hate small portions of
anything, particularly when they taste bad. This drink's my own invention. I'm going to patent it when I think
of a good name.'
— Casino Royale, Chapter 7: Rouge et Noir
Speaking of Bond's origins, Fleming said that "he was a compound of all the secret agents and commando types I
met during the war",
although Fleming himself gave many of his own traits to the character.
Bond's tastes are
often taken from Fleming's own,
as is some of his behaviour: Fleming used the casino to introduce Bond in his
Casino Royale (novel)
first novel because "skill at gambling and knowledge of how to behave in a casino were seen ... as attributes of a
Lycett sees much of Bond's character as being much "wish fulfilment" by Fleming.
Bond author, Jeffery Deaver says that Bond "is a classic adventure-story hero. He confronts evil. Simple as that."
Deaver also clarifies the point, saying that Bond is not a superhero, but that he is very human, doubting himself and
making errors.
Dee's glyph
Bond's number of 007 was assigned by Fleming in reference to one of
British naval intelligence's key achievements of World War I: the
breaking of the German diplomatic code.
One of the German
documents cracked and read by the British was the Zimmermann
Telegram, which was coded 0075,
and which was one of the factors
that led the US entering the war. Another reason for using the 007
number was the polymath and Elizabethan spy, John Dee, who would
sign his letters to Elizabeth I with 00 and an elongated 7, to signify
they were for her eyes only.
Bond's superior, M, was largely based on Fleming's superior officer in Naval Intelligence during the war, Admiral
Sir John Godfrey;
Godfrey was known for his bellicose and irascible temperament.
One of the likely models
for Le Chiffre was the influential English occultist, astrologer, mystic and ceremonial magician Aleister Crowley,
whose physical features are similar to Le Chiffre's;
his tastes, especially in sado-masochism, were also akin to
those of Le Chiffre and, as Fleming biographer Henry Chancellor notes, "when Le Chiffre goes to work on Bond's
testicles with a carpet-beater and a carving knife, the sinister figure of Aleister Crowley is there lurking in the
Casino Royale was written shortly after, and was heavily influenced by, World War II.
As the power of British
Empire was beginning to decline, journalist William Cook observed that "Bond pandered to Britain's inflated and
increasingly insecure self-image, flattering us with the fantasy that Britannia could still punch above her weight."
In 1953, when Casino Royale was published, coal and many items of food were still rationed,
and Bond was "the
ideal antidote to Britain's postwar austerity, rationing and the looming premonition of lost power",
according to
historian and The Times journalist Ben Macintyre. The communist influence of Le Chiffre, with the overtones of a
fifth column struck a chord with the largely British readership as Communist influence in the trade unions had been
an issue in the press and parliament at the time.
Britain had also suffered from defections to the Soviet Union from
two MI5 operatives who were part of the Cambridge Five spy ring that betrayed Western secrets to the Soviets,
thus Lycett observes that Casino Royale can be seen as Fleming's "attempt to reflect the disturbing moral ambiguity
of a post-war world that could produce traitors like Burgess and Maclean".
The question of Anglo-American relations was also raised within the novel, where Bond and Leiter's warm
relationship was not mirrored in the wider US-UK association.
Christopher Hitchens observed that "the central
paradox of the classic Bond stories is that, although superficially devoted to the Anglo-American war against
communism, they are full of contempt and resentment for America and Americans".
Fleming was aware of this
tension between the two countries, but he did not focus on it too strongly.
Academic and writer Kingsley Amis, in
his exploration of Bond in The James Bond Dossier, pointed out that "Leiter, such a nonentity as a piece of
characterization ... he, the American, takes orders from Bond, the Britisher, and that Bond is constantly doing better
than he".
Casino Royale (novel)
James Bond is the culmination of an important but much-maligned tradition in English literature. As a boy, Fleming devoured the
Bulldog Drummond tales of Lieutenant Colonel Herman Cyril McNeile (aka "Sapper") and the Richard Hannay stories of John
Buchan. His genius was to repackage these antiquated adventures to fit the fashion of postwar Britain ... In Bond, he created a
Bulldog Drummond for the jet age.
William Cook in New Statesman
During the course of World War II, Ian Fleming had mentioned to friends that he wanted to write a spy novel.
was not until 1952, however, shortly before his wedding to his pregnant girlfriend, Ann Charteris, that Fleming
began to write Casino Royale, to distract himself from his forthcoming nuptials.
Fleming started writing on his
book at his Goldeneye estate in Jamaica on 17 February 1952, typing out 2,000 words in the morning, directly from
his own experiences and imagination.
He finished work on the manuscript in just over two months,
it on 18 March 1952.
Describing the work as his "dreadful oafish opus",
Fleming showed it to an ex-girlfriend,
Clare Blanchard, who advised him not to publish it at all, but that if he did so, it should be under another name.
Casino Royale was inspired by certain incidents that took place during Fleming's career at the Naval Intelligence
Division of the Admiralty. On a wartime trip to Portugal, en route to the United States, Fleming and the Director of
Naval Intelligence, Admiral Godfrey, went to the Estoril Casino. Due to Portugal's neutral status, a number of spies
from warring regimes were present. Fleming claimed that while there he was cleaned out by a "chief German agent"
at a table playing Chemin de Fer.
Admiral Godfrey told a different story: Fleming only played Portuguese
businessmen and that afterwards he fantasised about playing against German agents.
The references in the novel
to "Red Indians" (four times, twice on last page) came from Fleming's own 30 Assault Unit, which he nicknamed his
"Red Indians".
The failed attempt to kill Bond while at Royale-Les-Eaux was also inspired by a real event: a
miscarried assassination against Franz von Papen, Vice-Chancellor of Germany and Ambassador under Adolf Hitler.
Both Papen and Bond survived their assassination attempts, carried out by Bulgarians, due to a tree that protected
them from a bomb blast.
Release and reception
"The scent and smoke and sweat of a casino are nauseating at three in the morning. Then the soul erosion produced by high
gambling — a compost of greed and fear and nervous tension — becomes unbearable and the senses awake and revolt from it."
Opening lines of Casino Royale
Casino Royale was first released on 13 April 1953 in the UK as a hardcover edition by publishers Jonathan Cape,
priced at 10s, 6d each,
with a cover devised by Fleming himself.
4,728 copies of Casino Royale were printed,
selling out in less than a month;
a second print run the same month also sold out,
as did a third run of more
than 8,000 books published in May 1954.
In the US three publishers had turned the book down before Al Hart of
Macmillan Publishing Co offered Fleming a deal.
Casino Royale was published in 23 March 1954 in the US, but
sales in the territory were poor, totalling only 4,000 copies across the entire US during the course of the year.
When the novel was released as a paperback in 1955, it was re-titled by publisher American Popular Library;
Fleming's suggestions for a new title, The Double-O Agent and The Deadly Gamble, were disregarded in favour of
You Asked for It, but this marketing ploy failed to raise the interest.
The Popular Library version also changed
Bond's name, calling him "Jimmy Bond".
Casino Royale (novel)
Hugh I'Anson Fausset, writing in The Manchester Guardian, thought that Casino Royale was "a first-rate thriller ...
with a breathtaking plot".
Although he considered the plot "schoolboy stuff",
he felt the novel was "galvanised
into life by the hard brilliance of the telling".
Alan Ross, writing in The Times Literary Supplement wrote that
Casino Royale was "an extremely engaging affair",
and that "the especial charm ... is the high poetry with which
he invests the green baize lagoons of the casino tables".
Concluding, Ross thought that "altogether, Mr. Fleming
has produced a book that is both exciting and extremely civilized."
For The Listener, Simon Raven believed that
Fleming was a "kind of supersonic John Buchan",
but he was somewhat dismissive of the plot, observing that it is
"a brilliant but improbable notion" that includes "a deal of champagne-drinking, bomb-throwing, relentless pitting of
wits etc ... with a cretinous love-affair".
Raven also dismissed Bond as an "infantile" creation",
but did allow
that "Fleming tells a good story with strength and distinction ... his creation of a scene, both visually and
emotionally, is of a very high order indeed."
John Betjeman, writing in The Daily Telegraph, considered that "Ian Fleming has discovered the secret of the
narrative art ... which is to work up to a climax unrevealed at the end of each chapter. Thus the reader has to go on
Publishers Jonathan Cape included many of the reviews on their advertisements for the book, which
appeared in a number of national newspapers; the reviews included those from The Sunday Times, which concluded
that Fleming was "the best new English thriller-writer since Ambler"
and The Observer, which advised their
readers: "don't miss this".
Time magazine praised Casino Royale, saying that "Fleming keeps his incidents and characters spinning through
their paces like juggling balls."
In the review, which also critiqued Raymond Chandler's The Long Goodbye, the
Time writer went on to say that "As for Bond, he might be Marlowe's younger brother except that he never takes
coffee for a bracer, just one large Martini laced with vodka."
Writing for The New York Times, Anthony Boucher wrote that the book belongs "pretty much to the private-eye
of fiction. He praised the first part, saying that Fleming "manages to make baccarat clear even to one
who's never played it and produced as exciting a gambling sequence as I've ever read. But then he decides to pad out
the book to novel length and leads the weary reader through a set of tough clichés to an ending which surprises
nobody save Operative 007. You should certainly begin this book; but you might as well stop when the baccarat
game is over."
CBS television episode (1954) In 1954 CBS paid Ian Fleming $1,000
($8,654 in 2013 dollars
) to adapt
Casino Royale into a one-hour television adventure as part of its Climax! series. The episode aired live on 21
October 1954 and starred Barry Nelson as secret agent "Card Sense" James 'Jimmy' Bond and Peter Lorre as Le
A brief tutorial on Baccarat is given at the beginning of the show by the presenter of the programme, William
Lundigan, to enable viewers to understand a game which was not popular in America at the time. For this
Americanised version of the story, Bond is an American agent, described as working for "Combined Intelligence",
while the character Felix Leiter from the original novel is British, renamed "Clarence Leiter" and an agent for Station
S. René Mathis does not appear as such. His surname is given to the leading lady, named Valérie Mathis, instead of
Vesper Lynd.
Comic strip adaptation (1958) Casino Royale was the first James Bond novel to be adapted as a daily comic strip
which was published in the Daily Express newspaper and syndicated worldwide.
It ran from 7 July 1958 to 13
December 1958,
and was written by Anthony Hern and illustrated by John McLusky.
To aid the Daily Express
in illustrating James Bond, Ian Fleming commissioned an artist to create a sketch of what he believed James Bond to
look like. The illustrator, John McLusky, however, felt that Fleming's 007 looked too "outdated" and "pre-war" and
Casino Royale (novel)
thus changed Bond to give him a more masculine look.
Aborted Howard Hawks project (1962)
According to the biography Howard Hawks: The Grey Fox of Hollywood, by Todd McCarthy, the director of His
Girl Friday considered filming a version of Casino Royale in 1962, possibly starring Cary Grant as James Bond, but,
ultimately, chose not to.
Casino Royale (1967) In March 1955 Ian Fleming sold the film rights of Casino Royale to producer Gregory Ratoff
for $6,000
($52,055 in 2013 dollars).
After Ratoff's death, producer Charles K. Feldman represented Ratoff's
widow and obtained the rights to make the film.
Feldman decided the best way to profit from the film rights was
to make a satirical version, which was produced and released in 1967 by Columbia Pictures. The film, which starred
David Niven as Bond, was made with five credited directors (plus one uncredited) and a cast that included Peter
Sellers, Ursula Andress, Orson Welles and Woody Allen.
The 1967 version has been described as an "an
incoherent all-star comedy".
Unproduced stage play (1985)
In 1985, Raymond Benson adapted Fleming's novel into a stage play.
Although the play never received a full
production, a staged reading was held for an audience off-off-Broadway in New York City in February 1986. The
play was submitted to a British agent who recommended that it not be produced. In an interview Benson stated: "She
was very elderly and in my opinion she just didn't get it. She recommended that the play not be produced. After
further thought, Glidrose shelved it with the ultimate decision that a James Bond stage play simply wouldn't work.
The films had Bond in a monopoly and there was no way a play could compete. I disagreed, but it was their
Casino Royale (2006) In 1999, following legal action between Sony Pictures Entertainment and MGM/UA, Sony
traded the rights to Casino Royale for MGM's partial-rights to Spider-Man, which led to Eon Productions making a
version of Casino Royale.
The film stars Daniel Craig as Bond, supported by Eva Green as Vesper Lynd and
Mads Mikkelsen as Le Chiffre; Judi Dench returns for her fifth Bond film as Bond's superior, M. Casino Royale is a
showing Bond at the beginning of his career as a 00-agent and overall stays true to the original novel.
The film had its premiere on 14 November 2006 and on DVD and Blu-ray Disc 13 March 2007.
[1] [1] Macintyre 2008, p. 46
[2] [2] Caplen 2010, p. 21
[3] Hellman, Geoffrey T. (21 April 1962). "Bond's Creator (subscription needed)" (http:// www. newyorker.com/ archive/1962/ 04/ 21/
1962_04_21_032_TNY_CARDS_000268062#ixzz1XRLtznvp). New Yorker. p. 32. . Retrieved 9 September 2011.
[4] [4] Lycett 1996, p. 257
[5] [5] Fleming 2006, p. 52-53
[6] [6] Macintyre 2008, p. 50
[7] Cook, William (28 June 2004). "Novel man". New Statesman: p. 40.
[8] [8] Black 2005, p. 7
[9] [9] Lycett 1996, p. 223
[10] [10] Fleming 2006, p. vi
[11] Fleming 2006, p. vi–vii
[12] [12] Macintyre 2008, p. 65
[13] [13] Chancellor 2005, p. 190
[14] [14] Gardiner 2008, p. 91
[15] [15] Chancellor 2005, p. 192
[16] [16] Macintyre 2008, p. 74
[17] [17] Macintyre 2008, p. 88
[18] [18] Chancellor 2005, p. 120
[19] [19] Macintyre 2008, p. 85-6
[20] Kerr, Sheila (Jan 2011). "Burgess, Guy Francis de Moncy (1911–1963) (Subscription needed)" (http:/ / www. oxforddnb.com/ view/ article/
37244). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford University Press). doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/37244. . Retrieved 20 September 2011.
[21] [21] Lycett 1996, p. 221
Casino Royale (novel)
[22] Hitchens, Christopher (April 2006). "Bottoms Up". The Atlantic Monthly: p. 101.
[23] [23] Amis 1966, p. 90
[24] Lycett, Andrew. "Fleming, Ian Lancaster (1908–1964) (subscription needed)" (http:// www. oxforddnb.com/ view/ article/33168). Oxford
Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford University Press). doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/33168. . Retrieved 7 September 2011.
[25] Bennett & Woollacott 2003, ch 1
[26] [26] Chancellor 2005, p. 4
[27] "Ian Fleming" (http:/ / www. ianfleming.com/ pages/ content/ index. asp?PageID=96). About Ian Fleming. Ian Fleming Publications. .
Retrieved 7 September 2011.
[28] [28] Black 2005, p. 4
[29] [29] Macintyre 2008, p. 19
[30] [30] Chancellor 2005, p. 5
[31] [31] Lycett 1996, p. 127
[32] [32] Chancellor 2005, p. 25
[33] [33] Lycett 1996, p. 244
[34] "The great Bond cover up" (http:// www. guardian.co. uk/ books/ gallery/ 2008/ may/ 07/ 1). The Guardian. 8 May 2008. . Retrieved 8
September 2011.
[35] [35] Lindner 2009, p. 14
[36] [36] Benson 1988, p. 7
[37] [37] Benson 1988, p. 8
[38] Pfeiffer & Worrall 1998, p. 203
[39] [39] Benson 1988, p. 9
[40] Fausset, Hugh (17 April 1953). "New Novels". The Manchester Guardian: p. 4.
[41] Ross, Alan (17 April 1953). "Spies and Charlatans". The Times Literary Supplement: p. 249.
[42] Raven, Simon (23 April 1953). "New Novels". The Listener: p. 695.
[43] "Casino Royale". The Times: p. 8. 9 May 1953.
[44] "Books: Murder Is Their Business" (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ magazine/ article/0,9171,819717,00.html). Time. 29 March 1954. .
Retrieved 8 September 2011.
[45] Boucher, Anthony (25 April 1954). "Criminals at Large". The New York Times: pp. BR27.
[46] [46] Black 2005, p. 14
[47] Staff. Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–2012 (http:// www. minneapolisfed.org/ community_education/ teacher/calc/hist1800.cfm).
Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved 22 February 2012.
[48] [48] Benson 1988, p. 11
[49] [49] Black 2005, p. 101
[50] [50] Lycett 1996, p. 316
[51] Fleming, Gammidge & McLusky 1988, p. 6
[52] [52] Jütting 2007, p. 7
[53] [53] Simpson 2002, p. 21
[54] Koenig, William (1998). "Howard Hawks' CASINO ROYALE" (http:// www. hmss. com/ films/ carygrant007/). . Retrieved 4 March 2006.
[55] Barnes & Hearn 2001, p. 56
[56] "Casino Royale (1967)" (http:/ / www.mgm. com/ view/ movie/ 342/ Casino-Royale-(1967)). Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. . Retrieved 8
September 2011.
[57] Sutton, Mike. "James Bond" (http:/ / www. screenonline. org.uk/ film/id/ 455589/ ). BFI Screenonline. British Film Institute. . Retrieved 8
September 2011.
[58] "James Bond 007" (http:// www. raymondbenson. com/ jamesbond007/ ). The Official Raymond Benson Website. Raymond Benson. .
Retrieved 22 September 2011.
[59] "Casino Royale the 'Lost' Stage Play" (http:/ / commanderbond.net/Public/ Stories/ 2851-1.shtml). . Retrieved 6 August 2005.
[60] Shprintz, Janet (29 March 1999). "Big Bond-holder" (http:/ / www.variety.com/ article/VR1117492814?refCatId=13). Variety. . Retrieved
5 September 2011.
[61] "IGN: Interview: Campbell on Casino Royale" (http:// movies. ign.com/ articles/ 659/ 659741p1.html). IGN.com. IGN Entertainment, Inc.
19 October 2005. . Retrieved 22 March 2007.
[62] Funnell, Lisa (June 2011). ""I Know Where You Keep Your Gun": Daniel Craig as the Bond–Bond Girl Hybrid in Casino Royale". The
Journal of Popular Culture 44 (3): 455–472. doi:10.1111/j.1540-5931.2011.00843.x.
[63] Cork & Stutz 2007, p. 311
[64] "Casino Royale (2-Disc Widescreen Edition)" (http:/ /www.amazon. com/ dp/B000MNP2KI). Amazon.com. . Retrieved 20 June 2007.
Casino Royale (novel)
• Amis, Kingsley (1966). The James Bond Dossier. London: Pan Books.
• Benson, Raymond (1988). The James Bond Bedside Companion. London: Boxtree Ltd.
ISBN 978-1-85283-233-9.
• Fleming, Ian; Gammidge, Henry; McLusky, John (1988). Octopussy. London: Titan Books. ISBN 1-85286-040-5.
• McCormick, Donald (1993). 17F – The Life of Ian Fleming. London: Peter Owen Ltd. ISBN 978-0-7206-0888-5.
• Lycett, Andrew (1996). Ian Fleming. London: Phoenix. ISBN 978-1-85799-783-5.
• Pfeiffer, Lee; Worrall, Dave (1998). The Essential Bond. London: Boxtree Ltd. ISBN 978-0-7522-2477-0.
• Barnes, Alan; Hearn, Marcus (2001). Kiss Kiss Bang! Bang!: the Unofficial James Bond Film Companion.
Batsford Books. ISBN 978-0-7134-8182-2.
• Simpson, Paul (2002). The rough guide to James Bond (http:/ / books.google. co.uk/ books?id=BikCz7XZijEC&
lpg=PA1& pg=PA1#v=onepage&q& f=false). Rough Guides. ISBN 978-1-84353-142-5.
• Smith, Jim (2002). Bond Films. London: Virgin Books. ISBN 978-0-7535-0709-4.
• Bennett, Tony; Woollacott, Janet (2003). "The Moments of Bond". In Lindner, Christoph. The James Bond
Phenomenon: a Critical Reader. Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-6541-5.
• Lindner, Christoph (2009). The James Bond Phenomenon: a Critical Reader (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/
books?id=x9-1QY5boUsC& lpg=PP1& pg=PP1#v=onepage&q& f=false). Manchester University Press.
ISBN 978-0-7190-6541-5.
• Black, Jeremy (2005). The Politics of James Bond: from Fleming's Novel to the Big Screen (http:/ / books. google.
co. uk/ books?id=g4-sFrU8Xw0C& lpg=PA101&dq=Clarence Leiter&pg=PP1#v=onepage& q&f=false).
University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 978-0-8032-6240-9.
• Chancellor, Henry (2005). James Bond: The Man and His World. London: John Murray.
ISBN 978-0-7195-6815-2.
• Fleming, Ian (2006). Casino Royale. London: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-102830-9.
• Cork, John; Stutz, Collin (2007). James Bond Encyclopedia. London: Dorling Kindersley.
ISBN 978-1-4053-3427-3.
• Jütting, Kerstin (2007). "Grow Up, 007!" – James Bond Over the Decades: Formula Vs. Innovation (http:/ /
books. google. co.uk/ books?id=MzuVat9N7bQC& lpg=PP1&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q& f=false). GRIN Verlag.
ISBN 978-3-638-85372-9.
• Gardiner, Philip (2008). The Bond Code: The Dark World of Ian Fleming and James Bond. London:
ReadHowYouWant.com. ISBN 978-1-4429-5538-7.
• Macintyre, Ben (2008). For Your Eyes Only. London: Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7475-9527-4.
• Chapman, James (2009). Licence to Thrill: A Cultural History of the James Bond Films. New York: I.B. Tauris.
ISBN 978-1-84511-515-9.
• Caplen, Robert A. (2010). Shaken & Stirred: The Feminism of James Bond (http:// books. google. co. uk/
books?id=y8p-qpJjPU4C& lpg=PP1& pg=PP1#v=onepage&q& f=false). Xlibris. ISBN 978-1-4535-1282-1.
Casino Royale (novel)
External links
• Ian Fleming.com (http:// www. ianfleming.com/ ) Official website of Ian Fleming Publications.
• Climax! (1954) (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0046587/ ) at the Internet Movie Database – original broadcast
of the TV version
• Casino Royale (1967) (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0061452/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Casino Royale (2006) (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0381061/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Casino Royale (1967) (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes.com/ m/ 1003722-casino_royale/ ) at Rotten Tomatoes
• Casino Royale (2006) (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes.com/ m/ casino_royale/ ) at Rotten Tomatoes
• 30 Commando Assault Unit – Ian Fleming's 'Red Indians' (http:/ / web. mac. com/ allanfarrin/
Ian_Flemings_Red_Indians/ Home. html)
Celia Lovsky
Celia Lovsky
Celia Lovsky
Born Caecilie Lvovsky
February 21, 1897
Vienna, Austria-Hungary
Died October 12, 1979 (aged 82)
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Years active 1930–1974
Spouse(s) Peter Lorre (1934–1945) (divorced)
Celia Lovsky (February 21, 1897
– October 12, 1979) was an Austrian American actress. She was born Cäcilie
Lvovsky in Vienna, daughter of Bretislav Lvovsky (1857–1910), a minor Czech opera composer. She studied
theater, dance, and languages at the Austrian Royal Academy of Arts and Music.
She later moved to Berlin, where she acted in the surrealist plays Dream Theater and Dream Play by Karl Kraus.
There she met Peter Lorre, who had seen her in a production of Shakespeare's Othello near Vienna, and would later
become her husband.
The couple traveled to Paris, London, and the United States. Celia was instrumental in
bringing Lorre to the attention of Fritz Lang, leading eventually to Lorre's debut film M in 1931.
They lived
together for five years before their marriage, and stayed married until 1945, remaining close friends for the rest of
Lorre's lifetime.
After the couple settled in Santa Monica, California, Lorre had not wished Lovsky to work, believing he should be
the breadwinner and she should remain at home. For the rest of Lorre's life, she was his publicist, manager, secretary,
financial planner, nurse and confidant.
However, after their divorce, she started taking roles in American movies
and television. She made a name for herself playing slightly exotic roles such as the deaf-mute mother of Lon
Chaney in Man of a Thousand Faces with James Cagney and Apache Princess Saba in the Jane Russell film Foxfire.
As she grew older, she was given a number of dignified dowager roles, such as Romany matriarchs and expatriate
Russian princesses, and a brief but memorable role as the widowed mother of Reinhard Schwimmer, one of the
victims of the St. Valentines Day Massacre in the 1967 film of the same name. Her final movie appearance was of
the "Exchange Leader" in 1973's Soylent Green. She delivers the final confirmation to Edward G. Robinson's
character Sol about Soylent Green's true ingredient. It was also Robinson's final movie. She also appeared in the
1964 Twilight Zone episode "Queen of the Nile" as the elderly daughter of a never-aging actress (played by Ann
Blyth). One of her best-known roles may be that of T'Pau in an episode of the original Star Trek, entitled "Amok
Celia Lovsky
Further reading
• Youngkin, Stephen D. (2005). The Lost One: A Life of Peter Lorre. University Press of Kentucky.
ISBN 0-8131-2360-7.
[1] [1] Her birthday is given, variously, as February 12 and February 21.
[2] Youngkin, Stephen R., The Lost One: A Life of Peter Lorre, p. 32
[3] [3] Youngkin, p. 39
[4] [4] Youngkin, p. 37
[5] [5] Youngkin, p. 87.
External links
• Celia Lovsky (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ name/ nm0522767/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Celia Lovsky (http:/ / en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Memoryalpha:celia_lovsky) at Memory Alpha (a Star Trek wiki)
Charlie Chan
Charlie Chan is a fictional Chinese-American detective created by Earl Derr Biggers. Loosely based on Honolulu
detective Chang Apana, Biggers conceived of the benevolent and heroic Chan as an alternative to Yellow Peril
stereotypes, such as villains like Fu Manchu. Chan is a detective for the Honolulu police, though many stories
feature Chan traveling the world as he investigates mysteries and solves crimes.
Chan first appeared in Biggers' novels, but went on to be featured in a number of media. Over four dozen films
featuring Charlie Chan have been made, beginning in 1926. The character was at first portrayed by Asian actors, and
the films met with little success. In 1931, the Fox Film Corporation cast Swedish actor Warner Oland as Chan in
Charlie Chan Carries On; the film was a success, and Fox went on to produce 15 more Chan films with Oland in the
title role. After Oland's death, American actor Sidney Toler was cast as Chan; Toler made 22 Chan films, first for
Fox and then for Monogram Studios. After Toler's death, six more films were made, starring Roland Winters.
In addition, a number of Spanish- and Chinese-language Chan films were made during the 1930s, 1940s, and 1950s.
American-made Chan films were shown in China to much success, where the character was popular and respected.
More recent film adaptations in the 1990s have been unsuccessful. The character has also been featured in several
radio programs, two television shows, and a number of comics.
Interpretations of Chan by critics are split, especially as relates to his ethnicity. Positive assessors of Chan argue that
he is portrayed as intelligent, benevolent and honorable — in contrast to the adverse depictions of evil or conniving
Chinese then current on page and screen. Others state that Chan, despite his good qualities, reinforces certain Asian
stereotypes, such as an alleged incapacity to speak fluent English and the possession of an overly tradition-bound
and subservient nature.
It overwhelms me with sadness to admit it ... for he is of my own origin, my own race, as you know. But when I look into his eyes I
discover that a gulf like the heaving Pacific lies between us. Why? Because he, though among Caucasians many more years than I,
still remains Chinese. As Chinese to-day as in the first moon of his existence. While I – I bear the brand – the label –
Americanized.... I traveled with the current.... I was ambitious. I sought success. For what I have won, I paid the price. Am I an
American? No. Am I, then, a Chinese? Not in the eyes of Ah Sing.
Charlie Chan, speaking of a criminal, in Keeper of the Keys, by Earl Derr Biggers
Charlie Chan
The character of Charlie Chan was created by Earl Derr Biggers. In 1919,
while on vacation in Hawaii, Biggers
planned a detective novel to be called The House Without a Key. He did not begin to write the novel until four years
later, however, when he was inspired to add a Chinese American police officer to the plot after reading in a
newspaper of Chang Apana (鄭 阿 平 ) and Lee Fook, two Chinese-American detectives on the Honolulu police
Biggers, who disliked the Yellow Peril stereotypes he found when he came to California,
conceived of the character as an alternative to them: "Sinister and wicked Chinese are old stuff, but an amiable
Chinese on the side of law and order has never been used."
The "amiable Chinese" made his first appearance in The House Without a Key (1925). The character was not central
to the novel and was not mentioned by name on the dustjacket of the first edition.
In the novel, Chan is described
as walking with "the light dainty step of a woman"
and as being "very fat indeed ... an undistinguished figure in his
Western clothes."
According to critic Sandra Hawley, this description of Chan allows Biggers to portray the
character as non-threatening, the opposite of such evil Chinese characters as Fu Manchu, while simultaneously
emphasizing supposedly Chinese characteristics such as impassivity and stoicism.
Film, radio, and television adaptations
The first Charlie Chan film was The House without a Key (1926), a 10-chapter serial produced by Pathé Studios,
starring George Kuwa, a Japanese actor, as Chan.
A year later Universal Pictures followed the film with The
Chinese Parrot, starring another Japanese actor, Kamiyama Sojin, in the starring role.
In both productions,
Charlie Chan's role was minimized.
Contemporary reviews were unfavorable; in the words of one reviewer,
speaking of The Chinese Parrot, Sojin plays "the Chink sleuth as a Lon Chaney cook-waiter ... because Chaney can't
stoop that low."
Keye Luke, who played Charlie Chan's son in a
number of Chan films
In 1929, the Fox Film Corporation acquired the rights to Charlie Chan
and produced Behind That Curtain, starring Korean actor E.L. Park.
Again, Chan's role was minimized, with Chan appearing only in the
last 10 minutes of the film.
Not until a white actor was cast in the
title role did a Chan film meet with success,
beginning with 1931's
Charlie Chan Carries On, starring Swedish actor Warner Oland as
Chan. Oland, who claimed some Mongolian ancestry,
played the
character as much more gentle and self-effacing than he had been in
the books, perhaps in "a deliberate attempt by the studio to downplay
such an uppity attitude in a Chinese detective."
Oland starred in 15
more Chan films for Fox, often with Keye Luke, who played Chan's
"Number One Son", Lee Chan. Oland's "warmth and gentle humor"
helped make the character and films quite popular; the Oland Chan
films were among Fox's most successful of the period,
"major audiences and box-office grosses on a par with A's"
"[keeping] Fox afloat" during the Great Depression.
Oland died in 1938, and the Chan film he had been working on, Charlie Chan at the Ringside, was transformed at
the last minute into Mr. Moto's Gamble, an entry in the Mr. Moto series, another contemporary series featuring an
Asian protagonist; Luke still appeared as Lee Chan, not only in already shot footage but also in scenes with Moto
actor Peter Lorre. Fox hired another white actor, Sidney Toler, to play Charlie Chan, and produced 11 more Chan
films through 1942.
Toler's Chan was less mild-mannered than Oland's, a "switch in attitude that did much to add
some of the vigor of the original books to the films."
He is frequently accompanied, and irritated, by his Number
Two Son, Jimmy Chan, played by Sen Yung.
Charlie Chan
When Fox decided not to produce any further Chan films, Sidney Toler purchased the film rights.
Philip N. Krasne and James S. Burkett of Monogram Pictures decided to release further Chan films, starring Toler.
The budget for each film was reduced from Fox's average of $200,000 to $75,000.
For the first time, Chan was
portrayed on occasion as "openly contemptuous of his suspects and superiors."
African-American actor Mantan
Moreland was hired as regular character Birmingham Brown, a fact which led to criticism of the Monogram films in
the forties and since;
some call these performances "brilliant comic turns",
while others describe
Moreland's roles as an offensive and embarrassing stereotype.
Toler died in 1947 and was succeeded by Roland
Winters for a final six films.
Keye Luke, missing from the series after 1938's Mr.Moto rework, returned as
Charlie's son in the last two entries.
Spanish-language adaptations
Three Spanish-language Charlie Chan films were made in the 1930s and 1950s. The first of these, Eran Trece (There
Were Thirteen) (1931), is a Spanish-language version of Charlie Chan Carries On (1931). The two films were made
concurrently and followed the same production schedule, with each scene being filmed twice the same day, once in
English and once in Spanish.
The film followed essentially the same script as the English-language version, with
minor additions such as short songs and skits and some changes to characters' names (for example, the character
Elmer Benbow was renamed Frank Benbow).
A Cuban production, La Serpiente Roja, followed in 1937.
1955, Producciones Cub-Mex produced a Mexican version of Charlie Chan called El Monstruo en la Sombra
(Monster in the Shadow), starring Orlando Rodriguez as "Chan Li Po" (Charlie Chan in the original script).
film was inspired by La Serpiente Roja (The red serpent) as well as the American Warner Oland films.
Chinese-language adaptations
During the 1930s and 1940s, at least five Chan films were produced in Shanghai and Hong Kong. In these films,
Chan owns his own detective agency and is aided, not by a son, but by a daughter, Manna, played first by Gu Meijun
(顾 梅 君 ) in the Shanghai productions and then by Bai Yan (白 燕 ) in post-war Hong Kong.
Chinese audiences also watched the original American Charlie Chan films. They were by far the most popular
American films in 1930s China and among overseas Chinese; "one of the reasons for this acceptance was this was
the first time Chinese audiences saw a positive Chinese character in an American film, a sharp departure from the
sinister Oriental stereotypes in earlier movies like Thief of Baghdad and Welcome Danger, which incited riots that
shut down the Shanghai theater showing it." Oland's visit to China was reported extensively in Chinese newspapers,
and the actor was respectfully called "Mr. Chan".
Modern adaptations
In 1980, Jerry Shylock began production on comedy film to be called Charlie Chan and the Dragon Lady. A group
calling itself C.A.N. (Coalition of Asians to Nix) was formed, protesting the fact that non-Chinese actors, Peter
Ustinov and Angie Dickinson, had been cast in the primary roles. Others protested that the film itself contained a
number of stereotypes; Shylock responded that the film was not a documentary.
The film was released the
following year as Charlie Chan and the Curse of the Dragon Queen and was an "abysmal failure."
An updated
film version of the character was planned in the 1990s by Miramax; this new Charlie Chan was to be "hip, slim,
cerebral, sexy and... a martial-arts master,"
but the film did not come to fruition.
Actress Lucy Liu is slated to
star in and executive-produce a new Charlie Chan film for Fox.
The film has been in preproduction since 2000; as
of 2009 it is still slated to be produced.
Charlie Chan
On radio, Charlie Chan was heard in different series on four networks (Blue, NBC, ABC, MBS) between 1932 and
1948. Walter Connolly initially portrayed Chan as part of Esso Oil's Five Star Theater, which serialized adaptations
of Biggers novels.
Ed Begley, Sr. had the title role in NBC's The Adventures of Charlie Chan (1944–45),
followed by Santos Ortega (1947–48). Leon Janney and Rodney Jacobs were heard as Lee Chan, Number One Son,
and Dorian St. George was the program's announcer.
Radio Life magazine described Begley's Chan as "a good
radio match for Sidney Toler's beloved film enactment."
Television adaptations
From 1956-57, The New Adventures of Charlie Chan, starring J. Carrol Naish in the title role, were made
independently for TV syndication in a series of 39 episodes, by Television Programs of America. The series was
filmed in England.
In this series, Chan is based in London rather than the United States. Ratings were poor, and
the series was quickly canceled.
In the 1960s, Joey Forman played an obvious parody of Chan named "Harry Hoo" in two episodes of Get Smart.
In the 1970s, Hanna-Barbera produced an animated series called The Amazing Chan and the Chan Clan. Keye Luke,
who had played Chan's son in many Chan films of the 1930s and '40s, lent his voice to Charlie, who had a
much-expanded vocabulary this time around. The series focused, however, on Chan's children, played mostly by
Asian-American child actors. Jodie Foster alternated with Leslie Kumamota in voicing Chan's daughter Anne.
The Return of Charlie Chan, a television film starring Ross Martin as Chan, was made in 1971 but was not aired
until 1979.
Comics and games
A Charlie Chan comic strip, drawn by Alfred Andriola, was distributed by the McNaught Syndicate beginning
October 24, 1938.
Andriola was chosen by Biggers to draw the character.
Following the Japanese attack on
Pearl Harbor, the strip was dropped at the end of May 1942.
Over decades, several other Charlie Chan comic books have been published: Joe Simon and Jack Kirby created Prize
Comics' Charlie Chan (1948) which ran for five issues. It was followed by a Charlton Comics title (four issues,
1955). DC Comics published The New Adventures of Charlie Chan,
a 1958 tie-in with the TV series; the DC
series lasted for six issues. Dell Comics did the title for two issues in 1965. In the 1970s, Gold Key Comics
published a short-lived series of Chan comics based directly on the Hanna-Barbera animated series.
In addition, a board game, The Great Charlie Chan Detective Mystery Game (1937),
and a Charlie Chan Card
Game (1939), have been released.
Modern interpretations and criticism
The character of Charlie Chan has been the subject of much controversy. Some find the character to be a positive
role model, while others argue that Chan is an offensive stereotype. Critic John Soister argues that Charlie Chan is
both; when Biggers created the character, he offered a unique alternative to stereotypical evil Chinamen who was at
the same time "sufficiently accommodating in personality... unthreatening in demeanor... and removed from his
Asian homeland... to quell any underlying xenophobia."
Critic Michael Brodhead argues that "Biggers's sympathetic treatment of the Charlie Chan novels convinces the
reader that their author consciously and forthrightly spoke out for the Chinese - a people to be not only accepted but
admired. Biggers's sympathetic treatment of the Chinese both reflected and contributed to the greater acceptance of
the Chinese in America in the first third of [the twentieth] century."
S. T. Karnick writes in the National Review
that Chan is "a brilliant detective with understandably limited facility in the English language [whose] powers of
Charlie Chan
observation, logic, and personal rectitude and humility made him an exemplary, entirely honorable character."
Ellery Queen called Biggers's characterization of Charlie Chan "a service to humanity and to inter-racial relations."
Dave Kehr of The New York Times said Chan "might have been a stereotype, but he was a stereotype on the side of
the angels."
Luke agreed; when asked if he thought that the character was demeaning to the race, he responded,
"Demeaning to the race? My God! You've got a Chinese hero!"
and "[W]e were making the best damn murder
mysteries in Hollywood."
Other critics, such as Yen Le Espiratu and Huang Guiyou, argue that Chan, while portrayed positively in some ways,
is not on a par with white characters, but a "benevolent Other"
who is "one-dimensional."
The films' extensive
use of white actors to portray Asian characters indicates the character's "absolute Oriental Otherness;"
the films
were only successful when they were "the domain of white actors who impersonated slant-eyed, heavily-accented
masters of murder mysteries as well as purveyors of cryptic proverbs in what Eugene Wong calls a 'racist
Chan's character "embodies the stereotypes and stigmas of Chinese Americans, particularly of
males: smart, subservient, effeminate."
Chan is representative of a model minority, the good stereotype that
counters a bad stereotype: "Each stereotypical image is filled with contradictions: the bloodthirsty Indian is tempered
with the image of the noble savage; the bandido exists along with the loyal sidekick; and Fu Manchu is offset by
Charlie Chan."
However, Fu Manchu's evil qualities are presented as inherently Chinese, while Charlie Chan's
good qualities are exceptional; "Fu represents his race; his counterpart stands away from the other Asian
Some argue that the character's popularity is dependent on its contrast with stereotypes of the Yellow Peril or the
Japanese in particular. American opinion of China and Chinese Americans grew more positive in the 1920s and 30s
in contrast to the Japanese, who were increasingly viewed with suspicion. Sheng-mei Ma argues that the character is
a psychological overcompensation to "rampant paranoia over the racial other."
In June 2003, the Fox Movie Channel discontinued a planned Charlie Chan Festival, soon after beginning restoration
for special cablecasting, after a special interest group protested. Fox reversed its decision two months later in August
2003, and on September 13, 2003, the first film in the festival was aired on Fox. The films, when broadcast on the
Fox Movie Channel, were followed by round table discussions by prominent Asian-Americans in the entertainment
industry, led by George Takei, most of whom were against the films.
Collections such as Frank Chin's Aiiieeee! An
Anthology of Asian-American Writers and Jessica Hagedorn's Charlie Chan is Dead are put forth as alternatives to
the Charlie Chan stereotype and "[articulate] cultural anger and exclusion as their animating force."
Fox began
releasing the restored versions on DVD in 2006;
as of mid-2008, Fox has released all of the extant Warner Oland
titles and has begun issuing the Sidney Toler series. The first six Monogram productions, all starring Sidney Toler,
were released by MGM in 2004.
Some modern critics, particularly Asian-Americans, dismiss the Charlie Chan character as "bovine" and
allowing "white America ... [to be] securely indifferent about us as men."
Charlie Chan's good
qualities are the product of what Frank Chin and Jeffery Chan call "racist love", arguing that Chan is a model
minority and "kissass".
Fletcher Chan, however, argues that the Chan of Biggers's novels is not subservient to
whites, citing The Chinese Parrot as an example; in this novel, Chan's eyes blaze with anger at racist remarks and in
the end, after exposing the murderer, Chan remarks "Perhaps listening to a 'Chinaman' is no disgrace."
In the
films, both Charlie Chan in London (1934) and Charlie Chan in Paris (1935) "contain scenes in which Chan coolly
and wittily dispatches other characters' racist remarks."
Charlie Chan
• Biggers, Earl Derr. The House Without a Key. New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1925.
• —. The Chinese Parrot. New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1926.
• —. Behind That Curtain. New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1928.
• —. The Black Camel. New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1929.
• —. Charlie Chan Carries On. New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1930.
• —. Keeper of the Keys. New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1932.
• Davis, Robert Hart. Charlie Chan in The Temple of the Golden Horde. 1974. Charlie Chan's Mystery Magazine.
Reprinted by Wildside Press, 2003. ISBN 1-59224-014-3.
• Lynds, Dennis. Charlie Chan Returns. New York: Bantam Books, 1974. ASIN B000CD3I22.
• Pronzini, Bill, and Jeffrey M. Wallmann. Charlie Chan in the Pawns of Death. 1974. Charlie Chan's Mystery
Magazine. Reprinted by Borgo Press, 2003. ISBN 978-1-59224-010-4.
• Avallone, Michael. Charlie Chan and the Curse of the Dragon Queen. New York: Pinnacle, 1981. ISBN
Unless otherwise noted, information is taken from Charles P. Mitchell's A Guide to Charlie Chan Films (1999).
Film title Starring Directed by Released Notes
The House Without a Key George Kuwa
Spencer G. Bennet
[62] 1926 Lost film
The Chinese Parrot Kamayama Sojin Paul Leni 1927 Lost film
Behind That Curtain E.L. Park Irving Cummings 1929
Charlie Chan Carries On Warner Oland Hamilton MacFadden 1931 Lost film
Eran Trece (in Spanish)
Manuel Arbó
[63] David Howard
The Black Camel Warner Oland Hamilton MacFadden 1931
Charlie Chan's Chance Warner Oland John Blystone 1932 Lost film
Charlie Chan's Greatest Case Warner Oland Hamilton MacFadden 1933
Lost film
Charlie Chan's Courage Warner Oland George Hadden and
Eugene Forde
Lost film
Charlie Chan in London Warner Oland Eugene Forde 1934
Charlie Chan in Paris Warner Oland Lewis Seiler 1935
Charlie Chan in Egypt Warner Oland Louis King 1935
Charlie Chan in Shanghai Warner Oland James Tinling 1935
Charlie Chan's Secret Warner Oland Gordon Wiles 1936 Public domain due to the omission of a valid
copyright notice on original prints.
Charlie Chan at the Circus Warner Oland Harry Lachman 1936
Charlie Chan at the Race Track Warner Oland H. Bruce Humberstone 1936
Charlie Chan at the Opera Warner Oland H. Bruce Humberstone 1936
Charlie Chan at the Olympics Warner Oland H. Bruce Humberstone 1937
Charlie Chan on Broadway Warner Oland Eugene Forde 1937
The Disappearing Corpse (in Chinese) ? ? 1937
Charlie Chan
La Serpiente Roja (in Spanish) Aníbal de Mar Ernesto Caparrós 1937
Charlie Chan at Monte Carlo Warner Oland Eugene Forde 1937
Charlie Chan in Honolulu Sidney Toler H. Bruce Humberstone 1938
Charlie Chan in Reno Sidney Toler Norman Foster 1938
The Pearl Tunic (in Chinese) ? ? 1938
Charlie Chan at Treasure Island Sidney Toler Norman Foster 1939
City in Darkness Sidney Toler Herbert I. Leeds 1939
The Radio Station Murder (in Chinese) ? ? 1939
Charlie Chan's Murder Cruise Sidney Toler Eugene Forde 1940
Charlie Chan at the Wax Museum Sidney Toler Lynn Shores 1940
Charlie Chan in Panama Sidney Toler Norman Foster 1940
Murder Over New York Sidney Toler Harry Lachman 1940
Dead Men Tell Sidney Toler Harry Lachman 1941
Charlie Chan in Rio Sidney Toler Harry Lachman 1941
Charlie Chan Smashes an Evil Plot (in
徐 莘 园 (Xu
徐 莘 夫 (Xu Xinfu) 1941
Castle in the Desert Sidney Toler Harry Lachman 1942
Charlie Chan in the Secret Service Sidney Toler Phil Rosen 1944
The Chinese Cat Sidney Toler Phil Rosen 1944
Black Magic Sidney Toler Phil Rosen 1944
The Shanghai Cobra Sidney Toler Phil Karlson 1945
The Red Dragon Sidney Toler Phil Rosen 1945
The Scarlet Clue Sidney Toler Phil Rosen 1945 Public domain due to the omission of a valid
copyright notice on original prints.
The Jade Mask Sidney Toler Phil Rosen 1945
Dangerous Money Sidney Toler Terry O. Morse 1946 Public domain due to the omission of a valid
copyright notice on original prints.
Dark Alibi Sidney Toler Phil Karlson 1946 Public domain due to the omission of a valid
copyright notice on original prints.
Shadows Over Chinatown Sidney Toler Terry O. Morse 1946
The Trap Sidney Toler Howard Bretherton 1946 Public domain due to the omission of a valid
copyright notice on original prints.
The Chinese Ring Roland Winters
William Beaudine
[69] 1947 Public domain due to the omission of a valid
copyright notice on original prints.
Docks of New Orleans Roland Winters Derwin Abrahams 1948
Shanghai Chest Roland Winters William Beaudine 1948
The Golden Eye Roland Winters William Beaudine 1948 Public domain due to the omission of a valid
copyright notice on original prints.
The Feathered Serpent Roland Winters
William Beaudine
[69] 1948
Charlie Chan Matches Wits with the
Prince of Darkness (in Chinese)
徐 莘 园 (Xu
徐 莘 夫 (Xu Xinfu) 1948
Charlie Chan
Sky Dragon Roland Winters Lesley Selander 1949
El Monstruo en la Sombra (in Spanish) Orlando
Zacarias Urquiza
[70] 1955
The Return of Charlie Chan (aka
Happiness is a Warm Clue)
Ross Martin
Daryl Duke
[71] 1973
Charlie Chan and the Curse of the
Dragon Queen
Peter Ustinov
Clive Donner
[71] 1981
[1] [1] Quoted in Sommer (), 211.
[2] [2] Mitchell (1999), xxv.
[3] This point is debated. Hawley says Apana directly inspired Biggers (135); Herbert says Apana may have done so (20). However, Biggers
himself, in a 1931 interview, cited both Apana and Fook as inspirations for the character of Charlie Chan ("Creating Charlie Chan" [1931]).
When Biggers actually met Apana a few years later, he found that his character and Apana had little in common.
[4] "Charlie Chan in China" (http:/ / www. chinesemirror.com/ index/ 2008/ 05/ charlie-chan-in.html). The Chinese Mirror: A Journal of
Chinese Film History. May 2008. . Retrieved April 18, 2011.
[5] [5] Earl Derr Biggers, quoted in "Creating Charlie Chan" (1931).
[6] [6] Queen (1969), 102.
[7] The House Without a Key, quoted in Odo (2002), 388.
[8] The House Without a Key, quoted in Hawley (1991), 136.
[9] [9] Hawley (1991), 136.
[10] [10] Hanke (1989), xii.
[11] [11] Mitchell (1999), xviii.
[12] [12] Quoted in Soister (2004), 71.
[13] [13] Mitchell (1999), 2.
[14] [14] Balio (1995), 336.
[15] [15] Quoted in Hanke (2004), 1.
[16] [16] Hanke (1989), 111.
[17] Kehr, Dave (June 20, 2006). "New DVD's: Charlie Chan" (http:// www. nytimes. com/ 2006/ 06/ 20/ movies/ 20dvd.html?_r=1). The New
York Times. .
[18] [18] Balio (1995), 316.
[19] [19] Balio (1995), 317.
[20] Lepore, Jill. " CHAN, THE MAN (http:/ / www. newyorker.com/ arts/ critics/ books/ 2010/08/ 09/
100809crbo_books_lepore?currentPage=all)'" The New Yorker, 9 August 2010.
[21] [21] Hanke (1989), 169.
[22] [22] Hanke (1989), 111-114.
[23] [23] Hanke (1989), 170.
[24] Cullen, et al (2007), 794.
[25] [25] Karnick (2006).
[26] [26] Hanke (1989), 220.
[27] [27] Mitchell (1999), 153.
[28] [28] Mitchell (1999), 153-154.
[29] [29] Mitchell (1999), 235.
[30] [30] Chan (2001), 58.
[31] [31] Pitts (1991), 301.
[32] [32] Sengupta (1997).
[33] [33] Littlejohn (2008).
[34] [34] Yang Jie (2009).
[35] [35] Dunning (1998), 149.
[36] [36] Cox (2002), 9.
[37] [37] Quoted in Dunning (1998), 149.
[38] [38] Mitchell (1999), 237.
[39] [39] Mitchell (1999), 238.
[40] [40] Mitchell (1999), 240.
Charlie Chan
[41] Young (2007), 128. Ma (2000), 13 gives the dates as 1935 to 1938; however, Young's obituary in The New York Times states that the strip
began in 1938.
[42] [42] Ma (2000), 13.
[43] [43] Young (2007), 128.
[44] [44] Anderson and Eury (2005), 1923.
[45] [45] Rinker (1988), 312.
[46] [46] Soister (), 67.
[47] [47] Michael Brodhead, quoted in Chan (2001), 56.
[48] [48] Quoted in Hanke (2004), xv.
[49] [49] Quoted in Hanke (2004), xiii.
[50] [50] Kato (2007), 138.
[51] [51] Le Espiritu (1996), 99.
[52] [52] Dave (2005), xiii.
[53] [53] Dave (2005), 161.
[54] [54] Huang (2006), 211.
[55] [55] Michael Omi, quoted in Chan (2001), 51.
[56] [56] Ma (2000), 4.
[57] [57] Dave (2005), 339.
[58] [58] Kim (1982), 179.
[59] [59] Frank Chin and Jeffery Chan, quoted in Kim (1982), 179.
[60] [60] Chin and Chan, quoted in Kim (1982), 179.
[61] The Chinese Parrot, quoted in Chan (2007).
[62] [62] Struss (1987), 114.
[63] Hanke states that Chan was played by "Juan Torenas"; however, the more recent Guide to Charlie Chan Films by Charles P. Mitchell states
that a Juan Torena played a supporting role in the film and that Arbó was the star (Mitchell [1999], 153). Mitchell's book features a
reproduction of the original movie poster, which lists Arbó's name before Torena's and in larger print.
[64] [64] Hardy (1997), 76, suggests the date is 1932.
[65] Spanish-language version of Charlie Chan Carries On.
[66] Remake of The House Without a Key.
[67] Re-make of The Chinese Parrot.
[68] Later retitled Meeting at Midnight for TV
[69] [69] Reid (2004), 86.
[70] [70] Willis (1972), 329.
[71] [71] Pitts (1991), 305.
[72] Filmed in 1971; aired on British television in 1973; aired on ABC in 1979 as The Return of Charlie Chan (Pitts [1991], 301).
• "Alfred Andriola (obituary)". The New York Times: pp. A28. 30 March 2009.
• Anderson, Murphy; Michael Eury (2005). The Justice League Companion: A Historical and Speculative
Overview of the Silver Age Justice League of America. TwoMorrows Publishing. ISBN 1-893905-48-9.
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com/books?id=_J9HTLOI08wC). University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-20334-8.
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Literary Review. Retrieved 20 May 2009.
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ISBN 0-8153-4029-X.
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Mirror: A Journal of Chinese Film History. May 2008. Retrieved 21 May 2009.
• "Creating Charlie Chan" (22 March 1931). In Popular Culture (http:/ / books. google. com/
books?id=PZ6lgRl6VAwC) (1975). Ed. by David Manning White. Ayer Publishing. ISBN 0-405-06649-X.
• Cox, Jim (2002). Radio Crime Fighters: Over 300 Programs from the Golden Age. McFarland Publishing.
ISBN 0-7864-1390-5.
• Cullen, Frank; Florence Hackman, Donald McNeilly (2007). Vaudeville, Old & New: An Encyclopedia of Variety
Performers in America. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-93853-8.
Charlie Chan
• Dave, Shilpa; LeiLani Nishime, Tasha G. Oren (2005). East Main Street: Asian American popular culture. New
York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-1963-5.
• Gevinson, Alan (1997). Within Our Gates: Ethnicity in American Feature Films, 1911-1960. University of
California Press. ISBN 0-520-20964-8.
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?q=YmUxMjFmYTlmZjU3MGMzZTM1ODYxMmY4MTBkOWY1ODE=). National Review Online. Retrieved
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ISBN 0-7914-6991-3.
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tv/ articles/ 2008/ 01/ 14/ lucy_liu_returns_to_television/ ). The Boston Globe. Retrieved 25 August 2009.
• Ma, Sheng-mei (2000). The deathly embrace: orientalism and Asian American identity. University of Minnesota
Press. ISBN 0-8166-3711-3.
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ISBN 0-313-30985-X.
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University Press. ISBN 0-231-11030-8.
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com/books?id=ZnBSWLVZ29QC). Biblio & Tannen. ISBN 0-8196-0238-8.
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• Sengupta, Somini (5 January 1997). "Charlie Chan, Retooled for the 90's" (http:// www.nytimes. com/ 1997/ 01/
05/ movies/ charlie-chan-retooled-for-the-90-s.html?sec=& spon=). The New York Times. Retrieved 21 May
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ISBN 0-7864-1745-5.
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Ruttenberg, James Wong Howe, Linwood Dunn, and William H. Clothier. Rowman & Littlefield.
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• Young, William H (2007). The Great Depression in America: a cultural encyclopedia. Greenwood Publishing
Group. ISBN 0-313-33521-4.
Charlie Chan
Further reading
• Huang, Yunte. Charlie Chan: The Untold Story of the Honorable Detective and His Rendezvous with American
History (http:/ / books. google.com/ books?id=QFwA9IFxV-kC& printsec=frontcover). New York : Norton,
2010. ISBN 978-0-393-06962-4
External links
•• The "Charlie Chan" Novels
The House Without A Key (http:// gutenberg.net. au/ebooks02/ 0200671. txt)
The Chinese Parrot (http:// gutenberg.net. au/ ebooks02/ 0200681.txt)
Behind That Curtain (http:/ / gutenberg.net. au/ ebooks02/ 0200691. txt)
The Black Camel (http:/ / gutenberg.net. au/ ebooks02/ 0200701.txt)
Charlie Chan Carries On (http:/ / gutenberg.net.au/ ebooks07/ 0700761h. html)
Keeper Of The Keys (http:// gutenberg.net.au/ ebooks02/ 0200711. txt)
• Charlie Chan fansite (http:/ / www. charliechan.net/ )
• The Charlie Chan Family Home (http:/ / charliechanfamily.tripod.com/ index. html)
• Charlie Chan Biography (http:/ / books. wwnorton.com/ books/ detail.aspx?ID=20497)
• About Charlie Chan (http:/ / www. thevintageplayhouse. com/ Articles. asp?ID=134)
• Public-domain Charlie Chan radio programs (http:// www. oldtimeradiofans.com/ template.
php?show_name=Charlie Chan)
Claude Rains
Claude Rains
Claude Rains
Claude Rains in Now, Voyager (1942)
Born William Claude Rains
10 November 1889
Camberwell, London, England, United Kingdom
Died 30 May 1967 (aged 77)
Laconia, New Hampshire, U.S.
Occupation Actor
Years active 1920–66
Spouse(s) Isabel Jeans (1913-15) (divorce)
Marie Hemingway (1920) (divorce)
Beatriz Thomas (1924-35) (divorce)
Frances Propper (1935-56) (divorce)
Agi Jambor (1959-60) (divorce)
Rosemary Clark Schrode (1960-64) (her death)
William Claude Rains (10 November 1889 – 30 May 1967) was an English-born American stage and film actor
whose career spanned 46 years. He was known for many roles in Hollywood films, among them the title role in The
Invisible Man (1933), The Wolf Man (1941), corrupt kings and senators in The Adventures of Robin Hood (1938) and
Mr. Smith Goes to Washington (1939), Mr. Dryden in Lawrence of Arabia (1962), and as Captain Renault in
Casablanca (1942).
Early life
Rains was born in Camberwell, London. He grew up, according to his daughter, with "a very serious cockney accent
and a speech impediment".
His parents were Emily Eliza (Cox) and English stage and film actor Frederick
William Rains.
The young Rains made his stage debut at 11 in Nell of Old Drury.
His acting talents were recognised by Sir Herbert Beerbohm Tree, founder of the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art.
Tree paid for the elocution lessons Rains needed in order to succeed as an actor. Later, Rains taught at the institution,
teaching John Gielgud and Laurence Olivier, among others. Many years later, after he had gone to Hollywood and
become a film star, Gielgud was to quip: "He was a great influence on me. I don`t know what happened to him. I
think he failed and went to America."
Rains served in the First World War in the London Scottish Regiment,
with fellow actors Basil Rathbone, Ronald
Colman and Herbert Marshall. Rains was involved in a gas attack that left him nearly blind in one eye for the rest of
his life. By the war's end he had risen from the rank of Private to Captain.
Claude Rains
Rains in Camel through the Eye's Needle,
Broadway, New York, 1929
Rains began his career in the London theatre, having a success in the
title role of John Drinkwater's play Ulysses S. Grant, the follow-up to
the playwright's major hit Abraham Lincoln, and travelled to Broadway
in the late 1920s to act in leading roles in such plays as Shaw's The
Apple Cart and in the dramatisations of The Constant Nymph, and
Pearl S. Buck's novel The Good Earth, as a Chinese farmer.
Rains came relatively late to film acting and his first screen test was a
failure, but his distinctive voice won him the title role in James Whale's
The Invisible Man (1933) when someone accidentally overheard his
screen test being played in the next room.
Rains later credited
director Michael Curtiz with teaching him the more understated
requirements of film acting, or "what not to do in front of a camera".
Following The Invisible Man, Universal Studios tried to typecast him in horror films, but he broke free, starting with
the gleefully evil role of Prince John in The Adventures of Robin Hood (1938), then with his Academy
Award-nominated performance as the conflicted corrupt US senator in Mr. Smith Goes to Washington (1939), and
the flexible French police Captain Renault in Casablanca (1942). In 1943, Rains played the title character in
Universal's remake of Phantom of the Opera. Bette Davis named him her favourite co-star, and they made four films
together, including Now, Voyager (1942) and Mr. Skeffington (1944). Rains became the first actor to receive a
million dollar salary, playing Julius Caesar in Gabriel Pascal's lavish and unsuccessful version of Shaw's Caesar and
Cleopatra (1945), made in Britain. In 1946, he played a refugee Nazi agent opposite Cary Grant and Casablanca
co-star Ingrid Bergman in Alfred Hitchcock's Notorious. In 1949, he appeared in David Lean's The Passionate
His only singing and dancing role was in a television musical version of Robert Browning's The Pied Piper of
Hamelin, with Van Johnson as the Piper. This 1957 NBC colour special, shown as a film rather than a live or
videotaped programme, was highly successful with the public. Sold into syndication after its first telecast, it was
repeated annually by many local US TV stations.
Rains remained a popular character actor in the 1950s and 1960s, appearing in many films. Two of his well-known
later screen roles were as Dryden, a cynical British diplomat in Lawrence of Arabia (1962) and King Herod in The
Greatest Story Ever Told (1965). The latter was his final film role.
Claude Rains in Notorious (1946)
Rains made several audio recordings, narrating a few Bible stories for
children on Capitol Records, and reciting Richard Strauss's setting for
narrator and piano of Tennyson's poem Enoch Arden, with the piano
solos played by Glenn Gould. This recording was made by Columbia
Masterworks Records.
Personal life
Rains became a naturalized citizen of the United States in 1939. He
married six times, the first five of which ended in divorce: Isabel Jeans (1913–1915); Marie Hemingway (1920, for
less than a year); Beatrix Thomson (1924 – 8 April 1935); Frances Propper (9 April 1935–1956); and to classic
Claude Rains
pianist Agi Jambor (4 November 1959–1960). He married Rosemary Clark Schrode in 1960, and stayed with her
until her death on 31 December 1964. His only child, Jessica Rains, was born to him and Propper on 24 January
He acquired the 380-acre ( km
) Stock Grange Farm in West Bradford Township, Pennsylvania, just outside
Coatesville, in 1941, and spent much of his time between takes reading up on agricultural techniques. He eventually
sold the farm when his marriage to Proper ended in 1956.
Rains died from an abdominal haemorrhage in Laconia, New Hampshire, on 30 May 1967 at the age of 77. He is
interred in the Red Hill Cemetery, Moultonborough, New Hampshire.
Claude Rains: An Actor's Voice, a biography by David J. Skal and Rains' daughter Jessica Rains, was published in
Awards and nominations
In 1951, Rains won a Tony Award for Best Performance by a Leading Actor in a Play for Darkness at Noon. He was
also nominated four times for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor, for Mr. Smith Goes to Washington
(1939), Casablanca (1942), Mr. Skeffington (1944), and Notorious (1946).
He has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, at 6400 Hollywood Boulevard.
Year Title Role Director Other cast members Notes
1920 Build Thy House Clarkis Fred Goodwins Henry Ainley
1933 The Invisible Man Dr. Jack
Invisible Man
James Whale Gloria Stuart, Henry Travers, Una
1934 The Clairvoyant Maximus Maurice Elvey Fay Wray
1934 Crime Without
Lee Gentry Ben Hecht,
Margo, Whitney Bourne
1934 The Man Who
Reclaimed His
Paul Verin Edward Ludwig Lionel Atwill, Joan Bennett
1935 The Last Outpost John Stevenson Louis Gasnier,
Charles Barton
Cary Grant
1935 The Mystery of
Edwin Drood
John Jasper Stuart Walker Douglass Montgomery, Heather Angel,
David Manners
1936 Hearts Divided Napoleon
Frank Borzage Marion Davies, Dick Powell, Charlie
Ruggles, Edward Everett Horton
1936 Anthony Adverse Marquis Don Luis Mervyn LeRoy Fredric March, Olivia de Havilland, Gale
1937 Stolen Holiday Stefan Orloff Michael Curtiz Kay Francis, Ian Hunter
1937 The Prince and the
Earl of Hertford William
Errol Flynn, Billy and Bobby Mauch
1937 They Won't Forget Dist. Atty. Andrew
J. "Andy" Griffin
Mervyn LeRoy Gloria Dickson, Lana Turner
1938 White Banners Paul Ward Edmund
Fay Bainter, Jackie Cooper, Bonita
Granville, Henry O'Neill, Kay Johnson
Claude Rains
1938 Gold is Where You
Find It
Colonel Christopher
"Chris" Ferris
Michael Curtiz George Brent, Olivia de Havilland, Tim
1938 The Adventures of
Robin Hood
Prince John Michael Curtiz,
Errol Flynn, Olivia de Havilland, Basil
1938 Four Daughters Adam Lemp Michael Curtiz Rosemary, Lola, and Priscilla Lane, Gale
Page, John Garfield
1939 They Made Me a
Det. Monty Phelan Busby Berkeley John Garfield, Gloria Dickson, May
1939 Juarez Emperor Louis
Napoleon III
William Dieterle Paul Muni, Bette Davis, Brian Aherne,
John Garfield
1939 Sons of Liberty Haym Salomon Michael Curtiz Gale Sondergaard Technicolor; two-reel short
1939 Daughters
Jim Masters Michael Curtiz Rosemary, Lola, and Priscilla Lane, Gale
Page, John Garfield
1939 Mr. Smith Goes to
Sen. Joseph
Harrison Paine
Frank Capra Jean Arthur, James Stewart, Thomas
Nomination—Academy Award
for Best Supporting Actor
1939 Four Wives Adam Lemp Michael Curtiz Eddie Albert, Rosemary, Lola, and
Priscilla Lane, Gale Page, John Garfield
1940 Saturday's Children Mr. Henry Halevy Vincent
John Garfield, Anne Shirley
1940 The Sea Hawk Don José Alvarez
de Córdoba
Michael Curtiz Errol Flynn, Brenda Marshall, Henry
Daniell, Flora Robson, Alan Hale
Sepia tone (sequence)
1940 Lady with Red Hair David Belasco Curtis Bernhardt Miriam Hopkins, Laura Hope Crews
1941 Four Mothers Adam Lemp William
Rosemary, Lola, and Priscilla Lane, Gale
1941 Here Comes Mr.
Mr. Jordan Alexander Hall Robert Montgomery, Evelyn Keyes,
Edward Everett Horton
1941 The Wolf Man Sir John Talbot George Waggner Lon Chaney, Jr., Evelyn Ankers, Patric
Knowles, Ralph Bellamy, Warren
William, Bela Lugosi, Maria Ouspenskaya
1942 Kings Row Dr. Alexander
Sam Wood Ann Sheridan, Robert Cummings, Ronald
Reagan, Betty Field, Charles Coburn
1942 Moontide Nutsy Archie Mayo Jean Gabin, Ida Lupino, Thomas Mitchell
1942 Now, Voyager Dr. Jaquith Irving Rapper Bette Davis, Paul Henreid, Gladys Cooper
1942 Casablanca Capt. Louis Renault Michael Curtiz Humphrey Bogart, Ingrid Bergman, Paul
Henreid, Conrad Veidt, S.Z. Sakall,
Sydney Greenstreet, Peter Lorre, Dooley
Nomination—Academy Award
for Best Supporting Actor
1943 Forever and a Day Ambrose Pomfret Herbert Wilcox
(sequence with
Anna Neagle, Ray Milland, C. Aubrey
1943 Phantom of the
Erique Claudin/The
Phantom of the
Arthur Lubin Nelson Eddy, Susanna Foster Technicolor
1944 Passage to
Captain Freycinet Michael Curtiz Humphrey Bogart, Michèle Morgan,
Philip Dorn, Sydney Greenstreet, Peter
Lorre, Helmut Dantine
Claude Rains
1944 Mr. Skeffington Job Skeffington Vincent
Bette Davis, Walter Abel, George
Coulouris, Richard Waring
Nomination—Academy Award
for Best Supporting Actor
1945 Strange Holiday John Stevenson Julien Duvivier Jean Gabin, Richard Whorf, Allyn Joslyn,
Ellen Drew
1945 This Love of Ours Joseph Targel William Dieterle Merle Oberon
1945 Caesar and
Julius Caesar Gabriel Pascal Vivien Leigh, Stewart Granger, Flora
1946 Notorious Alex Sebastian Alfred
Cary Grant, Ingrid Bergman, Louis
Nomination—Academy Award
for Best Supporting Actor
1946 Angel on My
Nick Archie Mayo Paul Muni, Anne Baxter
1946 Deception Alexander
Irving Rapper Bette Davis, Paul Henreid
1947 The Unsuspected Victor Grandison Michael Curtiz Joan Caulfield, Audrey Totter, Constance
Bennett, Hurd Hatfield
1949 The Passionate
Howard Justin David Lean Ann Todd, Trevor Howard
1949 Rope of Sand Arthur "Fred"
William Dieterle Burt Lancaster, Paul Henreid, Peter Lorre
1949 Song of Surrender Elisha Hunt Mitchell Leisen Wanda Hendrix, Macdonald Carey
1950 The White Tower Paul DeLambre Ted Tetzlaff Glenn Ford, Alida Valli, Oskar Homolka,
Cedric Hardwicke, Lloyd Bridges
1950 Where Danger
John Farrow Robert Mitchum, Faith Domergue,
Maureen O'Sullivan
1951 Sealed Cargo Captain Skalder Alfred L.
Dana Andrews, Lloyd Bridges
1953 The Man Who
Watched the Trains
Go By
Kees Popinga Harold French Märta Torén, Marius Goring Technicolor
1956 Lisbon Aristides Mavros Ray Milland Ray Milland, Maureen O'Hara Trucolor
1957 The Pied Piper of
The Mayor of
Van Johnson, Lori Nelson Technicolor
1959 This Earth Is Mine Philippe Rambeau Henry King Rock Hudson, Jean Simmons, Dorothy
1960 The Lost World Professor George
Edward Challenger
Irwin Allen Michael Rennie, Jill St. John, David
Hedison, Fernando Lamas, Richard Haydn
Deluxe color
1961 Battle of the Worlds Professor Benson Antonio
Bill Carter Colour
1962 Lawrence of Arabia Mr. Dryden David Lean Peter O'Toole, Alec Guinness, Jack
Hawkins, Omar Sharif, Anthony Quinn,
Anthony Quayle, Arthur Kennedy, José
Super Panavision 70
1963 Twilight of Honor Art Harper Boris Sagal Richard Chamberlain, Nick Adams, Joey
Heatherton, Linda Evans
1965 The Greatest Story
Ever Told
Herod the Great George Stevens Max von Sydow, plus many cameos Technicolor
Ultra Panavision 70
Claude Rains
[1] [1] Harmetz p. 147.
[2] (http:// books. google. com/ books?id=d_mUJebJ4uwC& pg=PA181& dq=Emily+Eliza+Cox+ rains& hl=en#v=onepage& q=Emily Eliza
Cox rains& f=false) International Stars at War
[3] "The Sublime Claude Rains" (http:// www. meredy.com/ clauderains/ cr-bio.html). meredy.com. . Retrieved 12 May 2010.
[4] londonscottishregt.org (http:/ / www. londonscottishregt. org)
[5] [5] Harmetz p. 190.
• Aljean Harmetz, Round Up the Usual Suspects: The Making of "Casablanca" (New York: Hyperion, 1992)
• David J. Skal and Jessica Rains, Claude Rains: An Actor's Voice (University Press of Kentucky, 2008)
External links
• Claude Rains (http:/ / www. ibdb. com/ person.asp?ID=56984) at the Internet Broadway Database
• Performances listed in Theatre Archive University of Bristol (http:// www.bris. ac. uk/theatrecollection/ search/
people_sub_plays?forename=Claude& surname=RAINS& job=Actor&pid=7947&image_view=Yes& x=19&
• Claude Rains (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ name/ nm1647/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Claude Rains (http:/ / www. allrovi.com/ name/ p58546) at AllRovi
• Claude Rains (http:/ / tcmdb.com/ participant/participant. jsp?participantId=157263) at the TCM Movie
• Claude Rains (http:/ / www. screenonline.org.uk/people/ id/ 546482) at the British Film Institute's Screenonline
Also known as Climax Mystery Theatre
Genre Anthology
Directed by John Frankenheimer
Allen Reisner
Ralph Nelson
Buzz Kulik
Paul Nickell
William H. Brown, Jr.
David Swift
Jack Smight
Don Medford
Anthony Barr
Presented by William Lundigan (1954–1956)
Mary Costa (1956–1958)
Theme music composer Leith Stevens
Composer(s) Jerry Goldsmith
Bernard Herrmann
Country of origin United States
Language(s) English
No. of seasons 4
No. of episodes 166
Producer(s) Martin Manulis
Bretaigne Windust
Running time 45–48 minutes
Original channel CBS
Picture format Black-and-white
Audio format Monaural
Original run October 7, 1954 – June 26, 1958
Climax! (later known as Climax Mystery Theater) is an American anthology series that aired on CBS from 1954 to
1958. The series was hosted by William Lundigan and later co-hosted by Mary Costa. Many of the episodes were
performed and broadcast live.
Notable episodes
In 1954, an episode of Climax! featured Ian Fleming's secret agent James Bond in a television adaptation of Casino
Royale. It starred Barry Nelson as American secret agent "Jimmy Bond" and Peter Lorre as the villain Le Chiffre.
This was the first screen adaptation of a James Bond novel, made before Eon Productions acquired the Bond film
rights. Eon would later obtain the rights to Casino Royale in the late 1990s. This adaptation is available on DVD as a
bonus feature on the MGM DVD release of the 1967 film adaptation of the novel, which is in every other respect a
satire of the Bond genre.
The only other episode of Climax! available on DVD is Gore Vidal's adaptation of Robert Louis Stevenson's The
Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, retitled on Climax! as "Dr. Jekyll & Mr. Hyde".
It stars Michael Rennie,
Sir Cedric Hardwicke, and Lowell Gilmore; it is available in the DVD box set "Classic Sci-Fi TV - 150 Episodes"
from Mill Creek Entertainment.
In an earlier episode of Climax!, an adaptation of Raymond Chandler's The Long Goodbye, actor Tristram Coffin,
playing a dead body, arose in shot and walked off stage. The event was widely covered in the media of the day, later
becoming an urban legend that was attributed to Peter Lorre and the previously mentioned adaptation of Casino
Season 1
•• The Long Goodbye
•• The Thirteenth Chair
•• Casino Royale
•• Sorry, Wrong Number
•• The Gioconda Smile
•• The After House
•• An Error In Chemistry
•• Epitaph for a Spy
•• The White Carnation
•• Nightmare In Copenhagen
•• The Bigger They Come
•• Escape From Fear
•• The Mojave Kid
•• The Leaf Out of the Book
•• The Valiant Men
•• The Box of Chocolates
•• South of the Sun
•• The Great Impersonation
•• The Darkest Hour
•• The Champion
•• Private Worlds
•• Flight 951
•• The First and the Last
•• The Deliverance of Sister Cecilia
•• No Stone Unturned
•• A Farewell to Arms
•• The Unimportant Man
•• The Dark Fleece
•• To Wake at Midnight
•• The Dance
•• Wild Stallion
•• The Escape of Mendes-France
•• The Healer
•• Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde
•• One Night Stand
•• Edge of Terror
•• Fear Strikes Out
•• Deal a Blow
Season 2
•• Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
•• Public Pigeon #1
•• Silent Decision
•• Night of Execution
•• Sailor On Horseback
•• Thin Air
•• House of Shadows
•• The Pink Cloud
•• Scheme to Defraud
•• A Promise to Murder
•• Portrait in Celluloid
•• A Man of Taste
•• The Passport
•• The Day They Gave the Babies Away
•• Bailout at 43,000 Feet
•• The Prowler
•• The Hanging Judge
•• The Secret of River Lane
•• Gamble on a Thief
•• The Fifth Wheel
•• Nightmare By Day
•• The Sound of Silence
•• The Louella Parsons Story
•• Pale Horse, Pale Rider
•• An Episode of Sparrows
•• Spin Into Darkness
•• The Lou Gehrig Story
•• Sit Down With Death
•• The Empty Room Blues
•• Flame-Out on T-6
•• The Shadow of Evil
•• Figures in Clay
•• Faceless Adversary
•• To Scream at Midnight
•• The Circular Staircase
•• A Trophy For Howard Davenport
•• Phone Call For Matthew Quade
•• Fear is the Hunter
•• Fury At Dawn
•• The Man Who Lost His Head
•• Child of the Wind
•• No Right to Kill
•• The 78th Floor
•• Throw Away the Cane
•• Dark Wall
Season 3
•• Bury Me Later
•• Burst of Violence
•• The Garsten Case
•• The Fog
•• Island in the City
•• Journey Into Fear
•• The Midas Touch
•• Night of the Heat Wave
•• Flight to Tomorrow
•• Night Shriek
•• The Chinese Game
•• The Secret Thread
•• Savage Portrait
•• Strange Hostage
•• Ten Minutes to Curfew
•• Carnival at Midnight
•• The Gold Dress
•• Circle of Destruction
•• The Trouble at Number 5
•• The Stalker
•• Stain of Honor
•• The Long Count
•• And Don't Ever Come Back
•• Night of a Rebel
•• Let It Be Me
•• Strange Sanctuary
•• Don't Touch Me
•• Mad Bomber
•• Avalanche at Devil's Pass
•• Strange Deaths at Burnleigh
•• Bait for the Tiger
•• The Hand of Evil
•• The Disappearance of Amanda Hale
•• Mr. Runyon of Broadway
•• The Man Who Stole the Bible
•• A Taste for Crime
•• The Trial of Captain Wirtz
•• False Witness
•• Payment for Judas
•• Walk a Tightrope
•• The High Jungle
•• The Giant Killer
•• Trail of Terror
•• Murder is a Witch
•• The Stranger Within
•• Deadly Climate
Season 4
•• Trial By Fire
•• The Secret of the Red Room
•• Necessary Evil
•• Along Came a Spider
•• Jacob and the Angels
•• Mask For The Devil
•• The Largest City in Captivity
•• Tunnel of Fear
•• Keep Me In Mind
•• Two Tests on Tuesday
•• A Matter of Life and Death
•• Murder Has a Deadline
•• The Devil's Brood
•• Hurricane Diane
•• To Walk the Night
•• Shadow of a Memory
•• Scream in Silence
•• Thieves of Tokyo
•• Sound of the Moon
•• Burst of Fire
•• Four Hours in White
•• The Secret Love of Johnny Spain
•• Albert Anastasia, His Life and Death
•• The Thief With the Big Blue Eyes
•• So Deadly My Love
•• The Great World and Timothy Colt
•• On the Take
•• The Volcano Seat
•• Shooting for the Moon
•• The Deadly Tattoo
•• The Big Success
•• The Disappearance of Daphne
•• Time of the Hanging
•• The Push-Button Giant
•• Spider Web
•• House of Doubt
•• Cabin B-13
[1] "Climax!" Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (1955) (http:// www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0394419/ )
[2] "Death Takes a Powder" (http:/ / www. snopes. com/ radiotv/tv/deadman.asp) (in snopes.com). . Retrieved 1 June 2010.
External links
• Climax! (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0046587/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Climax! (http:/ / www. tv.com/ shows/ climax/ ) at TV.com
• Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (http:/ / www. archive.org/details/ Climax-DrJekyllAndMrHyde) is available for free
download at the Internet Archive [more]
Confidential Agent
Confidential Agent
Confidential Agent
Film lobby card
Directed by Herman Shumlin
Produced by Robert Buckner
Written by Robert Buckner
Graham Greene (novel)
Starring Charles Boyer
Lauren Bacall
Peter Lorre
Music by Franz Waxman
Cinematography James Wong Howe
Editing by George Amy
Distributed by Warner Bros.
Release date(s) November 2, 1945
Running time 118 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Confidential Agent is a 1945 spy film starring Charles Boyer and Lauren Bacall, and made by Warner Bros.
The movie was directed by Herman Shumlin and produced by Robert Buckner with Jack L. Warner as executive
producer. The screenplay was by Robert Buckner, based on the novel The Confidential Agent by Graham Greene.
The music score was by Franz Waxman and the cinematography by James Wong Howe. The supporting cast
includes George Coulouris and Peter Lorre.
Luis Denard, a former concert musician, Charles Boyer, is a Nationalist, in the midst of the Spanish Civil War. He
travels to England to secure supplies, where is threatened by suspicion and Fascist agents. He finds unexpected help
when he meets young socialite Rose Cullen, Lauren Bacall, whose Father, Lord Benditch, Holmes Herbert, is one of
the men Denard is trying to meet.
Everything seems to go wrong, when he’s mugged, and laid out cold. Not knowing who to trust, he enlists the aid of
the young maid Else, Wanda Hendrix. Then, he runs into Contreras, Peter Lorre, and Mrs. Melandy, Katina Paxinou,
Oscar winner, in 1943's For Whom the Bell Tolls. It’s a convoluted race to the end.
Confidential Agent
The screenplay was based on a Graham Greene novel, of the same name. There is evidence of jump cuts, which
suggest that editing, to get the running time under two hours, did not help.
• Charles Boyer as Luis Denard
• Lauren Bacall as Rose Cullen
• Victor Francen as Licata
• Wanda Hendrix as Else
• George Coulouris as Captain Currie
• Peter Lorre as Contreras
• Katina Paxinou as Mrs. Melandez
• John Warburton as Neil Forbes
• Holmes Herbert as Lord Benditch
• Dan Seymour as Mr. Muckerji
•• Art Foster as Chauffeur
• Miles Mander as Mr. Brigstock
• Lawrence Grant as Lord Fetting
• Ian Wolfe as Dr. Bellows
• George Zucco as Detective Geddes
Lauren Bacall is the last living cast member.
According to "The Big Sleep Comparisons 1945/46", a featurette on the 2000 DVD release of Bacall's later film The
Big Sleep, her reviews for Confidential Agent were largely negative, with particular aspersions cast on Bacall's
performance, as a "pretty amateur".
According to film historian Robert Gitt, host of the featurette, Warner studio head Jack L. Warner was lobbied to
order certain scenes in The Big Sleep reshot in order to rectify performance issues with Bacall identified in
Confidential Agent, which he did.
In her own autobiography, Bacall said that she begged not to have to do the film, but couldn't break her contract that
early, though her career never fully recovered from Confidential Agent.
[1] Variety film review; November 7, 1945, page 25.
[2] Harrison's Reports film review; November 3, 1945, page 174.
[3] http:/ / shop. tcm. com/ confidential-agent-dvd/detail. php?p=356570
[4] http:/ / www.classicfilmguide. com/ index80b5. html
[5] http:/ / shop. tcm. com/ confidential-agent-dvd/detail. php?p=356570
External links
• Confidential Agent (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0037610/) at the Internet Movie Database
• Review by Dan Stumpf in Mystery*File (http:/ / mysteryfile. com/ blog/ ?p=1573)
• Peter Lorre as Contreras, excerprt from "Confidential Agent" on YouTube (http:// www.youtube.com/
Congo Crossing
Congo Crossing
Congo Crossing
Film poster by Reynold Brown
Directed by Joseph Pevney
Produced by Howard Christie
Written by Houston Branch (story)
Richard Alan Simmons (writer)
Starring Virginia Mayo
George Nader
Cinematography Russell Metty
Editing by Sherman Todd
Distributed by Universal Pictures
Release date(s) July, 1956
Running time 85 mins.
Country United States
Language English
Congo Crossing is a 1956 adventure film directed by Joseph Pevney and starring Virginia Mayo and George Nader.
Most of the exterior sequences were shot in the Los Angeles County Arboretum and Botanic Garden.
Plot synopsis
Congotanga, West Africa, has no extradition laws; the government is controlled by foreign gangsters, headed by Carl
Rittner (Tonio Selwart). The latest plane from Europe carries Louise Whitman (Virginia Mayo), (fleeing a French
murder charge), and Mannering (Raymond Bailey), who pays resident hit man O'Connell (Michael Pate) to kill her.
Through a chain of circumstances Louise, O'Connell, and heroic surveyor David Carr (George Nader) end up alone
in the jungle on Carr's mission to determine the true border of Congotanga... in which Rittner is keenly interested.
• Virginia Mayo - Louise Whitman
• George Nader - David Carr
• Peter Lorre - Colonel John Miguel Orlando Arragas
• Michael Pate - Bart O'Connell
• Rex Ingram - Dr. Leopold Gorman
• Tonio Selwart - Carl Rittner
• Kathryn Givney - Amelia Abbott
• Tudor Owen - Emile Zorfus
• Raymond Bailey - Peter Mannering
•• George Ramsey - Miguel Diniz
• Maurice Donner - Marquette
• Bernie Hamilton - Pompala
• Harold Dyenforth - Steiner
Congo Crossing
External links
• Congo Crossing
at the Internet Movie Database
• Virginia Mayo
at the Internet Movie Database
[1] http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0049091/
[2] http:/ / www.imdb. com/ name/ nm0562920/
Corpse Bride
Corpse Bride
Corpse Bride
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Tim Burton
Mike Johnson
Produced by Tim Burton
Allison Abbate
Joe Ranft
Derek Frey
Screenplay by John August
Caroline Thompson
Pamela Pettler
Starring Johnny Depp
Helena Bonham Carter
Emily Watson
Tracey Ullman
Paul Whitehouse
Joanna Lumley
Albert Finney
Music by Danny Elfman
Cinematography Pete Kozachik
Editing by Chris Lebenzon
Studio(s) Laika Entertainment
Tim Burton Productions
Distributed by Warner Bros. Pictures
Release date(s) • September 7, 2005 (VIFF)
• September 23, 2005 (United States)
• October 13, 2005 (United Kingdom)
Running time 77 minutes
Country United Kingdom
United States
Language English
$40 million
Box office
Corpse Bride, often referred as Tim Burton's Corpse Bride, is a 2005 stop-motion-animated horror musical film
directed by Tim Burton and Mike Johnson. The plot is set in a fictional Victorian era village in Europe. Johnny Depp
led an all-star cast as the voice of Victor, while Helena Bonham Carter voiced Emily, the title character. Corpse
Bride is the third stop-motion feature film produced by Burton and the first directed by him (the previous two films,
The Nightmare Before Christmas and James and the Giant Peach, were directed by Henry Selick). This is also the
first stop-motion feature from Burton that isn't distributed by Walt Disney Pictures.
The film was nominated in the 78th Academy Awards for Best Animated Feature, but was beaten by Wallace &
Gromit: The Curse of the Were-Rabbit, which also starred Helena Bonham Carter. It was shot with a battery of
Canon EOS-1D Mark II digital SLRs, rather than the 35mm film cameras used for Burton's previous stop-motion
film The Nightmare Before Christmas.
Corpse Bride
In an unnamed Victorian Era European village, Victor Van Dort (Johnny Depp), the son of nouveau riche fish
merchants, and Victoria Everglot (Emily Watson), the neglected daughter of hateful aristocrats, are getting prepared
for their arranged marriage, which will raise the social class of Victor's parents and restore the wealth of Victoria's
penniless family. Both have concerns about marrying someone they do not know, but they fall instantly in love when
they first meet. After the shy, clumsy Victor ruins the wedding rehearsal and is scolded by Pastor Galswells
(Christopher Lee), he flees and practices his wedding vows in the nearby forest, placing the wedding ring on a
nearby upturned tree root.
The root turns out to be the finger of a dead girl clad in a tattered bridal gown, who rises from the grave claiming that
she is now Victor's wife. Spirited away to the surprisingly festive Land of the Dead, the bewildered Victor learns the
story of Emily (Helena Bonham Carter), his new "bride," murdered years ago on the night of her secret elopement.
Emily, as a wedding gift, reunites Victor with his long-dead dog, Scraps. Meanwhile, Victoria's parents hear that
Victor has been seen in another woman's arms, and become suspicious.
Wanting to reunite with Victoria, Victor tricks Emily into taking him back to the Land of the Living by pretending
he wants her to meet his parents. She agrees to this and takes him to see Elder Gutknecht (Michael Gough), the
kindly ruler of the underworld, to send him and Emily temporarily to the Land of the Living. Once back home,
Victor asks Emily to wait in the forest while he rushes off to see Victoria and confess his wish to marry her as soon
as possible, to which she gladly returns his feelings. Emily soon arrives and sees the two of them together and,
feeling betrayed and hurt, drags Victor back to the Land of the Dead. Victoria tells her parents that Victor has been
forcibly wed to a dead woman, but they believe she has lost her mind and lock her up in her bedroom. She escapes
her room by window and rushes to Galswells to find a way helping Victor, but fails. With Victor gone, Victoria's
parents decide to marry her off to a presumably wealthy newcomer in town named Lord Barkis Bittern (Richard E.
Grant), who appeared at the wedding rehearsal, against her will.
Emily is heartbroken by Victor's deception. Victor, however, apologizes for lying to her, and the two reconcile while
playing the piano together. Shortly after, Victor's family coachman appears in the afterlife (having recently died) and
informs Victor of Victoria's impending marriage to Lord Barkis. At the same time, Emily learns from Elder
Gutknecht that because marriage vows are only binding until "death do you part" and death already parts them, her
supposed marriage to Victor was never valid. In order for their marriage to become valid, Victor must repeat his
vows in the Land of the Living and willingly drink poison - thus joining her in death. Overhearing this, and fretting
about having lost his chance with Victoria, Victor agrees to die for Emily. All of the dead go "upstairs" to the Land
of the Living to perform the wedding ceremony for Victor and Emily. Upon their arrival, the town erupts into a
temporary panic until every living person recognizes each others' loved ones from the dead and they have a joyous
reunion under the bizarre circumstances.
After a quarrel with Lord Barkis - and realizing he was only after her supposed money - Victoria follows the
procession of dead to the church. As Victor prepares to drink the cup of poison to kill himself, Emily notices
Victoria and has second thoughts, realizing that she is denying Victoria her chance at happiness the same way it was
stolen from her. Lord Barkis interrupts them, and Emily recognizes him as her former fiance - who is revealed to be
the one who murdered her for her dowry. Lord Barkis tries to kidnap Victoria at sword point, but Victor stops him
and the two men duel. Emily intercedes to save Victor, and Lord Barkis mockingly proposes a toast to Emily
claiming she's "always the bridesmaid, never the bride!", and accidentally drinking the cup of poison. The dead (now
able to intercede as he's dead) drag the "new arrival" away for punishment.
Emily sets Victor free of his vow to marry her, giving the wedding ring back to Victor and her wedding bouquet to
Victoria before exiting the church. As she steps into the moonlight, she transforms into hundreds of butterflies,
presumably finding peace, as Victor and Victoria look on.
Corpse Bride
• Johnny Depp as Victor Van Dort, a shy and socially awkward young man who is engaged to Victoria Everglot for
financial reasons. He is a very good pianist.
• Helena Bonham Carter as Emily, the Corpse Bride, a beautiful and charismatic young woman with a passion for
music and dance.
• Emily Watson as Victoria Everglot, Victor Van Dort's pretty, sweet-natured, and determined fiancee. She is kind
and shy, and understands Emily's past and love for Victor.
• Tracey Ullman as Nell Van Dort, Victor's socially ambitious mother who holds contempt for her son. Ullman also
plays Hildegarde, the elderly, hunch-backed maid of the Everglot household who acts as a mother figure for
• Paul Whitehouse as William Van Dort, Victor's well meaning yet absent minded father, Mayhew, the Van Dorts'
coachman. Whitehouse also voices Paul the Head Waiter.
• Joanna Lumley as Lady Maudeline Everglot, Victoria's cold, unloving mother.
• Albert Finney as Lord Finis Everglot, Victoria's grim and indifferent father, and Grandfather Everglot, Finis'
deceased grandfather.
• Richard E. Grant as Lord Barkis Bittern, a charming but cowardly and psychopathic con-artist.
• Christopher Lee as Pastor Gallswells, a haughty and bad-tempered priest who is hired to conduct Victor and
Victoria's marriage.
• Michael Gough as Elder Gutknecht, an ancient and rickety skeleton who rules benevolently over the underworld.
• Jane Horrocks as The Black Widow, an affable black widow spider seamstress, and Mrs. Plum, the deceased,
proprietress of the Ball and Socket Pub.
• Enn Reitel as Maggot, a sarcastic, green maggot who lives inside Emily's head and acts as her conscience, and
The Town Crier. Reitel's performance as Maggot is a parody of Peter Lorre.
• Deep Roy as General Bonesapart, a dwarfish skeleton in a military uniform with a sword stuck in his chest. He is
a parody of Napoleon Bonaparte.
• Danny Elfman as Bonejangles, a vivacious, one-eyed, singing skeleton. Modeled loosely on Sammy Davis Jr. due
to his having one eye (Sammy had a glass eye) and an exaggerated underbite.
•• Stephen Ballantyne as Emil, the Everglots' long-suffering butler.
The film is based upon Jewish folklore with a similar plot.
One version of the legend is included in the Shivkhey HoAri, the biographical collection of mystical stories about a
renowned kabbalist, Rabbi Yitzchak Luria Ashkenazi. There, someone jokingly put a ring on a finger sticking from
the ground and pronounced the formal betrothal phrase, thus unwillingly becoming married to a woman from the
underworld who subsequently came to claim him as a husband. The case was brought in front of the Arizal, who
ruled that since the man did not willingly perform the betrothal he was not bound by the marriage, but to be sure that
the woman should remain free to marry one of her kind, the man had to give her a formal divorce according to the
Jewish law.
Corpse Bride
The soundtrack was written by Danny Elfman with the help of John August and released on September 20, 2005. It
contains all of the music from the film including score music and four songs with lyrics sung by voice actors.
The film was a financial success, grossing $53,359,111 domestically and $117,195,061 worldwide. It was also met
with almost universal acclaim from critics. Rotten Tomatoes reported 84% of their critics gave the film a positive
review. The film also maintains a nearly identical 83/100 rating from Metacritic. Roger Ebert of the Chicago
Sun-Times awarded the film three stars out of four, praising the voice acting and animation, stating that it is not a
"macabre horror story as the title suggests", and calling the film a "sweet and visually lovely tale of love lost".
Corpse Bride was released on DVD in the US on January 31, 2006. The film was also released in the discontinued
HD DVD format, and then on Blu-ray Disc. These releases include featurettes on the shooting and production of the
film, as well as the isolated score.
The film was nominated for AFI's 10 Top 10 in the "Animation" genre.
[1] Bowles, Scott (2005-09-27). "Stop-motion coaxes 'Corpse Bride,' 'Gromit' to life" (http:// www. usatoday. com/ life/ movies/ news/
2005-09-27-stop-motion_x. htm). Usatoday.Com. . Retrieved 2011-03-01.
[2] "Corpse Bride (2005) - Box Office Mojo" (http:// www. boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=corpsebride.htm). Box Office Mojo. . Retrieved
[3] "Tim Burton's Corpse Bride "filmed" with EOS-1D Mark II's", Rob Galbraith.com, September 14, 2005 (http:/ / www. robgalbraith.com/
bins/ content_page. asp?cid=7-7886-8022)
[4] "Corpse Bride - About the DVD: Inspiration" (http:/ / corpsebridemovie.warnerbros.com/ dvd.html). .
[5] "י"ראה יחבש" (http:// hebrewbooks. org/pdfpager.aspx?req=3765& st=& pgnum=11). .
[6] "Burton’s ‘Corpse’ Has Jewish Bones" (http:/ / www. jewishjournal.com/ arts/ article/ burtons_corpse_has_jewish_bones_20050916/ ). .
[7] "Tim Burton's Corpse Bride" (http:// rogerebert.suntimes. com/ apps/ pbcs. dll/ article?AID=/20050922/REVIEWS/50921002/ 1023).
Chicago Sun-Times. .
[8] AFI's 10 Top 10 Ballot (http:/ / www. afi. com/ drop/ ballot. pdf)
External links
• Official website (http:// pdl. warnerbros.com/ wbmovies/ corpsebride/ flashsite/ )
• Corpse Bride (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0121164/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Corpse Bride (http:/ / www. allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/ v293765) at AllRovi
• Corpse Bride (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes.com/ m/ corpse_bride/) at Rotten Tomatoes
• Corpse Bride (http:/ / www. metacritic.com/ movie/ corpse-bride) at Metacritic
• Corpse Bride (http:/ / www. boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=corpsebride.htm) at Box Office Mojo
Crack-Up (1936 film)
Crack-Up (1936 film)
1936 Theatrical Poster
Directed by Malcolm St. Clair
Produced by Samuel G. Engel
Cinematography Barney McGill
Editing by Fred Allen
Distributed by 20th Century Fox
Release date(s) 14 December 1936
Running time 65 min.
Country United States
Language English
Crack-Up is a 1936 American film starring Peter Lorre.
Lorre appears as a harmless, half-addled airplane enthusiast, actually a ruthless spy, desperate to get his hands on the
blueprints for an experimental aircraft piloted by Ace Martin (Donlevy).
• Peter Lorre as Colonel Gimpy
• Brian Donlevy as Ace Martin
• Helen Wood as Ruth Franklin
• Ralph Morgan as John R. Fleming
• Thomas Beck as Joe Randall
• Kay Linaker as Mrs. Fleming
• Lester Matthews as Sidney Grant
• Earle Foxe as Operative #30
• J. Carrol Naish as Operative #77
• Gloria Roy as Operative #16
• Oscar Apfel as Alfred Knuxton
• Paul Stanton as Daniel D. Harrington
• Howard C. Hickman as Major White
External links
• Crack-Up (1936 film)
at the Internet Movie Database
[1] http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0027473/
Crime and Punishment (1935 American film)
Crime and Punishment (1935 American film)
Crime and Punishment
Film still with Tala Birell and Douglass Dumbrille
Directed by Josef von Sternberg
Produced by B.P. Schulberg
Written by Joseph Anthony
S.K. Lauren
Starring Peter Lorre
Edward Arnold
Marian Marsh
Tala Birell
Gene Lockhart
Mrs Patrick Campbell
Cinematography Lucien Ballard
Editing by Richard Cahoon
Release date(s) 22 November 1935 (USA)
Running time 88 min.
Country United States
Language English
Crime and Punishment is a 1935 film directed by Josef von Sternberg for Columbia Pictures. The screenplay was
adapted by Joseph Anthony and S.K. Lauren from Fyodor Dostoevsky's novel of the same title. The film stars Peter
Lorre in the lead role of Raskolnikov (here name Roderick instead of Rodion).
Von Sternberg, who was contractually obliged to make the film, disliked it, later writing that is was "no more related
to the true text of the novel than the corner of Sunset Boulevard and Gower is related to the Russian environment."
[1] IMDB trivia (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0026246/ trivia)
External links
• Crime and Punishment (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0026246/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
Der Verlorene
Der Verlorene
Der Verlorene
Directed by Peter Lorre
Produced by Arnold Pressburger
Written by Peter Lorre, Benno Vigny, Axel Eggebrecht
Starring Peter Lorre, Gisela Trowe
Music by Willy Schmidt-Gentner
Release date(s) 1951
Running time 98 min
Country Germany
Language German
Der Verlorene (The Lost One) is a critically acclaimed German language art film in the film noir style. Based on a
true story, Peter Lorre wrote, directed, and starred in this film, his only film as director or writer and his only
German film after .
The film's name has been used (in translation) as the title of his biography.
Told through a series of flashbacks, Dr. Rothe (Peter Lorre) is a German scientist doing secret research for the Nazi
government during World War II. After he discovers that his fiancée was selling secrets to the allies, he murders her.
This is covered up by the German government. After the war, Rothe is working under an alias as a doctor for
displaced persons. After seeing one of the Nazi officers that had covered up his crime, Rothe becomees overcome by
the guilt of his wartime crimes.
• Peter Lorre as Dr. Karl Rothe, alias Dr. Karl Neumeister
• Karl John as Hösch, alias Nowak
• Helmuth Rudolph as Colonel Winkler
• Johanna Hofer as Frau Hermann
•• Renate Mannhardt as Inge Hermann
• Eva Ingeborg Scholz as Ursula Weber
Der Verlorene
[1] http:/ / archive.sensesofcinema. com/ contents/ cteq/ 07/ 45/ verlorene.html
[2] Youngkin, Stephen D. (2005). The Lost One: A Life of Peter Lorre. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 0-813-12360-7.
Further reading
• Article by Robert Keser (http:// archive.sensesofcinema. com/ contents/ cteq/ 07/45/ verlorene.html)
• Review in the New York Times (http:/ / movies. nytimes. com/ movie/
External links
• Der Verlorene (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0044188/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Peter Lorre and "Der Verlorene" (http:// www.peterlorrecompanion.com/ index/ peter_lorre_and_der_verlorene.
Double Confession
Double Confession
Double Confession
Directed by Ken Annakin
Starring Derek Farr
Studio(s) ABPC
Release date(s) 1 May 1950
Country United Kingdom
Language English
Box office
£102,299 (UK)
Double Confession is a 1950 British crime film directed by Ken Annakin and starring Derek Farr, Joan Hopkins,
Peter Lorre and William Hartnell. The screenplay, written by William Templeton, is based on the book All On A
Summer's Day by HLV Fletcher, written under the name,"John Garden".
Double Confession is currently missing from the BFI National Archive, and is listed as one of the British Film
Institute's "75 Most Wanted" lost films.
• Derek Farr as Jim Medway
•• Joan Hopkins as Ann Corday
• Peter Lorre as Paynter
• William Hartnell as Charlie Durham
• Naunton Wayne as Inspector Tenby
• Ronald Howard as Hilary Boscombe
• Kathleen Harrison as Kate
• Leslie Dwyer as Leonard
• Edward Rigby as The Fisherman
• George Woodbridge as Sergeant Swanton
• Henry Edwards as Man in the Shelter
• Vida Hope as Madam Zilia
• Esma Cannon as Madame Cleo
• Mona Washbourne as Fussy Mother
•• Jennifer Cross as Fussy Mother's Child
[1] Vincent Porter, 'The Robert Clark Account', Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television, Vol 20 No 4, 2000 p492
[2] Double Confession - 75 Most Wanted (http:/ / www. bfi.org.uk/ nationalarchive/news/ mostwanted/ double-confession.html) BFI National
External links
• Double Confession (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0042410/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
Eugene Weingand
Eugene Weingand
Eugene Weingand (April 1, 1934 – 1986) was a German actor, known as Peter Lorre Jr.
Weingand was born in Karlsruhe, Germany and immigrated to the U.S. at age 20. Because of his resemblance to
Peter Lorre he began calling himself Peter Lorie Jr. (sic). In 1963 he applied to have his name legally changed to
Peter Lorie Jr., but Peter Lorre objected, as did American International Pictures, which had Lorre under contract.
After a hearing the judge denied Weingand's petition, deciding he was merely trying to cash in on the name.
Weingand was barred from using the name Peter Lorie Jr. without Lorre's permission. Lorre died a few months later
and Weingand began calling himself Peter Lorre Jr (sic), and even began claiming to be the son of the actor. Under
this name he made a handful of film and TV appearances in the 1960s and 70s, and subsequently dropped out of
He had an uncredited appearance in the Alfred Hitchcock movie Torn Curtain as a taxi driver.
He died in Houston, Texas.
[1] http:/ / www.imdb. com/ name/ nm0521137/ bio
[2] http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0061107/ fullcredits#cast
Film noir
Two silhouetted figures in The Big Combo (1955). The film's cinematographer was
John Alton, the creator of many of film noir's stylized images.
Film noir is a cinematic term used primarily
to describe stylish Hollywood crime dramas,
particularly those that emphasize cynical
attitudes and sexual motivations.
Hollywood's classical film noir period is
generally regarded as extending from the
early 1940s to the late 1950s. Film noir of
this era is associated with a low-key
black-and-white visual style that has roots in
German Expressionist cinematography.
Many of the prototypical stories and much
of the attitude of classic noir derive from the
hardboiled school of crime fiction that
emerged in the United States during the
Great Depression.
The term film noir, French for "black film,"
first applied to Hollywood films by French critic Nino Frank in 1946,
was unrecognized by most American film industry professionals of that era.
Cinema historians and critics defined
the category retrospectively. Before the notion was widely adopted in the 1970s, many of the classic films noirs were
referred to as melodramas.
Whether film noir qualifies as a distinct genre is a matter of ongoing debate.
Film noir encompasses a range of plots: the central figure may be a private eye (The Big Sleep), a plainclothes
policeman (The Big Heat), an aging boxer (The Set-Up), a hapless grifter (Night and the City), a law-abiding citizen
lured into a life of crime (Gun Crazy), or simply a victim of circumstance (D.O.A.). Although film noir was
originally associated with American productions, films now so described have been made around the world. Many
pictures released from the 1960s onward share attributes with film noir of the classical period, and often treat its
conventions self-referentially. Some refer to such latter-day works as neo-noir. The clichés of film noir have inspired
Film noir
parody since the mid-1940s.
Problems of definition
The questions of what defines film noir and what sort of category it is provoke continuing debate.
"We'd be
oversimplifying things in calling film noir oneiric, strange, erotic, ambivalent, and cruel": this set of attributes
constitutes the first of many attempts to define film noir made by French critics Raymond Borde and Etienne
Chaumeton in their 1955 book Panorama du film noir américain 1941–1953 (A Panorama of American Film Noir),
the original and seminal extended treatment of the subject.
They emphasize that not every film noir embodies all
five attributes in equal measure—one might be more dreamlike; another, particularly brutal.
The authors' caveats
and repeated efforts at alternative definition have been echoed in subsequent scholarship: in the more than five
decades since, there have been innumerable further attempts at definition, yet in the words of cinema historian Mark
Bould, film noir remains an "elusive phenomenon ... always just out of reach".
Though film noir is often identified with a visual style, unconventional within a Hollywood context, that emphasizes
low-key lighting and unbalanced compositions,
films commonly identified as noir evidence a variety of visual
approaches, including ones that fit comfortably within the Hollywood mainstream.
Film noir similarly embraces a
variety of genres, from the gangster film to the police procedural to the gothic romance to the social problem
picture—any example of which from the 1940s and 1950s, now seen as noir's classical era, was likely to be
described as a "melodrama" at the time.
While many critics refer to film noir as a genre itself, others argue that it
can be no such thing.
While noir is often associated with an urban setting, many classic noirs take place in small
towns, suburbia, rural areas, or on the open road; so setting cannot be its genre determinant, as with the Western.
Similarly, while the private eye and the femme fatale are character types conventionally identified with noir, the
majority of film noirs feature neither; so there is no character basis for genre designation as with the gangster film.
Nor does film noir rely on anything as evident as the monstrous or supernatural elements of the horror film, the
speculative leaps of the science fiction film, or the song-and-dance routines of the musical.
A more analogous case is that of the screwball comedy, widely accepted by film historians as constituting a "genre":
the screwball is defined not by a fundamental attribute, but by a general disposition and a group of elements,
some—but rarely and perhaps never all—of which are found in each of the genre's films.
However, because of
the diversity of noir (much greater than that of the screwball comedy), certain scholars in the field, such as film
historian Thomas Schatz, treat it as not a genre but a "style".
Alain Silver, the most widely published American
critic specializing in film noir studies, refers to film noir as a "cycle"
and a "phenomenon",
even as he argues
that it has—like certain genres—a consistent set of visual and thematic codes.
Other critics treat film noir as a
characterize it as a "series",
or simply address a chosen set of films they regard as belonging to the
noir "canon".
There is no consensus on the matter.
Cinematic sources
Film noir's aesthetics are deeply influenced by German Expressionism, an artistic movement of the 1910s and 1920s
that involved theater, photography, painting, sculpture, and architecture, as well as cinema. The opportunities offered
by the booming Hollywood film industry and, later, the threat of growing Nazi power led to the emigration of many
important film artists working in Germany who had either been directly involved in the Expressionist movement or
studied with its practitioners.
Fritz Lang's M (1931), shot only a few years before his departure from Germany, is
among the first major crime films of the sound era to join a characteristically noirish visual style with a noir-type
plot, one in which the protagonist is a criminal (as are his most successful pursuers).
Directors such as Lang,
Robert Siodmak, and Michael Curtiz brought a dramatically shadowed lighting style and a psychologically
expressive approach to visual composition, or mise-en-scène, with them to Hollywood, where they would make
Film noir
some of the most famous of classic noirs.
By 1931, Curtiz had already been in Hollywood for half a decade, making as many as six films a year. Movies of his
such as 20,000 Years in Sing Sing (1932) and Private Detective 62 (1933) are among the early Hollywood sound
films arguably classifiable as noir—scholar Marc Vernet offers the latter as evidence that dating the initiation of film
noir to 1940 or any other year is "arbitrary".
Giving Expressionist-affiliated filmmakers particularly free stylistic
rein were Universal horror pictures such as Dracula (1931), The Mummy (1932)—the former photographed and the
latter directed by the Berlin-trained Karl Freund—and The Black Cat (1934), directed by Austrian émigré Edgar G.
The Universal horror that comes closest to noir, both in story and sensibility, however, is The Invisible
Man (1933), directed by Englishman James Whale and photographed by American Arthur Edeson. Edeson would
subsequently photograph The Maltese Falcon (1941), widely regarded as the first major film noir of the classic
The "original" femme fatale, Marlene Dietrich,
in a publicity shot for Josef von Sternberg's
melodrama Morocco (1930)
The Vienna-born but largely American-raised Josef von Sternberg was
directing in Hollywood at the same time. Films of his such as Shanghai
Express (1932) and The Devil Is a Woman (1935), with their hothouse
eroticism and baroque visual style, specifically anticipate central
elements of classic noir. The commercial and critical success of
Sternberg's silent Underworld (1927) was largely responsible for
spurring a trend of Hollywood gangster films.
Successful films in
that genre such as Little Caesar (1931), The Public Enemy (1931), and
Scarface (1932) demonstrated that there was an audience for crime
dramas with morally reprehensible protagonists.
An important, and
possibly influential, cinematic antecedent to classic noir was 1930s
French poetic realism, with its romantic, fatalistic attitude and
celebration of doomed heroes.
The movement's sensibility is
mirrored in the Warner Bros. drama I Am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang
(1932), a key forerunner of noir.
Among those films not themselves
considered film noirs, perhaps none had a greater effect on the
development of the genre than Citizen Kane (1941), directed by Orson
Welles. Its visual intricacy and complex, voiceover-driven narrative
structure are echoed in dozens of classic film noirs.
Italian neorealism of the 1940s, with its emphasis on quasi-documentary authenticity, was an acknowledged
influence on trends that emerged in American noir. The Lost Weekend (1945), directed by Billy Wilder, another
Vienna-born, Berlin-trained American auteur, tells the story of an alcoholic in a manner evocative of neorealism.
It also exemplifies the problem of classification: one of the first American films to be described as a film noir, it has
largely disappeared from considerations of the field.
Director Jules Dassin of The Naked City (1948) pointed to
the neorealists as inspiring his use of on-location photography with nonprofessional extras. This semidocumentary
approach characterized a substantial number of noirs in the late 1940s and early 1950s. Along with neorealism, the
style had a homegrown precedent, specifically cited by Dassin, in director Henry Hathaway's The House on 92nd
Street (1945), which demonstrated the parallel influence of the cinematic newsreel.
Film noir
Literary sources
The October 1934 issue of Black Mask featured the
first appearance of the detective character whom
Raymond Chandler would develop into the famous
Philip Marlowe.
The primary literary influence on film noir was the hardboiled
school of American detective and crime fiction, led in its early
years by such writers as Dashiell Hammett (whose first novel, Red
Harvest, was published in 1929) and James M. Cain (whose The
Postman Always Rings Twice appeared five years later), and
popularized in pulp magazines such as Black Mask. The classic
film noirs The Maltese Falcon and The Glass Key (1942) were
based on novels by Hammett; Cain's novels provided the basis for
Double Indemnity (1944), Mildred Pierce (1945), The Postman
Always Rings Twice (1946), and Slightly Scarlet (1956; adapted
from Love's Lovely Counterfeit). A decade before the classic era, a
story of Hammett's was the source for the gangster melodrama
City Streets (1931), directed by Rouben Mamoulian and
photographed by Lee Garmes, who worked regularly with
Sternberg. Wedding a style and story both with many noir
characteristics, released the month before Lang's M, City Streets
has a claim to being the first major film noir.
Raymond Chandler, who debuted as a novelist with The Big Sleep
in 1939, soon became the most famous author of the hardboiled
school. Not only were Chandler's novels turned into major
noirs—Murder, My Sweet (1944; adapted from Farewell, My
Lovely), The Big Sleep (1946), and Lady in the Lake (1947)—he
was an important screenwriter in the genre as well, producing the scripts for Double Indemnity, The Blue Dahlia
(1946), and Strangers on a Train (1951). Where Chandler, like Hammett, centered most of his novels and stories on
the character of the private eye, Cain featured less heroic protagonists and focused more on psychological exposition
than on crime solving;
the Cain approach has come to be identified with a subset of the hardboiled genre dubbed
"noir fiction". For much of the 1940s, one of the most prolific and successful authors of this often downbeat brand of
suspense tale was Cornell Woolrich (sometimes under the pseudonym George Hopley or William Irish). No writer's
published work provided the basis for more film noirs of the classic period than Woolrich's: thirteen in all, including
Black Angel (1946), Deadline at Dawn (1946), and Fear in the Night (1947).
Another crucial literary source for film noir was W. R. Burnett, whose first novel to be published was Little Caesar,
in 1929. It would be turned into a hit for Warner Bros. in 1931; the following year, Burnett was hired to write
dialogue for Scarface, while Beast of the City was adapted from one of his stories. At least one important reference
work identifies the latter as a film noir despite its early date.
Burnett's characteristic narrative approach fell
somewhere between that of the quintessential hardboiled writers and their noir fiction compatriots—his protagonists
were often heroic in their way, a way just happening to be that of the gangster. During the classic era, his work,
either as author or screenwriter, was the basis for seven films now widely regarded as film noirs, including three of
the most famous: High Sierra (1941), This Gun for Hire (1942), and The Asphalt Jungle (1950).
Film noir
Classic period
The 1940s and 1950s are generally regarded as the "classic period" of American film noir. While City Streets and
other pre-WWII crime melodramas such as Fury (1936) and You Only Live Once (1937), both directed by Fritz
Lang, are categorized as full-fledged noir in Alain Silver and Elizabeth Ward's film noir encyclopedia, other critics
tend to describe them as "proto-noir" or in similar terms.
The film now most commonly cited as the first "true"
film noir is Stranger on the Third Floor (1940), directed by Latvian-born, Soviet-trained Boris Ingster.
émigré Peter Lorre—who had starred in Lang's M—was top-billed, though he did not play the lead. He would play
secondary roles in several other formative American noirs. Though modestly budgeted, at the high end of the B
movie scale, Stranger on the Third Floor still lost its studio, RKO, $56,000, almost a third of its total cost.
Variety magazine found Ingster's work "too studied and when original, lacks the flare to hold attention. It's a film too
arty for average audiences, and too humdrum for others."
Stranger on the Third Floor was not recognized as the
beginning of a trend, let alone a new genre, for many decades.
Whoever went to the movies with any regularity during 1946 was caught in the midst of Hollywood's profound postwar affection for
morbid drama. From January through December deep shadows, clutching hands, exploding revolvers, sadistic villains and heroines
tormented with deeply rooted diseases of the mind flashed across the screen in a panting display of psychoneurosis, unsublimated
sex and murder most foul.
Donald Marshman, Life (August 25, 1947)
Most of the film noirs of the classic period were similarly low- and modestly budgeted features without major
stars—B movies either literally or in spirit. In this production context, writers, directors, cinematographers, and other
craftsmen were relatively free from typical big-picture constraints. There was more visual experimentation than in
Hollywood filmmaking as a whole: the Expressionism now closely associated with noir and the semidocumentary
style that later emerged represent two very different tendencies. Narrative structures sometimes involved convoluted
flashbacks uncommon in non-noir commercial productions. In terms of content, enforcement of the Production Code
ensured that no film character could literally get away with murder or be seen sharing a bed with anyone but a
spouse; within those bounds, however, many films now identified as noir feature plot elements and dialogue that
were very risqué for the time.
Out of the Past (1947) features many of the genre's hallmarks: a
cynical private detective as the protagonist, a femme fatale, multiple
flashbacks with voiceover narration, dramatically shadowed
photography, and a fatalistic mood leavened with provocative banter.
The film stars noir icons Robert Mitchum and Jane Greer.
Thematically, film noirs were most exceptional for the
relative frequency with which they centered on women
of questionable virtue—a focus that had become rare in
Hollywood films after the mid-1930s and the end of the
pre-Code era. The signal film in this vein was Double
Indemnity, directed by Billy Wilder; setting the mold
was Barbara Stanwyck's unforgettable femme fatale,
Phyllis Dietrichson—an apparent nod to Marlene
Dietrich, who had built her extraordinary career playing
such characters for Sternberg. An A-level feature all the
way, the film's commercial success and seven Oscar
nominations made it probably the most influential of
the early noirs.
A slew of now-renowned noir "bad
girls" would follow, such as those played by Rita
Hayworth in Gilda (1946), Lana Turner in The
Postman Always Rings Twice (1946), Ava Gardner in
Film noir
The Killers (1946), and Jane Greer in Out of the Past (1947). The iconic noir counterpart to the femme fatale, the
private eye, came to the fore in films such as The Maltese Falcon (1941), with Humphrey Bogart as Sam Spade, and
Murder, My Sweet (1944), with Dick Powell as Philip Marlowe. Other seminal noir sleuths served larger institutions,
such as Dana Andrews's police detective in Laura (1944), Edmond O'Brien's insurance investigator in The Killers,
and Edward G. Robinson's government agent in The Stranger (1946).
The prevalence of the private eye as a lead character declined in film noir of the 1950s, a period during which several
critics describe the form as becoming more focused on extreme psychologies and more exaggerated in general.
prime example is Kiss Me Deadly (1955); based on a novel by Mickey Spillane, the best-selling of all the hardboiled
authors, here the protagonist is a private eye, Mike Hammer. As described by Paul Schrader, "Robert Aldrich's
teasing direction carries noir to its sleaziest and most perversely erotic. Hammer overturns the underworld in search
of the 'great whatsit' [which] turns out to be—joke of jokes—an exploding atomic bomb."
Orson Welles's
baroquely styled Touch of Evil (1958) is frequently cited as the last noir of the classic period.
Some scholars
believe film noir never really ended, but continued to transform even as the characteristic noir visual style began to
seem dated and changing production conditions led Hollywood in different directions—in this view, post-1950s
films in the noir tradition are seen as part of a continuity with classic noir.
A majority of critics, however, regard
comparable films made outside the classic era to be something other than genuine film noirs. They regard true film
noir as belonging to a temporally and geographically limited cycle or period, treating subsequent films that evoke the
classics as fundamentally different due to general shifts in filmmaking style and latter-day awareness of noir as a
historical source for allusion.
Directors and the business of noir
A scene from In a Lonely Place (1950), directed by Nicholas Ray
and based on a novel by noir fiction writer Dorothy B. Hughes. Two
of noir's defining actors, Gloria Grahame and Humphrey Bogart,
portray star-crossed lovers in the film.
While the inceptive noir, Stranger on the Third Floor,
was a B picture directed by a virtual unknown, many of
the film noirs that have earned enduring fame were
A-list productions by name-brand filmmakers.
Debuting as a director with The Maltese Falcon (1941),
John Huston followed with the major noirs Key Largo
(1948) and The Asphalt Jungle (1950). Opinion is
divided on the noir status of several of Alfred
Hitchcock's thrillers from the era; at least four qualify
by consensus: Shadow of a Doubt (1943), Notorious
(1946), Strangers on a Train (1951), and The Wrong
Man (1956).
Otto Preminger's success with Laura
(1944) made his name and helped demonstrate noir's
adaptability to a high-gloss 20th Century-Fox
Among Hollywood's most celebrated
directors of the era, arguably none worked more often in a noir mode than Preminger—his other classic noirs include
Fallen Angel (1945), Whirlpool (1949), Where the Sidewalk Ends (1950) (all for Fox) and Angel Face (1952). A
half-decade after Double Indemnity and The Lost Weekend, Billy Wilder made Sunset Boulevard (1950) and Ace in
the Hole (1951), noirs that were not so much crime dramas as satires on, respectively, Hollywood and the news
media. In a Lonely Place (1950) was Nicholas Ray's breakthrough; his other noirs include his debut, They Live by
Night (1948), and On Dangerous Ground (1952), noted for their unusually sympathetic treatment of characters
alienated from the social mainstream.
Orson Welles had notorious problems with financing, but his three film noirs were well budgeted: The Lady from
Shanghai (1947) received top-level, "prestige" backing, while both The Stranger, his most conventional film, and
Touch of Evil, an unmistakably personal work, were funded at levels lower but still commensurate with headlining
Film noir
Like The Stranger, Fritz Lang's The Woman in the Window (1945) was a production of the independent
International Pictures. Lang's follow-up, Scarlet Street (1945), was one of the few classic noirs to be officially
censored: filled with erotic innuendo, it was temporarily banned in Milwaukee, Atlanta, and New York State.
Scarlet Street was a semi-independent—cosponsored by Universal and Lang's own Diana Productions, of which the
film's costar, Joan Bennett, was the second biggest shareholder. Lang, Bennett, and her husband, Universal veteran
and Diana production head Walter Wanger, would make Secret Beyond the Door (1948) in similar fashion.
Before he was forced abroad for political reasons, director Jules Dassin made two classic noirs that also straddled the
major/independent line: Brute Force (1947) and the influential documentary-style The Naked City were developed
by producer Mark Hellinger, who had an "inside/outside" contract with Universal similar to Wanger's.
earlier, working at Warner Bros., Hellinger had produced three films for Raoul Walsh, the proto-noirs They Drive by
Night (1940) and Manpower (1941), and High Sierra (1941), now regarded as a key work in noir's development.
Walsh had no great name recognition during his half-century as a working director, but his noirs White Heat (1949)
and The Enforcer (1951) had A-list stars and are seen as important examples of the cycle.
In addition to the
aforementioned, other directors associated with top-of-the-bill Hollywood film noirs include Edward Dmytryk
(Murder, My Sweet [1944], Crossfire [1947])—the first important noir director to fall prey to the industry
blacklist—as well as Henry Hathaway (The Dark Corner [1946], Kiss of Death [1947]) and John Farrow (The Big
Clock [1948], Night Has a Thousand Eyes [1948]).
As noted above, however, most of the Hollywood films now considered classic noirs fall into the broad category of
the "B movie".
Some were Bs in the most precise sense, produced to run on the bottom of double bills by a
low-budget unit of one of the major studios or by one of the smaller, so-called Poverty Row outfits, from the
relatively well-off Monogram to shakier ventures such as Producers Releasing Corporation (PRC). Jacques Tourneur
had made over thirty Hollywood Bs (a few now highly regarded, most completely forgotten) before directing the
A-level Out of the Past, described by scholar Robert Ottoson as "the ne plus ultra of forties film noir".
with budgets a step up the ladder, known as "intermediates" within the industry, might be treated as A or B pictures
depending on the circumstance—Monogram created a new unit, Allied Artists, in the late 1940s to focus on this sort
of production. Such films have long colloquially been referred to as B movies. Robert Wise (Born to Kill [1947], The
Set-Up [1949]) and Anthony Mann (T-Men [1947], Raw Deal [1948]) each made a series of impressive
intermediates, many of them noirs, before graduating to steady work on big-budget productions. Mann did some of
his most celebrated work with cinematographer John Alton, a specialist in what critic James Naremore describes as
"hypnotic moments of light-in-darkness".
He Walked by Night (1948), shot by Alton and, though credited solely
to Alfred Werker, directed in large part by Mann, demonstrates their technical mastery and exemplifies the late
1940s trend of "police procedural" crime dramas. Put out, like other Mann–Alton noirs, by the small Eagle-Lion
company, it was the direct inspiration for the Dragnet series, which debuted on radio in 1949 and television in
Film noir
Detour (1945) cost $117,000 to make when the biggest Hollywood
studios spent around $600,000 on the average feature. Produced at
small PRC, however, the film was 30% over budget.
Several directors associated with noir built now
well-respected oeuvres largely at the
B-movie/intermediate level. Samuel Fuller's brutal,
visually energetic films such as Pickup on South Street
(1953) and Underworld U.S.A. (1961) earned him a
unique reputation; his advocates praise him as
and "barbarous".
Joseph H. Lewis
directed noirs as diverse as Gun Crazy (1950) and The
Big Combo (1955). The former—whose screenplay was
written by the blacklisted Dalton Trumbo, disguised by
a front—features a bank holdup sequence shown in an
unbroken take over three minutes long that proved
widely influential.
The latter, shot by John Alton,
takes the shadow-rich noir style to its outer limits.
The most distinctive films of Phil Karlson (The Phenix
City Story [1955], The Brothers Rico [1957]) tell
stories of vice organized on a monstrous scale.
The work of other directors who worked largely at this tier of the
industry, such as Felix E. Feist (The Devil Thumbs a Ride [1947], Tomorrow Is Another Day [1951]), is now
relatively obscure. Edgar G. Ulmer spent almost his entire Hollywood career working at B studios—once in a while
on projects that achieved intermediate status; for the most part, on unmistakable Bs. In 1945, while at PRC, he
directed one of the all-time noir cult classics, Detour.
Ulmer's other noirs include Strange Illusion (1945), also for
PRC; Ruthless (1948), for Eagle-Lion, which had acquired PRC the previous year; and Murder Is My Beat (1955),
for Allied Artists.
A number of low- and modestly budgeted noirs were made by independent, often actor-owned, companies
contracting with one of the larger studios for distribution. Serving as producer, writer, director, and top-billed
performer, Hugo Haas made several such films, including Pickup (1951) and The Other Woman (1954). It was in this
way that accomplished noir actress Ida Lupino established herself as the sole female director in Hollywood during
the late 1940s and much of the 1950s. She does not appear in the best-known film she directed, The Hitch-Hiker
(1953), developed by her company, The Filmakers, with support and distribution by RKO.
It is one of the seven
classic film noirs produced largely outside of the major studios that have been chosen for the United States National
Film Registry. Of the others, one was a small-studio release: Detour. Four were independent productions distributed
by United Artists, the "studio without a studio": Gun Crazy; Kiss Me Deadly; D.O.A. (1950), directed by Rudolph
Maté; and Sweet Smell of Success (1957), directed by Alexander Mackendrick. One was an independent distributed
by MGM, the industry leader: Force of Evil (1948), directed by Abraham Polonsky and starring John Garfield, both
of whom would be blacklisted in the 1950s.
Independent production usually meant restricted circumstances, but
not always—Sweet Smell of Success, for instance, despite the original plans of the production team, was clearly not
made on the cheap, though like many other cherished A-budget noirs it might be said to have a B-movie soul.
Perhaps no director better displayed that spirit than the German-born Robert Siodmak, who had already made a score
of films before his 1940 arrival in Hollywood. Working mostly on A features, he made no fewer than eight films
now regarded as classic-era film noirs (a figure matched only by Lang and Mann).
In addition to The Killers, Burt
Lancaster's debut and a Hellinger/Universal coproduction, Siodmak's other important contributions to the genre
include 1944's Phantom Lady (a top-of-the-line B and Woolrich adaptation), the ironically titled Christmas Holiday
(1944), and Cry of the City (1948). Criss Cross (1949), with Lancaster again the lead, exemplifies how Siodmak
brought the virtues of the B-movie to the A noir. In addition to the relatively looser constraints on character and
message at lower budgets, the nature of B production lent itself to the noir style for directly economic reasons: dim
lighting not only saved on electrical costs but helped cloak cheap sets (mist and smoke also served the cause); night
Film noir
shooting was often compelled by hurried production schedules; plots with obscure motivations and intriguingly
elliptical transitions were sometimes the consequence of hastily written scripts, of which there was not always
enough time or money to shoot every scene. In Criss Cross, Siodmak achieves all these effects with purpose,
wrapping them around Yvonne De Carlo, playing the most understandable of femme fatales, Dan Duryea, in one of
his many charismatic villain roles, and Lancaster—already an established star—as an ordinary laborer turned armed
robber, doomed by a romantic obsession.
Classic-era film noirs in the National Film Registry
1940–49 The Maltese Falcon | Shadow of a Doubt | Laura | Double Indemnity | Mildred Pierce | The Lost Weekend
Detour | The Big Sleep | The Killers | Notorious | Out of the Past | Force of Evil | The Naked City | White Heat
1950–58 Gun Crazy | D.O.A. | In a Lonely Place | The Asphalt Jungle | Sunset Boulevard
The Hitch-Hiker | The Big Heat | Kiss Me Deadly | The Night of the Hunter | Sweet Smell of Success | Touch of Evil
Outside the United States
Some critics regard classic film noir as a cycle exclusive to the United States; Alain Silver and Elizabeth Ward, for
example, argue, "With the Western, film noir shares the distinction of being an indigenous American form ... a
wholly American film style."
Others, however, regard noir as an international phenomenon.
Even before the
beginning of the generally accepted classic period, there were films made far from Hollywood that can be seen in
retrospect as film noirs, for example, the French productions Pépé le Moko (1937), directed by Julien Duvivier, and
Le Jour se lève (1939), directed by Marcel Carné.
During the classic period, there were many films produced outside the United States, particularly in France, that
share elements of style, theme, and sensibility with American film noirs and may themselves be included in the
genre's canon. In certain cases, the interrelationship with Hollywood noir is obvious: American-born director Jules
Dassin moved to France in the early 1950s as a result of the Hollywood blacklist, and made one of the most famous
French film noirs, Rififi (1955). Other well-known French films often classified as noir include Quai des Orfèvres
(1947) and Les Diaboliques (1955), both directed by Henri-Georges Clouzot; Casque d'or (1952) and Touchez pas
au grisbi (1954), both directed by Jacques Becker; and Ascenseur pour l'échafaud (1958), directed by Louis Malle.
French director Jean-Pierre Melville is widely recognized for his tragic, minimalist film noirs—Bob le flambeur
(1955), from the classic period, was followed by Le Doulos (1962), Le deuxième souffle (1966), Le Samouraï (1967),
and Le Cercle rouge (1970).
Scholar Andrew Spicer argues that British film noir evidences a greater debt to French poetic realism than to the
expressionistic American mode of noir.
Examples of British noir from the classic period include Brighton Rock
(1947), directed by John Boulting; They Made Me a Fugitive (1947), directed by Alberto Cavalcanti; The Small Back
Room (1948), directed by Michael Powell and Emeric Pressburger; The October Man (1950), directed by Roy Ward
Baker; and Cast a Dark Shadow (1955), directed by Lewis Gilbert. Terence Fisher directed several low-budget
thrillers in a noir mode for Hammer Film Productions, including The Last Page (aka Man Bait; 1952), Stolen Face
(1952), and Murder by Proxy (aka Blackout; 1954). Before leaving for France, Jules Dassin had been obliged by
political pressure to shoot his last English-language film of the classic noir period in Great Britain: Night and the
City (1950). Though it was conceived in the United States and was not only directed by an American but also stars
two American actors—Richard Widmark and Gene Tierney—it is technically a UK production, financed by 20th
Century-Fox's British subsidiary. The most famous of classic British noirs is director Carol Reed's The Third Man
(1949), like Brighton Rock based on a Graham Greene novel. Set in Vienna immediately after World War II, it also
stars two American actors, Joseph Cotten and Orson Welles, who had appeared together in Citizen Kane.
Elsewhere, Italian director Luchino Visconti adapted Cain's The Postman Always Rings Twice as Ossessione (1943),
regarded both as one of the great noirs and a seminal film in the development of neorealism.
(This was not even
the first screen version of Cain's novel, having been preceded by the French Le Dernier tournant in 1939.)
Film noir
Japan, the celebrated Akira Kurosawa directed several films recognizable as film noirs, including Drunken Angel
(1948), Stray Dog (1949), The Bad Sleep Well (1960), and High and Low (1963).
Among the first major neo-noir films—the term often applied to films that consciously refer back to the classic noir
tradition—was the French Tirez sur le pianiste (1960), directed by François Truffaut from a novel by one of the
gloomiest of American noir fiction writers, David Goodis.
Noir crime films and melodramas have been produced
in many countries in the post-classic area. Some of these are quintessentially self-aware neo-noirs—for example, Il
Conformista (1969; Italy), Der Amerikanische Freund (1977; Germany), The Element of Crime (1984; Denmark), As
Tears Go By (1988; Hong Kong), and El Aura (2005; Argentina). Others simply share narrative elements and a
version of the hardboiled sensibility associated with classic noir, such as The Castle of Sand (1974; Japan), Insomnia
(1997; Norway), Croupier (1998; UK), Blind Shaft (2003; China), and The Square (2008; Australia).
Neo-noir and echoes of the classic mode
1960s and 1970s
While it is hard to draw a line between some of the noir films of the early 1960s such as Blast of Silence (1961) and
Cape Fear (1962) and the noirs of the late 1950s, new trends emerged in the post-classic era. The Manchurian
Candidate (1962), directed by John Frankenheimer, Shock Corridor (1962), directed by Samuel Fuller, and
Brainstorm (1965), directed by experienced noir character actor William Conrad, all treat the theme of mental
dispossession within stylistic and tonal frameworks derived from classic film noir. The television series The Fugitive
(1963–67) brought classic noir themes and mood to the small screen for an extended run.
In a different vein, films began to appear that self-consciously acknowledged the conventions of classic film noir as
historical archetypes to be revived, rejected, or reimagined. These efforts typify what came to be known as
Though several late classic noirs, Kiss Me Deadly in particular, were deeply self-knowing and
post-traditional in conception, none tipped its hand so evidently as to be remarked on by American critics at the
The first major film to overtly work this angle was French director Jean-Luc Godard's À bout de souffle
(Breathless; 1960), which pays its literal respects to Bogart and his crime films while brandishing a bold new style
for a new day.
In the United States, Arthur Penn (Mickey One [1964], drawing inspiration from Truffaut's Tirez
sur le pianiste and other French New Wave films), John Boorman (Point Blank [1967], similarly caught up, though
in the Nouvelle vague's deeper waters), and Alan J. Pakula (Klute [1971]) directed films that knowingly related
themselves to the original film noirs, inviting audiences in on the game.
A manifest affiliation with noir traditions—which, by its nature, allows different sorts of commentary on them to be
inferred—can also provide the basis for explicit critiques of those traditions. In 1973, director Robert Altman flipped
off noir piety with The Long Goodbye. Based on the novel by Raymond Chandler, it features one of Bogart's most
famous characters, but in iconoclastic fashion: Philip Marlowe, the prototypical hardboiled detective, is replayed as a
hapless misfit, almost laughably out of touch with contemporary mores and morality.
Where Altman's subversion
of the film noir mythos was so irreverent as to outrage some contemporary critics,
around the same time Woody
Allen was paying affectionate, at points idolatrous homage to the classic mode with Play It Again, Sam (1972).
The most acclaimed of the neo-noirs of the era was director Roman Polanski's 1974 Chinatown. Written by Robert
Towne, it is set in 1930s Los Angeles, an accustomed noir locale nudged back some few years in a way that makes
the pivotal loss of innocence in the story even crueler. Where Polanski and Towne raised noir to a black apogee by
turning rearward, director Martin Scorsese and screenwriter Paul Schrader brought the noir attitude crashing into the
present day with Taxi Driver (1976), a cackling, bloody-minded gloss on bicentennial America.
In 1978, Walter
Hill wrote and directed The Driver, a chase film as might have been imagined by Jean-Pierre Melville in an
especially abstract mood.
Hill was already a central figure in 1970s noir of a more straightforward manner, having written the script for
director Sam Peckinpah's The Getaway (1972), adapting a novel by pulp master Jim Thompson, as well as for two
Film noir
tough private eye films: an original screenplay for Hickey & Boggs (1972) and an adaptation of a novel by Ross
Macdonald, the leading literary descendant of Hammett and Chandler, for The Drowning Pool (1975). Some of the
strongest 1970s noirs, in fact, were unwinking remakes of the classics, "neo" mostly by default: the heartbreaking
Thieves Like Us (1973), directed by Altman from the same source as Ray's They Live by Night, and Farewell, My
Lovely (1975), the Chandler tale made classically as Murder, My Sweet, remade here with Robert Mitchum in his last
notable noir role.
Detective series, prevalent on American television during the period, updated the hardboiled
tradition in different ways, but the show conjuring the most noir tone was a horror crossover touched with shaggy,
Long Goodbye–style humor: Kolchak: The Night Stalker (1974–75), featuring a Chicago newspaper reporter
investigating strange, usually supernatural occurrences.
1980s and 1990s
The turn of the decade brought Scorsese's black-and-white Raging Bull (cowritten by Schrader); an acknowledged
masterpiece—the American Film Institute ranks it as the greatest American film of the 1980s and the fourth greatest
of all time—it is also a retreat, telling a story of a boxer's moral self-destruction that recalls in both theme and visual
ambience noir dramas such as Body and Soul (1947) and Champion (1949).
From 1981, the popular Body Heat,
written and directed by Lawrence Kasdan, invokes a different set of classic noir elements, this time in a humid,
erotically charged Florida setting; its success confirmed the commercial viability of neo-noir, at a time when the
major Hollywood studios were becoming increasingly risk averse. The live-action/animated Who Framed Roger
Rabbit is considered film noir in many aspects,
in that there is a protagonist detective, an unsolved murder crime
which resulted from the cynical attitude of an antagonist, suspense building music, a femme fatale and takes place in
the late 1940s. The mainstreaming of neo-noir is evident in such films as Black Widow (1987), Shattered (1991), and
Final Analysis (1992).
Few neo-noirs have made more money or more wittily updated the tradition of the noir
double-entendre than Basic Instinct (1992), directed by Paul Verhoeven and written by Joe Eszterhas.
The film
also demonstrates how neo-noir's polychrome palette can reproduce many of the expressionistic effects of classic
black-and-white noir.
Poison Ivy (1992) makes use of similar devices executed in Basic Instinct, including a shady,
seductive femme-fatale with ulterior motives.
Among big-budget auteurs, Michael Mann has worked frequently in a neo-noir mode, with such films as Thief
(1981) and Heat (1995) and the TV series Miami Vice (1984–89) and Crime Story (1986–88). Mann's output
exemplifies a primary strain of neo-noir, in which classic themes and tropes are revisited in a contemporary setting
with an up-to-date visual style and rock- or hip hop–based musical soundtrack.
Like Chinatown, its more
complex predecessor, Curtis Hanson's Oscar-winning L.A. Confidential (1997), based on the James Ellroy novel,
demonstrates an opposite tendency—the deliberately retro film noir; its tale of corrupt cops and femme fatales is
seemingly lifted straight from a film of 1953, the year in which it is set.
Director David Fincher followed the
immensely successful neo-noir Se7en (1995) with a film that developed into a cult favorite after its original,
disappointing release: Fight Club (1999) is a sui generis mix of noir aesthetic, perverse comedy, speculative content,
and satiric intent.
Working generally with much smaller budgets, brothers Joel and Ethan Coen have created one
of the most extensive film oeuvres influenced by classic noir, with films such as Blood Simple (1984) and Fargo
(1996), considered by some a supreme work in the neo-noir mode.
The Coens cross noir with other generic lines
in the gangster drama Miller's Crossing (1990)—loosely based on the Dashiell Hammett novels Red Harvest and The
Glass Key—and the comedy The Big Lebowski (1998), a tribute to Chandler and an homage to Altman's version of
The Long Goodbye.
The characteristic work of David Lynch combines film noir tropes with scenarios driven by
disturbed characters such as the sociopathic criminal played by Dennis Hopper in Blue Velvet (1986) and the
delusionary protagonist of Lost Highway (1996). The Twin Peaks cycle, both TV series (1990–91) and film, Fire
Walk with Me (1992), puts a detective plot through a succession of bizarre spasms. David Cronenberg also mixes
surrealism and noir in Naked Lunch (1991), inspired by the William S. Burroughs novel.
Perhaps no American neo-noirs better reflect the classic noir A-movie-with-a-B-movie-soul than those of
director-writer Quentin Tarantino;
neo-noirs of his such as Reservoir Dogs (1992) and Pulp Fiction (1994)
Film noir
display a relentlessly self-reflexive, sometimes tongue-in-cheek sensibility, similar to the work of the New Wave
directors and the Coens. Other films from the era readily identifiable as neo-noir (some retro, some more au courant)
include director John Dahl's Kill Me Again (1989), Red Rock West (1992), The Last Seduction (1993), To Die For
(1995), and A Perfect Murder (1998); four adaptations of novels by Jim Thompson—The Kill-Off (1989), After
Dark, My Sweet (1990), The Grifters (1990), and the remake of The Getaway (1994); and many more, including
adaptations of the work of other major noir fiction writers: The Hot Spot (1990), from Hell Hath No Fury, by Charles
Williams; Miami Blues (1990), from the novel by Charles Willeford; and Out of Sight (1998), from the novel by
Elmore Leonard. Several films by director-writer David Mamet involve noir elements: House of Games (1987),
Homicide (1991), The Spanish Prisoner (1997), and Heist (2001).
On television, Remington Steele
and Moonlighting (1985–89) paid homage to classic noir while demonstrating an unusual
appreciation of the sense of humor often found in the original cycle.
Between 1983 and 1989, Mickey Spillane's
hardboiled private eye Mike Hammer was played with wry gusto by Stacy Keach in a series and several stand-alone
television films (an unsuccessful revival followed in 1997–98). The British miniseries The Singing Detective (1986),
written by Dennis Potter, tells the story of a mystery writer named Philip Marlow; widely considered one of the
finest neo-noirs in any medium, some critics rank it among the greatest television productions of all time.
The Coens' referenced the noir tradition again with The Man Who Wasn't There (2001); a black-and-white crime
melodrama set in 1949, it features a scene apparently staged to mirror the one from Out of the Past pictured above.
Lynch's Mulholland Drive (2001) continued in his characteristic vein, making the classic noir setting of Los Angeles
the venue for a noir-inflected psychological jigsaw puzzle. British-born director Christopher Nolan's black-and-white
debut, Following (1998), was an overt homage to classic noir. During the new century's first decade, he was one of
the leading Hollywood directors of neo-noir with the acclaimed Memento (2000), the remake of Insomnia (2002),
and his dark-toned superhero films, Batman Begins (2005) and The Dark Knight (2008).
Director Sean Penn's The Pledge (2001), though adapted from a very self-reflexive novel by Friedrich Dürrenmatt,
plays noir comparatively straight, to devastating effect.
Screenwriter David Ayer updated the classic noir
bad-cop tale, typified by Shield for Murder (1954) and Rogue Cop (1954), with his scripts for Training Day (2001)
and, adapting a story by James Ellroy, Dark Blue (2002); he later wrote and directed the even darker Harsh Times
(2006). Michael Mann's Collateral (2004) features a performance by Tom Cruise as an assassin in the lineage of Le
Samouraï. The torments of The Machinist (2004), directed by Brad Anderson, evoke both Fight Club and
In 2005, Shane Black directed Kiss Kiss Bang Bang, basing his screenplay in part on a crime novel by
Brett Halliday, who published his first stories back in the 1920s. The film plays with an awareness not only of classic
noir but also of neo-noir reflexivity itself.
With ultra-violent films such as Sympathy for Mr. Vengeance (2002)
and Thirst (2009), Park Chan-wook of South Korea has been the most prominent director outside of the United
States to work regularly in a noir mode in the new millennium.
The most commercially successful neo-noir of
this period has been Sin City (2005), directed by Robert Rodriguez in extravagantly stylized black and white with the
odd bit of color.
The film is based on a series of comic books created by Frank Miller (credited as the film's
codirector), which are in turn openly indebted to the works of Spillane and other pulp mystery authors.
Similarly, graphic novels provide the basis for Road to Perdition (2002), directed by Sam Mendes, and A History of
Violence (2005), directed by David Cronenberg; the latter was voted best film of the year in the annual Village Voice
Writer-director Rian Johnson's Brick (2005), featuring present-day high schoolers speaking a version of
1930s hardboiled argot, won the Special Jury Prize for Originality of Vision at the Sundance Film Festival. The
television series Veronica Mars (2004–7) also brought a youth-oriented twist to film noir. Examples of this sort of
generic crossover have been dubbed teen noir.
Film noir
Science fiction noir
In the post-classic era, a significant trend in noir crossovers has involved science fiction. In Jean-Luc Godard's
Alphaville (1965), Lemmy Caution is the name of the old-school private eye in the city of tomorrow. The
Groundstar Conspiracy (1972) centers on another implacable investigator and an amnesiac named Welles. Soylent
Green (1973), the first major American example, portrays a dystopian, near-future world via a self-evidently noir
detection plot; starring Charlton Heston (the lead in Touch of Evil), it also features classic noir standbys Joseph
Cotten, Edward G. Robinson, and Whit Bissell. The film was directed by Richard Fleischer, who two decades before
had directed several strong B noirs, including Armored Car Robbery (1950) and The Narrow Margin (1952).
The cynical and stylish perspective of classic film noir had a formative effect on the cyberpunk genre of science
fiction that emerged in the early 1980s; the film most directly influential on cyberpunk was Blade Runner (1982),
directed by Ridley Scott, which pays evocative homage to the classic noir mode
(Scott would subsequently
direct the poignant noir crime melodrama Someone to Watch Over Me [1987]). Scholar Jamaluddin Bin Aziz has
observed how "the shadow of Philip Marlowe lingers on" in such other "future noir" films as Twelve Monkeys
(1995), Dark City (1998), and Minority Report (2002).
Fincher's feature debut was Alien 3 (1992), which evoked
the classic noir jail film Brute Force.
Cronenberg's Crash (1996), an adaptation of the speculative novel by J. G. Ballard, has been described as a "film
noir in bruise tones".
The hero is the target of investigation in Gattaca (1997), which fuses film noir motifs with
a scenario indebted to Brave New World. The Thirteenth Floor (1999), like Blade Runner, is an explicit homage to
classic noir, in this case involving speculations about virtual reality. Science fiction, noir, and anime are brought
together in the Japanese films Ghost in the Shell (1995) and Ghost in the Shell 2: Innocence (2004), both directed by
Mamoru Oshii. Anime television series with science fiction noir themes include Cowboy Bebop (1998), The Big O
(1999), and Noir (2001).
Film noir has been parodied many times, in many manners. In 1945, Danny Kaye starred in what appears to be the
first intentional film noir parody, Wonder Man.
That same year, Deanna Durbin was the singing lead in the
comedic noir Lady on a Train, which makes fun of Woolrich-brand wistful miserablism. Bob Hope inaugurated the
private-eye noir parody with My Favorite Brunette (1947), playing a baby photographer who is mistaken for an
ironfisted detective.
In 1947 as well, The Bowery Boys appeared in Hard Boiled Mahoney, which had a similar
mistaken-identity plot; they spoofed the genre once more in 1953's Private Eyes (1953). Two RKO productions
starring Robert Mitchum take film noir over the border into self-parody: The Big Steal (1949), directed by Don
Siegel, and His Kind of Woman (1951).
The "Girl Hunt" ballet in Vincente Minnelli's The Band Wagon (1953) is a
ten-minute distillation of—and play on—noir in dance.
The Cheap Detective (1978), starring Peter Falk, is a
broad spoof of several films, including the Bogart classics The Maltese Falcon and Casablanca. Carl Reiner's
black-and-white Dead Men Don't Wear Plaid (1982) appropriates clips of classic noirs for a farcical pastiche, while
his Fatal Instinct (1993) sends up noirs both classic (Double Indemnity) and neo (Basic Instinct). Robert Zemeckis's
Who Framed Roger Rabbit? (1988) develops a noir plot set in 1940s L.A. around a host of cartoon characters.
Film noir
"Loneliness has followed me my whole life, everywhere. In
bars, in cars, sidewalks, stores, everywhere. There's no
escape. I'm God's lonely man." Robert De Niro as neo-noir
antihero Travis Bickle in Taxi Driver (1976).
Noir parodies come in darker tones as well. Murder by
Contract (1958), directed by Irving Lerner, is a deadpan joke
on noir, with a denouement as bleak as any of the films it kids.
An ultra-low-budget Columbia Pictures production, it may
qualify as the first intentional example of what is now called a
neo-noir film; it was likely a source of inspiration for both
Melville's Le Samouraï and Scorsese's Taxi Driver.
Belying its parodic strain, The Long Goodbye's final act is
seriously grave. Taxi Driver caustically deconstructs the "dark"
crime film, taking it to an absurd extreme and then offering a
conclusion that manages to mock every possible anticipated
ending—triumphant, tragic, artfully ambivalent—while being
each, all at once.
Flirting with splatter status even more
brazenly, the Coens' Blood Simple is both an exacting pastiche
and a gross exaggeration of classic noir.
Adapted by director Robinson Devor from a novel by Charles
Willeford, The Woman Chaser (1999) sends up not just the noir mode but the entire Hollywood filmmaking process,
with seemingly each shot staged as the visual equivalent of an acerbic Marlowe wisecrack.
In other media, the television series Sledge Hammer! (1986–88) lampoons noir, along with such topics as capital
punishment, gun fetishism, and Dirty Harry. Sesame Street (1969–curr.) occasionally casts Kermit the Frog as a
private eye; the sketches refer to some of the typical motifs of noir films, in particular the voiceover. Garrison
Keillor's radio program A Prairie Home Companion features the recurring character Guy Noir, a hardboiled
detective whose adventures always wander into farce (Guy also appears in the Altman-directed film based on
Keillor's show). Firesign Theatre's Nick Danger has trod the same not-so-mean streets, both on radio and in comedy
albums. Cartoons such as Garfield's Babes and Bullets (1989) and comic strip characters such as Tracer Bullet of
Calvin and Hobbes have parodied both film noir and the kindred hardboiled tradition—one of the sources from
which film noir sprang and which it now overshadows.
Identifying characteristics
Some consider Vertigo (1958) a noir on the basis of plot and tone and
various motifs. Others say the combination of color and the
specificity of director Alfred Hitchcock's vision exclude it from the
In their original 1955 canon of film noir, Raymond
Borde and Etienne Chaumeton identified twenty-two
Hollywood films released between 1941 and 1952 as
core examples; they listed another fifty-nine American
films from the period as significantly related to the
field of noir.
A half-century later, film historians
and critics had come to agree on a canon of
approximately three hundred films from 1940–58.
There remain, however, many differences of opinion
over whether other films of the era, among them a
number of well-known ones, qualify as film noirs or
not. For instance, The Night of the Hunter (1955),
starring Robert Mitchum in an acclaimed performance,
is treated as a film noir by some critics, but not by
Some critics include Suspicion (1941),
Film noir
directed by Alfred Hitchcock, in their catalogues of noir; others ignore it.
Concerning films made either before
or after the classic period, or outside of the United States at any time, consensus is even rarer.
To support their categorization of certain films as noirs and their rejection of others, many critics refer to a set of
elements they see as marking examples of the mode. The question of what constitutes the set of noir's identifying
characteristics is a fundamental source of controversy. For instance, critics tend to define the model film noir as
having a tragic or bleak conclusion,
but many acknowledged classics of the genre have clearly happy endings
(e.g., Stranger on the Third Floor, The Big Sleep, Dark Passage, and The Dark Corner), while the tone of many
other noir denouements is ambivalent.
Some critics perceive classic noir's hallmark as a distinctive visual style.
Others, observing that there is actually considerable stylistic variety among noirs, instead emphasize plot and
character type. Still others focus on mood and attitude. No survey of classic noir's identifying characteristics can
therefore be considered definitive. In the 1990s and 2000s, critics have increasingly turned their attention to that
diverse field of films called neo-noir; once again, there is even less consensus about the defining attributes of such
films made outside the classic period.
Visual style
Shadows of window blinds fall upon private eye Jake Gittes,
performed by Jack Nicholson, in Chinatown (1974).
The low-key lighting schemes of many classic film
noirs are associated with stark light/dark contrasts and
dramatic shadow patterning—a style known as
chiaroscuro (a term adopted from Renaissance
The shadows of Venetian blinds or banister
rods, cast upon an actor, a wall, or an entire set, are an
iconic visual in noir and had already become a cliché
well before the neo-noir era. Characters' faces may be
partially or wholly obscured by darkness—a relative
rarity in conventional Hollywood filmmaking. While
black-and-white cinematography is considered by
many to be one of the essential attributes of classic
noir, the color films Leave Her to Heaven (1945) and
Niagara (1953) are routinely included in noir
filmographies, while Slightly Scarlet (1956), Party Girl
(1958), and Vertigo (1958) are classified as noir by varying numbers of critics.
Film noir is also known for its use of low-angle, wide-angle, and skewed, or Dutch angle shots. Other devices of
disorientation relatively common in film noir include shots of people reflected in one or more mirrors, shots through
curved or frosted glass or other distorting objects (such as during the strangulation scene in Strangers on a Train),
and special effects sequences of a sometimes bizarre nature. Night-for-night shooting, as opposed to the Hollywood
norm of day-for-night, was often employed.
From the mid-1940s forward, location shooting became increasingly
frequent in noir.
In an analysis of the visual approach of Kiss Me Deadly, a late and self-consciously stylized example of classic noir,
critic Alain Silver describes how cinematographic choices emphasize the story's themes and mood. In one scene, the
characters, seen through a "confusion of angular shapes", thus appear "caught in a tangible vortex or enclosed in a
trap." Silver makes a case for how "side light is used ... to reflect character ambivalence", while shots of characters in
which they are lit from below "conform to a convention of visual expression which associates shadows cast upward
of the face with the unnatural and ominous".
Film noir
Structure and narrational devices
Barbara Stanwyck and Burt Lancaster were two of the most prolific
stars of classic noir. The complex structure of Sorry, Wrong Number
(1948) involves a real-time framing story, multiple narrators, and
flashbacks within flashbacks.
Film noirs tend to have unusually convoluted story
lines, frequently involving flashbacks and other editing
techniques that disrupt and sometimes obscure the
narrative sequence. Framing the entire primary
narrative as a flashback is also a standard device.
Voiceover narration, sometimes used as a structuring
device, came to be seen as a noir hallmark; while
classic noir is generally associated with first-person
narration (i.e., by the protagonist), Stephen Neale notes
that third-person narration is common among noirs of
the semidocumentary style.
Neo-noirs as varied as
The Element of Crime (surrealist), After Dark, My
Sweet (retro), and Kiss Kiss Bang Bang (meta) have
employed the flashback/voiceover combination.
Bold experiments in cinematic storytelling were
sometimes attempted during the classic era: Lady in the
Lake, for example, is shot entirely from the point of view of protagonist Philip Marlowe; the face of star (and
director) Robert Montgomery is seen only in mirrors.
The Chase (1946) takes oneirism and fatalism as the basis
for its fantastical narrative system, redolent of certain horror stories, but with little precedent in the context of a
putatively realistic genre. In their different ways, both Sunset Boulevard and D.O.A. are tales told by dead men.
Latter-day noir has been in the forefront of structural experimentation in popular cinema, as exemplified by such
films as Pulp Fiction, Fight Club, and Memento.
Plots, characters, and settings
Crime, usually murder, is an element of almost all films noir; in addition to standard-issue greed, jealousy is
frequently the criminal motivation. A crime investigation—by a private eye, a police detective (sometimes acting
alone), or a concerned amateur—is the most prevalent, but far from dominant, basic plot. In other common plots the
protagonists are implicated in heists or con games, or in murderous conspiracies often involving adulterous affairs.
False suspicions and accusations of crime are frequent plot elements, as are betrayals and double-crosses. According
to J. David Slocum, "protagonists assume the literal identities of dead men in nearly fifteen percent of all noir."
Amnesia is fairly epidemic—"noir's version of the common cold", in the words of film historian Lee Server.
Film noir
By the late 1940s, the noir trend was leaving its mark on other
genres. A prime example is the Western Pursued (1947),
filled with psychosexual tensions and behavioral explanations
derived from Freudian theory.
Films noir tend to revolve around heroes who are more
flawed and morally questionable than the norm, often fall
guys of one sort or another. The characteristic protagonists of
noir are described by many critics as "alienated";
in the
words of Silver and Ward, "filled with existential
Certain archetypal characters appear in many
films noir—hardboiled detectives, femme fatales, corrupt
policemen, jealous husbands, intrepid claims adjusters, and
down-and-out writers. Among characters of every stripe,
cigarette smoking is rampant.
From historical
commentators to neo-noir pictures to pop culture ephemera,
the private eye and the femme fatale have been adopted as
the quintessential film noir figures, though they do not
appear in most films now regarded as classic noir. Of the
twenty-three National Film Registry noirs, in only four does
the star play a private eye: The Maltese Falcon, The Big
Sleep, Out of the Past, and Kiss Me Deadly. Just four others
readily qualify as detective stories: Laura, The Killers, The
Naked City, and Touch of Evil.
Film noir is often associated with an urban setting, and a few cities—Los Angeles, San Francisco, New York, and
Chicago, in particular—are the location of many of the classic films. In the eyes of many critics, the city is presented
in noir as a "labyrinth" or "maze".
Bars, lounges, nightclubs, and gambling dens are frequently the scene of
action. The climaxes of a substantial number of films noir take place in visually complex, often industrial settings,
such as refineries, factories, trainyards, power plants—most famously the explosive conclusion of White Heat, set at
a chemical plant.
In the popular (and, frequently enough, critical) imagination, in noir it is always night and it
always rains.
A substantial trend within latter-day noir—dubbed "film soleil" by critic D. K. Holm—heads in precisely the
opposite direction, with tales of deception, seduction, and corruption exploiting bright, sun-baked settings,
stereotypically the desert or open water, to searing effect. Significant predecessors from the classic and early
post-classic eras include The Lady from Shanghai; the Robert Ryan vehicle Inferno (1953); the French adaptation of
Patricia Highsmith's The Talented Mr. Ripley, Plein soleil (Purple Noon in the U.S., more accurately rendered
elsewhere as Blazing Sun or Full Sun; 1960); and director Don Siegel's version of The Killers (1964). The tendency
was at its peak during the late 1980s and 1990s, with films such as Dead Calm (1989); After Dark, My Sweet; The
Hot Spot; Delusion (1991); and Red Rock West, and TV's Miami Vice.
Worldview, morality, and tone
Film noir is often described as essentially pessimistic.
The noir stories that are regarded as most characteristic
tell of people trapped in unwanted situations (which, in general, they did not cause but are responsible for
exacerbating), striving against random, uncaring fate, and frequently doomed. The films are seen as depicting a
world that is inherently corrupt.
Classic film noir has been associated by many critics with the American social
landscape of the era—in particular, with a sense of heightened anxiety and alienation that is said to have followed
World War II. In author Nicholas Christopher's opinion, "it is as if the war, and the social eruptions in its aftermath,
unleashed demons that had been bottled up in the national psyche."
Film noirs, especially those of the 1950s and
the height of the Red Scare, are often said to reflect cultural paranoia; Kiss Me Deadly is the noir most frequently
marshaled as evidence for this claim.
Film noir
"You've got a touch of class, but I don't know how far you can go."
"A lot depends on who's in the saddle." Bogart and Bacall in The Big
Film noir is often said to be defined by "moral
yet the Production Code obliged
almost all classic noirs to see that steadfast virtue was
ultimately rewarded and vice, in the absence of shame
and redemption, severely punished (however
dramatically incredible the final rendering of
mandatory justice might be). A substantial number of
latter-day noirs flout such conventions: vice emerges
triumphant in films as varied as the grim Chinatown
and the ribald Hot Spot.
The tone of film noir is generally regarded as
downbeat; some critics experience it as darker
still—"overwhelmingly black", according to Robert
Influential critic (and filmmaker) Paul
Schrader wrote in a seminal 1972 essay that "film noir is defined by tone", a tone he seems to perceive as
In describing the adaptation of Double Indemnity, noir analyst Foster Hirsch describes the "requisite
hopeless tone" achieved by the filmmakers, which appears to characterize his view of noir as a whole.
On the
other hand, definitive film noirs such as The Big Sleep, The Lady from Shanghai, and Double Indemnity itself are
famed for their hardboiled repartee, often imbued with sexual innuendo and self-reflexive humor—notes of another
a. Opinion is divided on the English plural of film noir. In the French from which the term derives, the plural is films
noirs. Some English speakers prefer films noir, while film noirs is the most common formulation. The
Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, which acknowledges all three styles as acceptable, lists film noirs first.
b. His Kind of Woman was originally directed by John Farrow, then largely reshot under Richard Fleischer after
studio owner Howard Hughes demanded rewrites. Only Farrow was credited.
c. In Academic Dictionary of Arts (2005), Rakesh Chopra notes that the high-contrast film lighting schemes
commonly referred to as "chiaroscuro" are more specifically representative of tenebrism, whose first great
exponent was the Italian painter Caravaggio (p. 73). See also Ballinger and Graydon (2007), p. 16.
[1] See, e.g., Biesen (2005), p. 1; Hirsch (2001), p. 9; Lyons (2001), p. 2; Silver and Ward (1992), p. 1; Schatz (1981), p. 112. Outside the field of
noir scholarship, "dark film" is also offered on occasion; see, e.g., Block, Bruce A., The Visual Story: Seeing the Structure of Film, TV, and
New Media (2001), p. 94; Klarer, Mario, An Introduction to Literary Studies (1999), p. 59.
[2] Naremore (2008), pp. 4, 15–16, 18, 41; Ballinger and Graydon (2007), pp. 4–5, 22, 255.
[3] [3] Ballinger and Graydon (2007), p. 3.
[4] [4] Borde and Chaumeton (2002), p. 2.
[5] Borde and Chaumeton (2002), pp. 2–3.
[6] [6] Bould (2005), p. 13.
[7] [7] See, e.g, Ballinger and Graydon (2007), p. 4; Bould (2005), p. 12; Place and Peterson (1974).
[8] See, e.g., Naremore (2008), p. 167–68; Irwin (2006), p. 210.
[9] [9] Neale (2000), p. 166; Vernet (1993), p. 2; Naremore (2008), pp. 17, 122, 124, 140; Bould (2005), p. 19.
[10] For overview of debate, see, e.g., Bould (2005), pp. 13–23; Telotte (1989), pp. 9–10. For description of noir as a genre, see, e.g., Bould
(2005), p. 2; Hirsch (2001), pp. 71–72; Tuska (1984), p. xxiii. For the opposing viewpoint, see, e.g., Neale (2000), p. 164; Ottoson (1981), p.
2; Schrader (1972); Durgnat (1970).
[11] Ottoson (1981), pp. 2–3.
[12] [12] See Dancyger and Rush (2002), p. 68, for a detailed comparison of screwball comedy and film noir.
[13] Schatz (1981), pp. 111–15.
Film noir
[14] [14] Silver (1996), pp. 4, 6 passim. See also Bould (2005), pp. 3, 4; Hirsch (2001), p. 11.
[15] [15] Silver (1996), pp. 3, 6 passim. See also Place and Peterson (1974).
[16] Silver (1996), pp. 7–10.
[17] [17] See, e.g., Jones (2009).
[18] See, e.g., Borde and Chaumeton (2002), pp. 1–7 passim.
[19] See, e.g., Telotte (1989), pp. 10–11, 15 passim.
[20] For survey of the lexical variety, see Naremore (2008), pp. 9, 311–12 n. 1.
[21] Bould (2005), pp. 24–33.
[22] Ballinger and Graydon (2007), pp. 9–11.
[23] [23] Vernet (1993), p. 15.
[24] Ballinger and Graydon (2007), pp. 11–13.
[25] Davis (2004), p. 194. See also Ballinger and Graydon (2007), p. 133; Ottoson (1981), pp. 110–111. Vernet (1993) notes that the sort of
techniques now associated with Expressionism were evident in the American cinema from the mid-1910s forward (pp. 9–12).
[26] [26] Ballinger and Graydon (2007), p. 6.
[27] Ballinger and Graydon (2007), pp. 6–9; Silver and Ward (1992), pp. 323–24.
[28] Spicer (2007), pp. 26, 28; Ballinger and Graydon (2007), pp. 13–15; Bould (2005), pp. 33–40.
[29] [29] McGarry (1980), p. 139.
[30] Ballinger and Graydon (2007), p. 20; Schatz (1981), pp. 116–22; Ottoson (1981), p. 2.
[31] [31] Biesen (2005), p. 207.
[32] Naremore (2008), pp. 13–14.
[33] Krutnik, Neale, and Neve (2008), pp. 147–148; Macek and Silver (1980), p. 135.
[34] Widdicombe (2001), pp. 37–39, 59–60, 118–19; Doherty, Jim. "Carmady" (http:// www. thrillingdetective.com/ carmady.html). Thrilling
Detective Web Site. . Retrieved 2010-02-25.
[35] See, e.g., Ballinger and Graydon (2007), p. 6; Macek (1980), pp. 59–60.
[36] Irwin (2006), pp. 71, 95–96.
[37] Irwin (2006), pp. 123–24, 129–30.
[38] [38] White (1980), p. 17.
[39] Irwin (2006), pp. 97–98, 188–89.
[40] Silver and Ward (1992), p. 333, as well as entries on individual films, pp. 59–60, 109–10, 320–21. For description of City Streets as
"proto-noir", see Turan (2008). For description of Fury as "proto-noir", see Machura, Stefan, and Peter Robson, Law and Film (2001), p. 13.
For description of You Only Live Once as "pre-noir", see Ballinger and Graydon (2007), p. 9.
[41] [41] See, e.g., Ballinger and Graydon (2007), p. 19; Irwin (2006), p. 210; Lyons (2000), p. 36; Porfirio (1980), p. 269.
[42] [42] Biesen (2005), p. 33.
[43] Variety (1940).
[44] Marshman (1947), pp. 100–1.
[45] Ballinger and Graydon (2007), p. 4, 19–26, 28–33; Hirsch (2001), pp. 1–21; Schatz (1981), pp. 111–16.
[46] See, e.g., Naremore (2008), pp. 81, 319 n. 13; Ballinger and Graydon (2007), pp. 86–88.
[47] See, e.g., Ballinger and Graydon (2007), p. 30; Hirsch (2001), pp. 12, 202; Schrader (1972), pp. 59–61 [in Silver and Ursini].
[48] [48] Schrader (1972), p. 61.
[49] See, e.g., Silver (1996), p. 11; Ottoson (1981), pp. 182–183; Schrader (1972), p. 61.
[50] See, e.g., Ballinger and Graydon (2007), pp. 19–53.
[51] See, e.g., Hirsch (2001), pp. 10, 202–7; Silver and Ward (1992), p. 6 (though they phrase their position more ambiguously on p. 398);
Ottoson (1981), p. 1.
[52] See, e.g., entries on individual films in Ballinger and Graydon (2007), pp. 34, 190–92; Silver and Ward (1992), pp. 214–15; 253–54,
269–70, 318–19.
[53] [53] Biesen (2005), p. 162.
[54] Ballinger and Graydon (2007), pp. 188, 202–3.
[55] For overview of Welles's noirs, see, e.g., Ballinger and Graydon (2007), pp. 210–11. For specific production circumstances, see Brady,
Frank, Citizen Welles: A Biography of Orson Welles (1989), pp. 395–404, 378–81, 496–512.
[56] [56] Bernstein (1995).
[57] McGilligan (1997), pp. 314–17.
[58] Schatz (1998), pp. 354–58.
[59] [59] See, e.g., Schatz (1981), pp. 103, 112.
[60] See, e.g., entries on individual films in Silver and Ward (1992), pp. 97–98, 125–26, 311–12.
[61] See Naremore (2008), pp. 140–55, on "B Pictures versus Intermediates".
[62] [62] Ottoson (1981), p. 132.
[63] [63] Naremore (2008), p. 173.
[64] Hayde (2001), pp. 3–4, 15–21, 37.
[65] [65] Erickson (2004), p. 26.
Film noir
[66] [66] Sarris (1985), p. 93.
[67] [67] Thomson (1998), p. 269.
[68] Naremore (2008), pp. 128, 150–51; Ballinger and Graydon (2007), pp. 97–99.
[69] Ballinger and Graydon (2007), pp. 59–60.
[70] Clarens (1980), pp. 245–47.
[71] See, e.g., Ballinger and Graydon (2007), pp. 83–85; Ottoson (1981), pp. 60–61.
[72] Muller (1998), pp. 176–77.
[73] Krutnik, Neale, and Neve (2008), pp. 259–60, 262–63.
[74] See Mackendrick (2006), pp. 119–20.
[75] See, e.g., Silver and Ward (1992), pp. 338–39. Ottoson (1981) additionally lists two period pieces directed by Siodmak (The Suspect [1944]
and The Spiral Staircase [1946]) for a total of ten (pp. 173–74, 164–65). Silver and Ward list nine classic-era film noirs by Lang, plus two
from the 1930s (pp. 338, 396). Ottoson lists eight (excluding Beyond a Reasonable Doubt [1956]), plus the same two from the 1930s (passim).
Silver and Ward list seven by Mann (p. 338). Ottoson additionally lists Reign of Terror (aka The Black Book; 1949), set during the French
Revolution, for a total of eight (passim). See also Ballinger and Graydon (2007), p. 241.
[76] Clarens (1980), pp. 200–2; Walker (1992), pp. 139–45; Ballinger and Graydon (2007), pp. 77–79.
[77] [77] Silver and Ward (1992), p. 1.
[78] See Palmer (2004), pp. 267–68, for a representative discussion of film noir as an international phenomenon.
[79] Spicer (2007), pp. 5–6, 26, 28, 59; Ballinger and Graydon (2007), pp. 14–15.
[80] Spicer (2007), pp. 32–39, 43; Ballinger and Graydon (2007), pp. 255–61.
[81] [81] Spicer (2007), p. 9.
[82] Spicer (2007), pp. 16, 91–94, 96, 100; Ballinger and Graydon (2007), pp. 144, 249–55; Lyons (2000), p. 74, 81, 114–15.
[83] [83] Spicer (2007), pp. 13, 28, 241; Ballinger and Graydon (2007), pp. 264, 266.
[84] [84] Spicer (2007), pp. 19 n. 36, 28.
[85] Ballinger and Graydon (2007), pp. 266–68.
[86] [86] Spicer (2007), p. 241; Ballinger and Graydon (2007), p. 257.
[87] Ballinger and Graydon (2007), pp. 253, 255, 263–64, 266, 267, 270–74; Abbas (1997), p. 34; Rainer, Peter (2010-04-09). "The Square
(review)" (http:// www. csmonitor. com/ The-Culture/Movies/ 2010/ 0409/ The-Square-movie-review). Christian Science Monitor. .
Retrieved 2010-05-17.
[88] Ursini (1995), pp. 284–86; Ballinger and Graydon (2007), p. 278.
[89] [89] Ballinger and Graydon (2007), p. 41.
[90] See, e.g., Variety (1955). For a latter-day analysis of the film's self-consciousness, see Naremore (2008), pp. 151–55. See also Kolker
(2000), p. 364.
[91] [91] Greene (1999), p. 161.
[92] For Mickey One, see Kolker (2000), pp. 21–22, 26–30. For Point Blank, see Ballinger and Graydon (2007), pp. 36, 38, 41, 257. For Klute,
see Ballinger and Graydon (2007), pp. 114–15.
[93] Kolker (2000), pp. 344, 363–73; Naremore (2008), pp. 203–5; Ballinger and Graydon (2007), pp. 36, 39, 130–33.
[94] [94] Kolker (2000), p. 364; Ballinger and Graydon (2007), p. 132.
[95] Kolker (2000), pp. 207–44; Silver and Ward (1992), pp. 282–83; Naremore (1998), pp. 34–37, 192.
[96] Silver and Ward (1992), pp. 398–99.
[97] For Thieves Like Us, see Kolker (2000), pp. 358–63. For Farewell, My Lovely, see Kirgo (1980), pp. 101–2.
[98] [98] Ursini (1995), p. 287.
[99] For AFI ranking, see "AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies—10th Anniversary Edition" (http:// www. afi. com/ 100Years/ movies10.aspx).
American Film Institute. 2007. . Retrieved 2012-04-19. For kinship to classic noir boxing films, see Muller (1998), pp. 26–27.
[100] "Film Noir - Definition of Film Noir" (http:/ / documentaries.about.com/ od/ terminology/g/ Film-Noir-Definition-Of-Film-Noir.htm).
Documentaries.about.com. 2012-04-09. . Retrieved 2012-12-30.
[101] Silver and Ward (1992), pp. 400–1, 408.
[102] See, e.g., Grothe, Mardy, Viva la Repartee: Clever Comebacks and Witty Retorts from History's Great Wits & Wordsmiths (2005), p. 84.
[103] Ballinger and Graydon (2007), pp. 44, 47, 279–80.
[104] [104] Naremore (2008), p. 275; Wager (2005), p. 83; Hanson (2008), p. 141.
[105] Wager (2005), p. 101–14.
[106] Hirsch (1999), pp. 245–47; Maslin (1996).
[107] For Miller's Crossing, see Martin (1997), p. 157; Naremore (2008), p. 214–15; Barra, Allen (2005-02-28). "From 'Red Harvest' to
'Deadwood'" (http://dir.salon. com/ story/ books/ feature/2005/ 02/ 28/ hammett/ index. html). Salon. . Retrieved 2009-09-29. For The Big
Lebowski, see Tyree and Walters (2007), pp. 40, 43–44, 48, 51, 65, 111; Ballinger and Graydon (2007), p. 237.
[108] James (2000), pp. xviii–xix.
[109] [109] See, e.g., Silver and Ward (1992), pp. 398, 402, 407, 412.
[110] [110] "Steele Michael" special feature, Remington Steele, season 3, disc 3 (Beverly Hills: 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment, 2006), DVD
[111] [111] Ballinger and Graydon (2007), p. 279.
Film noir
[112] Creeber, (2007), p. 3. The Singing Detective is the sole TV production cited in Corliss, Richard, and Richard Schickel (2005-05-23).
"All-Time 100 Movies" (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ 2005/ 100movies/ the_complete_list. html). Time.com. Archived (http:// www.
webcitation. org/5uKhxpXpS) from the original on 2010-11-18. . Retrieved 2009-09-29.
[113] [113] Ballinger and Graydon (2007), pp. 49, 51, 53, 235.
[114] [114] Ballinger and Graydon (2007), p. 50.
[115] Hibbs, Thomas (2004-12-03). "Bale Imitation" (http:// web. archive.org/web/ 20090322131118/ http:/ / www.nationalreview.com/
hibbs/ hibbs200412030831. asp). National Review Online. Archived from the original (http:// www. nationalreview.com/ hibbs/
hibbs200412030831. asp) on 2009-03-22. . Retrieved 2010-02-11.
[116] Ballinger and Graydon (2007), pp. 107–109.
[117] Macaulay, Scott (2009-05-19). "Cinema with Bite: On the Films of Park Chan-wook" (http:// www. filminfocus.com/ article/
cinema_with_bite__on_the_films_of_park_chan_wook). Film in Focus. . Retrieved 2009-09-29. Accomando, Beth (2009-08-20). "Thirst"
(http:// www.kpbs. org/news/ 2009/ aug/ 20/ thirst/ ). KPBS.org. . Retrieved 2009-09-29.
[118] "Neo Noir Movies at the Box Office" (http:/ / boxofficemojo.com/ genres/ chart/?id=neonoir.htm). Box Office Mojo. . Retrieved
[119] Naremore (2008), pp. 256, 295–96; Ballinger and Graydon (2007), p. 52.
[120] "2008 Film Poll Results" (http:/ / www. villagevoice. com/ 2008-12-31/film/ 2008-film-poll-results/). Village Voice. 2008-12-30. .
Retrieved 2009-09-29.
[121] Naremore (2008), p. 299; Hughes, Sarah (2006-03-26). "Humphrey Bogart's Back—But This Time Round He's at High School" (http://
www.guardian.co. uk/ film/ 2006/ mar/26/ features. review1). Observer. . Retrieved 2010-10-10.
[122] [122] Downs (2002), pp. 171, 173.
[123] [123] Ballinger and Graydon (2007), p. 242.
[124] [124] Aziz (2005), section "Future Noir and Postmodernism: The Irony Begins". Ballinger and Graydon note "future noir" synonyms: "'cyber
noir' but predominantly 'tech noir'" (p. 242).
[125] Dougherty, Robin (1997-03-21). "Sleek Chrome + Bruised Thighs" (http:// web. archive.org/ web/ 20110123090727/ http:/ / www. salon.
com/march97/crash970321. html). Salon. Archived from the original (http:// www. salon. com/ march97/crash970321.html) on
2011-01-23. . Retrieved 2009-09-29.
[126] Dargis (2004); Ballinger and Graydon (2007), p. 234; Jeffries, L.B. (2010-01-19). "The Film Noir Roots of Cowboy Bebop" (http:// www.
popmatters.com/ pm/ feature/115481-the-film-noir-roots-of-cowboy-bebop). PopMatters. . Retrieved 2012-01-25.
[127] [127] Silver and Ward (1992), p. 332.
[128] [128] Richardson (1992), p. 120.
[129] [129] Naremore (2008), p. 158.
[130] See, e.g., Kolker (2000), pp. 238–41.
[131] [131] Silver and Ward (1992), p. 419.
[132] [132] Holden (1999).
[133] [133] Irwin (2006), p. xii.
[134] [134] Bould (2005), p. 18.
[135] Borde and Chaumeton (2002), pp. 161–63.
[136] Silver and Ward (1992) list 315 classic film noirs (passim), and Tuska (1984) lists 320 (passim). Later works are much more inclusive:
Paul Duncan, The Pocket Essential Film Noir (2003), lists 647 (pp. 46–84). The title of Micheal F. Keaney's Film Noir Guide: 745 Films of
the Classic Era, 1940–1959 (2003) is self-explanatory.
[137] Treated as noir: Ballinger and Graydon (2007), p. 34; Hirsch (2001), pp. 59, 163–64, 168. Excluded from canon: Silver and Ward (1992),
p. 330. Ignored: Bould (2005); Christopher (1998); Ottoson (1981).
[138] [138] Included: Bould (2005), p. 126; Ottoson (1981), p. 174. Ignored: Ballinger and Graydon (2007); Hirsch (2001); Christopher (1998). Also
see Silver and Ward (1992): ignored in 1980; included in 1988 (pp. 392, 396).
[139] [139] See, e.g., Ballinger and Graydon (2007), p. 4; Christopher (1998), p. 8.
[140] [140] See, e.g., Ray (1985), p. 159.
[141] Williams (2005), pp. 34–37.
[142] See Ballinger and Graydon (2007), p. 31, on general issue. Christopher (1998) and Silver and Ward (1992), for instance, include Slightly
Scarlet and Party Girl, but not Vertigo, in their filmographies. By contrast, Hirsch (2001) describes Vertigo as among those Hitchcock films
that are "richly, demonstrably noir" (p. 139) and ignores both Slightly Scarlet and Party Girl; Bould (2005) similarly includes Vertigo in his
filmography, but not the other two. Ottoson (1981) includes none of the three in his canon.
[143] [143] Place and Peterson (1974), p. 67.
[144] [144] Hirsch (2001), p. 67.
[145] [145] Silver (1995), pp. 219, 222.
[146] Telotte (1989), pp. 74–87.
[147] Neale (2000), pp. 166–67 n. 5.
[148] [148] Telotte (1989), p. 106.
[149] Rombes, Nicholas, New Punk Cinema (2005), pp. 131–36.
[150] [150] Slocum (2001), p. 160.
Film noir
[151] [151] Server (2006), p. 149.
[152] [152] Ottoson (1981), p. 143.
[153] [153] See, e.g., Naremore (2008), p. 25; Lyons (2000), p. 10.
[154] [154] Silver and Ward (1992), p. 6.
[155] [155] See, e.g., Hirsch (2001), pp. 128, 150, 160, 213; Christopher (1998), pp. 4, 32, 75, 83, 116, 118, 128, 155.
[156] [156] See, e.g., Hirsch (2001), p. 17; Christopher (1998), p. 17; Telotte (1989), p. 148.
[157] Ballinger and Graydon (2007), pp. 217–18; Hirsch (2001), p. 64.
[158] [158] See, e.g., Bould (2005), p. 18, on the critical establishment of this iconography, as well as p. 35; Hirsch (2001), p. 213; Christopher (1998),
p. 7.
[159] Holm (2005), pp. 13–25 passim.
[160] [160] See, e.g., Naremore (2008), p. 37, on the development of this viewpoint, and p. 103, on contributors to Silver and Ward encyclopedia;
Ottoson (1981), p. 1.
[161] See, e.g., Ballinger and Graydon (2007), p. 4; Christopher (1998), pp. 7–8.
[162] [162] Christopher (1998), p. 37.
[163] [163] See, e.g., Muller (1998), p. 81, on analyses of the film; Silver and Ward (1992), p. 2.
[164] [164] See, e.g., Naremore (2008), p. 163, on critical claims of moral ambiguity; Lyons (2000), pp. 14, 32.
[165] See Skoble (2006), pp. 41–48, for a survey of noir morality.
[166] [166] Ottoson (1981), p. 1.
[167] [167] Schrader (1972), p. 54 [in Silver and Ursini]. For characterization of definitive tone as "hopeless", see pp. 53 ("the tone more hopeless")
and 57 ("a fatalistic, hopeless mood").
[168] Hirsch (2001), p. 7. Hirsch subsequently states, "In character types, mood [emphasis added], themes, and visual composition, Double
Indemnity offer[s] a lexicon of noir stylistics" (p. 8).
[169] [169] Sanders (2006), p. 100.
[170] "film noir" (http:// www. merriam-webster.com/ dictionary/film noir). Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Merriam-Webster Online. .
Retrieved 2009-02-10. "Inflected Form(s): plural film noirs \-'nwär(z)\ or films noir or films noirs \-'nwär\"
[171] Server (2002), pp. 182–98, 209–16; Downs (2002), p. 171; Ottoson (1981), pp. 82–83.
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• Turan, Kenneth (2008). "UCLA's Pre-Code Series", Los Angeles Times, January 27 (available online (http://
articles. latimes.com/ 2008/ jan/ 27/entertainment/ ca-precode27)).
• Tuska, Jon (1984). Dark Cinema: American Film Noir in Cultural Perspective. Westport, Conn., and London:
Greenwood. ISBN 978-0-313-23045-5
• Tyree, J. M., and Ben Walters (2007). The Big Lebowski. London: BFI Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84457-173-4
• Ursini, James (1995). "Angst at Sixty Fields per Second", in Silver and Ursini, Film Noir Reader [1], pp. 275–87.
• "Variety staff" (anon.) (1940). "Stranger on the Third Floor" [review], Variety (excerpted online (http:// www.
variety. com/ review/VE1117795252. html?categoryid=31&cs=1& p=0)).
• "Variety staff" (anon.) (1955). "Kiss Me Deadly" [review], Variety (excerpted online (http:// www. variety. com/
review/ VE1117792354.html?categoryid=31&cs=1)).
• Vernet, Marc (1993). "Film Noir on the Edge of Doom", in Copjec, Shades of Noir, pp. 1–31.
• Wager, Jans B. (2005). Dames in the Driver's Seat: Rereading Film Noir. Austin: University of Texas Press.
ISBN 978-0-292-70966-9
• Walker, Michael (1992). "Robert Siodmak", in Cameron, The Book of Film Noir, pp. 110–51.
• White, Dennis L. (1980). "Beast of the City (1932)", in Silver and Ward, Film Noir: An Encyclopedic Reference,
pp. 16–17.
• Widdicombe, Toby (2001). A Reader's Guide to Raymond Chandler. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood. ISBN
• Williams, Linda Ruth (2005). The Erotic Thriller in Contemporary Cinema. Bloomington: Indiana University
Press. ISBN 978-0-253-34713-8
Film noir
Further reading
• Chopra-Gant, Mike (2005). Hollywood Genres and Postwar America: Masculinity, Family and Nation in Popular
Movies and Film Noir. London: IB Tauris. ISBN 978-1-85043-838-0
• Cochran, David (2000). America Noir: Underground Writers and Filmmakers of the Postwar Era. Washington,
D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. ISBN 978-1-56098-813-7
• Dickos, Andrew (2002). Street with No Name: A History of the Classic American Film Noir. Lexington:
University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 978-0-8131-2243-4
• Dimendberg, Edward (2004). Film Noir and the Spaces of Modernity. Cambridge, Mass., and London: Harvard
University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01314-8
• Dixon, Wheeler Winston (2009). Film Noir and the Cinema of Paranoia. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers
University Press. ISBN 978-0-8135-4521-9
• Grossman, Julie (2009). Rethinking the Femme Fatale in Film Noir: Ready for Her Close-Up. Basingstoke, UK:
Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-23328-7
• Hannsberry, Karen Burroughs (1998). Femme Noir: Bad Girls of Film. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland. ISBN
• Hannsberry, Karen Burroughs (2003). Bad Boys: The Actors of Film Noir. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland. ISBN
• Hare, William (2003). Early Film Noir: Greed, Lust, and Murder Hollywood Style. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland.
ISBN 978-0-7864-1629-5
• Kaplan, E. Ann, ed. (1998). Women in Film Noir, new ed. London: British Film Institute. ISBN
• Keaney, Michael F. (2003). Film Noir Guide: 745 Films of the Classic Era, 1940–1959. Jefferson, N.C.:
McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-1547-2
• Mason, Fran (2002). American Gangster Cinema: From Little Caesar to Pulp Fiction. Houndmills, UK: Palgrave.
ISBN 978-0-333-67452-9
• Mayer, Geoff, and Brian McDonnell (2007). Encyclopedia of Film Noir. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood. ISBN
• McArthur, Colin (1972). Underworld U.S.A. New York: Viking. ISBN 978-0-670-01953-3
• Osteen, Mark. Nightmare Alley: Film Noir and the American Dream (Johns Hopkins University Press; 2013) 336
pages; interprets film noir as a genre that challenges the American mythology of upward mobility and
• Palmer, R. Barton (1994). Hollywood's Dark Cinema: The American Film Noir. New York: Twayne. ISBN
• Palmer, R. Barton, ed. (1996). Perspectives on Film Noir. New York: G.K. Hall. ISBN 978-0-8161-1601-0
• Pappas, Charles (2005). It's a Bitter Little World: The Smartest, Toughest, Nastiest Quotes from Film Noir. Iola,
Wisc.: Writer's Digest Books. ISBN 978-1-58297-387-6
• Rabinowitz, Paula (2002). Black & White & Noir: America's Pulp Modernism. New York: Columbia University
Press. ISBN 978-0-231-11481-3
• Schatz, Thomas (1997). Boom and Bust: American Cinema in the 1940s. Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London:
University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-684-19151-5
• Selby, Spencer (1984). Dark City: The Film Noir. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland. ISBN 978-0-89950-103-1
• Shadoian, Jack (2003). Dreams and Dead Ends: The American Gangster Film, 2d ed. Oxford and New York:
Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-514291-4
• Silver, Alain, and James Ursini (1999). The Noir Style. Woodstock, N.Y.: Overlook Press. ISBN
• Spicer, Andrew (2002). Film Noir. Harlow, UK: Pearson Education. ISBN 978-0-582-43712-8
Film noir
External links
• Film Noir (http:// www. greencine.com/ static/ primers/noir.jsp) Q&A-style essay by leading noir
critic-historian Eddie Muller; part of the GreenCine website
• Film Noir: A Bibliography of Materials (http:/ / www. lib.berkeley. edu/ MRC/ Noirbib.html) and Film
Videography (http:// www. lib.berkeley.edu/ MRC/ Noirfilm.html) holdings of the UC Berkeley Library
• Film Noir: An Introduction (http:// www. imagesjournal.com/ issue02/ infocus/ filmnoir.htm) essay with links
to discussions of ten important noirs; part of Images: A Journal of Film and Popular Culture
• Film Noir Studies (http:/ / www. filmnoirstudies.com) writings by John Blaser, with film noir glossary, timeline,
and noir-related media
• A Guide to Film Noir Genre (http:// rogerebert.suntimes. com/ apps/ pbcs. dll/article?AID=/19950130/
COMMENTARY/ 11010314/ 1023) ten deadeye bullet points from Roger Ebert
• An Introduction to Neo-Noir (http:// www. crimeculture.com/ Contents/ NeoNoir. html) essay by Lee Horsley
• The Noir Thriller: Introduction (http:/ / www. crimeculture.com/ Contents/ Noir Thriller Intro.html) excerpt
from 2001 book by Lee Horsley
• What Is This Thing Called Noir?: Parts I, II (http:/ / alainsilver. 110mb.com/ screenie/ Queen/ noir2.htm) and III
(http:/ / alainsilver. 110mb.com/ screenie/ Queen/ noir.htm) essay by Alain Silver and Linda Brookover
• Arthur Lyons Film Noir Festival (http:/ / arthurlyonsfilmnoir.ning. com/ ), co-sponsored by the Palm Springs
Cultural Center (http:/ / thepalmspringsculturalcenter.org/ )
Five Fingers (TV series)
Five Fingers (TV series)
Five Fingers
Format Adventure/Drama
Written by Richard Berg (teleplay)
L.C. Moyzisch (nonfiction book, ''Operation Cicero'')
Directed by Andrew McCullough
Montgomery Pittman
Lamont Johnson
Starring David Hedison
Luciana Paluzzi
Paul Burke
Country of origin USA
No. of seasons One-half
No. of episodes 16
Producer(s) Martin Manulis
Herbert Bayard Swope, Jr.
Location(s) Europe
Running time 60 minutes
Original channel NBC
Original run October 4, 1959 –
January 8, 1960
Five Fingers is an NBC adventure/drama series set in Europe during the Cold War loosely based on the 1952 film 5
Fingers, starring James Mason and Danielle Darrieux. It ran from October 3, 1959, to January 9, 1960.
David Hedison starred as 32-year-old Victor Sebastian, an American counterintelligence officer with the code name
"Five Fingers". Luciana Paluzzi played Simone Genet, Sebastian's secretary and romantic interest. Paul Burke played
Robertson, Sebastian's contact man.
Five Fingers itself was based on the book Operation Cicero (1950) by L.C. Moyzisch and on the memoirs of Elyesa
Bazna (I Was Cicero, 1962). Bazna was something of an antihero in real life (as was his counterpart, Ulysses Diello,
in the Hollywood film); the television series transformed the character from a World War II-era mercenary Albanian
into a Cold War era heroic American. Sebastian posed as a Communist to gain information on party activities. His
public cover was that of a theatrical booking agent for clubs and cafes throughout Europe.
Five Fingers (TV series)
Episodes and guest stars
Episodes and notable guest stars include:
• "Station Break" (Eva Gabor and Tyler McVey)
• "Dossier" (Edgar Bergen)
• "The Moment of Truth" (Nehemiah Persoff and Jack Warden)
• "The Unknown Town" (Michael J. Pollard)
•• "The Man with Triangle Heads"
• "The Assassin" (John McGiver)
• "The Man Who Got Away" (Arlene Francis)
•• "The Emerald Curtain"
• "The Temple of the Swinging Doll" (Viveca Lindfors, Clu Gulager, and Sterling Holloway)
•• "The Final Dream"
• "Thin Ice" (Peter Lorre, Brett Halsey, and Alan Young)
• "Operation Ramrod" (Ray Anthony)
• "The Judas Goat" (Frank Dekova)
• "The Search for Edvard Stoyan" (Martin Balsam)
Two additional episodes, "A Shot in the Dark" (Neile Adams and Joanna Cook Moore) and "Counterfeit" (Cesar
Romero), were unaired.
Production notes
Martin Manulis and Herbert Bayard Swope, Jr., son of legendary journalist Herbert Bayard Swope, were the
producers of Five Fingers.
Hedison recalls on his website that he was preparing to come to work for the seventeenth episode of the series when
he was notified that the program had been cancelled without warning. Five Fingers was particularly popular in
Australia, but was not on the air long enough in the United States to attract a sufficient following to survive even a
full season.
Interestingly, the series did have a brief syndicated run on local stations in the United States (like
KGMB/Honolulu) despite the short number of episodes
Manulis produced Five Fingers in association with 20th Century Fox Television.
He also produced the CBS
sitcom, The Many Loves of Dobie Gillis (1959–1963) starring Dwayne Hickman. Five Fingers aired at 9:30 Eastern
on Saturdays opposite two half-hour western series, Richard Boone's Have Gun - Will Travel and James Arness's
Gunsmoke on CBS and the second half of ABC's The Lawrence Welk Show.
[1] Alex McNeil, Total Television, New York: Penguin Books, Inc., 1996, 4th ed., p. 288
[2] "Five Fingers:Summary" (http:/ / www. tv. com/ five-fingers/show/ 15790/ summary.html). TV.com. . Retrieved March 2, 2009.
[3] "Episode List of Five Fingers" (http:// www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0052466/ episodes). Internet Movie Data Base. . Retrieved March 2, 2009.
[4] "Five Fingers" (http:/ / ctva. biz/ US/ Spy/ FiveFingers. htm). Classic Television Archive. . Retrieved March 2, 2009.
[5] "Five Fingers with David Hedison" (http:/ / davidhedison. com/hedison/ galleries/ tv/ fivefingers/). DavidHedison.com. . Retrieved March 2,
[6] Honolulu, Hawaii (July 2-6, 1962) (http://boards. radio-info.com/ smf/ index.php?topic=215043.0) from Radio-Info Messageboard
[7] McNeil, Total Television, appendix
Five Fingers (TV series)
External links
• Five Fingers (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0052466/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
Five Weeks in a Balloon (film)
Five Weeks in a Balloon
Original film poster
Directed by Irwin Allen
Produced by Irwin Allen
Written by Irwin Allen
Charles Bennett
Starring Sir Cedric Hardwicke
Red Buttons
Barbara Eden
Peter Lorre
Music by Paul Sawtell
Cinematography Winton Hoch, ASC
Studio(s) Cambridge Productions
Distributed by 20th Century Fox
Release date(s) •• August 22, 1962
Running time 101 minutes
Country United States
Language English
$2.34 million
Box office
$1.2 million
Five Weeks in a Balloon is a 1962 science fiction adventure film loosely based on the novel of the same name by
Jules Verne filmed in CinemaScope. It was produced and directed by Irwin Allen; his last feature film in the 1960s
before moving to producing several science fiction television series. Though set in Africa, it was filmed in
California. Balloonist Donald Piccard acted as the film's technical advisor. For visual effects, a model of the balloon
was used as well as a full-sized unicorn gondola hung on a crane.
The film opens with a theme song performed by The Brothers Four and a colorful animation of hot air balloons, with
artwork reminiscent of the Montgolfier balloons. The theme song is later performed by Fabian twice during the film.
The film then shows the flight of the balloon Jupiter invented by Professor Fergusson (Cedric Hardwicke). In the
unicorn-shaped gondola, the passengers Chiddingfold (Ronald Long) and Sir Henry Vining (Richard Haydn) scream
in horror as the balloon rapidly descends, but the Professor remains calm as he planned for this to happen. He then
signals the pilot Jacques (Fabian) to ascend the balloon, who explains how balloon is able to ascend and descend
without the loss of gas or ballast. The balloon successfully lands and attracts a crowd, but Sir Henry and the other
passenger are dissatisfied after the seemingly disastrous descent. Sir Henry, the president of the Royal Geographic
Five Weeks in a Balloon (film)
Society, refuses to fund the Professor's plan to explore east Africa, while Chiddingfold leaves claiming he has an
"appointment". The Professor seems out of financial backing for his plans, but an American journalist talks to
Fergusson about having his nephew and star reporter Donald O'Shea (Red Buttons) as part of Fergusson's plan to
explore east Africa.
When he arrives at the Prime Minister's office in Zanzibar, he is given the mission to use his craft to claim areas of
uncharted west Africa for the Crown before slave traders make their claim to the territory. Fergusson agrees. The
following day, Consul tells the bad news that the slave traders know of his plan and would reach the river Volta in
six weeks, leaving him with five. To make matters worse, the Queen has sent Sir Henry Vining to accompany him.
He wants to be referred to as General Vining and proclaims himself the "expert on Africa."
Meanwhile in the marketplace, Jacques finds O'Shea rescuing a slave girl named Makia (Barbara Luna) and they
bring her along, and they go to the Consul's office. Consul Townsend orders Makia to be returned to her owner, but
she fights the slave trader and leaves on a horse. The people in the marketplace become outraged and threaten to
destroy Jupiter. O'Shea begins to be viewed as a troublemaker and as the balloon takes off he is shocked to know
that the plans of the journey have been changed. The balloon lands in a forest and they have dinner. As they converse
at the table they notice their food is being taken away and find Makia hiding under the table. She says she hid up in
the crow's nest of the balloon and will not leave O'Shea, who does not want her and offers her to the others on board.
Disappointed she tries to leave into the dangerous wilderness only to be stopped and eventually agrees to be a
passenger aboard. Meanwhile, a wild chimpanzee walks out of the forest and joins the crew. As the rest of the crew
sleeps, Jacques and the chimp drink coffee. Makia comes out of the gondola unable to sleep in fear of the wilderness
and suggests Jacques to buy her. Jacques explains how slavery is uncivilized and explains marriage. Lightning is
heard and they take off the balloon.
The following day, they land in the Arab city of Hezak. People run in fear, until a Muslim priest comes out and
refers to O'Shea as the Moon God. The crew have dinner in the Sultan's palace, where a slave trader named Ahmed
(Peter Lorre) comes in with a kidnapped American woman (Barbara Eden). Ahmed points at the moon emerging in
the clouds, to which the Sultan (Billy Gilbert) proclaims them as fakes. The crew escape quickly, but Ahmed climbs
a ladder aboard. When they land they find out that Ahmed has stolen diamonds and medals from the Sultan. The
American woman introduces herself as Susan Gale explains that she is a missionary. The professor explains they are
headed for the Volta river to claim the land and stop slavery, but claims O'Shea doesn't care about the slave trade. He
tries to explain that he is only a journalist but Susan interrupts saying "trafficking human lives is everyone's concern,
either you're for it or against it," to which Ahmed says "I'm for it."
The balloon continues its progress and lands near a forest. Susan is still angry at Donald and still thinks he doesn't
care about slavery but Makia explains how he saved her from slavers. Meanwhile, O'Shea goes out hunting with a
gun provided by General Vyning. He walks into the forest and sees a lion, but when he tries to shoot it he realizes
that the gun is unloaded. He then falls into a trap set by natives, who free him, but when he runs away they chase
after him with spears. Quickly the crew takes the balloon off as a spear narrowly misses them inside the gondola. As
they fly again, Donald and Susan build a relationship. After they land again, however, O'Shea accidentally hammers
the anchor away, setting the balloon free. The anchor luckily catches the top of a tree, but everyone including Susan
becomes disappointed at him. The Professor and General consider offering O'Shea to the slavers, as they tell how he
was only aboard to carry testimony for Americans, but now they had a less troublesome Susan Gale. However,
O'Shea wins back the crew's trust when he spots out a sandstorm. The balloon lands in an oasis and the crew relaxes.
Ahmed, however, is ordered to work and thinks he is being treated as a slave, telling Jacques "I'm not a slave, I sell
them!" A gunshot is heard and the Sheik's men on horseback come to arrest the Professor, Vyning, Makia and Susan,
taking them to Timbuktu. Ahmed and Jacques stay the gondola while O'Shea, who was picking dates, and the chimp
stay in the trees until the men leave.
In Timbuktu, the arrested crew are set to die as infidels and Makia be sold as a slave under the order of the Sheik
Ageiba. Disguised as Arabs, Jacques, Ahmed and Donald purchase Makia from a slave trader (also played by Billy
Five Weeks in a Balloon (film)
Gilbert). Makia tells of the plan to kill the rest of the crew and they fly their balloon to the top of a tower to save
them. After defeating many of the men, they take off, but a sword is thrown onto the balloon's envelope, causing a
slow leak to occur. The Professor, now knowing the slavers have less than two days, feels certain defeat, but Donald
suggests they fly over night.
The following day, they reach the Volta river, but sword plugged on the envelope starts to rip away, causing the
balloon to descend. Everything is thrown overboard to help the balloon gain some lift as they fly towards a bridge,
but see the slavers. The head slaver shoots the balloon causing it to deflate as the crew climb into the crows' nest.
The anchor is thrown onto the bridge and the gondola is released, causing the balloon to ascend and break the bridge,
causing most of the slavers to drown. The head slaver, however, survives with their flag. The balloon's crew swim
across the river, except for Ahmed, who remains seated on the balloon's drifting envelope because he can't swim.
Donald goes back to retrieve the Union Jack as the envelope raft tumbles over the waterfall. Ahmed tells Donald to
jump with the flag. He then kills the slave trader by throwing a dart into his chest, sending him falling into the water.
The crew are finally proud that O'Shea had done something triumphant, but he falls into the water. Susan tries to
save him and falls in the water and they kiss, while Jacques and Makia also kiss. General Vyning admits to Professor
Fergusson that he was wrong about his balloon. The film ends with the chimpanzee finding a companion for itself.
• Sir Cedric Hardwicke as Fergusson
• Red Buttons as Donald O'Shay
• Fabian as Jacques
• Barbara Eden as Susan Gale
• Peter Lorre as Ahmed
• Richard Haydn as Sir Henry Vining
• Barbara Luna as Makia
• Billy Gilbert as Sultan
• Herbert Marshall as The Prime Minister
• Reginald Owen as Consul
• Henry Daniell as Sheik Ageiba
• Mike Mazurki as Head Slaver
• Alan Caillou as Inspector
One of the themes of Five Weeks in a Balloon is a race. Verne’s novel features the Professor attempting to make
discoveries ahead of other explorers whilst Allen’s film has the Professor trying to beat the claims of a slave trading
expedition. Verne’s novel also featured a race between two producers attempting to be the first to film it; Irwin Allen
and the Woolner Brothers 1961 Flight of the Lost Balloon directed by Nathan Juran. Though Verne’s novel was in
the public domain, Fox and Allen brought legal pressure against the Woolner’s to drop all mention of Jules Verne
from their film. The Woolner’s also were stopped from using another title for the film, Cleopatra and the Cyclops
exploiting the hype of Fox’s own Cleopatra.
Allen's film is played much more for comedy than Juran's film.
In Verne's novel and the Woolner Brothes film the balloon was named the Victoria. Allen's film renames it the
Jupiter with Allen giving the name Jupiter II to the spaceship in Lost in Space.
Five Weeks in a Balloon (film)
[1] Solomon, Aubrey. Twentieth Century Fox: A Corporate and Financial History (The Scarecrow Filmmakers Series). Lanham, Maryland:
Scarecrow Press, 1989. ISBN 978-0-8108-4244-1. p253
[2] Aubrey Solomon, Twentieth Century Fox: A Corporate and Financial History, Scarecrow Press, 1989
[3] p.234 Taves, Brian, Michaluk, Stephen & Baxter, Edward The Jules Verne Encyclopedia Scarecrow Press, 1996
External links
• Five Weeks in a Balloon (http:// www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0055988/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
Fritz Lang
Fritz Lang
Fritz Lang
Lang (right) on the set of Woman in the Moon
Born Friedrich Christian Anton Lang
December 5, 1890
Vienna, Austria-Hungary
Died August 2, 1976 (aged 85)
Beverly Hills, California, U.S.
Occupation Film director, film producer
Years active 1919–1960
Influenced by
Sigmund Freud,
Friedrich Nietzsche,
Georges Denola
Jean-Luc Godard,
Luis Buñuel,
Claude Chabrol
Spouse(s) Lisa Rosenthal (1919-1921)
Thea von Harbou (1922-1933)
Lily Latté (1971-1976)
Friedrich Christian Anton "Fritz" Lang (December 5, 1890 – August 2, 1976) was an Austrian-American
filmmaker, screenwriter, and occasional film producer and actor.
One of the best known émigrés from Germany's
school of Expressionism, he was dubbed the "Master of Darkness" by the British Film Institute.
His most famous
films include the groundbreaking Metropolis (the world's most expensive silent film at the time of its release), and
M, made before he moved to the United States, which is considered to be the precursor to the film noir genre.
Life and career
Early life
Lang was born in Vienna as the second son of Anton Lang(1860–1940),
an architect and construction company
manager, and his wife Pauline "Paula" Lang née Schlesinger (1864–1920). Fritz Lang himself was baptized on 28
December 1890 at the Schottenkirche in Vienna.
Lang's parents were of Moravian descent and practicing Roman Catholics. His mother was born Jewish, but had
converted to Catholicism when Fritz was ten. His mother took this conversion seriously and was dedicated to raising
Fritz as a Catholic. Lang never had an interest in his Jewish heritage and identified himself as Catholic. Although he
was not a particularly devout Catholic, some have perceived frequent Catholic-influenced themes in his films.
After finishing school, Lang briefly attended the Technical University of Vienna, where he studied civil engineering
and eventually switched to art. In 1910 he left Vienna to see the world, traveling throughout Europe and Africa and
Fritz Lang
later Asia and the Pacific area. In 1913, he studied painting in Paris, France.
At the outbreak of World War I, Lang returned to Vienna and volunteered for military service in the Austrian army
and fought in Russia and Romania, where he was wounded three times. While recovering from his injuries and shell
shock in 1916, he wrote some scenarios and ideas for films. He was discharged from the army with the rank of
lieutenant in 1918 and did some acting in the Viennese theater circuit for a short time before being hired as a writer
at Decla, Erich Pommer's Berlin-based production company.
Expressionist films: the Weimar years (1918-1933)
His writing stint was brief, as Lang soon started to work as a director at the German film studio Ufa, and later
Nero-Film, just as the Expressionist movement was building. In this first phase of his career, Lang alternated
between art films such as Der Müde Tod ("The Weary Death") and popular thrillers such as Die Spinnen ("The
Spiders"), combining popular genres with Expressionist techniques to create an unprecedented synthesis of popular
entertainment with art cinema. In 1920, he met his future wife, the writer and actress Thea von Harbou. She and
Lang co-wrote all of his movies from 1921 through 1933, including 1922's Dr. Mabuse, der Spieler (Dr. Mabuse the
Gambler), which ran for over four hours in two parts in the original version and was the first in the Dr. Mabuse
trilogy, 1924's five-hour Die Nibelungen, the famous 1927 film Metropolis, and the 1931 classic, M, his first
"talking" picture.
Fritz Lang and Thea von Harbou in their Berlin
flat, 1923 or 1924
He produced a coherent oeuvre that established the characteristics, later
attributed to film noir, with its recurring themes of psychological
conflict, paranoia, fate and moral ambiguity, despite some of his films
were considered to be simple melodramas by some critics. Filmmakers
that were influenced by his work include as different authors as are
Jacques Rivette and William Friedkin.
In 1931, after Woman in the Moon, Lang directed what many film
scholars consider to be his masterpiece: M, a disturbing story of a child
murderer (Peter Lorre in his first starring role) who is hunted down and
brought to rough justice by Berlin's criminal underworld. M remains a
powerful work; it was remade in 1951 by Joseph Losey, but this
version had little impact on audiences, and has become harder to see than the original film. Lang epitomized the
stereotype of the tyrannical German film director such as Erich von Stroheim and Otto Preminger; he was known for
being hard to work with. During the climactic final scene in M, he allegedly threw Peter Lorre down a flight of stairs
in order to give more authenticity to Lorre's battered look. His wearing a monocle added to the stereotype.
At the end of 1932, Lang started filming The Testament of Dr. Mabuse. Adolf Hitler came to power in January 1933,
and by March 30, the new regime banned it as an incitement to public disorder. Testament is sometimes deemed an
anti-Nazi film as Lang had put phrases used by the Nazis into the mouth of the title character.
Whereas Lang was worried about the advent of the Nazi regime, partly because of his Jewish heritage,
his wife
and screen writer Thea von Harbou had started to sympathize with the Nazis in the early 1930s and joined the
NSDAP in 1932. They soon divorced. Lang's fears would be realized following his departure from Austria, as under
the Nuremburg Laws he would be identified as a Jew even though his mother was a converted Roman Catholic, and
he was raised as such.
Fritz Lang
Shortly afterwards, Lang left Germany. According to Lang, propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels called Lang to his
offices to inform him that The Testament of Dr Mabuse was being banned but that he was nevertheless so impressed
by Lang's abilities as a filmmaker (especially Metropolis), he was offering Lang a position as the head of German
film studio UFA. Lang had stated that it was during this meeting that he had decided to leave for Paris - but that the
banks had closed by the time the meeting was over. Lang has stated that he fled that very evening.
Lang left Germany in 1934 and moved to Paris
after his marriage to Thea von Harbou, who stayed behind, ended
in 1933.
In Paris, Lang filmed a version of Ferenc Molnár's Liliom, starring Charles Boyer. This was Lang's only film in
French (not counting the French version of Testament). He then went to the United States.
Hollywood career (1936-1957)
Upon his arrival in Hollywood, Lang joined the MGM studio and directed the crime drama Fury, starring Spencer
Tracy as a man wrongly accused of a crime and then attacked by lynch mob who burn down the jail where he is
awaiting trial and it is assumed they killed him in the flames, but did not. The film is a study in vengeance, justice
and retribution. Lang became a naturalized citizen of the United States in 1939. He made twenty-one features in the
next twenty-one years, working in a variety of genres at every major studio in Hollywood, occasionally producing
his films as an independent. These films, often compared unfavorably by contemporary critics to Lang's earlier
works, have since been reevaluated as being integral to the emergence and evolution of American genre cinema, film
noir in particular.
One of his most famous films noir is the police drama The Big Heat (1953), noted for its uncompromising brutality,
especially for a scene in which Lee Marvin throws scalding coffee on Gloria Grahame's face. During this period, his
visual style simplified (owing in part to the constraints of the Hollywood studio system) and his worldview became
increasingly pessimistic, culminating in the cold, geometric style of his last American films, While the City Sleeps
(1956) and Beyond a Reasonable Doubt (1956).
Lang found it harder to find congenial production conditions in Hollywood and his advancing age left him less
inclined to grapple with American backers. The German producer Artur Brauner expressed interest in remaking The
Indian Tomb (a story that Lang had developed in the twenties that was ultimately taken from him by studio heads
and directed instead by Joe May),
so Lang abandoned his plans for retirement and returned to Germany in order
to make his "Indian Epic". Following the production, Brauner was ready to proceed with his remake of Das
Testament des Doctor Mabuse when Lang approached him with the idea of adding another original film to the series.
The result was The Thousand Eyes of Dr. Mabuse (1960), made in a hurry and with a relatively small budget. It can
be viewed as the marriage between the director's early experiences with expressionist techniques in Germany with
the spartan style already visible in his late American work. Lang was approaching blindness during the production,
making it his final project.
Fritz Lang
Death and legacy
While his career had ended without fanfare, his American and later German works were championed by the critics of
the Cahiers du cinéma. Lang died in 1976 and was interred in the Forest Lawn - Hollywood Hills Cemetery in Los
In popular culture
• Lang appears as himself in Jean-Luc Godard's 1963 film Le Mepris. During the film, his reputation is discussed,
and he somewhat lampoons his own reputation for being a temperamental director.
• An old German director with the demeanor of Lang appears during the filming of a bank robbery in Woody
Allen's 1969 comedy Take the Money and Run.
• In David Foster Wallace's novel Infinite Jest, Lang is mentioned in tandem with James Cameron on page 48.
• A fictional Lang appears as a main character in the Fullmetal Alchemist movie Conqueror of Shambala.
• In Episode 11 of Season 1 of City Hunter, the antagonist's name is Fritz Lang.
• The film director "Fritz Wong" in Ray Bradbury's novels A Graveyard for Lunatics and Let's All Kill Constance is
a composite of Fritz Lang and James Wong Howe
• Madonna portrayed Lang for a sequence in her 1989 music video for "Express Yourself", complete with Lang's
signature suit and monocle. The video itself is a tribute to Metropolis.
[1] Shaw, Dan. Great Directors: Fritz Lang. (http:// www. sensesofcinema. com/ 2002/ great-directors/lang/ ) Senses of Cinema.
[2] Mike Grost. Louis Feuillade: Influence on Fritz Lang (http:/ / mikegrost.com/ feuillad.htm)
[3] "Dick Cavett and Jean-Luc Godard (4/6)" (http:// www. youtube.com/ watch?v=BxESwPAKrw0). . Retrieved January 6, 2012.
[4] "Destiny" (http:// sensesofcinema. com/ 2001/ cteq/ destiny/ ). . Retrieved January 6, 2012.
[5] "Claude Chabrol obituary" (http:/ / www. guardian.co. uk/ film/ 2010/ sep/ 12/ claude-chabrol-obituary). . Retrieved January 6, 2012.
[6] Obituary Variety, August 4, 1976, page 63.
[7] "Fritz Lang: Master of Darkness" (http:// www. bfi. org.uk/ features/ lang/ ). British Film Institute. . Retrieved 2009-01-22.
[8] "Architekturzentrum Wien" (http:/ / www. architektenlexikon. at/ de/ 345. htm). Architektenlexikon.at. . Retrieved 2010-03-06.
[9] [9] Vienna, Schottenpfarre, baptismal register Tom. 1890, fol. 83.
[10] "The religion of director Fritz Lang" (http:/ / www.adherents. com/ people/ pl/ Fritz_Lang.html). . Retrieved 2009-01-22.
[11] Michel Ciment: Fritz Lang, Le meurtre et la loi, Ed. Gallimard, Collection Découvertes, 04/11/2003. The author thinks that this meeting, in
fact, never happened.
[12] Havis, Allan (2008), Cult Films: Taboo and Transgression, University Press of America, Inc., page 10
[13] David Kalat, DVD Commentary for The Testament of Dr. Mabuse (http:/ / www. criterion.com/ films/ 721). New York City, United States:
The Criterion Collection (2004)
[14] Plass, Ulrich (Winter 2009). "Dialectic of Regression: Theador W Adorno and Fritz Lang". Telos 149: 131.
[15] Krebs, Albin (August 3, 1976). "Fritz Lang, Film Director Noted for 'M,' Dead at 85" (http:/ /select. nytimes. com/ gst/ abstract.
html?res=FA0617FF3F5A167493C1A91783D85F428785F9). New York Times. . Retrieved 2009-01-22. "Friz Lang, the Viennese-born film
director best known for "M", a terrifying study of a child killer, and for other tales of suspense, died yesterday in Los Angeles at the age of 85.
He had been ill for some time, and had been inactive professionally for a decade."
Further reading
• Michaux, Agnès. 'Je les chasserai jusqu'au bout du monde jusqu'à ce qu'ils en crèvent; Paris: Editions 1, 1997;
ISBN 2-86391-933-4
• Friedrich, Otto. City of Nets: A Portrait of Hollywood in the 1940s; New York: Harper & Row, 1986; ISBN
0-06-015626-0 (See e.g. pp. 45–46 for anecdotes revealing Lang's arrogance.)
• McGilligan, Patrick. Fritz Lang: The Nature of the Beast; New York: St. Martins Press, 1997; ISBN
• Schnauber, Cornelius. Fritz Lang in Hollywood; Wien: Europaverlag, c1986; ISBN 3-203-50953-9 (in German)
Fritz Lang
• Youngkin, Stephen (2005). The Lost One: A Life of Peter Lorre. University Press of Kentucky.
ISBN 0-8131-2360-7. - Contains interviews with Lang and a discussion of the making of the film M
External links
• Fritz Lang (http:// www. imdb. com/ name/ nm485/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Fritz Lang Bibliography (via UC Berkeley Media Resources Center) (http:/ / www. lib.berkeley. edu/ MRC/ lang.
• Senses of Cinema - Biographie (http:// www. sensesofcinema. com/ 2002/ great-directors/lang/ )
• Fritz Lang (http:// www. filmportal.de/ df/ 77/
Uebersicht,,,,,,,,EFC121B064DE6C3FE03053D50B3736F2,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,. html) at filmportal.de
• The Religious Affiliation of Director Fritz Lang (http:// www. adherents. com/ people/ pl/ Fritz_Lang.html) at
• Interview with Fritz Lang from 1967 (http:/ / zakka. dk/ euroscreenwriters/interviews/ fritz_lang_521.htm)
• Bibliography (http:/ / film.virtual-history.com/ person. php?personid=71)
• Fritz Lang (http:/ / www. findagrave.com/ cgi-bin/ fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=5093) at Find a Grave
• (French) " Symptôme, exhibition, angoisse. Représentation de la terreur dans l’œuvre allemande de Fritz Lang
(1919-1933/1959-1960) (http:// www. editionspapiers. org/publications/ symptome-exhibition-angoisse)", un
article de Nicole Brenez extrait de De la Figure en général et du Corps en particulier (1998).
George Raft
George Raft
George Raft
From the trailer for Invisible Stripes (1939)
Born George Ranft
September 26, 1901
New York City, New York, U.S.
Died November 24, 1980 (aged 79)
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Occupation Actor
Years active 1929–1978
Spouse(s) Grace Mulrooney (1923-1970; her death)
George Raft (born George Ranft; September 26, 1901 – November 24, 1980) was an American film actor and
dancer identified with portrayals of gangsters in crime melodramas (mob films) of the 1930s and 1940s. A stylish
leading man in dozens of movies, today George Raft is mostly known for his gangster roles in Billy Wilder's 1959
comedy Some Like it Hot, the original Scarface (1932), and Each Dawn I Die (1939), and as a dancer in Bolero
(1934) and a truck driver in They Drive by Night (1940). Raft's real-life association with the New York mob gave his
on-screen image an added realism.
Early life
Raft was born on September 26, 1901
in Hell's Kitchen, New York City, the son of Eva (Glockner) and Conrad
Ranft. His father was born in Massachusetts, to German immigrant parents, and his mother was a German
immigrant. His parents were married on November 17, 1895 in Manhattan,(Census records give the year of marriage
as 1896, and years married as 4) and his sister, Eva, known as "Katie" was born on April 18, 1896. Although Raft's
birth year in obituaries has been reported as 1895, the 1900 Census for New York City lists his elder sister, Katie, as
his parents' only child with two children born and only one living.
On the 1910 Census, he is listed as being 8
years old, and his birth record can be found in the New York City birth index as being 1901.
A boyhood friend
of gangster Owney Madden (and later a "wheel man" for the mob"), Raft admitted narrowly avoiding a life of
Raft spoke German fluently, having learned the language from his parents.
George Raft
As a young man he showed aptitude in dancing which, with his elegant fashion sense, enabled him to gain
employment as a dancer in New York City nightclubs, often in the same venues as Rudolph Valentino before
Valentino became a movie actor. Raft became part of the stage act of flamboyant speakeasy hostess Texas Guinan
and his success led him to Broadway where he again worked as a dancer. Raft later made a semi-autobiographical
film called Broadway (1942) about this period in which he plays himself. He also worked in London as a chorus boy
in the early 1920s. Fred Astaire, in his autobiography Steps in Time (1959), says Raft was a lightning-fast dancer and
did "the fastest Charleston I ever saw."
Vi Kearney, later a dancer in shows for Charles B. Cochran and André Charlot, was quoted as saying:
Oh yes, I knew him (George Raft). We were in a big show together. Sometimes, to eke out our miserable pay,
we'd do a dance act after the show at a club and we'd have to walk back home because all the buses had
stopped for the night by that time. He'd tell me how he was going to be a big star one day and once he said that
when he'd made it how he'd make sure to arrange a Hollywood contract for me. I just laughed and said: 'Come
on, Georgie, stop dreaming. We're both in the chorus and you know it.' [Did he arrange the contract?] Yes. But
by that time I'd decided to marry... [Was he (Raft) ever your boyfriend?] How many times do I have to tell you
...chorus girls don't go out with chorus boys.
Gangster icon
In 1929, Raft relocated to Hollywood and took small roles. In Taxi! (1932) with James Cagney and Loretta Young,
Raft has a colorful unbilled dancing role as Cagney's competitor in a dance contest who wins only to be knocked
down by Cagney's loonily pugnacious character. His big break came later that same year as the nickel-flipping
second lead alongside Paul Muni's raging killer in Scarface (1932), and Raft's convincing portrayal led to
speculation that Raft was a gangster. Due to his lifelong friendship with Owney Madden, Raft was a friend or
acquaintance of several other crime figures, including Bugsy Siegel and Siegel's old friend Meyer Lansky. Raft and
boxer-turned actor/comedian "Slapsie" Maxie Rosenbloom were lifelong friends as well- in fact, Raft was Maxie's
mentor from childhood. When Gary Cooper's romantic escapades put him on one gangster's hit list, Raft reportedly
interceded and persuaded the mobster to spare Cooper.
Orson Welles explained to Peter Bogdanovich in their
interview book This is Orson Welles that, as Raft's career accelerated, the actor was particularly an idol and role
model for actual gangsters of the period in terms of dress and attitude.
Wm. Holden and Raft in Invisible Stripes
He was one of the three most popular gangster actors of the 1930s,
with James Cagney and Edward G. Robinson; Raft ranked far above
Humphrey Bogart in fame and boxoffice clout throughout the decade.
When the studio refused to hire Texas Guinan, the performer upon
whom one of the movie's characters was based, because of her age,
Raft advocated for the casting of his friend, Mae West, in a supporting
role in his first film as leading man, Night After Night (1932), which
launched her movie career.
Raft appeared the following year in
Raoul Walsh's energetic period piece The Bowery as Steve Brodie,
supposedly the first man to jump off Brooklyn Bridge and survive,
with Wallace Beery, Jackie Cooper, Fay Wray and Pert Kelton. Raft
memorably dances into the picture in his opening scene wearing a derby.
Some of his other movies include If I Had A Million (1932; an episodic ensemble film in which he plays a forger
hiding from police, suddenly given a million dollars with no place to cash the check), Bolero (1934; in a rare role as
a dancer rather than a gangster), Limehouse Blues (1934; with Anna May Wong), a brutal and fast-paced adaptation
of Dashiell Hammett's The Glass Key (1935; remade in 1942 with Alan Ladd in Raft's role as a result of the success
George Raft
of the remake of Hammett's The Maltese Falcon), Souls at Sea (1937; with Gary Cooper), Spawn of the North (1938;
with Raft garnering top billing over Henry Fonda and John Barrymore), two with Humphrey Bogart: Invisible
Stripes (1939) and They Drive by Night (1940), with Bogart in supporting roles, Each Dawn I Die (1939; with James
Cagney and Raft as convicts in prison), and Manpower (1941; with Edward G. Robinson and Marlene Dietrich).
Although Raft received third billing in Manpower, he played the lead.
Unexpected career decline
The years 1940 and 1941 proved to be Raft's career peak. He went into a gradual professional decline over the next
decade, in part due to turning down some of the most-famous roles in movie history, notably Raoul Walsh's High
Sierra and The Maltese Falcon; both roles unexpectedly transformed Humphrey Bogart from supporting player to a
major force in Hollywood in 1941. Raft understandably chose Raoul Walsh's Manpower over The Maltese Falcon
because the Falcon's director, John Huston, had never directed before and a racier pre-Code version of the film
already existed. Raft was also reported to have turned down Bogart's role in Casablanca (1942), although according
to some Warner Bros. memos, this story is apocryphal.
Following the release of the espionage thriller Background to Danger (1943), a film intended to capitalize on the
success of Casablanca, Raft demanded termination of his Warner Brothers contract. Jack Warner was prepared to
pay Raft a $10,000 settlement, but the actor either misunderstood or was so eager to be free of the studio that it was
he who gave Warner a check in that amount. Raft is widely believed to have been functionally illiterate, which could
account for the confusion.
Judy Canova and George Raft pictured in 1979
Raft's career as a leading man continued through the 1940s with films
of gradually declining quality and his career spiraled steadily
downward as a result until the star was finally limited as a box office
During the 1950s he was reduced to working as a greeter at the Capri
Casino in Havana, Cuba, where he was part owner along with Meyer
Lansky and Santo Trafficante.
In 1953, Raft also starred as Lt.
George Kirby in a syndicated television series police drama titled I'm
the Law, which ran for one season and was one of the earliest instances
of a movie star of his previous calibre accepting the lead in a TV
series. Raft wound up occasionally accepting supporting roles in
movies, such as playing second fiddle to Robert Taylor in Rogue Cop
He satirized his gangster image with a well-received supporting performance in Some Like it Hot (1959), but this did
not lead to a comeback, and he spent the remainder of the decade making films in Europe. He played a small role as
a casino owner in Ocean's 11 (1960) opposite the Rat Pack. He was an American-speaking syndicate leader
alongside the French iconic actor, Jean Gabin in the 1966 French gangster movie, Du rififi à Paname. He also had
cameo's in 1967's James Bond spoof Casino Royale and the recently released cult 'rock group as spys' farce The
Phynx. His final film appearances were in Sextette (1978), reunited with Mae West in a cameo, and the underrated
valentine to 1940's detective movies and Humphrey Bogart, The Man with Bogart's Face (1980).
Ray Danton played Raft in The George Raft Story (1961), which co-starred Jayne Mansfield. Raft himself excoriated
the movie upon its release due to inaccuracies.
In the 1991 biographical movie Bugsy, the character of George Raft was played by Joe Mantegna.
Raft has two stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, for contributions to Motion Pictures at 6150 Hollywood
Boulevard, and for Television at 1500 Vine St.
George Raft
Personal life
Raft married Grayce Mulrooney, several years his senior, in 1923, long before his stardom. The pair separated soon
thereafter, but Grayce, a devout Catholic, refused to grant Raft a divorce, and he remained married to and supported
her until her death in 1970. A romantic figure in Hollywood, Raft had love affairs with Betty Grable, Marlene
Dietrich, and Mae West. He stated publicly that he wanted to marry Norma Shearer, with whom he had a long
romance, but his wife's refusal to allow a divorce eventually caused Shearer to end the affair.
When James Cagney became president of the Screen Actors Guild in 1942 for a two-year term, he took a role in the
Guild's fight against the Mafia, which had taken an active interest in the movie industry. Cagney's wife, Billie, once
received a phone call telling her that Cagney was dead.
Cagney alleged that, having failed to scare him and the
Guild off, they sent a hitman to kill him by dropping a heavy light onto his head. On hearing about the rumor of the
hit, George Raft made a call, and the hit was supposedly canceled.
In 1967 he was denied entry into the United Kingdom (where he had been installed as Casino Director at a casino
known as the "Colony Club") due to his underworld associations.
Raft died from leukemia at age of 79 in Los Angeles, California, on November 24, 1980. Two days earlier, Mae
West had died and their bodies were at one point alongside each other in the hallway of the same mortuary at the
same time. Raft was interred in Forest Lawn - Hollywood Hills Cemetery in Los Angeles.
• Queen of the Night Clubs (1929) with Texas Guinan
• Gold Diggers of Broadway (1929)
• Side Street (1929) with Tom Moore, Owen Moore, and Matt Moore (Raft unbilled dancer)
• Quick Millions (1931) with Spencer Tracy and Marguerite Churchill
• Goldie (1931) with Spencer Tracy and Jean Harlow
• Hush Money (1931) with Joan Bennett and Myrna Loy
• Palmy Days (1931) with Eddie Cantor
• Scarface (1932) with Paul Muni and Ann Dvorak (Raft flips the nickel in his breakthrough role)
• Love Is a Racket (1932) (scenes deleted)
• Madame Racketeer (1932) with Alison Skipworth and Richard Bennett
• Night World (1932) with Lew Ayres, Mae Clarke, and Boris Karloff
• Dancers in the Dark (1932) with Miriam Hopkins
• Taxi! (1932) with James Cagney and Loretta Young
• Winner Take All (1932) with James Cagney
• Night After Night (1932) with Mae West as a fictionalized Texas Guinan (Raft's 1st leading role)
• Under Cover Man (1932) with Nancy Carroll
• If I Had a Million (1932; Raft plays a man on Death Row)
• Pick-Up (1933) with Sylvia Sidney
• The Bowery (1933) with Wallace Beery, Fay Wray, and Pert Kelton (Raft 2nd billed)
• The Midnight Club (1933) with Clive Brook (Raft 2nd billed)
• The Trumpet Blows (1934) with Adolphe Menjou
• All of Me (1934) with Fredric March and Miriam Hopkins (Raft 3rd billed)
• Bolero (1934) with Carole Lombard and Ray Milland (besides Scarface, Raft's signature film)
• Limehouse Blues (1934) with Anna May Wong
• Every Night at Eight (1935) with Alice Faye and Frances Langford
George Raft
• The Glass Key (1935) with Edward Arnold
• She Couldn't Take It (1935) with Joan Bennett
• Stolen Harmony (1935) with Lloyd Nolan and William Cagney
• Rumba (1935) with Carole Lombard
• Yours for the Asking (1936) with Dolores Costello and Ida Lupino
• It Had to Happen (1936) with Rosalind Russell
• Souls at Sea (1937) with Gary Cooper (Raft 2nd billed)
• You and Me (1938) with Sylvia Sidney (with bizarre musical interludes by Kurt Weill)
• Spawn of the North (1938) with Henry Fonda and John Barrymore
• I Stole a Million (1939) with Claire Trevor
• The Lady's from Kentucky (1939) with Ellen Drew
• Each Dawn I Die (1939) with James Cagney (Raft 2nd billed)
• The House Across the Bay (1940) with Joan Bennett
• They Drive by Night (1940) with Ann Sheridan, Ida Lupino, and Humphrey Bogart
• Invisible Stripes (1940) with William Holden and Humphrey Bogart
• Manpower (1941) with Edward G. Robinson and Marlene Dietrich (Raft 3rd billed but played the lead)
• Broadway (1942) with Pat O'Brien and Broderick Crawford (Raft plays himself as a young B'way dancer)
• Background to Danger (1943) with Sydney Greenstreet and Peter Lorre
• Stage Door Canteen (1943) with an all-star cast
• Follow the Boys (1944) with Vera Zorina
• Nob Hill (1945) with Joan Bennett
• Johnny Angel (1945) with Claire Trevor and Hoagy Carmichael
• Whistle Stop (1946) with Ava Gardner and Victor McLaglen
• Nocturne (1946)
• Mr. Ace (1946) with Sylvia Sidney
• Intrigue (1947) with June Havoc
• Christmas Eve (1947) with George Brent, Randolph Scott, and Joan Blondell
• Race Street (1948) with William Bendix and Marilyn Maxwell
• A Dangerous Profession (1949)
• Johnny Allegro (1949) with Nina Foch and Will Geer
• Outpost in Morocco (1949) with Marie Windsor and Akim Tamiroff
• We Shall Go to Paris (1949)
• Red Light (1949) with Virginia Mayo, Gene Lockhart, and Raymond Burr
• A Dangerous Profession (1949) with Ella Raines, Pat O'Brien, and Jim Backus
• I'll Get You For This (1951; AKA "Lucky Nick Cain") with Coleen Gray
• Loan Shark (1952) with Dorothy Hart
• Dramma nella Kasbah (1953; AKA "The Man From Cairo")
• I'm the Law (1954; 3-episode TV series)
• Black Widow (1954) with Ginger Rogers, Van Heflin, and Gene Tierney (Raft 4th billed)
• Rogue Cop (1954) with Robert Taylor and Janet Leigh (Raft 3rd billed)
• A Bullet for Joey (1955) with Edward G. Robinson (Raft 2nd billed)
• Around the World in 80 Days (1956) with David Niven and Marlene Dietrich (Raft cameo)
• Jet Over the Atlantic (1959) with Guy Madison and Virginia Mayo (Raft 3rd billed)
• Some Like It Hot (1959) with Marilyn Monroe, Tony Curtis, and Jack Lemmon (Raft 4th billed)
• Ocean's 11 (1960) with the Rat Pack (Frank Sinatra, Dean Martin, Sammy Davis, Jr., Peter Lawford, and Joey
• The Ladies Man (1961) with Jerry Lewis (Raft cameo)
George Raft
• For Those Who Think Young (1964)
• The Patsy (1964)
• The Upper Hand (1966) with Jean Gabin (Raft 2nd billed)
• Five Golden Dragons (1967) with Robert Cummings and Klaus Kinski
• Casino Royale (1967)
• Skidoo (1968) with Jackie Gleason and Groucho Marx
• Madigan's Millions (1968)
• Hammersmith Is Out (1972) with Elizabeth Taylor, Richard Burton, and Peter Ustinov
• Deadhead Miles (1972)
• Sextette (1978) with Mae West and Timothy Dalton (Raft cameo)
• The Man with Bogart's Face (1980)
Short Subjects:
• Hollywood on Parade No. A-9 (1933)
• Hollywood on Parade No. B-5 (1933)
• Hollywood on Parade No. B-8 (1934)
• The Fashion Side of Hollywood (1935)
• Screen Snapshots Series 18, No. 4 (1938)
• Meet the Stars #6: Stars at Play (1941)
• Hedda Hopper's Hollywood No. 2 (1941)
• Hollywood Park (1946)
• Screen Snapshots: Vacation at Del Mar (1949)
[1] [1] United States Census 1910; Census Place: Manhattan Ward 12, New York, New York; Roll: T624_1025; Page: 19A; Enumeration District:
0668; Image: 1107; FHL Number: 1375038.
[2] [2] United States Census 1900; Census Place: Manhattan, New York, New York; Roll: T623_1109; Page: 4B; Enumeration District: 642.
[3] via Associated Press, "'Tough guy' George raft dies of emphysema at 85" (http:// news. google.com/ newspapers?id=hdQVAAAAIBAJ&
sjid=GBIEAAAAIBAJ&dq=george-raft hell's-kitchen&pg=4923,4855479), The Milwaukee Sentinel, November 25, 1980. Accessed August
10, 2009. "After growing up in New York's tough Hell's Kitchen area, Raft was a boxer, electrician and baseball player before landing a job as
a dancer in nightclubs in the 1920s."
[4] Beaver, Jim. George Raft. Films in Review, April, 1978.
[5] Astaire, Fred, Steps in Time. ISBN 0-06-156756-6.
[6] Beaver, Jim "George Raft", Films in Review, April, 1978.
[7] Yablonsky, Lewis George Raft, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1974. ISBN 0-07-072235-8.
[8] Parish, James Robert. The George Raft File: The Unauthorized Biography. New York: Drake Publishers, 1973. ISBN 0-87749-520-3.
[9] Behlmer, Rudy Inside Warner Bros. (1913-1951), ISBN 0-671-63135-7.
[10] http:// cuban-exile.com/ doc_276-300/ doc0288. html
[11] Wallace, Stone. George Raft: The Man Who Would Be Bogart. ISBN 1-59393-204-9.
[12] Warren, Doug & Cagney, James (1986) [1983]. Cagney: The Authorized Biography (Mass Market ed.). New York: St. Martin's Press.
p. 166. ISBN ISBN 0-312-90207-7.
[13] Warren, Doug & Cagney, James (1986 [1983]). Cagney: The Authorized Biography (Mass Market ed.). New York: St. Martin's Press.
p. 166. ISBN ISBN 0-312-90207-7.
[14] Cagney, James (2005 [1976]). Cagney by Cagney. Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-52026-3.
[15] http:// hansard.millbanksystems. com/ written_answers/ 1967/ mar/ 02/ mr-george-raft
•• 1900 United States Federal Census, Census Place: Manhattan, New York, New York; Roll T623_1109; Page: 4B;
Enumeration District: 642.
•• 1910; Census Place: Manhattan Ward 12, New York, New York; Roll T624_1025; Page: 19A; Enumeration
District: 668; Image: 1104
•• Ancestry.com. New York City Births, 1891-1902 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations
Inc, 2000.
George Raft
• New York City Grooms Index, http:// www. italiangen.org/NYCmarriageresults. asp?kind=exact&
• New York City Birth Index, familysearch.org, https:/ / beta. familysearch.org/s/ recordDetails/
•• Social Security Death Index, Ancestry.com.
Further reading
• Beaver, Jim. George Raft. Films in Review, April, 1978.
• Lewis, Brad. Hollywood's Celebrity Gangster. The Incredible Life and Times of Mickey Cohen. Enigma Books:
New York, 2007. ISBN 978-1-929631-65-0.
• Parish, James Robert. The George Raft File: The Unauthorized Biography. New York: Drake Publishers, 1973.
ISBN 0-87749-520-3.
• Wallace, Stone. George Raft-The Man Who Would Be Bogart. Albany: BearManor Media, 2008. ISBN
• Yablonsky, Lewis. George Raft. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1974. ISBN 0-07-072235-8.
External links
• George Raft (http:// www. imdb. com/ name/ nm706368/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• George Raft (http:/ / tcmdb.com/ participant/ participant.jsp?participantId=157085) at the TCM Movie Database
• George Raft (http:/ / www. ibdb.com/ person. asp?ID=56972) at the Internet Broadway Database
• George Raft (http:/ / www. findagrave.com/ cgi-bin/ fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=849) at Find a Grave
• George Raft (http:/ / www. virtual-history.com/ movie/ person/ 599/ george-raft) at Virtual History
Hair-Raising Hare
Hair-Raising Hare
Hair-Raising Hare
Merrie Melodies (Bugs Bunny) series
Lobby card.
Directed by Charles M. Jones
Produced by Eddie Selzer
Story by Tedd Pierce
Voices by Mel Blanc
Music by Carl W. Stalling
Animation by Ben Washam
Ken Harris
Basil Davidovich
Lloyd Vaughan
Layouts by Earl Klein
Backgrounds by Robert Gribbroek
Distributed by Warner Bros. Pictures
The Vitaphone Corporation
Release date(s) May 25, 1946 (USA)
Color process Technicolor
Running time 7:00
Language English
Hair-Raising Hare is a 1946 Warner Bros. Merrie Melodies cartoon, released in 1946. It was directed by Chuck
Jones and written by Tedd Pierce. It stars Bugs Bunny and features the first appearance of Chuck Jones' imposing
red monster character, unnamed here, but in later cartoons named "Ruda" and then "Gossamer".
This was the final appearance of Chuck Jones' Bugs Bunny design as starting with his next Bugs Bunny cartoon A
Feather in His Hare, he would use Robert McKimson's design of Bugs Bunny.
After many Bugs cartoon titles that substituted "hare" for "hair" in a punny way, this title includes both words, as
One dark night, as the camera pans across a dark, empty forest, Bugs is heard singing a stanza of "Sweet Dreams,
Sweetheart" (originally introduced in Hollywood Canteen). When the camera zooms in on Bugs' rabbit hole, he
pokes up out of his hole, dressed in a nightshirt and holding up a candle, and tells the audience, "Eh, I don't know
but, Did you ever have the feeling you was being watched?" He is, via remote TV, as an evil scientist (a caricature of
Hollywood actor Peter Lorre; like Bugs, he is played by Mel Blanc) is planning to catch a rabbit to provide dinner
for his large, hairy, orange, sneaker-wearing monster, named Gossamer.
The scientist lures Bugs to his castle via a shapely robotic female rabbit, complete with a large wind-up key in the
back, and accompanied by Oh, You Beautiful Doll in the cartoon's underscore. Once Bugs gets to the castle (labeled
"evil scientist" in neon lights) the evil scientist locks the door behind him. Bugs looks at him and says, "You don't
need to lock that door, mac. I don't wanna leave." Then he clicks his tongue and raises his eyebrows at the audience
and begins kissing the mechanical rabbit on the hand, the robot short-circuits and breaks into pieces. Bugs faces the
Hair-Raising Hare
audience and says, "That's the trouble with some dames... kiss 'em and they fly apart!"
Nonchalantly shrugging off this odd encounter, Bugs heads for the door, but the scientist persuades him to stay and
meet another "little friend". When it becomes clear that this "friend" is a ferocious beast, Bugs sizes up the situation,
vigorously shakes the scientist's hand "Goodbye!" and launches into a schtick where he packs luggage for a vacation
trip, accompanied by a very brassy rendition of California, Here I Come. Just before bolting for the door, he tells the
scientist, in typical Groucho Marx-ist fashion, "And don't think it hasn't been a little slice of heaven...'cause it
hasn't." The scientist then releases Gossamer. This is the last scene with the scientist, as the rest of the cartoon is an
extended chase between Bugs and Gossamer, with gags aplenty.
At one point, as Bugs is behind a door and Gossamer is trying to break through, a desperate-sounding Bugs cries out,
"Is there a doctor in the house?" A silhouette, seemingly from the theater audience, stands up and offers, "I'm a
doctor." Bugs suddenly relaxes, grins, starts munching a carrot, and asks, "What's up, Doc?", just before Gossamer
breaks through and the chase resumes. (This is another Marxian joke, lifted from Horse Feathers and probably older
than that.)
Bugs Bunny and Gossamer pass by a mirror; Gossamer looks at the mirror, then his reflection runs away toward the
door screaming in horror; Gossamer looks at the audience and shrugs. Bugs rushes up a staircase, but rushes back
down and knocks down Gossamer, telling him he can't go up there because it's dark (similar to a gag from The
Wabbit Who Came to Supper). Bugs acts as a lamp; he dances to the tune of Shuffle Off To Buffalo and taunts
Gossamer by calling "Hey, Frankenstein!". Bugs and Gossamer keep running until a door on the floor opens and a
rock falls into the empty space. While Bugs is tiptoeing backwards and praying, he bumps into Gossamer. He comes
up with an idea and gives him a manicure. He starts talking and acting like a girl and says, "Oh, for shame! Just look
at those fingernails! (he pulls out a table and chair and starts working on his nails) My, I'll bet you monsters lead
in-teresting lives. I said to my girl friend just the other day, 'Gee, I'll bet monsters are in-teresting.' I said. The places
you must go and the things you must see -- my stars! I bet you meet lots of in-teresting people too. I'm always
in-terested in meeting in-teresting people. Now let's dip our patties in the water!" He puts the monster's fingers into
the water to have his fingernails cut, but it contains two mousetraps. The monster yelps in pain, and then sobs.
Bugs twice thinks he has escaped. The first time, the monster is hiding behind a picture frame and Bugs apparently is
not aware until he wises up and pokes Gossamer in the eyes. Gossamer gets out from behind the wall, and while
looking for Bugs, finds him in a painting. Gossamer then gets the idea to poke Bugs in the eyes too, but before he
can fully carry it out, Bugs jumps the gun and pokes Gossamer in the eyes again, and disappears from the painting,
making Gossamer go behind the wall again.
The second time, Gossamer is following Bugs behind the wall (which Bugs knows is happening because Gossamer
is copying Bugs' footsteps) until Bugs marks where he previously was and smashes the mark with a giant mallet
when Gossamer appears behind it. The wall crumbles and a barely conscious Gossamer quickly follows.
The third time, Gossamer is in a knight's armor, holding an axe above his head. He gets hit by Bugs Bunny in his
locomotive-style knight-riding horse, causing him to hit the wall to turn into a can labeled "Canned Monster".
However, as Bugs saunters off toward the exit, singing to himself, Gossamer gets the bunny in his clutches. Bugs
repeats his opening line, "Did you ever have the feeling you were being watched?", and Gossamer's expression
changes from anger to anxiety. Bugs points to the audience. Gossamer (despite having already acknowledged the
audience earlier) shrieks, "PEOPLE!" and runs away screaming, breaking through a series of walls, leaving his
cartoon outline in all of them.
Having "re-re-disposed of the monster", Bugs is about to "exit stage right" (although he is actually going stage left),
when the female robo-rabbit re-appears, intact, and again accompanied by Oh, You Beautiful Doll. Bugs snickers,
"Mechanical!" Then the robot smooches him on the cheek, leaving a lipstick mark on the smitten bunny, who says,
"Well, so it's mechanical!" He assumes a robot-like gait (with his tail magically rotating like the robot's wind-up key)
and follows her off the screen.
Hair-Raising Hare
•• Bugs Bunny's head disappears for 2 frames.
• Hair-Raising Hare is currently available in several issues of the *Looney Tunes Golden Collection DVD box sets.
The short occurs in its entirety in the documentary Bugs Bunny: Superstar Part 2, which is available as a special
feature on Disc 2 of the Looney Tunes Golden Collection: Volume 4. It had previously been released
independently on Disc 3 of the *Looney Tunes Golden Collection: Volume 1. It can also be found in What's Up,
Doc: A Salute to Bugs Bunny part 2 as a Special Feature on Looney Tunes Golden Collection Volume 3, disc 3.
• In addition, Hair-Raising Hare is featured on side 8 of the LaserDisc release "The Golden Age of Looney Tunes:
Volume 1".
External links
• Hair-Raising Hare
at the Internet Movie Database
• Video on YouTube
[1] http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0038586/
[2] http:/ / video.google. com/ videoplay?docid=6432360503486440973
Hans Albers
Hans Albers
Hans Albers
Hans Albers
Born September 22, 1891
Hamburg, Germany
Died July 24, 1960 (aged 68)
Starnberg, Germany
Occupation German actor and singer
Years active 1918–1960
Hans Albers with a woman, 1924
Hans Philipp August Albers (September 22, 1891 – July 24, 1960) was a
German actor and singer. He was the single biggest male movie star in
Germany between 1930 and 1945 and one of the most popular German
actors of the twentieth century.
Life and work
Hans Albers was born in Hamburg, the son of a butcher, and grew up in the
district of St. Georg. He was seriously interested in acting by his late teens
and took acting classes without the knowledge of his parents. In 1915
Albers was drafted to serve in the German Army in World War I, but was
wounded early on. After the war Albers moved to Berlin, where he found
work as a comedic actor in various Weimar-Era Berlin theatres. His
breakthrough performance was that of a waiter in the play Verbrecher
(Criminals). It was also in Berlin that Albers began a long-term relationship
with half-Jewish actress Hansi Burg (1898–1975). The relationship ended
only when he died in 1960.
After roles in over one hundred silent films, Albers starred in the first German talkie Die Nacht gehört uns (The
Night Belongs to Us) in 1929. Soon thereafter, Albers played big-mouthed strong man Mazeppa alongside Marlene
Dietrich in her star-making classic Der blaue Engel (The Blue Angel). Albers himself shot to fame in 1930 with the
Hans Albers
movie Der Greifer and constantly enhanced his star status with similar daredevil roles in the 1930s. He was probably
at his best when teamed-up with fellow German movie legend Heinz Rühmann, as in Bomben auf Monte Carlo
(1931) and Der Mann, der Sherlock Holmes war (1937). Many of Albers' songs from his movies became huge hits
and some even remain popular to this day.
When the Nazis came to power in 1933, Albers and his Jewish girlfriend Hansi Burg moved to Starnberger See in
Bavaria. While Albers himself never needed to show public support for the Nazi regime, he became the most popular
actor under Nazi rule. The actor nevertheless, although being a party member, avoided an overly close association in
public. As the ultimate sign of his popularity, the Nazis even silently accepted his relationship with Hansi Burg for a
long time. But Albers finally gave in to the pressure. Hansi Burg went to Switzerland and then to Great Britain in
1939, but they secretly remained a couple with him even managing to send her financial support. They were reunited
after the war, when she returned to Germany in a British uniform.
Hans Albers statue in the
Hans-Albers-Platz, Hamburg-St. Pauli. By
Jörg Immendorff, 1986
Inscription at the base of the Hans Albers
statue: Auf der Reeperbahn nachts um halb
In 1943, Albers was paid a huge sum of money to star in Ufa's
big-budgeted anniversary picture Münchhausen but was careful not to give
the impression that he was endorsing the National Socialist regime, which
was indeed, never asked of him. Also in 1943, Albers starred in another
classic German film Große Freiheit Nr. 7 with actress Ilse Werner. Some of
the scenes are said to have been shot in Prague because of bomb damage to
Hamburg. The sailing ship "Padua" for the outdoor scenes of the film has
survived under Soviet and Russian flag until this day as "Krusenstern".
After World War II, well-funded Albers avoided the financial plight and
professional banning many actors faced on account of his association with
Hansi Burg. Nevertheless, German "heroes" were considered undesirable
by the occupation government that wanted to promote their own. This
accounted for a major break in his career and made him hard to cast.
Eventually he found an opening with respectful wisdom-with-age type
character parts with some public acclaim, but with these never again
enjoyed the huge stardom of the 1930s and early 1940s. By the early 1950s,
his age finally showed and his powerful presence and freshness was almost
gone. This was promoted by his increasing alcoholism during the 1950s.
Yet he remained active in movies until the very end. Albers died in 1960 in
a sanatorium near the Starnberg See of internal bleedings. The whole nation
mourned his loss.
Taking a position in Germany that roughly corresponds with that of John
Wayne in the USA, Albers' name will forever be closely associated with the
North German port city of Hamburg, and especially the Hamburg
neighbourhood of St. Pauli, where there is a square named
"Hans-Albers-Platz". Today he is probably more known for his music than
his films, and his music is still widely known in modern Germany, even
among young people. Outside of Northern Europe, however, Albers
remains virtually unknown, although the image of an older man in a seaman's cap and raincoat playing accordion and
singing may be recognised by many outside of Germany, even if they don't know that this image is based on Hans
Albers. As a case in point, McDonald's used such an image in an American television ad campaign in 1986. In
reality, Albers had no experience on the water, this being restricted to a one-day trip to Heligoland.
Many of Albers' songs were humorous tales of drunken, womanizing sailors on shore-leave, with double entendres
such as "It hurts the first time, but with time, you get used to it" in reference to a girl falling in love for the first time.
Hans Albers
Albers' songs were often peppered with expressions in Low German, which is spoken in Northern Germany. His
most famous song is by far "Auf der Reeperbahn nachts um halb eins," ("On the Reeperbahn at half past midnight")
which has become the unofficial anthem of the colourful neighbourhood of St. Pauli. The Hans-Albers-Platz, one
block south of the Reeperbahn, has a statue of Albers, by the German artist Jörg Immendorff.
Filmography (selection)
Title Year Director Co-stars
Der Mut zur Sünde 1918 Heinrich Bolten-Baeckers and Robert
Olga Desmond and Guido Schützendorf
Eine Dubarry von heute 1926 Alexander Korda Maria Corda, Alfred Abel, Marlene Dietrich
Prinzessin Olala 1928 Robert Land Walter Rilla, Marlene Dietrich
Asphalt 1929 Joe May Albert Steinrück, Gustav Fröhlich
Der rote Kreis 1929 Frederic Zelnik Lya Mara, Fred Louis Lerch and Stewart
Die Nacht gehört uns 1929 Carl Froelich Charlotte Ander, Otto Wallburg
Der blaue Engel 1929/30 Josef von Sternberg Marlene Dietrich, Emil Jannings, Kurt Gerron
Der Greifer 1930 Richard Eichberg Charlotte Susa, Eugen Burg
Hans in allen Gassen 1930 Carl Froelich Camilla Horn, Gustav Diessl
Bomben auf Monte Carlo 1931 Hanns Schwarz Heinz Rühmann, Anna Sten, Peter Lorre
Der Draufgänger 1931 Richard Eichberg Martha Eggerth, Leonard Steckel
Der weiße Dämon 1932 Kurt Gerron Gerda Maurus, Peter Lorre
Der Sieger 1932 Hans Hinrich and Paul Martin Käthe von Nagy
Quick 1932 Robert Siodmak Lilian Harvey, Paul Hörbiger
F.P.1 antwortet nicht 1932 Karl Hartl Sybille Schmitz, Paul Hartmann, Peter Lorre
Heut kommt's drauf an 1933 Kurt Gerron Luise Rainer, Oscar Karlweis
Ein gewisser Herr Gran 1933 Gerhard Lamprecht Albert Bassermann, Walter Rilla, Olga
Flüchtlinge 1933 Gustav Ucicky Käthe von Nagy, Eugen Klöpfer, Veit Harlan
Gold 1934 Karl Hartl Brigitte Helm, Friedrich Kayßler, Lien
Peer Gynt 1934 Fritz Wendhausen Lucie Höflich, Marieluise Claudius, Olga
Henker, Frauen und Soldaten 1935 Johannes Meyer Charlotte Susa, Aribert Wäscher
Varieté 1935 Nicolas Farkas Annabella, Attila Hörbiger
Savoy-Hotel 217 1936 Gustav Ucicky Brigitte Horney, Rene Deltgen, Käthe Dorsch
Die gelbe Flagge 1937 Gerhard Lamprecht Olga Tschechowa, Dorothea Wieck, Rudolf
Der Mann, der Sherlock Holmes
1937 Karl Hartl Heinz Rühmann, Marieluise Claudius, Paul
Sergeant Berry 1938 Herbert Selpin Alexander Golling, Herbert Hübner
Fahrendes Volk 1938 Jacques Feyder Francoise Rosay, Camilla Horn
Water for Canitoga 1939 Herbert Selpin Charlotte Susa, Hilde Sessak
Hans Albers
Ein Mann auf Abwegen 1939 Herbert Selpin Charlotte Thiele, Hilde Weissner
Trenck, der Pandur 1940 Herbert Selpin Käthe Dorsch, Sybille Schmitz, Hilde
Carl Peters 1941 Herbert Selpin Herbert Hübner, Fritz Odemar
Münchhausen 1942/43 Josef von Baky Brigitte Horney, Ilse Werner, Ferdinand
Große Freiheit Nr. 7 1943/44 Helmut Käutner Ilse Werner, Hans Söhnker
...und über uns der Himmel 1947 Josef von Baky Paul Edwin Roth, Lotte Koch
Föhn 1950 Rolf Hansen Liselotte Pulver, Adrian Hoven
Vom Teufel gejagt 1950 Viktor Tourjansky Willy Birgel, Lil Dagover, Heidemarie
Blaubart 1951 Christian-Jaque Cecile Aubry, Fritz Kortner
Nachts auf den Straßen 1952 Rudolf Jugert Hildegard Knef, Marius Goring
Jonny rettet Nebrador 1953 Rudolf Jugert Margot Hielscher, Peter Pasetti
Käpt'n Bay-Bay 1953 Helmut Käutner Bum Krüger, Lotte Koch
Auf der Reeperbahn nachts um
halb eins
1954 Wolfgang Liebeneiner Heinz Rühmann, Gustav Knuth
Der letzte Mann 1955 Harald Braun Romy Schneider, Rudolf Forster, Joachim
Vor Sonnenuntergang 1956 Gottfried Reinhardt Annemarie Düringer, Martin Held
I fidanzati della morte 1957 Romolo Marcellini Sylva Koscina, Rik Battaglia
Der tolle Bomberg 1957 Rolf Thiele Marion Michael, Gert Fröbe, Harald Juhnke
Das Herz von St. Pauli 1957 Eugen York Hansjörg Felmy, Gert Fröbe
Der Greifer 1958 Eugen York Hansjörg Felmy, Werner Peters, Horst Frank
Der Mann im Strom 1958 Eugen York Gina Albert, Hans Nielsen
Dreizehn alte Esel 1958 Hans Deppe Marianne Hoppe, Karin Dor, Werner Peters
Kein Engel ist so rein 1960 Wolfgang Becker Sabine Sinjen, Peter Kraus, Horst Frank
Songs (selection)
• Das ist die Liebe der Matrosen (from picture Bomben auf Monte Carlo)
• Kind, du brauchst nicht weinen (from picture Der Draufgänger)
• Flieger, grüß' mit mir die Sonne (from picture F. P. 1 antwortet nicht)
• Hoppla, jetzt komm' ich (from picture Der Sieger)
• Komm' auf die Schaukel, Luise (from stage play Liliom)
• Komm und spiel mit mir (from picture Quick)
• "Mein Gorilla hat 'ne Villa im Zoo" (from picture Heut kommt's drauf an)
• "In meinem Herzen Schatz, da ist für viele Platz" (from picture Savoy-Hotel 217)
Hans Albers
• "Jawohl, meine Herrn" [with Heinz Rühmann] (from picture Der Mann, der Sherlock Holmes war)
• "Good bye, Jonny" (from picture Wasser für Canitoga)
• "La Paloma" (from picture Große Freiheit Nr. 7)
• "Auf der Reeperbahn nachts um halb eins" (from picture Große Freiheit Nr. 7)
• "Kleine weiße Möwe" (from picture Käpt'n Bay-Bay)
• "Nimm mich mit, Kapitän, auf die Reise" (from picture Käpt'n Bay-Bay)
• "Auf der Reeperbahn nachts um halb eins" (from picture Auf der Reeperbahn nachts um halb eins)
• "Komm auf die Schaukel, Luise" (from picture Auf der Reeperbahn nachts um halb eins)
• "Das Herz von St. Pauli" (from picture Das Herz von St. Pauli)
• "Mein Junge, halt die Füße still" (from picture Dreizehn alte Esel)
• Joachim Cadenbach: Hans Albers. Berlin: Universitas-Verlag, 1975, ISBN 3-8004-0818-X
• Eberhard Spieß: Hans Albers. Eine Filmographie. Herausgegeben von Hilmar Hoffmann und Walter Schobert in
Zusammenarbeit mit dem Deutschen Institut für Filmkunde, Wiesbaden. Verlag: Frankfurt am Main:
Kommunales Kino, 1977
• Uwe-Jens Schumann: Hans Albers – seine Filme, sein Leben. (= Heyne-Filmbibliothek, Band 18) München:
Heyne, 1980, ISBN 3-453-86018-7
• Hans-Christoph Blumenberg: In meinem Herzen, Schatz … Die Lebensreise des Schauspielers und Sängers Hans
Albers . Frankfurt am Main: Fischer-Taschenbuch-Verlag, 1981, ISBN 3-596-10662-1
• Michaela Krützen: Hans Albers: Eine deutsche Karriere. Berlin; Weinheim: Beltz Quadriga 1995
• Michaela Krützen: „Gruppe 1: Positiv“ Carl Zuckmayers Beurteilungen über Hans Albers und Heinz Rühmann.
In: Carl Zuckmayer Jahrbuch/ hg. von Günther Nickel. Göttingen 2002, S. 179-227
• Matthias Wegner: Hans Albers. Ellert & Richter, Hamburg 2005 (Hamburger Köpfe) ISBN 3-8319-0224-0
External links
• Hans Albers
at the Internet Movie Database
• Photographs of Hans Albers and Bibliography
• Albers at filmportal.de
[1] http:/ / www.imdb. com/ name/ nm0002161/
[2] http:// film.virtual-history.com/ person. php?personid=103
[3] http:// www.filmportal.de/ df/53/ Credits,,,,,,,,59736BC60AA64B34BF29473BAF9291C1credits,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,. html
Helen Longworth
Helen Longworth
Helen Longworth (born 1976, Preston) is a British actor. She has appeared in many radio plays including playing
Zofia in two series of On Mardle Fen, Susie Dean in The Good Companions and Marina in Pericles. Also A Song
For Edmond Shakespeare (2005) and The Pattern of Painful Adventures (2008), both fictional treatments of the life
of William Shakespeare. Appearances in Hollyoaks, Heartbeat and Emmerdale. Lead vocalist with rock band Heroes
of She. She has played the pig-hand named Hannah in The Archers.
Date Title Role Director Station
27 December 2004 Boxing Clever Veronica Toby Swift BBC Radio 4 Afternoon Play
4 May 2005 Claw Marks on the Curtain:
Eleanor Ned Chaillet BBC Radio 4 Woman's Hour
29 November 2005 French Sex at the Wilmslow
Helen Toby Swift BBC Radio 4 Afternoon Play
5 December 2005 – 30
December 2005
David Copperfield Martha Jeremy Mortimer and Mary
BBC Radio 4 Woman's Hour
2 April 2007 – 6 April 2007
Captain Starlight's
Rose Lu Kemp BBC Radio 4 Woman's Hour
18 June 2008
Listen to the Words
[2] Dr Susan Jessica Dromgoole BBC Radio 4 Afternoon Play
1 September 2008
Peter Lorre vs Peter Lorre
[3] Helen Hafner Toby Swift BBC Radio 4 Afternoon Play
23 November 2008
The Pattern of Painful
Jeremy Mortimer BBC Radio 3 Drama on 3
4 February 2009
Déjà Vu
[5] Translator Lu Kemp and Christophe
BBC Radio 4 Afternoon Play
[1] BBC – Woman's Hour Drama – Captain Starlight's Apprentice (http:/ /www. bbc. co.uk/ programmes/b007765r)
[2] BBC – Afternoon Play – Listen to the Words (http:/ / www.bbc. co. uk/ programmes/b00c197q)
[3] BBC – Afternoon Play – Peter Lorre vs Peter Lorre (http:/ / www. bbc. co.uk/ programmes/b00d6nds)
[4] BBC – Drama on 3 – The Pattern of Painful Adventures (http:/ / www. bbc.co. uk/ programmes/b00fmdbx)
[5] BBC – Afternoon Play – Déjà Vu (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ programmes/ b00h8nh9)
External links
• Helen Longworth (http:// www. imdb. com/ name/ nm1750484/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Helen Longworth Radio listing (http:/ / www. radiolistings. co.uk/ candc/ l/ lo/ longworth_helen.html)
• RADA listing (http:/ / ashbee. net/ rada/grad01/lon.html)
• Heroes of She (http:// www. myspace. com/ heroesofshe)
Hell Ship Mutiny
Hell Ship Mutiny
Hell Ship Mutiny
Original film poster
Directed by Lee Sholem
Elmo Williams
Produced by George Bilson (producer)
Jon Hall (executive producer)
Written by DeVallon Scott and
Wells Root
Narrated by Jon Hall
Starring See below
Music by Paul Sawtell
Bert Shefter
Cinematography Sam Leavitt
Editing by Elmo Williams
Distributed by Republic Pictures
Release date(s) 6 December 1957
Country USA
Language English
Hell Ship Mutiny is a 1957 American South Seas film directed by Lee Sholem and Elmo Williams starring Jon Hall
who also produced and narrated the film. It is a compilation of a 1955 unsold television pilot Knight of the South
Hall's father Felix Locher plays the role of a native chief
Plot summary
Captain Jim Knight, and his crew Roxy, Tula and a chimp named Salty sail the South Seas in search of adventure.
They discover a criminal gang has taken over a small island forcing the native pearl divers to dive beyond safe
After capturing the three man gang, Knight takes them to Tahiti for trial where the men escape and force Knight to
sail them to New Zealand. Knight subdues them again but this time a minor French magistrate is sent to the island to
try them there. The magistrate joins the criminals when a native boy locates the wreck of a lost ship containing a
Burmese King's treasure.
Hell Ship Mutiny
• Jon Hall as Capt. Jim Knight
• John Carradine as Malone
• Peter Lorre as Commissioner Lamoret
• Roberta Haynes as Princess Mareva
• Mike Mazurki as Ross, chief henchman
• Charles Mauu as Tula, sailor
• Stanley Adams as Roxy, first mate
• Danny Richards Jr. as Tatoa, native boy
• Felix Locher as King Parea
• Peter Coe as Prince Terahi
•• Michael Barrett as Pinky, Malone Henchman
• Salvador Baguez as Kuala
•• Salty the Chimp as Salty
[1] http:/ / elmowilliams. com/ elmo_williams_new_film_page_003. htm
[2] p.396 Youngkin, Stephen D. The Lost One: A Life of Peter Lorre University Press of Kentucky, 30/09/2005
[3] http:// www.imdb. com/ name/ nm0516646/ bio
External links
• Hell Ship Mutiny (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0050497/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Hell Ship Mutiny (http:/ / www. archive.org/ details/
HELLSHIPMUTINY1957JRJonHallPeterLorreSaltytheChimp2) is available for free download at the Internet
Archive [more]
Here's Hollywood
Here's Hollywood
Here's Hollywood
Joanne Jordan and Dean Miller, 1960.
Format Interview program
Presented by Dean Miller
Joanne Jordan
Helen O'Connell
Jack Linkletter
Country of origin United States
No. of seasons 2
Producer(s) Jess Oppenheimer
Running time 30 minutes
Production company(s) Desilu
Distributor Viacom
Paramount Television
CBS Paramount Television
CBS Television Distribution (current)
Original channel NBC
Picture format Black-and-white
Audio format Monaural
Original run September 26, 1960 – December 28, 1962
Here's Hollywood is an American celebrity interview program which aired on weekday afternoons on NBC at 4:30
Eastern time from September 26, 1960, to December 28, 1962.
Here's Hollywood
In the first season, the interviews were conducted by Dean Miller and Joanne Jordan. In the second season, Helen
O'Connell replaced Jordan.
Among those interviewed were Rhonda Fleming and her third husband, Lang Jeffries, three months before their
divorce, and another married couple, Steve Lawrence and Eydie Gorme. From The Three Stooges appeared Moe
Howard, Larry Fine, and Joe Besser.
Others who appeared on the broadcast, some twice, included Fred Astaire, Bob Barker, Edgar Bergen, Polly Bergen,
Neville Brand, Anita Bryant, Sebastian Cabot, John Cassavetes, Gary Crosby, Bob Cummings, Abby Dalton, Bette
Davis, William Demarest, Bob Denver, Bradford Dillman, Fabian, Constance Ford, Connie Francis, Annette
Funicello, Judy Garland, George Gobel, Hermione Gingold, Lorne Greene, Cedric Hardwicke, Sessue Hayakawa,
Paul Henreid, Darryl Hickman, Earl Holliman, Edward Everett Horton, Robert Horton, Tab Hunter, David Janssen,
Rick Jason, Carolyn Jones, Danny Kaye, Buster Keaton, Gene Kelly, Jack Kelly, and Don Knotts.
Michael Landon, Lennon Sisters, Peter Lorre, Carol Lynley, Barbara Luna, Shirley MacLaine, Nobu McCarthy,
Steve McQueen, Lori Martin, Harpo Marx, Jayne Meadows, Robert Mitchum, Ricardo Montalban, Elizabeth
Montgomery, Terry Moore, Don Murray, Jan Murray, Bob Newhart, Kathleen Nolan, Jay North, Gregory Peck,
Cynthia Pepper, Anthony Quinn, George Raft, Tony Randall, Rex Reason, Edward G. Robinson, Wayne Rogers,
Robert Ryan, Mickey Rooney, Charles Ruggles, Jane Russell, Telly Savalas, Gia Scala, Maximilian Schell, Rod
Serling, Fay Spain, Danny Thomas, Jack Warden, Jack Webb, Richard Widmark, Johnny Weismuller, Cornel Wilde,
and Gig Young also appeared.
Production notes
The program was a Desilu Production.
Jack Linkletter, son of Art Linkletter, conducted some of the interviews in
[1] "Here's Hollywood guest stars" (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0968486/ ). Internet Movie Data Base. . Retrieved February 7, 2009.
[2] Alex McNeil, Total Television, New York: Penguin Books, 1996, 4th ed., p. 374
External links
• Here's Hollywood (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0353065/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
High and Low (1933 film)
High and Low (1933 film)
High and Low
Directed by Georg Wilhelm Pabst
Written by Leslie Bush-Fekete
Starring Ariane Borg
Cinematography Eugen Schüfftan
Editing by Jean Oser
Release date(s) 8 December 1933
Running time 79 minutes
Country France
Language French
High and Low (French: Du haut en bas) is a 1933 French drama film directed by Georg Wilhelm Pabst.
• Ariane Borg as (as Olga Muriel)
• Pauline Carton as Seamstress
• Janine Crispin as Marie de Ferstel (as Jeannine Crispin)
•• Christiane Delyne
• Jean Gabin as Charles Boulla
• Catherine Hessling as Girl in Love
• Margo Lion as Mme Binder as la propriétaire
• Peter Lorre as Beggar
• Milly Mathis as Poldi
• Mauricet as M. Binder
• Michel Simon as M. Bodeletz
• Vladimir Sokoloff as M. Berger
[1] "NY Times: High and Low" (http:/ / movies. nytimes. com/ movie/ 92423/ Du-Haut-en-Bas/details). NY Times. . Retrieved 2009-09-12.
External links
• High and Low (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0023933/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
Hollywood Canteen
Hollywood Canteen
For the 1944 Warner Bros. motion picture, see Hollywood Canteen (film)
The Hollywood Canteen operated at 1451 Cahuenga Boulevard in Hollywood, California between October 3, 1942,
and November 22, 1945 (Thanksgiving Day), as a club offering food, dancing and entertainment for servicemen,
usually on their way overseas. Even though the majority of visitors were U.S servicemen, the canteen was open to
servicemen of allied countries as well as women in all branches of service. A serviceman's ticket for admission was
his uniform and everything at the canteen was free of charge.
The driving forces behind its creation were Bette Davis and John Garfield, along with Jules Stein, President of Music
Corporation of America, who headed up the finance committee. Bette Davis devoted an enormous amount of time
and energy to the project and served as its president. The various guilds and unions of the entertainment industry
donated the labor and money for the building renovations. The Canteen was operated and staffed completely by
volunteers from the entertainment industry. By the time the Canteen opened its doors, over 3000 stars, players,
directors, producers, grips, dancers, musicians, singers, writers, technicians, wardrobe attendants, hair stylists,
agents, stand-ins, publicists, secretaries, and allied craftsmen of radio and screen had registered as volunteers.
Stars volunteered to wait on tables, cook in the kitchen and clean up. One of the highlights for a serviceman was to
dance with one of the many female celebrities volunteering at the Canteen. The other highlight was the entertainment
provided by some of Hollywood's most popular stars, ranging from radio stars to big bands to novelty acts. On
September 15, 1943, the one millionth guest walked through the door of the Hollywood Canteen. The lucky soldier,
Sgt. Carl Bell, received a kiss from Betty Grable and was escorted in by another beautiful star, including Marlene
A Hall of Honor at the Hollywood Canteen had a wall of photos which honored the film actors who served in the
By 1944, the Canteen had become so popular that Warner Bros. made a movie titled The Hollywood Canteen.
Starring Joan Leslie and Robert Hutton, the film had scores of stars playing themselves. It was directed by Delmar
Daves, who also wrote the screenplay. At the time the Canteen closed its doors, it had been host to almost three
million servicemen.
Canteen site today
Today, the site of the Original Hollywood Canteen is occupied by Amoeba Music.
Reuse of the name
Fifty years after the closure of the Hollywood Canteen, a private business opened under the same name as a private
restaurant and night club. It does not cater to military servicemen and women.
Among the many celebrities who donated their services at the Hollywood Canteen were:
Hollywood Canteen
• Bud Abbott and Lou Costello •• Gloria DeHaven •• Veronica Lake •• Claude Rains
•• June Allyson •• Dolores Del Rio •• Hedy Lamarr •• Basil Rathbone
•• Don Ameche •• William Demarest •• Dorothy Lamour •• Martha Raye
•• Eddie 'Rochester' Anderson •• Olivia de Havilland •• Carole Landis •• Donna Reed
•• The Andrews Sisters •• Cecil B. DeMille •• Frances Langford •• Bill "Bojangles" Robinson
•• Dana Andrews •• Marlene Dietrich •• Angela Lansbury •• Edward G. Robinson
•• Eve Arden •• Walt Disney •• Charles Laughton •• Ginger Rogers
•• Louis Armstrong •• Jimmy Dorsey •• Peter Lawford •• Roy Rogers
•• Jean Arthur •• Tommy Dorsey •• Gertrude Lawrence •• Cesar Romero
•• Fred Astaire •• Irene Dunne •• Peggy Lee •• Mickey Rooney
•• Mary Astor •• Jimmy Durante •• Pinky Lee •• Jane Russell
•• Lauren Bacall •• Deanna Durbin •• Mervyn LeRoy •• Rosalind Russell
•• Lucille Ball •• Nelson Eddy •• Vivien Leigh •• Ann Rutherford
•• Tallulah Bankhead •• Duke Ellington •• Joan Leslie •• Peggy Ryan
•• Theda Bara •• Faye Emerson •• Ted Lewis •• S.Z. Sakall
•• Lynn Bari •• Dale Evans •• Beatrice Lillie •• Olga San Juan
•• Diana Barrymore •• Jinx Falkenburg •• Mary Livingston •• Ann Savage
•• Ethel Barrymore •• Alice Faye •• June Lockhart •• Hazel Scott
•• Lionel Barrymore •• Louise Fazenda •• Anita Loos •• Lizabeth Scott
•• Count Basie •• Gracie Fields •• Peter Lorre •• Randolph Scott
•• Anne Baxter •• Barry Fitzgerald •• Myrna Loy •• Toni Seven
•• Louise Beavers •• Errol Flynn •• Keye Luke •• Norma Shearer
•• Wallace Beery •• Kay Francis •• Bela Lugosi •• Ann Sheridan
•• William Bendix •• Jane Frazee •• Ida Lupino •• Dinah Shore
•• Constance Bennett •• Joan Fontaine •• Diana Lynn •• Sylvia Sidney
•• Joan Bennett •• Susanna Foster •• Marie McDonald •• Phil Silvers
•• Jack Benny •• Eva Gabor •• Jeanette MacDonald •• Ginny Simms
•• Edgar Bergen •• Ava Gardner •• Fred MacMurray •• Frank Sinatra
•• Ingrid Bergman •• Judy Garland •• Irene Manning •• Red Skelton
•• Milton Berle •• Greer Garson •• The Marx Brothers •• Alexis Smith
•• Mel Blanc •• Lillian Gish •• Herbert Marshall •• Kate Smith
•• Ann Blyth •• James Gleason •• Victor Mature •• Ann Sothern
•• Humphrey Bogart •• Betty Grable •• Elsa Maxwell •• Jo Stafford
•• Ray Bolger •• Cary Grant •• Louis B. Mayer •• Barbara Stanwyck
•• Beulah Bondi •• Kathryn Grayson •• Hattie McDaniel •• Craig Stevens
•• William Boyd •• Sydney Greenstreet •• Roddy McDowall •• Leopold Stokowski
•• Charles Boyer •• Paulette Goddard •• Frank McHugh •• Lewis Stone
•• Clara Bow •• Samuel Goldwyn •• Victor McLaglen •• Gloria Swanson
•• El Brendel •• Benny Goodman •• Butterfly McQueen •• Elizabeth Taylor
•• Walter Brennan •• Jack Haley • Lauritz Melchior] •• Shirley Temple
•• Fanny Brice •• Margaret Hamilton •• Adolphe Menjou •• Danny Thomas
•• Joe E. Brown •• Phil Harris •• Una Merkel •• Gene Tierney
•• Les Brown •• Moss Hart •• Ray Milland •• Lawrence Tibbett
• George Burns & Gracie Allen •• Helen Hayes •• Ann Miller •• Martha Tilton
•• Spring Byington •• Dick Haymes •• Glenn Miller •• Claire Trevor
•• James Cagney •• Susan Hayward •• Carmen Miranda •• Sophie Tucker
•• Cab Calloway •• Rita Hayworth •• Robert Mitchum •• Lana Turner
•• Rod Cameron •• Sonja Henie •• Maria Montez •• Spencer Tracy
•• Eddie Cantor •• Paul Henreid •• Jackie Moran •• Gloria Vanderbilt
•• Judy Canova •• Katharine Hepburn •• Dennis Morgan •• Beryl Wallace
Hollywood Canteen
•• Kitty Carlisle •• Darla Hood •• Ken Murray •• Nancy Walker
•• Jack Carson •• Bob Hope •• The Nicholas Brothers •• Ethel Waters
•• Adriana Caselotti •• Hedda Hopper •• Ramon Novarro •• John Wayne
•• Charlie Chaplin •• Lena Horne •• Jack Oakie •• Clifton Webb
•• Marguerite Chapman •• Edward Everett Horton •• Margaret O'Brien •• Virginia Weidler
•• Cyd Charisse •• Ruth Hussey •• Virginia O'Brien •• Johnny Weissmuller
•• Charles Coburn •• Betty Hutton •• Donald O'Connor •• Orson Welles
•• Claudette Colbert •• Harry James •• Maureen O'Hara •• Mae West
•• Jerry Colonna •• Gloria Jean •• Oona O'Neill •• Alice White
•• Ronald Colman •• Anne Jeffreys •• Maureen O'Sullivan •• Paul Whiteman
•• Perry Como •• Van Johnson •• Merle Oberon •• Margaret Whiting
•• Chester Conklin •• Al Jolson •• Eugene Pallette •• Esther Williams
•• Gary Cooper •• Jennifer Jones •• Eleanor Parker •• Chill Wills
•• Joseph Cotten •• Marcia Mae Jones •• Louella Parsons •• Marie Wilson
•• Noël Coward •• Boris Karloff •• John Payne •• Jane Withers
•• James Craig •• Danny Kaye •• Gregory Peck •• Teresa Wright
•• Bing Crosby •• Buster Keaton •• Mary Pickford •• Anna May Wong
•• Joan Crawford •• Ruby Keeler •• Walter Pidgeon •• Jane Wyman
•• George Cukor •• Evelyn Keyes •• Cole Porter •• Rudy Vallee
•• Xavier Cugat •• Andrea King •• Dick Powell •• Lupe Vélez
•• Cass Daley •• Gene Krupa •• Eleanor Powell •• Loretta Young
•• Dorothy Dandridge •• Kay Kyser •• Jane Powell •• Robert Young
•• Linda Darnell •• Alan Ladd •• William Powell •• Darryl F. Zanuck
•• Bette Davis •• Bert Lahr •• Anthony Quinn •• Vera Zorina
•• Doris Day •• Elsa Lanchester •• George Raft
•• Yvonne De Carlo •• Angela Lansbury
External links
• Hollywood Canteen (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0036922/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Current Hollywood Canteen (http:// www. hollywoodcanteenla. com)
Hollywood Forever Cemetery
Hollywood Forever Cemetery
Hollywood Cemetery
U.S. National Register of Historic Places
U.S. Historic district
Entrance of Hollywood Forever
Location: 6000 Santa Monica Blvd., Los Angeles, California
Coordinates: 34°5′19″N 118°19′8″W
Area: 62 acres ( ha)
Architect: multiple
Architectural style: Exotic Revival, Classical Revival, et al.
Governing body: Private
NRHP Reference#:
Added to NRHP: May 14, 1999
Hollywood Forever Cemetery, originally called Hollywood Memorial Park Cemetery, is one of the oldest
cemeteries in Los Angeles, California. It is located at 6000 Santa Monica Boulevard in the Hollywood district of Los
Angeles, adjacent to the north wall, or back, of Paramount Studios. Among those interred or entombed in the
cemetery are a number of important personalities and famous persons, including men and women from the
entertainment industry, and important people in the history of Los Angeles, and their relatives. The cemetery is
active and regularly hosts community events, including music events and summer movie screenings. In 2011 the
cemetery became a co-producer of the American silent movie Silent Life based on the story of the Hollywood idol
Rudolph Valentino, who is entombed there.
Hollywood Forever Cemetery
The cemetery, the first in Hollywood,
was founded in 1899 on 100 acres ( km
) as “Hollywood Memorial Park
Cemetery” by developer Isaac Lankershim and his son-in-law, Isaac Van Nuys.
The cemetery sold off large tracts
to Paramount Studios, which, with RKO Studios, bought 40 acres ( m
) by 1920. Part of the land was set aside for
the Beth Olam Cemetery, a dedicated Jewish burial ground, where people from Hollywood’s Jewish community are
In 1939, Jules Roth, a convicted felon, bought the cemetery. He used the money from the cemetery's operations to
pay for luxuries and let the cemetery fall into disrepair, also closing it to most racial minorities, e.g. forbidding
actress Hattie McDaniel to be buried there. To settle tax bills, he sold two beautiful lawns which ran east and west
along Santa Monica Boulevard. These lawns became strip malls which now house an auto-parts store and a
He never repaired the roofs or earthquake damage to crypts and left the endowment care fund, meant
to take care of the cemetery till the end of time, missing about $9 million, according to the current owner.
He never
connected the property to city water, using only the water from an onsite well for watering, which left the property in
a constant state of rotating drought. By 1997, Roth was bankrupt. He died on 4 January 1998.
The state of
California had revoked the cemetery's license to sell its remaining plots.
On the verge of closure in the bankruptcy proceeding, Tyler and Brent Cassity of the Missouri funeral home family
purchased the now 62-acre ( m
) property in 1998 for $375,000. They renamed it “Hollywood Forever” and started
restoring, refurbishing and adding to it,
investing millions in revitalizing the grounds, offering documentaries
about the deceased that are to be played in perpetuity on kiosks and are posted on the Web,
and organizing tours to
draw visitors.
Since 2002, films have been screened at the cemetery at a gathering called Cinespia on weekends during the
summer, drawing an average of 3,000 people who come with beach chairs, blankets and food to sit on the Fairbanks
Lawn and view the films, which are projected onto the white marble west wall of the Cathedral Mausoleum.
Music events take place in the cemetery as well. On June 12, 2009, Scottish rock band Glasvegas played a special
stripped-down performance. On June 14 and 15, 2011, The Flaming Lips played at the cemetery in a two-night gig
billed "Everyone You Know Someday Will Die," a lyric from their 2002 single "Do You Realize??"
Motion picture historian Karie Bible leads a walking tour through the cemetery. Bible is one of the several women
titled "Lady In Black," carrying on the tradition of the mysterious woman who put a rose on Rudolph Valentino's
grave every year.
In popular culture
Hollywood Forever Cemetery abuts Paramount
Studios on its south end.
A documentary about the cemetery called The Young and the Dead,
was made in 2000.
The cemetery is briefly shown in the short Stopover in Hollywood.
The television series 90210 featured the cemetery in the episode
"Hollywood Forever".
In one scene of the novel Expiration Date by Tim Powers, the main
characters are evading the antagonists of the novel by hiding in
Hollywood Forever Cemetery. At one point the main hero, Pete
Sullivan, remarks that at the tomb of Bugsy Siegel that his late
Hollywood Forever Cemetery
Hollywood producer father was friends with Siegel and many of the other celebrities interred at Hollywood Forever.
To illustrate, Sullivan knocks the first few beats of "Shave-and-a-Haircut" on the door of Siegel's tomb, to receive a
moment later the response "Two-Bits" knocked from the inside of the tomb.
A scene from the 2010 movie Valentine's Day took place in the cemetery. The movie shown in the cemetery was Hot
Spell (1958).
Partial list of people buried
Use the following alphabetical links to find someone:
Headstone of costume designer Adrian
• David Abel (1883–1973), cinematographer
• Joseph Achron (1886-1943), musician
• Walter Ackerman (1881–1938), actor
• Bert Adams (1891–1940), Major League Baseball player
• Don Adams (1923–2005), actor/comedian
• Louis Adlon (1908–1947), actor
• Renée Adorée (1898–1933), actress
• Gilbert Adrian (1903–1959), costume designer
• Helen Ainsworth (1902–1961), actress/producer
• Spottiswoode Aitken (1868-1933), actor
• Albert Akst (1899-1958), film editor
• Erville Alderson (1882-1957), actor
• Frank Alexander (1879–1937), actor
• J. Grubb Alexander (1887-1932), screenwriter
• Charlie Allen (1942-1990), singer
• Lester Allen (1891–1949), actor
• Murray Alper (1904–1984), actor
• Albert Edward Anson (1879-1936), actor
• Andrew Arbuckle (1887-1939), actor
• Gus Arnheim (1897-1955), composer
• Sylvia Ashley (1904–1977), actress/socialite
• A.E. Anson (1879–1936), actor
• Gertrude Astor (1877–1977), actress
• Charles Avery (1873–1926), actor
• Agnes Ayres (1898–1940), actress
Hollywood Forever Cemetery
Mel Blanc's tombstone
• Leah Baird (1883-1971), actress/screenwriter
• Charles Graham Baker (1883-1950), screenwriter/director
• Reginald Baker (1884-1953), actor/athlete/stuntman
• Fred J. Balshofer (1877–1969), director/producer
• Peter Bardens (1945-2002), musician
• George Barnes (1892-1953), cinematographer
• Anne Bauchens (1882-1967), film editor
• Frank Beal (1862-1934), actor/director/screenwriter
• William Beaudine (1892–1970), director
• Tony Beckley (1927–1980), actor
• Monta Bell (1891-1958), director
• Elmer Berger (1891–1952), inventor of the rear-view mirror
• Harry Bernard (1878-1940), actor/comedian
• Vic Berton (1896-1951), musician
• Herman Bing (1889–1947), actor
• Maurice Black (1891-1938), actor
• Paula Blackton (1881-1930), actress/director
• Richard Blackwell (1922–2008), fashion critic
• Mel Blanc (1908–1989), actor, comedian, and voice-over artist. His tombstone has one of the most famous
epitaphs, "That's all folks"
• Lilian Bond (1908-1991), actress
• Gypsy Boots (1914-2004), fitness guru
• Egon Brecher (1880-1946), actor/director
• Joseph Carl Breil (1870-1926), singer/composer/director
• El Brendel (1890–1964), actor/comedian
• Felix Bressart (1892-1949), actor
• Jack Brooks (1912-1971), composer
• Coral Browne (1913–1991), actress
• Edward Bunker (1933–2005), actor
• Louis Calhern (1895–1956), actor
• Edwin Carewe (1883-1940), actor/director/producer/screenwriter
• Lynn Cartwright (1927–2004), actress, wife of Leo Gordon
• Maurice Cass (1884-1954), actor
• Harry Chandler (1864–1944) publisher of the Los Angeles Times and investor
• Charles Chaplin Jr. (1925–1968), actor, son of Charlie Chaplin
• Hannah Chaplin (1865–1928), mother of Charlie Chaplin
• Emile Chautard (1864-1934), actor/director/screenwriter
• Chief Luther Standing Bear, Sioux Nation actor
• Al Christie (1881–1951), director/producer and screenwriter
• Charles Christie (1880–1955), movie studio owner
• Gertrude Claire (1852–1928), actress
• William Andrews Clark, Jr. (1877–1934), founder of the Los Angeles Philharmonic
Hollywood Forever Cemetery
• Lana Clarkson (1962–2003), actress/model
• Iron Eyes Cody (1907–1999), actor
• Harry Cohn (1891–1958), founder of Columbia Pictures
• Cornelius Cole (1822–1924), California Congressional Representative and U.S. Senator
• Thomas F. Cooke, Los Angeles City Council member, 1929–31
• William Henry Crane (1845-1928), actor
• Alan Crosland (1894–1936), director
• James Cruze (1884-1942), actor/director
• Irving Cummings (1888-1959), film director and actor
Tombs of the DeMille family
• Orlando da Costa (1929–2006), Portuguese Minister
• Cass Daley (1915–1975), actress/comedienne
• Viola Dana (1897–1987), actress
• Karl Dane (1886–1934), actor
• Bebe Daniels (1901–1972), actress
• Joe Dassin (1938–1980), American-born French singer/songwriter
• Marion Davies (1897–1961), actress
• Cecil B. DeMille (1881–1959), director/producer
• William C. DeMille (1878–1955), director/writer
• Basil Dickey (1880-1958), screenwriter
• Gloria Dickson (1917-1945), actress
• John Frances Dillon (1884-1934), actor/director
• Molly Dodd (1921–1981), actress
• Frances Drake (1912-2000), actress
• Jesse Duffy (1894-1952), screenwriter
• Bobby Dunn (1890-1937), actor/comedian
• Richard Dunn (1936–2010), actor
• Elmer Dyer (1892-1970), cinematographer
• B. Reeves Eason (1886-1956), actor/director/screenwriter
• Maude Eburne (1875–1960), actress
• Nelson Eddy (1901–1967), actor/singer
• Robert Edeson (1868-1931), actor
• Billy Engle (1889-1966), actor
• Skinnay Ennis (1907-1963), musician
• Charles Eyton (1871-1941), former general manager of Paramount Pictures
Hollywood Forever Cemetery
Tomb of Douglas Fairbanks Sr. and
• Douglas Fairbanks (1883–1939), actor
• Douglas Fairbanks, Jr. (1909–2000), actor
• Marion Fairfax (1875-1970), screenwriter
• Timothy Farrell (1922-1989), actor
• Julia Faye (1893–1966), actress
• Maude Fealy (1881–1971), actress
• Charles K. Feldman (1904–1968), agent/film producer
• Hugo Felix (1866-1934), composer
• Mark Fenton (1866-1925), actor
• Flora Finch (1869–1940), actress
• Peter Finch (1912–1976), actor
• Victor Fleming (1889–1949), director
• Edna Flugrath (1893-1966), actress
• John Taintor Foote (1881–1950), writer
• John Foreman (1925-1992), film producer
• Sidney Franklin (1893-1972), director
• Kathleen Freeman (1919–2001), actress
• Otto Fries (1887-1938), actor
• Joe Frisco (1889–1958), actor/comedian
• George Froeschel (1891-1979), screenwriter
• Leo Fuchs (1911–1994), actor
• Victor A. Gangelin (1899-1967), set designer
• Ed Gardner (1901–1963), actor/comedian
• Tony Gaudio (1883-1951), cinematographer
• Janet Gaynor (1906–1984), actress
• Carmelita Geraghty (1901–1966), actress, wife of Carey Wilson
• Estelle Getty (1923–2008), actress
• Maury Gertsman (1907–1999), cinematographer
• Etienne Girardot (1856-1939), actor
• Leo Gordon (1922–2000), actor, husband of Lynn Cartwright
• Archie Gottler (1896-1959), director/screenwriter/composer/actor
• Griffith J. Griffith (1850–1919), park and observatory donor
• Gidget Gein (1969-2008), artist, bassist for the band Marilyn Manson
Hollywood Forever Cemetery
Grave of John Huston
• George Hackathorne (1896–1940), actor
• Joan Hackett (1934–1983), actress
• Bianca Halstead (1965–2001), musician
• Harley Hamilton (1861-1933), musician
• John Hamilton (1887–1958), actor
• Curtis Harrington (1926–2007), director
• Kenneth Harlan (1895–1967), actor
• George Harrison (1943–2001), Beatle (cremation)
• Mildred Harris (1901–1944), actress
• Jean Havez (1869–1925), song writer
• Wanda Hawley (1895–1963), actress
• Lillie Hayward (1891–1977), actress/screenwriter
• Pauline Pfeiffer Hemingway (1895–1951), wife of Ernest Hemingway
• Woody Herman (1913–1987), musician
• Benjamin Franklin Hilliker (1843–1916), Medal of Honor recipient
• Darla Hood (1931–1979), actress/singer
• David Horsley (1873–1933), built the first Hollywood movie studio
• Jean Howard (1910–2000), actress/photographer
• John Huston (1906–1987), director/screenwriter
• Steve James (1952–1993), actor
• Rick Jason (1923–2000), actor
• Walter Jurmann (1903–1971), composer
• Olga Kaljakin (1950–2008), film poster designer
• Bronisław Kaper (1902–1983), composer
• Skelton Knaggs (1911–1955), actor
• Zoltán Korda (1895–1961), director
• Erich Wolfgang Korngold (1897–1957), composer
• May Kitson (1869–1943), actress
Peter Lorre's crypt
• Don LaFontaine (1940–2008), voiceover
• Arthur Lake (1905–1987), actor
• Barbara La Marr (1896–1926), actress
• Jesse L. Lasky (1880–1958), pioneer, founded Famous Players-Lasky, which
became Paramount Pictures
• Jesse Lasky, Jr. (1908–1988), screenwriter, son of Jesse Lasky
• Florence Lawrence (1886–1938), actress
• Lillian Lawrence (1868–1926), actress
• Henry Lehrman (1886–1946), director
Hollywood Forever Cemetery
• Edward LeSaint (1870–1940), actor
• Elmo Lincoln (1889–1952), actor
• Perry Lopez (1931–2008), actor
• Peter Lorre (1904–1964), actor
• Ben Lyon (1901–1979), actor
Hattie McDaniel cenotaph
• Robert S. MacAlister, Los Angeles City Council member, 1934–39
• Jeanie MacPherson (1887–1946), actress, screenwriter
• Leo D. Maloney (1888–1929), pioneer actor/director and producer
• Jayne Mansfield (1933–1967), actress (she has a cenotaph; she is buried in
Fairview Cemetery, Pen Argyl, Pennsylvania)
• Paul Marco (1925–2006), actor
• Tully Marshall (1864–1943), actor/producer and director
• Hattie McDaniel (1895–1952), actress, (She has a cenotaph; she is buried in
Angelus-Rosedale Cemetery; Hollywood Memorial Park cemetery did not
permit burial of black people in 1952)
• Darren McGavin (1922–2006), actor
• Adolphe Menjou (1890–1963), actor
• Charles B. Middleton (1874–1949), actor
• Arthur Charles Miller (1895–1970), cinematographer
• Laura Spellman-Middleton (1890–1945), actress
• Robert Mitchell (1912–2009), organist
• Paul Muni (1895–1967), actor
• Dudley Nichols (1895–1960), screenwriter
• Maila Nurmi (1922–2008), actress ("Vampira")
• Donald Allen Oreck (1930–2006), actor
• Harrison Gray Otis (1837–1917), Los Angeles Times publisher
Burial site of Tyrone Power
• Art Pepper (1925–1982), musician
• Barbara Pepper (1915–1969), actress
• Eleanor Powell (1912–1982), actress/dancer
• Tyrone Power (1914–1958), actor
• Dee Dee Ramone (Douglas Glenn Colvin) (1952–2002), musician
and member of The Ramones
• Johnny Ramone (1948–2004), musician and member of The
Ramones (his ashes were put into the pedestal of his statue)
Hollywood Forever Cemetery
• Virginia Rappe (1891–1921), actress
• Marie Rappold (1879–1957), singer
• Tom Reddin (1916–2004), Los Angeles police chief (1964–1969)
• Rodd Redwing (1904–1971), actor
• George Regas (1890–1940), actor
• Pedro Regas (1897–1974), actor
• Nelson Riddle (1921–1985), musician/composer
• Al Ritz (1901–1965), actor/comedian
• Harry Ritz (1904–1985), actor/comedian
• Jimmy Ritz (1907–1986), actor/comedian
• Theodore Roberts (1861–1928), actor
• Harold Rosson (1895–1988), cinematographer
Benjamin "Bugsy" Siegel's crypt
• Hans J. Salter (1896-1994), composer
• Tom Santschi (1880–1931), actor
• Ann Savage (1921–2008), actress
• Joseph Schildkraut (1896–1964), actor
• Leon Schlesinger (1884–1949), head of animation at Warner Bros.
• Herman Schopp (1899-1954), cinematographer
• Vito Scotti (1918–1996), actor
• Rolfe Sedan (1896–1982), actor
• Harry Semels (1887–1946), actor
• Peggy Shannon (1910–1941), actress
• Ann Sheridan (1915–1967), actress
• Benjamin "Bugsy" Siegel (1906–1947), gangster
• Ford Sterling (1883–1939), actor
• Yma Sumac (1922–2008), singer/actress
• Josef Swickard (1866–1940), actor
• Carl "Alfalfa" Switzer (1927–1959), actor
• Harold Switzer (1925–1967), actor, older brother of Carl Switzer
• Natasha Shneider (1956–2008), musician, actress
• Constance Talmadge (1897–1973), actress
• Natalie Talmadge (1899–1969), actress
• Norma Talmadge (1893–1957), actress
• Eva Tanguay (1879–1947), singer
• Estelle Taylor (1894–1958), actress
• William Desmond Taylor (1872–1922), director
• Verree Teasdale (1906–1987), actress, wife of Adolphe Menjou
• Terry (1933-1945), dog actress, best known for playing Toto in the Wizard of Oz
• Charles E. Toberman (1880–1981), built the Roosevelt Hotel
• Gregg Toland (1904–1948), cinematographer
• Noel Toy (1918–2003), actress/dancer, wife of Carleton Young
Hollywood Forever Cemetery
• Victor Travers (1884-1948), actor
• John Tyrrell (1900-1949), actor
• Tamara Toumanova (March 2, 1919 – May 29, 1996), actress
• Edgar Ulmer (1904–1972), actor
Rudolph Valentino's crypt
• Rudolph Valentino (1895–1926), actor
• George D. Wallace (1917–2005), actor
• Jean Wallace (1923–1990), actress
• Steve Wayne (1920–2004), actor
• Clifton Webb (1889–1966), actor
• David White (1916–1990), actor
• Marjorie White (1904–1935), actress
• Hobart Johnstone Whitley (1847–1931), Named Hollywood while
honeymooning with his wife; gravesite is marked "The Father Of Hollywood"
• Harvey Henderson Wilcox (1832–1891), founded the city of Hollywood
• Rozz Williams (1963–1998), musician
• Fay Wray (1907–2004), actress, known for playing Ann Darrow in King Kong
• Victor Young (1899–1956), composer
• Eric Zeisl (1905–1959), composer
[1] "National Register Information System" (http:// nrhp. focus.nps.gov/ natreg/ docs/ All_Data. html). National Register of Historic Places.
National Park Service. 2009-03-13. .
[2] Spindler, Amy M. (November 15, 1998). "Getting In" (http:// www. nytimes. com/ 1998/ 11/ 15/ magazine/ getting-in.html). New York
Times. . Retrieved September 26, 2011.
[3] Foliart, Lauren (September 1, 2011). "Cemetery Historian" (http:// www. lamag. com/ culture/la_archetype/ Story.aspx?id=1514671). Los
Angeles Magazine. . Retrieved September 26, 2011.
"Incorporated". Los Angeles Times. August 15, 1899. "The Hollywood Cemetery Association filed articles of incorporation yesterday."
[4] Silverman, Jacob (September 22, 2011). "Burial Plots" (http:/ / www. tabletmag. com/ arts-and-culture/78893/ burial-plots/
?utm_source=Tablet+ Magazine+ List& utm_campaign=7e6116ba27-9_23_2011weekender&utm_medium=email). Tablet Magazine. .
Retrieved September 26, 2011.
[5] Purdum, Todd S. (December 11, 1997). "Los Angeles Journal; Cemetery to the Stars Wins a Court Reprieve" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/
1997/ 12/ 11/ us/ los-angeles-journal-cemetery-to-the-stars-wins-a-court-reprieve.html). New York Times. . Retrieved September 26, 2011.
[6] Cathcart, Rebecca (June 7, 2008). "Where Hollywood’s Stars Are Interred, but Live Forever on Screen" (http:// www.nytimes. com/ 2008/
06/07/ movies/ 07ceme. html?_r=1&ref=movies& oref=slogin). New York Times. . Retrieved June 7, 2008. "In 1998 Tyler Cassity, a friend
of Mr. Boileau’s from St. Louis, bought the 62-acre ( m
) property for $375,000 and began making renovations. Mr. Cassity’s family runs
Forever Enterprises."
[7] LeDuff, Charlie (December 1, 2002). "Comeback for Resting Place of Movie Stars" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2002/ 12/ 01/ us/
comeback-for-resting-place-of-movie-stars.html). New York Times. . Retrieved September 26, 2011.
Hollywood Forever Cemetery
[8] Alzayat, Dima (August 12, 2011). "Cinespia celebrates age 10 by staying up all night" (http:/ / www. latimes. com/ theguide/
events-and-festivals/la-et-guidefeature-20110812,0,3441270.story). Los Angeles Times. . Retrieved September 26, 2011.
[9] Martens, Todd (May 3, 2011). "Flaming Lips' Hollywood Forever Cemetery gigs go on sale Friday" (http:// latimesblogs. latimes. com/
music_blog/ 2011/ 05/ flaming-lips-hollywood-forever-cemetary-gigs-to-go-sale-this-friday.html). Los Angeles Times. . Retrieved September
26, 2011.
[10] "Karie Bible" (http:/ / cemeterytour.com/ pages/ guide. php). Hollywood Forever Cimetery Walking Tour. . Retrieved September 26, 2011.
[11] Salamon, Julie (May 18, 2002). "Television Review; So You Missed the Funeral? Come See the Video Tribute" (http:// www. nytimes.
com/ 2002/ 05/ 18/ arts/ television-review-so-you-missed-the-funeral-come-see-the-video-tribute.html). New York Times. . Retrieved
September 26, 2011.
[12] Stopover in Hollywood, Documentary (http:// www.imdb.com/ title/ tt1538525/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
[13] "Character Actor Richard Dunn Dies at 73" (http:/ / today.msnbc. msn. com/ id/ 37519390/ ns/ today-entertainment/t/
actor-richard-dunn-dies-age/ ). Associated Press (msnbc.com). 2010-06-24. . Retrieved 2010-06-04.
[14] http:// www. findagrave.com/ cgi-bin/fg. cgi?page=gr& GRid=8966431
External links
• Hollywood Forever Cemetery Site (http:// www.hollywoodforever.com/ )
• Hollywood Forever Cemetery Walking Tour (http:/ / cemeterytour.com/ )
• Hollywood Forever Cemetery (http:/ / www. npr.org/templates/ story/ story.php?storyId=1138614) on National
Public Radio
• The Young and the Dead, Documentary (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0259747/ ) at the Internet Movie
Hotel Berlin
Hotel Berlin
Hotel Berlin
Poster from Hotel Berlin
Directed by Peter Godfrey
Produced by Louis F. Edelman
Written by Alvah Bessie
Jo Pagano
Vicki Baum (novel)
Starring Faye Emerson
Helmut Dantine
Raymond Massey
Andrea King
Music by Franz Waxman
Cinematography Carl E. Guthrie
Editing by Frederick Richards
Distributed by Warner Brothers
Release date(s) March 2, 1945
Running time 98 min.
Country United States
Language English
Hotel Berlin is a drama film set in Berlin near the close of World War II, made by Warner Bros. in late 1944 to early
1945. It stars Faye Emerson, Helmut Dantine, Raymond Massey and Andrea King.
It has aspects of propaganda, in that Allied leaders are praised. At the conclusion of the film, several Nazis are
planning to escape to South America. This plot device has parallels in contemporary history, due to the fear
pervading post-war society that the Nazis would return.
The lives of various desperate people intersect at the Hotel Berlin, a hotbed of Nazis, officers, spies and ordinary
Germans trying to weather the inevitable defeat. Martin Richter, a leader of the German underground who has
escaped from Dachau concentration camp, is hiding there, aided by some of the staff. He is hunted by Joachim Helm,
who has his headquarters in the same building. Another hotel guest is Nobel laureate Johannes Koenig, Richter's
friend from before the war and in Dachau.
General Arnim von Dahnwitz, the last of the leaders of a plot against Hitler still at large, goes to his friend von
Stetten to see if his clique can help him, but is told that nothing can be done. He has at best 24 hours to shoot himself
and save the Nazi regime the embarrassment of publicly dealing with him. At the hotel, von Dahnwitz encounters
Lisa Dorn, his lover and a famous actress. He asks Dorn to marry him and flee with him to Sweden, but she is aware
his situation is hopeless and declines. Later, von Dahnwitz commits suicide.
Meanwhile, von Stetten is arranging for the escape of his group to South America, where they hope to secretly
rebuild their strength for another grab at power. He invites Koenig to join them (to provide a cover for their
Hotel Berlin
Hotel "hostess" (and informant) Tillie Weiler warmly greets Major Kauders, a pilot determined to make the fullest
use of a short leave. They quarrel and part when he finds her photograph of a man who he thinks looks Jewish. Later,
Sarah Baruch comes to her and begs her help in getting medicine for her husband, dying of cancer. The older woman
also reveals that her son Max, Tillie's former employer and love, is alive, having been liberated from a labor camp by
the Allies. When they take shelter from an air raid in the basement, Sarah is recognized by Hermann Plotke, who
orders her to put on the Star of David badge required of all Jews. This is too much for Tillie, who reveals to all that
Plotke used to work in the Bauers' department store, until he was caught stealing. Max gave him another chance,
only to have Plotke appropriate the business when the Nazis came to power. Plotke orders her arrest, but is himself
taken into custody for stealing from the government.
Richter is given a waiter's uniform and sent to serve Dorn dinner in her suite. When she becomes suspicious, he is
forced to reveal his identity. She offers to assist him in exchange for her own passage out of Germany. Later,
however, Tillie snoops in Dorn's suite (envious of her extensive wardrobe) and finds a suspicious discarded waiter's
jacket, which she reports to Helm. Helm captures Richter by himself, but Richter is able to disarm him and knock
him out. He throws Helm down the shaft of a disabled elevator. Though the hotel is surrounded, Dorn persuades
admirer Major Kauders to escort a seemingly drunk Richter (now in an SS uniform) through the cordon. When
Richter sends word where to meet him, however, she betrays him. Fortunately, she is suspected, and her phone call
to von Stettin is overheard. As a result, she is taken prisoner to the underground headquarters. Despite her desperate
attempts to justify herself, Richter shoots her.
• Faye Emerson as Tillie Weiler
• Helmut Dantine as Martin Richter
• Raymond Massey as Arnim von Dahnwitz
• Andrea King as Lisa Dorn
• Peter Lorre as Johannes Koenig
• Alan Hale as Hermann Plottke
• George Coulouris as Joachim Helm
• Henry Daniell as Von Stetten
•• Peter Whitney as Heinrichs
•• Helen Thimig as Sarah Baruch (as Helene Thimig)
• Steven Geray as Kleibert, the hotel manager
• Kurt Kreuger as Major Kauders
•• Erwin Kalser as Dr. Dorf, the hotel physician
External links
• Hotel Berlin
at the Internet Movie Database
• Hotel Berlin
at the TCM Movie Database
• Hotel Berlin
at AllRovi
[1] http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0037791/
[2] http:/ / tcmdb. com/ title/ title. jsp?stid=899
[3] http:// www.allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/ v95682
Humphrey Bogart
Humphrey Bogart
Humphrey Bogart
Bogart in 1946, in a photograph by Yousuf Karsh
Born Humphrey DeForest Bogart
December 25, 1899
New York City, New York, U.S.
Died January 14, 1957 (aged 57)
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Cause of death Esophageal cancer
Resting place Forest Lawn Memorial Park, Glendale, California
Residence Holmby Hills, California
Nationality American
Education Trinity School
Alma mater Phillips Academy
Occupation Actor
Years active 1921–1956
Home town New York City, New York
Height 5 ft 9 in ( m)
Spouse(s) Helen Menken (1926–27)
Mary Philips (1928–37)
Mayo Methot (1938–45)
Lauren Bacall (1945–57)
Children Stephen Humphrey Bogart (born 1949)
Leslie Howard Bogart (born 1952)
Parents Dr. Belmont DeForest Bogart,
Maud Humphrey
Awards Academy Award for Best Actor (1951) for The African Queen, Golden Apple Award for Least Cooperative Actor (1949)
Humphrey Bogart
Humphrey DeForest Bogart (December 25, 1899 – January 14, 1957)
was an American actor
and is widely
regarded as a cultural icon.
In 1999, the American Film Institute ranked Bogart as the greatest male star in the
history of American cinema.
After trying various jobs, Bogart began acting in 1921 and became a regular in Broadway productions in the 1920s
and 1930s. When the stock market crash of 1929 reduced the demand for plays, Bogart turned to film. His first great
success was as Duke Mantee in The Petrified Forest (1936), and this led to a period of typecasting as a gangster with
films such as Angels with Dirty Faces (1938) and B-movies like The Return of Doctor X (1939).
Bogart's breakthrough as a leading man came in 1941, with High Sierra and The Maltese Falcon. The next year, his
performance in Casablanca raised him to the peak of his profession and, at the same time, cemented his trademark
film persona, that of the hard-boiled cynic who ultimately shows his noble side. Other successes followed, including
To Have and Have Not (1944); The Big Sleep (1946); Dark Passage (1947) and Key Largo (1948), with his wife
Lauren Bacall; The Treasure of the Sierra Madre (1948); In a Lonely Place (1950); The African Queen (1951), for
which he won his only Academy Award; Sabrina (1954); and The Caine Mutiny (1954). His last movie was The
Harder They Fall (1956). During a film career of almost 30 years, he appeared in 75 feature films.
Early life
Bogart was born on Christmas Day, 1899 in New York City, the eldest child of Dr. Belmont DeForest Bogart (July
1867, Watkins Glen, New York – September 8, 1934, Tudor City apartments, New York City) and Maud Humphrey
(1868–1940). Belmont and Maud married in June 1898. The name “Bogart” comes from the Dutch surname
“Bogaert”. It is derived from the word “bogaard”, a short name for “boomgaard”, which means “orchard”.
father was a Presbyterian of English and Dutch descent; his mother was an Episcopalian of English descent. Bogart
was raised in the Episcopalian faith, but did not have a strong belief in God.
Bogart's birthday has been a subject of controversy; according to Warner Bros, he was born on Christmas Day, 1899.
Others believe that this was a fiction created by the studio to romanticize their star, and that he was actually born on
January 23, 1899. However, this story is now considered baseless: although no birth certificate has ever been found,
his birth notice did appear in a New York newspaper in early January 1900, which supports the December 1899 date,
as do other sources, such as the 1900 census.
Bogart's father, Belmont, was a cardiopulmonary surgeon. His mother, Maud Humphrey, was a commercial
illustrator, who received her art training in New York and France, including study with James McNeill Whistler, and
who later became artistic director of the fashion magazine The Delineator. She was a militant suffragette.
used a drawing of baby Humphrey in a well-known ad campaign for Mellins Baby Food.
In her prime, she made
over $50,000 a year, then a vast sum, far more than her husband's $20,000 per year.
The Bogarts lived in a
fashionable Upper West Side apartment, and had an elegant cottage on a fifty-five acre estate in upstate New York
on Canandaigua Lake. As a youngster, Humphrey's gang of friends at the lake would put on theatricals.
Humphrey was the oldest of three children; he had two younger sisters, Frances and Catherine Elizabeth (Kay).
His parents were very formal, busy in their careers, and frequently fought—resulting in little emotion directed at the
children, "I was brought up very unsentimentally but very straightforwardly. A kiss, in our family, was an event. Our
mother and father didn't glug over my two sisters and me."
As a boy, Bogart was teased for his curls, his tidiness,
the "cute" pictures his mother had him pose for, the Little Lord Fauntleroy clothes she dressed him in—and the name
From his father, Bogart inherited a tendency for needling people, a fondness for fishing, a lifelong
love of boating, and an attraction to strong-willed women.
The Bogarts sent their son to private schools. Bogart attended the Delancey School until fifth grade, when he was
enrolled in Trinity School.
He was an indifferent, sullen student who showed no interest in after-school
Humphrey Bogart
Later he went to the prestigious preparatory school Phillips Academy, in Andover, Massachusetts,
where he was admitted based on family connections.
They hoped he would go on to Yale, but in 1918, Bogart
was expelled.
The details of his expulsion are disputed: one story claims that he was expelled for throwing the
headmaster (alternatively, a groundskeeper) into Rabbit Pond, a man-made lake on campus. Another cites smoking
and drinking, combined with poor academic performance and possibly some inappropriate comments made to the
staff. It has also been said that he was actually withdrawn from the school by his father for failing to improve his
academics, as opposed to expulsion. In any case, his parents were deeply dismayed by the events and their failed
plans for his future.
With no viable career options, Bogart followed his passion for the sea and enlisted in the United States Navy in the
spring of 1918. He recalled later, "At eighteen, war was great stuff. Paris! Sexy French girls! Hot damn!"
is recorded as a model sailor who spent most of his months in the Navy after the Armistice was signed, ferrying
troops back from Europe.
It was during his naval stint that Bogart may have gotten his trademark scar and developed his characteristic lisp,
though the actual circumstances are unclear. In one account, during a shelling of his ship the USS Leviathan, his lip
was cut by a piece of shrapnel, although some claim Bogart did not make it to sea until after the Armistice with
Germany was signed. Another version, which Bogart's long-time friend, author Nathaniel Benchley, claims is the
truth, is that Bogart was injured while on assignment to take a naval prisoner to Portsmouth Naval Prison in Kittery,
Maine. Supposedly, while changing trains in Boston, the handcuffed prisoner asked Bogart for a cigarette and while
Bogart looked for a match, the prisoner raised his hands, smashed Bogart across the mouth with his cuffs, cutting
Bogart's lip, and fled. The prisoner was eventually taken to Portsmouth. An alternate explanation is in the process of
uncuffing an inmate, Bogart was struck in the mouth when the inmate wielded one open, uncuffed bracelet while the
other side was still on his wrist.
By the time Bogart was treated by a doctor, the scar had already formed. "Goddamn doctor," Bogart later told David
Niven, "instead of stitching it up, he screwed it up." Niven says that when he asked Bogart about his scar he said it
was caused by a childhood accident; Niven claims the stories that Bogart got the scar during wartime were made up
by the studios to inject glamor. His post-service physical makes no mention of the lip scar even though it mentions
many smaller scars, so the actual cause may have come later.
When actress Louise Brooks met Bogart in 1924, he
had some scarred tissue on his upper lip, which Belmont Bogart may have partially repaired before Bogart went into
films in 1930.
She believes his scar had nothing to do with his distinctive speech pattern, his "lip wound gave him
no speech impediment, either before or after it was mended. Over the years, Bogart practiced all kinds of lip
gymnastics, accompanied by nasal tones, snarls, lisps and slurs. His painful wince, his leer, his fiendish grin were the
most accomplished ever seen on film."
Early career
Bogart returned home to find his father was suffering from poor health (perhaps aggravated by morphine addiction),
his medical practice was faltering, and he lost much of the family's money on bad investments in timber.
his naval days, Bogart's character and values developed independent of family influence, and he began to rebel
somewhat against their values. He came to be a liberal who hated pretensions, phonies, and snobs, and at times he
defied conventional behavior and authority, traits he displayed in life and in his movies. On the other hand, he
retained their traits of good manners, articulateness, punctuality, modesty, and a dislike of being touched.
his naval service, Bogart worked as a shipper and then bond salesman.
He joined the Naval Reserve.
Bogart resumed his friendship with boyhood pal Bill Brady, Jr. whose father had show business connections, and
eventually Bogart got an office job working for William A. Brady Sr.'s new company World Films.
Bogart got to
try his hand at screenwriting, directing, and production, but excelled at none. For a while, he was stage manager for
Humphrey Bogart
Brady's daughter's play A Ruined Lady. A few months later, in 1921, Bogart made his stage debut in Drifting as a
Japanese butler in another Alice Brady play, nervously speaking one line of dialog. Several more appearances
followed in her subsequent plays.
Bogart liked the late hours actors kept, and enjoyed the attention an actor got on
stage. He stated, "I was born to be indolent and this was the softest of rackets".
He spent a lot of his free time in
speakeasies and became a heavy drinker. A barroom brawl during this time might have been the actual cause of
Bogart's lip damage, as this coincides better with the Louise Brooks account.
Bogart had been raised to believe acting was beneath a gentleman, but he enjoyed stage acting. He never took acting
lessons, but was persistent and worked steadily at his craft. He appeared in at least seventeen Broadway productions
between 1922 and 1935.
He played juveniles or romantic second-leads in drawing room comedies. He is said to
have been the first actor to ask "Tennis, anyone?" on stage.
Critic Alexander Woollcott wrote of Bogart's early
work that he "is what is usually and mercifully described as inadequate."
Some reviews were kinder. Heywood
Broun, reviewing Nerves wrote, "Humphrey Bogart gives the most effective performance...both dry and fresh, if that
be possible".
Bogart loathed the trivial, effeminate parts he had to play early in his career, calling them "White
Pants Willie" roles.
Early in his career, while playing double roles in the play Drifting at the Playhouse Theatre in 1922, Bogart met
actress Helen Menken. They were married on May 20, 1926 at the Gramercy Park Hotel in New York City, divorced
on November 18, 1927, but remained friends.
On April 3, 1928, he married Mary Philips at her mother's
apartment in Hartford, Connecticut. She, like Menken, had a fiery temper and, like every other Bogart spouse, was
an actress. He had met Mary when they appeared in the play Nerves, which had a very brief run at the Comedy
Theatre in September 1924.
After the stock market crash of 1929, stage production dropped off sharply, and many of the more photogenic actors
headed for Hollywood. Bogart's earliest film role is with Helen Hayes in the 1928 two-reeler The Dancing Town, of
which a complete copy has never been found. He also appeared with Joan Blondell and Ruth Etting in a Vitaphone
short, Broadway's Like That (1930) which was re-discovered in 1963.
Bogart then signed a contract with Fox Film Corporation for $750 a week. Spencer Tracy was a serious Broadway
actor whom Bogart liked and admired, and they became good friends and drinking buddies. It was Tracy, in 1930,
who first called him "Bogey". (Spelled variously in many sources, Bogart himself spelled his nickname "Bogie".)
Tracy and Bogart appeared in their only film together in John Ford's early sound film Up the River (1930), with both
playing inmates. It was Tracy's film debut.
Bogart then performed in The Bad Sister with Bette Davis in 1931, in
a minor part.
Bogart shuttled back and forth between Hollywood and the New York stage from 1930 to 1935, suffering long
periods without work. His parents had separated, and Belmont died in 1934 in debt, which Bogart eventually paid
off. Bogart inherited his father's gold ring which he always wore, even in many of his films. At his father's deathbed,
Bogart finally told Belmont how much he loved him.
His second marriage was on the rocks, and he was less than
happy with his acting career to date; he became depressed, irritable, and drank heavily.
Humphrey Bogart
The Petrified Forest
Bogart in the 1934 original theatrical trailer
Bogart starred in the Broadway play Invitation to a Murder at the
Theatre Masque, now the John Golden Theatre, in 1934. The producer
Arthur Hopkins heard the play from off-stage and sent for Bogart to
play escaped murderer Duke Mantee in Robert E. Sherwood's new
play, The Petrified Forest.
Hopkins recalled:
When I saw the actor I was somewhat taken aback, for he was
the one I never much admired. He was an antiquated juvenile
who spent most of his stage life in white pants swinging a tennis
racquet. He seemed as far from a cold-blooded killer as one
could get, but the voice (dry and tired) persisted, and the voice
was Mantee's.
The play had 197 performances at the Broadhurst Theatre in New York in 1935.
Leslie Howard though, was the
star. New York Times critic Brooks Atkinson said of the play, "a peach... a roaring Western melodrama... Humphrey
Bogart does the best work of his career as an actor."
Bogart said the play "marked my deliverance from the ranks
of the sleek, sybaritic, stiff-shirted, swallow-tailed 'smoothies' to which I seemed condemned to life." However, he
was still feeling insecure.
Warner Bros. bought the screen rights to The Petrified Forest. The studio was famous for its socially realistic, urban,
low-budget action pictures; the play seemed like the perfect property for it, especially since the public was entranced
by real-life criminals like John Dillinger (whom Bogart resembled) and Dutch Schultz.
Bette Davis and Leslie
Howard were cast. Howard, who held production rights, made it clear he wanted Bogart to star with him. The studio
tested several Hollywood veterans for the Duke Mantee role, and chose Edward G. Robinson, who had first-rank star
appeal and was due to make a film to fulfill his expensive contract. Bogart cabled news of this to Howard, who was
in Scotland. Howard's cabled reply was, "Att: Jack Warner Insist Bogart Play Mantee No Bogart No Deal L.H.".
When Warner Bros. saw that Howard would not budge, they gave in and cast Bogart.
Jack Warner, famous for
butting heads with his stars, tried to get Bogart to adopt a stage name, but Bogart stubbornly refused.
never forgot Howard's favor, and in 1952 he named his only daughter "Leslie Howard" after Howard, who had died
in World War II under mysterious circumstances.
Robert E. Sherwood remained a close friend of Bogart's.
Early film career
Invisible Stripes trailer
The film version of The Petrified Forest was released in 1936. His
performance was called "brilliant", "compelling", and "superb."
Despite his success in an "A movie," Bogart received a tepid
twenty-six week contract at $550 per week and was typecast as a
gangster in a series of "B movie" crime dramas.
Bogart was proud
of his success, but the fact that it came from playing a gangster
weighed on him. He once said: "I can't get in a mild discussion without
turning it into an argument. There must be something in my tone of
voice, or this arrogant face—something that antagonizes everybody.
Nobody likes me on sight. I suppose that's why I'm cast as the heavy."
Bogart's roles were not only repetitive, but physically demanding and
draining (studios were not yet air-conditioned), and his regimented, tightly scheduled job at Warners was not exactly
the "peachy" actor's life he hoped for.
However, he was always professional and generally respected by other
actors. In those "B movie" years, Bogart started developing his lasting film persona – the wounded, stoical, cynical,
charming, vulnerable, self-mocking loner with a core of honor.
Humphrey Bogart
The studio system, then at its most entrenched, usually restricted actors to one studio, with occasional loan-outs, and
Warner Bros. had no interest in making Bogart a top star. Shooting on a new movie might begin days or only hours
after shooting on the previous one was completed. Any actor who refused a role could be suspended without pay.
Bogart disliked the roles chosen for him, but he worked steadily: between 1936 and 1940, Bogart averaged a movie
every two months, sometimes even working on two simultaneously, as movies were not generally shot sequentially.
Amenities at Warners were few compared to those for their fellow actors at MGM. Bogart thought that the Warners
wardrobe department was cheap, and often wore his own suits in his movies. In High Sierra, Bogart used his own pet
dog Zero to play his character's dog, Pard. Bogart's disputes with Warner Bros. over roles and money were similar to
those the studio had with other less-than-obedient stars, such as Bette Davis, James Cagney, Errol Flynn, and Olivia
de Havilland.
Taking a back seat to James Cagney in The
Roaring Twenties (1939)
The leading men ahead of Bogart at Warner Bros. included not only
such classic stars as James Cagney and Edward G. Robinson, but also
actors far less well-known today, such as Victor McLaglen, George
Raft and Paul Muni. Most of the studio's better movie scripts went to
these men, and Bogart had to take what was left. He made films like
Racket Busters, San Quentin, and You Can't Get Away with Murder.
The only substantial leading role he got during this period was in Dead
End (1937), while loaned to Samuel Goldwyn, where he portrayed a
gangster modeled after Baby Face Nelson.
He did play a variety of
interesting supporting roles, such as in Angels with Dirty Faces (1938)
(in which his character got shot by James Cagney's). Bogart was
gunned down on film repeatedly by Cagney and Edward G. Robinson, among others. In Black Legion (1937), for a
change, he played a good man caught up and destroyed by a racist organization, a movie Graham Greene called
"intelligent and exciting, if rather earnest".
In 1938, Warner Bros. put Bogart in a "hillbilly musical" called Swing Your Lady as a wrestling promoter; he later
apparently considered this his worst film performance.
In 1939, Bogart played a mad scientist in The Return of
Doctor X. He cracked, "If it'd been Jack Warner's blood...I wouldn't have minded so much. The trouble was they
were drinking mine and I was making this stinking movie." Mary Philips, in her own stage hit A Touch of Brimstone
(1935), refused to give up her Broadway career to go to Hollywood with Bogart. After the play closed, however, she
went to Hollywood, but insisted on continuing her career and they divorced in 1937.
Dark Victory (1939) was one of the last films in
which he played a supporting role
On August 21, 1938, Bogart entered into a disastrous third marriage,
with actress Mayo Methot, a lively, friendly woman when sober, but
paranoid when drunk. She was convinced that her husband was
cheating on her. The more she and Bogart drifted apart, the more she
drank, got furious and threw things at him: plants, crockery, anything
close at hand. She even set the house on fire, stabbed him with a knife,
and slashed her wrists on several occasions. Bogart for his part needled
her mercilessly and seemed to enjoy confrontation. Sometimes he
turned violent. The press accurately dubbed them "the Battling
"The Bogart-Methot marriage was the sequel to the Civil
War," said their friend Julius Epstein. A wag observed that there was
"madness in his Methot." During this time, Bogart bought a motor
launch, which he named Sluggy, after his nickname for his hot-tempered wife. Despite his proclamations that, "I like
a jealous wife," "We get on so well together (because) we don't have illusions about each other," and, "I wouldn't
give you two cents for a dame without a temper," it was a highly destructive relationship.
Humphrey Bogart
In California in 1945, Bogart bought a 55-foot ( m) sailing yacht, the Santana, from actor Dick Powell. The sea was
his sanctuary
and he loved to sail around Catalina Island. He was a serious sailor, respected by other sailors who
had seen too many Hollywood actors and their boats. About 30 weekends a year, he went out on his boat. He once
said, "An actor needs something to stabilize his personality, something to nail down what he really is, not what he is
currently pretending to be."
Bogart had a lifelong disgust for the pretentious, fake or phony, as his son Stephen told Turner Classic Movies host
Robert Osborne in 1999. Sensitive yet caustic, and disgusted by the inferior movies he was performing in, Bogart
cultivated the persona of a soured idealist, a man exiled from better things in New York, living by his wits, drinking
too much, cursed to live out his life among second-rate people and projects.
Bogart rarely saw his own films and avoided premieres. He even protected his privacy with invented press releases
about his private life to satisfy the curiosity of the newspapers and the public.
When he thought an actor, director,
or a movie studio had done something shoddy, he spoke up about it and was willing to be quoted. He advised Robert
Mitchum that the only way to stay alive in Hollywood was to be an "againster." As a result, he was not the most
popular of actors, and some in the Hollywood community shunned him privately to avoid trouble with the
But the Hollywood press, unaccustomed to candor, was delighted. Bogart once said:
All over Hollywood, they are continually advising me, "Oh, you mustn't say that. That will get you in a
lot of trouble," when I remark that some picture or writer or director or producer is no good. I don't get
it. If he isn't any good, why can't you say so? If more people would mention it, pretty soon it might start
having some effect.
Rise to stardom
High Sierra
High Sierra, a 1941 movie directed by Raoul Walsh, had a screenplay written by Bogart's friend and drinking
partner, John Huston, adapted from the novel by W. R. Burnett (Little Caesar, etc.).
Both Paul Muni and George
Raft turned down the lead role, giving Bogart the opportunity to play a character of some depth, although legendary
director Walsh initially fought the casting of supporting player Bogart as a leading man, much preferring Raft for the
part. The film was Bogart's last major film playing a gangster (his final gangster role was in The Big Shot in 1942).
Bogart worked well with Ida Lupino, and her relationship with him was a close one, provoking jealousy from
Bogart's wife Mayo.
The film cemented a strong personal and professional connection between Bogart and Huston. Bogart admired and
somewhat envied Huston for his skill as a writer. Though a poor student, Bogart was a lifelong reader. He could
quote Plato, Pope, Ralph Waldo Emerson and over a thousand lines of Shakespeare. He subscribed to the Harvard
Law Review.
He admired writers, and some of his best friends were screenwriters, including Louis Bromfield,
Nathaniel Benchley and Nunnally Johnson. Bogart enjoyed intense, provocative conversation and stiff drinks, as did
Huston. Both were rebellious and liked to play childish pranks. John Huston was reported to be easily bored during
production, and admired Bogart (who also got bored easily off camera) not just for his acting talent but for his
intense concentration on the set.
Humphrey Bogart
The Maltese Falcon
From the trailer, Bogart as Sam Spade in Dashiell
Hammett's The Maltese Falcon
Raft turned down the lead in John Huston's directorial debut The
Maltese Falcon (1941), due to its being a cleaned up version of the
pre-Production Code The Maltese Falcon (1931), his contract
stipulating that he did not have to appear in remakes. The original
novel, written by Dashiell Hammett, was first published in the pulp
magazine Black Mask in 1929. It was also the basis for another movie
version, Satan Met a Lady (1936) starring Bette Davis.
Complementing Bogart were co-stars Sydney Greenstreet, Peter Lorre,
Elisha Cook, Jr., and Mary Astor as the treacherous female foil.
Bogart's sharp timing and facial expressions as private detective Sam
Spade were praised by the cast and director as vital to the quick action
and rapid-fire dialogue.
The film was a huge hit and for Huston, a
triumphant directorial debut. Bogart was unusually happy with it, remarking, "it is practically a masterpiece. I don't
have many things I'm proud of... but that's one".
With Sydney Greenstreet in Casablanca. Bogart
received an Oscar nomination for his
Bogart gained his first real romantic lead in 1942's Casablanca,
playing Rick Blaine, the hard-pressed expatriate nightclub owner,
hiding from the past and negotiating a fine line among Nazis, the
French underground, the Vichy prefect and unresolved feelings for his
ex-girlfriend. The film was directed by Michael Curtiz and produced
by Hal Wallis, and featured Ingrid Bergman, Claude Rains, Sydney
Greenstreet, Paul Henreid, Conrad Veidt, Peter Lorre and Dooley
Wilson. It was reportedly Bogart's idea that Rick Blaine be portrayed
as a chess player, which served as a metaphor for the sparring
relationship of the characters played by Bogart and Rains. In real life
Bogart played tournament chess, one division below master level, and
often played with crew members and cast off the set. However, Paul
Henreid proved to be the best player.
The on-screen magic of Bogart and Bergman was the result of two actors doing their very best work, not any real-life
sparks, though Bogart's perennially jealous wife assumed otherwise. Off the set, the co-stars hardly spoke during the
filming, where normally Bergman had a reputation for affairs with her leading men.
She later said of Bogart, "I
kissed him but I never knew him."
Because Bergman was taller than her leading man, Bogart had 3-inch ( mm)
blocks attached to his shoes in certain scenes.
Casablanca won the 1943 Academy Award for Best Picture. Bogart was nominated for Best Actor in a Leading
Role, but lost to Paul Lukas for his performance in Watch on the Rhine. The film vaulted Bogart from fourth place to
first in the studio's roster, finally exceeding James Cagney, and by 1946 more than doubling his annual salary to over
$460,000, making him the highest paid actor in the world.
Humphrey Bogart
Bogart and Bacall
To Have and Have Not
Lauren Bacall, co-star married to
Bogart from 1945 until his death
Bogart met Lauren Bacall while filming To Have and Have Not (1944), a loose
adaptation of the Ernest Hemingway novel. The movie has many similarities
with Casablanca – the same enemies, the same kind of hero, even a piano player
sidekick (this time Hoagy Carmichael). When they met, Bacall was 19 and
Bogart was 44. He nicknamed her "Baby." She had been a model since she was
16 and had acted in two failed plays. Bogart was drawn to Bacall's high
cheekbones, green eyes, tawny blond hair, and lean body, as well as her poise
and earthy, outspoken honesty.
Reportedly he said, "I just saw your test. We'll
have a lot of fun together".
Their physical and emotional rapport was very
strong from the start, and the age difference and different acting experience also
created the additional dimension of a mentor-student relationship. Quite contrary
to the Hollywood norm, it was his first affair with a leading lady.
Bogart was
still miserably married and his early meetings with Bacall were discreet and
brief, their separations bridged by ardent love letters.
The relationship made it
much easier for the newcomer to make her first film, and Bogart did his best to put her at ease by joking with her and
quietly coaching her. He let her steal scenes and even encouraged it. Howard Hawks, for his part, also did his best to
boost her performance and her role, and found Bogart easy to direct.
Hawks at some point began to disapprove of the pair. Hawks considered himself her protector and mentor, and
Bogart was usurping that role. Hawks fell for Bacall as well (normally he avoided his starlets, and he was married).
Hawks told her that she meant nothing to Bogart and even threatened to send her to Monogram, the worst studio in
Hollywood. Bogart calmed her down and then went after Hawks. Jack Warner settled the dispute and filming
Hawks said of Bacall: "Bogie fell in love with the character she played, so she had to keep playing it the
rest of her life."
The Big Sleep, Dark Passage and Key Largo
Just months after wrapping the film, Bogart and Bacall were reunited for their second movie together, the film noir
The Big Sleep, based on the novel by Raymond Chandler, again with script help from William Faulkner. Chandler
thoroughly admired Bogart's performance: "Bogart can be tough without a gun. Also, he has a sense of humor that
contains that grating undertone of contempt."
The film holds a rare niche in Hollywood history as having been
completed and slated for release in 1945, then withdrawn and substantially re-edited with new, juiced up scenes
added to better exploit the box office chemistry that shined between Bogie and Bacall in To Have and Have Not and
the notoriety of their personal relationship. "After the public's response to Bacall's debut performance in To Have
and Have Not at the urging of director Howard Hawks production partner Charles K. Feldman, scenes were
re-written to heighten the 'insolent' quality that had intrigued critics and audiences in that film." By chance, a 35 mm
nitrate composite master positive (fine grain) of the 1945 version survived. The UCLA Film Archive, in association
with Turner Entertainment and with funding provided by Hugh Hefner, restored and released it in 1996.
Humphrey Bogart
Bogart and Bacall in Dark Passage (1947), the
third of four films they made together
Bogart was still torn between his new love and his sense of duty to his
marriage. The mood on the set was tense, the actors both emotionally
exhausted as Bogart tried to find a way out of his dilemma. The
dialogue, especially in the newly shot scenes, was full of sexual
innuendo supplied by Hawks, and Bogart is convincing and enduring
as private detective Philip Marlowe. In the end, the film was
successful, though some critics found the plot confusing and overly
Reportedly Chandler himself could not answer the
question who killed the limousine driver in the story when the baffled
screenwriters called him up for final reference.
Dark Passage (1947) was Bogart's and Bacall's next collaboration. The
first third of the film is shot from the protagonist's point of view, with the camera seeing what he sees. After the
character's plastic surgery, the rest of the movie is shot normally with Bogart as the lead character. The picture is a
suspense thriller with Bogart intent on finding the real killer in a murder he was blamed for and sentenced to prison.
Key Largo was directed by John Huston and, in addition to the presence of Bogart and Bacall, features Edward G.
Robinson as "Johnny Rocco," a seething older synthesis of many of his past vicious gangster roles. The cast is
trapped during a spectacular hurricane in a hotel owned by Bacall's character's father in law, played by Lionel
Barrymore. Claire Trevor won an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for her performance as Rocco's
physically abused, alcoholic, girlfriend. Robinson had always had top billing over Bogart in their previous films
together but for this movie, Robinson's name appears to the right of Bogart's, but placed a little higher on the posters,
and also in the film's opening credits, to indicate Robinson's near-equal status. Robinson's image was also markedly
larger and centered on the original poster, with Bogart relegated to the background. In the film's trailer, Bogart is
repeatedly mentioned first but Robinson's name is listed above Bogart's in a cast list at the trailer's very end.
Robinson's role remains similar in circumstance to Duke Mantee in The Petrified Forest (1936), Bogart's initial
breakthrough which the studio had originally earmarked for Robinson.
Final marriage
Bogart filed for divorce from Methot in February 1945. He and Bacall married in a small ceremony at the country
home of Bogart's close friend, Pulitzer Prize-winning author Louis Bromfield, at Malabar Farm near Lucas, Ohio on
May 21, 1945.
Bogart and Bacall moved into a $160,000 (equal to $2,065,508 today) white brick mansion in an exclusive
neighborhood in Holmby Hills. The marriage proved to be a happy one, though there were the normal tensions due
to their differences. He was a homebody and she liked nightlife; he loved the sea, which made her seasick.
Bogart's drinking sometimes inflamed tensions.
Bogart became a father at age 49 when Bacall gave birth to Stephen (Steve) Humphrey Bogart on January 6, 1949,
during the filming of Tokyo Joe. Bogart told Tokyo Joe's screenwriter, Steve Fisher, "Don’t get any stupid ideas. It
just happens to fit."
Stephen was actually named after Bogart's character's nickname in To Have and Have Not.
Stephen would go on to become an author and biographer, later hosting a television special about his father on
Turner Classic Movies. Their daughter, Leslie Howard Bogart, was born on August 23, 1952 and named after British
actor Leslie Howard, his co-star in The Petrified Forest.
Humphrey Bogart
Later career
The enormous success of Casablanca redefined Bogart's career. For the first time, Bogart could be cast successfully
as a tough, strong man and, at the same time, as a vulnerable love interest. Despite Bogart's elevated standing, he did
not yet have a contractual right of script refusal, so when he got weak scripts, he dug in his heels, and locked horns
again with the front office, as he did on the film Conflict (1945).
Though he submitted to Jack Warner on that
picture, he successfully turned down God is My Co-Pilot (1945).
During part of 1943 and 1944, Bogart went on
USO and War Bond tours accompanied by Mayo, enduring arduous travels to Italy and North Africa, including
The Treasure of the Sierra Madre
from the trailer of The Treasure of the Sierra
Madre (1948)
Riding high in 1947 with a new contract which provided some script
refusal rights and the right to form his own separate production
company, Bogart reunited with John Huston for The Treasure of the
Sierra Madre, a stark tale of greed involving three gold prospectors
played out in the dusty back country of Mexico. Absent any love story
or a happy ending, it was deemed a risky project.
Bogart later said
of co-star (and John Huston's father) Walter Huston, "He's probably the
only performer in Hollywood to whom I'd gladly lost a scene".
The film was grueling to make, and was done in summer for greater
realism and atmosphere.
James Agee wrote, "Bogart does a
wonderful job with this character...miles ahead of the very good work
he has done before". John Huston won the Academy Award for
direction and screenplay and his father won Best Supporting Actor, but the film had mediocre box office results.
Bogart complained, "An intelligent script, beautifully directed—something different—and the public turned a cold
shoulder on it".
House Un-American Activities Committee
Bogart, a liberal Democrat,
organized a delegation to Washington, D.C., called the Committee for the First
Amendment, against the House Un-American Activities Committee's harassment of Hollywood screenwriters and
actors. He subsequently wrote an article "I'm No Communist" in the March 1948 edition of Photoplay magazine in
which he distanced himself from The Hollywood Ten to counter the negative publicity that resulted from his
appearance. Bogart wrote: "The ten men cited for contempt by the House Un-American Activities Committee were
not defended by us."
Santana Productions
In addition to being offered better, more diverse roles, in 1948 he started his own production company, Santana
Productions, named after his private sailing yacht. (Santana was also the name of the cabin cruiser featured in the
1948 film Key Largo).
Bogart's contract gave him the right to have his own production company, but Jack Warner
was reportedly furious at this, fearing that other stars would do the same and major studios would lose their power.
The studios, however, were already under a lot of pressure, not just from free-lancing actors like Bogart, James
Stewart, Henry Fonda and others (who also saved taxes as independents), but also from the eroding impact of
television and from anti-trust laws which were breaking up theater chains.
Bogart performed in his final films for
Warners, Chain Lightning, released early in 1950, and The Enforcer, released early in 1951.
Humphrey Bogart
In a Lonely Place (1950)
Under Bogart's Santana Productions, which released its films through
Columbia Pictures, Bogart starred in Knock on Any Door (1949),
Tokyo Joe (1949), In a Lonely Place (1950), Sirocco (1951) and Beat
the Devil (1954). Santana made two other films without him: And Baby
Makes Three (1949) and The Family Secret (1951).
While the majority of his films lost money at the box office (the main
reason for Santana's end), at least two of them are still remembered
today; In a Lonely Place is now recognized as a masterpiece of film
noir. Bogart plays embittered writer Dixon Steele, who has a history of
violence and becomes a suspect in a murder case at the same time that
he falls in love with a failed actress, played by Gloria Grahame. Many
Bogart biographers and actress/writer Louise Brooks agree that the role is the closest to Bogart's real self and is
considered among his best performances.
She wrote that the film "gave him a role that he could play with
complexity, because the film character's pride in his art, his selfishness, drunkenness, lack of energy stabbed with
lightning strokes of violence were shared by the real Bogart". The character even mimics some of Bogart's personal
habits, including twice ordering Bogart's favorite meal of ham and eggs.
Beat the Devil, Bogart's last film with his close friend and favorite director John Huston, also enjoys a cult following.
Co-written by Truman Capote, the movie is a parody of The Maltese Falcon, and is a tale of an amoral group of
rogues chasing an unattainable treasure, in this instance uranium.
Bogart sold his interest in Santana to Columbia for over $1 million in 1955.
The African Queen
With Katharine Hepburn in a promotional image
for The African Queen
Bogart starred with Katharine Hepburn in the film The African Queen
in 1951, again directed by his friend John Huston. The novel was
overlooked and left undeveloped for fifteen years until producer Sam
Spiegel and Huston bought the rights. Spiegel sent Katharine Hepburn
the book and she suggested Bogart for the male lead, firmly believing
that "he was the only man who could have played that part".
Huston's love of adventure, a chance to work with Hepburn, and
Bogart's earlier successes with Huston convinced Bogart to leave the
comfortable confines of Hollywood for a difficult shoot on location in
the Belgian Congo in Africa. Bogart was to get 30 percent of the
profits and Hepburn 10 percent, plus a relatively small salary for both.
The stars met up in London and announced the happy prospect of working together.
Bacall came for the duration (over four months), leaving their young child behind, but the Bogarts started the trip
with a junket through Europe, including a visit with Pope Pius XII.
Later, the glamor would be gone and she
would make herself useful as a cook, nurse and clothes washer, for which Bogart praised her, "I don't know what
we'd have done without her. She Luxed my undies in darkest Africa".
Just about everyone in the cast came down
with dysentery except Bogart and John Huston, who subsisted on canned food and alcohol. Bogart explained: "All I
ate was baked beans, canned asparagus and Scotch whisky. Whenever a fly bit Huston or me, it dropped dead."
The teetotaling Hepburn, in and out of character, fared worse in the difficult conditions, losing weight, and at one
time, getting very ill. Bogart resisted Huston's insistence on using real leeches in a key scene where Bogart has to
drag the boat through a shallow marsh, until reasonable fakes were employed.
In the end, the crew overcame
illness, soldier ant invasions, leaking boats, poor food, attacking hippos, bad water filters, fierce heat, isolation, and a
boat fire to complete a memorable film.
Despite the discomfort of jumping from the boat into swamps, rivers
Humphrey Bogart
and marshes the film apparently rekindled in Bogart his early love of boats and on his return to California from the
Congo he bought a classic mahogany Hacker-Craft runabout which he kept until his death.
The African Queen was the first Technicolor film in which Bogart appeared. He appeared in relatively few color
films during the rest of his career, which continued for another five years. The role of Charlie Allnutt won Bogart his
only Academy Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role in 1951. Bogart considered his performance to be the best of
his film career.
He had vowed to friends that if he won, his speech would break the convention of thanking
everyone in sight. He advised Claire Trevor, when she had been nominated for Key Largo, to "just say you did it all
yourself and don't thank anyone". But when Bogart won the Academy Award, which he truly coveted despite his
well-advertised disdain for Hollywood, he said "It's a long way from the Belgian Congo to the stage of this theatre.
It's nicer to be here. Thank you very much...No one does it alone. As in tennis, you need a good opponent or partner
to bring out the best in you. John and Katie helped me to be where I am now". Despite the thrilling win and the
recognition, Bogart later commented, "The way to survive an Oscar is never to try to win another one...too many
stars...win it and then figure they have to top themselves...they become afraid to take chances. The result: A lot of
dull performances in dull pictures".
Final roles
Bogart dropped his asking price to get the role of Captain Queeg in Edward Dmytryk's The Caine Mutiny, then
griped with some of his old bitterness about it.
For all his success, he was still his melancholy old self,
grumbling and feuding with the studio, while his health was beginning to deteriorate. The character of Captain
Queeg mirrored those Bogart had played in The Maltese Falcon, Casablanca and The Big Sleep—the wary loner
who trusts no one—but with none of the warmth or humor of those roles. Like his portrayal of Fred C. Dobbs in The
Treasure of the Sierra Madre, Bogart played a paranoid, self-pitying character whose small-mindedness eventually
destroyed him. Three months before the film's release, Bogart as Queeg appeared on the cover of TIME magazine,
while on Broadway Henry Fonda was starring in the stage version (in a different role), both of which generated
strong publicity for the film.
In Sabrina, Billy Wilder, unable to secure Cary Grant, chose Bogart for the role of the older, conservative brother
who competes with his younger playboy sibling (William Holden) for the affection of the Cinderella-like Sabrina
(Audrey Hepburn). Bogart was lukewarm about the part, but agreed to it on a handshake with Wilder, without a
finished script, and with the director's assurances to take good care of Bogart during the filming.
But Bogart got
on poorly with his director and co-stars. He also complained about the script, which was written on a last-minute,
daily basis, and that Wilder favored Hepburn and Holden on and off the set. The main problem was that Wilder was
the opposite of his ideal director, John Huston, in both style and personality. Bogart told the press that Wilder was
"overbearing" and "is the kind of Prussian German with a riding crop. He is the type of director I don't like to work
with... the picture is a crock of crap. I got sick and tired of who gets Sabrina."
Wilder said, "We parted as
enemies but finally made up." Despite the acrimony, the film was successful. The New York Times said of Bogart,
"he is incredibly adroit... the skill with which this old rock-ribbed actor blend the gags and such duplicities with a
manly manner of melting is one of the incalculable joys of the show."
Humphrey Bogart
The Barefoot Contessa (1954)
The Barefoot Contessa, directed by Joseph Mankiewicz, was filmed in
Rome, and released in 1954. In this Hollywood back-story movie,
Bogart again is the broken-down man, this time the cynical
director-narrator who saves his career by making a star of a flamenco
dancer, Ava Gardner, modeled on the real life of Rita Hayworth.
Bogart was uneasy with Gardner because she had just split from
"rat-pack" buddy Frank Sinatra and was carrying on with bullfighter
Luis Miguel Dominguín. Bogart told her, "Half the world's female
population would throw themselves at Frank's feet and here you are
flouncing around with guys who wear capes and little ballerina
slippers." He was also annoyed by her inexperienced performance.
Later, Gardner credited Bogart with helping her. Bogart's performance was generally praised as the strongest part of
the film.
During the filming, while Bacall was home, Bogart resumed his discreet affair with Verita Peterson, his
long-time studio assistant, whom he took sailing and enjoyed drinking with. But when Bacall suddenly arrived on the
scene discovering them together, Bacall took it quite well. She extracted an expensive shopping spree from him and
the three traveled together after the shooting.
Bogart could be generous with actors, particularly those who were blacklisted, down on their luck, or having
personal problems. During the filming of The Left Hand of God (1955), he noticed his co-star Gene Tierney having a
hard time remembering her lines and behaving oddly. He coached Tierney, feeding her lines. He was familiar with
mental illness (his sister had bouts of depression), and Bogart encouraged Tierney to seek treatment.
He also
stood behind Joan Bennett and insisted on her as his co-star in We're No Angels when a scandal made her persona
non grata with Jack Warner.
In 1955, Bogart made three films: We're No Angels (dir. Michael Curtiz), The Left Hand of God (dir. Edward
Dmytryk) and The Desperate Hours (dir. William Wyler). Mark Robson's The Harder They Fall (1956) was his last
Television and radio work
Bogart rarely appeared on television. However, he and Bacall appeared on Edward R. Murrow's Person to Person in
which they disagreed in answering every question. Bogart was also featured on The Jack Benny Show. The surviving
kinescope of the live Benny telecast features Bogart in his only TV sketch comedy outing. Bogart and Bacall also
worked together on an early color telecast, in 1955, an NBC adaptation of The Petrified Forest for Producers'
Showcase; only a black and white kinescope of the live telecast has survived.
Bogart performed radio adaptations of some of his best known films, such as Casablanca and The Maltese Falcon.
He also recorded a radio series called Bold Venture with Lauren Bacall.
The Rat Pack
Bogart was a founding member and the original leader, until his death, of the Rat Pack. In the spring of 1955, after a
long party in Las Vegas with Frank Sinatra, Judy Garland, her husband Sid Luft, Mike Romanoff and wife Gloria,
David Niven, Angie Dickinson and others, Lauren Bacall surveyed the wreckage of the party and declared, "You
look like a goddamn rat pack."
Romanoff's in Beverly Hills was where the Rat Pack became official. Sinatra was named Pack Leader, Bacall was
named Den Mother, Bogie was Director of Public Relations, and Sid Luft was Acting Cage Manager.
asked by columnist Earl Wilson what the purpose of the group was, Bacall responded "to drink a lot of bourbon and
stay up late."
Humphrey Bogart
By the mid-1950s, Bogart's health was failing. Once, after signing a long-term deal with Warner Bros., Bogart
predicted with glee that his teeth and hair would fall out before the contract ended. Bogart had formed a new
production company and had plans for a new film Melville Goodwin, U.S.A., in which he would play a general and
Bacall a press magnate. His persistent cough and difficulty eating became too serious to ignore and he dropped the
project. The film was renamed Top Secret Affair and made with Kirk Douglas and Susan Hayward.
Bogart, a heavy smoker and drinker, developed cancer of the esophagus. He almost never spoke of his failing health
and refused to see a doctor until January 1956. A diagnosis was made several weeks later and by then removal of his
esophagus, two lymph nodes, and a rib on March 1, 1956, was too late to halt the disease, even with
He underwent corrective surgery in November 1956 after the cancer had spread.
Hepburn and Spencer Tracy visited him at this time. Frank Sinatra was also a frequent visitor. With time, Bogart
grew too weak to walk up and down stairs. He valiantly fought the pain and joked about his immobility: "Put me in
the dumbwaiter and I'll ride down to the first floor in style." The dumbwaiter was then altered to accommodate his
In an interview, Hepburn described the last time she and Spencer Tracy saw Bogart (the night before
he died):
Spence patted him on the shoulder and said, "Goodnight, Bogie." Bogie turned his eyes to Spence very quietly
and with a sweet smile covered Spence's hand with his own and said, "Goodbye, Spence." Spence's heart stood
still. He understood.
Bogart had just turned 57 and weighed 80 pounds (36 kg) when he died on January 14, 1957, after falling into a
coma. He died at his home at 232 South Mapleton Drive in Holmby Hills, California. His simple funeral was held at
All Saints Episcopal Church with musical selections from Bogart's favorite composers, Johann Sebastian Bach and
Claude Debussy. The ceremony was attended by some of Hollywood's biggest stars, including Katharine Hepburn,
Spencer Tracy, Judy Garland, David Niven, Ronald Reagan, James Mason, Bette Davis, Danny Kaye, Joan Fontaine,
Marlene Dietrich, James Cagney, Errol Flynn, Gregory Peck and Gary Cooper, as well as Billy Wilder and Jack
Warner. Bacall had asked Tracy to give the eulogy, but Tracy was too upset, so John Huston spoke instead and
reminded the gathered mourners that while Bogart's life had ended far too soon, it had been a rich one.
Himself, he never took too seriously—his work most seriously. He regarded the somewhat gaudy figure of
Bogart, the star, with an amused cynicism; Bogart, the actor, he held in deep respect...In each of the fountains
at Versailles there is a pike which keeps all the carp active; otherwise they would grow overfat and die. Bogie
took rare delight in performing a similar duty in the fountains of Hollywood. Yet his victims seldom bore him
any malice, and when they did, not for long. His shafts were fashioned only to stick into the outer layer of
complacency, and not to penetrate through to the regions of the spirit where real injuries are done...He is quite
irreplaceable. There will never be another like him."
Bogart's cremated remains were interred in Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery, Glendale, California. He was
buried with a small, gold whistle once part of a charm bracelet he had given to Lauren Bacall before they married. It
was inscribed with a quote from their first movie together: "If you want anything, just whistle."
The probate value of Bogart's estate was $910,146 gross; $737,668 was the final estate value.
Humphrey Bogart
Legacy and tributes
After his death, a "Bogie Cult" formed at the Brattle Theatre in Cambridge, Massachusetts, as well as Greenwich
Village, New York and in France, which contributed to his spike in popularity in the late 1950s and 1960s. In 1997,
Entertainment Weekly magazine named him the number one movie legend of all time. In 1999, the American Film
Institute ranked him the Greatest Male Star of All Time.
Jean-Luc Godard's Breathless (1960) was the first film to pay tribute to Bogart. Later, in Woody Allen's comic
tribute to Bogart Play It Again, Sam (1972), Bogart's ghost comes to the aid of Allen's bumbling character, a movie
critic with woman troubles and whose "sex life has turned into the 'Petrified Forest'".
Awards and honors
In A Lonely Place with Gloria Grahame
On August 21, 1946, Humphrey Bogart was honored in a ceremony at
Grauman's Chinese Theater to record his hand and footprints in
cement. On February 8, 1960 he was posthumously given a star on the
Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6322 Hollywood Boulevard. During his
career he was nominated for several awards including the BAFTA
award for best foreign actor in 1952 for The African Queen and three
Academy Awards.
Academy Awards
Year Award Film y/n
1943 Best Actor Casablanca Nominated
1951 Best Actor The African Queen Won
1954 Best Actor The Caine Mutiny Nominated
In 1997, the United States Postal Service honored Bogart with a stamp bearing his image in its "Legends of
Hollywood" series as the third figure to be recognized.
At a formal ceremony attended by Lauren Bacall, and the
Bogart children, Stephen and Leslie, Tirso del Junco, the chairman of the governing board of the USPS, provided an
eloquent tribute:
"Today, we mark another chapter in the Bogart legacy. With an image that is small and yet as powerful as the ones
he left in celluloid, we will begin today to bring his artistry, his power, his unique star quality, to the messages that
travel the world."
On June 24, 2006, a section of 103rd Street between Broadway and Amsterdam Avenue in New York City was
renamed "Humphrey Bogart Place". Lauren Bacall and her son Stephen Bogart were present at the commemorative
event. "Bogie would never have believed it," Lauren Bacall expressed to the assembled group of city officials and
onlookers in attendance.
Humphrey Bogart
In popular culture
Humphrey Bogart's life has inspired writers and others:
• Two Bugs Bunny cartoons featured Humphrey Bogart:
• In Slick Hare (1947), Bogart orders fried rabbit in a Hollywood restaurant. Told that they do not have any, he
becomes insistent, leading waiter Elmer Fudd to try (unsuccessfully as usual) to serve Bugs as the meal. Bogart
finally gives up, saying: "Baby will just have to have a ham sandwich instead." – "Baby" being Bacall's
nickname. Bugs, upon hearing the name, immediately presents himself and goes completely ga-ga over Bacall,
who looks on with amusement.
• In 8 Ball Bunny (1950) Bugs decides to take a baby penguin back to the South Pole. At intervals, "Fred C.
Dobbs" (Bogart's character in Treasure of the Sierra Madre) appears and asks Bugs to "help out a fellow
American who's down on his luck" – a line Bogart says a number of times in the film to John Huston, playing
an American gringo.
• Bogart is featured in one of Woody Allen's comic movies, Play It Again, Sam (1972), which relates the story of a
young man obsessed by his persona.
• Issue No.70 of the US The Phantom (1977) comic book is known as the "Bogart" issue, as the story stars
Humphrey Bogart, Lauren Bacall, Sydney Greenstreet, Peter Lorre and Claude Rains and is a mixture of
Casablanca, The African Queen, The Maltese Falcon and The Treasure of the Sierra Madre.
• The Man with Bogart's Face (1981) was an homage to Bogart and starred Bogart lookalike Robert Sacchi.
• The slang term "bogarting" refers to taking an unfairly long time with a joint that is supposed to be shared. It
derives from Bogart's style of cigarette smoking, with which he left his cigarette dangling from his mouth rather
than withdrawing it between puffs.
The term also inspired a 1968 song Don't Bogart Me (also known as Don't
Bogart That Joint) by US band Fraternity of Man, which became popular in counterculture through its inclusion
in the soundtrack of the 1969 film Easy Rider, and the song Don't Bogart My Heart by Australian
singer/songwriter Darren Hanlon.
"Bogart" can also refer to coercion or bullying in African-American slang
• 2HB is a song written by Bryan Ferry and first recorded by Roxy Music for their 1972 debut album, Roxy Music.
Ferry also recorded a version for his 1976 solo album, Let's Stick Together. The title is a pun, not about the
European nomenclature of pencil leads, but a dedication to Bogart ("2HB" = "to Humphrey Bogart"). In
particular, the song references "Casablanca".
Bogart is credited with five of the American Film Institute's top 100 quotations in American cinema, the most by any
• 5th: "Here's looking at you, kid" – Casablanca
• 14th: "The stuff that dreams are made of." – The Maltese Falcon
• 20th: "Louis, I think this is the beginning of a beautiful friendship." – Casablanca
• 43rd: "We'll always have Paris." – Casablanca
• 67th: "Of all the gin joints in all the towns in all the world, she walks into mine." – Casablanca
Bogart is also credited with one of the top movie misquotations. In Casablanca, neither he nor anyone else ever said,
"Play it again, Sam," although that "quote" is widely credited to him, and is the title of the Woody Allen tribute
movie. When Ilsa (Ingrid Bergman), his former love, first enters the Café Americain, she spots Sam, the piano player
(Dooley Wilson) and asks him to "Play it once, Sam, for old times' sake." When he feigns ignorance, she responds,
"Play it, Sam. Play 'As Time Goes By.'" Later that night, alone with Sam, Rick says, "You played it for her and you
can play it for me," and "If she can stand it, I can! Play it!"
Humphrey Bogart
[1] http:/ / www.humphreybogart.com/
[2] Ontario County Times birth announcement, January 10, 1900.
[3] Birthday of Reckoning (http:/ / www. snopes. com/ movies/ actors/ bogart2.asp).
[4] Obituary Variety, January 16, 1957.
[5] Sragow, Michael. "Spring Films/Revivals; How One Role Made Bogart Into an Icon." (http:/ / query.nytimes.com/ gst/ fullpage.
html?res=9A07E7DB163AF935A25752C0A9669C8B63) The New York Times, January 16, 2000. Retrieved: February 22, 2009.
[6] "100 Icons of the Century – Humphrey Bogart." (http:/ / www. variety.com/ index.asp?layout=variety100& content=jump& jump=icon&
articleID=VR1117930697) Variety, October 16, 2005. Retrieved: February 22, 2009.
[7] [7] Meyers 1997, pp. 5
[8] "The religious affiliation of Humphrey Bogart." (http:// www. adherents. com/ people/ pb/ Humphrey_Bogart.html) Adherents.com.
Retrieved: January 25, 2011.
[9] The 1900 census for the household of Belmont Bogart lists his son Humphrey as having a birth date in December 1899. There are also three
different censuses attesting to his birth date in December 1899. His last wife, actress Lauren Bacall, always maintained that December 25 was
his true birth date. "Bogart: Urban Legends." (http:/ / bogart-tribute.net/ legends. shtml) bogart-tribute.net. Retrieved: January 25, 2011.
[10] [10] Meyers 1997, pp. 6-7
[11] [11] Meyers 1997, pp. 8
[12] [12] Meyers 1997, pp. 10-11
[13] [13] Meyers 1997, pp. 9-10
[14] [14] Meyers 1997, pp. 22
[15] [15] Hyams 1975, p. 12.
[16] [16] Meyers 1997, pp. 13
[17] [17] Wallechinsky and Wallace 2005, p. 9.
[18] [18] Meyers 1997, pp. 18-19
[19] [19] Meyers 1997, pp. 19
[20] [20] Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 27.
[21] Citro, Sceurman, Mark and Moran 2005, pp. 240–241.
[22] [22] Meyers 1997, pp. 29
[23] [23] Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 28.
[24] [24] Meyers 1997, pp. 23
[25] [25] Meyers 1997, pp. 24, 31.
[26] Sperber and Lax 1997, pp. 29–31.
[27] [27] Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 35.
[28] Humphrey Bogart (http:// www. ibdb. com/ person. asp?ID=32377) at the Internet Broadway Database.
[29] [29] Meyers 1997, pp. 28
[30] Time Magazine, June 7, 1954.
[31] [31] Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 33.
[32] [32] Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 36.
[33] Sperber and Lax 1997, pp. 39–39.
[34] "letter from Bogart to John Huston," displayed in documentary John Huston: The Man, the Movies, the Maverick (1989).
[35] [35] Meyers 1997, pp. 41
[36] [36] Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 41.
[37] [37] Meyers 1997, pp. 48
[38] [38] Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 45.
[39] [39] Meyers 1997, pp. 49
[40] [40] Meyers 1997, pp. 51
[41] [41] Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 46.
[42] [42] Meyers 1997, pp. 52
[43] Sperber and Lax 1997, pp. 52–54.
[44] [44] Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 57.
[45] [45] Shickel 2006, p. 161.
[46] Sperber and Lax 1997, pp. 60–61.
[47] [47] Meyers 1997, pp. 56
[48] [48] Meyers 1997, pp. 54
[49] [49] Meyers 1997, pp. 69
[50] [50] Meyers 1997, pp. 67
Humphrey Bogart
[51] Lax, Eric. Audio commentary for Disc One of the 2006 three-disc DVD special edition of The Maltese Falcon.
[52] Sperber and Lax 1997, pp. 62–63.
[53] [53] Meyers 1997, pp. 78, 91-92
[54] [54] Meyers 1997, pp. 81
[55] [55] Interview with John Huston.
[56] [56] Meyers 1997, pp. 76
[57] [57] Meyers 1997, pp. 86-87
[58] [58] Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 119.
[59] [59] Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 128.
[60] [60] Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 127.
[61] [61] Meyers 1997, pp. 115
[62] [62] Meyers 1997, pp. 123
[63] [63] Meyers 1997, pp. 125
[64] [64] Meyers 1997, pp. 131
[65] [65] Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 198.
[66] [66] Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 201.
[67] [67] Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 196.
[68] [68] Meyers 1997, pp. 151
[69] [69] Meyers 1997, pp. 166
[70] [70] Meyers 1997, pp. 165
[71] [71] Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 258.
[72] [72] Meyers 1997, pp. 176-174
[73] Sperber and Lax 1997, pp. 263–264.
[74] [74] Meyers 1997, pp. 168
[75] [75] Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 289.
[76] UCLA Film & Television Archive 8th Annual Festival of Preservation Program June 27, 1996.
[77] [77] Meyers 1997, pp. 180
[78] [78] Meyers 1997, pp. 185
[79] [79] Meyers 1997, pp. 188-191
[80] Fisher, Steve. "Play It Again, Sam Spade." The Armchair Detective, January 1972.
[81] [81] Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 422.
[82] [82] Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 214.
[83] [83] Meyers 1997, pp. 164
[84] [84] Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 337.
[85] [85] Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 343.
[86] [86] Meyers 1997, pp. 227
[87] [87] Meyers 1997, pp. 229-230
[88] [88] Porter 2003, p. 9.
[89] Bogart, Humphrey. "I'm No Communist." (http:// docs. google. com/ View?docid=dg6n6657_103f7bsqj) Photoplay, March 1948.
[90] [90] Meyers 1997, pp. 236
[91] [91] Meyers 1997, pp. 235
[92] In a Lonely Place (http:// www. rottentomatoes. com/ m/ in_a_lonely_place/ ) at Rotten Tomatoes
[93] [93] Meyers 1997, pp. 240-241
[94] [94] Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 471.
[95] [95] Meyers 1997, pp. 243
[96] [96] Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 439.
[97] [97] Meyers 1997, pp. 248
[98] [98] Meyers 1997, pp. 249
[99] [99] Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 444.
[100] [100] Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 447.
[101] Sperber and Lax 1997, pp. 444–445.
[102] [102] Meyers 1997, pp. 258
[103] [103] Meyers 1997, pp. 259-260
[104] [104] Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 480.
[105] [105] Meyers 1997, pp. 279-280
[106] [106] Meyers 1997, pp. 281
[107] [107] Meyers 1997, pp. 283
[108] [108] Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 495.
[109] [109] Meyers 1997, pp. 288-290
Humphrey Bogart
[110] [110] Meyers 1997, pp. 291-292
[111] "Gene Tierney: A Shattered Portrait". The Biography Channel. Airdate: March 26, 1999.
[112] Tierney and Herskowitz, (1978). Wyden Books. Self-Portrait. pp. 164–165.
[113] [113] Meyers 1997, p. 294.
[114] [114] Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 504.
[115] [115] Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 430.
[116] Sperber and Lax 1997, pp. 509–510.
[117] [117] Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 510.
[118] [118] Bacall 1978, p. 273.
[119] [119] Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 516.
[120] [120] Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 518.
[121] [121] Meyers 1997, pp. 315
[122] http:/ / www.mendellawfirm.com/ blog/uncategorized/famous-estates-legacy-champ-chump-5/
[123] Selligman, Craig. "New Humphrey Bogart bio a superficial effort: USPS Humphrey Bogart Legends of Hollywood Stamp." (http:/ / www.
reuters.com/ article/ 2011/ 02/ 22/ us-books-bogart-idUSTRE71L7DH20110222) reuters.com, February 22, 2011. Retrieved: March 19, 2011.
[124] [124] Kanfer 2011, p. 248.
[125] [125] Kanfer 2011, p. 249.
[126] "Slick Hare." (http:// www. bcdb. com/ cartoon/ 213-Slick_Hare.html) Big Cartoon Database. Retrieved: January 25, 2011.
[127] "8 Ball Bunny." (http:/ / revver.com/ video/ 1081477/ bugs-bunny-in-8-ball-bunny/) revver.com. Retrieved: January 25, 2011.
[128] Dirks, Tim. "Play It Again, Sam (1972) ." (http:/ / www. filmsite. org/playi. html) filmsite.org. Retrieved: January 25, 2011.
[129] "Don Newton: Fan to Pro." (http:// chainlettersfordisturbedchildren.blogspot.com/ 2010/ 09/ don-newton-fan-to-pro.html) Comic Book
Fanzines: Chain Letters for Disturbed Children: A tribute to the early days of comic book fandom and the fanzines that kept them informed,
September 3, 2010. Retrieved: January 25, 2011.
[130] Null, Christopher. "The Man With Bogart's Face." (http:/ / www.filmcritic.com/ reviews/ 1980/ the-man-with-bogarts-face/)
filmcritic.com, May 17, 2000. Retrieved: January 25, 2011.
[131] "Bogart." (http:/ / www. wordorigins.org/ index. php/ site/ comments/ bogart/) Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition via
Wordorigins.org. Retrieved: January 25, 2011.
[132] "Don't Bogart My Heart." (http:// www. lyricsbrowser. com/ Darren-Hanlon/Dont-Bogart-My-Heart-lyrics.) 'SongLyrics.com. Retrieved:
March 2, 2012
[133] http:/ / www.oed. com/ view/ Entry/257509
[134] Shapiro, Fred R. "Movie Misquotations." (http:/ / www.nytimes. com/ 2010/ 01/ 17/ magazine/ 17FOB-onlanguage-t.html) The New York
Times Magazine,January 15, 2010.
• Bacall, Lauren. By Myself. New York: Alfred Knopf, 1979. ISBN 0-394-41308-3.
• Bogart, Stephen Humphrey. Bogart: In Search of My Father. New York: Dutton, 1995. ISBN 0-525-93987-3.
• Bogart, Humphrey. "I'm no communist," (http:// docs.google. com/ View?docid=dg6n6657_103f7bsqj)
Photoplay Magazine, March 1948.
• Citro, Joseph A., Mark Sceurman and Mark Moran.Weird New England. New York: Sterling, 2005. ISBN
• Halliwell, Leslie. Halliwell's Film, Video and DVD Guide. New York: Harper Collins Entertainment, 2004. ISBN
• Hepburn, Katharine. The Making of the African Queen. New York: Alfred Knopf, 1987. ISBN 0-394-56272-0.
• Hill, Jonathan and Jonah Ruddy. Bogart: The Man and the Legend. London: Mayflower-Dell, 1966.
• "Humphrey Bogart (cover story)." Time Magazine, June 7, 1954.
• Hyams, Joe. Bogart and Bacall: A Love Story. New York: David McKay Co., Inc., 1975. ISBN 0-446-91228-X.
• Hyams, Joe. Bogie: The Biography of Humphrey Bogart. New York: New American Library, 1966 (later editions
renamed as: Bogie: The Definitive Biography of Humphrey Bogart). ISBN 0-451-09189-2.
• Kanfer, Stefan. Tough Without A Gun: The Life and Extraordinary Afterlife of Humphrey Bogart. New York:
Knopf, 2011. ISBN 978-0-307-27100-6.
• Meyers, Jeffrey (1997). Bogart: a Life in Hollywood. London: Deutsch. ISBN 0-233-99144-1.
• Michael, Paul. Humphrey Bogart: The Man and his Films. New York: Bonanza Books, 1965. No ISBN.
Humphrey Bogart
• Porter, Darwin. The Secret Life of Humphrey Bogart: The Early Years (1899–1931). New York: Georgia Literary
Association, 2003. ISBN 0-9668030-5-1.
• Pym, John, ed. "Time Out" Film Guide. London: Time Out Group Ltd., 2004. ISBN 1-904978-21-5.
• Shickel, Richard. Bogie: A Celebration of the Life and Films of Humphrey Bogart. New York : Thomas Dunne
Books/St. Martin's Press, 2006. ISBN 978-0-312-36629-2.
• Sperber, A.M. and Eric Lax. Bogart. New York: William Morrow & Co., 1997. ISBN 0-688-07539-8.
• Tierney, Gene with Mickey Herskowitz. Self-Portrait. New York: Peter Wyden, 1979. ISBN 0-88326-152-9.
• Wallechinsky, David and Amy Wallace. The New Book of Lists. Edinburgh, Scotland: Canongate, 2005. ISBN
• Youngkin, Stephen D. The Lost One: A Life of Peter Lorre. Lexington, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky,
2005, ISBN 0-8131-2360-7.
External links
• Humphrey Bogart (http:// www. ibdb.com/ person. asp?ID=32377) at the Internet Broadway Database
• Humphrey Bogart (http:// www. imdb.com/ name/ nm7/) at the Internet Movie Database
• Humphrey Bogart Official Website (http:/ / www.humphreybogart.com/ )
• Humphrey Bogart (http:/ / www. allrovi.com/ name/ p7027) at AllRovi
• Humphrey Bogart (http:/ / tcmdb.com/ participant/ participant.jsp?participantId=18290) at the TCM Movie
• Works by or about Humphrey Bogart (http:/ / worldcat.org/identities/ lccn-n50-10086) in libraries (WorldCat
• Bogie Online: The online resource for Humphrey Bogart fans (http:// www. bogieonline.com/ )
• Humphrey Bogart (http:/ / www. chessgames. com/perl/ chessplayer?pid=65398) player profile at
• Modern Drunkard: Three Drinks Ahead With Humphrey Bogart (http:// www.moderndrunkardmagazine.com/
issues/ 05_03/ 05-03-bogart.html)
• Genealogy of Humphrey Bogart (http:// dgmweb. net/ FGS/ B/
BogartHumphrey-HMenken-MPhillips-MMethot-LaurenBacall. shtml)
• Bogart: Behind the Legend (documentary) (http:// www. documen. tv/ asset/ Humphrey_bogart_film.html)
• Verita Thompson:Humphrey Bogart's Secret Mistress (http:/ / www.independent. co. uk/ news/ obituaries/
• Bibliography (http:/ / film.virtual-history.com/ person. php?personid=89)
• Bold Venture radio show (32 episodes) (http:/ / www. bold-venture.co.uk/ )
• Tribute to Humphrey Bogart (http:// bogart-tribute.net/ )
• Humphrey Bogart's appearances in the 1900 US Census -- Version 1 (https:/ / familysearch.org/ pal:/MM9. 1. 2/
1BK8-8ZF/p_65653130) and Version 2 (https:// familysearch. org/pal:/ MM9. 1.2/1BVY-X9R/ p_63913556),
in the 1905 NY Census (https:/ / familysearch.org/ pal:/ MM9. 1. 2/ SMJ2-JRC/ p_2029092718), the 1910 US
Census (https:// familysearch.org/pal:/ MM9. 1.2/ 9298-JKH/ p_588642643), and the 1920 US Census (https:/ /
familysearch.org/pal:/ MM9. 1. 2/ MNH4-MJ6/ p_435925291).
I Was an Adventuress
I Was an Adventuress
I Was an Adventuress
Directed by Gregory Ratoff
Produced by Nunnally Johnson
Written by Karl Tunberg
Don Ettlinger
John O'Hara
Starring Vera Zorina
Richard Greene
Erich von Stroheim
Peter Lorre
Music by David Buttolph
Cinematography Leon Shamroy
Edward Cronjager
Editing by Francis D. Lyon
Distributed by Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation
Release date(s) May 10, 1940
Running time 81 min
Country United States
Language English
I Was an Adventuress is a 1940 Drama directed by Gregory Ratoff, starring Vera Zorina, Richard Greene, Erich von
Stroheim and Peter Lorre. Actress/ballerina Countess Tanya Vronsky (Vera Zorina) is a phony countess, working in
concert with two international con artists Andre Desormeaux (Erich von Stroheim) and Polo (Peter Lorre).
• Vera Zorina as Countess Tanya Vronsky (as Zorina)
• Richard Greene as Paul Vernay
• Erich von Stroheim as Andre Desormeaux (as Erich Von Stroheim)
• Peter Lorre as Polo
• Sig Ruman as Herr Protz (as Sig Rumann)
• Fritz Feld as Henri Gautier
• Cora Witherspoon as Aunt Cecile
• Anthony Kemble-Cooper as Cousin Emil (as Anthony Kemple Cooper)
• Paul Porcasi as Fisherman
• Inez Palange as Fisherman's Wife
• Egon Brecher as Jacques Dubois
• Roger Imhof as Henrich Von Kongen
• Rolfe Sedan as Waiter
• Eddie Conrad as Waiter
• Fortunio Bonanova as Orchestra Leader
• George Balanchine as Ballet Dancer
• Lew Christensen as Ballet Dancer
• Phyllis Barry as Englishwoman at Exhibit
I Was an Adventuress
• Charles Laskey as Ballet Dancer
• Ellinor Vanderveer as Englishwoman at Exhibit
•• Vera Zorina, whose real name was Brigita Hartwig, was married to dance director George Balanchine.
• The twelve minute ballet sequence of Swan Lake was the longest ballet scene to appear in any film to date. For
the scene, a $15,000 all-glass set, the first of its kind, was built using 40,000 square feet ( m
) of 1/4 inch plate
[1] http:/ / www.allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/ i-was-an-adventuress-v96115
[2] http:/ / www.tcm. com/ tcmdb/ title/ 78904/ I-Was-an-Adventuress/notes. html
External links
• I Was an Adventuress (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0032620/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• I Was an Adventuress (http:/ / www. allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/v1:96115) at AllRovi
• I Was an Adventuress (http:/ / tcmdb. com/ title/ title.jsp?stid=78904) at the TCM Movie Database
James Bond
James Bond
James Bond
James Bond, 007 character
Ian Fleming's image of James Bond; commissioned to aid the Daily Express comic strip artists.
First appearance Casino Royale, 1953 novel
Last appearance Skyfall, 2012 film
Created by Ian Fleming
Portrayed by Barry Nelson (1954)
Sean Connery (1962–1971 & 1983)
David Niven (1967)
George Lazenby (1969)
Christopher Cazenove (1973)
Roger Moore (1973–1985)
Timothy Dalton (1986–1993)
Pierce Brosnan (1995–2004)
Daniel Craig (2006–present)
Voiced by Bob Holness (1956)
George Baker (1969)
Michael Jayston (1990)
Toby Stephens (2008–2012)
Gender Male
Occupation 00 Agent
Title Commander (Royal Naval Reserve)
Family Andrew Bond (Father)
Monique Delacroix Bond (Mother)
Spouse(s) Teresa di Vicenzo (widowed)
Kissy Suzuki (invalid)
Harriett Horner (invalid)
Children James Suzuki Bond (son with Kissy)
Relatives Charmian Bond (Aunt)
Max Bond (Uncle)
Nationality British
James Bond, code name 007, is a fictional character created in 1953 by writer Ian Fleming, who featured him in
twelve novels and two short story collections. Six other authors have written authorised Bond novels or novelizations
since Fleming's death in 1964: Kingsley Amis, Christopher Wood, John Gardner, Raymond Benson, Sebastian
Faulks, and Jeffery Deaver; a new novel, written by William Boyd, is planned for release in 2013.
Charlie Higson wrote a series on a young James Bond, and Kate Westbrook wrote three novels based on the diaries
of a recurring series character, Moneypenny.
The fictional British Secret Service agent has also been adapted for television, radio, comic strip, and video game
formats in addition to having been used in the longest continually running and the second-highest grossing film
franchise to date, which started in 1962 with Dr. No, starring Sean Connery as Bond. As of 2013, there have been
twenty three films in the Eon Productions series. The most recent Bond film, Skyfall (2012), stars Daniel Craig in his
James Bond
third portrayal of Bond; he is the sixth actor to play Bond in the Eon series. There have also been two independent
productions of Bond films, Casino Royale (a 1967 spoof) and Never Say Never Again (a 1983 remake of an earlier
Eon-produced film, Thunderball).
The Bond films are renowned for a number of features, including the musical accompaniment, with the theme songs
having received Academy Award nominations on several occasions and one win. Other important elements which
run through most of the films include Bond's cars, his guns, and the gadgets with which he is supplied by Q Branch.
Publication history
Creation and inspiration
As the central figure for his works, Ian Fleming created the fictional character of James Bond, an intelligence officer
in the Secret Intelligence Service, commonly known as MI6. Bond was also known by his code number, 007, and
was a Royal Naval Reserve Commander.
Fleming took the name for his character from that of the American ornithologist James Bond, a Caribbean bird
expert and author of the definitive field guide Birds of the West Indies; Fleming, a keen birdwatcher himself, had a
copy of Bond's guide and he later explained to the ornithologist's wife that "It struck me that this brief, unromantic,
Anglo-Saxon and yet very masculine name was just what I needed, and so a second James Bond was born".
further explained that:
When I wrote the first one in 1953, I wanted Bond to be an extremely dull, uninteresting man to whom things
happened; I wanted him to be a blunt instrument ... when I was casting around for a name for my protagonist I
thought by God, (James Bond) is the dullest name I ever heard.
—Ian Fleming, The New Yorker, 21 April 1962
On another occasion Fleming said: "I wanted the simplest, dullest, plainest-sounding name I could find, 'James Bond'
was much better than something more interesting, like 'Peregrine Carruthers'. Exotic things would happen to and
around him, but he would be a neutral figure—an anonymous, blunt instrument wielded by a government
Fleming based his fictional creation on a number of individuals he came across during his time in the Naval
Intelligence Division during World War II, admitting that Bond "was a compound of all the secret agents and
commando types I met during the war".
Among those types were his brother, Peter, who had been involved in
behind the lines operations in Norway and Greece during the war.
Aside from Fleming's brother, a number of
others also provided some aspects of Bond's make up, including Conrad O'Brien-ffrench, Patrick Dalzel-Job and Bill
"Biffy" Dunderdale.
Fleming also endowed Bond with many of his own traits, including sharing the same golf handicap, the taste for
scrambled eggs and using the same brand of toiletries.
Bond's tastes are also often taken from Fleming's own as
was his behaviour,
with Bond's love of golf and gambling mirroring Fleming's own. Fleming used his experiences
of his espionage career and all other aspects of his life as inspiration when writing, including using names of school
friends, acquaintances, relatives and lovers throughout his books.
James Bond
Hoagy Carmichael—Fleming's view
of James Bond.
Fleming decided Bond should look a little like both the American singer Hoagy
Carmichael and himself
and in Casino Royale, Vesper Lynd remarks, "Bond
reminds me rather of Hoagy Carmichael, but there is something cold and
ruthless." Likewise, in Moonraker, Special Branch Officer Gala Brand thinks
that Bond is "certainly good-looking ... Rather like Hoagy Carmichael in a way.
That black hair falling down over the right eyebrow. Much the same bones. But
there was something a bit cruel in the mouth, and the eyes were cold."
It was not until the penultimate novel, You Only Live Twice, that Fleming gave
Bond a sense of family background. The book was the first to be written after the
release of Dr. No in cinemas and Sean Connery's depiction of Bond affected
Fleming's interpretation of the character, to give Bond both a sense of humour
and Scottish antecedents that were not present in the previous stories.
In a
fictional obituary, purportedly published in The Times, Bond's parents were given as Andrew Bond, from the village
of Glencoe, Scotland, and Monique Delacroix, from the canton of Vaud, Switzerland.
Fleming did not provide
Bond's date of birth, but John Pearson's fictional biography of Bond, James Bond: The Authorized Biography of 007,
gives Bond a birth date on 11 November 1920,
while a study by John Griswold puts the date at 11 November
Novels and related works
Ian Fleming novels
Goldeneye, in Jamaica, where Fleming wrote all the
Bond novels.
Whilst serving in the Naval Intelligence Division, Fleming had
planned to become an author
and had told a friend, "I am going
to write the spy story to end all spy stories."
On 17 February
1952, he began writing his first James Bond novel, Casino Royale
at his Goldeneye estate in Jamaica,
where he wrote all his Bond
novels, during the months of January and February each year.
He started the story shortly before his wedding to his pregnant
girlfriend, Ann Charteris, in order to distract himself from his
forthcoming nuptials.
After completing the manuscript for Casino Royale, Fleming
showed the manuscript to his friend (and later editor) William
Plomer to read. Plomer liked it and submitted it to the publishers, Jonathan Cape, who did not like it as much. Cape
finally published it in 1953 on the recommendation of Fleming's older brother Peter, an established travel writer.
Between 1953 and 1966, two years after his death, twelve novels and two short-story collections were published,
with the last two books – The Man with the Golden Gun and Octopussy and The Living Daylights – published
All the books were published in the UK through Jonathan Cape.
James Bond
• 1953 Casino Royale
• 1960 For Your Eyes Only
(short stories)
• 1954 Live and Let Die
• 1961 Thunderball
• 1955 Moonraker
• 1962 The Spy Who Loved Me
• 1956 Diamonds Are Forever
• 1963 On Her Majesty's Secret Service
• 1957 From Russia, with Love
• 1964 You Only Live Twice
• 1958 Dr. No
• 1965 The Man with the Golden Gun
• 1959 Goldfinger
• 1966 Octopussy and The Living Daylights
(short stories)
Post-Fleming novels
After Fleming's death a continuation novel, Colonel Sun, was written by Kingsley Amis (as Robert Markham) and
published in 1968.
Amis had already written a literary study of Fleming's Bond novels in his 1965 work The
James Bond Dossier.
Although novelizations of two of the Eon Productions Bond films appeared in print, James
Bond, The Spy Who Loved Me and James Bond and Moonraker, both written by screenwriter Christopher Wood,
the series of novels did not continue until the 1980s. In 1981, thriller writer John Gardner picked up the series with
Licence Renewed.
Gardner went on to write sixteen Bond books in total; two of the books he wrote – Licence to
Kill and GoldenEye – were novelizations of Eon Productions films of the same name. Gardner moved the Bond
series into the 1980s, although he retained the ages of the characters as they were when Fleming had left them.
1996, Gardner retired from writing James Bond books due to ill health.
• 1981 Licence Renewed
• 1989 Licence to Kill
• 1982 For Special Services
• 1990 Brokenclaw
• 1983 Icebreaker
• 1991 The Man from Barbarossa
• 1984 Role of Honour
• 1992 Death is Forever
• 1986 Nobody Lives for Ever
• 1993 Never Send Flowers
• 1987 No Deals, Mr. Bond
• 1994 SeaFire
• 1988 Scorpius
• 1995 GoldenEye
• 1989 Win, Lose or Die
• 1996 COLD
In 1996, American author Raymond Benson became the author of the Bond novels. Benson had previously been the
author of The James Bond Bedside Companion, first published in 1984.
By the time he moved on to other,
non-Bond related projects in 2002, Benson had written six Bond novels, three novelizations and three short
• 1997 "Blast From the Past"
(short story) • 1999 The World Is Not Enough
• 1997 Zero Minus Ten
• 1999 High Time to Kill
• 1997 Tomorrow Never Dies
(novelization) • 2000 DoubleShot
• 1998 The Facts of Death
• 2001 Never Dream of Dying
• 1999 "Midsummer Night's Doom"
(short story) • 2002 The Man with the Red Tattoo
• 1999 "Live at Five"
(short story) • 2002 Die Another Day
After a gap of six years, Sebastian Faulks was commissioned by Ian Fleming Publications to write a new Bond
novel, which was released on 28 May 2008, the 100th anniversary of Ian Fleming's birth.
The book—titled Devil
May Care—was published in the UK by Penguin Books and by Doubleday in the US.
American writer Jeffery
Deaver was then commissioned by Ian Fleming Publications to produce Carte Blanche, which was published on 26
James Bond
May 2011.
The book updated Bond into a post 9/11 agency, independent of MI5 or MI6.
Young Bond
The Young Bond series of novels was started by Charlie Higson
and, between 2005 and 2009, five novels and one
short story were published.
The first Young Bond novel, SilverFin was also adapted and released as a graphic
novel on 2 October 2008 by Puffin Books.
• 2005 SilverFin
• 2006 Blood Fever
• 2007 Double or Die
• 2007 Hurricane Gold
• 2008 By Royal Command
& SilverFin
(graphic novel)
• 2009 "A Hard Man to Kill"
(short story)
The Moneypenny Diaries
The Moneypenny Diaries are a trilogy of novels chronicling the life of Miss Moneypenny, M's personal secretary.
The novels are penned by Samantha Weinberg under the pseudonym Kate Westbrook, who is depicted as the book's
The first instalment of the trilogy, subtitled Guardian Angel, was released on 10 October 2005 in the
A second volume, subtitled Secret Servant was released on 2 November 2006 in the UK, published by John
A third volume, subtitled Final Fling was released on 1 May 2008.
• 2005 The Moneypenny Diaries: Guardian Angel
• 2006 Secret Servant: The Moneypenny Diaries
• 2008 The Moneypenny Diaries: Final Fling
In 1954 CBS paid Ian Fleming $1,000 ($8,654 in 2013 dollars
) to adapt his novel Casino Royale into a one-hour
television adventure as part of its Climax! series.
The episode aired live on 21 October 1954 and starred Barry
Nelson as "Card Sense" James 'Jimmy' Bond and Peter Lorre as Le Chiffre.
The novel was adapted for American
audiences to show Bond as an American agent working for "Combined Intelligence", while the character Felix
Leiter—American in the novel—became British onscreen and was renamed "Clarence Leiter".
In 1973 a BBC documentary Omnibus: The British Hero featured Christopher Cazenove playing a number of such
title characters (e.g. Richard Hannay and Bulldog Drummond). The documentary included James Bond in
dramatised scenes from Goldfinger—notably featuring 007 being threatened with the novel's circular saw, rather
than the film's laser beam—and Diamonds Are Forever.
In 1991 a TV cartoon series James Bond Jr. was
produced with Corey Burton in the role of Bond's nephew, also called James Bond.
James Bond
In 1956, the novel Moonraker was adapted for broadcast on South African radio, with Bob Holness providing the
voice of Bond.
According to The Independent, "listeners across the Union thrilled to Bob's cultured tones as he
defeated evil master criminals in search of world domination".
The BBC have adapted four of the Fleming novels for broadcast: in 1990, You Only Live Twice was adapted into a
90 minute radio play for BBC Radio 4 with Michael Jayston playing James Bond. The production was repeated a
number of times between 2008 and 2011.
On 24 May 2008, BBC Radio 4 broadcast an adaptation of Dr. No.
Actor Toby Stephens, who played Bond villain Gustav Graves in the Eon Productions version of Die Another Day,
played James Bond, while Dr. No was played by David Suchet.
Following the success of Dr. No, a second Bond
story was adapted and on 3 April 2010, BBC Radio 4 broadcast Goldfinger with Toby Stephens again playing
Sir Ian McKellen was Goldfinger and Stephens' Die Another Day co-star Rosamund Pike played Pussy
Galore. The play was adapted from Fleming's novel by Archie Scottney and was directed by Martin Jarvis.
2012, the novel From Russia, with Love was dramatized for Radio 4; it featured a full cast starring Toby Stephens as
James Bond.
Comics medium
In 1957, the Daily Express approached Ian Fleming to adapt his stories into comic strips, offering him £1,500 per
novel and a share of takings from syndication.
After initial reluctance, Fleming, who felt the strips would lack the
quality of his writing, agreed.
To aid the Daily Express in illustrating Bond, Fleming commissioned an artist to
create a sketch of how he believed James Bond looked. The illustrator, John McLusky, however, felt that Fleming's
007 looked too "outdated" and "pre-war" and changed Bond to give him a more masculine look.
The first strip,
Casino Royale was published from 7 July 1958 to 13 December 1958
and was written by Anthony Hern and
illustrated by John McLusky.
Most of the Bond novels and short stories have since been adapted for illustration, as well as Kingsley Amis's
Colonel Sun; the works were written by Henry Gammidge or Jim Lawrence with Yaroslav Horak replacing
McClusky as artist in 1966.
After the Fleming and Amis material had been adapted, original stories were
produced, continuing in the Daily Express and Sunday Express until May 1977.
Several comic book adaptations of the James Bond films have been published through the years: at the time of Dr.
No's release in October 1962, a comic book adaptation of the screenplay, written by Norman J. Nodel, was published
in Britain as part of the Classics Illustrated anthology series.
It was later reprinted in the United States by DC
Comics as part of its Showcase anthology series, in January 1963. This was the first American comic book
appearance of James Bond and is noteworthy for being a relatively rare example of a British comic being reprinted in
a fairly high-profile American comic. It was also one of the earliest comics to be censored on racial grounds (some
skin tones and dialogue were changed for the American market).
With the release of the 1981 film For Your Eyes Only, Marvel Comics published a two-issue comic book adaptation
of the film.
When Octopussy was released in the cinemas in 1983, Marvel published an accompanying
Eclipse also produced a one-off comic for Licence to Kill, although Timothy Dalton refused to allow his
likeness to be used.
New Bond stories were also drawn up and published from 1989 onwards through Marvel,
Eclipse Comics and Dark Horse Comics.
James Bond
The Eon Productions films
In 1962 Eon Productions, the company of Canadian Harry Saltzman and American Albert R. "Cubby" Broccoli,
released the first cinema adaptation of an Ian Fleming novel, Dr. No, featuring Sean Connery as 007.
starred in a further four films before leaving the role after You Only Live Twice,
which was taken up by George
Lazenby for On Her Majesty's Secret Service.
Lazenby left the role after just one appearance and Connery was
tempted back for his last Eon-produced film Diamonds Are Forever.
In 1973, Roger Moore was appointed to the role of 007 for Live and Let Die and played Bond a further six times
over twelve years before being replaced by Timothy Dalton for two films. After a six-year hiatus, during which a
legal wrangle threatened Eon's productions of the Bond films,
Irish actor Pierce Brosnan was cast as Bond in
GoldenEye, released in 1995; he remained in the role for a total of four films, before leaving in 2002. In 2006, Daniel
Craig was given the role of Bond for Casino Royale, which rebooted the franchise.
The twenty-third Eon
produced film, Skyfall, was released on 26 October 2012.
The series has grossed just over $6 billion to date,
making it the second-highest-grossing film series (behind Harry Potter),
and the single most successful adjusted
for inflation.
Title Year Actor Director
Dr. No 1962 Sean Connery Terence Young
From Russia with Love 1963
Goldfinger 1964 Guy Hamilton
Thunderball 1965 Terence Young
You Only Live Twice 1967 Lewis Gilbert
On Her Majesty's Secret Service 1969 George Lazenby Peter R. Hunt
Diamonds Are Forever 1971 Sean Connery Guy Hamilton
Live and Let Die 1973 Roger Moore
The Man with the Golden Gun 1974
The Spy Who Loved Me 1977 Lewis Gilbert
Moonraker 1979
For Your Eyes Only 1981 John Glen
Octopussy 1983
A View to a Kill 1985
The Living Daylights 1987 Timothy Dalton
Licence to Kill 1989
GoldenEye 1995 Pierce Brosnan Martin Campbell
Tomorrow Never Dies 1997 Roger Spottiswoode
The World Is Not Enough 1999 Michael Apted
Die Another Day 2002 Lee Tamahori
Casino Royale 2006 Daniel Craig Martin Campbell
Quantum of Solace 2008 Marc Forster
Skyfall 2012 Sam Mendes
James Bond
Non-Eon films
In 1967, Casino Royale was adapted into a parody Bond film starring David Niven as Sir James Bond and Ursula
Andress as Vesper Lynd. David Niven had been Ian Fleming's preference for the part of James Bond.
The result
of a court case in the High Court in London in 1963 allowed Kevin McClory to produce a remake of Thunderball
titled Never Say Never Again in 1983.
The film, starring Sean Connery as Bond, was not part of the Eon series of
Bond films. In 1997 the Sony Corporation acquired all or some of McClory's rights in an undisclosed deal,
which were then subsequently acquired by MGM, whilst on 4 December 1997, MGM announced that the company
had purchased the rights to Never Say Never Again from Schwartzman's company Taliafilm.
Eon now currently
(as of 2013) holds the full adaptation rights to all of Fleming's Bond novels.
Title Year Actor Director
Casino Royale 1967 David Niven Ken Hughes
John Huston
Joseph McGrath
Robert Parrish
Val Guest
Richard Talmadge
Never Say Never Again 1983 Sean Connery Irvin Kershner

... cocky, swaggering, confident, dark, dangerous, suggestive, sexy, unstoppable.

—David Arnold, on the "James Bond Theme"
The "James Bond Theme" was written by Monty Norman and was first orchestrated by the John Barry Orchestra for
1962's Dr. No, although the actual authorship of the music has been a matter of controversy for many years.
2001, Norman won £30,000 in libel damages from the The Sunday Times newspaper, which suggested that Barry
was entirely responsible for the composition.
The theme, as written by Norman and arranged by Barry, was
described by another Bond film composer, David Arnold, as "bebop-swing vibe coupled with that vicious, dark,
distorted electric guitar, definitely an instrument of rock 'n' roll ... it represented everything about the character you
would want: It was cocky, swaggering, confident, dark, dangerous, suggestive, sexy, unstoppable. And he did it in
two minutes."
Barry composed the scores for eleven Bond films
and had an uncredited contribution to Dr.
No with his arrangement of the Bond Theme.
A Bond film staple are the theme songs heard during their title sequences sung by well-known popular singers.
Several of the songs produced for the films have been nominated for Academy Awards for Original Song, including
Paul McCartney's "Live and Let Die",
Carly Simon's "Nobody Does It Better"
, Sheena Easton's "For Your
Eyes Only"
, and Adele's "Skyfall".
Adele won the award at the 85th Academy Awards. For the non-Eon
produced Casino Royale, Burt Bacharach's score included "The Look of Love", which was nominated for an
Academy Award for Best Song.
Video games
In 1983, the first Bond video game, developed and published by Parker Brothers, was released for the Atari 2600, the
Atari 5200, the Atari 800, the Commodore 64 and the ColecoVision.
Since then, there have been numerous
video games either based on the films or using original storylines. In 1997, the first-person shooter video game
GoldenEye 007 was developed by Rare for the Nintendo 64, based on the 1995 Pierce Brosnan film GoldenEye.
The game received very positive reviews,
won the BAFTA Interactive Entertainment Award for UK Developer
James Bond
of the Year in 1998
and sold over eight million copies worldwide,
grossing $250 million.
In 1999, Electronic Arts acquired the licence and released Tomorrow Never Dies on 16 December 1999.
October 2000, they released The World Is Not Enough
for the Nintendo 64
followed by007 Racing for the
PlayStation on 21 November 2000.
In 2003, the company released James Bond 007: Everything or Nothing,
which included the likenesses and voices of Pierce Brosnan, Willem Dafoe, Heidi Klum, Judi Dench and John
Cleese, amongst others.
In November 2005, Electronic Arts released a video game adaptation of 007: From
Russia with Love,
which involved Sean Connery's image and voice-over for Bond.
In 2006 Electronic Arts announced a game based on then-upcoming film Casino Royale: the game was cancelled
because it would not be ready by the film's release in November of that year. With MGM losing revenue from lost
licensing fees, the franchise was removed from EA to Activision.
Activision subsequently released the 007:
Quantum of Solace game on 31 October 2008, based on the film of the same name.
In October 2012 007
Legends was released, which featured one mission from each of the Bond actors of the Eon Productions' series.
Guns, vehicles and gadgets
The Walther PPK is the most famous of Bond's
For the first five novels, Fleming armed Bond with a Beretta 418
until he received a letter from a thirty-one-year-old Bond enthusiast and
gun expert, Geoffrey Boothroyd, criticising Fleming's choice of firearm
for Bond,
calling it "a lady's gun – and not a very nice lady at
Boothroyd suggested that Bond should swap his Beretta for a
Walther PPK 7.65mm and this exchange of arms made it to Dr. No.
Boothroyd also gave Fleming advice on the Berns-Martin triple draw
shoulder holster and a number of the weapons used by SMERSH and
other villains.
In thanks, Fleming gave the MI6 Armourer in his
novels the name Major Boothroyd and, in Dr. No, M introduces him to
Bond as "the greatest small-arms expert in the world".
Bond also used a variety of rifles, including the Savage
Model 99 in "For Your Eyes Only" and a Winchester .308 target rifle in "The Living Daylights".
Other handguns
used by Bond in the Fleming books included the Colt Detective Special and a long-barrelled Colt .45 Army
The first Bond film, Dr. No, saw M ordering Bond to leave his Beretta behind and take up the Walther PPK,
which the film Bond used in eighteen films.
In Tomorrow Never Dies and the two subsequent films, Bond's main
weapon was the Walther P99 semi-automatic pistol.
An Aston Martin DB5 as seen in Goldfinger.
In the early Bond stories Fleming gave Bond a battleship-grey Bentley
4½ Litre with an Amherst Villiers supercharger.
After Bond's car
was written off by Hugo Drax in Moonraker, Fleming gave Bond a Mark
II Continental Bentley, which he used in the remaining books of the
During Goldfinger, Bond was issued with an Aston Martin
DB Mark III with a homing device, which he used to track Goldfinger
across France. Bond returned to his Bentley for the subsequent
The Bond of the films has driven a number of cars, including the Aston Martin V8 Vantage
, during the 1980s),
the V12 Vanquish
and DBS
during the 2000s, as well as the Lotus Esprit;
the BMW Z3,
James Bond
and the BMW Z8.
He has, however, also needed to drive a number of other vehicles, ranging from a
Citroën 2CV to a Routemaster Bus, amongst others.
Bond's most famous car is the silver grey Aston Martin DB5, first seen in Goldfinger;
it later featured in
Thunderball, GoldenEye, Tomorrow Never Dies, Casino Royale and Skyfall.
The films have used a number
of different Aston Martins for filming and publicity, one of which was sold in January 2006 at an auction in the US
for $2,090,000 to an unnamed European collector.
The Little Nellie autogyro with its creator and
pilot, Ken Wallis
Fleming's novels and early screen adaptations presented minimal
equipment such as the booby-trapped attaché case in From Russia with
Love, although this situation changed dramatically with the films.
However, the effects of the two Eon-produced Bond films Dr. No and
From Russia with Love had an effect on the novel The Man with the
Golden Gun, through the increased number of devices used in
Fleming's final story.
For the film adaptations of Bond, the pre-mission briefing by Q Branch
became one of the motifs that ran through the series.
Dr. No
provided no spy-related gadgets, but a Geiger counter was used;
industrial designer Andy Davey observed that the first ever onscreen spy-gadget was the attaché case shown in From
Russia with Love, which he described as "a classic 007 product".
The gadgets assumed a higher profile in the
1964 film Goldfinger. The film's success encouraged further espionage equipment from Q Branch to be supplied to
Bond, although the increased use of technology led to an accusation that Bond was over-reliant on equipment,
particularly in the later films.
If it hadn't been for Q Branch, you'd have been dead long ago!
Q, to Bond,
Licence to Kill
Davey noted that "Bond's gizmos follow the zeitgeist more closely than any other ... nuance in the films"
as they
moved from the potential representations of the future in the early films, through to the brand-name obsessions of the
later films.
It is also noticeable that, although Bond uses a number of pieces of equipment from Q Branch,
including the Little Nellie autogyro,
a jet pack
and the exploding attaché case,
the villains are also
well-equipped with custom made devices,
including Scaramanga's golden gun,
Rosa Klebb's poison-tipped
Oddjob's steel-rimmed bowler hat
and Blofeld's communication and bacteriological warfare agents
vanity case.
Cultural impact
Cinematically, Bond has been a major influence within the spy genre since the release of Dr. No in 1962,
22 secret agent films released in 1966 alone attempting to capitalise on its popularity and success.
The first
parody was the 1964 film Carry on Spying showing the villain Dr. Crow being overcome by agents who included
James Bind (Charles Hawtry) and Daphne Honeybutt (Barbara Windsor).
One of the films that reacted against
the portrayal of Bond was the Harry Palmer series, whose first film, The Ipcress File was released in 1965. The
eponymous hero of the series was what academic Jeremy Packer called an "anti-Bond",
or what Christoph
Lindner calls "the thinking man's Bond".
The Palmer series were produced by Harry Saltzman, who also used
key crew members from the Bond franchise, including designer Ken Adam, editor Peter R. Hunt and composer John
The four "Matt Helm" films starring Dean Martin were released between 1966 and 1969,
the "Flint"
series starring James Coburn provided two films in 1966 and 1969,
whilst The Man from U.N.C.L.E. also moved
onto the cinema screen, with eight films released: all were testaments to Bond's prominence in popular culture.
James Bond
More recently, the Austin Powers series by writer, producer and comedian Mike Myers
and other parodies such
as the 2003 film Johnny English
have also used elements from or parodied the Bond films.
Following the release of the film Dr. No in 1962, the quote "Bond ... James Bond", became a catch phrase that
entered the lexicon of Western popular culture: writers Cork and Scivally said of the introduction in Dr. No that the
"signature introduction would become the most famous and loved film line ever".
In 2001 it was voted as the
"best-loved one-liner in cinema" by British cinema goers
and in 2005, it was honoured as the 22nd greatest
quotation in cinema history by the American Film Institute as part of their 100 Years Series.
The 2005 American
Film Institute's '100 Years' series also recognised the character of James Bond himself in the film as the third greatest
film hero.
He was also placed at number eleven on a similar list by Empire.
Premiere also listed Bond as the
fifth greatest movie character of all time.
The twenty three James Bond films produced by Eon Productions, which have grossed $4,910,000,000 in box office
returns alone,
have made the series one of the highest-grossing ever. It is estimated that since Dr. No, a quarter
of the world's population have seen at least one Bond film.
The UK Film Distributors' Association have stated
that the importance of the Bond series of films to the British film industry cannot be overstated, as they "form the
backbone of the industry".
Television also saw the effect of Bond films, with the NBC series The Man from U.N.C.L.E.,
which was
described as the "first network television imitation" of Bond,
largely because Fleming provided advice and ideas
on the development of the series, even giving the main character the name Napoleon Solo.
Other 1960s
television imitations of Bond included I Spy,
and Get Smart.
By 2012, James Bond had become such a symbol of the United Kingdom that the character, played by Craig,
appeared in the opening ceremony of the 2012 London Olympics as Queen Elizabeth II's escort.
Throughout the life of the film series there have been a number of tie-in products released.
The first James Bond
fragrance was launched in the UK on 19 September 2012 under the name "James Bond 007".
[1] "William Boyd takes James Bond back to 1960s in new 007 novel" (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ news/ entertainment-arts-17677611). BBC
News. BBC (London). 12 April 2012. . Retrieved 12 April 2012.
[2] [2] Caplen 2010, p. 21
[3] Hellman, Geoffrey T. (21 April 1962). "Bond's Creator (subscription needed)" (http:/ /www. newyorker.com/ archive/1962/ 04/ 21/
1962_04_21_032_TNY_CARDS_000268062#ixzz1XRLtznvp). Talk of the Town. The New Yorker. p. 32. . Retrieved 9 September 2011.
[4] [4] Chancellor 2005, p. 112
[5] Macintyre, Ben (5 April 2008). "Bond - the real Bond". The Times: p. 36.
[6] "Obituary: Colonel Peter Fleming, Author and explorer". The Times: p. 14. 20 August 1971.
[7] [7] Macintyre 2008, p. 50
[8] Cook, William (28 June 2004). "Novel man". New Statesman: p. 40.
[9] [9] Macintyre 2008, p. 67
[10] [10] Macintyre 2008, p. 205
[11] [11] Chancellor 2005, p. 59
[12] [12] Pearson 2008, p. 21
[13] [13] Griswold 2006, p. 27
[14] [14] Macintyre 2008, p. 208
[15] Lycett, Andrew (2004). "Fleming, Ian Lancaster (1908–1964) (subscription needed)" (http:/ / www. oxforddnb.com/ view/ article/33168).
Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford University Press). doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/33168. . Retrieved 7 September 2011.
[16] [16] Chancellor 2005, p. 4
[17] [17] Chancellor 2005, p. 5
[18] Bennett & Woollacott 2003, ch 1
[19] [19] Black 2005, p. 75
James Bond
[20] "Casino Royale" (http:/ / www. ianfleming. com/ pages/ content/ index.asp?PageID=56). The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. . Retrieved
31 October 2011.
[21] "For Your Eyes Only" (http:// www. ianfleming.com/ pages/ content/ index.asp?PageID=63). The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. .
Retrieved 31 October 2011.
[22] "Live and Let Die" (http:/ / www. ianfleming.com/ pages/ content/ index.asp?PageID=57). The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. .
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[23] "Thunderball" (http:/ / www. ianfleming.com/ pages/ content/ index.asp?PageID=64). The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. . Retrieved 31
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[24] "Moonraker" (http:/ / www. ianfleming. com/ pages/ content/ index.asp?PageID=58). The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. . Retrieved 31
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[25] "The Spy Who Loved Me" (http:/ / www. ianfleming. com/ pages/ content/ index.asp?PageID=65). The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. .
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[26] "Diamonds are Forever" (http:/ / www. ianfleming.com/ pages/ content/ index.asp?PageID=59). The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. .
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[27] "On Her Majesty's Secret Service" (http:/ /www. ianfleming.com/ pages/ content/ index.asp?PageID=174). The Books. Ian Fleming
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[28] "From Russia, with Love" (http:/ / www. ianfleming. com/ pages/ content/ index.asp?PageID=60). The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. .
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[29] "You Only Live Twice" (http:// www. ianfleming.com/ pages/ content/ index.asp?PageID=67). The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. .
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[30] "Dr. No" (http:/ / www. ianfleming. com/ pages/ content/ index.asp?PageID=61). The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. . Retrieved 31
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[31] "The Man with the Golden Gun" (http:/ / www. ianfleming.com/ pages/ content/ index.asp?PageID=68). The Books. Ian Fleming
Publications. . Retrieved 31 October 2011.
[32] "Goldfinger" (http:// www. ianfleming.com/ pages/ content/ index.asp?PageID=62). The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. . Retrieved 31
October 2011.
[33] "Octopussy and The Living Daylights" (http:/ / www. ianfleming.com/ pages/ content/ index.asp?PageID=69). The Books. Ian Fleming
Publications. . Retrieved 31 October 2011.
[34] "Colonel Sun" (http:/ / www. ianfleming. com/ pages/ content/ index.asp?PageID=81). The Books. Ian Fleming Publications. . Retrieved 2
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ISBN 978-1-4053-3427-3.
• Feeney Callan, Michael (2002). Sean Connery. London: Virgin Books. ISBN 978-1-85227-992-9.
• Fleming, Ian; Gammidge, Henry; McLusky, John (1988). Octopussy. London: Titan Books. ISBN 1-85286-040-5.
• Griswold, John (2006). Ian Fleming's James Bond: Annotations And Chronologies for Ian Fleming's Bond Stories
(http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=uariyzldrJwC&lpg=PA2& dq=Ian Fleming's James Bond: Annotations And
Chronologies For Ian Fleming's Bond Stories& pg=PA2#v=onepage&q& f=false). AuthorHouse.
ISBN 978-1-4259-3100-1.
• Jütting, Kerstin (2007). "Grow Up, 007!" - James Bond Over the Decades: Formula Vs. Innovation (http:/ /
books. google. co. uk/ books?id=MzuVat9N7bQC& lpg=PP1& pg=PP1#v=onepage&q& f=false). GRIN Verlag.
ISBN 978-3-638-85372-9.
• King, Geoff; Krzywinska, Tanya (2002). Screenplay: cinema/videogames/interfaces (http:// books. google. co.
uk/ books?id=qruZ2UOp_WAC&lpg=PR1& pg=PR1#v=onepage&q& f=false). Wallflower Press.
ISBN 978-1-903364-23-9.
• Lindner, Christoph (2009). The James Bond Phenomenon: a Critical Reader (http:// books. google. co. uk/
books?id=x9-1QY5boUsC& lpg=PP1&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q& f=false). Manchester University Press.
ISBN 978-0-7190-6541-5.
• Lycett, Andrew (1996). Ian Fleming. London: Phoenix. ISBN 978-1-85799-783-5.
• Macintyre, Ben (2008). For Your Eyes Only. London: Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7475-9527-4.
James Bond
• Packer, Jeremy (2009). Secret agents: popular icons beyond James Bond (http:// books. google. co. uk/
books?id=5BxRm5cnUU8C& lpg=PP1& pg=PP1#v=onepage&q& f=false). Peter Lang.
ISBN 978-0-8204-8669-7.
• Pearson, John (2008). James Bond: The Authorized Biography (http:// books. google.co.uk/
books?id=WdBHOXLA6hYC& lpg=PP1&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=false). Random House.
ISBN 978-0-09-950292-0.
• Pfeiffer, Lee; Worrall, Dave (1998). The Essential Bond. London: Boxtree Ltd. ISBN 978-0-7522-2477-0.
• Simpson, Paul (2002). The Rough Guide to James Bond (http:// books. google. co. uk/
books?id=BikCz7XZijEC& lpg=PA1&pg=PA1#v=onepage&q& f=false). Rough Guides.
ISBN 978-1-84353-142-5.
• Smith, Jim; Lavington, Stephen (2002). Bond Films. London: Virgin Books. ISBN 978-0-7535-0709-4.
• Thompson, Maggie; Frankenhoff, Brent; Bickford, Peter (2010). Comic Book Price Guide 2010 (http:// books.
google. com/ ?id=70f6xVeR8h4C& lpg=PA1& dq="Comic Book Checklist"& pg=PA3#v=onepage&q=For your
eyes only&f=false). Krause Publications. ISBN 978-1-4402-1399-1.
External links
• James Bond official website (http:/ / www. jamesbond. com/ )
• Ian Fleming Publications official website (http:// www. ianflemingcentre.com/ )
• Young Bond official website (http:/ / www. youngbond.com/ )
• Pinewood Studios – home of Bond (http:/ / www. pinewoodgroup.com/ )
• Pinewood Studios Albert R. Broccoli 007 Stage official website (http:/ / www.007stage. com/ )
• Ian Fleming's 'Red Indians' – 30AU – Literary James Bond's Wartime unit (http:// www. 30AU. co. uk/ )
• James Bond (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ character/ch007/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
John P. Marquand
John P. Marquand
John Phillips Marquand
Born November 10, 1893
Wilmington, Delaware
Died July 16, 1960 (aged 66)
Newburyport, Massachusetts
Pen name J.P. Marquand
Occupation Novelist
Nationality American
Spouse(s) Christina Davenport Sedgwick (September
Adelaide Hooker (1937–1968?)
John Phillips Marquand (November 10, 1893 – July 16, 1960) was an American writer. Originally best known for
his Mr. Moto spy stories, he achieved popular success and critical respect for his satirical novels, winning a Pulitzer
Prize for The Late George Apley in 1938. One of his abiding themes was the confining nature of life in America's
upper class and among those who aspired to join it. Marquand treated those whose lives were bound by these
unwritten codes with a characteristic mix of respect and satire.
Youth and early adulthood
Marquand was a scion of an old Newburyport, Massachusetts, family. He was a great-nephew of 19th-century writer
Margaret Fuller and a cousin of Buckminster Fuller, who gained fame in the 20th century as the inventor of the
geodesic dome. Marquand was born in Wilmington, Delaware, and grew up in the New York suburbs. When
financial reverses broke up the family's comfortable household, he was sent to Newburyport, Massachusetts, where
he was raised by his eccentric aunts, who lived in a crumbling Federal Period mansion, surrounded by remnants of
the family's vanished glory. (Marquand's ancestors had been successful merchants in the Revolutionary period;
Margaret Fuller and other aunts had been actively involved with the Transcendentalist and Abolitionist movements.)
Marquand attended Newburyport High School, where he won a scholarship that enabled him to attend Harvard. As
an impecunious public school graduate in the heyday of Harvard's "Gold Coast," he was an unclubbable outsider.
Though turned down by the college newspaper, the Harvard Crimson, Marquand succeeded in being elected to the
editorial board of the humor magazine, the Harvard Lampoon. After graduating from Harvard College in 1915,
Marquand was hired by The Boston Evening Transcript, working initially as a reporter and later on the Transcript's
bi-weekly magazine section.
Like many of his classmates, he served in the First World War. While he was a student at Harvard, Marquand joined
Battery A of the Massachusetts National Guard, in 1916 this unit was activated and in July 1916 Marquand was sent
to the Mexican border.
Sociological themes
Marquand's life and work reflected his ambivalence about American society—and, in particular, the power of its old
line elites. Being rebuffed by fashionable Harvard did not discourage his social aspirations. In 1922, he married
Christina Sedgwick, niece of The Atlantic Monthly editor Ellery Sedgwick. In 1925, Marquand published his first
important book, Lord Timothy Dexter, an exploration of the life and legend of eighteenth century Newburyport
eccentric Timothy Dexter (1763–1806).
John P. Marquand
By the mid-1930s he was a prolific and successful writer of fiction for slick magazines like the Saturday Evening
Post; during this period Marquand began producing a series of novels on the dilemmas of class, most centered on
New England. The first of these, The Late George Apley (1937), a satire of Boston's upper class, won the Pulitzer
Prize for the Novel in 1938. Other Marquand novels exploring New England and class themes include Wickford
Point (1939), H.M. Pulham, Esquire (1941), and Point of No Return (1949). The last is especially notable for its
satirical portrayal of Harvard anthropologist W. Lloyd Warner, whose Yankee City study attempted (and in
Marquand's view, dismally failed) to describe and analyze the manners and mores of Marquand's Newburyport.
Popular fiction
Before gaining acclaim for his serious novels, Marquand achieved great popular and commercial success with a
series of formulaic spy novels about the fictional Mr. Moto. The first, Your Turn, Mr. Moto appeared in 1935; the
last, Right You Are, Mr. Moto, in 1957. The series inspired eight films, starring Peter Lorre, which are only very
loosely based on the novels. James S. Koga states that Moto is not a proper Japanese surname. He notes that "[Mr.
Moto] is never the main protagonist of the story—rather he appears at strategic points in the story, a catalyst for
action." "The typical storyline", he says, "involves an American male, somewhat tarnished by past experiences in the
U.S., who finds himself in the Orient ... overwhelmed by the foreignness of Asia. This protagonist gets involved in
some international intrigue by happenstance, usually coinciding with meeting Mr. Moto ... falls deeper into the plot
and then finds himself in deadly peril. Along the way, he meets an attractive American woman who also becomes
entangled, and by resourcefulness (and not a little help from Mr. Moto) overcomes the peril and then gets the girl."
Numerous Marquand novels became Hollywood films, but several bore little resemblance to the books. Mr. Moto, a
tough-minded spy in Marquand's novels, became a genial police agent in the Peter Lorre films of the 1930s. The
final Mr. Moto novel, in the 1950s, was filmed as a spy story, but Moto's character was eliminated.
Marquand's 1951 novel, Melville Goodwin, USA, was unrecognizable in the 1958 motion picture A Top-Secret
Affair. The book was a satire about publicists trying to cover up a general's adultery, but movie writers transformed
the general into a bachelor. According to Marquand's biographers, he took these Hollywood liberties in stride.
In his later years, Marquand also contributed an occasional satiric short story to Sports Illustrated. A collection was
later published as a book, with the title Life at Happy Knoll. The stories humorously dealt with the problems of an
"old-line" country club as it tried to adjust to changing times and a competing "upstart" country club nearby.
Marquand's short stories from 1921 through 1952
There is no collected edition of Marquand's short stories, though some eleven stories are collected in his miscellany
Thirty Years. The following titles come from The Readers' Guide to Periodical Literature, except the last two which
come from Thirty Years.
• Right that Failed--Saturday Evening Post, Jul 1921 Marquand wrote of this "According to my best recollection,
the second short story I ever offered an editor was purchased by the Saturday Evening Post in the summer of
1921, and for many years after this initial success I managed to dispose of all the stories I wrote to a few
competing sources at gradually rising prices"--See Thirty Years--Forward p. xiv.
• Eight Million Bubbles--Saturday Evening Post, Jan 1922
• Only a Few of Us Left--Saturday Evening Post, Jan 1922
• Different From Other Girls--Ladies Home Journal, Jul 1922
• Land of Bunk--Saturday Evening Post, Sep 1922
• Captain His Soul--Saturday Evening Post, Nov 1922
• Ship—Scribner's Magazine, Jan 1923
• By the Board--Saturday Evening Post, Mar 1923
• Last of the Tories--Saturday Evening Post, Mar 1924
John P. Marquand
• How Willie Came Across--Saturday Evening Post, Apr 1924
• Jervis Furniture--Saturday Evening Post, Apr 1924
• Pozzi of Perugia--Saturday Evening Post, Nov 1924
• Friend of the Family--Saturday Evening Post, Dec 1924
• Big Guys--Saturday Evening Post, Feb 1925
• Educated Money--Saturday Evening Post, Feb 1925
• Foot of the Class--Saturday Evening Post, Mar 1925
• Much Too Clever--Saturday Evening Post, Apr 1925
• Old Man--Saturday Evening Post, Jun 1925
• Jamaica Road--Saturday Evening Post, Jul 1925
• Last of the Hoopwells--Saturday Evening Post, Dec 1925
• Fun and Neighbors--Saturday Evening Post, Feb 1926
• Blame of Youth--Saturday Evening Post, May 1926
• Tea Leaves--Saturday Evening Post, May 1926
• Thousands in the Bank--Saturday Evening Post, May 1926
• Spitting Cat--Saturday Evening Post, Jul 1926
• Artistic Touch--Saturday Evening Post, Feb 1927
• Cinderalla Motif--Saturday Evening Post, Mar 1927
• Lord Chesterfield--Saturday Evening Post, Jun 1927
• Unknown Hero--Saturday Evening Post, Jul 1927
• Harvard Square Student--Saturday Evening Post, Dec 1927
• As the Case May Be--Saturday Evening Post, Jun 1928
• Aye, In the Catalogue--Saturday Evening Post, Aug 1928
• Good Black Sheep--Saturday Evening Post, Aug 1928
• Good Morning Major--Saturday Evening Post, Aug 1928—Also in Thirty Years
• End of the Story—Collier's, Apr 1929
• Oh Major, Major--Saturday Evening Post, Apr 1929
• Another Redskin Story--Saturday Evening Post, May 1929
• Darkest Horse--Saturday Evening Post, May 1929
• Mr Goof--Saturday Evening Post, May 1929
• Powaw's Head--Saturday Evening Post, Jul 1929
• Rain of Right--Saturday Evening Post, Jul 1929
• Best Must Always Go--Saturday Evening Post, Aug 1929
• Captain Whetstone--Saturday Evening Post, Aug 1929
• A Dog, A Woman--Saturday Evening Post, Oct 1929
• Ships must Sail--Saturday Evening Post, Nov 1929
• Jack's the Lad--Saturday Evening Post, Dec 1929
• Bobby Shaftoe--Saturday Evening Post, Feb 1930
• Leave Her, Johnny, Leave Her--Saturday Evening Post, Mar 1930
• Slave Catcher--Saturday Evening Post, Apr 1930
• Obligations--Saturday Evening Post, Jul 1930
• Simon Pure—Collier's, Jul 1930
• Same Things--Saturday Evening Post, Aug 1930
• Master of the House--Saturday Evening Post, Sep 1930
• There is a Destiny--Saturday Evening Post, Nov 1930
• Rainbows--Saturday Evening Post, Dec 1930—Also in Thirty Years
• Golden Lads--Saturday Evening Post, Feb 1931—Also in Thirty Years
John P. Marquand
• All Play—Woman's Home Companion, Apr 1931
• Upstairs--Saturday Evening Post, Aug 1931
• Tolerance--Saturday Evening Post, Oct 1931
• Call Me Joe--Saturday Evening Post, Nov 1931
• Gentleman Ride--Saturday Evening Post, Nov 1931
• Ask Him--Saturday Evening Post, Jan 1932
• Deep Water--Saturday Evening Post, Feb 1932
• Music--Saturday Evening Post, Feb 1932
• Sold South--Saturday Evening Post, Mar 1932
• Jine the Calvalry--Saturday Evening Post, Apr 1932
• Jack Still--Saturday Evening Post, Jun 1932
• Far Away--Saturday Evening Post, Aug 1932
• High Tide--Saturday Evening Post, Oct 1932—Also in Thirty Years
• Dispatch Box No. 3--Saturday Evening Post, Nov 1932
• Fourth Down--Saturday Evening Post, Nov 1932—Also in Thirty Years
• Number One Good Girl--Saturday Evening Post, May 1933
• Winner Take All--Saturday Evening Post, Feb 1934
• Blockade--Saturday Evening Post, Mar 1934
• Davy Jones--Saturday Evening Post, Mar 1934
• Lord and Master—Collier's, Apr 1934
• Step Easy Stranger--Saturday Evening Post, Apr 1934
• Take the Man Away--Saturday Evening Post, Apr 1934
• Time for Us to Go--Saturday Evening Post, Apr 1934
• Back Pay—American Mercury, Apr 1934
• Sea Change--Saturday Evening Post, May 1935
• Flutter in Continentals--Saturday Evening Post, Jun 1935
• You Can't Do That--Saturday Evening Post, Jun 1935
• What's It Get You?--Saturday Evening Post, Jul 1935
• Yankee Notion--Saturday Evening Post, Nov 1935
• Hang it on the Horn--Saturday Evening Post, Mar 1936
• No One Ever Would--Saturday Evening Post, Apr 1936
• Put Those Things Away--Saturday Evening Post, Jun 1936
• Don't Cry for Me--Saturday Evening Post, Nov 1936
• Troy Weight--Saturday Evening Post, Dec 1936
• Marches Always Pay--Saturday Evening Post, Jan 1937
• Maharajah's Flower--Saturday Evening Post, Mar 1937
• "3-3-08"--Saturday Evening Post, Apr 1937
• Just Break the News--Saturday Evening Post, Jul 1937—Also in Thirty Years
• Pull, Pull Together--Saturday Evening Post, Jul 1937
• Everything's Fine—Collier's Oct 1937
• Castle Sinister—Collier's, Feb 1938
• Shirt Giver--Saturday Evening Post, Apr 1938
• Wickford Point--Saturday Evening Post, Feb 1939
• Beginning Now--Saturday Evening Post, Apr 1939—Also in Thirty Years
• Tell Me about the War--Saturday Evening Post, Jun 1939
• Don't Ask Questions--Saturday Evening Post, Oct 1939
• March On, He Said--Saturday Evening Post, Jun 1940
John P. Marquand
• Children's Page--Saturday Evening Post, Aug 1940
• She Was Always a Swell Girl—Good Housekeeping, Dec 1941
• Doctor's Orders—Collier's, May 1942
• Taxi Dance—Good Housekeeping, May 1942
• It's Loaded, Mr Bauer—Collier's, Jun 1942
• End Game—Good Housekeeping—Mar 1944—Also in Thirty Years
• Island—Good Housekeeping—Sep 1944
• I Heard an Old Man Say—Good Housekeeping—Oct 1944
• Just the Day for Tea—Scholastic—Sep 1944
• Lunch in Honolulu—Harpers—Aug 1945—Also in Thirty Years
• Repent in Haste—Harpers—Nov 1945
• Close to Home—Good Housekeeping—Nov 1947
• Sun, Sea and Sand—1950—Also in Thirty Years
• King of the Sea—1952—Also in Thirty Years
Mr Moto novels
• No Hero. Boston, Little Brown, 1935 ; as Mr. Moto Takes a Hand, London, Hale, 1940 ; as Your Turn, Mr. Moto,
New York, Berkley, 1963.
• Thank You, Mr. Moto. Boston, Little Brown, 1936 ; London, Jenkins, 1937.
• Think Fast, Mr. Moto. Boston, Little Brown, 1937 ; London, Hale, 1938.
• Mr. Moto Is So Sorry. Boston, Little Brown, 1938 ; London, Hale, 1939.
• Last Laugh, Mr. Moto. Boston, Little Brown, 1942 ; London, Hale, 1943.
• Stopover: Tokyo. Boston, Little Brown, and London, Collins, 1957 ; as The Last of Mr. Moto, New York,
Berkley, 1963 ; as Right You Are, Mr. Moto, New York, Popular Library, 1977.
Other novels
• The Unspeakable Gentleman. New York, Scribner, and London, Hodder and Stoughton, 1922.
• The Black Cargo. New York, Scribner, and London, Hodder and Stoughton, 1925.
• Do Tell Me, Doctor Johnson. Privately printed, 1928.
• Warning Hill. Boston, Little Brown, 1930.
• Haven's End. Boston, Little Brown, 1933 ; London, Hale, 1938.
• Ming Yellow. Boston, Little Brown, and London, Lovat Dickson, 1935.
• The Late George Apley. Boston, Little Brown, 1937
• Wickford Point. Boston, Little Brown, 1939
• Don't Ask Questions. London, Hale, 1941 .
• H.M. Pulham, Esquire. Boston, Little Brown, and London, Hale, 1942.
• So Little Time. Boston, Little Brown, 1943 ; London, Hale, 1944.
• Repent in Haste. Boston, Little Brown, 1945 ; London, Hale, 1949.
• B.F.'s Daughter. Boston, Little Brown, 1946 ; as Polly Fulton, London, Hale, 1947.
• Point of No Return. Boston, Little Brown, and London, Hale, 1949.
• It's Loaded, Mr. Bauer. London, Hale, 1949.
• Melville Goodwin, USA. Boston, Little Brown, 1951 ; London, Hale, 1952.
• Sincerely, Willis Wayde. Boston, Little Brown, and London, Hale, 1955.
• Women and Thomas Harrow. Boston, Little Brown, 1958 ; London, Collins, 1959.
John P. Marquand
Social network and reputation
For all of his ambivalence about America's elite, Marquand ultimately succeeded not only in joining it, but in
embodying its characteristics. He forgave the upper crust classmates who had snubbed him in college (relationships
he satirized in H.M. Pulham, Esq). He was invited to join all the right social clubs in Boston (Tavern, Somerset) and
New York (Century Association, University).
Through his second marriage to Adelaide Ferry Hooker, he became linked to the Rockefeller family (her sister,
Blanchette, was married to John D. Rockefeller III). He maintained luxury homes in Newburyport and in the
Marquand died in Newburyport in 1960. Although his major work is largely out of print, his spy fiction remains in
print. Like his contemporary John O'Hara (and with a lighter touch), Marquand addressed issue of privilege and
inequality. Marquand's financial success and seeming veneration for the upper classes, like O'Hara's, was sufficient
to cause academia to ignore him. Marquand was unsparing in his own scorn for academics, notably in Point of No
Return (in which he lampoons anthropologist W. Lloyd Warner) and Wickford Point (in which he mocks a
prominent member of Harvard's English Department).
Although currently in eclipse, Marquand's reputation may be poised for a revival. Jonathan Yardley, in a 2003
Washington Post column,
says Marquand's contemporaries "found [his] satires of that world both hilarious and
accurate, and so do I. That Marquand has almost vanished from the literary landscape is to me an unfathomable
mystery. From ... 1937 ... until 1960, Marquand was one of the most popular novelists in the country. The literati
turned up their noses at him (as they do to this day) because he had done a fair amount of hackwork in his early
career and continued to write, unashamedly, for popular magazines such as the Saturday Evening Post."
Critic Martha Spaulding, writing in The Atlantic Monthly in 2004, noted that "in his day Marquand was compared to
Sinclair Lewis and John O'Hara, and his social portrait of twentieth-century America was likened to Balzac's
Comédie Humaine, [but] critics rarely took him very seriously. Throughout his career he believed, resentfully, that
their lack of regard stemmed from his early success in the "slicks". Praising his "seductive, sonorous prose", she
states that he "deserves to be rediscovered."
Marquand wrote the blurb on Witness by Whittaker Chambers for the Book of the Month Club in 1952.
Demolition of Marquand's summer home
John Marquand bought a small farmhouse on a 466-acre ( km
) tract of land called Kent's Island in Newbury,
Massachusetts in October 1935 for less than $5,000.(perhaps because the water supply was unreliable and the home
required renovation). However, by the year of his death, his home at Kent's Island had been transformed into a
rambling mansion by Marquand and his second wife. The couple had made numerous additions to the original
structure which held a collection of museum-quality antiques and family heirlooms; including a Gilbert Stuart
portrait of a Marquand ancestor, as well as a silver tray fashioned by Paul Revere.
Marquand expressed concern for the future of his estate shortly before his death. In Marquand, biographer Millicent
Bell, wrote: "He wondered what would happen to Kent's Island when he died; he willed it to his three younger
children but foresaw a time when they might not want it and imagined it enduring ... under the protection of a
preservation agency."
Marquand's concern was not unfounded. The children sold the vast property in April 1974
for $305,000 to Massachusetts. The state maintained the mansion and kept a state police trooper there as a caretaker
until 1978 when the well finally went dry. After the well dried and the home became vacant it deteriorated rapidly.
By 1984, the mansion was in poor condition due to vandalism and exposure to the elements.
During 1984, a ten-year-old boy named Jeffrey Noonan wrote a letter to then-Massachusetts Governor Michael
Dukakis asking that action be taken in order to begin efforts to restore the home. His letter was answered by the state
John P. Marquand
Division of Fisheries and Wildlife. The letter effectively informed the child that there were plans to raze the
He took the letter, pedaled a bicycle to the office of the Newburyport Daily News and asked to see the
editor. The newspaper interviewed and photographed the child for a front-page story. This started a local interest in
the cause to save the home of the Pulitzer Prize winner from destruction.
Newburyport Magazine re-visited the story in its Fall, 2008 edition and interviewed Jeffrey Noonan (aka Jeffrey
Justice) for the article. Discussing the youth's tenacity, the writer mentioned that the state was ready to pursue the
demolition by 1984. "But they hadn't reckoned with Jeffrey. The fifth-grader kept up a barrage of publicity—more
newspaper stories and an interview on a Boston TV station. He went to the State House to talk to legislators."
The article also allowed for a broader understanding of the nature of the opposition: "There was a backlash, too.
Noonan—now a 34-year old licensed psychic who goes by the name Jeffrey Justice—recalls an angry telephone call,
possibly fueled by alcohol, from a woman who had worked for Marquand, and other comments from older
Newburyporters who had not approved of the novelist's sometimes messy personal life."
[1] Holman, C. Hugh (1965), John P. Marquand, Minneapolis, Minnesota: U of Minnesota Press, p. 10, ISBN 0-8166-0350-2
[2] Yardley, Jonathan. "John Marquand, Zinging Wasps With a Smooth Sting" (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ ac2/ wp-dyn/
A32907-2003Feb19), Washington Post, February 20, 2003.
[3] Bell, Millicent (1979) Marquand Little, Brown and Company, p. 261 ISBN 019316088285
[4] Bell, Millicent (1979) Marquand Little, Brown and Company, pp. 477 19478 ISBN 019316088285
[5] Newburyport Magazine Fall, 2008 edition.
• Stephen Birmingham, The Late John Marquand: A Biography, J. B. Lippincott Company 1972
External links
• Works by John P. Marquand (http:/ / www. gutenberg.org/author/John_P._Marquand) at Project Gutenberg
• The Mr. Moto novels of John P. Marquand (http:/ / www.csupomona. edu/~jskoga/ moto/ ), website by James S.
• Extensive biography on Marquand (http:// www. harvardsquarelibrary.org/unitarians/ marquand. html)
• Photos of the first edition of The Late George Apley (http:/ / www.pprize.com/ BookDetail. php?bk=20)
Kaaren Verne
Kaaren Verne
Kaaren Verne
Born Ingeborg Greta Katerina Marie-Rose
April 6, 1918
Berlin, Germany
Died December 23, 1967 (aged 49)
Hollywood, California, U.S.
Other names Karen Verne
Catherine Young
Occupation Actress
Years active 1940–1966
Spouse(s) Peter Lorre (1945-1950) (divorced)
Arthur Young (1936-1945) (divorced)
James Powers (19??-1967) (her death)
Kaaren Verne (6 April 1918 — 23 December 1967), was a German-born actress. Sometimes billed as Karen
Verne, she was originally a stage actress and member of the Berlin State Theatre.
Life and career
Verne was born in Berlin and christened Ingeborg Greta Katerina Marie-Rose Klinckerfuss,
She fled the Nazis
in 1938 and made her English-language movie debut in the 1939 British film Ten Days in Paris. The following year
she settled in Hollywood. At first, the studios tried to downplay her German heritage by briefly changing her
professional name to Catherine Young, but after America's entry into World War II, the publicity value of a Teutonic
actress who had turned her back on Nazism was too good to avoid.
Verne was married three times, to:
•• Musician Arthur Young (30 August 1936 - May 1945; divorced); 1 son, Alastair, living in South West England
(born 8 April 1937)
• Actor Peter Lorre (25 May 1945 - 1950; divorced)
•• Film historian James Powers (19?? - 23 December 1967; her death)
Verne and James Powers adopted Peter Lorre's daughter Catharine following his death in 1964.
Verne remained in films until her death, appearing in such films as Ship of Fools (1965) and Torn Curtain (1966).
She died at age 49 and was buried in Calvary Cemetery, St Paul, Minnesota.
Kaaren Verne
• Ten Days in Paris (1940)
• Sky Murder (1940)
• The Wild Man of Borneo (1941)
• Underground (1941)
• All Through the Night (1941)
• Kings Row (1942)
• The Great Impersonation (1942)
• Sherlock Holmes and the Secret Weapon (1943)
• The Seventh Cross (1944)
• The Bad and the Beautiful (1952)
• The Story of Three Loves (1953)
• The Juggler (1953)
• Fireside Theatre (1954)
• A Bullet for Joey (1955)
• Outside the Law (1956)
• Ship of Fools (1965)
• Madame X (1966)
• Crusader (1 episode, 1956)
• The Gale Storm Show (1 episode, 1956)
• General Electric Theater (1 episode, 1958)
• Bronco (1 episode, 1959)
• Michael Shayne (1 episode, 1960)
• The Twilight Zone (1 episode, 1961)
• The Untouchables (1 episode, 1961)
• Kraft Suspense Theatre (1 episode, 1965)
• The Duel at Mont Saint Marie (1966) TV episode
• 12 O'Clock High (1 episode, 1966)
[1] Youngkin, Stephen D. (2005). The Lost One: A Life of Peter Lorre (http:// books.google. com/ books?isbn=0813123607). University Press
of Kentucky. ISBN 0-8131-2360-7. .
[2] "Movies: Biography for Kaaren Verne" (http:// movies. nytimes. com/ person/ 73350/ Kaaren-Verne/biography). The New York Times. .
External links
• Kaaren Verne (http:// www. imdb. com/ name/ nm0894524/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Kaaren Verne (http:/ / www. findagrave.com/ cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=6954535) at Find a Grave
Karl Freund
Karl Freund
Karl Freund
Born Karl W. Freund
January 16, 1890
Dvůr Králové (Königinhof), Bohemia
Died May 3, 1969 (aged 79)
United States
Occupation Cinematography
Years active 1926-1969
Karl Freund behind camera (1915)
Karl W. Freund, A.S.C. (January 16, 1890-May 3, 1969 (aged 79)
was a cinematographer and film director best known most noted for
photographing Metropolis (1927), Dracula (1931), and television's I
Love Lucy (1951-1957).
Early life
Born in Dvůr Králové (Königinhof), Bohemia, his career began in
1905 when, at age 15, he was hired as an assistant projectionist for a
film company in Berlin where his family had moved in 1901.
Early career
He worked as a cinematographer on over 100 films, including the German Expressionist films The Golem (1920),
The Last Laugh (1924) and Metropolis (1927). Freund co-wrote, and was cinematographer on, Berlin: Symphony of
a Metropolis (1927), directed by Walter Ruttmann.
Freund emigrated to the United States in 1929 where he continued to shoot well remembered films such as Dracula
(1931) and Key Largo (1948). Notably, his work on Dracula came under a mostly disorganized shoot,
with the
usually meticulous director Tod Browning leaving cinematographer Freund to take over during much of filming,
making Freund something of an uncredited director on the film. He won an Academy Award for Best
Cinematography for The Good Earth (1937).
Directing and TV career
Between 1921 and 1935, Freund directed ten films, of which the best known are probably his two credited horror
films, The Mummy (1932) starring Boris Karloff, and his last film as director, Mad Love (1935) starring Peter Lorre.
Freund's only known film as an actor is Carl Theodor Dreyer's Michael (1924) in which he has a cameo as a
sycophantic art dealer who saves the tobacco ashes dropped by a famous painter.
At the beginning of the 1950s, he was persuaded by Desi Arnaz at Desilu to be the cinematographer in 1951 for the
televisions series I Love Lucy. Critics have credited Freund for the show's lustrous black and white cinematography,
but more importantly, Freund designed the "flat lighting" system for shooting sitcoms that is still in use today. This
system covers the set in light, thus eliminating shadows and allowing the use of three moving cameras without
having to modify the lighting in-between shots. And where Freund did not invent the three camera shooting system,
he did perfect it for use with film cameras in front of a live audience.
Karl Freund
Freund and his production team also worked on other sitcoms produced at/through Desilu such as Our Miss
Personal life
In 1937, he visited Germany to bring over to the United States his only daughter, Gerda Maria Freund, saving her
from almost certain death in the concentration camps. Karl's ex-wife, Susette Freund (née Liepmannssohn), remained
in Germany, where she was interned at the Ravensbrück concentration camp.
Selected filmography
• The Robber Bride (1916)
• The Queen's Love Letter (1916)
• The Princess of Neutralia (1917)
• The Man in the Mirror (1917)
• The Marriage of Luise Rohrbach (1917)
• Countess Kitchenmaid (1918)
• Intoxication (1919)
• Catherine the Great (1920)
• Madame Wants No Children (1926)
• Doña Juana (1927)
• A Knight in London (1929)
• Fräulein Else (1929)
[1] In an interview with author and horror historian David J. Skal, David Manners (Jonathan Harker) claims he was so unimpressed with the
chaotic production, he never once watched the film in the remaining 67 years of his life. However, in his DVD audio commentary, Skal adds
"I'm not sure I really believed him." Source: commentary of film in 2-DVD set Dracula: The Legacy Collection, Universal Studios Home
Entertainment (2004)
[2] The Life and Films of Karl Freund, Hollywood Innovator (http://www. framingbusiness.net/ archives/ 1056)
External links
• Karl Freund (http:// www. imdb.com/ name/ nm0005713/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Karl Freund (http:/ / www. findagrave.com/ cgi-bin/ fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=6239259) at Find a Grave
• The Life and Films of Karl Freund, Hollywood Innovator (http:/ / www.framingbusiness. net/ archives/ 1056)
Kenneth Bianchi
Kenneth Bianchi
Kenneth Bianchi
1979 mugshot of Kenneth Bianchi
Background information
Birth name Kenneth Alessio Bianchi
Also known as The Hillside Strangler
Born May 22, 1951
Rochester, New York
Conviction Murder
Sentence Life imprisonment
Number of victims 12
Country United States
State(s) California and Washington
Date apprehended January 12, 1979
Kenneth Alessio Bianchi (born May 22, 1951) is an American serial killer. Bianchi and his cousin Angelo Buono,
Jr., together are known as the Hillside Stranglers. He is serving a term of life imprisonment in Washington. Bianchi
is also a suspect in the Alphabet murders, three unsolved murders in his home city of Rochester.
Early life
Bianchi was born in Rochester, New York, to a prostitute who gave him up for adoption two weeks after he was
born. He was adopted at three months by Frances Scioliono and her husband Nicholas Bianchi in Rochester.
Bianchi was deeply troubled from a young age, and his adoptive mother described him as being "a compulsive liar
who had risen from the cradle dissembling". He often worried her with his penchant for trance-like daydreams.
Despite having above-average intelligence, he was an underachiever who was quick to lose his temper. He was
diagnosed with petit mal seizures when he was five years old and passive-aggressive disorder when he was 10. After
Nicholas' death from pneumonia in 1964, Frances had to work while her son attended high school. Frances is known
for keeping Bianchi home from school for long periods of time. Bianchi would make frequent trips to the doctors
because of a urination problem. The doctors would examine his privates in an attempt to diagnose the issue. This
caused him quite a bit of humiliation.
Kenneth Bianchi
Shortly after Bianchi graduated from Gates-Chili High School in 1971, he married his high school sweetheart; the
union ended after eight months. Supposedly, she left him without an explanation. As an adult, he dropped out of
college after one semester, and drifted through a series of menial jobs, finally ending up as a security guard at a
jewelry store. This gave him a great opportunity to steal valuables, which he often gave to girlfriends or prostitutes to
buy their loyalty. Because of many petty thefts, Bianchi was constantly on the move.
He moved to Los Angeles in 1977, and started spending time with his older cousin, Angelo Buono, who impressed
Bianchi with his fancy clothes, jewelry, and talent for getting any women he wanted and "putting them in their
place". Before long, they worked together as pimps, and, by late 1977, had escalated to murder. They had raped and
murdered ten women by the time they were arrested in early 1979.
Bianchi and Buono would usually cruise around Los Angeles in Buono's car and use fake badges to persuade girls
that they were undercover cops. Their victims were women and girls aged 12 to 28 from various walks of life. They
would then order the girls into Buono's "unmarked police car" and drive them home to torture and murder them.
• Yolanda Washington, age 19 – October 17, 1977
• Judith Ann Miller, age 15 – October 31, 1977
• Lissa Kastin, age 21 – November 6, 1977
• Jane King, age 28 – November 10, 1977
• Dolores Cepeda, age 12 – November 13, 1977
• Sonja Johnson, age 14 – November 13, 1977
• Kristin Weckler, age 20 – November 20, 1977
• Lauren Wagner, age 18 – November 29, 1977
• Kimberely Martin, age 17 – December 9, 1977
• Cindy Lee Hudspeth, age 20 – February 16, 1978
Both men would sexually abuse their victims before strangling them. They experimented with other methods of
killing, such as lethal injection, electric shock, and carbon monoxide poisoning. Even while committing the murders,
Bianchi applied for a job with the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) and had even been taken for several rides
with police officers while they were searching for the Hillside Strangler.
One night, shortly after they botched their would-be eleventh murder, Bianchi revealed to Buono he had attended
LAPD police ride alongs, and that he was currently being questioned about the strangler case. After hearing this,
Buono erupted in a fit of rage. An argument ensued, and at one point Buono threatened to kill Bianchi if he did not
flee to Bellingham, Washington. In May 1978, he did flee to Bellingham.
On January 11, 1979, working as a security guard, Bianchi lured two female students into a house he was guarding.
The women were 22-year-old Karen Mandic and 27-year-old Diane Wilder, both students at Western Washington
University. He forced the first student down the stairs in front of him and then strangled her. He murdered the second
woman in a similar fashion. Without help from his partner, he left many clues and police apprehended him the next
day. A California driver's license and a routine background check linked him to the addresses of two Hillside
Strangler victims.
Following his arrest, Bianchi admitted he and Buono, in 1977, while posing as police officers, stopped a young
female by the name of Catharine Lorre with intentions of abducting and killing her. But after learning she was the
daughter of actor Peter Lorre, they let her go. Only after he was arrested did Catharine learn of the true identity of the
men whom she encountered.
Kenneth Bianchi
At his trial, Bianchi pleaded not guilty by reason of insanity, claiming that another personality, one "Steve Walker",
had committed the crimes. Bianchi even convinced a few expert psychiatrists that he indeed suffered from multiple
personality disorder, but investigators brought in their own psychiatrists, mainly Martin Orne. When Orne mentioned
to Bianchi that in genuine cases of the disorder, there tends to be three or more personalities, Bianchi promptly
created another alias, "Billy". Eventually, investigators discovered that the name "Steven Walker" came from a
student whose identity Bianchi had previously attempted to steal for the purpose of fraudulently practicing
psychology. Police also found a small library of books in Bianchi's home on topics of modern psychology, further
indicating his ability to fake the disorder. Once his claims were subjected to this scrutiny, Bianchi eventually
admitted that he had been faking the disorder. He was eventually diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder with
sexual sadism.
To acquire leniency, Bianchi agreed to testify against Buono. However, in giving his testimony, Bianchi made every
effort to be as uncooperative and self-contradictory as possible, apparently hoping to avoid being the ultimate cause
of Buono being convicted. In the end, Bianchi's efforts were unsuccessful, as Buono was convicted and sentenced to
life imprisonment.
In 1980, Bianchi began a relationship with Veronica Compton, a woman he had met while in prison. During his trial,
she testified for the defense, telling the jury a false, vague tale about the crimes in an attempt to exculpate Bianchi
and also admitting to wanting to buy a mortuary with another convicted murderer for the purpose of necrophilia. She
was later convicted and imprisoned for attempting to strangle a woman she had lured to a motel in an attempt to
convince authorities that the Hillside Strangler was still on the loose. Bianchi had given her some smuggled semen to
use to make it look like a rape/murder committed by the Hillside Strangler.
Bianchi is serving his sentence at Washington State Penitentiary in Walla Walla, Washington.
He was denied parole on August 18, 2010 by a state board in Sacramento (according to Los Angeles County district
attorney's office spokeswoman Sandi Gibbons). He will be eligible to apply for parole again in 2025.
[1] Eggar. The Killers Among Us.
[2] Orne, Martin T., Dinges, David T., and Orne, Emily Carota. http:// www. psych.upenn.edu/ history/ orne/orneetal1984ijceh118169.html
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 1984, XXXII, No. 2, 118-169.
Further reading
• Bardsley, Marilyn. Angelo Buono and Kenneth Bianchi, the Hillside Stranglers (http:/ / www. crimelibrary.com/
serial_killers/ predators/stranglers/ rampage_1.html). Crime Library. Retrieved on 2007-11-16.
• Farnsworth, Cheri. Alphabet Killer: The True Story of the Double Initial Murders (http:// www.
thealphabetkiller. com)
• The Mind of a Murderer (http:/ / www. pbs.org/ wgbh/ pages/ frontline/programs/transcripts/ 206. html), Parts 1
and 2 (1985), PBS documentary
Kurt Gerron
Kurt Gerron
Kurt Gerron
Comedy duo Sig Arno and Kurt Gerron, Berlin 1931
Born Kurt Gerson
11 May 1897
Berlin, German Empire
Died 28 October 1944 (aged 47)
Occupation Actor, film director
Years active 1920–1944
Kurt Gerron (11 May 1897 – 28 October 1944) was a German Jewish actor and film director.
Born Kurt Gerson into a well-off merchant family in Berlin, he initially studied medicine but was called up for
military service in World War I. Seriously wounded he qualified as a military doctor of the German Army. After the
war Gerron turned to a stage career and became a theatre actor under director Max Reinhardt in 1920. He appeared
in secondary roles in several silent films and from 1926 also directed film shorts. He had his breakthrough starring in
such films as The Blue Angel (Der Blaue Engel) opposite Marlene Dietrich, while on stage he originated the role of
"Tiger" Brown in the premiere production of The Threepenny Opera (Die Dreigroschenoper) at the Berlin Theater
am Schiffbauerdamm in 1928, also singing Mack the Knife.
After the Machtergreifung in 1933 Gerron left Nazi Germany with his wife and parents, traveling first to Paris and
later to Amsterdam. There, he kept on working as an actor at the Stadsschouwburg and director in several movies.
He was offered employment in Hollywood by the agency of Peter Lorre and Josef von Sternberg, but refused several
times and stayed behind in Europe. After the Wehrmacht had occupied the Netherlands, he was interned in the transit
camp at Westerbork before being sent to the Theresienstadt concentration camp. There he ran a cabaret called
Karussell to entertain the inmates.
In 1944, Gerron was either persuaded or coerced to make a propaganda film showing how humane the conditions
were at Theresienstadt. After shooting finished, Gerron and the members of Jazz pianist Martin Roman's Ghetto
Swingers were deported on the camp's final transport to Auschwitz. Gerron was killed immediately upon arrival,
Roman and guitarist Coco Schumann survived. Reichsführer SS Heinrich Himmler ordered the gas chambers to be
closed forever the next day. Gerron's film, supposed to have been titled either Theresienstadt. Ein Dokumentarfilm
aus dem jüdischen Siedlungsgebiet (Terezin: A Documentary Film of the Jewish Resettlement) also known as Der
Führer schenkt den Juden eine Stadt (The Führer Gives the Jews a City), was supposedly never completed and exists
Kurt Gerron
today only in fragmentary form.
Selected filmography
• Varieté (1925)
• White Slave Traffic (1926)
• His Greatest Bluff (1927)
• The White Hell of Pitz Palu (1929)
• Diary of a Lost Girl (1929)
• People on Sunday (1930)
• The Blue Angel (1930)
• The Three from the Filling Station (1930)
• Monte Carlo Madness (1931)
Documentaries about Gerron
Gerron is the subject of three documentary films, Prisoner of Paradise by PBS and Kurt Gerrons Karussell and
Tracks to Terezín with the survivor of the Holocaust Herbert Thomas Mandl. Mandl talks about Kurt Gerron as the
director of the film Theresienstadt. Ein Dokumentarfilm aus dem jüdischen Siedlungsgebiet.
The narrator in Kurt
Gerrons Karussell, which stars Ute Lemper, is Roy Kift who has also written a play on Gerron's time in
Theresienstadt entitled Camp Comedy.
The play is published in The Theatre of the Holocaust edited by Professor
Robert Skloot and published by the University of Wisconsin Press.
[1] Herbert Thomas Mandl "Spuren nach Theresienstadt / Tracks to Terezín" - Interview and director: Herbert Gantschacher; camera: Robert
Schabus; editor: Erich Heyduck. ARBOS Vienna-Salzburg 2007
[2] Roy-Kift.com - Willkommen! (http:// www. roy-kift.com) at www.roy-kift.com
"Prisoner of Paradise" by PBS, 2003, 100 mins, not rated.
External links
• Kurt Gerron (http:// www. imdb. com/ name/ nm0314777/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Photographs of Kurt Gerron (http:// film.virtual-history.com/ person.php?personid=963)
Lancer Spy
Lancer Spy
Lancer Spy
Directed by Gregory Ratoff
Written by Phillip Dunne
Starring Dolores del Río
George Sanders
Peter Lorre
Virginia Field
Sig Ruman
Release date(s) October 8, 1937
Running time 78 minutes
Country  United States
Language English
Lancer Spy is a 1937 film about an Englishman (Sanders) who impersonates a German officer, receiving fame upon
arriving in Germany. A female German spy (del Río) is instructed to check on him but falls in love with him instead.
• Dolores del Río as Dolores Daria Sunnel
• George Sanders as Baron Kurt von Rohback and Lt. Michael Bruce
• Peter Lorre as Maj. Sigfried Gruning
• Virginia Field as Joan Bruce
• Sig Ruman as Lt. Col. Gottfried Hollen
• Joseph Schildkraut as Prince Ferdi Zu Schwarzwald
•• Maurice Moscovitch as Gen. Von Meinhardt
• Lionel Atwill as Col. Fenwick
• Luther Adler as Schratt
• Fritz Feld as Fritz Mueller
• Lester Matthews as Capt. Neville
•• Carlos De Valdez as Von Klingen
• Gregory Gaye as Capt. Freymann
•• Joan Carrol as Elizabeth Bruce
• David Clyde as Orderly
External links
• Lancer Spy
at the Internet Movie Database
[1] http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0029108/
Le Chiffre
Le Chiffre
Le Chiffre
Character from the James Bond film series
Mads Mikkelsen as Le Chiffre in Casino Royale (2006).
Occupation Paymaster for the Syndicat des Ouvriers d'Alsace
Terrorist banker (film)
SMERSH (novel)
(2006 film)
Portrayed by Peter Lorre (1954)
Orson Welles (1967)
Mads Mikkelsen (2006)
Le Chiffre (French pronunciation:  [lə ʃifʁ], The Cypher or The Number) is a fictional character and the main antagonist
in Ian Fleming's first James Bond novel, Casino Royale. On screen Le Chiffre has been portrayed by Peter Lorre in
the 1954 television adaptation of the novel for CBS's Climax! television series, by Orson Welles in the 1967 spoof of
the novel and Bond film series, and by Mads Mikkelsen in the 2006 film version of Fleming's novel.
Fleming based the character on occultist Aleister Crowley.
Novel bio
Le Chiffre, alias "Die Nummer", "Mr. Number", "Herr Ziffer" and other translations of "The Number" or "The
Cipher" in various languages, is the paymaster of the "Syndicat des Ouvriers d'Alsace" (French for "Alsatian
Workmen's Union"), a SMERSH-controlled trade union.
He is first encountered as an inmate of the Dachau displaced persons camp in the US zone of Germany in June 1945
and transferred to Alsace-Lorraine and Strasbourg three months later on a stateless passport. There he adopts the
name Le Chiffre because as he claims, he is "only a number on a passport". Not much else is really known about Le
Chiffre's background or where he comes from, except for educated guesses based on his description:
Height 5 ft 8 ins (173 cm). Weight 18 stones (114 kg, 252 lbs). Complexion very pale. Clean shaven. Hair
red-brown, 'en brosse' (crew cut). Eyes very dark brown with whites showing all round iris. Small, rather
feminine mouth. False teeth of expensive quality. Ears small, with large lobes. Hands small, well-tended,
hirsute. Feet small. Racially, subject is probably a mixture of Mediterranean with Prussian or Polish strains.
He dresses well and meticulously, generally in dark double-breasted suits.
He is also fluent in French, English, and German with traces of a Marseille accent.
In the novel, he makes a major investment in a string of brothels with money belonging to SMERSH. The investment
fails after a bill is signed into law banning prostitution. Le Chiffre then goes to the casino Royale-les-Eaux in an
attempt to recover all of his lost funds. There, however, Bond bankrupts him in a series of games in Chemin de Fer.
Le Chiffre kidnaps Bond's assistant, Vesper Lynd, to lure him into a trap and get his money back. The trap works,
and Le Chiffre tortures Bond to get him to give up the money. He is interrupted by a SMERSH agent, however, who
shoots him between the eyes with a silenced TT pistol as punishment for losing the money. The torture Bond suffers
at Le Chiffre's hands briefly upsets 007's confidence in his profession, and he toys with the idea of leaving the
service until the novel's conclusion, when a new threat emerges.
Le Chiffre
Le Chiffre's death is seen by the Soviet government as an embarrassment, which in addition to the death and defeat
of Mr. Big in Live and Let Die, leads to the events of From Russia With Love.
• Tall, thin man named only Basil – bodyguard and an expert in martial arts who takes pleasure in roughing up
Bond. He is later killed by a SMERSH agent.
• Kratt, short, Corsican man – bodyguard of Le Chiffre and wielder of a walking-stick gun that he threatens to
cripple Bond with at the gaming table. He is later killed by a SMERSH agent.
1967 film biography
Le Chiffre is a secondary villain in the 1967 satire and appears in the only segment of the film actually adapted from
Fleming's book. As in the novel, Le Chiffre is charged with recovering a large sum of money for SMERSH after he
loses it at the baccarat table. He first attempts to raise the funds by holding an auction of embarrassing photographs
of military and political leaders from China, the US and the USSR, but this is foiled by Sir James Bond's daughter,
Mata Bond. With no other option, he returns to the baccarat table to try to win back the money. Later, he encounters
baccarat Master Evelyn Tremble, who has been recruited by Bond to stop Le Chiffre from raising the money. Le
Chiffre attempts to distract Tremble by performing elaborate magic tricks, but fails to prevent Tremble from
winning. Afterwards, he arranges for Tremble to be kidnapped and subjects the agent to psychedelic torture in order
to get back the money. The torture session is interrupted when his SMERSH masters, led by the film's main villain,
Dr. Noah, shoot him dead.
2006 film biography
Le Chiffre is the main villain of the official 2006 James Bond film, Casino Royale, portrayed by Danish actor Mads
Mikkelsen. Believed by MI6 to be Albanian and officially stateless, according to his file, Le Chiffre is a financier of
international terrorism. M implies that Le Chiffre was involved in the September 11 attacks, or at least deliberately
profiteered from them. In the video game version of Quantum of Solace, it is said that his birth name is "Jean
Duran", in the MI6 mission briefings. A mathematical genius and a chess prodigy, his abilities enable him to earn
large sums of money on games of chance and probabilities, and he likes to show off by playing poker. He suffers
from haemolacria, which causes him to weep blood out of a damaged left eye, and, as in Fleming's novel, dresses in
immaculate black suits and uses a Salbutamol inhaler, here plated with platinum. To date he is the only main Bond
villain to die before the film's final act.
Le Chiffre is contacted by Mr. White, a representative of a terrorist organization later revealed to be Quantum. White
introduces Steven Obanno, a formidable leader of the Lord's Resistance Army in Uganda, to Le Chiffre, and arranges
to bank several briefcases full of cash for Obanno. Le Chiffre invests the money along with his other creditors'
money in the aircraft manufacturer SkyFleet. Though SkyFleet's shares have been skyrocketing, he plans to short the
company by purchasing put options, and ordering the destruction of the company's new prototype airliner, set to
make its first flight out of Miami International Airport. Bond intervenes and foils the plan, costing Le Chiffre his
entire investment.
In order to win the money back, Le Chiffre sets up and enters a high stakes Texas hold 'em tournament in
Montenegro at the Casino Royale in an attempt to recoup the loss before Obanno learns that his money has been
misappropriated. Bond is sent to make sure that Le Chiffre does not win back the money; the reasoning is to force Le
Chiffre to turn to MI6 for protection, in exchange for information on his creditors and employers. Bond plants a
listening device in Le Chiffre's inhaler shortly after the tournament begins.
During the tournament, an enraged Obanno and his lieutenant break into Le Chiffre's hotel room and threaten him
and his girlfriend, Valenka. Le Chiffre does not blanch at the threatened amputation of Valenka's arm, and is granted
Le Chiffre
one last chance to win their money back.
As Obanno leaves the room, his bodyguard spots Bond and hears Valenka's cries coming from Bond's earpiece. In
the subsequent brawl, 007 kills both Obanno and his henchman, and Rene Mathis arranges the blame to be placed on
Le Chiffre's bodyguard Leo.
During the tense tournament, Le Chiffre initially outwits and bankrupts Bond, who cannot get additional funding
from MI6 accountant Vesper Lynd, who has accompanied Bond to make sure the money is used properly. However,
Felix Leiter, a CIA agent also playing in the game, agrees to bankroll Bond, on the condition that CIA is allowed to
take Le Chiffre in afterwards. Desperate, Le Chiffre has Valenka attempt to poison Bond's drink. Bond almost dies,
but, thanks to an antitoxin kit in his car and Vesper's timely interference, he is revived at the last moment and returns
to the game. During the final round, Le Chiffre's full house bests the hands of the two players preceding him, but
loses to Bond's straight flush.
Enraged by his loss, Le Chiffre kidnaps Vesper, forcing Bond to give chase, and Bond is led straight into his trap. Le
Chiffre leaves Vesper, bound at the feet and hands, in the middle of the road, and Bond is forced to swerve to avoid
hitting her and crashes his car.
When Bond regains consciousness, Le Chiffre proceeds to torture him by repeatedly whipping him in the testicles
with the large knotted end of a thick rope, trying to extort the password that will enable Le Chiffre to collect the
tournament winnings. Bond refuses to give in and plays on Le Chiffre's fear that there will be retribution from the
clients whose money he lost. Le Chiffre then states that if he is unable to retrieve the password than he will still kill
both Bond and Vesper and opt for protection from MI6; Le Chiffre says that he wins either way. When Bond refuses
to give in, Le Chiffre brandishes a knife and is about to castrate him.
Just then, Mr. White bursts into the room, holding Le Chiffre at gunpoint and informing him that he has just become
a liability. Le Chiffre pleads for his life, promising that he'll get the money, but it is to no avail; Mr. White responds
coldly, "Money isn't as valuable to our organization as knowing who to trust" and then shoots Le Chiffre in the
forehead with a SIG Sauer P230 fitted with a suppressor.
• Casino Royale (2006)
• Quantum Of Solace (2008) – mentioned/seen in a photograph only
•• Alex Dimitrios
•• Carlos
•• Mollaka
•• Leo
•• Bobbie
•• Jochum
•• Kratt
•• Valenka
•• General Grafin von Wallenstein
•• Madame Wu
•• Sheriff Tomelli
•• Lionel
•• Ison
Le Chiffre
[1] Anthony Breznican (4 April 2008). "James Bond series takes a 'Quantum' leap" (http:/ / www.usatoday. com/ life/movies/ news/
2008-04-03-bond-quantum_N. htm). USA Today. . Retrieved 4 April 2008.
[2] Ben Macintyre (5 April 2008). "Was Ian Fleming the real 007?" (http:// entertainment.timesonline.co.uk/ tol/ arts_and_entertainment/
books/ article3652410. ece). The Times (UK). . Retrieved 8 April 2008.
Appears in an Italian novel, Angelo Paratico Ben (http:/ / www. mursia. com/ rassegna stampa/ paratico_ben. pdf)
Mursia 2010. under the name of Chanceaux, being a top partisan leader in Italy in April 1945.
Mad Love (1935 film)
Mad Love (1935 film)
Mad Love
1935 Film Poster
Directed by Karl Freund
Produced by John W. Considine Jr.
Written by Screenwriters:
John L. Balderston
Guy Endore
Book Author:
Maurice Renard
Starring Peter Lorre
Frances Drake
Colin Clive
Ted Healy
Sara Haden
Music by Dimitri Z. Tiomkin
Cinematography Chester A. Lyons
Gregg Toland
Editing by Hugh Wynn
Distributed by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Release date(s) United States:
July 12, 1935
United Kingdom:
August 2, 1935
Running time 68 min
Language English
Mad Love is a 1935 American horror film, an adaptation of Maurice Renard's story The Hands of Orlac. It is
directed by German-émigré film maker Karl Freund, and stars Peter Lorre as Dr. Gogol, Frances Drake as Yvonne
Orlac and Colin Clive as Stephen Orlac. The plot revolves around Doctor Gogol's obsession over actress Yvonne
Orlac. When Stephen Orlac's hands are destroyed in a train accident, Yvonne brings him to Gogol, who claims to be