TQM Task 1 - Knowing the Gurus

 Genichi Taguchi  Joseph Juran


after working with industrial statisticians (and beginning his work on the signal to noise ratio) at Bell Laboratories in the US. He developed his concept of the quality loss function in the early 1970s. which seeks to improve product quality at the design stage by integrating quality control into product design. receiving the Indigo Ribbon from the Emperor of Japan for his contribution to Japanese economics and industry. gaining six years experience in experimentation and data analysis while developing telephone switching systems. 2 . Taguchi joined the Electrical Communication Laboratory (ECL) of Nippon Telephone and Telegraph Company. as director of the Japanese Academy of Quality. He then worked in the Ministry of Public Health and Welfare and in the Institute of Statistical Mathematics of the Ministry of Education. but it was during the 1980s that Taguchi methods became established. Taguchi was also operating as a full-time consultant to various major companies in the US. Taguchi was involved in seminars for Ford executives. where he founded the Quality Research Group. He is the founder of what has come to be known as the Taguchi method. served in the Navigation Institute of the Japanese Navy during the Second World War. using experiment and statistical analysis. Throughout much of this time. Ford and ITT in Taguchi's methodology increased. where he spent the next 17 years developing his methods. In 1962. American interest from companies such as Xerox. 2012) Genichi Taguchi is famous for his pioneering methods of modern quality control and low-cost quality engineering. In 1964. Throughout this time. Life and career Genichi Taguchi. In 1950. Japan. In 1982. and the International Technology Institute's Medal for his work on statistical methods to achieve cost and quality improvements. China and India. He was also further honored in 1986. he took up a professorship at Aoyamagokuin University in Japan. Taguchi methods were largely unheard of outside Japan. born in Japan in 1924.Genichi Taguchi (January 1. He continued working for ECL in a consulting role and became part of the associate research staff of the Japanese Standards Association. After that. His methods have been said to fundamentally change the philosophy and practice of quality control. Taguchi was awarded his doctorate by Kyushu University. when he revisited AT & T Bell Laboratories in the US. 1924 – June 2.

 An important measurement of the quality of a manufactured product is the total loss generated by that product to the society.  Concept 4: The cost of quality should be measured as a function of product performance variation and the losses measured system. Taguchi changes the objectives of the experiments and the definition of quality from "achieving conformance to specifications" to "achieving the target and minimizing the variability.  Concept 3: Quality should not be based on the performance.  A product (or service) performance variation can be reduced by examining the nonlinear effects of factors (parameters) on the performance characteristics. The Fundamental Taguchi Concepts The definition of quality given by the Taguchi methodology is customer orientated. By setting factors to their optimal levels. Any deviation from a target leads to poor quality. features or characteristics of the product. a product can be manufactured more robust to changes in operation and environmental conditions. thus obtaining a higher quality product.  The customer's loss due to poor quality is approximately proportional to the square of the deviation of the performance characteristic from its target or nominal value. Taguchi removes the bad effect of the cause rather than the cause of a bad effect.Taguchi Philosophy Five major points of the Taguchi quality philosophy are:  In a competitive market environment. 3 . not by inspection and screening. continual quality improvements and cost reductions are necessary for business survival. which minimise the variation of a product around a target response. Taguchi defines quality in a negative manner – "Quality is the loss imparted to society from the time the product is shipped”  Concept 1: Quality should be designed into the product from the start. not a failure to confirm to specifications.  Concept 2: Quality is best achieved by minimizing the deviation from the target.  Change the pre-production experimental procedure from varying one factor at a time to varying many factors simultaneously (SDE) .wide. so that quality can be built into the product and the process. Taguchi's main objectives are to improve process and product design through the identification of controllable factors and their settings.

and any loss to the customer through poor product performance and lowered reliability. A target value is identified as being the best possible value of a quality characteristic. isolated and even eliminated but others cannot. Thus:   The smaller the performance variation. and worked in terms of quality loss rather than just quality. quadratic loss function with deviations from the target.Some noise factors can be identified. (less variation between the products) 4 . and effort should be directed toward zero variation. Taguchi Quality Strategy Taguchi observed that variation in product specification is the primary cause for rejection of a product. He developed a concept of quality loss occurring as soon as there is a deviation away from the target value. the better the quality of the product. zero defect.Quality loss function Taguchi's approach differed from the traditional one of manufacturing a product within a specification based on tolerances equally spaced around a target value. Isolating these factors to determine their individual effects can be a very costly and time consuming process. and this related the loss to society as a whole. The Taguchi approach for reducing variation in the product is a two-step process :  Manufacture the product in the best manner most of the time. He defined quality loss as 'the loss imparted to society from the time the product is shipped'. it included both company costs such as reworking. Taguchi devised a way to use orthogonal arrays to isolate these noise factors from all others in a cost effective manner.When evaluating a production process. Thus. The cure for this quality loss is to reduce the variation. analysis will undoubtedly identify outside factors or noise which cause deviations from the mean. (less deviation from the target)  Produce all products as identically as possible. A loss function curve can be calibrated by using information from the customer. The larger the deviation from the target value. Robustness . scrapping and maintenance. the larger the loss to society. For instance it is too difficult to predict and prepare for any possible weather condition. Taguchi associates a simple. Taguchi therefore referred to the ability of a process or product to work as intended regardless of uncontrollable outside influences as robustness. Orthogonal Arrays and Linear Graphs .

At Western Electric Joseph worked within the inspection department of the famous Hawthorne Works located in Chicago. Conclusion Taguchi's view. Juran on Quality 5 . at the age of 40. so he also started his own consulting practice. a quality “guru” and the man who “taught quality to the Japanese. In 1979. is the total loss generated by that product to the society. Juran arrived in Japan and conducted seminars for the top. The Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers (JUSE) invited Juran to Japan in the early 1950’s. Juran worked in Washington D. Juran’s Japanese lectures were taken so well that he was asked to give more lectures to JUSE and to the Japanese Standards Association. Juran has been called the “father” of quality. The original purpose of the Juran Institute was to provide a continuity of Juran’s ideas through video programs. as an educator and as a consultant.C. Juran worked as a consultant to businesses and organizations in forty different countries.and middle-level Japanese executives. Juran and his team worked on improving the efficiency and eliminating the excessive paperwork of the Lend-Lease Administration’s processes. The complexity of this factory introduced Joseph to his first challenges in management. In 1924 he started working with Western Electric. Juran had become the chief of Industrial Engineering at Western Electric. The video series. This position was not enough to keep Juran busy. Joseph took the position of Chairman of the Department of Administrative Engineering at New York University. Taguchi defines the quality control of a given product as "achieving the targeted value and minimising the variability around the target value". Juran founded the Juran Institute. In 1954.” Juran has expanded the philosophies of quality from its statistical origins to what is now known as Total Quality Management. During WWII. the measurement of the quality of a manufactured product. as an assistant administrator for the LendLease Administration. Professional Career Joseph started his professional career soon after he graduated from the University of Minnesota. By 1937. After his lectures. He has had a varied successful career as an engineer. as a writer. In 1945. Juran has led a life of success and accomplishments. instead of "achieving conformance to the specification". Quality Guru 2 -Joseph Juran Introduction Joseph M. Using his intelligence and dedication Juran changed himself from a poor Romanian immigrant into a world renowned quality control expert.This approach is a general methodology by Taguchi in quality control. Juran’s work spread throughout Japan.

improvement. motivation. and training needed by the teams to. Stimulate establishment of remedies. Juran decided to focus the remainder of his life on his family and writing projects. It consists of three steps:  Evaluate actual quality performance  Compare actual performance to quality goals  Act on the difference Quality Improvement: The process is for obtaining breakthrough in quality performance. But eventually Juran decided to end his career.Diagnose the cause. 6 .those who will be impacted by the efforts to meet the goals Determine the customer’s needs Develop processes that are able to produce those product features Establish process controls. and Juran worked as the institute’s manager. was very successful. It deals with setting goals and establishing the means required to reach the goals. This led to the institute to take on many other activities. as an educator and as a consultant. Juran quit his job as the manager of the Juran institute.the improvement projects Establish project teams with clear responsibility for bringing the project to a successful conclusion Provide the resources. Throughout 1993 and 1994 Juran gave a final series of lectures. In 1987. as a writer. Throughout his lifetime Juran had a varied successful career as an engineer. The various steps in the quality planning process are as below:      Establishing quality goals Identify the customers. The Juran Trilogy Quality Planning: The quality planning phase is the activity of developing products and processes to meet customers' needs. and it consists of several steps:     Establish the infrastructure needed to secure annual quality improvement Identify the specific needs for improvement. and transfer the resulting plans to the operating forces Quality Control: This process deals with the execution of plans and it includes monitoring operations so as to detect differences between actual performance and goals. After these lectures were finished Juran ceased giving any public appearances. and Establish controls to hold the gains.

and each live alligator is a metaphor for chronic waste. with little or no emphasis on the other two processes. This is a fable of a manager who is up to his waist in alligators. A changed and improved planning process will only help complete improvement and sustain the same. The Juran Trilogy Diagram: The three processes of the trilogy are indicated in the diagram. and the job of the operating forces is to run the process and produce the products. . Quality control prevents from the situation getting worse and also putting off the fires such as the sporadic spike. We will see that the process cannot achieve 100 percent quality and 20 percent rework has to be carried out. 7 . In due course we will see that the chronic problems have come down by the application of the quality improvement process.In most organizations there is a great focus on the Quality Control process. however the well established and customer focused organizations do have clearly defined and robust process for all aspects of the Juan Trilogy. The Alligator Analogy: The distinction between Quality Planning and Quality Improvement is brought out by the alligator analogy. but that doesn't happen as long as the quality planning process has not changed. Each completed quality improvement project results in a dead alligator and when all alligators are terminated the quality improvement is considered complete for the moment. From the trilogy diagram and the alligator analogy it is clear that quality improvement reduces quality issues but to sustain the new level there are to be improvement in the quality planning process. which is a graph with time on the horizontal axis and cost of poor quality on the vertical axis. The planners are responsible for the product and process design to meet the customer needs.

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