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ETSI Version

FibeAir® IP-10C
Product Description

February 2013 Hardware Release: R1 Software Release: C6.9 Document Revision B.01

Copyright © 2013 by Ceragon Networks Ltd. All rights reserved.

FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

Notice
This document contains information that is proprietary to Ceragon Networks Ltd. No part of this publication may be reproduced, modified, or distributed without prior written authorization of Ceragon Networks Ltd. This document is provided as is, without warranty of any kind.

Registered Trademarks
Ceragon Networks® is a registered trademark of Ceragon Networks Ltd. FibeAir® is a registered trademark of Ceragon Networks Ltd. CeraView® is a registered trademark of Ceragon Networks Ltd. Other names mentioned in this publication are owned by their respective holders.

Trademarks
CeraMap™, PolyView™, EncryptAir™, ConfigAir™, CeraMon™, EtherAir™, and MicroWave Fiber™, are trademarks of Ceragon Networks Ltd. Other names mentioned in this publication are owned by their respective holders.

Statement of Conditions
The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice. Ceragon Networks Ltd. shall not be liable for errors contained herein or for incidental or consequential damage in connection with the furnishing, performance, or use of this document or equipment supplied with it.

Open Source Statement
The Product may use open source software, among them O/S software released under the GPL or GPL alike license ("GPL License"). Inasmuch that such software is being used, it is released under the GPL License, accordingly. Some software might have changed. The complete list of the software being used in this product including their respective license and the aforementioned public available changes is accessible on http://www.gnu.org/licenses/.

Information to User
Any changes or modifications of equipment not expressly approved by the manufacturer could void the user’s authority to operate the equipment and the warranty for such equipment.

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FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

Revision History
Rev Date
A February 28, 2012

Author

Description

Approved by
Rami Lerner/Tomer Carmeli Nir Gasko

Date
February 28, 2012 March 11, 2012

Baruch Gitlin First revision for release 6.9. Baruch Gitlin Revised description of encryption algorithms for secure management protocols. Baruch Gitlin Revise PDV value for PTP optimized transport. Baruch Gitlin Updated frequency specs. Baruch Gitlin Updated frequency specs

A.01 March 11, 2012 A.02 March 15, 2012 A.03 March 22, 2012 A.04 April 1, 2012

Tomer Carmeli Rami Lerner Rami Lerner

March 15, 2012 March 26, 2012 April 1, 2012 June 18, 2012 July 4, 2012 September 13, 2012 February 10, 2013

A.05 June 18, 2012 Baruch Gitlin Add outdoor Ethernet and DC cable specs Rami Lerner A.06 July 4, 2012 B September 13, 2012 Baruch Gitlin Revise environmental specifications. Baruch Gitlin Added 7 and 14 MHz channel bandwidth, added technical details, and revised document structure and format. Baruch Gitlin Revise description of licensing. Rami Lerner Rami Lerner

B.01 February 10, 2013

Rami Lerner

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FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

Table of Contents
1. Synonyms and Acronyms .............................................................................. 10 2. Introduction .................................................................................................... 12
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Product Overview ......................................................................................................... 13 System Configurations ................................................................................................. 14 Functional Description.................................................................................................. 15 Management ................................................................................................................ 17 Solution Overview ........................................................................................................ 18

3. Hardware Description..................................................................................... 19
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 Hardware Architecture ................................................................................................. 20 Ethernet Interfaces ....................................................................................................... 22 Management Interfaces ............................................................................................... 24 Radio Interface ............................................................................................................. 25 RSL Indication .............................................................................................................. 25 Power Interfaces .......................................................................................................... 25 Additional Interfaces..................................................................................................... 26 Front Panel LEDs ......................................................................................................... 27 Cable Connection Options ........................................................................................... 28

3.10 Surge Protection .......................................................................................................... 28

4. Licensing......................................................................................................... 29
4.1 4.2 4.3 License Overview ......................................................................................................... 30 Working with License Keys .......................................................................................... 30 Licensed Features ........................................................................................................ 30

5. Feature Description ........................................................................................ 31
5.1 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 5.2 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3 Capacity and Latency................................................................................................... 32 Capacity Summary ....................................................................................................... 33 Ethernet Header Compression .................................................................................... 34 Latency ......................................................................................................................... 40 Radio Features ............................................................................................................. 41 Adaptive Coding Modulation (ACM) ............................................................................. 42 ACM with Adaptive Transmit Power ............................................................................ 45 ATPC Override Timer................................................................................................... 47

5.3 Ethernet Features ........................................................................................................ 48 5.3.1 Smart Pipe Mode ......................................................................................................... 49 5.3.2 Automatic State Propagation ....................................................................................... 50 5.4 Quality of Service (Traffic Manager) ............................................................................ 52 5.4.1 Integrated Quality of Service (QoS) Overview ............................................................. 53

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FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

5.4.2 5.4.3 5.4.4 5.4.5 5.5 5.5.1 5.5.2 5.5.3 5.5.4

Wireless Link Rate Adaptation when Connecting to an External Switch or Router ..... 54 Standard QoS .............................................................................................................. 56 Enhanced QoS ............................................................................................................. 59 Standard and Enhanced QoS Comparison.................................................................. 68 Synchronization ............................................................................................................ 69 Synchronization Overview............................................................................................ 70 IP-10C Synchronization Solution ................................................................................. 71 Synchronization Using Precision Timing Protocol (PTP) Optimized Transport ........... 72 SyncE PRC Pipe Regenerator Mode ........................................................................... 73

6. FibeAir IP-10C Management .......................................................................... 74
6.1 6.2 6.3 Management Overview ................................................................................................ 75 Management Communication Channels and Protocols ............................................... 76 Web-Based Element Management System (Web EMS) ............................................. 78

6.4 Command Line Interface (CLI) ..................................................................................... 79 6.4.1 Text CLI Configuration Scripts ..................................................................................... 79 6.5 In-Band Management................................................................................................... 80 6.5.1 In-Band Management Isolation .................................................................................... 80 6.6 6.7 6.7.1 6.7.2 6.7.3 6.7.4 6.7.5 6.8 6.8.1 6.8.2 6.8.3 6.8.4 6.8.5 6.8.6 6.9 Out-of-Band Management ........................................................................................... 81 System Security Features ............................................................................................ 82 Ceragon’s Layered Security Concept .......................................................................... 82 Defenses in Management Communication Channels .................................................. 83 Defenses in User and System Authentication Procedures .......................................... 84 Secure Communication Channels ............................................................................... 85 Security Log ................................................................................................................. 87 Ethernet Statistics ........................................................................................................ 89 Ingress Line Receive Statistics .................................................................................... 89 Ingress Radio Transmit Statistics ................................................................................ 89 Egress Radio Receive Statistics .................................................................................. 90 Egress Line Transmit Statistics .................................................................................... 90 Radio Ethernet Capacity .............................................................................................. 90 Radio Ethernet Utilization............................................................................................. 90 Configurable RSL Threshold Alarms and Traps .......................................................... 91

6.10 Software Update Timer ................................................................................................ 92 6.11 CeraBuild ..................................................................................................................... 92

7. Standards and Certifications ......................................................................... 93
7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 Carrier Ethernet Functionality ...................................................................................... 94 Supported Ethernet Standards .................................................................................... 94 Standards Compliance ................................................................................................. 95 Network Management, Diagnostics, Status, and Alarms ............................................. 96

8. Specifications ................................................................................................. 97
8.1 General Specifications ................................................................................................. 98 8.1.1 6-15 GHz ...................................................................................................................... 98 8.1.2 18-42 GHz .................................................................................................................... 98

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FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

8.2 Installation Requirements............................................................................................. 99 8.2.1 DC Cable Specifications .............................................................................................. 99 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 8.9.1 8.9.2 8.9.3 Antenna Connection................................................................................................... 100 Frequency Accuracy .................................................................................................. 100 Transmit Power Specifications ................................................................................... 101 Receiver Threshold Specifications ............................................................................. 102 IP-10C Frequency Bands ........................................................................................... 104 Mediation Device Losses ........................................................................................... 115 Radio Capacity Specifications ................................................................................... 116 Radio Capacity without Header Compression ........................................................... 116 Radio Capacity with Legacy MAC Header Compression .......................................... 119 Radio Capacity with Multi-Layer Enhanced Header Compression ............................ 122

8.10 Ethernet Latency Specifications ................................................................................. 125 8.10.1 Ethernet Latency – 7 MHz Channel Bandwidth ......................................................... 125 8.10.2 Ethernet Latency – 14 MHz Channel Bandwidth ....................................................... 125 8.10.3 Ethernet Latency – 28 MHz Channel Bandwidth ....................................................... 126 8.10.4 Ethernet Latency – 40 MHz Channel Bandwidth ....................................................... 126 8.10.5 Ethernet Latency – 56 MHz Channel Bandwidth ....................................................... 127 8.11 Interface Specifications .............................................................................................. 128 8.12 Mechanical Specifications .......................................................................................... 128 8.13 Power Input Specifications ......................................................................................... 128 8.14 Power Consumption Specifications ........................................................................... 128 8.15 Environmental Specifications ..................................................................................... 129 8.16 Outdoor Ethernet Cable Specifications ...................................................................... 130 8.17 Outdoor DC Cable Specifications .............................................................................. 131

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FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

List of Figures
Functional Block Diagram ................................................................................... 15 FibeAir IP-10C Block Diagram ............................................................................. 15 IP-10C in 1+0 configuration ................................................................................. 16 Layer 1 Header Suppression ............................................................................... 35 Legacy MAC Header Compression ..................................................................... 36 Multi-Layer (Enhanced) Header Compression ................................................... 38 Adaptive Coding and Modulation with Eight Working Points ........................... 42 Adaptive Coding and Modulation ....................................................................... 43 IP-10C ACM with Adaptive Power Contrasted to Other ACM Implementations 45 Channel Mask Comparison ................................................................................. 46 QoS Traffic Flow .................................................................................................. 53 Wireless Link Rate Adaptation – Traffic Shaping to Radio Link Rate on Switch/Router Port ......................................................................................... 54 Wireless Link Rate Adaptation – Loss-Less Mode ............................................ 54 Wireless Link Rate Adaptation – Smart Pipe with Enhanced QoS ................... 55 IP-10C Enhanced QoS ......................................................................................... 60 Classifier Traffic Flow .......................................................................................... 61 Synchronized Packet Loss .................................................................................. 63 Random Packet Loss with Increased Capacity Utilization Using WRED ......... 63 WRED Profile Curve ............................................................................................. 64 Queue Priority Configuration Example............................................................... 65 Example 1 – Hybrid Scheduling – Illustration .................................................... 66 Example 1 – Hierarchical Scheduling – Illustration ........................................... 67 Precision Timing Protocol (PTP) Synchronization ............................................ 70 Synchronous Ethernet (SyncE)........................................................................... 71 Integrated IP-10C Management Tools................................................................. 75 In-Band Management Isolation ........................................................................... 80 Security Solution Architecture Concept............................................................. 82

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FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

List of Tables
FibeAir IP-10 Series Overview ............................................................................. 18 Ethernet Interface Functionality.......................................................................... 22 Ethernet Interface LEDs ...................................................................................... 22 Ethernet Interfaces – Supported MTU Values .................................................... 22 Management Interfaces ....................................................................................... 24 License Types ...................................................................................................... 30 Header Compression ........................................................................................... 34 Ethernet Header Compression Comparison Table ............................................ 39 ACM Working Points (Profiles) ........................................................................... 42 Automatic State Propagation – Port Behavior ................................................... 50 Example 1 – Hybrid Scheduling .......................................................................... 66 Example 2 – Hierarchical Scheduling ................................................................. 67 IP-10C Standard and Enhanced QoS Features .................................................. 68 Dedicated Management Ports ............................................................................. 76 PolyView Server Receiving Data Ports ............................................................... 77 Web Sending Data Ports ..................................................................................... 77 Web Receiving Data Ports ................................................................................... 77 Additional Management Ports for IP-10C ........................................................... 77 Supported Ethernet Standards ........................................................................... 94

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FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

About This Guide
This document describes the main features, components, and specifications of the FibeAir IP-10C high capacity IP and Migration-to-IP network solution. This document also describes a number of typical FibeAir IP-10C configuration options. This document applies to hardware version R1 and software version C6.9.

What You Should Know
This document describes applicable ETSI standards and specifications. A North America version of this document (ANSI, FCC) is also available.

Target Audience
This manual is intended for use by Ceragon customers, potential customers, and business partners. The purpose of this manual is to provide basic information about the FibeAir IP-10C for use in system planning, and determining which FibeAir IP-10C configuration is best suited for a specific network.

Related Documents
     FibeAir IP-10C Installation Guide - DOC-00032280 FibeAir IP-10C User Guide - DOC-00035560 FibeAir IP-10C MIB Reference - DOC-00033230 FibeAir IP-10 License Management System - DOC-00019183 FibeAir CeraBuild Commission Reports Guide, DOC-00028133

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FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

1.

Synonyms and Acronyms
ACM ACR AES AIS ATPC BBS BER BLSR BPDU BWA CBS CCDP CFM CIR CLI CoS DA DSCP EBS EIR FTP (SFTP) GbE HTTP (HTTPS) IDC LANs LLDP LMS LOF LTE MAID NMS NTP Adaptive Coding and Modulation Adaptive Clock Recovery Advanced Encryption Standard Alarm Indication Signal Automatic Tx Power Control Baseband Switching Bit Error Ratio Bidirectional Line Switch Ring Bridge Protocol Data Units Broadband Wireless Access Committed Burst Size Co-channel dual polarization Connectivity Fault Management Committed Information Rate Command Line Interface Class of Service Destination Address Differentiated Service Code Point Excess Burst Size Excess Information Rate File Transfer Protocol (Secured File Transfer Protocol) Gigabit Ethernet Hypertext Transfer Protocol (Secured HTTP) Indoor Controller Local area networks Link Layer Discovery Protocol License Management System Loss Of Frame Long-Term Evolution Maintenance Association (MA) Identifier (ID) Network Management System Network Time Protocol

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FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

OAM OOF PDV PM PN PSN PTP QoE QoS RDI RFU RMON RSL RSTP SFTP SLA SNMP SP STP SSH SSM SyncE TC TOS VC Web EMS WG WFQ WRED WRR

Operation Administration & Maintenance (Protocols) Out-of-Frame Packed Delay Variation Performance Monitoring Provider Network (Port) Packet Switched Network Precision Timing-Protocol Quality of-Experience Quality of Service Reverse Defect Indication Radio Frequency Unit Ethernet Statistics Received Signal Level Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol Secure FTP Service level agreements Simple Network Management Protocol Strict Priority Spanning Tree Protocol Secured Shell (Protocol) Synchronization Status Messages Synchronous Ethernet Traffic Class Type of Service Virtual Containers Web-Based Element Management System Wave guide Weighted Fair Queue Weighted Random Early Detection Weighted Round Robin

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FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

2.

Introduction
This chapter includes:
     Product Overview System Configurations Functional Description Management Solution Overview

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FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

2.1

Product Overview
FibeAir IP-10C is a compact, all-outdoor backhaul Ethernet product. FibeAir IP-10C combines radio, baseband, and Carrier Ethernet functionality in a single, durable box for outdoor installations. FibeAir IP-10C offers the convenience of an easy installation procedure, and full compatibility with FibeAir RFU-C mediation devices, enabling easy transition of existing sites to all-outdoor zero-footprint solutions. It is designed for use in tail sites, particularly as part of a Smart Pipe solution. FibeAir IP-10C covers the entire licensed frequency spectrum and offers a wide capacity range, from 50 Mbps to 1 Gbps over a single radio carrier, depending on traffic scenario based on MAC and enhanced Multi-Layer header compression. Functionality and capacity are enabled via license keys while using the same hardware.

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FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

2.2

System Configurations
The IP-10C is designed as a tail site solution. Accordingly, the following configurations are best suited to IP-10C:1:    1+0 2 x 1+0 East/West 2 +0 Single Polarization

For more details about these configuration options, refer to the IP-10C Installation Guide, DOC-00032280.

1

Remote mount configuration is not supported for 42 GHz.

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FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

2.3

Functional Description
Featuring an advanced architecture, FibeAir IP-10C uniquely integrates the latest radio technology with Smart Pipe Ethernet capabilities. The FibeAir IP10C radio core engine is designed to support native Ethernet over the air interface enhanced with Adaptive Power and Adaptive Coding & Modulation (ACM) for maximum spectral efficiency in any deployment scenario. Functional Block Diagram

FibeAir IP-10C Block Diagram

The CPU acts as the unit’s central controller, and all management frames received from or sent to external management applications must pass through the CPU. The Mux assembles the radio frames, and transfers them to the MODEM. The MODEM represents the physical layer, modulating, transmitting, and receiving the data stream.

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FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

The following figure shows the IP-10C in a 1+0 configuration. IP-10C in 1+0 configuration

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FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

2.4

Management
Several methods can be used for IP-10C management:  Local terminal CLI  CLI via telnet  Web-based management  SNMP  In-band management The Web-Based EMS enables access to all system configuration options. In addition, the management system provides access to other network equipment through in-band or out-of-band network management.

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FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

2.5

Solution Overview
IP-10C is part of the FibeAir IP-10 series that includes IP-10G, packet-only IP10E, all-outdoor IP-10C for access, and high-capacity high-density IP-10Q, which is optimized for high-capacity MPLS-aware Ethernet microwave radio where fiber connections are not available. The FibeAir series provides a variety of solutions for a large number of deployment scenarios. FibeAir IP-10 Series Overview TDM and Ethernet IP-10G IP-10E Ethernet IP-10C

Single Carrier/Single Direction

Integrated Backhaul (L2) IP-10G Nodal Multi-Carrier/Multi Direction IP-10E Nodal

Smart Pipe (L1) IP-10Q

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FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

3.

Hardware Description
This chapter includes:
          Hardware Architecture Ethernet Interfaces Management Interfaces Radio Interface RSL Indication Power Interfaces Additional Interfaces Front Panel LEDs Cable Connection Options Surge Protection

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FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

3.1

Hardware Architecture
FibeAir IP-10C features all outdoor architecture consisting of a single unit directly mounted on the antenna. RF connection – The IP-10C fits the field-proven RFU-C direct mount interface, with all available antennas. V and H polarizations are supported using a mechanical twist which should be adjusted to fit the desired configuration. The mounting bracket allows easy access to installation screws for a simple installation. For details, refer to the IP-10C Installation Guide, DOC-32280.

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FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

Main Interfaces:      1 x GbE combo port for traffic: 10/100/1000Base-T or SFP 1000Base-X 2 x GbE electrical ports for management: 10/100/1000Base-T2 Power interface (-48VDC) Terminal console RSL interface: BNC connector

Additional Interfaces:

In addition, each of the non-combo ports can be configured to support Ethernet out-of-band management.

2

1+1 Hot Standby (HSB) protection, planned for future release, will utilize one of the non-combo GbE ports on each unit. For information about availability, consult your Ceragon sales representative.

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FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

3.2

Ethernet Interfaces
FibeAir IP-10C has a GbE Ethernet interface for traffic and two GbE interfaces for management on the front panel. For the traffic interface, you can choose between an optical and an electrical physical interface. The optical interface is located to the right of the electrical interface. The management interfaces are located to the right of the traffic interfaces. The following table describes the functionality of the IP-10C Ethernet interfaces. Ethernet Interface Functionality

Indication GEB “Combo” GbE Management GbE Management

Interface Rate

Functionality

Electrical GbE 10/100/1000 OR Optical GbE – 1000 Traffic GbE 10/100/1000 GbE 10/100/1000 Disabled/Management/Future Use Disabled/Management/ Future Use

The following table describes the Ethernet interface LEDs. Ethernet Interface LEDs Interface
Combo Eth1 (RJ-45) Combo Eth1 (SFP)

Functionality LED (right)
When the port is enabled and interface type is electrical RJ-45, the LED will be on. Otherwise it will be off.

Activity LED (left)
When a carrier is detected, the LED will be on. When traffic passes, the LED will blink.

The SFP LED (below the SFP interface) Disabled will be on when the port is enabled and a carrier is detected. This LED will blink when traffic passes. When the port is enabled and used for management, the LED will be on. When the port is enabled and used for management, the LED will be on. When a carrier is detected, the LED will be on. When traffic passes, the LED will blink. When a carrier is detected, the LED will be on. When traffic passes, the LED will blink.

Eth2 Eth3

The following table shows the MTU values supported by the IP-10C Ethernet interfaces. Ethernet Interfaces – Supported MTU Values Interface type
Ethernet Traffic port Management port

Jumbo mode
MTU = 9612 MTU = 1632

Non jumbo mode
MTU = 1632 MTU = 1632

Note:

In non jumbo mode, the RMON oversized frames counter will count frames that exceed 2048 bytes. In jumbo mode, the RMON oversized frames counter will only count frames that exceed 10240 bytes.

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FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

It is possible to use an electrical interface at one end of the link, and an optical interface at the other end. In order to change interfaces, it is essential to disable the active interface first, and then to enable the other interface. The following table lists recommended SFP manufacturers. Part Number
AO-0049-0 AO-0049-0 AO-0049-0 AO-0049-0 AO-0037-0 AO-0037-0 AO-0037-0 AO-0037-0

Item Description
XCVR,SFP,850nm,1.25Gb,MM,500M,W.DDM XCVR,SFP,850nm,1.25Gb,MM,500M,W.DDM XCVR,SFP,850nm,1.25Gb,MM,500M,W.DDM XCVR,SFP,850nm,1.25Gb,MM,500M,W.DDM XCVR,SFP,1310nm,1.25Gb,SM,10km XCVR,SFP,1310nm,1.25Gb,SM,10km XCVR,SFP,1310nm,1.25Gb,SM,10km XCVR,SFP,1310nm,1.25Gb,SM,10km

Manufacturer Name
PHOTON Wuhan Telecom. Devices (WTD) CORETEK (*) Fiberxon Wuhan Telecom. Devices (WTD) CORETEK (*) Fiberxon AGILENT

Manufacturer PN
PST120-51TP+ RTXM191-551 CT-1250NSP-SB1L FTM-8012C-SLG RTXM191-401 CT-1250TSP-MB4L-A FTM-3012C-SLG AFCT-5710PZ

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FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

3.3

Management Interfaces
An IP-10C system can be configured to use 1 or 2 Ethernet management ports. Interfaces Eth2 and Eth3 are the only interfaces that can be assigned as management ports. Management Interfaces Configured Number Management Interfaces of Management Ports
1 2 0 Eth3 Eth3, Eth2 None

Management interfaces are connected to the switch (bridge) and are configured to learning mode. Management frames should always be assigned maximum priority in order to ensure that network management remains available in a loaded network. In order to achieve this, the IP-10C automatically assigns to all management frames (frames incoming from the management interfaces) a p-bit value of 7, which is the highest priority by default. Management interfaces can be configured to have one of the following capacities: 64kbps, 128kbps, 256kbps, 512kbps, 1024kbps, 2048kbps (default). Capacity is limited by the port ingress rate limit.

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FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

3.4

Radio Interface
In all configurations, both remote mount and direct mount, IP-10C is connected to the antenna via the RF port. The RF port is a TX/RX direct WG connection. For supported WG interfaces, refer to Antenna Connection on page 100.

3.5

RSL Indication
The RSL indication is used for antenna alignment during the link commissioning phase of installation. Connecting a DVM to this BNC connector will show current RSL in a 3 digit display following the 1V indication. For example, a level of -35dBm is displayed as 1.35V on the DVM. Note: The RSL reading is for reference only. For an accurate RSL indication, use the web-based EMS.

3.6

Power Interfaces
The IP-10C power interface is connected via a proprietary two pin connector, at the end of an 18-12AWG cable supplying -48VDC (nominal).

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FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

3.7

Additional Interfaces
An IP-10C contains the following additional interfaces:  Terminal Console – The terminal console is an RJ-45 interface. A local craft terminal can be connected to the terminal console for local CLI management of the IP-10C unit. The terminal console has the following parameters: Baud: 115200 Data bits: 8 Parity: None Stop bits: 1 Flow Control: None  Grounding Screw – Use the grounding screw for a secure grounding scheme from the IP-10C to the tower.

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FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

3.8

Front Panel LEDs
The following LEDs are located towards the bottom left of the front panel:  LINK – Indicates status of the radio link.  Eth-IF – Indicates status of the Ethernet interface.  RFU – Indicates status of the RF module.  PROT – Reserved for future use.  RMT – Indicates status of the remote unit.  LPWR – Reserved for future use. Additional LEDs are located next to the Ethernet interfaces.

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FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

3.9

Cable Connection Options
The IP-10C requires a DC power cable and either an electrical or optical Ethernet cable. Several cable options are available:  Bundled Cable Option – The bundled cable is a proprietary Ceragon implementation that enables DC and Ethernet cables to be routed in a single cable deployment. All bundled cables are pre-made with Ethernet connectors and sealing glands. The bundled cable can be ordered in lengths of 50m and 75m.  Separate DC and Electrical Ethernet Cables – With this option, the user can either prepare separate CAT5E and DC cables or order these cables from Ceragon. Pre-made Ethernet cables are available from Ceragon in lengths of 50m and 75m. These cables include the Ethernet connector and the sealing gland.  Separate DC and Optical Ethernet Cables – Ready-made Single Mode and Multi Mode optical Ethernet cables are available in lengths of 50m, 100m, and 150m. For DC cable specifications per length, refer to DC Cable Specifications on page 99.

3.10

Surge Protection
IP-10C includes built-in surge protection for its Ethernet and power interfaces. IP-10C’s surge protection mechanism complies with surge immunity standard IEC 61000-4-5, level 4. In order to protect equipment connected to the IP-10C, it is recommended to use external surge protection devices.

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FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

4.

Licensing
This chapter includes:
   License Overview Working with License Keys Licensed Features

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FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

4.1

License Overview
FibeAir IP-10C offers a pay as-you-grow concept to reduce network costs. Future capacity growth and additional functionality is enabled with license keys using the same hardware. Licenses are per unit, with a license required for the units on both sides of the link.

4.2

Working with License Keys
Ceragon provides a web-based License Management System (LMS). The LMS enables authorized users to generate license keys, which are generated per IP10C serial number. In order to upgrade a license, the license-key must be entered into the IP-10C, followed by a cold reset. When the system returns online following the reset, its license key is checked and implemented, enabling access to new capacities and/or features. For more detailed information, refer to FibeAir IP-10 License Management System, DOC-00019183.

4.3

Licensed Features
As your network expands and additional functionality is desired, license keys can be purchased for the features described in the following table. License Types

License Name
Adaptive Coding and Modulation (ACM) Capacity Upgrade Synchronization Unit Enhanced QoS

Description
Enables the Adaptive Coding and Modulation (ACM) feature. An ACM license is required per radio. Enables you to increase your system’s radio capacity in gradual steps by upgrading your capacity license. Enables the Synchronization unit required for SyncE support.

For Addition Information
Adaptive Coding Modulation (ACM)

Synchronization

Enables the Enhanced QoS feature, which includes Enhanced QoS eight priority queues with configurable buffer length, a larger selection of classification criteria, WRED for improved congestion management, an enhanced scheduler based on Strict Priority, Weighted Fair Queue (WFQ), or a hybrid approach that combines Strict Priority and WFQ, and other enhanced functionality. A license is required per radio. Enables the use of Multi-Layer header compression, which can increase effective throughput by up to 300%. Ethernet Header Compression

Enhanced Header Compression

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FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

5.

Feature Description
This chapter includes:
     Capacity and Latency Radio Features Ethernet Features Quality of Service (Traffic Manager) Synchronization

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5.1

Capacity and Latency
This section includes:
   Capacity Summary Ethernet Header Compression Latency

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5.1.1

Capacity Summary
      Modulations – QPSK to 256 QAM Radio capacity – Up to 50/100/220/280/500 Mbps throughput over 7/14/28/40/56 MHz channels Radio capacity with legacy MAC Header Compression – Up to 58/125/281/370/532 Mbps throughput Radio capacity with Multi-Layer (Enhanced) Header Compression (license-enabled) – 146/317/713/938/1,000 Mbps throughput. All licensed bands – L6, U6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 13, 15, 18, 23, 26, 28, 32, 38, 42 GHz High scalability – From 50 Mbps to 500 Mbps, using the same hardware, and up to 1 Gbps with Multi-Layer Enhanced Header Compression.

IP-10C’s high system gain enables the use of small antennas and long link spans, resulting in high overall capacity while maintaining critical and realtime traffic, saving both on operational and capital expenditures by using smaller antennas for a given link budget.

For additional information:
 Radio Capacity Specifications

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5.1.2

Ethernet Header Compression
IP-10C offers several Ethernet header compression methods, which enable operators to significantly improve Ethernet throughout over the radio link without affecting user traffic:  No Header Compression (Layer 1 Header Suppression) – Removes the IFG and Preamble fields. This mechanism operates automatically even if no header compression is selected by the user.  MAC Header Compression (“Legacy Mode”) – Operates at Layer 2, compressing the MAC SA and the MAC DA. The user can enable or disable MAC header compression.  Multi-Layer Header Compression (“Enhanced Compression”) –Users can configure the depth of Enhanced Compression, up to Layer 4. Enhanced Compression requires software version C6.9. Enhanced Compression also requires a license. Header Compression

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5.1.2.1

Layer 1 Header Suppression Even when no header compression is enabled, IP-10C performs Layer 1 header suppression. Layer 1 header suppression removes the IFG and Preamble fields (20 bytes), replacing them with a GFP header. Headers fields in Layers 2 through 4 are not compressed at all. The following figure provides a detailed diagram of Layer 1 header suppression. Layer 1 Header Suppression
L1 header (PHY)

Inter-Frame Gap (IFG)
12B

8B

Preabmle MAC DA

6B

L2 header (MAC)

6B

MAC SA 0x8A88 (opt) S-Vlan (opt) 0x8100 (opt) C-Vlan (opt) 0x0800/0x86DD

4B 6B 6B 2B 2B 2B 2B 2B

GFP header MAC DA MAC SA 0x8A88 (opt) S-Vlan (opt) 0x8100 (opt) C-Vlan (opt) 0x0800/0x86DD

2B 2B 2B 2B 2B

L3/L4 headers (optional) & Payload
4B

L3/L4 headers (optional) & Payload

CRC
MAC
4B

CRC

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5.1.2.2

MAC Header Compression (“Legacy Mode”) IP-10C’s legacy MAC header compression operates on Layer 2, and supports up to eight flows. Legacy MAC header compression improves effective throughput over the radio link by up to 45% or more without affecting user traffic. Legacy MAC header compression compresses the MAC SA and the MAC DA fields (12 bytes). Layer 1 header suppression is also active, replacing the IFG and Preamble fields (20 bytes) with a GFP header. Legacy MAC header compression does not require a license, and can be enabled and disabled by the user. By default, legacy MAC header compression is disabled. The following figure provides a detailed diagram of how the frame structure is affected by legacy MAC header compression. Legacy MAC Header Compression
L1 header (PHY)

Inter-Frame Gap (IFG)
12B

8B

Preabmle

MAC DA
6B 6B 2B 2B 2B 2B 2B
L2 header (MAC)

MAC SA 0x8A88 (opt) S-Vlan (opt) 0x8100 (opt) C-Vlan (opt) 0x0800/0x86DD

4B 1B 2B 2B 2B 2B 2B

GFP header Flow ID 0x8A88 (opt) S-Vlan (opt) 0x8100 (opt) C-Vlan (opt) 0x0800/0x86DD

L3/L4 headers (optional) & Payload
4B

L3/L4 headers (optional) & Payload

CRC

MAC

4B

CRC

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5.1.2.3

Multi-Layer (Enhanced) Header Compression

This feature requires:
 Enhanced Header Compression license

Related topics:
 Licensing Multi-Layer (Enhanced) header compression identifies traffic flows and replaces the header fields with a "flow ID". This is done using a sophisticated algorithm that learns unique flows by looking for repeating frame headers in the traffic stream over the radio link and compressing them. The principle underlying this feature is that packet headers in today’s networks use a long protocol stack that contains a significant amount of redundant information. In Enhanced Compression mode, the user can determine the depth to which the compression mechanism operates, from Layer 2 to Layer 4. Operators must balance the depth of compression against the number of flows in order to ensure maximum efficiency. Up to 256 concurrent flows are supported. Up to 68 bytes of the L2-4 header can be compressed. In addition Layer 1 header suppression is also performed, replacing the IFG and Preamble fields (20 bytes) with a GFP header. Multi layer header compression can be used to compress the following types of header stacks:  Ethernet MAC untagged IPv4  TCP  UDP IPv6  TCP  UDP MPLS  Ethernet MAC + VLAN IPv4  TCP  UDP IPv6  TCP  UDP MPLS  Ethernet MAC with QinQ IPv4  TCP  UDP IPv6  TCP

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UDP MPLS PBB-TE

The following figure provides a detailed diagram of how the frame structure is affected by Multi-Layer (Enhanced) header compression. Multi-Layer (Enhanced) Header Compression
L1 header (PHY)

Inter-Frame Gap (IFG)
12B

8B

Preabmle

MAC DA
6B 6B 2B 2B 2B 4B

L2 header (MAC)

MAC SA 0x8A88 (opt) S-Vlan (opt) 0x8100 (opt) C-Vlan (opt) 0x0800/0x86DD

GFP header

2B 2B

L3 header

Compressed header & Flow ID

24/40B

IPv4/6

L4 header

8/28B

UDP/TCP

Payload Payload
4B

CRC

MAC

4B

CRC

IP-10C’s Multi-Layer (enhanced) header compression can improve effective throughput by up to 300% or more without affecting user traffic. 5.1.2.4 Enhanced Header Compression Compatibility The IP-10C’s configuration monitoring mechanism is used to provide backwards compatibility with legacy hardware and software versions that do not support Multi-Layer (enhanced) header compression. A configuration mismatch may occur if the remote IP-10C unit is configured to Legacy compression mode. In this scenario, both sides of the link will use Legacy compression mode and an alarm will be raised to indicate that there is a configuration mismatch.

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5.1.2.5

Enhanced Header Compression Counters In order to help operators optimize Multi-Layer (Enhanced) header compression, IP-10C provides counters when Enhanced Compression is enabled. These counters include real-time information, such as the number of currently active flows and the number of flows by specific flow type. This information can be used by operators to monitor network usage and capacity, and optimize the Multi-Layer compression settings. By monitoring the effectiveness of the compression settings, the operator can adjust these settings to ensure that the network achieves the highest possible effective throughput.

5.1.2.6

Ethernet Header Compression Comparison The following table summarizes the basic features of IP-10C’s legacy and enhanced Ethernet header compression mechanisms. Ethernet Header Compression Comparison Table No Compression (L1 header suppression only) MAC (L2) Header Compression (Legacy Mode)
Yes

Multi-Layer (L2-4) Header Compression (Enhanced Compression)
Enhanced Compression license required Yes

SW license L1 header suppression (removing IFG and Preamble fields) Compressed headers

Yes

-

L2: MAC SA (6 bytes) MAC DA (6 bytes)

L2: Ethertype (2 bytes) MAC SA (6 bytes) MAC DA (6 bytes) Outer VLAN header (4 bytes) Inner VLAN header (4 bytes) MPLS header (4 bytes) B-MAC header (22 bytes)

L3: IPv4 header (24 bytes) IPv6 header (40 bytes)

L4: UDP header (8 bytes) TCP header (28 bytes)

Number of flows

-

8

256

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5.1.3

Latency
IP-10C provides best-in-class latency (RFC-2544) for all channels, making it LTE (Long-Term Evolution) ready:  <0.21ms for 28/56MHz channels (1518 byte frames)   <0.4 ms for 14MHz channels (1518 byte frames) <0.9 ms for 7MHz channels (1518 byte frames)

5.1.3.1

Benefits of IP-10C’s Top-of-the-Line Low Latency IP-10C’s ability to meet the stringent latency requirements for LTE systems provides the key to expanded broadband wireless services:      Longer radio chains Larger radio rings Shorter recovery times More capacity Easing of Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) limitations

5.1.3.2

Frame Cut-Through Support Frames assigned to high priority queues can pre-empt frames already in transmission over the radio from other queues. Transmission of the preempted frames is resumed after the cut-through with no capacity loss or retransmission required. This feature provides services that are sensitive to delay and delay variation, such as VoIP and Pseudowires, with true transparency to lower priority services. Notes: Frame Cut-Through is not supported in the current software release, but is planned for future release. Contact your Ceragon representative for up-to-date information on availability.

For additional information:
 Ethernet Latency Specifications

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Product Description

5.2

Radio Features
This section includes:
  Adaptive Coding Modulation (ACM) ATPC Override Timer

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5.2.1

Adaptive Coding Modulation (ACM) Related topics:
  ACM with Adaptive Transmit Power Quality of Service (Traffic Manager)

FibeAir IP-10C employs full-range dynamic ACM. IP-10C’s ACM mechanism copes with 90 dB per second fading in order to ensure high transmission quality. IP-10C’s ACM mechanism is designed to work with IP-10C’s QoS mechanism to ensure that high priority voice and data packets are never dropped, thus maintaining even the most stringent service level agreements (SLAs). The hitless and errorless functionality of IP-10C’s ACM has another major advantage in that it ensures that TCP/IP sessions do not time-out. Without ACM, even interruptions as short as 50 milliseconds can lead to timeout of TCP/IP sessions, which are followed by a drastic throughout decrease while these sessions recover. 5.2.1.1 Eight Working Points IP-10C implements ACM with eight available working points, as follows: ACM Working Points (Profiles) Working Point (Profile)
Profile 0 Profile 1 Profile 2 Profile 3 Profile 4 Profile 5 Profile 6 Profile 7

Modulation
QPSK 8 PSK 16 QAM 32 QAM 64 QAM 128 QAM 256 QAM – Strong FEC 256 QAM – Light FEC

Adaptive Coding and Modulation with Eight Working Points

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5.2.1.2

Hitless and Errorless Step-by Step Adjustments ACM works as follows. Assuming a system configured for 128 QAM with ~170 Mbps capacity over a 28 MHz channel, when the receive signal Bit Error Ratio (BER) level reaches a predetermined threshold, the system preemptively switches to 64 QAM and the throughput is stepped down to ~140 Mbps. This is an errorless, virtually instantaneous switch. The system continues to operate at 64 QAM until the fading condition either intensifies or disappears. If the fade intensifies, another switch takes the system down to 32 QAM. If, on the other hand, the weather condition improves, the modulation is switched back to the next higher step (e.g., 128 QAM) and so on, step by step .The switching continues automatically and as quickly as needed, and can reach all the way down to QPSK during extreme conditions. Adaptive Coding and Modulation

5.2.1.3

ACM Radio Scripts An ACM radio script is constructed of a set of profiles. Each profile is defined by a modulation order (QAM) and coding rate, and defines the profile’s capacity (bps). When an ACM script is activated, the system automatically chooses which profile to use according to the channel fading conditions. The ACM TX profile can be different from the ACM RX profile. The ACM TX profile is determined by remote RX MSE performance. The RX end is the one that initiates an ACM profile upgrade or downgrade. When MSE improves above a predefined threshold, RX generates a request to the remote TX to upgrade its profile. If MSE degrades below a predefined threshold, RX generates a request to the remote TX to downgrade its profile. ACM profiles are decreased or increased in an errorless operation, without affecting Ethernet traffic. ACM scripts can be activated in one of two modes:  Fixed Mode. In this mode, the user can select the specific profile from all available profiles in the script. The selected profile is the only profile that will be valid, and the ACM engine will be forced to be OFF. This mode can be chosen without an ACM license.

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Adaptive Mode. In this mode, the ACM engine is running, which means that the radio adapts its profile according to the channel fading conditions. Adaptive mode requires an ACM license.

5.2.1.4

Configurable Maximum and Minimum ACM Profile The user can define both a maximum and a minimum profile. For example, if the user selects a maximum profile of 5, the system will not climb above the profile 5, even if channel fading conditions allow it. If the user selects a minimum profile of 3 (32 QAM), the system will not climb below 32 QAM. If the channel’s SNR degrades below the 32 QAM threshold, the radio will lose carrier synchronization, and will report loss of frame.

5.2.1.5

ACM Benefits The advantages of IP-10C’s dynamic ACM include:  Maximized spectrum usage  Increased capacity over a given bandwidth  Eight modulation/coding work points (~3 db system gain for each point change)  Hitless and errorless modulation/coding changes, based on signal quality  Adaptive Radio Tx Power per modulation for maximal system gain per working point  An integrated QoS mechanism that enables intelligent congestion management to ensure that high priority traffic is not affected during link fading

5.2.1.6

ACM and Built-In QoS IP-10C’s ACM mechanism is designed to work with IP-10C’s QoS mechanism to ensure that high priority voice and data packets are never dropped, thus maintaining even the most stringent SLAs. Since QoS provides priority support for different classes of service, according to a wide range of criteria, you can configure IP-10C to discard only low priority packets as conditions deteriorate. If you want to rely on an external switch’s QoS, ACM can work with them via the flow control mechanism supported in the radio.

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5.2.2

ACM with Adaptive Transmit Power This feature requires:
  ACM script ACM enabled prior to enabling ACM with Adaptive Transmit Power

When planning ACM-based radio links, the radio planner attempts to apply the lowest transmit power that will perform satisfactorily at the highest level of modulation. During fade conditions requiring a modulation drop, most radio systems cannot increase transmit power to compensate for the signal degradation, resulting in a deeper reduction in capacity. IP-10C is capable of adjusting power on the fly, and optimizing the available capacity at every modulation point, as illustrated in the figure below. This figure shows how operators that want to use ACM to benefit from high levels of modulation (e.g., 256 QAM) must settle for low system gain, in this case, 18 dB, for all the other modulations as well. With FibeAir IP-10C, operators can automatically adjust power levels, achieving the extra 4 dB system gain that is required to maintain optimal throughput levels under all conditions. The following figure contrasts the transmit output power achieved by using ACM with Adaptive Power to the transmit output power at a fixed power level, over an 18-23 GHz link. IP-10C ACM with Adaptive Power Contrasted to Other ACM Implementations

For this feature to be used effectively, it is essential for the operator not to breach any regulator-imposed EIRP limitations. For example, if used, the operator must license the system for the maximum possible EIRP.

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The Adaptive Transmit Power feature, together with ACM, can work in one out of two scenarios:  Increase capacity (increase throughput of existing link) – With the option to use Adaptive TX Power.  Increase availability (new link) – Adaptive TX Power is not applicable. The first scenario is for operators that have existing links in a low class (modulation order), and want to use ACM in order to carry additional Ethernet traffic without occupying more spectrum bandwidth. The second scenario is for operators who plan a new link for a specific availability and capacity, but want to take advantage of the ACM capability to achieve lower capacity even in higher fades. In the first scenario the operator must plan the link according to a “low class” channel mask. When radio path conditions allow, the link will increase the modulation. This modulation increase may require lowering the output power (see figure below), in order to decrease the non-linearity of the transmitter for the higher constellations and in order for the transmitted spectrum to stay within the licensed “low class” channel mask. The following figure demonstrates the differences between a “low class” mask (e.g., class 2) and a “high class” mask (e.g., class 5). Channel Mask Comparison

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5.2.3

ATPC Override Timer
ATPC is a closed-loop mechanism by which each radio changes the transmitted signal power according to the indication received across the link, in order to achieve a desired RSL on the other side of the link. Without ATPC, if loss of frame occurs the system automatically increases its transmit power to the configured maximum. This may cause a higher level of interference with other systems until the failure is corrected. In order to minimize this interference, some regulators require a timer mechanism which will be manually overridden when the failure is fixed. The underlying principle is that the system should start a timer from the moment maximum power has been reached. If the timer expires, ATPC is overridden and the system transmits at a pre-determined power level until the user manually re-establishes ATPC and the system works normally again. The user can configure the following parameters:  Override timeout (0 to disable the feature): The amount of time the timer counts from the moment the system transmits at the maximum configured power.  Override transmission power: The power that will be transmitted if ATPC is overridden because of timeout. The user can also display the current countdown value. When the system enters into the override state, ATPC is automatically disabled and the system transmits at the pre-determined override power. An alarm is raised in this situation. The only way to go back to normal operation is to manually cancel the override. When doing so, users should be sure that the problem has been corrected; otherwise, ATPC may be overridden again.

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5.3

Ethernet Features
This section includes:
  Smart Pipe Mode Automatic State Propagation

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5.3.1

Smart Pipe Mode
Using Smart Pipe mode, only a single Ethernet interface is enabled for user traffic and IP-10C acts as a point-to-point Ethernet microwave radio. In Smart Pipe mode, the GbE combo port is used for Ethernet traffic. All traffic entering the IP-10C is sent directly to the radio, and all traffic from the radio is sent directly to the Ethernet interface. In Smart Pipe mode, the non-combo GbE ports can either be configured as management interfaces or they are shut down. 3

3

1+1 Hot Standby (HSB) protection, planned for future release, will utilize one of the non-combo GbE ports on each unit. For information about availability, consult your Ceragon sales representative.

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5.3.2

Automatic State Propagation
Automatic State Propagation ("GigE Tx mute override") enables propagation of radio failures back to the line, to improve the recovery performance of resiliency protocols (such as xSTP). The feature enables the user to configure which criteria will force the GbE port (or ports in case of a remote fault) to be muted or shutdown, in order to allow the network to find alternative paths. Upon radio failure, Eth1 is muted when configured as optical or shut down when configured as electrical. Automatic State Propagation – Port Behavior

User Configuration

Optical (SFP) GbE Port Behavior

Electrical GbE port (10/100/1000) Port Behavior
No shutdown. Shut down the LOCAL port when one or more of the following events occurs: 1. Radio-LOF on the LOCAL unit. 2. Link ID mismatch on the LOCAL unit. Shut down the LOCAL port when ACM Rx profile degrades below a pre-configured profile on the LOCAL unit. This capability is applicable only when ACM is enabled.

Automatic State Propagation No mute is issued. disabled. Local LOF, Link-ID mismatch Mute the LOCAL port when one or more of (always enabled) the following events occurs: 1. Radio-LOF on the LOCAL unit. 2. Link ID mismatch on the LOCAL unit. Ethernet shutdown threshold Mute the LOCAL port when ACM Rx profile profile. degrades below a pre-configured profile on the LOCAL unit

Local Excessive BER

Mute the LOCAL port when an Excessive BER alarm is raised on the LOCAL unit Mute the LOCAL port when a GbE-LOC alarm is raised on the LOCAL unit.

Shut down the LOCAL port when an Excessive BER alarm is raised on the LOCAL unit No shutdown. Note1: Electrical-GbE cannot be muted. Electrical-GbE LOC will not trigger Shutdown, because it will not be possible to enable the port when the LOC alarm is cleared

Local LOC

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User Configuration
Remote Fault

Optical (SFP) GbE Port Behavior
Mute the LOCAL port when one or more of the following events is raised on the REMOTE unit: 1. Radio-LOF (on remote). 2. Link-ID mismatch (on remote). 3. GbE-LOC alarm is raised (on remote). 4. ACM Rx profile crossing threshold (on remote), only if enabled on the LOCAL. 5. ‘Excessive BER’ (on remote), only if enabled on the LOCAL.

Electrical GbE port (10/100/1000) Port Behavior
Shut down the LOCAL port, when one or more of the following events is raised on the REMOTE unit: 1. Radio-LOF (on remote). 2. Link-ID mismatch (on remote). 3. ACM Rx profile crossing threshold (on remote), only if enabled on the LOCAL. 4. ‘Excessive BER’ (on remote), only if enabled on the LOCAL. Note1: Electrical-GbE cannot be muted. Electrical-GbE LOC will not trigger "Shutdown", because it will not be possible to enable the port when LOC alarm is cleared

Notes:

It is recommended to configure both ends of the link to the same Automatic State Propagation configuration. If the link uses In-Band management, when the port is muted or shut down, management distributed through the link might be lost. If this occurs, the unit will not be manageable. The unit will only become manageable again when the port is un-muted or enabled.

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5.4

Quality of Service (Traffic Manager)
This section includes:
     Integrated Quality of Service (QoS) Overview Wireless Link Rate Adaptation when Connecting to an External Switch or Router Standard QoS Enhanced QoS Standard and Enhanced QoS Comparison

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5.4.1

Integrated Quality of Service (QoS) Overview Related topics:
 Standard and Enhanced QoS Comparison IP-10C offers integrated QoS functionality. In addition to its standard QoS functionality, IP-10C offers an enhanced QoS feature. Enhanced QoS is licenseactivated. IP-10C’s standard QoS provides for four queues and six classification criteria. Ingress traffic is limited per port, Class of Service (CoS), and traffic type. Scheduling is performed according to Strict Priority (SP), Weighted Round Robin (WRR), or Hybrid WRR/SP scheduling. IP-10C’s enhanced QoS provides eight classification criteria instead of six, color-awareness, increased frame buffer memory, eight priority queues with configurable buffer length, improved congestion management using WRED protocols, enhanced counters, and other enhanced functionality. The figure below shows the QoS flow of traffic. QoS Traffic Flow

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5.4.2

Wireless Link Rate Adaptation when Connecting to an External Switch or Router
Several wireless link rate adaptation alternatives exist, with different performance parameters for each. Of these alternatives, FibeAir IP-10C’s builtin enhanced QoS capabilities provide the optimal solution.  Traffic shaping to radio link rate on Switch/Router port: Radio link rate must be fixed No ACM support No compression gains

Wireless Link Rate Adaptation – Traffic Shaping to Radio Link Rate on Switch/Router Port

Loss-Less mode – Flow control towards Switch/Router to prevent overflow. Creates very high PDV as all traffic towards the radio link is paused (1 msec in some cases) Not suited for delay/delay-variation sensitive applications Wireless Link Rate Adaptation – Loss-Less Mode

FibeAir IP-10C Smart Pipe – Enhanced QoS capabilities integrated in the microwave equipment Optimized solution Enables differentiated services with strict SLA Maximizes network resource utilization Adapts to dynamic radio link capacity (ACM, header compression gains, etc.)
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Product Description

Wireless Link Rate Adaptation – Smart Pipe with Enhanced QoS

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5.4.3

Standard QoS
QoS enables users to configure classification and scheduling to ensure that packets are forwarded and discarded according to their priority. Since it is common to set QoS and rate limiting settings identically in several ports, the QoS configuration can be copied from one port to another. This saves considerable time and prevents configuration mistakes. The following diagram illustrates the QoS flow:

Ingress Port #x 5 Policers (Ingress Rate Limiting)

Egress Port #y Shaper (Egress rate limiting)

Classifier (4 Queues)

Marker

Queue Controller

Scheduler

5.4.3.1

Standard QoS Classifier Using IP-10C’s standard QoS functionality, the system examines the incoming traffic and assigns the desired priority according to the marking of the packets (based on the user port/L2/L3 marking in the packet). In case of congestion in the ingress port, low priority packets are discarded first. The standard QoS classifier is made up of four classification criteria hierarchies:  MAC DA (Destination Address) Overwrite – Classification and marking is performed for incoming frames carrying a MAC DA that appears in the Static MAC table, according to the following options: Disable – No MAC DA classification or VLAN P-Bit overwrite (marking). Queue Decision – Only classification to queue. No marking. VLAN P-Bit Overwrite – Only VLAN P-Bits overwrite (marking). Classification according to a lower criterion. Queue Decision and VLAN P-Bit Overwrite – Both classification and VLAN P-Bits overwrite.  VLAN ID Overwrite –If the first criteria is not fulfilled (either because it is disabled, or because the ingress frame does not carry any MAC DA that appears in the S MAC table), classification and/or marking (VLAN P-Bit overwrite, assuming the frame egress is tagged) is decided according to the VLAN ID to Queue table according to the following options: Disable – No VLAN ID classification or VLAN P-Bit overwrite (marking). Queue Decision – Only classification to queue. No marking.  VLAN P-Bit Overwrite – Only VLAN P-Bit overwrite (marking). Classification is according to the lower criteria (P-Bits or port priority). In this case, P-Bits are assigned as follows (if egress frame is tagged): Frames classified to 1st queue are given p-bits=0 Frames classified to 2nd queue are given p-bits=2 Frames classified to 3rd queue are given p-bits=4 Frames classified to 4th queue are given p-bits=6

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Queue Decision and VLAN P-Bit Overwrite – Both classification and VLAN P-Bit overwrite. Initial Classification is according to the following configuration: VLAN P-Bit – Classification is according to VLAN P-Bit. And the queue is assigned according to the VLAN P-Bit to Queue table. IP TOS – Classification is according to IP TOS (IP precedence, or IP diffserv). The queue is assigned according to the IP P-Bit to Queue table. VLAN P-Bit over IP TOS – Classification according to VLAN P-Bit, if the ingress frame carries a VLAN. For untagged packets with an IP header, classification is according to IP TOS. IP TOS over VLAN P-Bit – Classification is according to IP TOS, if the ingress frame has an IP header. If the ingress frame without an IP header carries a VLAN, classification is according to VLAN P-Bit. Port (Default) – If any of the above criteria are not fulfilled, the default classification is assigned to the ingress frame according to the port priority. Default Classification. Default priority for frames incoming at the port.

5.4.3.2

Standard QoS Policers IP-10C’s standard QoS provides up to five policers to perform ingress rate limiting. The policers are based on a color blind leaky bucket scheme, and can be applied per port or CoS. For each policer, users can define up to five class maps. Each class map includes the following parameters:  Committed Information Rate (CIR) – IP-10C supports CIR granularity of 64kbps up to 1 Mbps of CIR, 1 Mbps from 1 Mbps to 1 Gbps of CIR. Packets within the CIR defined for the service are marked Green and passed through the QoS module.  Committed Burst Size (CBS) – IP-10C supports CBS up to a maximum of 128 kbytes. The default value is 12 kbytes. Packets within the CBS defined for the service are marked Green and passed through the QoS module.  Committed Information Rate (CIR) – IP-10C supports the following granularity for CIR: 64Kbps <= CIR <= 960Kbps, in steps of 64Kbps. 1000Kbps <= CIR <= 100,000Kbps in steps of 1000Kbps. 100,000Kbps < CIR <= 1,000,000Kbps in steps of 10,000Kbps.  Committed Burst Size (CBS) – IP-10C supports the following granularity for CBS: For 64Kbps <= CIR <= 960Kbps, 0 < CBS <= 273,404 Bytes. For 1000Kbps <= CIR <= 100,000Kbps, 0 < CBS <= 132,585 Bytes. For 100,000Kbps < CIR <= 1,000,000Kbps, 0 < CBS <= 4,192,668 Bytes.

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Data type – The rate can be limited based on the following data types: None (no limiting), Unknown unicast, Unknown multicast, Broadcast, Multicast, Unicast, Management, ARP, TCP-Data, TCP-Control, UDP, Non- UDP, Non-TCP-UDP, Queue1, Queue2, Queue3, Queue4. Management frames are BPDUs processed by the system’s IDC, when processing L2 protocols (e.g., xSTP). Limit Exceed Action Discard Frame. The rate for rate limiting is measured for all Layer 1 bytes, meaning: Preamble (8bytes) + Frame's DA to CRC + IFG (12 Bytes)

Note:

Note:

5.4.3.3

Queue Management, Scheduling, and Shaping IP-10C’s standard QoS has four priority queues. The queue controller distributes frames to the queues according to the classifier. The fourth queue is the highest priority queue, and the first queue is the lowest priority queue. The scheduler determines how frames are output from the queues. IP-10C’s standard QoS supports the following scheduling schemes:  Strict Priority for all queues.  Strict Priority for the fourth queue, and Weighted Round Robin (WRR) for the remaining queues.  Strict Priority for the fourth and third queues, and WRR for second and first queues.  WRR for all queues. In a WRR scheduling scheme, a weight is assigned to each queue, so that frames egress from the queues according to their assigned weight, in order to avoid starvation of lower priority queues. In addition, frames egress in a mixed manner, in order to avoid bursts of frames from the same queue. Each queue’s weight can be configured. A queue's weight is used by the scheduler when the specific queue is part of a WRR scheduling scheme. Queue-Weight can be configured in the range of 1-32. The default queue weights are 8,4,2,1. The shaper determines the scheduler rate (egress rate limit). The shaper can be enabled and disabled by the user. By default, the shaper is disabled. The shaper rate is set with the following granularity: For 64Kbps <= Rate <= 960Kbps, in steps of 64Kbps. For 1000Kbps <= Rate <= 100,000Kbps in steps of 1000Kbps. For 100,000Kbps < Rate <= 1,000,000Kbps in steps of 10,000Kbps.

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5.4.4

Enhanced QoS This feature requires:
 Enhanced QoS license

Related topics:
  Synchronization Using Precision Timing Protocol (PTP) Optimized Transport Licensing

Enhanced QoS provides an enhanced and expanded feature set. The tools provided by enhanced QoS apply to egress traffic on the radio port, which is where bottlenecks generally occur. Enhanced QoS can be enabled and disabled by the user. Enhanced QoS capabilities include:  Enhanced classification criteria        Eight priority queues with configurable buffer length An enhanced scheduler based on Strict Priority, Weighted Fair Queue (WFQ), or a hybrid approach that combines Strict Priority and WFQ Shaper per priority queue WRED support, along with Tail-Drop, for congestion management Configurable P-bit and CFI/DEI re-marker A PTP Optimized Transport dedicated channel for time synchronization protocols Enhanced counters

These and other IP-10C enhanced QoS features enable operators to provide differentiated services with strict SLA while maximizing network resource utilization. Enhanced QoS requires a license, and can be enabled and disabled by the user. The main benefits of enhanced QoS are:  Improved available link capacity utilization: Enhanced and configurable queue buffer size (4 Mb total) WRED for best utilization of the link when TCP/IP sessions are transported, providing up to 25% more capacity.  Enhanced service differentiation: 8 CoS queues (as opposed to 4 queues in standard QoS) Additional classification criteria – MPLS EXP bits and UDP ports Shaping per CoS queue Sync. Optimized transport - best performance for 1588 packets  Monitoring, Assurance and Diagnostics capabilities: Per queue counters – Transmitted and dropped traffic

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The following figure illustrates the basic building blocks and traffic flow of enhanced QoS. IP-10C Enhanced QoS

The initial step in the enhanced QoS traffic flow is the classifier, which provides granular service classification based on a number of user-defined criteria. The classifier marks the Service ID, CoS, and color of the frames. If a frame’s VLAN ID matches a Service ID that is mapped to a policer, the frame is sent to the policer. Untagged frames or frames whose VLAN ID does not match a defined Service ID are sent directly to a queue, based on the frame’s CoS and color. The next step is queue management. Queue management determines which packets enter which of the eight available queues. Queue management also includes congestion management, which can be implemented by Tail-Drop or WRED. Frames are sent out of the queues according to scheduling and shaping, IP10C’s enhanced QoS module provides a unique hierarchical scheduling model that includes four priorities, with WFQ within each priority and shaping per queue. This model enables operators to define flexible and highly granular QoS schemes for any mix of services. Finally, the enhanced QoS module re-marks the P-bits and CFI/DEI bits of the most outer VLAN according to the CoS and color decision in the classifier. This step is also known as the modifier.

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5.4.4.1

Enhanced QoS Classifier The classifier is a basic element of each QoS mechanism. Each frame is assigned a Class of Service (CoS) and color, based on MEF 10.2 recommendations. The user can define several criteria by which frames are classified. Classifier Traffic Flow

Each frame is assigned a CoS and Color

CoS is a 3-bit value from 0-7 that is used for classification to priority queues. Color is a 1-bit value (Green or Yellow) used for policing. Green represents CIR, and Yellow represents EIR. Classification to CoS and Color can be based on the following criteria  First hierarchy – Based on destination MAC address or source/destination UDP ports. The first classification hierarchy is used to identify and give priority to network protocols. Layer2 protocols such as xSTP and Slow protocols can be classified based on their pre-defined destination MAC address. Higher layer protocols such as NTP can be identified based on UDP ports.  Second hierarchy – Based on VLAN ID. The second hierarchy is used to classify frames based on network services. Each service is assigned to a different VLAN. Frames can be also prioritized based on their in-band management VLAN ID. To prevent loss of management to the remote sites, classification by In-Band management must be configured before activating the enhanced QoS feature. Especially at the first activation after upgrade, the In-Band management VLAN ID should be assigned CoS 7 and Green color.

Note:

Third hierarchy – Based on Priority bits. Options are VLAN 802.1p p-bits, IP DSCP/TOS, and/or MPLS experimental bits.

Classification is performed in the order of cardinality listed above. The classifier checks the first hierarchy, the second hierarchy, and the third hierarchy, until a match is found.

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Each frame is assigned a Service ID

Classification to Services is based on VLAN ID. A Service ID is used for policing and for classification to CoS. Each policer is monitored by statistics counters.
Each CoS is mapped to one of the 8 available priority queues

All the classification criteria are divided into three hierarchies according to their cardinality, from the most specific to the most general.
Each queue is assigned a priority

Priorities vary from the highest (fourth) to the lowest (first). The scheduling mechanism treats these priorities as strict. WFQ scheduling is performed between queues of the same priority. For detailed information about scheduling, refer to Scheduling and Shaping on page 64. 5.4.4.2 Queue Management Queue management is the process by which packets are assigned to priority queues. Queue management also includes congestion management. IP-10C provides the tail-drop method of congestion management, and enhanced QoS also offers Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED). Enhanced QoS supports eight queues with configurable buffer size. The user can specify the buffer size of each queue independently. The total amount of memory dedicated to these queue buffers is 4Mb, and the size of each queue can be set to 0.5, 1, 2, or 4Mb. The default buffer size is 0.5Mb for each queue. The following considerations should be taken into account in determining the proper buffer size:  Latency considerations – If low latency is required (users would rather drop frames in the queue than increase latency) small buffer sizes are preferable. Note: The actual, effective buffer size of the queue can be less than 0.5Mb based on the configuration of the WRED tail drop curve.

Throughput immunity to fast bursts – When traffic is characterized by fast bursts, it is recommended to increase the buffer sizes of the priority queues to prevent packet loss. Of course, this comes at the cost of a possible increase in latency.

User can configure burst size as a tradeoff between latency and immunity to bursts, according the application requirements. One of the key features of IP-10C’s enhanced QoS is the use of WRED to manage congestion scenarios. WRED provides several advantages over the standard tail-drop congestion management method. WRED enables differentiation between higher and lower priority traffic based on CoS. Moreover, WRED can increase capacity utilization by eliminating the phenomenon of global synchronization. Global synchronization occurs when TCP flows sharing bottleneck conditions receive loss indications at around the same time. This can result in periods during which link bandwidth utilization drops significantly as a consequence of a simultaneous falling to a ”slow start”

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of all the TCP flows. The following figure demonstrates the behavior of two TCP flows over time without WRED. Synchronized Packet Loss

WRED eliminates the occurrence of traffic congestion peaks by restraining the transmission rate of the TCP flows. Each queue occupancy level is monitored by the WRED mechanism and randomly selected frames are dropped before the queue becomes overcrowded. Each TCP flow recognizes a frame loss and restrains its transmission rate (basically by reducing the window size). Since the frames are dropped randomly, statistically each time another flow has to restrain its transmission rate as a result of frame loss (before the real congestion occurs). In this way, the overall aggregated load on the radio link remains stable while the transmission rate of each individual flow continues to fluctuate similarly. The following figure demonstrates the transmission rate of two TCP flows and the aggregated load over time when WRED is enabled. Random Packet Loss with Increased Capacity Utilization Using WRED

Each one of the eight priority queues can be given a different weight. For each queue, the user defines the WRED profile curve. This curve describes the probability of randomly dropping frames as a function of queue occupancy. Basically, as the queue occupancy grows, the probability of dropping each incoming frame increases as well. As a consequence, statistically more TCP flows will be restrained before traffic congestion occurs.

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The WRED profile curve can be adjusted for each one of the priority queues. Yellow and Green frames can also be assigned different weights. Usually, Green frames (committed rate) are preferred over Yellow frames (excessive rate), as shown in the curve below. WRED Profile Curve

Note:

WRED can also be set to a tail drop curve. A tail drop curve is useful for reducing the effective queue size, such as when low latency must be guaranteed. In order to set the tail drop curve to its maximum level, the drop percentage must be set to zero.

5.4.4.3

Scheduling and Shaping Scheduling and shaping determine how traffic is sent on to the radio from the queues. Scheduling determines the priority among the queues, and shaping determines the traffic profile for each queue. IP-10C’s enhanced QoS module provides a unique hierarchical scheduling model that includes four priorities, with Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ) within each priority, and shaping per port and per queue. This model enables operators to define flexible and highly granular QoS schemes for any mix of services. Shaping The egress shaper is used to shape the traffic profile sent to the radio. In enhanced QoS mode, there is an egress shaper for each priority queue. The user can configure CIR, CBS, and line compensation. Note: The user can configure the shaper to count in L2 by setting line compensation to zero. The user can also “punish” short frame senders for the overhead they cause in the network by increasing the line compensation to a value above 20 bytes.

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Scheduling IP-10C’s enhanced QoS mechanism provides Strict Priority and Weighted Fair Queue (WFQ) for scheduling. Users can configure a combination of both methods to achieve the optimal results for their unique network requirements. Each priority queue has a configurable strict priority from 1 to 4 (4=High;1=Low). WFQ weights are used to partition bandwidth between queues of the same priority. Queue Priority Configuration Example

For each queue, the user configures the following parameters:  Priority (1 to 4) – The priority value is strictly applied. This means the queue with higher priority will egress before a queue with lower priority, regardless of WFQ weights.  WFQ weight (1 to 15) – Defines the ratio between the bandwidth given to queues of the same priority. For example if queue 6 and queue 7 are assigned WFQ weights of 4 and 8, respectively (using the notations of the above figure), then under congestion conditions queue 7 will be allowed to transmit twice as much bandwidth as queue 6. Note: In order to be able to egress frames, each queue must also have enough credits in its shaper.

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Scheduling Examples This section provides several use cases in which Strict Priority and WFQ are combined to produce a desired scheduling configuration. These are simply two examples of the many ways in which IP-10C’s flexible scheduling mechanism can be configured to achieve a combination of Strict Priority scheduling for the highest priority traffic flows and weighted scheduling for other traffic flows that may be less delay sensitive. Example 1 shows a hybrid setup in which the three highest-priority queues are served according to Strict Priority, and the remaining queues are served according to WFQ. In this example, higher-priority queues are served first. Only after the three highest-priority queues are empty is traffic from the remaining five queues served, according to WFQ and their respective weight. Example 1 – Hybrid Scheduling Queue
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Priority
4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1

Weight
16 8 4 2 1

Priority Scheme
Strict Priority – served according to priority (descending)

WFQ - Same priority – served according to weight (16 bytes of Q4, 8 bytes of Q5, 4 bytes of Q6, etc.)

Example 1 – Hybrid Scheduling – Illustration

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Example 2 shows a hierarchical scheme in which the highest priority queue is served first, and other queues are only served after the highest-priority queue is empty, according to their respective priorities and weights. Example 2 – Hierarchical Scheduling Queue
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Priority
4 3 3 2 2 1 1 1

Weight
1 1 2 1 4 2 1

Priority Scheme
Highest priority – served first Same priority, same weight, evenly serving 1 byte of Q2 and 1 byte of Q3 Same priority, different weight, serving 2 bytes of Q4 and 1 byte of Q5 Same priority, different weight, serving 4 bytes of Q6, 2 bytes of Q7 and 1 byte of Q8

Example 1 – Hierarchical Scheduling – Illustration

5.4.4.4

Configurable P-Bit and CFI/DEI Re-Marking When enabled, the re-marker modifies each packet’s 802.1p P-Bit and CFI/DEI bit fields. 802.1p is modified according to the classifier decision. The CFI/DEI (color) field is modified according to the classifier and policer decision. The color is first determined by a classifier and may be later overwritten by a policer. Green color is represented by a CFI/DEI value of 0, and Yellow color is represented by a CFI/DEI value of 1.

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5.4.5

Standard and Enhanced QoS Comparison
The following table summarizes the basic features of IP-10C’s standard and enhanced QoS functionality. IP-10C Standard and Enhanced QoS Features

Feature
License Required Number of CoS Queues Frame Buffer Size

Standard QoS
No 4 1 MBit Source Port VLAN 802.1p MAC DA IPv4 DSCP/TOS IPv6 TC

Enhanced QoS
Yes 8 (radio only) 4 Mbit (on egress port towards radio only), and configurable Additional classification criteria:   UDP Port MPLS EXP bits

CoS Classification Criteria      Scheduling Method Shaping Congestion Management CIR/EIR Support (ColorAwareness) CoS to P-bit Re-Marking PMs and Statistics

Strict Priority, Weighted Round Robin (WRR), or Hybrid Per port Tail-drop CIR only Default mapping only RMON Statistics

Four scheduling priorities with WFQ between queues in the same priority Per queue Tail-drop, and Weighted Random Early Discard (WRED) CIR + EIR (WRED)  Color-aware

Number of bytes accepted and number of packets dropped.

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5.5

Synchronization
This section includes:
    Synchronization Overview IP-10C Synchronization Solution Synchronization Using Precision Timing Protocol (PTP) Optimized Transport SyncE PRC Pipe Regenerator Mode

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5.5.1

Synchronization Overview
Synchronization is an essential part of any mobile backhaul solution and is sometimes required by other applications as well. Two unique synchronization issues must be addressed for mobile networks:  Frequency Lock: Applicable to GSM and UMTS-FDD networks. Limits channel interference between carrier frequency bands. Typical performance target: frequency accuracy of < 50 ppb. Sync is the traditional technique used, with traceability to a PRS master clock carried over PDH/SDH networks, or using GPS.  Phase Lock with Latency Correction: Applicable to CDMA, CDMA-2000, UMTS-TDD, and WiMAX networks. Limits coding time division overlap. Typical performance target: frequency accuracy of < 20 - 50 ppb, phase difference of < 1-3 ms. GPS is the traditional technique used.

5.5.1.1

Precision Timing-Protocol (PTP) PTP synchronization refers to the distribution of frequency, phase, and absolute time information across an asynchronous packet switched network. PTP can use a variety of protocols to achieve timing distribution, including:  IEEE-1588  NTP  RTP Precision Timing Protocol (PTP) Synchronization

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5.5.1.2

Synchronous Ethernet (SyncE) SyncE is standardized in ITU-T G.8261 and refers to a method whereby the clock is delivered on the physical layer. The method is based on SDH/TDM timing, with similar performance, and does not change the basic Ethernet standards. The SyncE technique supports synchronized Ethernet outputs as the timing source to an all-IP BTS/NodeB. This method offers the same synchronization quality provided over E1 interfaces to legacy BTS/NodeB. Synchronous Ethernet (SyncE)

5.5.2

IP-10C Synchronization Solution
Ceragon's synchronization solution ensures maximum flexibility by enabling the operator to select any combination of techniques suitable for the operator’s network and migration strategy.  PTP optimized transport: Supports a variety of protocols, such as IEEE-1588 and NTP Guaranteed ultra-low PDV (<0.035 ms per hop) Unique support for ACM and narrow channels  SyncE “Regenerator” mode PRC grade (G.811) performance for pipe (“regenerator”) applications

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5.5.3

Synchronization Using Precision Timing Protocol (PTP) Optimized Transport This feature requires:
 Enhanced QoS license

Related topics:
 Enhanced QoS IP-10C supports the PTP synchronization protocol (IEEE-1588). IP-10C’s PTP Optimized Transport guarantees ultra-low PDV (<0.035 ms), and provides unique support for ACM and narrow channels. Frame delay variation of <0.035 ms per hop for PTP control frames is supported, even when ACM is enabled, and even when operating with narrow radio channels. The Precision Time Protocol (PTP) optimized transport feature is essential for timing synchronization protocols such as IEEE 1588. The PTP optimized transport channel is a Constant Bit Rate Channel that is dedicated to the Precision Time protocol with a constant latency that is unaffected by ACM profile changes and by congestion conditions that may occur on the payload traffic path. Ceragon's unique PTP Optimized Transport mechanism ensures that PTP control frames (IEEE-1588, NTP, etc.) are transported with maximum reliability and minimum delay variation, to provide the best possible timing accuracy (frequency and phase) meeting the stringent requirement of emerging 4G technologies. PTP control frames are identified using the advanced integrated QoS classifier. Upon enabling this feature, a special low PDV channel is created. This channel has 2 Mb bandwidth and carries all the frames mapped to the eighth Enhanced QoS priority queue. Once enabling the feature, the user must make sure to classify all PTP frames to the eighth queue. In this mode, all frames from the eight queue will bypass the shaper and scheduler and will be sent directly to the dedicated low PDV channel.

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5.5.4

SyncE PRC Pipe Regenerator Mode Related topics:
 Licensing In SyncE PRC pipe regenerator mode, frequency is transported between the GbE interfaces through the radio link. PRC pipe regenerator mode makes use of the fact that the system is acting as a simple link (so no distribution mechanism is necessary) in order to achieve the following:  Improved frequency distribution performance: PRC quality No use of bandwidth for frequency distribution Simplified configuration

For this application IP-10C has a dedicated mechanism which provides PRC grade (G.811) performance.

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6.

FibeAir IP-10C Management
This chapter includes:
           Management Overview Management Communication Channels and Protocols Web-Based Element Management System (Web EMS) Command Line Interface (CLI) In-Band Management Out-of-Band Management System Security Features Ethernet Statistics Configurable RSL Threshold Alarms and Traps Software Update Timer CeraBuild

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6.1

Management Overview
The Ceragon management solution is built on several layers of management:  NEL – Network Element-level CLI  EMS – HTTP web-based EMS  NMS and SML – NetMaster or PolyView platform Each IP-10 Network Element includes an HTTP web-based element manager (CeraWeb) that enables the operator to perform element configuration, RF, Ethernet, and PDH performance monitoring, remote diagnostics, alarm reports, and more. In addition, Ceragon provides an SNMP V1/V2c/V3 northbound interface on the IP-10C. Ceragon’s management suite also includes a number of CeraBuild™ tools, which ease the operator’s task of installing, maintaining, and provisioning Ceragon equipment. Ceragon offers NetMaster and PolyView network management systems (NMS). Both NetMaster and PolyView provide centralized operation and maintenance capability for the complete range of network elements in an IP-10C system. In addition, management, configuration, and maintenance tasks can be performed directly via the IP-10C Command Line Interface (CLI). Integrated IP-10C Management Tools

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6.2

Management Communication Channels and Protocols
Related Topics:
 Secure Communication Channels Network Elements can be accessed locally via serial or Ethernet management interfaces, or remotely through the standard Ethernet LAN. The application layer is indifferent to the access channel used. PolyView can be accessed through its GUI interface application, which may run locally or in a separate platform; it also has an SNMP-based northbound interface to communicate with other management systems. Dedicated Management Ports Port number
161 162 Configurable 25 69 80 443 From 21 port to any remote port (>1023) From Any port (>1023) to any remote port (>1023)

Protocol
SNMP SNMP (traps) SMTP (mail) TFTP HTTP HTTPS

Packet structure
UDP UDP TCP UDP TCP TCP

Details
Sends SNMP Requests to the network elements Sends SNMP traps forwarding (optional) Sends PolyView reports and triggers by email (optional) Uploads/ downloads configuration files (optional) Manages devices Manages devices (optional) Downloads software and configuration files. (FTP Server responds to client's control port) (optional) Downloads software and configuration files. The FTP server sends ACKs (and data) to client's data port. Optional FTP server random port range can be limited according to need (i.e., according to the number of parallel configuration uploads).

FTP Control Port TCP

FTP Data Port

TCP

All remote system management is carried out through standard IP communications. Each NE behaves as a host with a single IP address. The communications protocol used depends on the management channel being accessed.

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As a baseline, these are the protocols in use:    Standard HTTP for web-based management Standard telnet for CLI-based management PolyView uses a number of ports and protocols for different functions: PolyView Server Receiving Data Ports Port number
162 Configurable 4001 Configurable 69 21 TFTP FTP Control Port UDP TCP Downloads software and files (optional) Downloads software and configuration files. (FTP client initiates a connection) (optional) Downloads software and configuration files.(FTP Client initiates data connection to random port specified by server) (optional) FTP Server random port range can be limited according to needed configuration (number of parallel configuration uploads). 9205 Configurable 9207 Configurable Propriety TCP CeraView Proxy (optional) Propriety TCP User Actions Logger server (optional) Propriety TCP

Protocol
SNMP (traps)

Packet structure Details
UDP Receive SNMP traps from network elements CeraMap Server

To any port (>1023) from any FTP Data Port Port (>1023)

TCP

Web Sending Data Ports Port number
80 443

Protocol
HTTP HTTPS

Packet structure Details
TCP TCP Manages device Manages device (optional)

Web Receiving Data Ports Port number
21 Data port

Protocol
FTP FTP

Packet structure Details
TCP TCP Downloads software files (optional) Downloads software files (optional)

Additional Management Ports for IP-10C Port number
23 22

Protocol
telnet SSH

Packet structure Details
TCP TCP Remote CLI access (optional) Secure remote CLI access (optional)

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6.3

Web-Based Element Management System (Web EMS)
The CeraWeb Element Management System (Web EMS) is an HTTP web-based element manager that enables the operator to perform configuration operations and obtain statistical and performance information related to the system, including:  Configuration Management – Enables you to view and define configuration data for the IP-10C system.  Fault Monitoring – Enables you to view active alarms.  Performance Monitoring – Enables you to view and clear performance monitoring values and counters.  Maintenance Association Identifiers – Enables you to define Maintenance Association Identifiers (MAID) for CFR protection.  Diagnostics and Maintenance – Enables you to define and perform loopback tests and software updates.  Security Configuration – Enables you to configure IP-10C security features.  User Management – Enables you to define users and user groups. A Web-Based EMS connection to the IP-10C can be opened using an HTTP Browser (Explorer or Mozilla Firefox). The Web EMS uses a graphical interface. All system configurations and statuses are available via the Web EMS, including all L2-Switch configurations such as port type, VLANs, QoS.

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6.4

Command Line Interface (CLI)
A CLI connection to the IP-10C can be opened via terminal (serial COM, speed: 115200, Data: 8 bits, Stop: 1 bit, Flow-Control: None), or via telnet (SSH is supported as well). The Terminal format should be VT-100 with a screen definition of 80 columns X 24 rows. All parameter configurations can be performed via CLI.

6.4.1

Text CLI Configuration Scripts
CLI configuration text scripts, written in Ceragon CLI format, can be downloaded into the IP-10C. It is not possible to upload the IP-10C’s configuration into a text file. CLI scripts can only be downloaded and handled via CLI. CLI scripts cannot be downloaded via the Web EMS. The user can perform the following operations on CLI scripts:  Set the file name of the script:  Download CLI script file to the IP-10C  Download the CLI script file:  Get the status of the downloaded script.  Show the last downloaded CLI script content.  Execute (activate) a CLI script.  Delete the current script which resides inside the IP-10C.

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6.5

In-Band Management
FibeAir IP-10C can optionally be managed In-Band, via its radio and Ethernet interfaces. This method of management eliminates the need for a dedicated interface and network. In-band management uses a dedicated management VLAN, which is user-configurable. With In-Band management, the remote IP-10C is managed by specific frames that are sent as part of the traffic. These frames are identified as management frames by a special VLAN ID configured by the user. This VLAN ID must be used only for management. It is not possible to configure more than a single VLAN ID for management. Note: It is strongly recommended to classify the management VLAN ID to the highest queue, in order to ensure the ability to manage remote units even under congestion scenarios.

The local unit is the gateway for In-Band management. The remote unit is managed via its traffic ports (the radio port, for example), so that no management ports are needed.

6.5.1

In-Band Management Isolation
This feature is designed for operators that provide Ethernet leased lines to third party users. The third party user connects its equipment to the Ethernet interface of the IP-10C, while all the other network interfaces, particularly the radios, are managed by the “carrier of carriers” user. In that case, management frames that are sent throughout the network to manage the “carrier of carrier” equipment must not egress the line interfaces that are used by the third party customer, since these frames will, in effect, spam the third party user network. The following figure describes the management blocking scenario. In-Band Management Isolation

3rd Party User Network

Carrier of carriers network (Provider Network) IP-10
Mng Frames Mng Frames

IP-10

3rd Party User Network

Block provider’s management Frames

Block provider’s management Frames

Provider Network Management Center

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6.6

Out-of-Band Management
With Out-of-Band management, the remote system is managed using an Ethernet management channel provided by a third party equipment. Eth2 and Eth3 can be used to chain management from one shelf to another. Management frames that ingress from the management ports must not be VLAN tagged. Tagged frames will be discarded.

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6.7

System Security Features
To guarantee proper performance and availability of a network as well as the data integrity of the traffic, it is imperative to protect it from all potential threats, both internal (misuse by operators and administrators) and external (attacks originating outside the network). System security is based on making attacks difficult (in the sense that the effort required to carry them out is not worth the possible gain) by putting technical and operational barriers in every layer along the way, from the access outside the network, through the authentication process, up to every data link in the network.

6.7.1

Ceragon’s Layered Security Concept
Each layer protects against one or more threats. However, it is the combination of them that provides adequate protection to the network. In most cases, no single layer protection provides a complete solution to threats. The layered security concept is presented in the following figure. Each layer presents the security features and the threats addressed by it. Unless stated otherwise, requirements refer to both network elements and the NMS. Security Solution Architecture Concept

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6.7.2

Defenses in Management Communication Channels
Since network equipment can be managed from any location, it is necessary to protect the communication channels’ contents end to end. These defenses are based on existing and proven cryptographic techniques and libraries, thus providing standard secure means to manage the network, with minimal impact on usability. They provide defense at any point (including public networks and radio aggregation networks) of communications. While these features are implemented in Ceragon equipment, it is the responsibility of the operator to have the proper capabilities in any external devices used to manage the network. In addition, inside Ceragon networking equipment it is possible to control physical channels used for management. This can greatly help deal with all sorts of DoS attacks. Operators can use secure channels instead or in addition to the existing management channels:  SNMPv3 for all SNMP-based protocols for both NEs and NMS  HTTPS for access to the NE’s web server  SSH-2 for all CLI access SFTP for all software and configuration download between NMS and NEs All protocols run with secure settings using strong encryption techniques. Unencrypted modes are not allowed, and algorithms used must meet modern and client standards. Users are allowed to disable all insecure channels. In the network elements, the bandwidth of physical channels transporting management communications is limited to the appropriate magnitude, in particular, channels carrying management frames to the CPU. Attack types addressed       Tempering with management flows Management traffic analysis Unauthorized software installation Attacks on protocols (by providing secrecy and integrity to messages) Traffic interfaces eavesdropping (by making it harder to change configuration) DoS through flooding

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6.7.3
6.7.3.1

Defenses in User and System Authentication Procedures
User Identification IP-10C supports the following user identification features:   Configurable inactivity time-out for closing management channels Password strength is enforced; passwords must comply with the following rules: Be at least 8 characters long Include both numbers and letters (or spaces, symbols, etc.) Include both uppercase and lowercase letters When calculating the number of character classes, upper-case letters used as the first character and digits used as the last character of a password are not counted A password cannot be repeated within the past 5 password changes Password aging: users can be prompted do change passwords after a configurable amount of time Users may be suspended after a configurable number of unsuccessful login attempts Users can be configured to expire at a certain date Mandatory change of password at first time login can be enabled and disabled upon user configuration. It is enabled by default.

   

6.7.3.2

Remote Authentication Certificate-based strong standard encryption techniques are used for remote authentication. Users may choose to use this feature or not for all secure communication channels. Since different operators may have different certificate-based authentication policies (for example, issuing its own certificates vs. using an external CA or allowing the NMS system to be a CA), NEs and NMS software provide the tools required for operators to enforce their policy and create certificates according to their established processes. Server authentication capabilities are provided.

6.7.3.3

Authorization Users are assigned to user groups. Each group has separate and well-defined authorization to access resources. Security configuration can only be performed by the group with the highest permission level. In the NMS, it is possible to customize groups and group permissions.

6.7.3.4

Centralized Management RADIUS protocol is supported in the NMS (RADIUS client). RADIUS server is the responsibility of the operator. The use of RADIUS is optional.

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6.7.3.5

Attack Types Addressed    Impersonation Unauthorized software installation Traffic interfaces eavesdropping

6.7.4

Secure Communication Channels
IP-10C supports a variety of standard encryption protocols and algorithms, as described in the following sections.

6.7.4.1

SSH (Secured Shell)    SHHv1 and SSHv2 are supported. SSH protocol can be used as a secured alternative to Telnet. SSH protocol will always be operational. Admin users can choose whether to disable Telnet protocol, which is enabled by default. Server authentication is based on IP-10C’s public key. Key exchange algorithm is RSA. Supported Encryptions: aes128-cbc, 3des-cbc, blowfish-cbc, cast128-cbc, arcfour128, arcfour256, arcfour, aes192-cbc, aes256-cbc, aes128-ctr, aes192-ctr, aes256-ctr. MAC (Message Authentication Code): SHA-1-96 (MAC length = 96 bits, key length = 160 bit). Supported MAC: hmac-md5, hmac-sha1, hmacripemd160, hmac-sha1-96, hmac-md5-96' The server authenticates the user based on user name and password. The number of failed authentication attempts is not limited. The server timeout for authentication is 10 minutes. This value cannot be changed.

 

 

6.7.4.2

HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) Administrators can configure secure access via HTTPS protocol.

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6.7.4.3

SFTP (Secure FTP) SFTP can be used for the following operations:      Configuration upload and download, Uploading unit information Uploading a public key Downloading certificate files Downloading software

Users with admin privileges can enforce secure FTP by disabling standard FTP. 6.7.4.4 Creation of Certificate Signing Request (CSR) File In order to create a digital certificate for the NE, a Certificate Signing Request (CSR) file should be created by the NE. The CSR contains information that will be included in the NE's certificate such as the organization name, common name (domain name), locality, and country. It also contains the public key that will be included in the certificate. Certificate authority (CA) will use the CSR to create the desired certificate for the NE. While creating the CSR file, the user will be asked to input the following parameters that should be known to the operator who applies the command:  Common name – The identify name of the element in the network (e.g., the IP address). The common name can be a network IP or the FQDN of the element.  Organization – The legal name of the organization.  Organizational Unit - The division of the organization handling the certificate.  City/Locality - The city where the organization is located.  State/County/Region - The state/region where the organization is located.  Country - The two-letter ISO code for the country where the organization is location.  Email address - An email address used to contact the organization. 6.7.4.5 SNMP IP-10C supports SNMP v1, V2c or v3. The default community string in NMS and the SNMP agent in the embedded SW are disabled. Users are allowed to set community strings for access to IDUs. SNMPv3 connections are authenticated with a single user ID and password. Admin users can configure this user ID and password. IP-10C supports the following MIBs:    RFC-1213 (MIB II) RMON MIB Ceragon (proprietary) MIB.

For additional information:
 FibeAir IP-10C C6.9 MIB Reference, DOC- 00015446

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6.7.4.6

Server authentication (SSL / SLLv3)   All protocols making use of SSL (such as HTTPS) use SLLv3 and support X.509 certificates-based server authentication. Users with type of “administrator” or above can perform the following server authentication operations for certificates handling: Generate server key pairs (private + public) Export public key (as a file to a user-specified address) Install third-party certificates The Admin user is responsible for obtaining a valid certificate. Load a server RSA key pair that was generated externally for use by protocols making use of SSL. Non-SSL protocols using asymmetric encryption, such as SSH and SFTP, can make use of public-key based authentication. Users can load trusted public keys for this purpose.

6.7.4.7

Encryption  Encryption algorithms for secure management protocols include: Symmetric key algorithms: 128-bit AES Asymmetric key algorithms: 1024-bit RSA

6.7.4.8

SSH  The CLI interface supports SSH-2 Users of type of “administrator” or above can enable or disable SSH.

6.7.5

Security Log
The security log is an internal system file which records all changes performed to any security feature, as well as all security related events. Note: The Security log can only be accessed via the CLI. The security log file has the following attributes:  The file is of a “cyclic” nature (fixed size, newest events overwrite oldest).  The log can only be read by users with "admin" or above privilege.  The log can be viewed using the following command: /management/mng-services/log-srv/security log/view-security log  The contents of the log file are cryptographically protected and digitally signed. In the event of an attempt to modify the file, an alarm will be raised.  Users may not overwrite, delete, or modify the log file. The security log records:  Changes in security configuration Carrying out “security configuration copy to mate” Management channels time-out Password aging time Number of unsuccessful login attempts for user suspension

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          

Warning banner change Adding/deleting of users Password changed SNMP enable/disable SNMP version used (v1/v3) change SNMPv3 parameters change Security mode Authentication algorithm User Password SNMPv1 parameters change Read community Write community Trap community for any manager HTTP/HTTPS change FTP/SFTP change Telnet and web interface enable/disable FTP enable/disable Loading certificates RADIUS server Radius enable/disable Remote logging enable/disable (for security and configuration logs) Syslog server address change (for security and configuration logs) System clock change NTP enable/disable Security events Successful and unsuccessful login attempts N consecutive unsuccessful login attempts (blocking) Configuration change failure due to insufficient permissions SNMPv3/PV authentication failures User logout User account expired User ID Communication channel (WEB, terminal, telnet/SSH, SNMP, NMS, etc.) IP address, if applicable Date and time

For each recorded event the following information is available:

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6.8

Ethernet Statistics
The FibeAir IP-10C platform stores and displays statistics in accordance with RMON and RMON2 standards. The following groups of statistics can be displayed:  Ingress line receive statistics  Ingress radio transmit statistics  Egress radio receive statistics  Egress line transmit statistics Notes:  Statistic parameters are polled each second, from system startup.  All counters can be cleared simultaneously.  The following statistics are displayed every 15 minutes in the Radio performance monitoring windows): Utilization - four utilizations: ingress line receive, ingress radio transmit, egress radio receive, and egress line transmit Packet error rate - ingress line receive, egress radio receive Seconds with errors - ingress line receive

6.8.1

Ingress Line Receive Statistics
                Sum of frames received without error Sum of octets of all valid received frames Number of frames received with a CRC error Number of frames received with alignment errors Number of valid received unicast frames Number of valid received multicast frames Number of valid received broadcast frames Number of packets received with less than 64 octets Number of packets received with more than 12000 octets (programmable) Frames (good and bad) of 64 octets Frames (good and bad) of 65 to 127 octets Frames (good and bad) of 128 to 256 octets Frames (good and bad) of 256 to 511 octets Frames (good and bad) of 512 to 1023 octets Frames (good and bad) of 1024 to 1518 octets Frames (good and bad) of 1519 to 12000 octets

6.8.2

Ingress Radio Transmit Statistics
   Sum of frames transmitted to radio Sum of octets transmitted to radio Number of frames dropped

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6.8.3

Egress Radio Receive Statistics
   Sum of valid frames received by radio Sum of octets of all valid received frames Sum of all frames received with errors

6.8.4

Egress Line Transmit Statistics
  Sum of valid frames transmitted to line Sum of octets transmitted

6.8.5

Radio Ethernet Capacity
   Peak Capacity Average Capacity Exceed Capacity threshold seconds

6.8.6

Radio Ethernet Utilization
These statistics represent actual Ethernet throughput, relative to the potential Ethernet throughput of the radio.  Peak Utilization  Average Utilization  Exceed Utilization threshold seconds

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6.9

Configurable RSL Threshold Alarms and Traps
Users can configure alarm and trap generation in the event of RSL degradation beneath a user-defined threshold. An alarm and trap are generated if the RSL remains below the defined threshold for at least five seconds. The alarm is automatically cleared if the RSL subsequently remains above the threshold for at least five seconds. The RSL threshold is based on the nominal RSL value minus the RSL degradation margin. The user defines both the nominal RSL value and the RSL degradation margin.

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6.10

Software Update Timer
Users can configure a timer for installation of a software update.

6.11

CeraBuild
CeraBuild is an application that enables installation and maintenance personnel to initiate and produce commissioning reports to ensure that an IP10C system was set up properly and that all components are in order for operation. CeraBuild includes the following tools:  Site Commission Tool  Link Commission Tool  PM Commission Tool  Diagnostics Tool

For additional information:
 FibeAir CeraBuild Commission Reports Guide, DOC-00028133

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7.

Standards and Certifications
This chapter includes:
    Carrier Ethernet Functionality Supported Ethernet Standards Standards Compliance Network Management, Diagnostics, Status, and Alarms

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7.1

Carrier Ethernet Functionality
"Jumbo" Frame Support General Up to 9600 Bytes Enhanced link state propagation Enhanced MAC header compression Advanced CoS classification and remarking Per interface CoS based packet queuing/buffering (8 queues) QoS Per queue statistics Tail-drop and WRED with CIR/EIR support Flexible scheduling schemes (SP/WFQ/Hierarchical) Per interface and per queue traffic shaping Per port Ethernet counters (RMON/RMON2) Performance Monitoring Radio ACM statistics Enhanced radio Ethernet statistics (Frame Error Rate, Throughput, Capacity, Utilization)

7.2

Supported Ethernet Standards
Supported Ethernet Standards Standard
802.3 802.3u 802.3ab 802.3z 802.3ac 802.1Q 802.1p 802.1ad 802.3x 802.3ad Auto MDI/MDIX for 1000baseT RFC 1349 RFC 2474 RFC 2460 IPv4 TOS IPv4 DSCP IPv6 Traffic Classes

Description
10base-T 100base-T 1000base-T 1000base-X Ethernet VLANs Virtual LAN (VLAN) Class of service Provider bridges (QinQ) Flow control Link aggregation

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7.3

Standards Compliance
Specification
EMC Safety Ingress Protection Operation Storage Transportation

Standard
EN 301 489-4 IEC 60950 IEC 60529 IP56 ETSI 300 019-1-4 Class 4.1 ETSI 300 019-1-1 ETSI 300 019-1-2

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7.4

Network Management, Diagnostics, Status, and Alarms
Network Management System NMS Interface protocol Element Management Management Channels & Protocols Ceragon PolyView NMS SNMPv1/v2c/v3 XML over HTTP/HTTPS toward PolyView Web based EMS, CLI HTTP/HTTPS Telnet/SSH-2 FTP/SFTP

Authentication, Authorization & User access control Accounting X-509 Certificate Management Interface Local Configuration and Monitoring In-Band Management TMN RSL Indication Performance Monitoring Dedicated Ethernet interfaces (up to 3) or in-band RJ-45 port Support dedicated VLAN for management Ceragon NMS functions are in accordance with ITU-T recommendations for TMN Accurate power reading (dBm) available at IP-10C , and NMS Integral with onboard memory per ITU-T G.826/G.828
4

4

Note that the voltage at the BNC port is not accurate and should be used only as an aid.

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8.

Specifications
This chapter includes:
                 General Specifications Installation Requirements Antenna Connection Frequency Accuracy Transmit Power Specifications Receiver Threshold Specifications IP-10C Frequency Bands Mediation Device Losses Radio Capacity Specifications Ethernet Latency Specifications Interface Specifications Mechanical Specifications Power Input Specifications Power Consumption Specifications Environmental Specifications Outdoor Ethernet Cable Specifications Outdoor DC Cable Specifications

Related Topics:
 Standards and Certifications All specifications are subject to change without prior notification. Note:

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8.1
8.1.1
Specification
Standards

General Specifications
6-15 GHz
6L,6H GHz
ETSI

7,8 GHz
ETSI

10 GHz
ETSI 10.0-10.7 91, 168,350, 550

11 GHz
ETSI 10.7-11.7 490, 520, 530

13 GHz
ETSI

15 GHz
ETSI

Operating Frequency Range 5.85-6.45, 6.47.1-7.9, 7.7-8.5 (GHz) 7.1 Tx/Rx Spacing (MHz) Frequency Stability Frequency Source RF Channel Selection System Configurations Tx Range (Manual/ATPC) 252.04, 240, 266, 300, 340, 160, 170, 500 +0.001% Synthesizer Via EMS/NMS 154, 119, 161, 168, 182, 196, 208, 245, 250, 266, 300,310, 311.32, 500, 530

12.75-13.3 14.4-15.35 315, 420, 475, 644, 490, 728

266

1+0, 2 x 1+0 East/West, 2 +0 Single Polarization Up to 20dB dynamic range

8.1.2
Specification
Standards

18-42 GHz
18 GHz
ETSI 17.7-19.7

23 GHz
ETSI 21.2-23.65

24UL GHz 26 GHz
ETSI 24.0-24.25 ETSI 24.2-26.5 800, 1008

28 GHz
ETSI 27.35-29.5

32 GHz 38 GHz
ETSI ETSI

425 GHz
ETSI 40.55-43.45

Operating Frequency Range (GHz) Tx/Rx Spacing (MHz) Frequency Stability Frequency Source RF Channel Selection System Configurations Tx Range (Manual/ATPC)

31.8-33.4 37-40

1010, 1120, 1008, 1200, Customer1008, 1560 1232 defined +0.001% Synthesizer Via EMS/NMS

350, 450, 490, 812 1008

1000, 1500 1260, 700

1+0, 2 x 1+0 East/West, 2 +0 Single Polarization Up to 20dB dynamic range

5

42GHz support is a roadmap item; parameters and availability are subject to change.

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8.2

Installation Requirements
   The IP-10C shall be installed in accordance with the national code and requirements of the country in which the IP-10C is being installed. The IP-10C is intended for installation in a Restricted Access Area. The IP-10C shall be installed within 140 feet (42.67 meters) from the building. Otherwise, Ethernet and other SELV connections will turn to TNV. A 2-Pole circuit breaker, a branch circuit protector, suitably certified in accordance with applicable national code and regulations, rated maximum 20A, shall be installed for full power disconnection in a building installation. The unit’s earthing screw terminal shall be permanently connected to protective earth in a building installation in accordance with applicable national code and regulations by a service person. Any outdoor antenna cable shield shall be permanently connected to protective earth in a building installation.

In Norway and Sweden:

!

Equipment connected to the protective earthing of the building installation through the mains connection or through other equipment with a connection to protective earthing – and to a cable distribution system using coaxial cable, may in some circumstances create a fire hazard. Connection to a cable distribution system has therefore to be provided through a device providing electrical isolation below a certain frequency range (galvanic isolator, see EN 60728-11). Utstyr som er koplet til beskyttelsesjord via nettplugg og/eller via annet jordtilkoplet utstyr – og er tilkoplet et kabel-TV nett, kan forårsake brannfare. For å unngå dette skal det ved tilkopling av utstyret til kabel-TV nettet installeres en galvanisk isolator mellom utstyret og kabel- TV nettet.” Translation to Swedish: ”Utrustning som är kopplad till skyddsjord via jordat vägguttag och/eller via annan utrustning och samtidigt är kopplad till kabelTV nät kan i vissa fall medfőra risk főr brand. Főr att undvika detta skall vid anslutning av utrustningen till kabel-TV nät galvanisk isolator finnas mellan utrustningen och kabel-TV nätet.

8.2.1

DC Cable Specifications
DC Cable Gage (AWG)
Cable length ≤ 75m 75< Cable length ≤100m 100m ≤ Cable length ≤ 300m 18 16 12

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8.3

Antenna Connection
Direct Mount: Andrew (VHLP), RFS, Xian Putian (WTG), Radio Wave, GD, Shenglu Remote Mount: Frequency (GHz) Waveguide Standard
6 7/8 10/11 13 15 18-26 28-38 42
6

Waveguide Flange
PDR70 PBR84 PBR100 PBR120 PBR140 PBR220 PBR320 UG383/U

Antenna Flange
UDR70 UBR84 UBR100 UBR120 UBR140 UBR220 UBR320 UG383/U

WR137 WR112 WR90 WR75 WR62 WR42 WR28 WR22

If a different antenna type (CPR flange) is used, a flange adaptor is required. Please contact your Ceragon representative for details.

8.4

Frequency Accuracy
IP-10C provides frequency accuracy of ±4 ppm7.

6 7

42GHz support is a roadmap item; parameters and availability are subject to change. Over temperature.

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8.5

Transmit Power Specifications
6-8 GHz
26 26 25 24 24 24 22

Modulation
QPSK 8 PSK 16 QAM 32 QAM 64 QAM 128 QAM 256 QAM

10-15 GHz 18-23 GHz 24GHz UL* 26 GHz
24 24 23 22 22 22 20 22 22 21 20 20 20 18 -17 -18 -19 -19 -19 -19 -21 21 21 20 19 19 19 17

28 GHz
14 14 14 14 14 14 12

32, 38 GHz 428 GHz
18 18 17 16 16 16 14 16 16 15 14 14 14 12

*For 1ft ant or lower

8

42GHz support is a roadmap item; parameters and availability are subject to change.

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8.6
Profile Modulation

Receiver Threshold Specifications
Note: RSL values are typical. Channel Occupied Frequency (GHz) Spacing Bandwidth 99% 6-15 18 23 24 26 28 31 32, 38 429
-89.5 -87.0 -84.0 -81.0 -80.0 -77.5 -74.0 -73.0 -88.5 -85.5 -81.0 -79.0 -78.0 -75.0 -72.0 -68.5

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

QPSK 8 PSK 16 QAM 32 QAM 64 QAM 128 QAM 256 QAM (Strong FEC) 256 QAM (Light FEC) QPSK 8 PSK 16 QAM 32 QAM 64 QAM 128 QAM 256 QAM (Strong FEC) 256 QAM (Light FEC) 14 MHz 12.5 MHz 7 MHz 6.5 MHz

-91.5 -91.0 -88.4 -87.9 -86.4 -85.9 -83.8 -83.3 -82.3 -81.8 -80.0 -79.5 -76.8 -76.3 -73.3 -72.8 -90.3 -89.8 -86.5 -86.0 -83.1 -82.6 -81.5 -81.0 -80.1 -79.6 -77.1 -76.6 -74.1 -73.6 -71.8 -71.3

-89.5 -86.5 -89.0 -89.0 -88.0 -89.5 -86.4 -83.4 -85.9 -85.9 -84.9 -86.4 -84.4 -81.4 -83.9 -83.9 -82.9 -84.4 -81.8 -78.8 -81.3 -81.3 -80.3 -81.8 -80.3 -77.3 -79.8 -79.8 -78.8 -80.3 -78.0 -75.0 -77.5 -77.5 -76.5 -78.0 -74.8 -71.8 -74.3 -74.3 -73.3 -74.8 -71.3 -68.3 -70.8 -70.8 -69.8 -71.3 -88.3 -85.3 -87.8 -87.8 -86.8 -88.3 -84.5 -81.5 -84.0 -84.0 -83.0 -84.5 -81.1 -78.1 -80.6 -80.6 -79.6 -81.1 -79.5 -76.5 -79.0 -79.0 -78.0 -79.5 -78.1 -75.1 -77.6 -77.6 -76.6 -78.1 -75.1 -72.1 -74.6 -74.6 -73.6 -75.1 -72.1 -69.1 -71.6 -71.6 -70.6 -72.1 -69.8 -66.8 -69.3 -69.3 -68.3 -69.8

9

42GHz RFU-C is a roadmap item; parameters and availability are subject to change.

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Receiver Threshold (Continued)
Channel Occupied Frequency (GHz) Spacing Bandwidth 99% 6-10 11-15
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 QPSK 8 PSK 16 QAM 32 QAM 64 QAM 128 QAM 256 QAM (Strong FEC) 256 QAM (Light FEC) QPSK 8 PSK 16 QAM 32 QAM 64 QAM 128 QAM 256 QAM (Strong FEC) 256 QAM (Light FEC) QPSK 8 PSK 16 QAM 32 QAM 64 QAM 128 QAM 256 QAM (Strong FEC) 256 QAM (Light FEC) 56 MHz 52 MHz 40 MHz 36.5 MHz 28 MHz 26 MHz -89.5 -90.0 -85.5 -86.0 -83.0 -83.5 -78.5 -79.0 -76.5 -77.0 -72.0 -72.5 -71.5 -72.0 -68.5 -69.0 -87.0 -87.5 -81.5 -82.0 -79.0 -79.5 -75.5 -76.0 -72.0 -72.5 -71.0 -71.5 -68.5 -69.0 -66.0 -66.5 -86.5 -87.0 -81.5 -82.0 -80.5 -81.0 -76.0 -76.5 -74.0 -74.5 -71.0 -71.5 -68.5 -69.0 -65.5 -66.0

Profile Modulation

18

23

24

26

28

32, 38 4210
-87.5 -83.5 -81.0 -76.5 -74.5 -70.0 -69.5 -66.5 -85.0 -79.5 -77.0 -73.5 -70.0 -69.0 -66.5 -64.0 -84.5 -79.5 -78.5 -74.0 -72.0 -69.0 -66.5 -63.5

-89.0 -88.5 -85.5 -87.5 -85.5 -86.5 -85.0 -84.5 -81.5 -83.5 -81.5 -82.5 -82.5 -82.0 -79.0 -81.0 -79.0 -80.0 -78.0 -77.5 -74.5 -76.5 -74.5 -75.5 -76.0 -75.5 -72.5 -74.5 -72.5 -73.5 -71.5 -71.0 -68.0 -70.0 -68.0 -69.0 -71.0 -70.5 -67.5 -69.5 -67.5 -68.5 -68.0 -67.5 -64.5 -66.5 -64.5 -65.5 -86.5 -86.0 -83.0 -85.0 -83.0 -84.0 -81.0 -80.5 -77.5 -79.5 -77.5 -78.5 -78.5 -78.0 -75.0 -77.0 -75.0 -76.0 -75.0 -74.5 -71.5 -73.5 -71.5 -72.5 -71.5 -71.0 -68.0 -70.0 -68.0 -69.0 -70.5 -70.0 -67.0 -69.0 -67.0 -68.0 -68.0 -67.5 -64.5 -66.5 -64.5 -65.5 -65.5 -65.0 -62.0 -64.0 -62.0 -63.0 -86.0 -85.5 -82.5 -84.5 -82.5 -83.5 -81.0 -80.5 -77.5 -79.5 -77.5 -78.5 -80.0 -79.5 -76.5 -78.5 -76.5 -77.5 -75.5 -75.0 -72.0 -74.0 -72.0 -73.0 -73.5 -73.0 -70.0 -72.0 -70.0 -71.0 -70.5 -70.0 -67.0 -69.0 -67.0 -68.0 -68.0 -67.5 -64.5 -66.5 -64.5 -65.5 -65.0 -64.5 -61.5 -63.5 -61.5 -62.5

10

42GHz support is a roadmap item; parameters and availability are subject to change.

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Page 103 of 131

FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

8.7

IP-10C Frequency Bands
Frequency Band TX Range
6332.5-6393 5972-6093 6191.5-6306.5 5925.5-6040.5 6303.5-6418.5 6037.5-6152.5 6245-6290.5 5939.5-6030.5 6365-6410.5 6059.5-6150.5 6226.89-6286.865 6L GHz 5914.875-6034.825 6345.49-6405.465 6033.475-6153.425 6181.74-6301.69 5929.7-6049.65 6241.04-6360.99 5989-6108.95 6300.34-6420.29 6048.3-6168.25 6235-6290.5 5939.5-6050.5 6355-6410.5 6059.5-6170.5 6924.5-7075.5 6424.5-6575.5 7032.5-7091.5 6H GHz 6692.5-6751.5 6764.5-6915.5 6424.5-6575.5 6924.5-7075.5 6584.5-6735.5

RX Range
5972-6093 6332.5-6393 5925.5-6040.5 6191.5-6306.5 6037.5-6152.5 6303.5-6418.5 5939.5-6030.5 6245-6290.5 6059.5-6150.5 6365-6410.5 5914.875-6034.825 6226.89-6286.865 6033.475-6153.425 6345.49-6405.465 5929.7-6049.65 6181.74-6301.69 5989-6108.95 6241.04-6360.99 6048.3-6168.25 6300.34-6420.29 5939.5-6050.5 6235-6290.5 6059.5-6170.5 6355-6410.5 6424.5-6575.5 6924.5-7075.5 6692.5-6751.5 7032.5-7091.5 6424.5-6575.5 6764.5-6915.5 6584.5-6735.5 6924.5-7075.5

Tx/Rx Spacing
300A

266A

260A

252B

252A

240A

500

340C

340B

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Page 104 of 131

FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

Frequency Band

TX Range
6781-6939 6441-6599 6941-7099 6601-6759 6707.5-6772.5 6537.5-6612.5 6767.5-6832.5 6607.5-6672.5 6827.5-6872.5 6667.5-6712.5 7783.5-7898.5 7538.5-7653.5 7301.5-7388.5 7105.5-7192.5 7357.5-7444.5 7161.5-7248.5 7440.5-7499.5 7678.5-7737.5 7496.5-7555.5 7580.5-7639.5 7412.5-7471.5

RX Range
6441-6599 6781-6939 6601-6759 6941-7099 6537.5-6612.5 6707.5-6772.5 6607.5-6672.5 6767.5-6832.5 6667.5-6712.5 6827.5-6872.5 7538.5-7653.5 7783.5-7898.5 7105.5-7192.5 7301.5-7388.5 7161.5-7248.5 7357.5-7444.5 7622.5-7681.5 7496.5-7555.5 7678.5-7737.5 7412.5-7471.5 7580.5-7639.5 7440.5-7499.5 7608.5-7667.5 7496.5-7555.5 7664.5-7723.5 7441.5-7500.5 7609.5-7668.5 7469.5-7528.5 7637.5-7696.5 7525.5-7584.5 7693.5-7752.5 7105.5-7164.5 7273.5-7332.5

Tx/Rx Spacing

340A

160A

196A

7 GHz

7608.5-7667.5 7440.5-7499.5 7664.5-7723.5 7496.5-7555.5 7609.5-7668.5 7441.5-7500.5 7637.5-7696.5 7469.5-7528.5 7693.5-7752.5 7525.5-7584.5 7273.5-7332.5 7105.5-7164.5

168C

168B

168A

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Page 105 of 131

FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

Frequency Band

TX Range
7301.5-7360.5 7133.5-7192.5 7357.5-7416.5 7189.5-7248.5 7280.5-7339.5 7119.5-7178.5 7308.5-7367.5 7147.5-7206.5 7336.5-7395.5 7175.5-7234.5 7364.5-7423.5 7203.5-7262.5 7597.5-7622.5 7436.5-7461.5 7681.5-7706.5 7520.5-7545.5 7587.5-7646.5 7426.5-7485.5 7615.5-7674.5 7454.5-7513.5 7643.5-7702.5 7482.5-7541.5 7671.5-7730.5 7510.5-7569.5 7580.5-7639.5 7419.5-7478.5 7608.5-7667.5 7447.5-7506.5 7664.5-7723.5 7503.5-7562.5 7580.5-7639.5 7419.5-7478.5 7608.5-7667.5

RX Range
7133.5-7192.5 7301.5-7360.5 7189.5-7248.5 7357.5-7416.5 7119.5-7178.5 7280.5-7339.5 7147.5-7206.5 7308.5-7367.5 7175.5-7234.5 7336.5-7395.5 7203.5-7262.5 7364.5-7423.5 7436.5-7461.5 7597.5-7622.5 7520.5-7545.5 7681.5-7706.5 7426.5-7485.5 7587.5-7646.5 7454.5-7513.5 7615.5-7674.5 7482.5-7541.5 7643.5-7702.5 7510.5-7569.5 7671.5-7730.5 7419.5-7478.5 7580.5-7639.5 7447.5-7506.5 7608.5-7667.5 7503.5-7562.5 7664.5-7723.5 7419.5-7478.5 7580.5-7639.5 7447.5-7506.5

Tx/Rx Spacing

161P

161O

161M

161K

161J

161I

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Page 106 of 131

FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

Frequency Band

TX Range
7447.5-7506.5 7664.5-7723.5 7503.5-7562.5 7273.5-7353.5 7112.5-7192.5 7322.5-7402.5 7161.5-7241.5 7573.5-7653.5 7412.5-7492.5 7622.5-7702.5 7461.5-7541.5 7709-7768 7548-7607 7737-7796 7576-7635 7765-7824 7604-7663 7793-7852 7632-7691 7584-7643 7423-7482 7612-7671 7451-7510 7640-7699 7479-7538 7668-7727 7507-7566 7409-7468 7248-7307 7437-7496 7276-7335 7465-7524 7304-7363

RX Range
7608.5-7667.5 7503.5-7562.5 7664.5-7723.5 7112.5-7192.5 7273.5-7353.5 7161.5-7241.5 7322.5-7402.5 7412.5-7492.5 7573.5-7653.5 7461.5-7541.5 7622.5-7702.5 7548-7607 7709-7768 7576-7635 7737-7796 7604-7663 7765-7824 7632-7691 7793-7852 7423-7482 7584-7643 7451-7510 7612-7671 7479-7538 7640-7699 7507-7566 7668-7727 7248-7307 7409-7468 7276-7335 7437-7496 7304-7363 7465-7524

Tx/Rx Spacing

161F

161D

161C

161B

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Page 107 of 131

FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

Frequency Band

TX Range
7493-7552 7332-7391 7284-7343 7123-7182 7312-7371 7151-7210 7340-7399 7179-7238 7368-7427 7207-7266 7280.5-7339.5 7126.5-7185.5 7308.5-7367.5 7154.5-7213.5 7336.5-7395.5 7182.5-7241.5 7364.5-7423.5 7210.5-7269.5 7594.5-7653.5 7440.5-7499.5 7622.5-7681.5 7468.5-7527.5 7678.5-7737.5 7524.5-7583.5 7580.5-7639.5 7426.5-7485.5 7608.5-7667.5 7454.5-7513.5 7636.5-7695.5 7482.5-7541.5 7664.5-7723.5 7510.5-7569.5

RX Range
7332-7391 7493-7552 7123-7182 7284-7343 7151-7210 7312-7371 7179-7238 7340-7399 7207-7266 7368-7427 7126.5-7185.5 7280.5-7339.5 7154.5-7213.5 7308.5-7367.5 7182.5-7241.5 7336.5-7395.5 7210.5-7269.5 7364.5-7423.5 7440.5-7499.5 7594.5-7653.5 7468.5-7527.5 7622.5-7681.5 7524.5-7583.5 7678.5-7737.5 7426.5-7485.5 7580.5-7639.5 7454.5-7513.5 7608.5-7667.5 7482.5-7541.5 7636.5-7695.5 7510.5-7569.5 7664.5-7723.5

Tx/Rx Spacing

161A

154C

154B

154A

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Page 108 of 131

FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

Frequency Band

TX Range
8396.5-8455.5 8277.5-8336.5 8438.5 – 8497.5 8319.5 – 8378.5 8274.5-8305.5 7744.5-7775.5 8304.5-8395.5 7804.5-7895.5 8023-8186.32 7711.68-7875 8028.695-8148.645 7717.375-7837.325 8147.295-8267.245 7835.975-7955.925 8043.52-8163.47 7732.2-7852.15

RX Range
8277.5-8336.5 8396.5-8455.5 8319.5 – 8378.5 8438.5 – 8497.5 7744.5-7775.5 8274.5-8305.5 7804.5-7895.5 8304.5-8395.5 7711.68-7875 8023-8186.32 7717.375-7837.325 8028.695-8148.645 7835.975-7955.925 8147.295-8267.245 7732.2-7852.15 8043.52-8163.47 7850.8-7970.75 8162.12-8282.07 7902-7992 8212-8302 7930-8020 8240-8330 7986-8076 8296-8386 7902-7992 8212-8302 7930-8020 8240-8330 7986-8076 8296-8386 8070-8160 8380-8470 8098-8188

Tx/Rx Spacing

119A

530A

500A

311C-J

311B

8 GHz

8162.12-8282.07 7850.8-7970.75 8212-8302 7902-7992 8240-8330 7930-8020 8296-8386 7986-8076 8212-8302 7902-7992 8240-8330 7930-8020 8296-8386 7986-8076 8380-8470 8070-8160 8408-8498

311A

310D

310C

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Page 109 of 131

FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

Frequency Band

TX Range
8098-8188 8039.5-8150.5 7729.5-7840.5 8159.5-8270.5 7849.5-7960.5 8024.5-8145.5 7724.5-7845.5 8144.5-8265.5 7844.5-7965.5 8302.5-8389.5 8036.5-8123.5 8190.5-8277.5 7924.5-8011.5 8176.5-8291.5 7910.5-8025.5 8288.5-8403.5 8022.5-8137.5 8226.52-8287.52 7974.5-8035.5 8270.5-8349.5 10501-10563 10333-10395 10529-10591 10361-10423 10585-10647

RX Range
8408-8498 7729.5-7840.5 8039.5-8150.5 7849.5-7960.5 8159.5-8270.5 7724.5-7845.5 8024.5-8145.5 7844.5-7965.5 8144.5-8265.5 8036.5-8123.5 8302.5-8389.5 7924.5-8011.5 8190.5-8277.5 7910.5-8025.5 8176.5-8291.5 8022.5-8137.5 8288.5-8403.5 7974.5-8035.5 8226.52-8287.52 8020.5-8099.5 10333-10395 10501-10563 10361-10423 10529-10591 10417-10479 10585-10647 10151-10297 10501-10647 10148-10302 10498-10652 10011-10157 10561-10707

Tx/Rx Spacing

310A

300A

266C

266B

266A

252A 250A

168A

10 GHz

10417-10479 10501-10647 10151-10297 10498-10652 10148-10302 10561-10707 10011-10157

350A

350B

550A

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Page 110 of 131

FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

Frequency Band

TX Range
10701-10847 10151-10297 10590-10622 10499-10531 10618-10649 10527-10558 10646-10677 10555-10586 11425-11725

RX Range
10151-10297 10701-10847 10499-10531 10590-10622 10527-10558 10618-10649 10555-10586 10646-10677 10915-11207 11425-11725 10700-10950 11185-11485 12747-12866 13002-13141 12858-12990 13127-13246 13073-13185 12807-12919 12900-13000 12700-12775 12950-13050 12750-12825 13000-13100 12800-12870 13050-13150 12850-12925 14620-14858 15110-15348 14397-14627 14887-15117 14500-14697

Tx/Rx Spacing

91A

11 GHz

10915-11207 11185-11485 10695-10955 13002-13141 12747-12866 13127-13246 12858-12990 12807-12919 13073-13185

All

266

266A

13 GHz

12700-12775 12900-13000 12750-12825 12950-13050 12800-12870 13000-13100 12850-12925 13050-13150 15110-15348 14620-14858

200

15 GHz

14887-15117 14397-14627 15144-15341

490

644

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Page 111 of 131

FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

Frequency Band

TX Range
14500-14697 14975-15135 14500-14660 15135-15295 14660-14820 14921-15145 14501-14725 15117-15341 14697-14921 14963-15075 14648-14760 15047-15159 14732-14844 15229-15375 14500-14647 19160-19700 18126-18690

RX Range
15144-15341 14500-14660 14975-15135 14660-14820 15135-15295 14501-14725 14921-15145 14697-14921 15117-15341 14648-14760 14963-15075 14732-14844 15047-15159 14500-14647 15229-15375 18126-18690 19160-19700 17700-18200 18710-19220 17700-18140 19260-19700 22000-22600 23000-23600 21200-21800 22400-23000 21800-22400 23000-23600 24000 - 24250

Tx/Rx Spacing

475

420

315

728

18 GHz

18710-19220 17700-18200 19260-19700 17700-18140 23000-23600 22000-22600

1010

1560

1008

23 GHz

22400-23000 21200-21800 23000-23600 21800-22400

1232 /1200

24UL GHz

24000 - 24250

All

26 GHz

25530-26030 24520-25030

24520-25030 25530-26030

1008

Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential

Page 112 of 131

FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

Frequency Band

TX Range
25980-26480 24970-25480 25266-25350 24466-24550 25050-25250 24250-24450 28150-28350 27700-27900 27950-28150 27500-27700 28050-28200 27700-27850 27960-28110

RX Range
24970-25480 25980-26480 24466-24550 25266-25350 24250-24450 25050-25250 27700-27900 28150-28350 27500-27700 27950-28150 27700-27850 28050-28200 27610-27760 27960-28110 27600-27825 28090-28315 27996-28445 29004-29453 27548-27997 28556-29005 29225-29250 29100-29125 31215-31300 31000-31085 32627-33019 31815-32207 32991-33383 32179-32571 37560-38180 38820-39440 37045-37676

Tx/Rx Spacing

800

450

350

28 GHz

27610-27760 28090-28315 27600-27825 29004-29453 27996-28445 28556-29005 27548-27997 29100-29125 29225-29250

490

1008

125

31 GHz

31000-31085 31215-31300 31815-32207

175

812

32 GHz

32627-33019 32179-32571 32991-33383 38820-39440

1260

38 GHz

37560-38180 38316-38936

Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential

Page 113 of 131

FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

Frequency Band

TX Range
37045-37676 39650-40000 38950-39300 39300-39650 38600-38950 37700-38050 37000-37350 38050-38400 37350-37700

RX Range
38316-38936 38950-39300 39500-40000 38600-38950 39300-39650 37000-37350 37700-38050 37350-37700 38050-38400

Tx/Rx Spacing

700

40550-41278 42 GHz
11

42050-42778 40550-41278 42722-43450 41222-41950.5 1500

42050-42778 41222-41950.5 42722-43450

11

42GHz support is a roadmap item, parameters and availability are subject to change.

Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential

Page 114 of 131

FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

8.8

Mediation Device Losses
Interfaces
Remote Mount antenna Direct Mount Added on remote mount configurations Integrated antenna

Configuration
Flex WG 1+0

6-8 GHz
0.5 0.2

11 GHz
0.5 0.2

13-15 GHz
1.2 0.4

18-26 GHz
1.5 0.5

28-4212 GHz
1.5 0.5

12

42GHz support is a roadmap item; parameters and availability are subject to change.

Ceragon Proprietary and Confidential

Page 115 of 131

FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

8.9

Radio Capacity Specifications
This section includes three sets of capacity specifications:  Capacity without header compression  Capacity with legacy MAC header compression  Capacity with Multi-Layer (enhanced) header compression Note: Ethernet Capacity depends on average packet size.

8.9.1

Radio Capacity without Header Compression

8.9.1.1 7 MHz Channel Bandwidth Profile Modulation Minimum Radio Ethernet capacity (Mbps) (per average required Throughput Ethernet frame size) capacity (Mbps) license 64 128 256 512 1024 1518 bytes bytes bytes bytes bytes bytes
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 QPSK 8 PSK 16 QAM 32 QAM 64 QAM 128 QAM 10 25 25 25 25 50 10 15 20 25 29 33 39 41 12 18 24 30 35 41 48 50 11 16 22 27 32 36 43 45 10 15 20 25 30 34 40 42 10 14 20 25 29 33 39 41 9 14 19 24 28 33 38 40 9 14 19 24 28 32 38 40

256 QAM (Strong FEC) 50 256 QAM (Light FEC) 50

8.9.1.2 14 MHz Channel Bandwidth Profile Modulation Minimum Radio Ethernet capacity (Mbps) (per average required Throughput Ethernet frame size) capacity (Mbps) license 64 128 256 512 1024 1518 bytes bytes bytes bytes bytes bytes
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 QPSK 8 PSK 16 QAM 32 QAM 64 QAM 128 QAM 25 25 50 50 50 100 21 29 43 50 57 69 80 87 25 36 53 62 72 86 101 109 23 32 47 55 64 77 90 97 21 30 44 52 60 72 85 92 21 29 43 50 58 70 82 89 20 29 42 49 57 69 81 87 20 28 42 49 57 68 80 87

256 QAM (Strong FEC) 100 256 QAM (Light FEC) 100

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Page 116 of 131

FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

8.9.1.3

28 MHz Channel Bandwidth Minimum required capacity license
50 50 100 100 150 150

Profile Modulation

Radio Ethernet capacity (Mbps) (per average Throughput Ethernet frame size) (Mbps) 64 128 256 512 1024 1518 bytes bytes bytes bytes bytes bytes
41 55 78 105 130 158 176 186 51 68 97 132 164 200 223 235 45 61 87 118 147 179 199 210 43 57 82 111 138 168 187 197 41 55 79 107 133 163 181 191 40 54 78 105 131 160 178 188 40 54 77 105 130 159 177 187

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

QPSK 8 PSK 16 QAM 32 QAM 64 QAM 128 QAM

256 QAM (Strong FEC) 200 256 QAM (Light FEC) 200

8.9.1.4 40 MHz Channel Bandwidth Profile Modulation Minimum Radio Ethernet capacity (Mbps) (per average required Throughput Ethernet frame size) capacity (Mbps) license 64 128 256 512 1024 1518 bytes bytes bytes bytes bytes bytes
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 QPSK 8 PSK 16 QAM 32 QAM 64 QAM 128 QAM 50 100 100 150 150 200 56 83 121 151 189 211 240 255 70 104 152 191 239 267 303 324 62 93 136 171 214 239 271 290 59 88 128 161 201 225 255 272 57 85 124 155 195 217 247 263 56 83 122 153 191 214 243 259 55 83 121 152 190 213 241 257

256 QAM (Strong FEC) 200 256 QAM (Light FEC) 300

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Page 117 of 131

FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

8.9.1.5

56 MHz Channel Bandwidth Minimum required capacity license
100 100 150 200 300 300

Profile Modulation

Radio Ethernet capacity (Mbps) (per average Throughput Ethernet frame size) (Mbps)
64 bytes 76 113 150 199 248 297 338 367 95 143 190 252 314 377 429 465 128 bytes 85 128 170 226 281 337 383 416 256 bytes 80 120 159 212 264 317 360 391 512 bytes 77 116 154 205 255 306 349 378 1024 bytes 76 114 152 202 251 301 343 372 1518 bytes 76 114 151 201 249 299 341 370

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

QPSK 8 PSK 16 QAM 32 QAM 64 QAM 128 QAM

256 QAM (Strong FEC) 400 256 QAM (Light FEC) 400

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FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

8.9.2
8.9.2.1 Profile

Radio Capacity with Legacy MAC Header Compression
7 MHz Channel Bandwidth Modulation Minimum required capacity license
10 25 25 25 25 50

Radio Throughput (Mbps)

Ethernet capacity (Mbps) with MAC header compression (per average Ethernet frame size) 64 bytes 128 256 512 1024 1518 bytes bytes bytes bytes bytes
11 17 23 29 34 39 46 48 10 15 21 26 31 35 41 44 10 15 20 25 29 34 39 41 9 14 20 24 29 33 38 40 9 14 19 24 28 33 38 40

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

QPSK 8 PSK 16 QAM 32 QAM 64 QAM 128 QAM

10 15 20 25 29 33 39 41

13 20 28 34 40 47 55 57

256 QAM (Strong FEC) 50 256 QAM (Light FEC) 50

8.9.2.2 14 MHz Channel Bandwidth Profile Modulation Minimum Radio required Throughput capacity (Mbps) license
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 QPSK 8 PSK 16 QAM 32 QAM 64 QAM 128 QAM 25 25 50 50 50 100 21 29 43 50 57 69 80 87

Ethernet capacity (Mbps) with MAC header compression (per average Ethernet frame size) 64 bytes
29 41 60 70 82 98 115 125

128 256 512 1024 1518 bytes bytes bytes bytes bytes
24 34 50 59 68 82 96 104 22 31 46 53 62 75 87 95 21 30 44 51 59 71 83 90 20 29 43 50 58 69 81 88 20 29 42 49 57 69 81 87

256 QAM (Strong FEC) 100 256 QAM (Light FEC) 100

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FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

8.9.2.3 Profile

28 MHz Channel Bandwidth Modulation Minimum required capacity license
50 50 100 100 150 150

Radio Throughput (Mbps)

Ethernet capacity (Mbps) with MAC header compression (per average Ethernet frame size) 64 bytes 128 256 512 1024 1518 bytes bytes bytes bytes bytes
48 65 93 126 157 191 213 224 44 59 85 115 142 174 194 204 42 56 81 109 136 165 184 194 41 55 79 106 132 161 180 189 40 54 78 105 131 160 178 188

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

QPSK 8 PSK 16 QAM 32 QAM 64 QAM 128 QAM

41 55 78 105 130 158 176 186

58 78 111 151 188 229 255 268

256 QAM (Strong FEC) 200 256 QAM (Light FEC) 200

8.9.2.4 40 MHz Channel Bandwidth Profile Modulation Minimum Radio required Throughput capacity (Mbps) license

Ethernet capacity (Mbps) with MAC header compression (per average Ethernet frame size) 64 bytes
80 119 174 218 274 305 347 370

128 256 512 1024 1518 byte bytes bytes bytes bytes s
67 100 146 183 229 255 290 309 61 90 132 166 208 232 264 281 58 86 126 158 198 221 251 268 56 84 123 154 193 215 245 261 56 83 122 153 191 214 243 259

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

QPSK 8 PSK 16 QAM 32 QAM 64 QAM 128 QAM

50 100 100 150 150 200

56 83 121 151 189 211 240 255

256 QAM (Strong FEC) 200 256 QAM (Light FEC) 300

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FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

8.9.2.5 Profile

56 MHz Channel Bandwidth Modulation Minimum required capacity license Radio Throughput (Mbps) Ethernet capacity (Mbps) with MAC header compression (per average Ethernet frame size) 64 bytes
76 113 150 199 248 297 338 367 109 163 217 288 358 430 490 532

128 256 512 1024 1518 byte bytes bytes bytes bytes s
91 137 181 241 300 360 409 444 83 124 165 219 272 327 372 404 79 118 157 209 259 311 354 385 77 115 153 203 253 304 345 375 76 114 151 202 251 301 343 372

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

QPSK 8 PSK 16 QAM 32 QAM 64 QAM 128 QAM

100 100 150 200 300 300

256 QAM (Strong FEC) 400 256 QAM (Light FEC) 400

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FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

8.9.3

Radio Capacity with Multi-Layer Enhanced Header Compression
Note: The capacity figures in this section are for standard IPv4/UDP encapsulation with double VLAN tagging (QinQ). Capacity for IPv6 encapsulation is higher. A Capacity Calculator tool is available for more detailed capacity specifications. Please contact your Ceragon representative.

8.9.3.1 7 MHz Channel Bandwidth Profile Modulation Minimum Radio required Throughput capacity (Mbps) license
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 QPSK 8 PSK 16 QAM 32 QAM 64 QAM 128 QAM 10 25 25 25 25 50 10 15 20 25 29 33 39 41

Ethernet capacity (Mbps) with Multi-Layer header compression (per average Ethernet frame size) 64 bytes
34 51 71 87 103 118 138 146

128 256 512 1024 1518 bytes bytes bytes bytes bytes
16 24 33 40 47 55 64 67 12 18 25 30 36 41 48 51 10 16 22 27 31 36 42 45 10 15 20 25 30 34 40 42 10 14 20 25 29 33 39 41

256 QAM (Strong FEC) 50 256 QAM (Light FEC) 50

8.9.3.2 14 MHz Channel Bandwidth Profile Modulation Minimum Radio required Throughput capacity (Mbps) license
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 QPSK 8 PSK 16 QAM 32 QAM 64 QAM 128 QAM 25 25 50 50 50 100 21 29 43 50 57 69 80 87

Ethernet capacity (Mbps) with Multi-Layer header compression (per average Ethernet frame size) 64 128 256 512 1024 1518 bytes bytes bytes bytes bytes bytes
72 103 153 180 207 250 295 316 33 48 71 83 96 115 136 146 25 36 53 63 72 87 103 110 22 32 47 55 64 76 90 97 21 30 44 52 60 72 85 91 20 29 43 51 59 70 83 89

256 QAM (Strong FEC) 100 256 QAM (Light FEC) 100

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FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

8.9.3.3 Profile

28 MHz Channel Bandwidth Modulation Minimum required capacity license
50 50 100 100 150 150

Radio Throughput (Mbps)

Ethernet capacity (Mbps) with Multi-Layer header compression (per average Ethernet frame size) 64 bytes 128 256 512 1024 1518 bytes bytes bytes bytes bytes
68 91 131 177 220 268 299 315 51 69 98 133 166 202 225 237 45 60 86 117 146 178 198 209 42 57 81 110 137 167 186 196 41 56 80 108 134 164 182 192

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

QPSK 8 PSK 16 QAM 32 QAM 64 QAM 128 QAM

41 55 78 105 130 158 176 186

147 198 282 382 476 580 646 681

256 QAM (Strong FEC) 200 256 QAM (Light FEC) 200

8.9.3.4 40 MHz Channel Bandwidth Profile Modulation Minimum Radio required Throughput capacity (Mbps) license
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 QPSK 8 PSK 16 QAM 32 QAM 64 QAM 128 QAM 50 100 100 150 150 200 56 83 121 151 189 211 240 255

Ethernet capacity (Mbps) with Multi-Layer header compression (per average Ethernet frame size) 64 bytes
202 302 442 554 694 775 880 938

128 256 512 1024 1518 bytes bytes bytes bytes bytes
93 140 204 256 321 358 407 434 70 105 154 193 242 270 306 327 62 93 135 170 213 237 269 287 58 87 127 160 200 223 253 270 57 85 125 156 196 219 248 265

256 QAM (Strong FEC) 200 256 QAM (Light FEC) 300

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FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

8.9.3.5 Profile

56 MHz Channel Bandwidth) Modulation Minimum required capacity license
100 100 150 200 300 300

Radio Throughput (Mbps)

Ethernet capacity (Mbps) with Multi-Layer header compression (per average Ethernet frame size) 64 bytes 128 256 512 1024 1518 bytes bytes bytes bytes bytes
128 192 254 338 420 505 574 624 96 144 191 255 317 380 433 470 85 127 168 224 279 334 381 413 80 119 158 211 262 314 358 388 78 117 155 207 257 308 351 381

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

QPSK 8 PSK 16 QAM 32 QAM 64 QAM 128 QAM

76 113 150 199 248 297 338 367

276 414 549 732 909 1000 1000 1000

256 QAM (Strong FEC) 400 256 QAM (Light FEC) 400

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FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

8.10

Ethernet Latency Specifications

8.10.1 Ethernet Latency – 7 MHz Channel Bandwidth
ACM Modulation Working Point
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 QPSK 8 PSK 16 QAM 32 QAM 64 QAM 128 QAM 256 QAM (Strong FEC) 256 QAM (Light FEC)

Latency (usec) with GE Interface Frame 64 Size
128 256 512

Latency (usec) with FE Interface
128 256 512 1024 1280 1518

1024 1280 1518 64

918 972 1085 1312 1766 1992 2203 923 981 1103 700 736 817 573 601 656 507 530 576 591 611 651 613 630 665 610 625 655 574 588 617 968 769 668 730 735 715 674 1273 1427 1570 705 745 835 994 852 889 875 836 790 1107 1212 578 610 674 945 969 945 897 848 1031 512 539 594 1043 596 620 669 1010 618 639 683 954 902 615 634 673 579 597 635

1349 1840 2084 2312 1005 1347 1519 1679 806 705 767 772 752 711 1068 1199 1321 926 963 949 910 864 1037 1140 1061 1152 1037 1119 989 940 1063 1011

8.10.2 Ethernet Latency – 14 MHz Channel Bandwidth
ACM Modulation Working Point
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 QPSK 8 PSK 16 QAM 32 QAM 64 QAM 128 QAM 256 QAM (Strong FEC) 256 QAM (Light FEC)

Latency (usec) with GE Interface Frame Size
64 458 337 243 214 276 270 261 225

Latency (usec) with FE Interface
128 256 512 1024 1280 1518 981 709 532 467 509 480 454 412 1119 1247 806 607 533 569 534 504 460 897 677 595 626 585 550 505

128 256 512 1024 1280 1518 64 488 547 667 907 358 397 476 635 257 286 343 458 225 249 297 393 286 307 349 435 279 297 333 406 269 285 317 380 233 248 278 338

1027 1138 463 497 565 704 714 515 441 477 442 412 368 788 568 486 517 476 441 396 342 367 415 513 248 266 304 380 219 234 267 334 281 295 325 386 275 288 315 370 266 278 303 354 230 242 266 315

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FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

8.10.3 Ethernet Latency – 28 MHz Channel Bandwidth
ACM Modulation Working Point
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 QPSK 8 PSK 16 QAM 32 QAM 64 QAM 128 QAM 256 QAM (Strong FEC) 256 QAM (Light FEC)

Latency (usec) with GE Interface Frame 64 Size

Latency (usec) with FE Interface
128 256 512 1024 1280 1518 522 425 333 276 276 259 260 249 597 487 384 320 316 296 296 284 668 545 431 361 354 331 330 317

128 256 512 1024 1280 1518 64 505 395 292 228 224 204 204 192 559 436 322 252 245 222 221 208

233 247 276 333 448 185 196 218 262 351 136 144 160 193 259 106 112 125 151 202 120 125 136 158 202 113 118 128 147 185 120 124 133 151 186 110 115 123 140 175

238 256 294 370 190 205 236 299 141 153 178 230 111 121 143 188 125 134 154 195 118 127 146 184 125 133 151 188 115 124 141 177

8.10.4 Ethernet Latency – 40 MHz Channel Bandwidth
ACM Modulation Working Point
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 QPSK 8 PSK 16 QAM 32 QAM 64 QAM 128 QAM 256 QAM (Strong FEC) 256 QAM (Light FEC)

Latency (usec) with GE Interface Fram 64 e Size

Latency (usec) with FE Interface
128 256 512 1024 1280 1518 474 365 294 264 260 260 257 246 531 411 333 299 293 292 288 276

128 256 512 1024 1280 1518 64 382 273 202 172 168 168 165 154 422 302 224 190 184 183 179 167

176 187 208 251 338 125 133 148 180 242 92 78 88 93 96 87 98 83 92 97 99 90 110 133 179 93 113 152

181 196 226 288 412 130 142 166 217 316 97 83 93 98 107 128 170 253 92 111 150 226

100 117 151 105 120 152 107 121 151 97 111 140

101 118 154 225 106 123 157 226

101 108 125 158 225 92 99 115 148 214

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FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

8.10.5 Ethernet Latency – 56 MHz Channel Bandwidth
ACM Modulation Working Point
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 QPSK 8 PSK 16 QAM 32 QAM 64 QAM 128 QAM 256 QAM (Strong FEC) 256 QAM (Light FEC)

Latency (usec) with GE Interface Frame 64 Size

Latency (usec) with FE Interface
128 256 512 1024 1280 1518 263 316 419 200 243 329 172 210 287 149 185 255 168 201 267 166 198 261 170 201 262 163 194 254 471 371 325 289 299 292 292 284 519 411 360 321 330 321 321 312

128 256 512 1024 1280 1518 64 379 279 233 197 207 200 200 192 410 302 251 212 221 212 212 203

220 229 245 279 345 164 170 182 206 255 139 144 154 173 213 119 123 131 148 181 139 142 150 164 193 138 142 148 161 187 143 146 152 164 188 136 139 145 157 180

225 238 169 179 144 153 124 132 144 151 143 151 148 155 141 148

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FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

8.11

Interface Specifications
Supported Ethernet Interfaces for Traffic Supported Ethernet Interfaces for Management Supported SFP Types 1 x 10/100/1000Base-T (RJ-45) or 1000base-X (SFP) 2 x 10/100/1000Base-T (RJ-45) Optical 1000Base-LX (1310 nm) or SX (850 nm)

8.12

Mechanical Specifications
Module Dimensions Module Weight (H)355mm x (W)220mm x (D)120mm 7.0 kg

8.13

Power Input Specifications
Standard Input DC Input range -48 VDC -40 to -60 VDC

8.14

Power Consumption Specifications
Max power consumption 50W

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FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

8.15

Environmental Specifications
Specification
Temperature range for continuous operating temperature with high reliability: -33°C to +55°C (-27°F to 131°F) Temperature range for exceptional temperatures; tested successfully, with limited margins: -45°C to +60°C (-49°F to 140°F) Storage Transportation Relative Humidity Altitude ETS 300 019-2-1 class T1.2, with a temperature range of -25°C to+85°C. ETS 300 019-2-2 class 2.3, with a temperature range of -40°C to+85°C. 5% to 100% 3,000m (10,000ft)

Operating Temperature

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FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

8.16

Outdoor Ethernet Cable Specifications
Electrical Requirements
Cable type Wire gage Stranding Voltage rating Shielding Pinout CAT-5e STP, 4 pairs, according to ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-B-2 24 AWG Solid 70V Foil

Mechanical/ Environmental Requirements
Jacket Outer diameter Operating and Storage temperature range Flammability rating RoHS PVC, double, UV resistant 7-10 mm -40°C - 85°C According to UL-1581 VW1, IEC 60332-1 According to Directive/2002/95/EC

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FibeAir® IP-10C

Product Description

8.17

Outdoor DC Cable Specifications
Electrical Requirements
Cable type Wire gage Stranding Voltage rating Spark test Dielectric strength 2 tinned copper wires 18 AWG (for <75m installations) 12 AWG (for >75m installations) stranded 600V 4KV 2KV AC min

Mechanical/ Environmental Requirements
Jacket Outer diameter Operating & Storage temperature range Flammability rating RoHS PVC, double, UV resistant 7-10 mm -40°C - 85°C According to UL-1581 VW1, IEC 60332-1 According to Directive/2002/95/EC

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