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By M .VIJAY KUMAR
INTRODUCTION This page describes how a separately-excited dc shunt motor can be operated in either direction in either of the two modes, the two modes being the motoring mode and the regenerating mode. It can be seen that the motor can operate in any of the four quadrants and the armature of the dc motor in a fast four-quadrant drive is usually supplied power through a dual converter. The dual converter can be operated with either circulating current or without circulating current. If both the converters conduct at the same time, there would be circulating current and the level of circulating current is restricted by an inductor. It is possible to operate only one converter at any instant, but switching from one converter to the other would be carried out after a small delay. This page describes the operation of a dual converter operating without circulating current. As shown in Fig. 1, the motor is operated such that it can deliver maximum torque below its base speed and maximum power above its base speed. To control the speed below its base speed, the voltage applied to the armature of motor is varied with the field voltage held at its nominal value. To control the speed above its base speed, the armature is supplied with its rated voltage and the field is weakened. It means that an additional single-phase controlled rectifier circuit is needed for field control. Closed-loop control in the field-weakening mode tends to be difficult because of the relatively large time constant of the field.
3. Instead of naming the converters as positive converter and negative converter. The circuit shown above can be re-drawn as shown in Fig.The power circuit of the dual-converter dc drive is shown in Fig. 2. Each converter has six SCRs. the names could have been forward and reverse converters. 3 and this inductor reduces the impact of notches on line voltages that occur during commutation overlap. The converter that conducts for forward motoring is called the positive converter and the other converter is called the negative converter. Usually an inductor is inserted in each line as shown in Fig. notches on line voltages that occur during commutation . The field is also connected to a controlled-bridge in order to bring about field weakening.
When the speed is to be reduced in the reverse direction. If the peak line voltage be U. In order to drive the motor in the forward direction. Let the firing angle of the positive converter be P. as shown in equation (3). the conduction has to switch from the positive converter to the negative converter. the conduction has to switch from the negative converter to the positive converter. so that regeneration can occur. Thus the regenerating torque acts as the breaking torque and the motor decelerates fast. and the firing angle of the negative converter be N . It is seen that conduction has to switch from one converter to the other when the direction of motor rotation is to change. the negative converter is controlled. it would be preferable to ensure that the average output voltage of either converter is the same. feeding power back to the source. the direction torque developed by motor is opposite to that of the motoring torque. the positive converter is controlled.overlap. CIRCUIT OPERATION The operation of the circuit in the circulating-current free mode is not very much different from that described in the previous pages. At the instant when the switch from one converter to the other is to occur. When the speed of motor is to be changed fast from a high value to a low value in the forward direction. Equation (1) leads to equation (2). . To control the motor in the reverse direction. then equation (1) should apply. During regeneration. Then the sum of firing angles of the two converters is . Then the direction of current flow changes in the motor and it regenerates.
the rotational stresses can affect the commutator and the motor can get damaged. The purpose of this convention is to indicate the sign of the torque: if current flows into the dot. then the maximum speed at which it can run cannot exceed a certain value. the firing angles for the converter are changed according to equation (3). Secondly. If the nominal speed of the motor is 1500 rpm. FOUR-QUADRANT OPERATION AND REGENERATIVE BRAKING (Motors And Drives) Firstly. as use of the more modern circle symbol for a voltage source would make it more difficult to differentiate between the source and the circle representing the machine armature. so we can make the motor run at any desired speed in either direction simply by applying the appropriate magnitude and polarity of the armature voltage. are emphasised by the use of two battery cells when V > E and one when V < E. machine is therefore inherently capable of what is known as ‘four-quadrant’ operation. with reference to the numbered quadrants of the torquespeed plane shown in Figure 4 Figure 4 looks straightforward but experience shows that to draw the diagram correctly calls for a clear head. so it is worth spelling out the key points in detail. the supply voltage is shown by the old-fashioned battery symbol. But it needs to be emphasized that only one converter operates at any instant. . the torque is directly proportional to the armature current.m. The relative magnitudes of applied voltage and motional e. the steady-state speed is determined by the applied voltage. the machine produces positive torque. and in all four quadrants the dot is uppermost. A proper understanding of this diagram is invaluable as an aid to seeing how controlled-speed drives operate. the torque is negative. and if current lows out of the dot. Firstly. Above this speed.m.f.In a dual-converter. the voltage applied to the armature is kept at its nominal value and the phase-angle of the single phase bridge is varied such that the field current is set to a value below its nominal value. Secondly.m.We can therefore make the machine develop positive (motoring) or negative (generating) torque simply by controlling the extent to which the applied voltage is greater or less than the back e. E.f. one of the motor terminals is shown with a dot.c. which in turn depends on the difference between the applied voltage V and the back e.f. When the speed of the motor is to be increased above its base speed. say 2000 rpm. An armature voltage controlled d.
with the motor running at position A. and it occurs naturally every time we reduce the voltage in order to lower the speed. We should be quite clear that all that was necessary to accomplish this remarkable reversal of power flow was a modest reduction of the voltage applied to the machine.16.e. Needless to say the motor will not remain at point B if left to its own devices. The power drawn from the supply (VAI) is positive in this quadrant. will remain the same. and positive current therefore flows into the motor: in Figure 3. the current and torque become positive again. E.16.f. shifting the operating point to B in Figure 3.e. and create an e. while at position B it is E-IR. the new current will have the same amplitude as at position A. i. at a lower speed corresponding to the new (lower) supply voltage.m.f.c.m. we suddenly reduce the supply voltage to a value VB which is less than the back e. if we wish it to generate continuously. and the motor settles back into quadrant 1. If E is much greater than IR (which is true in all but small motors). If. so that the back e.m.m. the change (2IR) is also small. At position A. We have seen above that the natural tendency of the machine is to run at a lower speed than that corresponding to point B. the machine will have to be driven by a mechanical source.f. the conversion process is efficient.f greater than VB. It should be obvious that similar arguments to those set out above apply when the motor is . as shown in Figure 3. During the deceleration phase. so the new (negative) torque will be the same as the original positive torque. If we want to operate continuously at position B. it is operating in quadrant 1. the current (and hence torque) will reverse direction. i. as shown by the shaded arrow labelled M to represent motoring. kinetic energy from the motor and load inertias is returned to the supply. most of the input power is converted to mechanical power. as shown by the shaded arrow. the arrow representing VA has accordingly been drawn larger than E. again falls below the applied voltage VB. The combined effect of the load torque and the negative machine torque will cause the speed to fall. so we must force it to run faster. The applied voltage VA is positive and greater than the back e. so the e. the machine is acting as a generator. The power converted to mechanical form is given by EI. But now power is supplied from the machine to the supply. motor in the four quadrants of the torque-speed plane When the machine is operating as a motor and running in the forward direction.. the applied voltage was E + IR. If the new voltage is chosen so that E — VB = VA — E.f. and an amount I2R is lost as heat in the armature.m. There can be no sudden change in speed. Since IR will be small compared with E.Figure 4 Operation of d. This is therefore an example of regenerative braking.16.
the armature current immediately afterwards would be given by (— V — E)/R. —100%) throughout the period of deceleration and for the run up to full speed in reverse.f. thereby keeping the current constant at its rated value. we will clearly need an armature voltage of —V to make the motor run at full speed in reverse.17). we can consider how to change the speed of an unloaded motor from full speed in one direction to full speed in the other.. But we cannot simply reverse the applied voltage: if we did. and since the motor is unloaded the no-load current will be very small and the back e. the applied voltage has to be reduced to less than the back e.e. which would be disastrously high. with brief excursions into quadrant 4 (point D.17. Ultimately. so the deceleration (and subsequent acceleration) will be constant. and in the right direction. and the speed will change at a uniform rate. whenever the voltage is reduced in order to lower the speed. and then ramped down linearly with time so that the difference between V and Eis kept constant.17.e. V has to be numerically greater than E. (The motor might tolerate it for the short period for which it would last. but the supply certainly would not!). At full forward speed the applied armature voltage is taken to be + V (shown as 100% in Figure 3.m. as shown in Figure 3. During the reverse run-up. Since we want to decelerate as fast as possible. in the shortest possible time. What we need to do is adjust the voltage so that the current is always limited to rated value. motor from full-speed forward to full-speed reverse.m. we must aim to keep the current negative. This will give us constant torque throughout. and at rated value (i. accompanied by regenerative braking). as shown in Figure 3. Full speed regenerative reversal To illustrate more fully how the voltage has to be varied during sustained regenerative braking. (The differ- Figure 5 Regenerative reversal of d. V is negative).f. will be almost equal to V.running in reverse (i.c. at maximum allowable torque (current) . We note that to begin with. Motoring then takes place in quadrant 3 (point C).
the supply to the armature is removed and a resistor is switched across the armature brushes.machine is capable of having variety of torquespeed characteristics depending on the circuit conditions.m. The motor e. because many simple power electronic converters do not have this flexibility. Very rapid initial braking is obtained by using a low resistance (or even simply shortcircuiting the armature). A version of this technique is employed in the cheaper power electronic converter drives. Secondly. During the deceleration period most of the kinetic energy of the motor (lower shaded area) is progressively returned to the supply. Dynamic braking is still widely used in traction because of its simplicity. A note of caution is therefore appropriate.) The power to and from the supply is shown in the bottom plot in Figure 3. When the motor is to be stopped. we should not run away with the idea that in order to carry out the reversal in Figure 3. This point is taken up again in topic 4. And finally. CONCLUSION It is seen from the earlier sections that the d. the energy being represented by the shaded areas. so does the e. At low speeds the braking torque is therefore very small. The total energy recovered in this way can be appreciable in the case of a large drive such as a steel rolling mill.f. though most new rapid transit schemes employ the more energy-efficient regenerative braking process. If regenerative braking is required for a series motor. which have no facility for returning power to the mains. and the braking torque.m. As the speed falls. Dynamic braking A simpler and cheaper but less effective method of braking can be achieved by dissipating the kinetic energy of the motor and load in a resistor. a basic converter will probably not be adequate. and can accept positive or negative currents. all the kinetic energy is converted to heat in the motor’s own armature resistance and external resistance. Our drive system will normally have the facility for automatically operating the motor in constant-current mode. Users need to be aware that if full four-quadrant operation (or even two-quadrant regeneration) is called for. the current. A similar quantity of energy (upper shaded area) is supplied and stored as kinetic energy as the motor picks up speed in the reverse sense. and all we will have to do is to set the new target speed. the connections to either the field or armature must be reversed in order to reverse the direction of torque. drives a (negative) current through the resistor. Firstly. the motor acting as a generator for the whole of this time. rather than returning it to the supply. Three final points need to be emphasised.17 for clarity: in a large motor. .f..ence between V and E has been exaggerated in Figure 3.17 we would have to work out in advance how to profile the applied voltage as a function of time. we have assumed throughout the discussion that the supply can provide positive or negative voltages.17. and the negative torque results in deceleration.c. the difference may only be one or two percent at full speed. we must remember that the discussion above relates to separately excited motors. Ultimately. This is also taken up in topic 4. The need for generating these characteristics will be clear only when they are seen along with the characteristics of the loads that they operate with.
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