‫ﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻁﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻁﺭﻱ‬

‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺃﺴﻴﻭﻁ‬

AZOTURIA, paralytic rnyoglobinuria , Black water Disease
by

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Assiut University
E-mail: Sadiek59@yahoo.com
Ali sadiek 1

Prof. of Internal Veterinary Medicine and Clinical Laboratory Diagnosis

Dr. Ali H. Sadiek

AZOTURIA, paralytic rnyoglobinuria , Black water Disease, Rhabdomyolysis Monday Morning disease Tying Up Syndrome, Setfast disease
Sporadic acute disease affecting adult draft horses , mules and donkeys. The byproducts of abnormal energy metabolism cause inflammation of muscle cells, which leads to painful spasms of the large muscles of the back and hindquarters.
Ali sadiek 2

It is ch. By: Functional and morphological changes of the 1. muscles. Liberation of myoglobin in urine, 2. Lameness ending with paralysis esp. after sudden 3. excessive work or training following days of rest.
Ali sadiek 3

AZOTURIA, paralytic rnyoglobinuria , Black water Disease, Rhabdomyolysis Monday Morning disease Tying Up Syndrome, Setfast disease

Causes & Pathogenesis of Azoturia.
Feeding of highly concentrated ration to draft horses at rest resulted in Formation of large stores of glycogen in muscles. At work, this glycogen is converted to energy and lactic acid. The rate of removal of lactic acid from the blood stream does not equal to its production and the disease ensues.
Ali sadiek 4

Pathogenesis of Azoturia.
Or. ration deficient in vitamins A, B,C. and E., minerals as Ca, P, Na, CU, Mg, Mn, Fe, Co and I) leads to Metab. disturb., improper function and dystrophic changes in the central and prepheral NS, endocrine glands and skeletal muscles, Lowering resistance of the animal body that leads to streptococcal sepsis.
Ali sadiek

5

Pathogenesis of Azoturia.
Accum. Of lactic acid in muscles coagulative necrosis of muscles, followed by liberation of its Mb and its secretion in urine. The lesions may press on sciatic and other crural nerves 2ndry neuropathic degeneration of the rectus femoris muscle.
Ali sadiek 6

Cause of Death in Azoturia
Death may occurs from: Myoglobinemic nephrosis. Uraemia. Myocardial degeneration. Septicemia.

Ali sadiek

7

Clinical signs
Signs appears within one hour after beginning of the exercise. The horse being active, may be nervous Profuse sweating, rise of body temp. and hyperpnoea. Stiffness and reluctance to move, swinging of the hind legs. The animal then drops on the ground, tries to stand but it fails and takes the dog sitting position followed by lateral recumbency.
Coffee colored urine
Ali sadiek 8

Clinical signs
Hard, enlarged & tense Quadriceps femoris & glutteal muscles Urination and defecation are difficult. Urine is of dark red brown color (coffee urine). In severe cases, tachycardia, weak cardiac impulses, weak heart sounds with extrasystolic arrhythmia
Ali sadiek 9

Azoturia of equines

Ali sadiek

Myoglobinuria Coffe colred urine
10

Clinical pathology
I. Blood changes:
Blood serum is highly discolored since the renal threshold for myoglobin is very low. Increased levels of sugars, lactic and pyurvic acids, cholesterol, N.P.N. and phosphorus. Decreased levels of alkaline reserve, protein, calcium, vitamins A, B, and C. II. Muscle tissues: Increased levels of CPK and SGOT in blood indicating muscle destruction.
Ali sadiek 11

Clinical pathology
III. Urine changes: IT may be acidic in severe cases. Specific gravity lies between 1.010 — 1.078. Presence of myoglobin, protein. increased level of creatines, pyurvic acid, sugar, indican and urobilin.
Ali sadiek

myoglobin uria and hematu ria
Myoglobinuria and hematuria
12

Diagnosis
Case history: Sudden exercise after a period of rest. Clinical signs: stiffness, lameness, coffee colored urine, recumbency. Cl. Patholgy: Mb urea, uremia, increased serum AST, CPK.
Diff. Diag: All cases of trauma, lameness, etc
Ali sadiek 13

Treatmentaids: prevention and I- General hygienic

• • • • • • •

II-Medical Treatment.

Complete rest, trails to raise animals on legs or its hanging. Increase green fodders. Hot fomentations and massage of affected muscles. Analgesics (i.v. Novalgin or Chloral hydrate 30 gm orally) Antacids (i.v. of 200-400 ml Na bicarbonate 2-5 %). Normal saline. Vitamin B1 (0.5 gm i.m daily of Thaimine ) Insulin 200-300 IU im. Cortisone. Antibiotics.
Ali sadiek 14

Prevention
1. 2.
3.

Controlling the diet and exercise Assuring high fiber diet Regular exercise,
Keeping the horse well hydrated can also prevent potential damage to the kidneys
Ali sadiek 15

Ali sadiek

16