LECTURE NOTE EKOLOGI LAHAN BASAH (WETLAND ECOLOGY

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By Prabang Setyono
Ekologi merupakan ekspresi dari dinamika fisiologi makhluk hidup (interaksi dengan lingkungannya). Hidroekosfir meliputi Freshwater (inland water) dan Marine Water (oceanologi). Dalam perkembangan selanjutnya muncul istilah Brackish water. Inland water meliputi wetland (lahan basah) dipermukaan bumi yang meliputi Intermediate terrestrial dan open water. “ Wetland is an area covered with water and supporting aquatic plants and be located between open water and upland. Definisi wetland yaitu: 1. Adanya kehadiran air meskipun water tablenya dibawah tanah, 2. Mempunyai tanah yang unik yang berbeda dengan tanah didekatnya, 3. Mendukung vegetasi yang dapat beradaptasi terhadap kondisi basah (hidrophyt), 4. Berada di tepi daerah perairan yang dalam dan daerah Upland (dataran tinggi) sehingga dipengaruhi oleh dua tipe sehingga terdapat ciri aquatik dan cirri terrestrial, 5. Ukuran wetland sangat bervariasi dari Pathol (kubangan kecil) sampai seluas-luasnya, 6. Lokasinya bervariasi dari inland (darat) sampai coastal serta kondisinya dari region ke region. Wetland (Lahan basah) atau sering disebut sebagai KIDNEY OF LANDSCAPE karena fungsinya dalam siklus hidrologi dan kimia sebagai penerima material di hilir (down stream) dan umumnya tidak mempunyai batas yang jelas (arbitrer). Hal tersebut secara ekologi karena posisinya di daerah ECOTONE (AMPHIBIOUS) atau wilayah transisi dalam suatu lanscape atau bentang lahan. Berdasarkan peranannya maka lahan basah akan melakukan proses SINK, TRANSFORMER atau LALULINTAS SEMENTARA (SOURCE) material hara/logam berat yang dibawa oleh inflow lahan basah tersebut. Lahan basah juga disebut sebagai komponen yang unik dari bentang lahan dan dapat dibagi menjadi daerah COASTAL untuk mencegah intrusi air laut (pantai dengan salinitas min 35 o/oo) seperti Salt Marsh, mangrove wetland, intertidal wetland dan hutan bakau serta INLAND WETLAND / FRESH WATER (seperti tidal salt marsh (dibagi menjadi low intertidal zone misalnya: spartina (vegetasi) dan high tidal zone

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misalnya juncos (rumput), tidal freshwater marsh/rawa buritan, rawa pasangsurut/tidal sulfatquept wetland misal di Kalimantan serta riparian atau river dengan salinitas 0,5 o/oo). Wetland dipelajari dalam ilmu yang bernama Telmatologi (rawa) dan merupakan perkembangan dari Limnologi yang mempelajari Brackhis water, Salin Water dan Fresh Water. Wetland berada diantara 2 interface (darat dan perairan) dan mempunyai Water Log Soil (becek) serta Water table (tinggi muka air yang dinamis). Wetland didisain bagian dari landscape sebagai Ecotourism, wetland restoration (pengembalian fungsi) dan wetland creation (wetland yang memang dibuat). Fungsi wetland adalah: Pembersih air yang tercemar (kebalikannya dengan Wasteland) Pencegah banjir Mencegah intrusi air laut Recharge ground water aquifer Berperan besar dalam lanscape Menmyediakan habitat unik untuk flora dan fauna

Wetland berdasarkan keberadaannya merupakan ENDANGER ECOSYSTEM karena daerahnya selalu strategis sehingga rawan terhadap proses reklamasi (pengubahan ekosistem) dan bersifat UBIQUITOS (terdapat dimana-mana) dari ekosistem tropik sampai tundra. Contoh reklamasi wetland adalah proses pengeringan untuk lapangan terbang, pertanian dan urban. Di dunia komposisinya 71 % merupakan daerah perairan, 30 % daratan serta 6 % nya merupakan wetland. Berdasarkan regionnya maka wetland dibagi: Arid region (inland salt flats), Humid cool region (bogs dan fens/musiman jika ada hujan saja) serta Coast line region (pantai meliputi salt marsh / rawa garam dan mangrove swamp atau forested wetland dan not forested wetland). Kedalaman semakain besar maka salinitasnya juga semakin meningkat. Cirikhas daerah tropik transportasi silt sungai (pasir) terjadi proses flokulasi yang terdistribusi, sedangkan daerah temperate (California) maka flokulasinya akan diendapkan sehingga akan terjadi timbunan silt yang akan menjadi pulau di tengah estuarin. Ekologi merupakan ilmu yang mempelajari interaksi yang menentukan distribusi dan kemelimpahan makhluk hidup. Ekologi bentang lahan merupakan kajian yang mempelajari interaksi antar ekosistem mulai dari lautan sampai daerah pegunungan

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Spesies Indikator di Wetland akan mempunyai sifat: 3 . Hal ini diperkuat oleh WHITTAKER dengan konsepnya Lanskape Ekologi. Demikian juga komposisi biokimia pada Poured Water / Interstitiil Water (air disela-sela tanahnya). Wetland disini dapat diilustrasikan sebagai daerah Intermedia antara Terestrial dan Open Water. Konsep ekologi Modern dengan kajian komunitas dikemukakan oleh HUTCHINGSON sedangkan konsep biogeografi kepulauan dikemukakan oleh Mc. Konsep komunitas menurut CLEMENT ditinjau dari grafik dinamikanya merupakan konsep batas yang Arbitrer (batas yang jelas antara komunitas satu dengan lainnya).berdasarkan struktur dan fungsi. vegetasi yang didukung oleh kondisi basah serta kadang dijumpai vegetasi yang Ruderal (musiman) sehingga vegetasi yang tidak toleran terhadap banjir tidak akan hadir. tanah yang unik dengan dataran sekitar yang lebih tinggi. Pola konservasinya pada habitat bukan spesiesnya. c. d. Penelitian dibidang ekologi bentang lahan dibagi menjadi: Field Experiment: penelitian di lapangan Natural experiment: monitoring ( terdapat dua macam metode yaitu Trajectory merupakan penelitian longterm research dan Potret/Snapshot penelitian saat itu) Laboratory experiment: Mendisain percobaan Kekhasan wetland meliputi: air. ARTHUR. b. Presipitasi (adanya curah hujan dan salju) Surface Run off Ground water (aliran air bawah tanah) Tides (adanya pasang surut) Hal tersebut akan membawa konsekuensi adanya energi (hara) yang terbawa dari dan ke Wetland. Adanya hidrologi input (sumber utama hara ke Wetland) dan out putnya (dapat pindahkan materi biotik maupun abiotik ke tempat lain) wetland tersebut akan mempengaruhi pada komposisi biokimia tanah misalnya dalam bentuk sediment Mud (Lumpur) maupun Peat (gambut) sehingga akan menyeleksi biota wetland. Berdasarkan konsep GLASSON (prominent ecology) bahwa batas antar komunitas bersifat Diffuse / Continuum (batasnya tidak jelas). Hidrologi Wetland meliputi: a.

Standing Water merupakan genangan air. Berdasarkan Hidroperiode wetland yang dipengaruhi oleh tidal (pasang surut) 4 . Kisaran adaptasi terhadap lingkungan yang sempit. Hidroperiod merupakan integrasi antara inflow dan outflow air yang dipengaruhi penampakanfisik topografinya (terrain). Peat building (pembuat sediment gambut) b. Aliran air (water shading) d. Perangkap sediment (sediment trapping) c. Flood Duration merupakan lamanya waktu banjir atau jumlah lamanya waktu wetland dalam keadaan digenangi air. Transpirasi Vegetasi Mangrove bertindak sebagai sediment Trapping karena sediment tersebut ada terlebih dahulu. Organismenya mudah dilihat secara visual. SWAMP dapat berupa shrub (semak) dan wooded (berkayu) sehingga terdapat di hutan. Pada bentuk BOG akan membentuk peta (gambut) pada daerah Surface Water kondisi anaerob (miskin oksigen) dan cenderung terjadi proses fermentasi menghasilkan asam organic dan gas sehingga sulit untuk mendegradasi seresah (litter) serta didominasi sphagnum (lumut) bersifat oligotropik. BUDGET HIDROLOGI WETLAND Hydroperiod merupakan pola musiman level air (water level ialah tinggi muka air) yang harus dijaga stabilitasnya. Bentuk FEN merupakan tipologi wetland secara musiman karena tergantung hidrologi dari air hujan serta akumulasi bahan organic dan didominasi Seddling-sedling. Kemampuan biotik vegetasi akan mengontrol kondisi air melalui: a. Flood Frequency (perioda genangan) merupakan rata-rata waktu wetland digenangi air sehingga pada wetland muncul istilah Riparian wetland dan coastal salt wetland. MARSH dicirikan dengan ketinggiannya ± 15 cm didominasi herba emergent.mempunyai toleransi yang kecil terhadap stress lingkungan. Tiap rawa akan mempunyai cirikhas pola hidrioperiod (naik turunnya tinggi muka air dan permukaan bawah). Wetland sangat sensitive terhadap perubahan pola normal Water Storagenya dan Movementnya sehingga disebut sebagai Fragile Ecosystem (ekosistem yang rapuh).

Water tablenya jika tidak digenangi akan berada jauh dibawah permukaan 7. dana akan digenangi dalam periode pendek dalam masa pertumbuhan. permukaannya akan mempunyai air pada periode yang bervariasi yang sulit terdeteksi tanpa pola musiman Pada konsep Brackish water dikenal istilah ESTUARIN merupakan pertemuan antara air laut dan air tawar dan umumnya miskin spesies lain halnya dengan daerah EKOTON (daerah peralihan antara daratan dan perairan sehingga akan menampakkan zona/formasi yang dominan. Dataran pesisir (Coastal plain estuarin) hal ini disebabkan adanya kenaikan air laut 5 . Estuarin dibagi menjadi 4 pola: 1. Seasonaly flooded (digenangi secara musiman (remnant wetland)). digenangi lama pada musim pertumbuhan namun tidak ada air permukaan. misalnya pada latar depannya hutan bakau Aviciena dan latar belakangnya berupa Palmae . Intermittenly expose (digenangi sepanjang tahun kecuali pada tahun yang kemarau/kering) 3. Tidal Wetland (mangrove) dapat bersifat permanently flooded (karena digenangi air pasang) 2. Semi permanently flooded (digenangi pada musim pertumbuhan sepanjang tahun) 4. 5.1. Irregular exposed (terekspose secara tidak teratur) yaitu permukaan jarang digenangi 3. 6. Intermittenly flooded. Permanently flooded (digenangi air secara permanen sepanjang tahun) 2. Regulary flooded (digenangi secara berselang-seling paling sedikit 1 kali sehari) 4. Temporarily flooded (sawah) tergenang secara temporer. Saturated substrat (waterlog soil) akan mengalami kejenuhan air pada waktu lama pada musim pertumbuhan namun air tergenang jarang ada sehingga berupa Muddy (Lumpur) sehingga bersifat anaerob. Irregulary flooded (permukaan digenangi secara tidak teratur) Hidroperiode yang non tidal wetland dapat dibagi menjadi: 1. Sedangkan pertemuan antara daratan dan lautan disebut sebagai daerah INTERTIDAL.

Nama lain dari vegetasi mangrove dapat berupa Coastal wetland. Mangrove dapat hidup di air tawar karena dapat memfilter air salin. Vegetasi yang dominan didaerah estuarin adalah MANGROVE yang bersifat tipikal (khas) pada suatu tempat. Adanya periode pasang surut teratur 2. sehingga oksigen sangat cepat berkurang selanjutnya sedimen estuarin dibawah kedalaman beberapa cm bersifat anoksik. hutan bakau dan hutan payau. Menurut Blasco terdapat 3 faktor utama untuk keberadaan mangrove tersebut: 1.2. Teluk semi tertutup (Gobah) yang umumnya berupa air tawar 4. Fjord berupa lembah yang digenangi air laut. Hutan mangrove mendapatkan input materi dari Coastal 6 . Ada suplai air tawar secara teratur 3.5 o/oo. tropical swamp. seperti pembukaan lahan tambak udang. Estuarin Tektonik disebabkan oleh adanya gejala tektonik sehingga permukaan daratannya turun 3. lahan basah pantai. Dinamika pasang surutnya dalam 1 hari akan terjadi 2 X pasang dan 2 X surut. karena Bakteri akan hasilkan bahan organik 20 gram/m2/hari. Habitat hutan mangrove dapat berupa Permanan (Native habitant) misalnya benthos serta Pengunjung (Temporary habitant) misalnya burung migran. Estuarin merupakan daerah pertemuan antara lautv dengan sungai (Brackhis estuarin) atau danau dengan sungai. Adanya stabilitas substratum (jika ada lahan baru yang menyebabkan terjadinya sedimentasi karena mulut sungai/Watershed terganggu maka substratum tidak stabil sehingga mangrove akan terancam). salinitas brakhis water 4 – 35 o/oo sedangkan salinitas air tawar 0 0. Salinitas air laut 35 o/oo. Sedimen estuarin yang berupa Lumpur (partikel halus) akan membatasi pertukaran antara air interstitial dengan kolom air diatasnya. Menurut ODUM bahwa produktivitas hutan mangrove sangat tinggi karena bernilai 70 X nilai maksimum samudera sehingga terdapat istilah No Mangrove No Shrimp/Crabs. Cirikhas tumbuhannya umumnya mempunyai akan nafas (pneumatofora). Hutan mangrove yang sehat ditandai dengan kondisi seresah daun pada lantai hutannya bersih dan tidak ada ranting-rantingnya.

Nutrient inflow (rheotrophy). Fringe Mangrove (terdapat dimuara-muara sungai) 3. Marsh (wet grass land. sedangkan di Amerika secara umum masih banyak didapati hutan sehingga konsep yang berkembang adalah konsep Biomassa. pH dan karakter peat builder. pola landuse/tataguna lahan. amplitudo pasang surut dan topografi local) 2. Brasil. Umumnya hutan mangrove berdasarkan topografinya tidak melebar namun memanjang. Forested Fen dan Reed Grass tidak mempunyai pohon) 2. tipe vegetasi. Riverine Mangrove (terdapat masuk sungai secara memanjang) contoh di Kalimantan 4. Afrika Barat (Karibia)). Konsep Lahan Basah di Eropa disebut sebagai MIRES yaitu ada empat macam. Hal ini didasarkan pada: kondisi air permukaan (surface water).dan offshore. Indonesia merupakan salah satu pusat mangrove dunia. Overwish mangrove (terdapat di pulau) 2. Scrub or Dwarf Forest (terdapat sangat pendek) contoh di segara anakan Faktor utama yang mempengaruhi keberadaan mangrove: 1. Nilai ekonomi hutan mangrove tiap meter persegi senilai 70.000 dolar. Cover. Berdasarkan distribusinya maka Mangrove dibagi dua: Old World Mangrove (Indonesia. penutupan hutan dan kondisi klimat local 3. Sediment load (geologi watershed. Braun-Blanket dan Releve. Salinitas (lamanya penetrasi pasang air laut. dan klimatik arid) Hutan di Eropa secara umum sudah langka sehingga teori ekologi yang berkembang disana adalah tentang konsep Asosiasi. Afrika Selatan) dan New World Mangrove (Amerika. Macam-macam mangrove : 1. Substrat tanah mineral tidak mempunyai akumulasi peat) 7 . Basin Mangrove (terdapat pada cekungan) 5. Swamp (adanya mineralisasi/rich reed (gelagah utk atap rumah) bed. Adanya kecepatan arus (curah hujan di Daerah aliran sungai. Konsep eropa dan amerika ini disatukan oleh WHITTAKER. Hammock Forest (terdapat pada cekungan akibat tekanan alam) 6. 100 jenis ikan akan terdapat sekitar 70% nya tergantung dari detritus hutan bakau. sehingga memunculkan 4 macam: 1.

Muskeg (Peat land atau Bog yang luas. 5. terdapat di Kanada) 9. Bentuk Fluvial terbentuk di daerah gunung sedangkan Alluvial terbentuk di daerah sungai ). Marsh (sering digenangi. Bog (Akumulasi peat wetland. Umumnya terdapat didataran banjir Alluvial/Alluvial flat land. tidak punya inflow dan outflow yang nyata. Mires (Peat accumulating wetland) 7. 8 . Kalimantan tebal lapisannya 5 cm sedangkan di jawa bias mencapai 500 cm (0. Bog/Moor (bersifat asam dengan pH < 7 ) Namun klasifikasi berdasarkan faktor fisik (geomorfologi) dan vegetasi (kumpulan bermacam-macam tumbuhan) akan sulit dikelompokkan karena beda region akan beda wilayahnya. Swamp (kaya akan pohon dan semak) 2. Moor (dapat berupa high moor dimana Bognya tinggi dan Low Moor dimana Bognya rendah/peat land di basin cekungan tidak ada elevasi (ketinggian)) 8. 4. Lahan basah di daerah tropik/Indonesia tidak akan ditemui jenis Marsh Salt. Kondisi tanah di Kalimantan dan di Jawa terjadi perbedaan secara mencolok yaitu pada lapisan humusnya. ada vegetasi emergent (padi) yang selalu beradaptasi terhadap tanah jenuh air (saturated oil). Di Indonesia tipe tersebut terdapat di daerah Kalimantan. 3. sehingga di Kalimantan sering terjadi Leaching.3. Akumulasi peat wetland yang menerima drainase dari sekeliling tanah mineral akan mendukung tumbuhnya vegetasi seperti Marsh. Fen (Alluvial ven/proses adanya jatuhan air dari atas (air terjun)) 4. Bottomland (terdapat di low land sepanjang stream (sungai kecil) dan River (sungai besar). Peat Wetland (Terjadi karena adanya akumulasi dari sisa tumbuhan sehingga disebut sebagai Gambut) 6. Tipe lahan basah di Amerika dapat dibedakan menjadi: 1. Fen (dibedakan berdasarkan bentuk morfologi. Jika tergenang secara teratur maka akan tumbuh menyerupai hutan (Bottom land hard wood forest).5 m). Mendukung proses Asidofilik mosses (lumut) seperti sphagnum karena terjadi akumulasi air. Jika didaerah jawa tipe Marsh yang herbaceous dijumpai di daerah Rawa Jombor Jawa Tengah.

namun asal usul geologinya berbeda). Wetprairi (menyerupai Marsh sehingga banyak ditumbuhi grassland) 11. Tipe tanah berupa Mineral (kandungan unsure organiknya 20-35 %) dan Organik (peat gambut/histosol). Reed Swamp (Marsh yang didominasi oleh jenis phragmites. Lahan basah (Wetland) dapat dibagi menjadi Open Wetland (Tidal Salt Marsh. 12. Transformasi kimia di Wetland Kondisi air tergenang Bakteri obligat O2 (jika terjadi depletion O2 akan terjadi proses pemecahan bahan-bahan organic. 14. Playa (identik dengan Pathole. Wet Meadow (menyerupai grass land. Pada daur intrasistem akan tergantung kondisi hidrologi yang membuat terjadinya transpor kimia. Slough (system danau dangkal dengan alirannya yang lambat dibagian utara Amerika).10. Proses meliputi interaksi antara faktor fisik. Mangrove Swamp dan Bottomland Forest) dan Close Wetland (Sawah tadah hujan). Depletion O2 ini tergantung pada suhu ambient. Berdasarkan penelitian sedimen dasar danau akan mempunyai perilaku sama dengan sedimen pada Wetland. kimia dan biologi serta pertukaran unsure kimia dengan lingkungan sekitarnya. mempunyai waterlog soil. Pada Ekosistem terjadi daur biogeokimia secara recycle sebagai suatu daur. Wetland yang ada dibagian danau terdapat di daerah territorial zone. Pathole (menyerupai marsh dangkal seperti kolam) 15. COD. water table dibawah permukaan tanah) 13. Oksigen tidak terdeplesi 9 . Cirikhas lahan basah adalah mempunyai muatan Waterlog Soil (kondisi jenuh air/becek) selama ada proses penggenangan jika terjadi proses reduksi akan mempengaruhi transformasi biogeokimia. BIOGEOKIMIA LAHAN BASAH Biogeokimia meliputi sistem transport (pengangkutan) dan transformasi (perubahan bentuk kimia) unsur-unsur kimia yang terlibat dalam dinamika lahan basah. Kondisi tanah wetland bersifat hidric soil (tanah dalam kondisi tidak mengalami drainase/tidak dialiri) serta bersifat saturated (jenuh) terjadi selama masa pertumbuhan terbentuk kondisi Anaerob (hal ini disukai vegetasi hydrofit).

Laju degradasi di udara 10. kebiru abuan. Unsur phosphat (PO4)bukan merupakan redoks elemen karena dia terikat dengan redoks elemen sehingga sifatnya sama seperti redoks elemen.terdapat pada kondisi Aerobik (ditandai jika terjadi Oksidasi dengan warna tanah coklat kemerahan). Pada kondisi O2 bebas maka Eh +400 . Fe   FeS  FeS2 (sink/abadi bersifat toksik jika teroksidasi) Fe Solution  gugus Fe insoluble  Bog Iron/Fe (penambangan besi dan baja) Fe tereduksi  Fe(OH)2  teroksidasi  warnanya tanahnya merah/coklat  Water log mineral soil (Gley)/proses warna sebagai gleying. Pada unsur dan senyawa Fe3+. NO3-. Transformasi Fe dan Mn Setelah reduksi Nitrat (NO3) pada skala redoks potensial maka ada juga reduksi Mn dan Fe. Mn2+. Elektron tidak akan terjadi selama uptake O2 yaitu Fe2+  Fe3+ + e namun akan terjadi sebaliknya bila terjadi proses H2 dipindahkan. Proses tersebut merupakan reduksi yaitu merupakan proses penghentian pemberian O 2 dan meningkatnya H+ dan electron. Sulfida (S2-) terdapat pada kondisi Anaerob (tereduksi) maka warna tanah menjadi hitam. Namun Mn direduksi lebih dulu dari Fe dan perilakunya sama.000 X lebih lambat jika dibandingkan dengan di tanah.+700 mV. NH3. Bila substrat organic mengalami oksidasi maka Eh akan berkurang. 10 . namun bila O 2 sedimen menghilang maka Eh +400 sampai -400. Redoks Potensial (oksidasi reduksi potensial) Tersedianya electron kimia dalam larutan tanah Wetland. Manganat. N-organik (Proses amonifikasi) NH4 (tetap ada kondisi aerob dan anaerob)  N Sedimen Water Interface pada Danau sama dengan Wetland juga dengan Sungai. Pada unsure dan senyawa Fe2+. Bila O 2 ada maka Fe akan dioksidasi Fe2+ jadi bentuk Insoluble Ferric Form (Fe 3+) dilakukan oleh bakteri khemosintetik/khemolitotrof. SO42.secara total. Pengukuran redok potensial menggunakan elektroda platinum (Eh mv). Pada Sedimen water interface terdapat batas kondisi aerob dan anaerob)  Fakultatif O2  Dorman  Bakteri anaerob.

Center dan Hill (1979) mengemukakan bahwa kandungan CO2 bebas diperairan untuk kehidupan ikan pada umumnya < 12 mg/L (ppm). Wetzel (1983) mengemukakan bahwa Nilai ammonia total meliputi NH3-N dan ion ammonium NH4.(sulfat) valensi 6+. Tipe danau dapat dibedakan menjadi Oligotropik.Fe dan Mn pada Wetland soil jika tereduksi sifatnya sangat toksik. Menurut Handersen (1986) cirri khas danau Eutropik adalah: mempunyai kandungan klorofil 10 – 100 mg/m3 dan kecerahan 38. Nanoplankton mempunyai ukuran 5 – 60 µm dan Netplankton mempunyai ukuran > 60 µm. sedangkan Oligotropik mempunyai kandungan Nitrat 0. Mesotropik dan Eutropik. Nilai kecerahan < 30 cm akan mengurangi kandungan DO. Menurut Prescod (1973) pH yang wajar bagi kehidupan Biota air adalah 6. Pertumbuhan Fitoplankton yang optimal berdasarkan kadar nitratnya adalah 0. S 2O3 (Thiosulfat) valensi 2+ dan SO42. Fe akan mengalami difusi ke permukaan akar karena proses liking O2.5 – 8. BOD merupakan kandungan bahan organic perairan yang dapat didekomposisi secara biologis. Jika terjadi proses oksidasi maka akan terjadi Immobilisasi PO4. EKOLOGI PERAIRAN TAWAR Menurut Boyd (1990) di daerah tropis suhu yang paling sesuai untuk pertumbuhan ikan adalah 250 – 320 C. baik yang bersifat Biodegradable maupun yang Non Biodegradable.0 – 0. Sulfat sebagai terminal electron akseptor pada respirasi anaerob.. S (elemen S) valensi 0. Unsur S dialam dapat berupa S2.(sulfide) valensi 2-. Nilai kecerahan 30-60 cm masih dapat dikatakan baik untuk produksi perikanan. Senyawa NH3 akan menghambat daya serap Hb terhadap Oksigen. Reduksi sulfat dapat sebagai Assimilatory sulfat reduction.37 mg/L (ppm). 11 . COD merupakan jumlah total O 2 yang diperlukan untuk mengoksidasi semua bahan organic secara kimiawi.5 – 64 cm.5 mg/L (ppm). sedangkan nilai kecerahan > 60 cm akan mendorong pertumbuhan tanaman air. DHL (daya hantar listrik) merupakan banyaknya garam-garam yang terlarut atau terionisasi.9 – 3. Alkalinitas merupakan kapasitas penyangga perairan terhadap ion Ca dan Mg di perairan tawar.5.

LECTURE NOTE. Supporting vegetasi which can adapt to wet condition ( hidrophyt 4. [The] mentioned in ecology [of] because its position [in] area ECOTONE ( AMPHIBIOUS) Or transition region in a[n lanscape or unfold the farm. Pursuant to its role hence wet farm will [do/conduct] the process SINK. Hidroekosfir cover the Freshwater ( inland water) and Marine Water ( oceanologi). In growth hereinafter emerge the term of Brackish water.ground with the land. Wetland ( Wet Farm) or [is] often conceived of [by] KIDNEY OF LANDSCAPE [of] because its function in cycle hidrologi and chemical as material receiver [in] downstream ( down stream) and generally don't have the clear boundary ( arbitrer). definition Wetland that is 1. Inland Water cover the wetland ( wet farm) on the surface of earth covering Intermediate of terrestrial and open water " Wetland Is an of area of covered with water and supporting aquatic plants and be located between open water and upland. Ecology represent the expression from dynamics of mortal physiology ( interaction environmentally [his/its]). Reside in the edge of area [of] territorial water which is in and area Upland ( plateau) [is] so that influenced by two type so that there are characteristic of aquatik and cirri terrestrial 5. WETLAND ECOLOGY By Prabang Setyono. Existence of attendance irrigate though subterranean water tablenya 2. Having different unique land.ground of[is near by nya 3. size measure [of] Wetland highly varied from Pathol ( small wallow) until seluasluasnya 6. TRANSFORMER Or LALULINTAS [of] WHEREAS 12 . Its location vary from inland ( darat) until coastal and also its condition from region to region.

CROSSING PARAGRAPH LIMITATION. 30 % continent and also 6 % its represent the wetland. Ecology unfold the farm represent the study learning interaction 13 . Follow the example of the reklamasi wetland [is] draining process for the airfield of. . .Share big in lanscape. Pursuant to regionnya hence wetland divided: Arid Region ( inland salt flats). . [In] its composition world 71 % representing territorial water area.Recharge Ground water aquifer. Ecology represent the science learning interaction determining distribution and abundance mortal. . .Preventing intrusi irrigate sea. Cirikhas of Area of tropik of transportation of silt river ( pasir) happened [by] the process flokulasi which distribution.( SOURCE) of Material hara / heavy metal brought by the wet farm inflow. while area temperate ( California) hence flokulasinya will be precipitated so that will be happened [by] the hoard silt to become the island in the middle of estuarin. Wet farm [is] also conceived of [by] a unique component from unfolding farm and divisible become the area COASTAL to prevent the intrusi irrigate the sea ( coastal by salinitas [is] min 35 o / oo) like Salt HALTED.unique Menmyediakan Habitat for the flora of fauna and Wetland [of] pursuant to its existence represent the ENDANGER ECOSYSTEM [of] because its area [is] strategic always so that gristle to process reklamasi ( distorting ekosistem) and have the character of the UBIQUITOS ( there are at all points) from ekosistem tropik until tundra. big deepness Semakain hence salinitasnya also progressively mount the. agriculture and urban.impure Water cleaner ( on the contrary by Wasteland floods. Humid Cool region ( bogs and fens / seasonal if there [is] just just rain) and also Coast of lino region ( coastal cover the salt marsh / bog of salt and mangrove swamp or forested wetland and note of forested wetland).

its Conservation pattern [at] habitat [of] non its species. vegetasi supported by wet condition and also [is] sometime met [by] the vegetasi which Ruderal ( musiman) so that intolerant vegetasi to floods will not attend the. c. Surface Run off.Field Experiment: research [in] field. ARTHUR.ground for example in the form of sediment Mud ( Lumpur) and also Peat 14 . Existence of hidrologi input ( especial source [of] hara to Wetland) and out putnya ( can remove the items of biotik and also abiotik to other. unique land. Pursuant to concept GLASSON ( prominent ecology) that boundary usher the community have the character of the Diffuse / Continuum ( its boundary [is] ill defined). Modern Ecology Concept with the community study opened by HUTCHINGSON [of] while concept of biogeografi archipelago opened by Mc. Ground Water ( underground current) d. research of ecology Area unfold the farm divided to become: . . Hidrologi Wetland cover: a.Natural Experiment: monitoring ( there are two kinds of method that is Trajectory represent the research of longterm research and Make a picture the / that moment research snapshot Laboratory Experiment: Designing attempt. Presipitasi ( existence of rainfall and snow) b.ground with the plain [of] about superordinate. specification Wetland cover the: water. This matter [is] strenghtened by WHITTAKER with its concept [is] Lanskape Ecology. Community concept [of] according to CLEMENT evaluated from its dynamics graph represent the boundary concept which Arbitrer ( clear boundary [among/between] community one otherly).dissimilar place) the wetland will influence [at] biochemical composition [of] land. Tides ( existence of ebb) [The] mentioned will bring the consequence of[is existence of energi ( hara) brought from and to Wetland.usher the ekosistem start from ocean until mountain area [of] pursuant to structure and function.

Form the FEN represent the tipologi wetland seasonally because depended [by] hidrologi from rainwater and also accumulate the substance organic and predominated [by] the SeddlingSedling.( gambut) so that will select the biota wetland. And so do biochemical composition [at] Poured Water / Interstitiil Water ( irrigate in between [by] its land. Indicator Species [in] Wetland will have the nature of: having small tolerance to environmental stress. MARSH distinguished with its height ± 15 cm predominated [by] the herba emergent. BUDGET HIDROLOGI WETLAND.ground). Transpirasi. Its organism [is] easy to seen visually. Vegetasi Mangrove act as the sediment Trapping [of] because the sediment there [is] beforehand. Adaptation gyration to narrow. Every bog will have the cirikhas of pattern hidrioperiod ( fluctuate [his/its] [is] high [of] face irrigate and surface [of] 15 . Wetland very sensitive to normal pattern change [of] Water Storagenya and Movementnya [is] so that conceived of [by] Fragile Ecosystem ( brittle ekosistem). SWAMP can be in the form of the shrub ( semak) and wooded ( berkayu) so that there are [in] forest. Wetland here can be illustrated [by] as area Intermedia [of] [among/between] Terestrial and Open Water. Snare the sediment ( sediment trapping) c. Current ( water shading) d. [At] form BOG will form the map ( gambut) [of] [at] area of Surface Water of condition anaerob ( impecunious [of] oxygen) and tend to happened [by] the ferment process yield the acid of organic and gas so that difficult to mendegradasi as anxious as ( litter) [is] and also predominated [by] the sphagnum ( lumut) have the character of the oligotropik.tight environment. Peat Building ( maker of sediment peat) b. ability of Biotik vegetasi will control the condition irrigate [through/ passing]: a. Hydroperiod represent the seasonal pattern [of] level irrigate the ( water level [is] high [of] water face) which must be taken care of [by] its stability.

dissimilar species the things of with the area EKOTON ( switchover area [of] [among/between] continent and territorial water so that will look the zona / dominant formation. for example [at] its foreground [is] forest of mangrove Aviciena and its background in the form of Palmae . While 16 . Irregulary Flooded ( surface suffused disjointedly) Hidroperiode which is the non divisible tidal wetland become: 1. Intermittenly Expose ( suffused except to during the year year which drought / dry 3. 6. Intermittenly Flooded. Regulary Flooded ( suffused [by] by at intervals [at] least 1 times one day 4. fund will be suffused in short period in a period of/to growth. 5. its surface will have the water [of] [at] difficult period which vary detected [by] without seasonal pattern [At] concept of Brackish water recognized [by] term ESTUARIN represent the meeting [of] [among/between] water go out to sea and freshwater and impecunious generally other. suffused [by] the llama [of] [at] growth season but [there] no surface water. Tidal Wetland ( mangrove) can have the character of the permanently flooded ( because suffused [by] the high water 2.under). Temporarily Flooded ( sawah) suffused transiently. Seasonaly Flooded ( suffused seasonally ( remnant wetland). Pursuant to Hidroperiode wetland influenced by tidal ( ebb 1. Irregular Exposed ( terekspose disjointedly) that is surface seldom be suffused the 3. Flood Duration represent the duration of floods time or sum up the duration of time wetland in a state of suffused [by] the water. Saturated Substrat ( waterlog soil) will experience of the saturation irrigate when llama [of] [at] growth season but irrigate suffused seldom there [is] so that in the form of Muddy ( Lumpur) so that have the character of anaerob. Standing Water represent the pond irrigate the. Permanently Flooded ( suffused [by] the water permanently during the year 2. Flood Frequency ( perioda pond) representing mean of time wetland suffused [by] the water so that [at] wetland emerge the term of Riparian wetland and coastal salt wetland. Flourish the permanently flooded ( suffused [at] growth season during the year 4. Water Tablenya [is] otherwise suffused will reside in far below/under surface 7. Hidroperiod represent the integration [of] [among/between] inflow and water outflow influenced [by] the its penampakanfisik topography ( terrain).

sediment Estuarin which is in the form of Mud ( smooth particle) will limit the transfer [of] [among/between] water interstitial with the column irrigate for nya. salinitas brakhis water 4 . tropical swamp. Existence of regular ebb period. 2. Estuarin Tektonik [of] because of existence of symptom tektonik so that its continent surface descend the 3.5 o / oo. Existence of stability substratum ( if there [is] new farm causing the happening of sedimentation [of] because river mouth / Watershed annoyed hence unstable substratum 17 . Name of[is differ from vegetasi mangrove can be in the form of the Coastal wetland. Estuarin represent the meeting area [of] [among/between] lautv with the river ( Brackhis Estuarin) or lake with the river. Estuarin divided to become 4 pattern: 1. its Cirikhas Plant generally have of breath ( pneumatofora). Mangrove earn life [in] freshwater [of] because earning memfilter irrigate to copy the. 3. There [is] freshwater supply regularly. its Ebb dynamics in 1 day will be happened [by] 2 X install and 2 X withdraw.0. forest of brackish forest and mangrove. According to Blasco [of] there are 3 primary factor for the existence of the mangrove: 1.35 o / oo [of] while salinitas freshwater 0 .meeting [of] [among/between] continent and ocean conceived of [by] area INTERTIDAL. so that oxygen very quickly decrease hereinafter sediment estuarin [of] below/under deepness [of] some cm have the character of anoksik. dominant Vegetasi [is] area estuarin [is] MANGROVE having the character of typical ( khas) at one particular place. coastal area Plain ( Coastal Plain estuarin) this matter [is] caused [by] the existence of increase irrigate the sea 2. Fjord in the form of dale suffused [by] the water go out to sea. coastal wet farm. closed Semi bay ( Gobah) which generally in the form of freshwater 4. Salinitas irrigate the sea 35 o / oo.

amplitude of ebb and topography local 2. Braun-Blanket And 18 . According to ODUM that productivity of forest mangrove very high because valuable 70 X assess maximum ocean so that there are term of No Mangrove No Shrimp / crabs. Pursuant to its distribution hence Mangrove divided [by] two: Old World Mangrove ( Indonesia. like farm opening dam out prawn. Salinitas ( penetrating duration install the water go out to sea. Scrub Or Dwarf Forest ( there are very short) follow the example of [in] segara anakan [of] Primary factor influencing existence mangrove: 1. because Bacterium will yield the organic substance 20 gram/m2/hari. habitat of Forest mangrove can be in the form of the Permanan ( Native Habitant) for example benthos and also Visitor ( Temporary Habitant) for example bird migran. Fringe Mangrove ( there are dimuara-muara river) 3. Riverine Mangrove ( there are entering river by length) follow the example of [in] Kalimantan 4. Generally forest mangrove [of] pursuant to its topography is not wide but length. Basin Mangrove ( there are [at] hollow) 5. South arch African) and New World Mangrove ( American. healthy forest Mangrove marked with the condition as anxious as leaf [of] [at] its forest floor [is] clean and [there] no its sticks. closing of forest and condition of klimat local 3. Existence of current speed ( rainfall [in] Drainage basin. Kinds of mangrove : 1. Sediment Load ( geology watershed. Hammock Forest ( there are [at] effect [of] hollow experienced pressure 6.so that mangrove will be threatened). Indonesia represent one of center of mangrove world. pattern landuse / tataguna farm.000 dollar. Brasil. and klimatik arid) Forest [in] Europe in general have scarce so that ecology theory expanding there [is] about Association concept. West African ( Karibia)). forest Mangrove get the items input from Coastal and offshore. 100 fish type will there are about 70% its depended from detritus of mangrove forest. Cover the. Economic value [of] forest mangrove [of] every metre persegi for the price of 70. Overwish Mangrove ( there are [in] island) 2.

Wet Farm Concept [in] Europe conceived of [by] MIRES that is there [is] four kinds of. have no the real outflow and inflow. In Indonesia the type there are [in] area Kalimantan. pH and character of peat builder. Swamp ( existence of mineralisasi / rich reed ( gelagah utk of house roof) bed. Nutrient Inflow ( rheotrophy). this american and European Concept united by WHITTAKER. there [is] vegetasi which always adapt to saturated the ( saturated oil). Bog / moor ( having the character of acid by pH < 7 ) But klasifikasi [of] pursuant to physical factor ( geomorfologi) and vegetasi ( corps [of] all kinds of plant) will be difficult grouped [by] because difference of region of region difference will its. Bog ( Accumulate the peat wetland. type vegetasi. Land. so that [in] Kalimantan [is] often happened [by] the Leaching. Swamp ( rich [of] tree will and entangle) 2.Ground condition [in] Kalimantan and [in] Java happened [by] the difference by striking that is [at] its humus coat.Releve. This matter [is] relied on: condition irrigate the surface ( surface water). while [in] America in general still a lot of discovered [by] the forest so that concept expanding [is] concept Biomassa. Marsh ( [is] emergent ( padi) land. Substrat of mineral Land.5 m). Wet Farm [in] area tropik / Indonesia will not be met [by] the type of Marsh Salt. often suffused. wet Farm type [in] distinguishable America become: 1. so that peep out 4 kinds of: 1. Supporting process of Asidofilik mosses ( lumut) [of] like sphagnum [of] because happened [by] the accumulation irrigate. Forested Fen and Reed Grass don't have the tree 2. 19 . Marsh ( wet grass land. Fen ( Alluvial Ven / process the existence of fallout irrigate the from the top (of) ( waterfall 4.Ground don't have the accumulation peat 3. If area of jawa herbaceous met [in] area of Bog of 3.ground irrigate of type Marsh which Jombor Central Java. Thick Kalimantan [of] its coat 5 cm [of] while [in] jawa diffraction reach 500 cm ( 0.

Fen ( differentiated [by] pursuant to morphology form. 10.4. subsurface water table) 13. 14. there are [in] Canada 9. If suffused regularly hence will grow to look like the forest ( Bottom Land hard wood forest). having waterlog soil. Existing Wetland part of lake [of] there are [in] area of territorial zone. Slough ( [shallow/ superficial] system lake with its stream [is] tardy [is] American upstate). [At] Ekosistem happened to [by] cycle the biogeokimia by recycle as a(n) cycling. Mires ( Peat Accumulating wetland) 7. Wet Meadow ( looking like grass land. Bottomland ( there are [in] low land as long as stream ( rill) and River ( great river). Moor ( can be in the form of the high moor [of] where high Bognya and Low Moor [of] where low Bognya / peat land [in] basin hollow [of] [there] no elevasi ( ketinggian)) 8. WET BIOGEOKIMIA FARM. 20 . biological and chemical and also chemical transfer unsure environmentally [is] vinicity. Accumulate the peat wetland accepting drainage from around mineral land. Playa ( identik by Pathole. Process to cover the interaction [of] [among/between] physical factor.ground will support the growing of vegetasi [of] like Marsh. Biogeokimia cover the system transport ( pengangkutan) and transformasi ( chemical transformation) chemical elements in concerned in wet farm dynamics. Reed Swamp ( Marsh predominated by type phragmites. Wetprairi ( looking like Marsh so that a lot of growed [by] the grassland) 11. Generally there are plain of floods Alluvial / flat alluvial [of] land. Muskeg ( wide Peat Land or Bog. but its geology genesis differ). Pathole like pool) ( looking like [shallow/ superficial] marsh 15. 5. Form the Fluvial formed [in] mount area [of] while Alluvial formed [in] river area ). 12. Peat Wetland ( Happen [by] caused by [his/its] accumulate from rest of plant [is] so that conceived of [by] Peat 6.

Mn2+.wet Cirikhas Farm [is] have the payload of Waterlog Soil ( saturated condition [of] water / muddy) during there [is] process the flooding [of] if happened [by] the discount process will influence the transformasi biogeokimia. bacterium of Obligat O2 ( if happened [by] the depletion O2 will be happened [by] the process of resolving of substance organic. Oxygen [do] not terdeplesi totally. Chemical Transformasi [in] Wetland.ground in a condition [do] not experience of the drainage / [is] not emited a stream of) and also have the character of the saturated ( jenuh) happened [by] during a period of/to growth formed [by] condition Anaerob ( this matter [is] taken a fancy to [by] the vegetasi hydrofit). [At] Sediment of water interface [of] there are boundary of condition of aerob and anaerob à Optional [of] O2 à Dorman à Bacterium Anaerob.ground. COD.000 slower X in comparison with [in] land.Ground type in the form of Mineral ( obstetrical [of] its[his] organic unsure 20-35 %) and Organic ( peat peat / histosol). condition of Land. SO42. 21 . NO3-. Wet farm ( Divisible Wetland) become the Open Wetland ( Tidal Salt Marsh.Ground wetland have the character of the hidric soil ( land. Accelerate the degradasi on the air 10. Pursuant to elementary sediment research [of] lake will have the behavior [of] [is] equal to sediment [of] [at] Wetland. Land. this Depletion O2 depend on temperature ambient.ground colour squeezing).there are [at] condition Aerobik ( marked [by] if happened [by] the Oxidation with the brown land. [At] element and compound Fe3+. Condition irrigate suffused. [At] cycling intrasistem will be depended [by] condition hidrologi making the happening of chemical transpor. Mangrove Swamp and Bottomland Forest) and Close Wetland ( Wet ricefield dependant to rain). element Phosphat ( PO4)BUKAN represent the redoks element [of] because he/she [is] trussed by redoks [is] element so that in character the [is] same as redoks element.

N-Organik ( Process the amonifikasi)à NH4 ( immanent [of] condition of aerob and anaerob à N of Sediment of Water Interface [of] [at] Lake [of] [is] equal to Wetland also with River.ground colour become black. If happened [by] the process oxidize hence will be happened [by] the Immobilisasi PO4. Sulfide ( S2-) [of] there are [at] condition Anaerob ( tereduksi) hence land. If/When O2 there [is] hence Fe will be oxidized [by] the Fe2+ become the form of Insoluble Ferric Form ( Fe3+) [done/conducted] by bacterium khemosintetik / khemolitotrof.[At] unsure and compound Fe2+. Manganat. Fe will experience of the diffusion to surface grow on because process of liking O2. Fe And Mn [of] [at] Wetland soil [of] if tereduksi in character very toxic. 22 . If/When substrat organic experience of the oxidation hence Eh will decrease. Fe à Fes à Fes2 ( sink / endless have the character of toxic if oxidized the) Fe Solution à bunch of Fe insoluble à Bog Iron / fe ( iron mine and steel) Fe Tereduksi à Fe(Oh)2 à oxidized à its colour [is] its land. Potential Redoks ( oxidize the potential discount) The available of chemical electron in condensation of land. NH3.400.+ 700 mV. But Mn reduced in advance from Fe and its behavior [is] of equal.ground [is] red / brown à Water of Logarithm of mineral soil ( Gley) / process colour as gleying. Transformasi Fe and Mn. potential measurement Redok use the platinum electrode ( Eh Mv). The process represent the discount that is represent the process of stop of gift O2 and the increasing of H+ and electron.ground Wetland. [At] free condition O2 hence Eh + 400 . Electron will not be happened [by] during uptake O2 that is Fe2 à Fe3 + e but will be happened on the contrary if/when happened [by] the process H2 removed. kebiru abuan. but if/when O2 sediment disappear hence Eh + 400 until . After Nitrate discount ( NO3) [of] [at] potential scale redoks hence there [is] also reduce the Mn and Fe.

23 . S2O3 ( Thiosulfat) Valence 2+ and SO42. S ( element S) valence 0. Sulphate as terminal of electron acceptor [of] [at] respirasi anaerob. Sulphate discount earn as Assimilatory of sulphate reduction.( sulfat) valence 6+.experienced Element S can be in the form of the S2( sulfide) valence 2-.

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