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Unit 3

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# DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

Unit I I I – Multiple I ntegral
(May-J un-2006)
1. Evaluate by changing the order of integration.
Ans
0 0
2
x
x
y
xe dydx
÷
·
} }

0 0
2
x
x
y
xe dydx
÷
·
} }
by changing the order of the equation we will have
0
2
y
x
y
xe dydx
·
÷
·
} }

0 0
2 2
y y
x x
y y
xe dydx xe dx dy
| |
÷ ÷
·· · ·
|
=
|
|
\ .
} } } }

0 0
2
2 2
2
2
2
2 2
2 2 2
y
y
t
y y
x x
y
y y
xe dydx e dy
y
x
x
y
xe dx taking t
y
xdx ydt
x
x
y
y y y
y
xdx dt xe dx e dt e
y
÷
·
(
÷ ÷
·· ·
÷
(
=
(
(
¸ ¸
(
(
÷
·
(
= = (
(
(
¬ =
(
·
(
( ÷
÷
· ·
(
÷ (
( ¬ = ¬ = = =
(
(
(
¸ ¸ (
¸ ¸
} } }
}
} }

} }
·
÷
0 0
/
.
2
x
y x
dydx xe

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

{ }
0 0 0 0
2 2
0
2 2 2
y
x x
y y y
y y y y
xe dydx e dy e dy e dy
y
y
· · ·
·
(
÷ ÷
· ··
÷ ÷ ( ÷ ÷ (
= = ÷ =
( (
¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸
} } } } }

0
0
2
1
1. 1/ 2
2 1
y
x
y
e
y y
xe dydx y e
·
÷
÷ ··
( | |
÷
= ÷ =
( |
÷
( \ . ¸ ¸
} }
(Ans).
2. Find the volume common to the cylinder
2 2 2 2 2 2
, x y a x z a + = + = .

Ans:

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 0 0 0
Volume 8
a a x a x a a x a x
a
a x a x
dxdydz dxdydz
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
¬ = =
} } } } } }

|
2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2
0
0 0 0 0
Volume 8 8
a a x a a x
a x
z dxdy a x dxdy
÷ ÷
÷
¬ = = ÷
} } } }

|
2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
0
0 0 0
Volume 8 . 8 . 8 ( )
a a a
a x
a x y dx a x a x dx a x dx
÷
¬ = ÷ = ÷ ÷ = ÷
} } }

3 3 3 3
2 2
0
2 16
Volume 8 8 8
3 3 3 3
a
x a a a
a x a
( | | | |
¬ = ÷ = ÷ = × =
( | |
\ . \ . ¸
(Ans).

3. Prove that . 1 , 0 ,
) 1 (
! . ) 1 (
) .(log
1
1
0
÷ > >
+
÷
=
+ }
m n
m
n
dx x x
n
n
n m

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

(Nov –Dec 2006)
4. Evaluate the following integral by changing of order of integration
2
4 2 2
0
a a
ax
y dxdy
y a x ÷
} }
.
Ans:

Here region of integration is x varies from0 to a, y varies from ax to a.
After changing order y varies from0 to a, x varies from 0 to
2
y
a
.

2
/
2 2
4 2 2 4 2 2
0 0 0
y a a a a
ax
y dxdy y dydx
y a x y a x
=
÷ ÷
} } } }
putting
2
a as commonwe get

2
2
4 2 2 2
2
0 0 0
2
2
a a a
ax
y
y
dydx a
y dxdy
a
y a x
y
x
a
¬ =
÷
| |
÷
|
\ .
} } } }

2
2 2
1
2
4 2 2 2
2
0 0 0 0
2
0
2
2
sin
a a a a
ax
y
a
y
y
dx a
y dxdy y x
a
dy dy
a y
y a x
y
x
a
a
÷
| |
(
|
(
|
(
¬ = =
|
(
| |
÷
|
| |
( |
÷
| |
| \ . ¸ ¸
\ .
\ .
} } } } }

2
2 2 2
1 1 1
2 2
4 2 2
0 0 0
0
2
sin sin sin 0
a a a a
ax
y
a
y
y dxdy y x y
a
dy dy
a a y y
y a x
a a
÷ ÷ ÷
( (
( (
( (
¬ = = ÷
( (
| | | |
÷
( ( | |
\ . \ . ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
} } } }

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

2 2 2
4 2 2
0 0 0
0
2 2
a a a a
ax
y dxdy y y
dy dy
a a
y a x
  (
¬ = ÷ =
(
¸ ¸ ÷
} } } }

2 2 2
3
0 4 2 2
0 0
2 6 6
a a a
a
ax
y dxdy y a
dy y
a a
y a x
  
( ¬ = = =
¸ ¸
÷
} } }
(Ans)

5. Find the volume common to gas cylinder
2 2 2 2 2 2
, x y a x z a + = + = .
Ans:

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 0 0 0
Volume 8
a a x a x a a x a x
a
a x a x
dxdydz dxdydz
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
¬ = =
} } } } } }

|
2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2
0
0 0 0 0
Volume 8 8
a a x a a x
a x
z dxdy a x dxdy
÷ ÷
÷
¬ = = ÷
} } } }

|
2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
0
0 0 0
Volume 8 . 8 . 8 ( )
a a a
a x
a x y dx a x a x dx a x dx
÷
¬ = ÷ = ÷ ÷ = ÷
} } }

3 3 3 3
2 2
0
2 16
Volume 8 8 8
3 3 3 3
a
x a a a
a x a
( | | | |
¬ = ÷ = ÷ = × =
( | |
\ . \ . ¸
(Ans).

6. Define Beta function and show that
( ) ( )
( , )
( )
m n
mn
m n

I I
=
I +
.

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

Ans: The Beta function is defined as
1 1
1 1
0 0
( , ) (1 ) , , 0
(1 )
n
m n
m n
x
B mn x x dx dx mn
x
· ÷
÷ ÷
+
= ÷ = >
+
} }
.
We know that
1
0
( ) .
x n
n e x dx
·
÷ ÷
I =
}
By putting x az dx adz = ¬ = we get

1
0
( ) .( )
az n
·
÷ ÷
¬ I =
}

1
0
( ) .
n az n
n a e z dz
·
÷ ÷
¬ I =
}
Putting z =x we get

1
0
( ) .
n ax n
n a e x dx
·
÷ ÷
¬ I =
}
Now, taking a =z we get

1
0
( ) .
zx n n
n e x z dx
·
÷ ÷
¬ I =
}

By multiplying
1 z m
e z
÷ ÷
both side we get

1 (1 ) 1 1
0
( ) .
z m z x n m n
n e z e x z dx
·
÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷ + ÷
¬ I =
}

Now taking integration with respect to z both side from 0 z= ÷ ·we get

1 1 (1 ) 1
0 0 0
( ) .
z m n z x m n
n e z dz x e z dzdx
· · ·
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ + + ÷
¬ I =
} } }

Now, let (1 )
1 1
y dy
z x y z dz
x x
+ = ¬ = ¬ =
+ +
we get

1
1
0 0
.
( ) ( )
(1 )
y m n
n
m n
e y dy
n m x dx
x
· · ÷ + ÷
÷
+
(
¬ I I =
(
+
¸ ¸
} }

1
1
0 0
( ) ( ) .
(1 )
n
y m n
m n
x
n m e y dy dx
x
· · ÷
÷ + ÷
+
(
¬ I I =
(
+
¸ ¸
} }

1
0
( ) ( ) ( )
(1 )
n
m n
x
m n m n dx
x
· ÷
+
¬ I I = I +
+
}

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

1
0
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ). ( , )
(1 )
n
m n
x
m n m n dx m n B mn
x
· ÷
+
¬ I I = I + = I +
+
}

( ) ( )
( , ) .
( )
m n
B mn
m n
I I
¬ =
I +
(proved)

(May-J un-2007)
7. Change the order of integration in
2
1 2
0
x
x
I xydxdy
÷
=
} }
and hence evaluate the same.
Ans: From
2
1 2
0
x
x
I xydxdy
÷
=
} }
, region of integration is
2
, 2 , 0, 1 y x y x x x = = ÷ = =

By changing of order of integration we get two regions
In one region limit of x is 0, x x y = = and limit of y is 0, 1 y y = =
In another region limit of x is 0, 2 x x y = = ÷ and limit of y is 1, 2 y y = =
So,
2
2 1 2 1 2
0 0 0 1 0
y y x
x
I xydxdy xydydx xydydx
÷ ÷
= = +
} } } } } }

2 1 2
0 0 1 0
y y
I xydx dy xydx dy
÷
| |
| |
| ¬ = +
|
|
|
\ .
\ .
} } } }

2
1 2 2 2
0 1 0 0
2 2
y y
x y x y
I dy dy
÷
( (
¬ = +
( (
¸ ¸
} }

1 2 2 2
0 1
0 (2 ) 0
2 2
y y y
I dy dy
÷ ÷ ÷
¬ = +
} }

1 2 2 3
2
0 1
2 2
2 2
y y
I dy y y dy ¬ = + ÷ +
} }

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

1 2
3 3 4
2
0 1
2
6 3 8
y y y
I y
( (
¬ = + ÷ +
( (
¸ ¸

1 16 16 2 1
0 4 1
6 3 8 3 8
I ¬ = ÷ + ÷ + ÷ + ÷

4 96 128 48 24 16 3
24
I
+ ÷ + ÷ + ÷
¬ =

164 153 11
24 24
I
÷
¬ = = (Ans)

8. Find the volume bounded by the cylinder
2 2
4 x y + = and the planes 4, 0 y z z + = =
Ans:

Fromthe figure 4 z y = ÷ is to be integrated over the circle
2 2
4 x y + = in the xy plane.
To cover the shaded half of the circle, x varies from 0 to
2
4 y ÷
So,
2 2
4 4 2 2
2 0 2 0
Volume 2 2 (4 )
y y
zdxdy y dxdy
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
= = ÷
} } } }

|
2
2
4
0
2
Volume 2 (4 )
y
y x dy
÷
÷
¬ = ÷
}

2
2
2
Volume 2 (4 ) 4 y y dy
÷
¬ = ÷ ÷
}

2 2
2 2
2 2
Volume 8 4 2 4 y dy y y dy
÷ ÷
¬ = ÷ + ÷ ÷
} }

2
2
1
2
4 4
Volume 8 sin 0
2 2 2
y y y
÷
÷
(
÷
¬ = + + (
(
¸ ¸

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

{second termis zero because of odd function}

1 1
Volume 8 0 0 2sin 1 2sin ( 1)
÷ ÷
( ¬ = ÷ + ÷ ÷
¸ ¸

1
Volume 8 4sin 1 8 4 16
2

÷
( ¬ = = × × =
¸ ¸
(Ans).

9. Solve
2 2 /2
( )
n
xy x y dxdy +
}}
2 2
4 x y + = supposing n+3>0.
Ans:

2 2
2 2 /2 2 2 /2
0 0
( ) ( )
a a x
n n
xy x y dxdy xy x y dxdy
÷
+ = +
}} } }

2 2
3
2 2
2
2 2 /2
0
0
( )
( )
3
2
2
a x
n
a
n
y
x x y
xy x y dxdy dx
n
÷
+
=
(
( +
¬ + =
(
+
(
¸
}} }

3
2 2 /2 2 2 2
2
0
1
( ) ( 0)
3
a n
n
xy x y dxdy x x a x dx
n
+
¬ + = + ÷ ÷
+
}} }

3 3
2
2 2
2 2 /2
0 0
( )
3 3 2
n n
a
a
n
a a x
xy x y dxdy xdx
n n
+ +
(
¬ + = = ×
(
+ +
¸
}} }

( )
7 3
2
2
2 2 /2
( )
3 2 2( 3)
n n
n
a
a a
xy x y dxdy
n n
+ +
¬ + = × =
+ +
}}
(Ans)

(Nov –Dec 2007)
10. Define Beta Function.

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

Ans. The Beta function ( ) , mn  is defined as
( )
( )
( )
( )
1
0
1
1
, 1
m
n
mn x x dx 
÷
÷
= ÷
}
for m>0 and n>0 It is also known as first Eularian Integral
11. Evaluate .
Ans:
( )
2 2 2
c b a
x y z dxdydz
c a
b
+ +
÷ ÷
÷
} } }

3 3
2 2 2 2
2
2 2
3 3
a
c b c b
z a
x z y z dxdy ax ay dxdy
c c
a b b
( | | | |
¬ + + = + +
( | |
\ . \ . ÷ ÷ ¸ ¸
÷ ÷ ÷
} } } }

( )
3 3 3 3
2 2 2 2 2
2 2 4 4
2 4
3 3 3 3
b
c b a c c
ay a y ab a b
x y z dxdydz ax y dx abx dx
c a c c b
b
| | | |
¬ + + = + + = + +
| |
\ . \ . ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷
} } } } }

( )
3 3 3 3 3 3
2 2 2
4 4 4 8 8 8
3 3 3 3 3 3
c
c b a
abx ab x a bx abc ab c a bc
x y z dxdydz
c a c
b
| | | |
¬ + + = + + = + +
| |
\ . \ . ÷ ÷ ÷
÷
} } }

( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2
8
3
c b a
abc
x y z dxdydz a b c
c a
b
¬ + + = + +
÷ ÷
÷
} } }
(Ans)

12. Prove that .
Sol. ( )
( )
( )
1
1
0
1 !
log
1
n
n
n
n
m
x x dx
m
+
÷
=
+
}

( )
1
0
log
n
m
x x dx
}
……………………………………………….1
Let log
t
x t x e = ¬ =
t
dx e dt =
1 becomes
( )
( )
( )
( )
0
0
1 1
n n
m t m t
e t dt e t dt
·
+ +
¬ = ÷
·
} }
……………………………….2
( )
( )
1
1
dp
m t p dt
m
÷
+ = ÷ ¬ =
+

2 becomes
0
1
1 1
n
p
p
e dp
m m
·
÷ ÷ | | | | ÷
¬ ÷
| |
+ +
\ . \ .
}

} } }
÷ ÷ ÷
+ +
c
c
b
b
a
a
dxdydz z y x ) (
2 2 2
1 , 0 ,
) 1 (
! . ) 1 (
) .(log
1
1
0
÷ > >
+
÷
=
+ }
m n
m
n
dx x x
n
n
n m

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

( )
( )
0
1
1
1
1
n
n
p n
e p dp
m
+ ·
| | ÷
¬ ÷
|
+
\ .
}
=
( )
( )
( )
0
1
1 1
1
1
1
n
n
n
p
e p dp
m
+ ·
+ ÷
| | ÷
÷
|
+
\ .
}

( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
0
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1 1
1 1
n n
n n
n
p
e p dp n
m m
+ + ·
+ ÷
| | | | ÷
¬ ÷ = ÷ +
| |
+ +
\ . \ .
}

( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
1
1 ! 1
1 1
1
1
1
n
n
n
n
n
n
m
m
+
÷
| |
¬ ÷ + =
|
+
+
\ .
+
Hence Proved
13. Find the area enclosed by the parabolas y = 4x − x
2
,y = x .
Ans:

2
3 4
0
Area
x x
x
dxdy
÷
=
} }

|
2
3 3 3
4
2 2
0 0 0
Area (4 ) (3 )
x x
x
y dx x x x dx x x dx
÷
¬ = = ÷ ÷ = ÷
} } }

3
2 3
0
27 27 27 9
Area 3 0 0
2 3 2 3 6 2
x x (
¬ = ÷ = ÷ ÷ + = =
(
¸
(Ans)

(May-J un-2008)
14. Define Gamma Function.
Ans. Gamma function is defined as
( )
1
0
, 0
x n
n e x dx n
·
÷ ÷
= >
}

15. Evaluate the integral:
1
log
log
1 1
x
y
e e
zdxdydz
} } }

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

Sol.
1
log
log
1 1
x
y
e e
zdxdydz
} } }

( ) ( ) ( )
{ }
1 1 1
log log log
log log 0 1
1
1 1 1 1
x
x
x x
y y y
e e e e
e
zdz dxdy z z z dxdy e x e dx dy
(
| |
(
|
= ÷ = ÷ ÷ ÷
| (
\ .
¸ ¸
} } } } } } }

{ } { }
1 1 1
log log
log
log 1
1
1 1 1
x
x x x x x
y y
e e e e
y
zdxdydz e x e dx dy e x e e x dy
(
(
¬ = ÷ + = ÷ ÷ +
(
¸ ¸
} } } } } }

( ) ( ) { }
( ) { }
1
1 1
1 1
log
log log 2 log 2 1
1 1
log
log log 2 log 1
1 1
x
x
y
e e e
zdxdydz y y y y e e dy
y
e e e
zdxdydz y y y y e dy
¬ = ÷ + ÷ ÷ +
¬ = ÷ + + ÷
} } } }
} } } }

( )
2
2 2
1
log
log log log 1
4
1
1 1
x
y
e y
e e
y
zdxdydz y y y y y e
| |
¬ = ÷ ÷ + + ÷
|
\ .
} } }

( ) ( )
2 2
1
log
5
log 1 0 5/ 4 0 1
2 4
1 1
x
y
e e
e e
zdxdydz e e e e
| |
¬ = ÷ + ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷
|
\ .
} } }

2
1
log
log 2 13/ 4
4
1 1
x
y
e e
e
zdxdydz e
| |
¬ = ÷ +
|
\ .
} } }
Ans.
16. Given
1
0
1 sin( )
n
x
dx
x n

· ÷
=
+
}
Show that
1
sin( )
n n
n

÷ =
Hence evaluate
4
0
1
dy
y
·
+
}

Sol. Given that
1
0
1 sin( )
n
x
dx
x n

· ÷
=
+
}

We know that
( , )
mn
mn
m n
 =
+

( )
1
0
1
n
m n
x mn
dx
m n x
· ÷
+
¬ =
+ +
}

( ) 1 1 let m n m n + = ¬ = ÷
( )
1
0
1
1
1 1
n
m n
x nn
dx nn
x
· ÷
+
÷
¬ = = ÷
+
}

( )
1
0
1
sin( )
1
n
x
dx nn
n
x

· ÷
¬ = ÷ =
+
}

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

Therefore1
sin( )
nn
n

÷ =
Now for

4
0
1
dy
y
·
+
}
……………………………………….1
Let
4
y =x
Y=
1/4
x
Y=
3/4
1
4
dy x dx
÷
=
3/4 1/4 1
4
0 0 0
1 1 1 1 1
1
1 4 1 4 1 4sin 4 4 2 2
sin
4 2
dy x dx x dx
y x x
   
 
· · · ÷ ÷
¬ = = = = = =
+ + + | |
|
\ .
} } }
(Ans)
17. Find the area enclosed by the parabolas y
2
= 4ox,x
2
= 4oy .

Area is given by
4
0
2
2
/4
a ax
dxdy
x a
} }

| |
4 4
0 0
2
2
2
/4
2
/4
a a ax
ax
dxdy y dx
x a
x a
¬ =
} } }

4 4
2
0 0
2
2 / 4
2
/4
a a ax
dxdy ax x a dx
x a
(
¬ = ÷
¸ ¸
} } }

4
4 3 2 2 2
0
0
2 3/2
1 32 16 16
2
3/ 2 4 3 3 3 3
2
/4
a
a ax
x x a a a
dxdy a
a
x a
(
(
¬ = ÷ = ÷ = (
(
( ¸ ¸
¸ ¸
} }
(Ans)
(Nov –Dec 2008)

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

18. Write only the value of .
Ans By using Legendre duplication formula
( )
1
2
2 1
2
2
mm m
m

+ =
÷

1
4
1 1 1 1 1
2 2
1
4 4 2 4 2 2 1
2
2
2
 

| | | |
| |
\ . \ .
| | | | | | | |
+ = = =
| | | |
÷
÷
\ . \ . \ . \ .

19. Evaluate .
Ans:
( )
2 2 2
c b a
x y z dxdydz
c a
b
+ +
÷ ÷
÷
} } }

3 3
2 2 2 2
2
2 2
3 3
a
c b c b
z a
x z y z dxdy ax ay dxdy
c c
a b b
( | | | |
¬ + + = + +
( | |
\ . \ . ÷ ÷ ¸ ¸
÷ ÷ ÷
} } } }

( )
3 3 3 3
2 2 2 2 2
2 2 4 4
2 4
3 3 3 3
b
c b a c c
ay a y ab a b
x y z dxdydz ax y dx abx dx
c a c c b
b
| | | |
¬ + + = + + = + +
| |
\ . \ . ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷
} } } } }

( )
3 3 3 3 3 3
2 2 2
4 4 4 8 8 8
3 3 3 3 3 3
c
c b a
abx ab x a bx abc ab c a bc
x y z dxdydz
c a c
b
| | | |
¬ + + = + + = + +
| |
\ . \ . ÷ ÷ ÷
÷
} } }

( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2
8
3
c b a
abc
x y z dxdydz a b c
c a
b
¬ + + = + +
÷ ÷
÷
} } }
(Ans)
20. Change the order of integration
0
· · ÷
} }
y
x
e
dxdy
y
and hence evaluate it.
Ans
0
· · ÷
} }
y
x
e
dxdy
y

|
.
|

\
|
I |
.
|

\
|
I
4
3
.
4
1
} } }
÷ ÷ ÷
+ +
c
c
b
b
a
a
dxdydz z y x ) (
2 2 2

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

0
· · ÷
} }
y
x
e
dxdy
y
by changing the order of the equation we will have
0 0
y
y
e
dxdy
y
· ÷
} }

0 0 0 0
y y
y y
e e
dxdy dx dy
y y
· · ÷ ÷
| |
=
|
|
\ .
} } } }

0 0 0 0
y
y
y y
e e
dxdy x dy
y y
· · ÷ ÷
| |
¬ =
|
\ .
} } }

0 0 0 0
y
y y
y
e e
dxdy y dy e dy
y y
· · · ÷ ÷
÷
| |
¬ = =
|
\ .
} } } }

( )
0
0 0 0 0
1
y
y y
y y
e e
dxdy y dy e dy e
y y
· · · ÷ ÷
·
÷ ÷
| |
¬ = = = =
|
\ .
} } } }
(Ans).
21. Find the area of the loop of the curve oy
2
= x
2
(o − x) .
Ans.

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

Area of the loop of the curve oy
2
= x
2
(o − x) .will be given by
0 0
a x
x
a a
dxdy
÷
} }

0 0 0 0
a x a x
x x
a a a a
dxdy dy dx
÷ ÷
| |
|
= |
|
|
\ .
} } } }
……………………………..1

( )
0 0 0 0 0 0
a x a x
a x
x x
x
a a a a a
a
dxdy dy dx y dx
÷ ÷
| | ÷
|
¬ = = |
|
|
\ .
} } } } }

( )
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0
a x a x
a x
x x
x
a a a a a a
a
a x
dxdy dy dx y dx x dx
a
÷ ÷
| | ÷
|
| |
÷
¬ = = = | |
|
| \ .
|
\ .
} } } } } }

0 0 0
0
a x
x
a a a
a x
dxdy x dx
a
÷
| |
÷
¬ =
|
|
\ .
} } }
…………………………..2
Take
2
sin x a  =

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

Becomes
( ) ( )
/2 /2
2 2 2 4 2
0 0 0 0
sin cos 2 sin cos 2 sin cos
a x
x
a a
dxdy a a d a a d
 
       
÷
¬ = =
} } } }

( )
( )( )
/2 2
2 4 2 2
0 0 0
3 1 1
2 sin cos 2
6 4 2 2 16
a x
x
a a
a
dxdy a a d a

 
  
÷
×
¬ = = × =
× ×
} } }
(Ans).
(May-J un-2009)
22. Write the relation between Beta and Gamma function.
Ans:
( ). ( )
( , )
( )
m n
B mn
m n
I I
=
I +

23. Evaluate the following integral by changing of order of integration
2
4 2 2
0
a a
ax
y dxdy
y a x ÷
} }
.
Ans:

Here region of integration is x varies from0 to a, y varies from ax to a.
After changing order y varies from0 to a, x varies from 0 to
2
y
a
.

2
/
2 2
4 2 2 4 2 2
0 0 0
y a a a a
ax
y dxdy y dydx
y a x y a x
=
÷ ÷
} } } }
putting
2
a as commonwe get

2
2
4 2 2 2
2
0 0 0
2
2
a a a
ax
y
y
dydx a
y dxdy
a
y a x
y
x
a
¬ =
÷
| |
÷
|
\ .
} } } }

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

2
2 2
1
2
4 2 2 2
2
0 0 0 0
2
0
2
2
sin
a a a a
ax
y
a
y
y
dx a
y dxdy y x
a
dy dy
a y
y a x
y
x
a
a
÷
| |
(
|
(
|
(
¬ = =
|
(
| |
÷
|
| |
( |
÷
| |
| \ . ¸ ¸
\ .
\ .
} } } } }

2
2 2 2
1 1 1
2 2
4 2 2
0 0 0
0
2
sin sin sin 0
a a a a
ax
y
a
y
y dxdy y x y
a
dy dy
a a y y
y a x
a a
÷ ÷ ÷
( (
( (
( (
¬ = = ÷
( (
| | | |
÷
( ( | |
\ . \ . ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
} } } }

2 2 2
4 2 2
0 0 0
0
2 2
a a a a
ax
y dxdy y y
dy dy
a a
y a x
  (
¬ = ÷ =
(
¸ ¸ ÷
} } } }

2 2 2
3
0 4 2 2
0 0
2 6 6
a a a
a
ax
y dxdy y a
dy y
a a
y a x
  
( ¬ = = =
¸ ¸
÷
} } }
(Ans)
24. Evaluate
2 2
( )
0 0
x y
e dxdy
· ·
÷ +
} }
by changing to polar coordinates. Hence show that
2
0
2
x
e dx

·
÷
=
}
.
Ans:
2 2 2
/2
( )
0 0 0 0
x y r
r
e dxdy e rdrd

· · ·
÷ + ÷
= =
=
} } } }

2 2 2
/2
( )
0 0 0 0
1
2
2
x y r
r
e dxdy re dr d

· · ·
÷ + ÷
= =
| |
¬ = ÷ ÷
|
\ .
} } } }

2 2 2
/2
( )
0
0 0 0
1
2
x y r
e dxdy e d

· ·
·
÷ + ÷
=
(
¬ = ÷
¸
} } }

2 2
/2
( )
0 0 0
1
(0 1)
2
x y
e dxdy d

· ·
÷ +
=
¬ = ÷ ÷
} } }

|
2 2
/2
/2
( )
0
0 0 0
1 1 1
2 2 2 2 4
x y
e dxdy d

 
 
· ·
÷ +
=
¬ = = = × =
} } }
(Ans)
Now,
2 2
( )
0 0
4
x y
e dxdy

· ·
÷ +
=
} }

2 2
( ) ( )
0 0
4
x y
e dx e dy

· ·
÷ ÷
¬ =
} }

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

2 2
( ) ( )
0 0
4
x x
e dx e dx

· ·
÷ ÷
¬ =
} }

2
2
( )
0
4
x
e dx

·
÷
| |
¬ =
|
\ .
}

2
0
2
x
e dx

·
÷
¬ =
}
(Proved)

25. Find by double integration, the area lying between the parabolas
2
4 y x x = ÷ and the liney x = .
Ans:

2
3 4
0
Area
x x
x
dxdy
÷
=
} }

|
2
3 3 3
4
2 2
0 0 0
Area (4 ) (3 )
x x
x
y dx x x x dx x x dx
÷
¬ = = ÷ ÷ = ÷
} } }

3
2 3
0
27 27 27 9
Area 3 0 0
2 3 2 3 6 2
x x (
¬ = ÷ = ÷ ÷ + = =
(
¸
(Ans)

(Nov –Dec 2009)
26. Find the value of
2
0
ax
e x dx
·
÷
}
.
Ans: - ∫ c
-ux
x
2
Jx

0
Let ox =t ⇒ oJx =Jt ⇒ Jx =
1
u
Jt
=
1
u
3
∫ c
-t
t
2
Jx

0
=
1
u
3
Γ(3) =
1
u
3
×2 =
2
u
3
(Ans).

27. Change the order of integration and evaluate
4
3
0 1
( )
y
x y dxdy
÷
+
} }

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

Ans: - ∫ _∫
(x +y)Jx
¸4-¡
1
]
3
0
Jy =∫ [∫
(x +y)Jy
4-x
2
0
¸
2
1
Jx =∫ xy +
¡
2
2
[
0
4-x
2
2
1
Jx
=∫ x(4−x
2
) +
(4-x
2
)
2
2
2
1
Jx
=∫ 4x −x
3
+8− 4x
2
+
x
4
2
2
1
Jx
=2x
2

x
4
4
+8x −
4x
3
3
+
x
S
10
[
1
2

=2(4−1) −
1
4
(16− 1) +8(2−1) −
4
3
(8−1) +
1
10
(32− 1)
=6−
15
4
+8−
28
3
+
31
10
=
360-225+480-560+186
60
=
241
60
(Ans).

28. Find the volume bounded by the plane xy, the cylinder
2 2
1 x y + = and plane
3 x y z + + = .
Ans: - Volume =∭JxJyJz
=∫ ∫ ∫ JxJyJz
3-x-¡
0
√1-x
2
-√1-x
2
1
-1
=∫ ∫ z]
0
3-x-¡
JxJy
√1-x
2
-√1-x
2
1
-1

=∫ ∫
(3−x −y)JxJy =∫ 3y − xy −
¡
2
2
[
-√1-x
2
√1-x
2
Jx
1
-1
√1-x
2
-√1-x
2
1
-1

=∫
(3− x)(√1− x
2
+√1− x
2
) −
(1-x
2
-1+x
2
)
2
Jx
1
-1

=∫ 2(3− x)√1− x
2
Jx
1
-1
=∫ 6√1−x
2
− x√1− x
2
Jx
1
-1

=_6
x√1-x
2
2
+6
1
2
sin
-1
x +
2(1-x
2
)
3/ 2
3
_
-1
1

=j6(0−0) +3[
n
2
+
n
2
¸ +(0−0)[ =3n (Ans).

29. Prove that:
1 1 2
4 4
0 0
4 2
1 1
x dx dx
x x

× =
÷ +
} }
.
Ans: - ∫
x
2
dx
√1-x
4
1
0
Let x
2
=sint ⇒ 2xJx =costJt ⇒ Jx =
costdt
2x
=
cost
2√sìnt
Jt
⇒ ∫
x
2
dx
√1-x
4
1
0
=∫
sìnt
cost
n/ 2
0
cost
2√sìnt
Jt =
1
2
∫ √sintJt
n/ 2
0
=
1
2
Γ_
1
2
+1
2
_Γ[
1
2
¸
Γ_
1
2
+2
2
_
=
1
2
Γ[
3
4
¸
Γ[
S
4
¸
√n
2

⇒ ∫
x
2
dx
√1-x
4
1
0
=
1
2
Γ[
3
4
¸
Γ[
S
4
¸
√n
2
----------------------------------(1)

dx
√1+x
4
1
0
Let x
2
=tont ⇒ 2xJx =scc
2
tJt ⇒ Jx =
scc
2
tdt
2x
=
scc
2
tdt
2√tunt
Jt
⇒ ∫
dx
√1+x
4
1
0
=∫
1
scct
n/ 4
0
scc
2
tdt
2√tunt
Jt =
1
2

scctdt
√tunt
Jt
n/ 4
0
=
1
2

dt
√sìntcost
Jt
n/ 4
0

⇒ ∫
dx
√1+x
4
1
0
=
1
√2

dt
√sìn2t
Jt
n/ 4
0
Let 2t =0 ⇒ 2Jt =J0 ⇒ Jt =
d0
2

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

⇒ ∫
dx
√1+x
4
1
0
=
1
2√2

d0
√sìn0
n/ 2
0
=
1
2√2
Γ_
-1
2
+1
2
_Γ[
1
2
¸
Γ_
-1
2
+2
2
_
=
1
2√2
Γ[
1
4
¸
Γ[
3
4
¸
√n
2
--------------------(2)
Now, ∫
x
2
dx
√1-x
4
1
0
×∫
dx
√1+x
4
1
0
=
1
2
Γ[
3
4
¸
Γ[
S
4
¸
√n
2
×
1
2√2
Γ[
1
4
¸
Γ[
3
4
¸
√n
2

⇒ ∫
x
2
dx
√1-x
4
1
0
×∫
dx
√1+x
4
1
0
=
1
16√2
Γ[
1
4
¸
Γ[
S
4
¸
n =
1
16√2
Γ[
1
4
¸
1
4
Γ[
1
4
¸
n =
n
4√2
(Ans).
(May-J un-2010)
30. Compute, [ [
9
2
,
7
2
¸.
Ans: -
9 7
7 5 3 1 5 3 1
. . . . . . . .
9 7 5 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
,
9 7 2 2 7.6.5.4.3.2.1 2048
2 2
 

| | | |
I I
| |
| |
\ . \ .
= = =
|
| |
\ .
I +
|
\ .
(Ans).
31. Show that : ∫
dx
√1-x
6
=
√3
2
1
0

dx
√1-x
3
=
__[
1
3
¸_
3
2
¨
3
,
.n
1
0
.
Ans: -
}
÷
1
0
6
1 x
dx
putting      d dx x x cos sin
3
1
sin sin
3 / 2 3 / 1 3 ÷
= ¬ = ¬ =

} } } }
÷ ÷ ÷
÷
= = =
÷
2 /
0
1 ) 2 / 1 ( 2 1 ) 6 / 1 ( 2
2 /
0
3 / 2
2 /
0
3 / 2
1
0
6
cos sin
3
1
sin
3
1
cos
cos sin
3
1
1
  
   

  
d d
d
x
dx

( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) 3 / 2
. 6 / 1
6
1
3 / 2 2
2 / 1 . 6 / 1
3
1
1
1
0
6
I
I
=
I
I I
=
÷
¬
}

x
dx
--------------------(1)
By Legendre’s Duplication method ( ) ( ) n n n
n
2
2 2
1
1 2
I = |
.
|

\
|
+ I I
÷

---------(2)
Now, putting
6
1
= n in eqn (2) we get ( ) ( ) ( ) 3 / 1
2
3 / 2 6 / 1
3 / 2
I = I I
÷

( )
( )
( ) 3 / 2
3 / 1 2
6 / 1
3 / 2
I
I
= I ¬

So, equation (1) becomes

( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( ) 3 / 2 3 / 2
3 / 1 2
6
1
3 / 2
3 / 1 2
3 / 2 6
1
1
3 / 2 3 / 2 1
0
6
I I
I
=
I
I
I
=
÷
¬
}
  
x
dx

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

( ) ( ) | |
( ) ( ) | |
( ) | |
| |
2
3 3 / 2
2
2 3 / 2 1
0
6
) 3 / sin( /
3 / 1 . 2
6
1
3 / 2 3 / 1
3 / 1 3 / 1 2
6
1
1
 
  I
=
I I
I I
=
÷
¬
}
x
dx
as
n
r
n
r
n
r

sin
1 . =
|
.
|

\
|
÷ I
|
.
|

\
|
I

( ) | | ( ) | |
3 / 7
3 3 3 / 2 1
0
6
2
3 / 1 .
4 .
3 . 3 / 1 . 2
6
1
1
 
I
=
I
=
÷
¬
}
x
dx
(Proved)--------(I )
Again
}
÷
1
0
3
1
2
3
x
dx
putting     d dx x cos sin
3
2
sin
3 / 1 3 / 2 ÷
= ¬ =

} } } }
÷ ÷ ÷
÷
= = =
÷
2 /
0
1 ) 2 / 1 ( 2 1 ) 3 / 1 ( 2
2 /
0
3 / 1
2 /
0
3 / 1
1
0
3
cos sin
3
1
cos sin
3
1
cos
cos sin
3
2
2
3
1
2
3
  
    

  
d d
d
x
dx

( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) 6 / 5
. 3 / 1
3 2
1
6 / 5 2
2 / 1 . 3 / 1
3
1
1
2
3
1
0
3
I
I
=
I
I I
=
÷
¬
}

x
dx
-----------------(3)
By Legendre’s Duplication method ( ) ( ) n n n
n
2
2 2
1
1 2
I = |
.
|

\
|
+ I I
÷

---------(4)
Now, putting
3
1
= n in eqn (4) we get ( ) ( ) ( ) 3 / 2
2
6 / 5 3 / 1
3 / 2
I = I I
÷

( )
( )
( ) 3 / 1
3 / 2 2
6 / 5
3 / 2
I
I
= I ¬

So, equation (3) becomes

( )
( )
( )
( ) | |
( ) 3 / 2
3 / 1
3 2
1
3 / 1
3 / 2 2
3 / 1
3 2
1
1
2
3
2
3 / 5 3 / 2
1
0
3
I
I
=
I
I
I
=
÷
¬
}

x
dx

( ) | | ( )
( ) ( )
( ) | |
) 3 / sin( /
3 / 1
3 2
1
3 / 2 3 / 1
3 / 1 3 / 1
3 2
1
1
2
3
3
3 / 5
2
3 / 5
1
0
3
 
I
=
I I
I I
=
÷
¬
}
x
dx

as
n
r
n
r
n
r

sin
1 . =
|
.
|

\
|
÷ I
|
.
|

\
|
I

( ) | | ( ) | |
 
3 / 7
3 3
3 / 5
1
0
3
2
3 / 1
2
3 3 / 1
3 2
1
1
2
3 I
=
I
=
÷
¬
}
x
dx
(Proved)--------------(I I )

From(I) and (II)

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

3 / 7
3
1
0
3
1
0
6
2
3
1
1
2
3
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
÷
=
÷
} }
x
dx
x
dx
(Proved)

32. Change the order of following integration: ∫ ∫ xy Jx Jy
2-x
x
2
1
0
and evaluate.
Ans: From
2
1 2
0
x
x
I xydxdy
÷
=
} }
, region of integration is
2
, 2 , 0, 1 y x y x x x = = ÷ = =

By changing of order of integration we get two regions
In one region limit of x is 0, x x y = = and limit of y is 0, 1 y y = =
In another region limit of x is 0, 2 x x y = = ÷ and limit of y is 1, 2 y y = =
So,
2
2 1 2 1 2
0 0 0 1 0
y y x
x
I xydxdy xydydx xydydx
÷ ÷
= = +
} } } } } }

2 1 2
0 0 1 0
y y
I xydx dy xydx dy
÷
| |
| |
| ¬ = +
|
|
|
\ .
\ .
} } } }

2
1 2 2 2
0 1 0 0
2 2
y y
x y x y
I dy dy
÷
( (
¬ = +
( (
¸ ¸
} }

1 2 2 2
0 1
0 (2 ) 0
2 2
y y y
I dy dy
÷ ÷ ÷
¬ = +
} }

1 2 2 3
2
0 1
2 2
2 2
y y
I dy y y dy ¬ = + ÷ +
} }

1 2
3 3 4
2
0 1
2
6 3 8
y y y
I y
( (
¬ = + ÷ +
( (
¸ ¸

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

1 16 16 2 1
0 4 1
6 3 8 3 8
I ¬ = ÷ + ÷ + ÷ + ÷

8
3
24
9
24
155 164
24
3 16 24 48 128 96 4
= =
÷
=
÷ + ÷ + ÷ +
= ¬ I (Ans).

33. Find the volume enclosed by the cylinders
x
2
+y
2
=2ax and z
2
=2ax.
Ans: -
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 0 ( ) x y ax x y ax x a y a + = ¬ + ÷ = ¬ ÷ + =
At
2 2
0,( ) 0,2 y x a a x a = ÷ = ¬ =
Volume =
2
2
2 2 2
0 2
2
a ax x ax
ax
ax x
dxdydz
÷
÷
÷ ÷
} } }

¬Volume =
|
2
2
2 2
2
2
0
2
a ax x
ax
ax
ax x
z dxdy
÷
÷
÷ ÷
} }

¬Volume =
|
2
2
2
2
2 2 2
2
2
0 0
2
2 2 2 2
a ax x a
ax x
ax x
ax x
axdxdy a x y dx
÷
÷
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
| |
=
|
\ .
} } }

¬Volume =
2
2
0
2 2 .2 2
a
a x ax x dx ÷
}

¬Volume =
2
2
0
4 2 . 2
a
a x ax x dx ÷
}
Let
2
2 sin 4 sin cos x a dx a d     = ¬ =
¬Volume =
/2
0
4 2 2 sin .2 sin cos .4 sin cos a a a a d

     
}

¬Volume =
/2 3
3 3 2 3
0
2 128
64 sin .cos 64 .
5 3 15
a
a d a

   = =
×
}
(Ans).
(Nov –Dec 2010)
34. Write the relation between beta and gamma function.
( ) ( )
( , ) .
( )
m n
B mn
m n
I I
=
I +

35. Change the order of integration and evaluate :
2
4 2
0 /4
a ax
x a
I dydx =
} }

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

2
4 2
0 /4
a ax
x a
I dydx =
} }
By changing the order of the integration we will have figure below and the
solution will be
2 2
2
4 2 4
0 0 /4 /4
ay
a ax a
x a y a
dydx dydx =
} } } }

=

2
4
0 2
/4
ay
a
dydx
y a
} }
=

| |
4
0
2
4
2
2
/4
0 2
/4
a ay
a
ay
dydx x dy
y a
y a
¬ =
} }
}

4 4
2
0 0
2
2 / 4
2
/4
a a
ay
dxdy ay y a dy
y a
(
¬ = ÷
¸ ¸
} } }

4
4 3 2 2 2
0
0
2
3/2
1 32 16 16
2
3/ 2 4 3 3 3 3
2
/4
a
a
ay
y y a a a
dxdy a
a
y a
(
(
¬ = ÷ = ÷ = (
(
( ¸ ¸
¸ ¸
} }
(Ans)

36. Evaluate :
2 2
2
1
1 1
0 0 0
x y
x
I xyzdydxdz
÷ ÷
÷
=
} } }

Sol.

2 2
2 2
2 2
1
1
1 1 1 1 2
0 0 0 0 0 0
2
x y
x y
x x
xyz
I xyzdydxdz dydx
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
(
= =
(
¸ ¸
} } } } }

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

( )
2 2
2 2
2 2 1
1 1 1 1
0 0 0 0 0
1
2
x y
x x
xy x y
I xyzdydxdz dydx
÷ ÷
÷ ÷ (
÷ ÷
(
¬ = =
(
¸ ¸
} } } } }

( )
2 2
2 2
3 3 1
1 1 1 1
0 0 0 0 0
2
x y
x x
xy x y y x
I xyzdydxdz dydx
÷ ÷
÷ ÷ (
÷ ÷
(
¬ = =
(
¸ ¸
} } } } }

2
2 2
2
1
2 3 2 4
1 1 1 1
0 0 0 0
0
2 2 4
2
x
x y x
xy x y y x
I xyzdydxdz dx
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
(
| |
÷ ÷ (
|
( \ .
¬ = =
(
(
(
¸ ¸
} } } }

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2 2 4
2 3 2 2
1 1 1 1
0 0 0 0
1 1 1
4 4 8
x y x x x x x x x
I xyzdydxdz dx
÷ ÷ ÷
| |
÷ ÷ ÷
|
¬ = = ÷ ÷
|
|
\ .
} } } }

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
2
2
2 3 2 2 1
1 1 1
0 0 0 0
1 1 1
4 4 8
x y
x
x x x x x x
I xyzdydxdz dx
÷ ÷
÷ | |
÷ ÷ ÷
|
¬ = = ÷ ÷
|
\ .
} } } }

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
2
3 3 5 5 3 1
1 1 1
0 0 0 0
2
4 4 8
x y
x
x x x x x x x
I xyzdydxdz dx
÷ ÷
÷ | |
÷ ÷ + ÷
|
¬ = = ÷ ÷
|
\ .
} } } }

2 2 2
1
2 4 4 6 2 6 4
1 1 1
0 0 0
0
2
2 4 4 6 2 6 4
4 4 8
x y x
x x x x x x x
I xyzdydxdz
÷ ÷ ÷
| |
| | | | | |
| ÷ ÷ + ÷
| | |
| \ . \ . \ .
¬ = = ÷ ÷
|
|
|
\ .
} } }

2 2 2
1 1 1
0 0 0
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
8 16 16 24 16 48 16
x y x
I xyzdydxdz
÷ ÷ ÷
| | | | | |
¬ = = ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷
| | |
\ . \ . \ .
} } }

2 2 2
1 1 1
0 0 0
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
8 16 16 24 16 48 16 48
x y x
I xyzdydxdz
÷ ÷ ÷
| |
¬ = = ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷ + =
|
\ .
} } }
(Ans)
37. Given
1
0
1 sin( )
n
x
dx
x n

· ÷
=
+
}
Show that
1
sin( )
nn
n

÷ =
Hence evaluate
4
0
1
dy
y
·
+
}

Sol. Given that
1
0
1 sin( )
n
x
dx
x n

· ÷
=
+
}

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

We know that
( , )
mn
mn
m n
 =
+

( )
1
0
1
n
m n
x mn
dx
m n x
· ÷
+
¬ =
+ +
}

( ) 1 1 let m n m n + = ¬ = ÷
( )
1
0
1
1
1 1
n
m n
x nn
dx nn
x
· ÷
+
÷
¬ = = ÷
+
}

( )
1
0
1
sin( )
1
n
x
dx nn
n
x

· ÷
¬ = ÷ =
+
}

Therefore1
sin( )
nn
n

÷ =
Now for

4
0
1
dy
y
·
+
}
……………………………………….1
Let
4
y =x
Y=
1/4
x
Y=
3/4
1
4
dy x dx
÷
=
3/4 1/4 1
4
0 0 0
1 1 1 1 1
1
1 4 1 4 1 4sin 4 4 2 2
sin
4 2
dy x dx x dx
y x x
   
 
· · · ÷ ÷
¬ = = = = = =
+ + + | |
|
\ .
} } }
(Ans)

(May-J un-2011)
38. Evaluate
3
2
÷

Ans. We know that
( 1) ( ) n n n + =
( 1)
( )
n
n
n
+
=
3
1
3 2
3 2
2
÷ | |
+
|
÷ | |
\ .
=
|
÷ | |
\ .
|
\ .

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

1
3 2
3 2
2
÷ | |
|
÷ | |
\ .
¬ =
|
÷ | |
\ .
|
\ .
………………………..1
As we know that
( 1)
( )
n
n
n
+
=
Therefore we will have
1 1
1
1 2 2
1 1 2
2 2
÷ | | | |
+
| |
÷ | |
\ . \ .
= =
|
÷ ÷ | | | |
\ .
| |
\ . \ .
…………………..2
From 1 and 2 we will have
1
2
1 1
3 2 2
3 3 1 2
2 2 2
| |
|
\ .
÷ | | | |
| |
÷ | |
\ . \ .
¬ = =
|
÷ ÷ ÷ | | | | | |
\ .
×
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

1
4
3 2
2 3

| |
|
÷ | |
\ .
¬ =
|
\ .
Ans

39. Evaluate the following integral by changing of order of integration
2
4 2 2
0
a a
ax
y dxdy
y a x ÷
} }
.
Ans:

Here region of integration is x varies from0 to a, y varies from ax to a.

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

After changing order y varies from0 to a, x varies from 0 to
2
y
a
.

2
/
2 2
4 2 2 4 2 2
0 0 0
y a a a a
ax
y dxdy y dydx
y a x y a x
=
÷ ÷
} } } }
putting
2
a as commonwe get

2
2
4 2 2 2
2
0 0 0
2
2
a a a
ax
y
y
dydx a
y dxdy
a
y a x
y
x
a
¬ =
÷
| |
÷
|
\ .
} } } }

2
2 2
1
2
4 2 2 2
2
0 0 0 0
2
0
2
2
sin
a a a a
ax
y
a
y
y
dx a
y dxdy y x
a
dy dy
a y
y a x
y
x
a
a
÷
| |
(
|
(
|
(
¬ = =
|
(
| |
÷
|
| |
( |
÷
| |
| \ . ¸ ¸
\ .
\ .
} } } } }

2
2 2 2
1 1 1
2 2
4 2 2
0 0 0
0
2
sin sin sin 0
a a a a
ax
y
a
y
y dxdy y x y
a
dy dy
a a y y
y a x
a a
÷ ÷ ÷
( (
( (
( (
¬ = = ÷
( (
| | | |
÷
( ( | |
\ . \ . ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
} } } }

2 2 2
4 2 2
0 0 0
0
2 2
a a a a
ax
y dxdy y y
dy dy
a a
y a x
  (
¬ = ÷ =
(
¸ ¸ ÷
} } } }

2 2 2
3
0 4 2 2
0 0
2 6 6
a a a
a
ax
y dxdy y a
dy y
a a
y a x
  
( ¬ = = =
¸ ¸
÷
} } }
(Ans)
40. State and prove relation between beta and gamma function.
Ans: The Beta function is defined as
1 1
1 1
0 0
( , ) (1 ) , , 0
(1 )
n
m n
m n
x
B mn x x dx dx mn
x
· ÷
÷ ÷
+
= ÷ = >
+
} }
.
We know that
1
0
( ) .
x n
n e x dx
·
÷ ÷
I =
}
By putting x az dx adz = ¬ = we get

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

1
0
( ) .( )
az n
·
÷ ÷
¬ I =
}

1
0
( ) .
n az n
n a e z dz
·
÷ ÷
¬ I =
}
Putting z =x we get

1
0
( ) .
n ax n
n a e x dx
·
÷ ÷
¬ I =
}
Now, taking a =z we get

1
0
( ) .
zx n n
n e x z dx
·
÷ ÷
¬ I =
}

By multiplying
1 z m
e z
÷ ÷
both side we get

1 (1 ) 1 1
0
( ) .
z m z x n m n
n e z e x z dx
·
÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷ + ÷
¬ I =
}

Now taking integration with respect to z both side from 0 z= ÷ ·we get

1 1 (1 ) 1
0 0 0
( ) .
z m n z x m n
n e z dz x e z dzdx
· · ·
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ + + ÷
¬ I =
} } }

Now, let (1 )
1 1
y dy
z x y z dz
x x
+ = ¬ = ¬ =
+ +
we get

1
1
0 0
.
( ) ( )
(1 )
y m n
n
m n
e y dy
n m x dx
x
· · ÷ + ÷
÷
+
(
¬ I I =
(
+
¸ ¸
} }

1
1
0 0
( ) ( ) .
(1 )
n
y m n
m n
x
n m e y dy dx
x
· · ÷
÷ + ÷
+
(
¬ I I =
(
+
¸ ¸
} }

1
0
( ) ( ) ( )
(1 )
n
m n
x
m n m n dx
x
· ÷
+
¬ I I = I +
+
}

1
0
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ). ( , )
(1 )
n
m n
x
m n m n dx m n B mn
x
· ÷
+
¬ I I = I + = I +
+
}

( ) ( )
( , ) .
( )
m n
B mn
m n
I I
¬ =
I +
(proved)

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

41. Find the volume common to gas cylinder
2 2 2 2 2 2
, x y a x z a + = + = .
Ans:

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 0 0 0
Volume 8
a a x a x a a x a x
a
a x a x
dxdydz dxdydz
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
¬ = =
} } } } } }

|
2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2
0
0 0 0 0
Volume 8 8
a a x a a x
a x
z dxdy a x dxdy
÷ ÷
÷
¬ = = ÷
} } } }

|
2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
0
0 0 0
Volume 8 . 8 . 8 ( )
a a a
a x
a x y dx a x a x dx a x dx
÷
¬ = ÷ = ÷ ÷ = ÷
} } }

3 3 3 3
2 2
0
2 16
Volume 8 8 8
3 3 3 3
a
x a a a
a x a
( | | | |
¬ = ÷ = ÷ = × =
( | |
\ . \ . ¸
(Ans).
(Nov –Dec 2011)
42. Write the relation between Beta and Gamma function
Ans: - The relation between beta & gamma function is
( ) ( )
( , )
( )
m n
mn
m n

I I
=
I +
.
43. Change the order of integration
0
· · ÷
} }
y
x
e
dxdy
y
and hence evaluate it.
Ans
0
· · ÷
} }
y
x
e
dxdy
y

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

0
· · ÷
} }
y
x
e
dxdy
y
by changing the order of the equation we will have
0 0
y
y
e
dxdy
y
· ÷
} }

0 0 0 0
y y
y y
e e
dxdy dx dy
y y
· · ÷ ÷
| |
=
|
|
\ .
} } } }

0 0 0 0
y
y
y y
e e
dxdy x dy
y y
· · ÷ ÷
| |
¬ =
|
\ .
} } }

0 0 0 0
y
y y
y
e e
dxdy y dy e dy
y y
· · · ÷ ÷
÷
| |
¬ = =
|
\ .
} } } }

( )
0
0 0 0 0
1
y
y y
y y
e e
dxdy y dy e dy e
y y
· · · ÷ ÷
·
÷ ÷
| |
¬ = = = =
|
\ .
} } } }
(Ans).

44. Find the volume common to the cylinder
2 2 2 2 2 2
, x y a x z a + = + = .

Ans:

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 0 0 0
Volume 8
a a x a x a a x a x
a
a x a x
dxdydz dxdydz
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
¬ = =
} } } } } }

|
2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2
0
0 0 0 0
Volume 8 8
a a x a a x
a x
z dxdy a x dxdy
÷ ÷
÷
¬ = = ÷
} } } }

|
2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
0
0 0 0
Volume 8 . 8 . 8 ( )
a a a
a x
a x y dx a x a x dx a x dx
÷
¬ = ÷ = ÷ ÷ = ÷
} } }

3 3 3 3
2 2
0
2 16
Volume 8 8 8
3 3 3 3
a
x a a a
a x a
( | | | |
¬ = ÷ = ÷ = × =
( | |
\ . \ . ¸
(Ans).
45. Prove that
2
1 2 1
2 2 1
n
n
n
n
 +
+ =
+

Ans.
( ) 2 1
1 2 1
1
2 2 2
n
n
n
÷
+
¬ + = = +
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 3 2 3
1
1 ..........
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
n n n n n n
n
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
¬ + = + = = × ×
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 2 1 2 1 2 3 2 5 2 7
1 1 1
1 ............
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
n n n n n
n
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
¬ + = + = × × × ×
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 2 1 . 2 3 . 2 5 . 2 7 ................1 1
2 2
n n n n
n
n

÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
¬ + =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2 . 2 1 . 2 2 . 2 3 . 2 4 . 2 5 . 2 6 . 2 7 ................1 1
2 2 .2 . 2 2 . 2 4 . 2 6 ......................2
n n n n n n n n
n
n
n n n n

÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
¬ + =
÷ ÷ ÷

( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 !
2 2 .2 . 1 . 2 . 3 ......................1
n
n
n n
n n n
 ¬ + =
÷ ÷ ÷

1 2 !
2
2
2 . !
n
n
n
n
 ¬ + =
1 2 1
2
2
2 . 1
n
n
n
n

+
¬ + =
+
hence Proved

(May-J un-2012)

46. Evaluate the following Integral:

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

2 3
2
0 1
xy dxdy
} }

( )
3 2
3 2
2 3 2 2
2
0 1 0 0
1 0
26 26
52/ 3
3 3 6
xy x x
xy dy dx dx dx
| | | |
| |
¬ = = = =
| | |
\ .
\ . \ .
} } } }

47. Evaluate the following integral by changing the order of integration:
0
y
x
e
dydx
y
÷
· ·
} }

Ans
0
· · ÷
} }
y
x
e
dxdy
y

0
· · ÷
} }
y
x
e
dxdy
y
by changing the order of the equation we will have
0 0
y
y
e
dxdy
y
· ÷
} }

0 0 0 0
y y
y y
e e
dxdy dx dy
y y
· · ÷ ÷
| |
=
|
|
\ .
} } } }

0 0 0 0
y
y
y y
e e
dxdy x dy
y y
· · ÷ ÷
| |
¬ =
|
\ .
} } }

0 0 0 0
y
y y
y
e e
dxdy y dy e dy
y y
· · · ÷ ÷
÷
| |
¬ = =
|
\ .
} } } }

( )
0
0 0 0 0
1
y
y y
y y
e e
dxdy y dy e dy e
y y
· · · ÷ ÷
·
÷ ÷
| |
¬ = = = =
|
\ .
} } } }
(Ans).

48. Given
1
0
1 sin
n
x
dx
x n

÷
·
=
+
}
, show that ( ) (1 )
sin
n n
n

÷ =

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

Sol. Given that
1
0
1 sin( )
n
x
dx
x n

· ÷
=
+
}

We know that
( , )
mn
mn
m n
 =
+

( )
1
0
1
n
m n
x mn
dx
m n x
· ÷
+
¬ =
+ +
}

( ) 1 1 let m n m n + = ¬ = ÷
( )
1
0
1
1
1 1
n
m n
x nn
dx nn
x
· ÷
+
÷
¬ = = ÷
+
}

( )
1
0
1
sin( )
1
n
x
dx nn
n
x

· ÷
¬ = ÷ =
+
}

Therefore1
sin( )
nn
n

÷ =
Now for

4
0
1
dy
y
·
+
}
……………………………………….1
Let
4
y =x
Y=
1/4
x
Y=
3/4
1
4
dy x dx
÷
=
3/4 1/4 1
4
0 0 0
1 1 1 1 1
1
1 4 1 4 1 4sin 4 4 2 2
sin
4 2
dy x dx x dx
y x x
   
 
· · · ÷ ÷
¬ = = = = = =
+ + + | |
|
\ .
} } }
(Ans)
49. Find the area included between the parabola:
2
4 y x x = ÷ and the line y x =
Ans:

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

2
3 4
0
Area
x x
x
dxdy
÷
=
} }

|
2
3 3 3
4
2 2
0 0 0
Area (4 ) (3 )
x x
x
y dx x x x dx x x dx
÷
¬ = = ÷ ÷ = ÷
} } }

3
2 3
0
27 27 27 9
Area 3 0 0
2 3 2 3 6 2
x x (
¬ = ÷ = ÷ ÷ + = =
(
¸
(Ans)

.

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