Agenda

Network Module Worksheet Module Diffraction Module Reflection Module Multipath Module Applying Divesity and Protection

Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Network Module
The basic function of the Network Module is to:
Provide a geographic representation of the network

Provide the interface to the intra system interference calculations
Provide access to the design modules for individual Pathloss data files

Sites and links can be entered in different layers that could define regions, frequency bands, etc. There are a maximum of six site layers and six link layers, a site and a link cannot exist on more than one layer. To display the Network Module select Module – Network. A blank Network Worksheet is displayed.

Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Network Module (Cont’d)

Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Network Module (Cont’d)

Defaults:
How the network diagram is to be displayed can be set up using the Defaults option. Select Defaults and a list of settable options will be displayed.

Select the parameter to be set and enter the desired settings

Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved.

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‹#› . All rights reserved.Network Module (Cont’d) Opening an Existing Network Diagram: If a network diagram already exists it can be opened the using File – Open option Change the path to the directory containing the network files. select a file and press Open. Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. The file will be loaded into the network worksheet.

All rights reserved. select the files required to the network diagram and press Open. Select Site Data – Import. First Method : The first is by importing existing PL 4 files.Network Module (Cont’d) Creating a network diagram: A network diagram can be created in two ways. Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. The files will be inserted into the network diagram. select the path to the directory where the files are kept. ‹#› .

Select Site Data – Edit – Add. Type the site name.Network Module (Cont’d) Second Method : A second method is to enter the site details in the Site List file and connect the together to form the desired network. All rights reserved.. Once all the sites have been entered close the Site List dialog box. Do this for each site in the network. Connect the sites together to form the network Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. ‹#› . latitude and longitude and press OK. The sites will be displayed on the network diagram.

frequency. e. Once you have completed changing the site layers close the Site List dialog box. etc. Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. geographic regions. All rights reserved. Sites layers can be set in the Site List dialog box Site Layers: In the Layer Column double click the Site Layer to be changed and select the desired layer from the drop down box. ‹#› . Sites and links can only exist in one layer.Network Module (Cont’d) Layers: Sites and link can be assigned to different layers to indicate different options.g.

Select Site Data – Link List. All rights reserved. Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. Once you have completed changing the link layers close the Link List dialog box. In the Layer column double click the Link Layer to be changed and select the desired layer from the drop down box.Network Module (Cont’d) Site Layers: Link layers can be changed in two ways. ‹#› . The first is from the Link List dialog box.

All rights reserved. ‹#› . the Layer selection box will be displayed. Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. Close the Layer Selection box and the selected layers will be displayed on the network diagram. Tick or un-tick the layers to be displayed.Network Module (Cont’d) The second method is to place the cursor on the link to be changed – right click the mouse – select Link Layer from the displayed dialog box and select the link layer required from the dropdown list and Press OK. To display or hide layers select Layers.

can be switched ON and OFF by Selecting Site Data and ticking the Show Background option Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd.Network Module (Cont’d) Network Background: If a DTM is available a background can be generated for the network display. A color legend can be displayed by Selecting Site Data and ticking Color Legend option. Select Site Data – Generate Background. The background generation will start automatically. All rights reserved. Once the generation is completed a topographical map is displayed behind the network diagram. The background. ‹#› . once generated.

‹#› . These option mainly use during repeater selection Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. Select Site Data  Add Site Now put the cross where you want to add the site. select the site and Drag the site to desired location. and Give name We can Move site from the Grid Module. Click Add site from Add Site window. All rights reserved. Select Data Move site .Network Module (Cont’d) Add and Move Site: We can Add a dummy site on Network.

All rights reserved. Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. i. ‹#› . the Channel ID box enters the operating frequencies of the link.Worksheet Module The parameters of the equipment use for the link are entered in the worksheet module. First it is necessary to set the work sheet up for the methods of calculation to be used when calculating the link performance Clicking on the various items displayed on the profile enters other dialog boxes.e. the Cloud enters the rain data. Select Worksheet from the Modules dropdown menu and the Link Worksheet will be displayed. etc.

The Type can either be selected as PDH or SDH depending on the link. Select the options applicable to your requirements.Worksheet Module (Cont’d) Reliability Methods: Select the Operations dropdown menu and select Reliability Methods. Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. Click OK. ‹#› .

Network Module (Cont’d) Reliability Methods: Vigants’ North American/ITU-R Rep.530 model is replacing Vigants’ Rep. P. All rights reserved. Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. However.338 multipath outage model provides an accurate estimate of performance worldwide in optimally configured and aligned digital microwave links. ‹#› . 338 model in many international regions. the new ITU-R Rec.

Base band Switching is normally used on PDH links such as the Ericsson mini-link. Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. The Maximum Diversity Improvement should be limited to 20.Worksheet Module (Cont’d) Diversity Operation If a diversity link is being planned reselect the Operations menu and select Diversity Calculations. Set up the Diversity Operation as shown. ‹#› . All rights reserved. while IF Combining is used on SDH trunk radios such as the Nera NL2006A equipment.

Worksheet Module (Cont’d) Options Select the Operations dropdown menu and select Options. Tick the Call Sign and Station Code boxes. this will put the Call Sign and Station Code on the report sheet when it is generated. Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. ‹#› . All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. Change the directory path to the directory where the rain files are stored and select the appropriate rain file for the region that the link will operate in. Check the ITU-R P. Select Horizontal Polarization.530-8 option. as this rain attenuation is greater using horizontal polarization than using vertical polarization. Select Load Rain File. Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. Close the dialog box. ‹#› .Worksheet Module (Cont’d) Rain Data Click on the Cloud and the Rain dialog box opens.

Worksheet Module (Cont’d) Path Profile Information Click on the Profile and the Path Profile Data dialog box opens. once the calculation has been completed close the dialog box. ‹#› . Click on the two Calculate buttons. Close the Path Profile Data dialog box Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved.

Worksheet Module (Cont’d) Click on Geo Clim and the Geoclimatic Factor ITU-R P. Close the Path Profile Data dialog box Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd.530-9 dialog box opens Click on the two Calculate buttons. once the calculation has been completed close the dialog box. ‹#› . All rights reserved.

‹#› . Highlight the equipment used by the link and click the Both button. e. All rights reserved.g. the TX Power can be reduced if the link is short and does not require it to operate at full power. Use the New Index button to select the directory where the radio information is stored. Close the Radio Code Index form.Worksheet Module (Cont’d) Radio Equipment Selection Click on the TR symbol and the Radio Equipment dialog box will be displayed To enter the microwave radio information. Once you have completed the data entry close the dialog box Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. The information entered in the Radio Equipment form can be edited. select the Code Index option.

Worksheet Module (Cont’d) Antenna Data Entry Antenna data is entered by clicking on the Antenna symbol. All rights reserved. Use the New Index button to select the directory where the antenna information is stored. To enter the antenna information. Close the Antenna TR-TR dialog box Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. ‹#› . Highlight the antennas used by the link and click the Both or the Site 1 or Site 2 button. select the Code Index option. Close the Antenna Code Index form. If diversity antennas are used on the link repeat the above procedure for the diversity antennas. this will open the Antenna TRTR dialog box.

Click on the Transmission Line symbol and the Transmission Line TR-TR dialog box will be displayed. Enter 0. Use the Files – Open command to select the directory where the transmission line files are stored. Highlight the transmission line to be used on the link and click the button for the side of the link the transmission line is to be used. This will enter the transmission line data in to the Transmission Line TR-TR dialog box. Close the Transmission Line TR-TR dialog box. ‹#› Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. Enter the Length of the transmission line and the calculation to be carried out. . Select Lookup and the Transmission Line selection box will be shown. Close the Transmission Line Data form. However if the outdoor unit is connected to an antenna by Flex Twist waveguide the data for the waveguide has to be entered into the worksheet.25 as connector losses for both sides of the link. All rights reserved.Worksheet Module (Cont’d) Transmission Line Data Entry The Ericsson Mini-link and the Nera City Link are split indoor/outdoor microwave terminals and therefore do not require RF transmission lines as they us an IF cable to communicate between the indoor and outdoor units. If the link uses diversity antennas repeat the above procedure for the diversity transmission line. The Nera NL2006A microwave radio uses elliptical waveguide to connect the terminal to the antenna and this data must be entered into the worksheet.

RX hybrid and any other losses associated with the microwave radio transmission and reception paths are entered in this form. The filter losses. close the form. Once data entry has been completed. All rights reserved. ‹#› . TX switch. Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd.Worksheet Module (Cont’d) Branching Network Data Entry Click on the Circulator picture and the Branching Network TR-TR dialog box will be displayed.

All rights reserved. If the polarization requires changing. Use the Files – Open command to select the directory where the frequency files are stored. double click the position of the frequency in the POL column the polarization will toggle between V and H. Once the settings are complete close the TX channels dialog box. Highlight the frequency required and select which site is to transmit high. Select Lookup and the TX Channels selection box will be shown. Close the frequency selection box.Worksheet Module (Cont’d) Frequency Selection Select the Channel ID symbol and the TX Channels dialog box will be displayed. If the terminal uses ATPC the value is also entered in this form Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. ‹#› .

All rights reserved. To do that please check the followings Make sure that your worksheet page has Green Correct sign in Right Bottom of screen. If it is wrong sign that's mean there are some data mistake Have a look to RX Signal. ‹#› . Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd.Worksheet Module (Cont’d) Make sure of either our Path Calculation is correct or we need to revise again. Fade Margin & (Annual Availability with rain) Percentage as per shown in Fig.

a Report Sheet is generated listing all the equipment and its parameters used in the link. It also provides a performance report on how well the link is expected to perform once installed. then click Full Report. ‹#› . Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. Under the Files option on the Report Form. Saved or Printed. Once you are satisfied with the link performance and the equipment used close the Report Form.Worksheet Module (Cont’d) Report Generation Click Report on the Worksheet screen. the report can be Copied. If it does not meet these requirements close the form and edit the equipment and/or change the frequency of operation until the standards are met. This performance report needs to be checked to make sure that the link performance meets the standard for quality and availability. All rights reserved. Page Setup and Printer Setup options are also found here.

00000 0.raf 5.sec) Rain region 0.530-8 351.raf 5.38 E 101.36 ITU Region K 42.91 99.54 0.54E-05 10.06 100.91 1.ITU-R P.00000 0.38 N 072 37 45.00 46.50 23000.00 39.00 Vertical 3.00 100.18 100. ‹#› .99904 .83 34 04 30.09 31.6HP 15.00 46.50 28M6G7W F23/1L 21798.36 ML23-0.19E-04 5.multipath (%) (sec) Annual .99904 .56 99.50 54.09 31.73 1.91 Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd.01e-03 7.83 131.0.301.00000 0.pl4 Reliability Method .00 -47.00 54.19 N 072 35 19. Nov 10 2007 MNI-TOI.Worksheet Module (Cont’d) MNI MNI Elevation (m) Latitude Longitude True azimuth (°) Vertical angle (°) Antenna model Antenna height (m) Antenna gain (dBi) Frequency (MHz) Polarization Path length (km) Free space loss (dB) Atmospheric absorption loss (dB) Field margin (dB) Net path loss (dB) Radio model TX power (watts) TX power (dBm) EIRP (dBm) Emission designator TX Channels RX threshold criteria RX threshold level (dBm) RX signal (dBm) Thermal fade margin (dB) Geoclimatic factor Path inclination (mr) Fade occurrence factor (Po) Average annual temperature (°C) Worst month .ITU-R P.00 -47. All rights reserved.33 ML23-0.00 39.00000 .0000V BER 10-6 -79.22 31.0000V BER 10-6 -79.530-9 Rain .rain (dB) Rain rate (mm/hr) Rain attenuation (dB) Annual rain (%-sec) Annual multipath + rain (%-sec) Sat.00000 0.91 101.00 31.61 E 281.01e-03 7.multipath (%) (sec) (% .6HP 35.98 3.50 28M6G7W F23/1H 23030.09 ML23E St 17E1.18 TOI N-TOI-8091 348.01% rain rate (mm/hr) Flat fade margin .95 34 04 05.51 -0.301.09 ML23E St 17E1.36 0.06 100.92 100.

provided that the diffraction loss does not exceed 25% of the fade margin at Kmin. Select how you want the Fresnel zones to be displayed and press Draw. Close the Fresnel Zone option box when you are finished. To draw the Fresnel zones press F2. If however. the Fresnel Zone option box is displayed. there is no alternative a link can be designed that is obstructed.Diffraction Module This module should never have to be used as links should not be designed that are obstructed. All rights reserved. The Diffraction Loss Module is displayed. Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. Select Module – Diffraction Loss. ‹#› .

Set the value of K to Kmin using the K dropdown menu at the top of the screen. All rights reserved. Press F9 to calculate the Diffraction Loss of the link. . If the link is to be implemented the value should be included in the worksheet. a list of default K values is displayed. Select Modules – Worksheet. You will be asked if you want to include the diffraction loss in the work sheet. Edit this list to include the Kmin value for the link. Close list when done.33 using the K dropdown menu at the top of the screen. If the value exceeds 25% of the fade margin the link should be rejected and an alternative route found. If the path is obstructed then the link should be rejected and an alternative route found. To do this you may have to edit the K list. Click on Configure – Edit K List. Click on the Tick on the report to accept the values. ‹#› Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd.Diffraction Module (Cont’d) Calculating Diffraction Loss Set the value of K to 1.

Path Fading Relative Air Density Refraction or reflections can cause dynamic multipath fading which can severely affect digital path performance Super Refractive Layer Refracted Ray Primary Ray Tx Rx Warm-Cold Boundary Layer Reflected Ray Radio Refractivity Vs Height Fading typically increases with path distance Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. ‹#› .

Path Fading For Ground & Water Reflections Rm-m k = 4/3 Water Reflections Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. ‹#› .

Select Module – Reflections.Reflection Module Reflections can cause the degradation of the received signal on a microwave link depending on the amplitude of the signal and the phase delay at which it arrives. ‹#› . If the reflected signal delay is greater than 20 – 40 nanoseconds. Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. performance problems on high capacity systems can occur unless the reflected signal amplitude is at least 40 dB below the direct signal. Reflection analysis should be carried out in both direction of the link. the Reflections Worksheet is displayed. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. Click the OK button to accept the reflective plan Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. To define one end of the plane place the arrow to the desired position on one side of the profile and press F1 the arrow will change color.Reflection Module (Cont’d) Defining the Reflective Plane Select Define Plane and the Define Reflective Plane Worksheet will be displayed. ‹#› . Next place the arrow at the desired position at the other end of the profile and press F1 the arrow will change color and reflection symbol will appear on the profile where the reflection will occur.

Press OK to accept the value. Close the Fresnel Zone options box. Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd.Reflection Module (Cont’d) Modifying Terrain Roughness Select Modify –Roughness and the Terrain Roughness Worksheet is displayed. ‹#› . All rights reserved. Select Fresnel Zones and draw 100% Fresnel zone to the reflection point. move the arrow to the other end of the Fresnel zone and press F1 again. The terrain roughness of the area will be calculated. Place the arrow at one end of the area covered by the Fresnel zone and press F1.

Select Modify – Parameters. Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. The PL 4 manual suggests the following values: 0 to 1 dB 1 to 3 dB 3 to 6 Db 8 to 15 dB >15 dB . All rights reserved. This can vary between 0 to greater than 15 dB depending on the ground cover. The terrain roughness previously calculated and the antenna 3 dB beam width has entered in the form ground Cover – Clearance Loss can be entered. Water.Reflection Module (Cont’d) Modifying reflection Parameters The reflected signal will be attenuated by ground cover so this value should be included in the calculation. field with high vegetation or high grass Partially wooded areas including trees along the road which are perpendicular to the path heavily wooded areas ‹#› . desert or salt flats Fields with low vegetation or low grass Sage bush. the Modify Reflection Parameters dialog box is displayed.

Divergence is the scattering of a reflected signal due to the curvature of the earth. Click OK Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. ‹#› .Reflection Module (Cont’d) Tick the Use Divergence box. All rights reserved.

Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. Select Earth Radius Factor (K). Once you have completed editing them press OK and a graph showing the effect of Earth radius Factor (K) will be displayed.Reflection Module (Cont’d) Varying Parameters to see the Effect of reflections Select Variable. a drop down menu is displayed and a number of parameters can be varied. ‹#› . All rights reserved. a dialog box is displayed in which the parameters of the calculation can be edited. For this example Earth Radius Factor (K) will be used.

‹#› .Reflection Module (Cont’d) All other variable parameters work in the same manner Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved.

Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. ‹#› .Reflection Module (Cont’d) Dispersion Report Select Dispersion and the Dispersion Analysis Report will be displayed. The two most important items on this report are: Reflection Loss and Reflection Delay. The Antenna Heights and Earth Radius Factor (K) can be edited and the result of the changes will be reflected in the report. Once you are finished editing the report press OK.

Copyright © 2007 Telefocal Asia Pte Ltd. The display above shows reflected ray as well as the ray trace for a constant gradient atmospheric scenario. All rights reserved.Multipath Module Unless reliable atmospheric data is available this module cannot be used with any accuracy. Select Module – Multipath and the Multipath Worksheet is displayed. ‹#› . The Multipath module displays ray traces for various atmospheric gradients.

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