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• Is any research conducted using an observational technique or unstructured questioning. • Often viewed as a “Soft-approach.” Conducted:
– when structured research is not possible, – when true response may not be available [embarrassing “touchy questions”] – to explain quantitative research results.
• Should not be viewed as conclusive research.
• Qualitative and quantitative research are complementary to each other.
Recommend a final course of action Large number of representative cases Structured Statistical Basic research objective Type of sample used Data collection Method Nature of data analysis 3 . As a first step in multistage research Small numbers of nonrepresentative cases Unstructured Non-statistical Quantitative Research To quantify the data and generalize the results form the sample to the population of interest.A Comparison of Qualitative and Quantitative Research Qualitative Research To gain a broad qualitative understanding of the underlying reasons and motivations.
Classification of Qualitative Research Procedures Q u a li t a t i v e R e s e a r c h P r o c e d u r e s ( N D ir e c t o n d is g u is e d ) I n d ir e c t ( D is g u is e d ) F o c u s G r oD u e p p s t h I n t e r v P i e r ow j se c t i v e T e c h n iq u e s A T s s o c ia C t i oo nm p l e C t i o o n n s t r u c E t i xo p n r e s s i v e e c h n i q uT e e s c h n i q uT e e s c h n i q uT e e s c h n i q u e s 4 .
Qualitative research = Observation technique Classification of Observation • Direct vs indirect: – Direct>> observing behavior as it occurs – Indirect >> observing the effects of behavior • Structured vs unstructured – Structured>>predetermine what to observe – Unstructured>>monitor all behavior • Disguised vs nondisguised – Nondisguised>>Direct – Disguised >> Indirect • Human vs Mechanical – Human>>observation done by human beings – Mechanical>>observation by machine 5 .
Observation I • Appropriate Conditions – The event must occur in a short time interval. 6 . • avoid lag affect – Must occur in a setting where the researcher can observe the behavior • Praying. cooking are not suitable things to observe – Necessary under situations of faulty recall • Faulty recall>>remembering things such as how many times one looked at his wristwatch.
too many things to observe. are absent. – may not be representative. noncooperation etc. 7 . false response. only way • Number of customers visiting a store • Studying children’s behavior • Limitations – Time consuming. not at home.Observation: Advantages and Limitations • Advantages – Greater data accuracy than direct questioning. – No recall error. – Problems of refusal. -. in natural settings people behave naturally. – difficulty in determining root cause of the behavior. – In some situations.
8 . interpersonal. good communication skills needed.3 hours Use of audio and video cassettes Observational. respondents prescreened Relaxed. informal setting 1 . Group size Group composition Physical setting Time duration Recording Moderator 8-12 Homogenous.Focus Group I • An interview conducted by a trained moderator in a non-structured and natural manner with a small group of respondents.
motives. perceptions and attitudes. • Generating future research objectives – Facilitate understanding of the quantitative studies 9 .Focus Groups II • Objectives: – Generate new product or service ideas – Understand consumer vocabulary • Useful for ad campaigns – Reveal consumer needs.
Focus Group Procedure Determine the objectives of the Marketing Research Project and define the problem Specify the objective of qualitative research State the objectives/questions to be answered by the focus group Write a screening questionnaire Develop a moderator’s outline Conduct the focus group interview Review tapes and analyze data Summarize the findings and plan follow-up research 10 .
The Focus Group Moderator • The person who conducts the focus group session. but should not dominate the discussion unduly. – He/she must strive for generating a stimulating natural discussion without losing sight of the focus. – Success of focus groups depend on him/her. – Must add value beyond just conducting the session. 11 . – Should have feeling of urgency. – Must take initiative. – Should participate in the research from the beginning.
or role-playing) which can be used to delve deeper into the minds of participants.Traits of a Good Focus Group Moderator A Good Focus Group Moderator… 1. visual stimulation. 6. 2.. conceptual mapping. rather than simply executing the groups exactly as asked and take personal and take responsibility for the recruitment. should be open to modern techniques (e. screening. must engage in advance preparation to improve overall knowledge of the area being discussed and prepare a detailed guide to moderate the focus group. and selecting of participants. 5. should participate in conceptualizing the focus group research design. and 7.g. must demonstrate the enthusiasm and exhibit the energy necessary to keep the group interested yet maintain control of the group without leading or influencing the participants. 12 . must share in the feeling of urgency to complete the focus group while desiring to achieve an excellent total research project. 4. attitude scaling. 3. must have experienced in conducting focus group research. must provide some “added value” to the project beyond just conducting the session..
Misjudge. 13 . Snowballing. Moderation problem.Focus Group: Advantages and Disadvantages • Major Advantages: – Synergism. • Major Disadvantages: – Lack of representativeness. Stimulation. and Difficulty of analysis • A very promising technique. Spontaneity. Misuse. Security. Speed and Cost savings.
one person’s comment often triggers a chain reaction from the other participants and generates more views. Synergism.Seven advantages of Focus Group I 1. When a group of people with similar interests discuss an issue together. 3. general level of excitement over the topic increases. they are likely to produce a richer insight. and innovative ideas than will individual responses obtained privately. Stimulation. 14 . In a group discussion. wider range of information. 2. and a large number of respondents want to express their ideas and expose their feelings. Snowballing. Once the focus group discussion is underway.
Inexpensive. In focus groups participants are not required to answer specific questions. 15 . Speed. it is a relatively inexpensive method of data collection. Security.Seven advantages of Focus Group II 4. focus group participants have similar feelings. Because people discuss issues simultaneously. Their responses can be spontaneous and unconventional reflecting an accurate idea of their views 6. 7. Spontaneity. Considering the richness of output. This enables them to feel comfortable and uninhibited to express their ideas/feelings. Because of homogeneity of composition. data collection and analysis in focus group proceed relatively quickly. 5.
Five Disadvantages of Focus Group 1. Misuse. and interpretation difficult. 3. Hence. Focus groups are generally susceptible to client and researcher biases. results of focus group discussions are not projectable and should not be the only basis for decision making. Moderation. analysis. The unstructured nature of the responses in focus group discussions makes coding. focus group results could be easily misjudged. As such. compared to the results of other data collection techniques. Misjudgement. 16 . Focus groups can be misused and abused by considering the results as conclusive rather than exploratory. 2. Skills of the moderator is a major determinant of focus group success and the quality of their results. 5. 4. Lack of representativeness. Focus groups are not representative of the general population. Difficult to analyze . But moderators with desirable skills are rare.
Protocol Analysis: Involves placing a person in a decision making situation and asking him/her to state everything he/she considers in making a decision. politics etc. house) and 2. Where the decision process is too short (greeting card). Projective technique: Involve situations in which participants are placed in simulated activities hoping that they will divulge information about themselves that are unlikely to be revealed under direct questing.Other Qualitative Techniques Depth Interview: An unstructured interview that seeks opinions of respondents on a one-to-one basis. 17 . Purchasing involving a long time frame (car. Useful in 1. Useful for sensitive issues.
beliefs and feelings onto a third-party or into some task situation. • The researcher sets up a situation for the respondents asking them to express their own views. More common ones are: – – – – Free Word Association Sentence Completion Unfinished scenario/story completion Cartoon completion test 18 .Projective Techniques • These are indirect interviewing methods which enable sampled respondents to project their views. • Various types. or to complete/ interpret some ambiguous stimulus presented to them.
one at a time. analyzing and interpreting test results are rather difficult. However. In the example shown here.FREE WORD ASSOCIATION In this technique. The list of words should contain a mixture of test words and neutral words. The respondent is asked to respond with the first word or phrase that comes to his/her mind. the researchers seems to be interested in studying high-tech banking (words with *). a list of carefully selected stimulus words or phrases related to the topic of research are read out. Stimulus Word Response Postman Bank Teller* Networking Automatic teller machine* Persian Carpet Driver Bank by Phone* Transitlink __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ _________ 19 . to a respondent.
Like the free-word association method. the respondent is presented with some sentences containing incomplete stimuli and is asked to complete them. but they ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ My major concern about automatic teller machines is ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 20 . In this technique. Automatic teller machine users are ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Automatic teller machines may be convenient. interpreting and analysing data obtained from this technique is also difficult.SENTENCE COMPLETION This technique is an extension of the free-word association test.
the respondent is presented with a specific scenario containing incomplete stimuli [see example below] and is asked to complete the scenario. because _____________. but his friend Mr. because ___________. However. in this technique.UNFINISHED SCENARIO COMPLETION This technique is similar to the sentence completion test. Since Mr. he wanted to deposit it in an automatic teller machine. Wong told him that he should _____________. 21 . Interpreting and analysing data obtained from this technique is also difficult. Albert Lee had received a large commission by check just before leaving home for a holiday trip.
In the cartoon technique. CARTOON COMPLETION TEST Deposit this cheque nearest ATM in the 22 .the other balloon is empty. the respondent is shown a comicstrip like cartoon with two characters in a conversation. The respondent is asked to assume the role of the other person and fill the empty baloon with a speech. While the speech of one character is shown in his/her balloon.
– Groups in Singapore are less willingly to talk than those in Hong Kong. people hesitate to express opinion on sensitive issues. – In some Asian societies. 23 . – While expressing views. qualitative research techniques should be suitable in the Asia-Pacific countries.Suitability in Asia-Pacific Region • Theoretically. in reality conducting qualitative research in Asia does not seem to be easy. while Thais and Filipinos have an in-built “courtesy bias”. Hong Kongers are more impatient. – People feel more confident with numbers than with mere opinions. • In most Asian countries techniques such as focus group research constitutes about 10% of all research works carried out by companies mainly due to cultural reasons. However.
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