# DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS

PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

Unit V – Theory Of Equations
April -May, 2006

1. I f O, A, B, C are the four point on a straight line such that the distance of A, B and C from
O are the roots of the equation
3 2
3 3 0 ax bx cx d + + + = . If B is the middle point of AC show
that
3 3
3 2 0 a d abc b ÷ + =
Ans . Let us assume , ,    are the roots of the equation
3 2
3 3 0 ax bx cx d + + + = and
, , OA OB OC    = = =

According to the given condition     ÷ = ÷

2   = + --------------(1)

According to the property of roots
Now,
3b
a
  
÷
+ + = --------------(2)

3c
a
   + + = ------------(3)
d
a

÷
= -------------(4)
From 2 and 3 we will have
3
3
b b
a a
 
÷
= ÷ ¬ = -------------(5)
( )
3 3 c c
a a
       + + = ¬ + + =
From 1
2
2
3 3
2 2
c b c
a a a
  
÷ | |
+ = ¬ + =
|
\ .

2
2
3
2
c b
a a
 ¬ = ÷ -------------(6)

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

again from 4 we have

d
a

÷
=

( )
d
a
 
÷
=

From 5 and 6 we have
2
2
3
2
b c b d
a a a a
| | ÷ ÷ | |
÷ =
| |
\ .
\ .

By solving above we will have
( )
2
2
3 2 ca b
b d
a
| | ÷
=
|
\ .

Hence we will have
3 3
3 2 0 a d abc b ÷ + =
2. Solve by Cardan’s method of equation
3 2
3 3 0 x x ÷ + = .
Ans:
3 2
3 3 0 x x ÷ + = --------------(1)
Here we can remove second termof equation (1) by diminishing its roots by

3
1
3 1
b
h
na
÷
= ÷ = ÷ =
×

We can diminished each root by 1 by synthetic division method

Hence the transformed equation is
3
3 1 0 y y ÷ + = ---------(2)where 1 y x = ÷
Let
1/3 1/3
y p q = + be the solution of equation (2).

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

( )
3 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3
3 y p q p q p q ¬ = + + +

3 1/3 1/3
3 y p q p q y ¬ = + +

3 1/3 1/3
3 ( ) 0 y p q y p q ¬ ÷ ÷ + = -------------(3)
By comparing equation (2) and (3) we get

1/3 1/3
1, ( ) 1 p q p q ¬ = + =
1, ( ) 1 pq p q ¬ = + =
So, p and q are the roots of the equation
2
1 0 t t + + =

1 1 4 1 3
2 2
i
t
÷ ± ÷ ÷ ±
¬ = = .
So, let
1 3 1 3
,
2 2
i i
p q
÷ + ÷ ÷
= = .
So roots of given cubic equation (1) are
(i)
1/3 1/3
1/3 1/3
1 3 1 3
2 2
i i
p q
| | | |
÷ + ÷ ÷
+ = +
| |
| |
\ . \ .

1/3 1/3
2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin
3 3 3 3
i i
    | | | |
= + + ÷
| |
\ . \ .

2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin
9 9 9 9
i i
    | | | |
= + + ÷
| |
\ . \ .

2
2cos
9

=
(ii)
1/3 1/3
1/3 2 1/3
1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3
2 2 2 2
i i i i
wp wq
| || | | || |
÷ + ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
+ = +
| | | |
| | | |
\ .\ . \ .\ .

4/3 4/3
1 3 1 3
2 2
i i
| | | |
÷ + ÷ ÷
= +
| |
| |
\ . \ .

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

4/3 4/3
2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin
3 3 3 3
i i
    | | | |
= + + ÷
| |
\ . \ .

8 8 8 8
cos sin cos sin
9 9 9 9
i i
    | | | |
= + + ÷
| |
\ . \ .
8
2cos
9

=
(iii)
1/3 1/3
2 1/3 1/3
1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3
2 2 2 2
i i i i
w p wq
| || | | | | |
÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷ + ÷ ÷
+ = +
| | | |
| | | |
\ .\ . \ . \ .

1/3 1/3
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin cos sin cos sin
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
i i i i
        | || | | || |
= ÷ + + + ÷
| | | |
\ .\ . \ .\ .

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin cos sin cos sin
3 3 9 9 3 3 9 9
i i i i
        | || | | || |
= ÷ + + + ÷
| | | |
\ .\ . \ .\ .

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin
9 3 9 3 9 3 9 3
i i
        | | | | | | | | | | | |
= ÷ + ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷
| | | | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ .

4 4 4 4
cos sin cos sin
9 9 9 9
i i
    | | | |
= + + ÷
| |
\ . \ .

4 4 14
2cos 2cos 2 2cos
9 9 9
  

| |
= = ÷ =
|
\ .

So, roots of equation (2) are
2 8 14
2cos , 2cos , 2cos
9 9 9
  

Now, roots of given equation (1) are
2 8 14
1 2cos , 1 2cos , 1 2cos
9 9 9
  
+ + + (Ans)
3. Solve the equation by Ferrari’s method:
4 3 2
12 41 18 72 0 x x x x ÷ + ÷ ÷ = .
Ans:
4 3 2
12 41 18 72 0 x x x x ÷ + ÷ ÷ =
Let
4 3 2 2 2 2
( ) 12 41 18 72 ( 6 ) ( ) 0 f x x x x x x x mx n  = ÷ + ÷ ÷ = ÷ + ÷ + = ----------(1)

4 3 2 4 2 2 3 2 2 2 2
12 41 18 72 36 12 12 2 2 x x x x x x x x x mx mnx n    ¬ ÷ + ÷ ÷ = + + ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷

4 3 2 4 3 2 2 2 2
12 41 18 72 12 (36 2 ) ( 12 2 ) x x x x x x m x mn x n    ¬ ÷ + ÷ ÷ = ÷ + + ÷ + ÷ ÷ + ÷

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

Equating the coefficients we get

2 2 2
(36 2 ) 41, ( 12 2 ) 18, 72 m mn n    ¬ + ÷ = ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ = ÷

2 2 2
2 5, 9 6 , 72 m mn n    ¬ = ÷ = ÷ = +
( )( ) ( )
2
2
2 5 72 9 6    ¬ ÷ + = ÷

3 2 2
2 144 5 360 81 36 108 0      ¬ + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ + =

3 2
2 41 252 441 0    ¬ ÷ + ÷ =

2
( 3)(2 35 147) 0    ¬ ÷ ÷ + =

21
2
3,7,  ¬ =
By taking 3 1, 9 m n  = ¬ = = ÷ equation (1) becomes

4 3 2 2 2 2
12 41 18 72 ( 6 3) ( 9) 0 x x x x x x x ¬ ÷ + ÷ ÷ = ÷ + ÷ ÷ =

2 2
( 6 3 9)( 6 3 9) 0 x x x x x x ¬ ÷ + + ÷ ÷ + ÷ + =

2 2
( 5 6)( 7 12) 0 x x x x ¬ ÷ ÷ ÷ + =
( 6)( 1)( 3)( 4) 0 x x x x ¬ ÷ + ÷ ÷ =
1,3,4,6 x ¬ = ÷ (Ans)

Nov-Dec, 2006
4. Solve by Cardan’s method of equation
3 2
3 3 0 x x ÷ + = .
Ans:
3 2
3 3 0 x x ÷ + = --------------(1)
Here we can remove second termof equation (1) by diminishing its roots by

3
1
3 1
b
h
na
÷
= ÷ = ÷ =
×

We can diminished each root by 1 by synthetic division method

Hence the transformed equation is
3
3 1 0 y y ÷ + = ---------(2)where 1 y x = ÷

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

Let
1/3 1/3
y p q = + be the solution of equation (2).

( )
3 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3
3 y p q p q p q ¬ = + + +

3 1/3 1/3
3 y p q p q y ¬ = + +

3 1/3 1/3
3 ( ) 0 y p q y p q ¬ ÷ ÷ + = -------------(3)
By comparing equation (2) and (3) we get

1/3 1/3
1, ( ) 1 p q p q ¬ = + =
1, ( ) 1 pq p q ¬ = + =
So, p and q are the roots of the equation
2
1 0 t t + + =

1 1 4 1 3
2 2
i
t
÷ ± ÷ ÷ ±
¬ = = .
So, let
1 3 1 3
,
2 2
i i
p q
÷ + ÷ ÷
= = .
So roots of given cubic equation (1) are
(i)
1/3 1/3
1/3 1/3
1 3 1 3
2 2
i i
p q
| | | |
÷ + ÷ ÷
+ = +
| |
| |
\ . \ .

1/3 1/3
2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin
3 3 3 3
i i
    | | | |
= + + ÷
| |
\ . \ .

2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin
9 9 9 9
i i
    | | | |
= + + ÷
| |
\ . \ .

2
2cos
9

=
(ii)
1/3 1/3
1/3 2 1/3
1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3
2 2 2 2
i i i i
wp wq
| || | | || |
÷ + ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
+ = +
| | | |
| | | |
\ .\ . \ .\ .

4/3 4/3
1 3 1 3
2 2
i i
| | | |
÷ + ÷ ÷
= +
| |
| |
\ . \ .

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

4/3 4/3
2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin
3 3 3 3
i i
    | | | |
= + + ÷
| |
\ . \ .

8 8 8 8
cos sin cos sin
9 9 9 9
i i
    | | | |
= + + ÷
| |
\ . \ .
8
2cos
9

=
(iii)
1/3 1/3
2 1/3 1/3
1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3
2 2 2 2
i i i i
w p wq
| || | | | | |
÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷ + ÷ ÷
+ = +
| | | |
| | | |
\ .\ . \ . \ .

1/3 1/3
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin cos sin cos sin
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
i i i i
        | || | | || |
= ÷ + + + ÷
| | | |
\ .\ . \ .\ .

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin cos sin cos sin
3 3 9 9 3 3 9 9
i i i i
        | || | | || |
= ÷ + + + ÷
| | | |
\ .\ . \ .\ .

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin
9 3 9 3 9 3 9 3
i i
        | | | | | | | | | | | |
= ÷ + ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷
| | | | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ .

4 4 4 4
cos sin cos sin
9 9 9 9
i i
    | | | |
= + + ÷
| |
\ . \ .

4 4 14
2cos 2cos 2 2cos
9 9 9
  

| |
= = ÷ =
|
\ .

So, roots of equation (2) are
2 8 14
2cos , 2cos , 2cos
9 9 9
  

Now, roots of given equation (1) are
2 8 14
1 2cos , 1 2cos , 1 2cos
9 9 9
  
+ + + (Ans)
5. Solve the equation
5 4 3 2
6 43 43 6 0 x x x x x + ÷ ÷ + + = .
Ans:
5 4 3 2
6 43 43 6 0 x x x x x + ÷ ÷ + + =
The given equation is a reciprocal equation of odd degree having coefficient of terms
equidistance frombeginning and end.
So, 1 x= ÷ is its root.
4 3 2
( 1)(6 5 38 5 6) 0 x x x x x ¬ + ÷ ÷ ÷ + =
4 3 2
(6 5 38 5 6) 0 x x x x ¬ ÷ ÷ ÷ + =
Dividing by
2
x we get

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

2
2
5 6
6 5 38 0 x x
x x
¬ ÷ ÷ ÷ + =
2
2
1 1
6 5 38 0 x x
x x
| | | |
¬ + ÷ + ÷ =
| |
\ . \ .

2
1 1
6 2 5 38 0 x x
x x
| |
| | | |
¬ + ÷ ÷ + ÷ =
|
| |
|
\ . \ .
\ .

( )
2
6 2 5 38 0 t t ¬ ÷ ÷ ÷ = where
1
x t
x
| |
+ =
|
\ .

2
6 5 50 0 t t ¬ ÷ ÷ =
10 5
(3 10)(2 5) 0 ,
3 2
t t t ¬ ÷ + = ¬ = ÷
1 10 1 5
3 2
x and x
x x
¬ + = ¬ + = ÷
2 2
3 3 10 2 2 5 x x and x x ¬ + = ¬ + = ÷
2 2
3 10 3 0 2 5 2 0 x x and x x ¬ ÷ + = ¬ + + =
10 100 36 5 25 16
6 4
x and x
± ÷ ÷ ± ÷
¬ = ¬ =
10 8 5 3
6 4
x and x
± ÷ ±
¬ = ¬ =
1 1
3, 2,
2 2
x and x ¬ = ¬ = ÷ ÷
So, roots are
1 1
2, 1, , , 3
2 2
x ¬ = ÷ ÷ ÷ (Ans)
6. I f , ,    are the roots of the equation
3
0 x qx r + + = . Find the equation whose roots are
, ,
     
     
+ + + .
Ans: Given that , ,    are the roots of the equation
3
0 x qx r + + = .
Now, 0    + + = --------------(1)
q    + + = ------------(2)
r  = ÷ -------------(3)

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

Now
2 2 2 2
( ) 2( ) 0 q q          + + = + + ÷ + + = ÷ = ÷ ----------(4)
Let , , A B C
     
     
= + = + = +
A B C
     
     
+ + = + + + + +
2 2 2 2 2 2
A B C
     
  
+ + +
¬ + + = + +
2 2 2 2 2 2
A B C
     
  
+ + +
¬ + + = + +
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2
A B C
        

+ + + + +
¬ + + =
( ) ( ) ( )
A B C
        

+ + + + +
¬ + + =
A B C
  

÷ ÷ ÷
¬ + + = as 0    + + =
3
3 A B C


÷
¬ + + = = ÷ ------------------(5)
AB BC CA
           
           
| || | | || | | || |
+ + = + + + + + + + +
| | | | | |
\ .\ . \ .\ . \ .\ .

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
AB BC CA
           
     
| || | | || | | || | + + + + + +
¬ + + = + +
| | | | | |
\ .\ . \ .\ . \ .\ .

( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
AB BC CA
           
     
+ + + + + +
¬ + + = + +
× × ×

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
2 2 2 2 2 2
q q q q q q
AB BC CA
r r r
     
  
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
¬ + + = + +
÷ ÷ ÷

( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
2 2 2 2 2 2
q q q q q q
AB BC CA
r r r
     
  
+ + + + + +
¬ + + = + +
÷ ÷ ÷

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
( ) ( ) ( ) q q q q q q
AB BC CA
r r r
           
  
+ + + + + + + + +
¬ + + = + +
÷ ÷ ÷

( ) ( ) ( )
2 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2
q q q q q q q q q
AB BC CA
r r r
        
  
÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷ +
¬ + + = + +
÷ ÷ ÷

( ) ( ) ( )
2 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2
q q q q q q q q q
AB BC CA
r
           

÷ ÷ + + ÷ ÷ + + ÷ ÷ +
¬ + + =
÷
2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
( )( ) ( ) q q q
AB BC CA
r
            

÷ + + ÷ + + + + +
¬ + + =
÷

( )
2 3 2
( ) ( ) 0 ( ) ( ) 3 ( ) q q q q r
AB BC CA
r
         

÷ ÷ ÷ × + + + + + ÷ + +
¬ + + =
÷

( )
3 4 2
3( )
( )
q q q q r q
AB BC CA
r r
÷ + ÷ ÷
¬ + + =
÷ ÷

3 4 2
2
2 3 q q q r
AB BC CA
r
÷ +
¬ + + = -----------(6)
ABC
     
     
| || || |
= + + +
| | |
\ .\ .\ .

2 2 2 2 2 2
ABC
     
  
| || || | + + +
¬ =
| | |
\ .\ .\ .

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

2 2 2
q q q
ABC
  
  
| || || | ÷ ÷ ÷
¬ =
| | |
\ .\ .\ .

3 2
2 2 2
( ) ( ) q q q
ABC
      
  
÷ + + + + + ÷
¬ =

3 2 3 2
2 2
0 q q r q q r
ABC
r r
÷ + +
¬ = =
Equation whose roots are A, B, C is

3 2
( ) ( ) 0 x A B C x AB BC CA x ABC ¬ ÷ + + + + + ÷ =

3 4 2 3 2
3 2
2 2
2 3
3 0
q q q r q q r
x x x
r r
÷ + +
¬ + + ÷ =

2 3 2 2 3 4 2 3 2
3 (2 3 ) ( ) 0 r x r x q q q r x q q r ¬ + + ÷ + ÷ + = (Ans)
7. Solve by Cardan’s method of equation
3 2
3 3 0 x x ÷ + = .
Ans:
3 2
3 3 0 x x ÷ + = --------------(1)
Here we can remove second termof equation (1) by diminishing its roots by

3
1
3 1
b
h
na
÷
= ÷ = ÷ =
×

We can diminished each root by 1 by synthetic division method

Hence the transformed equation is
3
3 1 0 y y ÷ + = ---------(2)where 1 y x = ÷
Let
1/3 1/3
y p q = + be the solution of equation (2).

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

( )
3 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3
3 y p q p q p q ¬ = + + +

3 1/3 1/3
3 y p q p q y ¬ = + +

3 1/3 1/3
3 ( ) 0 y p q y p q ¬ ÷ ÷ + = -------------(3)
By comparing equation (2) and (3) we get

1/3 1/3
1, ( ) 1 p q p q ¬ = + =
1, ( ) 1 pq p q ¬ = + =
So, p and q are the roots of the equation
2
1 0 t t + + =

1 1 4 1 3
2 2
i
t
÷ ± ÷ ÷ ±
¬ = = .
So, let
1 3 1 3
,
2 2
i i
p q
÷ + ÷ ÷
= = .
So roots of given cubic equation (1) are
(i)
1/3 1/3
1/3 1/3
1 3 1 3
2 2
i i
p q
| | | |
÷ + ÷ ÷
+ = +
| |
| |
\ . \ .

1/3 1/3
2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin
3 3 3 3
i i
    | | | |
= + + ÷
| |
\ . \ .

2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin
9 9 9 9
i i
    | | | |
= + + ÷
| |
\ . \ .

2
2cos
9

=
(ii)
1/3 1/3
1/3 2 1/3
1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3
2 2 2 2
i i i i
wp wq
| || | | || |
÷ + ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
+ = +
| | | |
| | | |
\ .\ . \ .\ .

4/3 4/3
1 3 1 3
2 2
i i
| | | |
÷ + ÷ ÷
= +
| |
| |
\ . \ .

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

4/3 4/3
2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin
3 3 3 3
i i
    | | | |
= + + ÷
| |
\ . \ .

8 8 8 8
cos sin cos sin
9 9 9 9
i i
    | | | |
= + + ÷
| |
\ . \ .
8
2cos
9

=
(iii)
1/3 1/3
2 1/3 1/3
1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3
2 2 2 2
i i i i
w p wq
| || | | | | |
÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷ + ÷ ÷
+ = +
| | | |
| | | |
\ .\ . \ . \ .

1/3 1/3
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin cos sin cos sin
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
i i i i
        | || | | || |
= ÷ + + + ÷
| | | |
\ .\ . \ .\ .

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin cos sin cos sin
3 3 9 9 3 3 9 9
i i i i
        | || | | || |
= ÷ + + + ÷
| | | |
\ .\ . \ .\ .

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin
9 3 9 3 9 3 9 3
i i
        | | | | | | | | | | | |
= ÷ + ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷
| | | | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ .

4 4 4 4
cos sin cos sin
9 9 9 9
i i
    | | | |
= + + ÷
| |
\ . \ .

4 4 14
2cos 2cos 2 2cos
9 9 9
  

| |
= = ÷ =
|
\ .

So, roots of equation (2) are
2 8 14
2cos , 2cos , 2cos
9 9 9
  

Now, roots of given equation (1) are
2 8 14
1 2cos , 1 2cos , 1 2cos
9 9 9
  
+ + + (Ans)

8. Solve the equation
5 4 3 2
6 43 43 6 0 x x x x x + ÷ ÷ + + = .
Ans:
5 4 3 2
6 43 43 6 0 x x x x x + ÷ ÷ + + =
The given equation is a reciprocal equation of odd degree having coefficient of terms
equidistance frombeginning and end.
So, 1 x= ÷ is its root.
4 3 2
( 1)(6 5 38 5 6) 0 x x x x x ¬ + ÷ ÷ ÷ + =
4 3 2
(6 5 38 5 6) 0 x x x x ¬ ÷ ÷ ÷ + =
Dividing by
2
x we get

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

2
2
5 6
6 5 38 0 x x
x x
¬ ÷ ÷ ÷ + =
2
2
1 1
6 5 38 0 x x
x x
| | | |
¬ + ÷ + ÷ =
| |
\ . \ .

2
1 1
6 2 5 38 0 x x
x x
| |
| | | |
¬ + ÷ ÷ + ÷ =
|
| |
|
\ . \ .
\ .

( )
2
6 2 5 38 0 t t ¬ ÷ ÷ ÷ = where
1
x t
x
| |
+ =
|
\ .

2
6 5 50 0 t t ¬ ÷ ÷ =
10 5
(3 10)(2 5) 0 ,
3 2
t t t ¬ ÷ + = ¬ = ÷
1 10 1 5
3 2
x and x
x x
¬ + = ¬ + = ÷
2 2
3 3 10 2 2 5 x x and x x ¬ + = ¬ + = ÷
2 2
3 10 3 0 2 5 2 0 x x and x x ¬ ÷ + = ¬ + + =
10 100 36 5 25 16
6 4
x and x
± ÷ ÷ ± ÷
¬ = ¬ =
10 8 5 3
6 4
x and x
± ÷ ±
¬ = ¬ =
1 1
3, 2,
2 2
x and x ¬ = ¬ = ÷ ÷
So, roots are
1 1
2, 1, , , 3
2 2
x ¬ = ÷ ÷ ÷ (Ans)

9. I f , ,    are the roots of the equation
3
0 x qx r + + = . Find the equation whose roots are
, ,
     
     
+ + + .
Ans: Given that , ,    are the roots of the equation
3
0 x qx r + + = .
Now, 0    + + = --------------(1)
q    + + = ------------(2)
r  = ÷ -------------(3)

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

Now
2 2 2 2
( ) 2( ) 0 q q          + + = + + ÷ + + = ÷ = ÷ ----------(4)
Let , , A B C
     
     
= + = + = +
A B C
     
     
+ + = + + + + +
2 2 2 2 2 2
A B C
     
  
+ + +
¬ + + = + +
2 2 2 2 2 2
A B C
     
  
+ + +
¬ + + = + +
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2
A B C
        

+ + + + +
¬ + + =
( ) ( ) ( )
A B C
        

+ + + + +
¬ + + =
A B C
  

÷ ÷ ÷
¬ + + = as 0    + + =
3
3 A B C


÷
¬ + + = = ÷ ------------------(5)
AB BC CA
           
           
| || | | || | | || |
+ + = + + + + + + + +
| | | | | |
\ .\ . \ .\ . \ .\ .

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
AB BC CA
           
     
| || | | || | | || | + + + + + +
¬ + + = + +
| | | | | |
\ .\ . \ .\ . \ .\ .

( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
AB BC CA
           
     
+ + + + + +
¬ + + = + +
× × ×

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
2 2 2 2 2 2
q q q q q q
AB BC CA
r r r
     
  
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
¬ + + = + +
÷ ÷ ÷

( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
2 2 2 2 2 2
q q q q q q
AB BC CA
r r r
     
  
+ + + + + +
¬ + + = + +
÷ ÷ ÷

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
( ) ( ) ( ) q q q q q q
AB BC CA
r r r
           
  
+ + + + + + + + +
¬ + + = + +
÷ ÷ ÷

( ) ( ) ( )
2 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2
q q q q q q q q q
AB BC CA
r r r
        
  
÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷ +
¬ + + = + +
÷ ÷ ÷

( ) ( ) ( )
2 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2
q q q q q q q q q
AB BC CA
r
           

÷ ÷ + + ÷ ÷ + + ÷ ÷ +
¬ + + =
÷
2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
( )( ) ( ) q q q
AB BC CA
r
            

÷ + + ÷ + + + + +
¬ + + =
÷

( )
2 3 2
( ) ( ) 0 ( ) ( ) 3 ( ) q q q q r
AB BC CA
r
         

÷ ÷ ÷ × + + + + + ÷ + +
¬ + + =
÷

( )
3 4 2
3( )
( )
q q q q r q
AB BC CA
r r
÷ + ÷ ÷
¬ + + =
÷ ÷

3 4 2
2
2 3 q q q r
AB BC CA
r
÷ +
¬ + + = -----------(6)
ABC
     
     
| || || |
= + + +
| | |
\ .\ .\ .

2 2 2 2 2 2
ABC
     
  
| || || | + + +
¬ =
| | |
\ .\ .\ .

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

2 2 2
q q q
ABC
  
  
| || || | ÷ ÷ ÷
¬ =
| | |
\ .\ .\ .

3 2
2 2 2
( ) ( ) q q q
ABC
      
  
÷ + + + + + ÷
¬ =

3 2 3 2
2 2
0 q q r q q r
ABC
r r
÷ + +
¬ = =
Equation whose roots are A, B, C is

3 2
( ) ( ) 0 x A B C x AB BC CA x ABC ¬ ÷ + + + + + ÷ =

3 4 2 3 2
3 2
2 2
2 3
3 0
q q q r q q r
x x x
r r
÷ + +
¬ + + ÷ =

2 3 2 2 3 4 2 3 2
3 (2 3 ) ( ) 0 r x r x q q q r x q q r ¬ + + ÷ + ÷ + = (Ans)

May-J une, 2007
10. Solve the equation by Ferrari’s method:
4 3 2
12 41 18 72 0 x x x x ÷ + ÷ ÷ = .
Ans:
4 3 2
12 41 18 72 0 x x x x ÷ + ÷ ÷ =
Let
4 3 2 2 2 2
( ) 12 41 18 72 ( 6 ) ( ) 0 f x x x x x x x mx n  = ÷ + ÷ ÷ = ÷ + ÷ + = ----------(1)

4 3 2 4 2 2 3 2 2 2 2
12 41 18 72 36 12 12 2 2 x x x x x x x x x mx mnx n    ¬ ÷ + ÷ ÷ = + + ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷

4 3 2 4 3 2 2 2 2
12 41 18 72 12 (36 2 ) ( 12 2 ) x x x x x x m x mn x n    ¬ ÷ + ÷ ÷ = ÷ + + ÷ + ÷ ÷ + ÷

Equating the coefficients we get

2 2 2
(36 2 ) 41, ( 12 2 ) 18, 72 m mn n    ¬ + ÷ = ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ = ÷

2 2 2
2 5, 9 6 , 72 m mn n    ¬ = ÷ = ÷ = +
( )( ) ( )
2
2
2 5 72 9 6    ¬ ÷ + = ÷

3 2 2
2 144 5 360 81 36 108 0      ¬ + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ + =

3 2
2 41 252 441 0    ¬ ÷ + ÷ =

2
( 3)(2 35 147) 0    ¬ ÷ ÷ + =

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

21
2
3,7,  ¬ =
By taking 3 1, 9 m n  = ¬ = = ÷ equation (1) becomes

4 3 2 2 2 2
12 41 18 72 ( 6 3) ( 9) 0 x x x x x x x ¬ ÷ + ÷ ÷ = ÷ + ÷ ÷ =

2 2
( 6 3 9)( 6 3 9) 0 x x x x x x ¬ ÷ + + ÷ ÷ + ÷ + =

2 2
( 5 6)( 7 12) 0 x x x x ¬ ÷ ÷ ÷ + =
( 6)( 1)( 3)( 4) 0 x x x x ¬ ÷ + ÷ ÷ =
1,3,4,6 x ¬ = ÷ (Ans)

11. Solve by Cardan’s method of equation
3
15 126 0 x x ÷ ÷ = .
Ans:
3
15 126 0 x x ÷ ÷ =
Here the equation having terms involving
2
x termmissing.
Let
1/3 1/3
x p q = + be the solution of equation (1).

( )
3 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3
3 x p q p q p q ¬ = + + +

3 1/3 1/3
3 x p q p q x ¬ = + +

3 1/3 1/3
3 ( ) 0 x p q x p q ¬ ÷ ÷ + = -------------(2)
By comparing equation(1) and (2) we get

1/3 1/3
5, ( ) 126 p q p q ¬ = + = 125, ( ) 126 pq p q ¬ = + =
So, p and q are the roots of the equation
2
126 125 0 t t ÷ + =
( 1)( 125) 0 1,125 t t t ¬ ÷ ÷ = ¬ = . So, let p =1 and q =125.
So roots of given cubic equation (1) are
(i)
1/3 1/3
1 5 6 p q + = + =
(ii)
1/3 2 1/3
1 3 1 3 6 4 3
5 3 2 3
2 2 2
i i i
wp wq i
| | | | | |
÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
+ = + = = ÷ ÷
| | |
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

(iii)
2 1/3 1/3
1 3 1 3 6 4 3
5 3 2 3
2 2 2
i i i
w p wq i
| | | | | |
÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷ +
+ = + = = ÷ +
| | |
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

So, roots are 6, 3 2 3, 3 2 3 i i ÷ ÷ ÷ + (Ans).

12. Solve
3 2
4 20 48 0 x x x ÷ ÷ + = given that the roots ,   are connected by the relation
2 0   + = .
Ans: Let , ,    are the roots of
3 2
4 20 48 0 x x x ÷ ÷ + = .
Given that 2 0 2     + = ¬ = ÷
Now, 4    + + = --------------(1)

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

20    + + = ÷ ------------(2)
48  = ÷ -------------(3)
From(1) 2 4 4      ¬ ÷ + + = ¬ = + ----------(4)
From(3) 2 . .(4 ) 48    ¬ ÷ + = ÷

3 2
4 24   ¬ + =

3 2
4 24 0   ¬ + ÷ =

2
( 2)( 6 12) 0    ¬ ÷ + + =

6 36 48
2, 2, 3 3
2
i 
÷ ± ÷
¬ = = ÷ ±
So, 2 4, 6    = ¬ = ÷ =
So, roots are -4, 2, 6.

Nov-Dec, 2007
13. Find the number of real roots the equation
3 2
x x 4x 4 0 ÷ + + = Ans: number of real roots the
equation
3 2
x x 4x 4 0 ÷ + + = are 3 , two positive roots and 1 negative roots.
14. Find the condition that the equation
3 2
x x 4x 4 0 p + + + = had roots , ,    which satisfy
1 0  + = .
Ans: Let , ,    are the roots of
3 2
0 x px qx r + + + = .
Given that 1 0 1   + = ¬ = ÷ --------------(1)
Now, p    + + = ÷ --------------(2)
4    + + = ------------(3)
4  = ÷ -------------(4)
From(1) and (4) 4  ¬ = ----------(4)

Putting the value of 4  = in the equation
3 2
0 x px qx r + + + = we will have
64 16 16 4 0 p + + + =
84 21
16 4
p
÷ ÷
= =

15. If , ,    are roots of the equation
3
0 x qx r + + = Find the equation whose roots are
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
, ,       ÷ ÷ ÷
Ans: Let , ,    are the roots of
3
0 x qx r + + = …………………(1)

Now, 0    + + = --------------(2)

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

q    + + = ------------(3)
r  = ÷ -------------(4)
Let ( )
2
y   = ÷
( ) ( )
2 2
4      ¬ ÷ = + ÷
( ) ( )
2 2 4
     

¬ ÷ = + + ÷ ÷
( ) ( )
2 2 4
0
r
  

¬ ÷ = ÷ +
( ) ( )
2
2
4r
x
x
  ¬ ÷ = +
( )
2
4r
y x
x
¬ = +
3
4 0 x yx r ¬ ÷ + = ……………………………..(5)
Subtracting 4 from 1 we will have
( ) 3 0 q y x r + ÷ =
( )
3r
x
q y
=
+
………………..(6)
Put the value of x in the equation 1 we will have
3
3 3
0
r r
q r
q y q y
| | | |
+ + =
| |
+ +
\ . \ .

( ) ( )
2 3
3
27 3 0 r rq q y r q y + + + + =
( ) ( )
3 2 2 3 3 2 2
27 3 2 3 3 0 r rq q r rq r q r r q rq + + + + + + + =
3 3 3 2 2 3 4 3 2 2
27 3 3 6 3 3 0 r rq r q r q rq r r q r q + + + + + + + =
3 3 3 2 2 4
27 4 6 9 0 r rq r q r q r + + + + =

16. Solve by Cardan’s methods:
3
15 126 0 x x ÷ ÷ =
Ans:
3
15 126 0 x x ÷ ÷ =
Here the equation having terms involving
2
x termmissing.
Let
1/3 1/3
x p q = + be the solution of equation (1).

( )
3 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3
3 x p q p q p q ¬ = + + +

3 1/3 1/3
3 x p q p q x ¬ = + +

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

3 1/3 1/3
3 ( ) 0 x p q x p q ¬ ÷ ÷ + = -------------(2)
By comparing equation(1) and (2) we get

1/3 1/3
5, ( ) 126 p q p q ¬ = + = 125, ( ) 126 pq p q ¬ = + =
So, p and q are the roots of the equation
2
126 125 0 t t ÷ + =
( 1)( 125) 0 1,125 t t t ¬ ÷ ÷ = ¬ = . So, let p =1 and q =125.
So roots of given cubic equation (1) are
(i)
1/3 1/3
1 5 6 p q + = + =
(ii)
1/3 2 1/3
1 3 1 3 6 4 3
5 3 2 3
2 2 2
i i i
wp wq i
| | | | | |
÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
+ = + = = ÷ ÷
| | |
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

(iii)
2 1/3 1/3
1 3 1 3 6 4 3
5 3 2 3
2 2 2
i i i
w p wq i
| | | | | |
÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷ +
+ = + = = ÷ +
| | |
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

So, roots are 6, 3 2 3, 3 2 3 i i ÷ ÷ ÷ + (Ans).

April -May 2008
17. Form the equation whose roots are 1, 2, 3.
Ans .The equation will be ( )( )( ) 1 2 3 x x x ÷ ÷ ÷

( ) ( )( )
3 2
1 2 3 6 11 6 x x x x x x ÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷ + ÷

18. Solve the equation 2x
2
+x
2
-7x-6 =0 when the difference of two roots is 3.
Ans: Let , ,    are the roots of
3
+ ÷ ÷ =
2
2x x 7x 6 0 .
Given that 3   ÷ = -------------- (1)
Now, 1/ 2    + + = ÷ -------------- (2)
7/ 2    + + = ÷ ------------ (3)
3  = ------------- (4)
From(1) and (2) 2 7/ 2   + = ÷ ------------- (5)
From(4) and (1) . .(3 ) 3    ¬ + = ------------- (6)
From(5) and (6)
7
2 .(3 ) 3
2
  
÷ | |
¬ ÷ + =
|
\ .

From

3 2
4 24   ¬ + =

3 2
4 24 0   ¬ + ÷ =

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

2
( 2)( 6 12) 0    ¬ ÷ + + =

6 36 48
2, 2, 3 3
2
i 
÷ ± ÷
¬ = = ÷ ±
So, 2 4, 6    = ¬ = ÷ =
So, roots are -4, 2, 6.

19. If u,ß,y are the roots of the cubic
3 2
0 x px qx r ÷ + ÷ = find the equation whose roots are

1 1 1
, ,   
  
+ + +
Ans. As , ,    are the roots of the cubic
3 2
0 x px qx r ÷ + ÷ = .
Here , , p q r        + + = + + = =
Let root of the new equation is y, and according to the given condition
1 1 1 r
y y
x


 
+ +
= + ¬ = =
1 1 r r
y x
x y
+ +
= ¬ = and x is the root of the equation
3 2
0 x px qx r ÷ + ÷ =
3 2
1 1 1
0
r r r
p q r
y y y
| | | | | | + + +
¬ ÷ + ÷ =
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

( ) ( ) ( )
3 2
2 3
1 1 1 0 r p r y q r y ry ¬ + ÷ + + + ÷ =
( ) ( ) ( )
3 2 2 2 3
1 3 3 1 2 1 0 r r r p r r y q r y ry ¬ + + + ÷ + + + + ÷ =
( ) ( ) ( )
3 2 2 3 2
1 1 2 1 3 3 0 ry q r y p r r y r r r ¬ ÷ + + ÷ + + + + + + =
Required equation will be
( ) ( ) ( )
3 2 2 3 2
1 1 2 1 3 3 0 ry q r y p r r y r r r ÷ + + + + ÷ + + + =
20.
Solve by Cardan’s methods:
3 2
9 +6x -1=0 x

Ans:
3 2
9 +6x -1=0 x

Here the equation having terms involving
2
x term. We can have another equation
1
= y
x

And by putting the value of y in the equation
3 2
9 +6x -1=0 x we will have
3 2
3
1 1
9 +6 -1=0 y 6 9 0 y
y y
| | | |
¬ ÷ ÷ =
| |
\ . \ .

Here in the
3
y 6 9 0 y ÷ ÷ = ……………………………………………(2)

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

equation term involving
2
y is missing .
Let y u v = + be the solution of equation (2).
( )
3 3 3
3 y u v uv u v ¬ = + + +

3 3 3
3 y u v uvy ¬ = + +

( )
3 3 3
3 0 y uvy u v ¬ ÷ ÷ + = -------------(2)
By comparing equation(1) and (2) we get

3 3
2, ( ) 9 uv u v ¬ = + = ------------(3)
3 3 3 3 3 3
2, ( ) 9 8, ( ) 9 uv u v u v u v ¬ = + = ¬ = + =
So,
3
u and
3
v are the roots of the equation
2
9 8 0 t t ÷ + =
( )
2
9 8 0 ( 8) 1 t t t t ¬ ÷ + = = ÷ ÷ .
So, let
3
u =8 and
2
2,2 ,2 u w w = therefore from3 we will have
2
1, , v w w =
So roots of given cubic equation (1) are
(i) 2 1 3 u v + = + =
(ii)
2
1 3 1 3 3 3
2 2
2 2 2
i i i
u v w w
| | | | | |
÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ +
+ = + = + =
| | |
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

(iii)
2
1 3 1 3 3 3
2 2
2 2 2
i i i
u v w w
| | | | | |
÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷
+ = + = + =
| | |
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

So, roots of the equation
3
y 6 9 0 y ÷ ÷ = are
3 3 3 3
3, ,
2 2
i i
| | | |
÷ + ÷ ÷
| |
| |
\ . \ .

And roots of the equation
3 2
9 +6x -1=0 x are
1 1
1 3 3 3 3
, ,
3 2 2
i i
÷ ÷
| | | |
÷ + ÷ ÷
| |
| |
\ . \ .
as
1
= y
x

Nov -Dec 2008
21. From the equation whose roots are reciprocal of the roots of the equation
5 3 2
2 4 3 7 6 0 x x x x + ÷ + + =
Ans: The equation whose roots are reciprocal of the roots of the equation
5 3 2
2 4 3 7 6 0 x x x x + ÷ + + = is y

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

1
y
x
= by putting the value of y in the above equation we will have
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
5 3 2
2 1/ 4 1/ 3 1/ 7 1/ 6 0 x x x x + ÷ + + =
4 3 5 2
6 7 3 4 2 0 x x x x + ÷ + + =
22. If
1 2 3
, , r r r are the root of the equation
3 2
2 3 1 0 x x kx ÷ + ÷ = find constant k if sum of
two roots is 1.
Let
1 2 3
, , r r r are the roots of
3 2
2 3 1 0 x x kx ÷ + ÷ = .
Given that
1 2
1 r r + = -------------- (1)
Now,
1 2 3
3/ 2 r r r + + = -------------- (2)

1 2 2 3 1 3
/ 2 rr r r rr k + + = ------------ (3)

1 2 3
1/ 2 rr r = ------------- (4)
From(1) and (2)
3
1/ 2 r = ------------- (5)
From(5) and (4)
1 2
1 rr ¬ = ------------- (6)
From(5) and (6)we can construct a quadratic equation that is
2
1 0 x x ÷ + =
By solving equation
2
1 0 x x ÷ + = we will have
2
4 1 3
2 2
b b ac i
x
a
÷ ± ÷ ±
= =
1 2 3
1 3 1 3
2
, , 1/ 2
2
i i
r r r = = =
+ ÷

23. Find the equation whose roots are the roots of x
4
+x
3
− 3x
2
−x +2 =û.each
diminished by 3.
Ans. The above equation can be solved by using synthetic division then we will have
3 y x = ÷

Let , , ,     are the roots of x
4
+x
3
−3x
2
− x +2 =û.
Now, 1     + + + = ÷ -------------- (1)
As roots are diminished by 3 therefore new root will be 3, 3, 3, 3 y     = ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 3 3 3 3 1 12     ÷ + ÷ + ÷ + ÷ = ÷ ÷
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 3 3 3 3 13     ÷ + ÷ + ÷ + ÷ = ÷

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

3 1 1 3 1 2
0 3 12 27 78
1 4 9 26 80
0 3 21 90
1 7 30 116
0 3 30
1 10 60
0 3
1 13
÷ ÷

Hence the new equation is
4 3 2
13 60 116 80 x x x x + + + +

24. Solve by Cardan’s method of equation
3
15 126 0 x x ÷ ÷ = .
Ans:
3
15 126 0 x x ÷ ÷ =
Here the equation having terms involving
2
x termmissing.
Let
1/3 1/3
x p q = + be the solution of equation (1).

( )
3 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3
3 x p q p q p q ¬ = + + +

3 1/3 1/3
3 x p q p q x ¬ = + +

3 1/3 1/3
3 ( ) 0 x p q x p q ¬ ÷ ÷ + = -------------(2)
By comparing equation(1) and (2) we get

1/3 1/3
5, ( ) 126 p q p q ¬ = + = 125, ( ) 126 pq p q ¬ = + =
So, p and q are the roots of the equation
2
126 125 0 t t ÷ + =
( 1)( 125) 0 1,125 t t t ¬ ÷ ÷ = ¬ = . So, let p =1 and q =125.
So roots of given cubic equation (1) are
(i)
1/3 1/3
1 5 6 p q + = + =
(ii)
1/3 2 1/3
1 3 1 3 6 4 3
5 3 2 3
2 2 2
i i i
wp wq i
| | | | | |
÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
+ = + = = ÷ ÷
| | |
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

(iii)
2 1/3 1/3
1 3 1 3 6 4 3
5 3 2 3
2 2 2
i i i
w p wq i
| | | | | |
÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷ +
+ = + = = ÷ +
| | |
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

So, roots are 6, 3 2 3, 3 2 3 i i ÷ ÷ ÷ + (Ans).

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

May-J une 2009

25. Write the relation between roots and coefficients of the equation.
1 2
0 1 2 1
.......... 0
n n n
n n
a x ax a x a x a
÷ ÷
÷
+ + + + + =
Ans: Let
1 2
, ,.........,
n
   are roots of
1 2
0 1 2 1
.......... 0
n n n
n n
a x ax a x a x a
÷ ÷
÷
+ + + + + = .
Then
1
1
0
i
i n
a
a

s s
= ÷
¿
,
2 2
0
( 1)
i j
i j
a
a
 
=
= ÷
¿

3 3
0
( 1)
i j k
i j k
a
a
  
= =
= ÷
¿

Similarly,
1 2
0
......... ( 1)
n n
n
a
a
   = ÷
26. I f , ,    are the roots of the cubic
3
0 x px q + + = . Show that
i.
5 5 5
5      + + = ÷
¿

ii.
2 5 3 4
3 5     =
¿ ¿ ¿ ¿

Ans: As , ,    are the roots of the cubic
3
0 x px q + + = .--------(1)
So, 0, , p q    = = = ÷
¿ ¿

Now,
( )
2
2
2 0 2 2 p p    = ÷ = ÷ = ÷
¿ ¿ ¿
.

2
2p  ¬ = ÷
¿
-----------(2)
As
3 3
0 3 0 3( ) 0 q     = ¬ ÷ = ¬ ÷ ÷ =
¿ ¿ ¿

3
3q  ¬ = ÷
¿
-------------(3)
Let us multiply equation (1) by x we get

4 2
0 x px qx + + =

4 2
0 p q    ¬ + + =
¿ ¿ ¿

4 2 2
( 2 ) (0) 2 p q p p q p    ¬ = ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ ÷ =
¿ ¿ ¿

4 2
2p  ¬ =
¿
---------------(3)
(i)
5 5 5
5      + + = ÷
¿

Ans: Now by multiplying (1) by
2
x we get
5 3 2
0 x px qx + + =

5 3 2
0 p q    + + =
¿ ¿ ¿

5 3 2
( 3 ) ( 2 ) 5 p q p q q p pq    ¬ = ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ =
¿ ¿ ¿
----------(4)

5
5( ) q p  ¬ = ÷ ÷
¿

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

5
5    ¬ = ÷
¿ ¿

5 5 5
5      ¬ + + = ÷
¿
(Proved)
(ii)
2 5 3 4
3 5     =
¿ ¿ ¿ ¿

Ans:
2 5 2
3 3.( 2 ).(5 ) 30 p pq p q   = ÷ = ÷
¿ ¿
-------------(5)

3 4 2 2
5 5( 3 )(2 ) 30 q p p q   = ÷ = ÷
¿ ¿
------------(6)
From(5) and (6)
2 5 3 4
3 5     ¬ =
¿ ¿ ¿ ¿
(Proved)

27. Show that the equation
4 3 2
10 23 6 15 0 x x x x ÷ + ÷ ÷ = can be transformed into reciprocal
equation by diminishing the roots by 2. Hence solve the equation.
Ans: Let us diminished the roots of
4 3 2
10 23 6 15 0 x x x x ÷ + ÷ ÷ = --------------(1) by 2.
Putting 2 2 y x x y = ÷ ¬ = +
By Using synthetic division method

The transformed equation is
4 3 2
2 13 2 1 0 y y y y ÷ ÷ ÷ + = ------------(2)
Equation (2) is a reciprocal equation of even degree having coefficients of terms
equidistant fromthe beginning and end equal.
Dividing equation (2) by
2
y we get
2
2
2 1
2 13 0 y y
y y
÷ ÷ ÷ + =

2
2
1 1
2 13 0 y y
y y
| | | |
¬ + ÷ + ÷ =
| |
\ . \ .

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

Now putting
2 2
2
1 1
2 y z y z
y y
+ = ¬ + = ÷

2
2 2 13 0 z z ¬ ÷ ÷ ÷ =

2
2 15 0 ( 5)( 3) 0 z z z z ¬ ÷ ÷ = ¬ ÷ + =
3,5 z ¬ = ÷

1
3 y
y
¬ + = ÷
1
5 y
y
¬ + =

2
1 3 y y ¬ + = ÷
2
1 5 y y ¬ + =
2
3 1 0 y y ¬ + + =
2
5 1 0 y y ¬ ÷ + =
3 9 4
2
y
÷ ± ÷
¬ =
5 25 4
2
y
± ÷
¬ =
3 5
2
y
÷ ±
¬ =
5 21
2
y
±
¬ =
3 5 3 5 5 21 5 21
, , ,
2 2 2 2
y
÷ + ÷ ÷ + ÷
¬ =
So, solution for 2 x y = +
3 5 3 5 5 21 5 21
2, 2, 2, 2
2 2 2 2
x
÷ + ÷ ÷ + ÷
¬ = + + + +
1 5 1 5 9 21 9 21
, , ,
2 2 2 2
x
+ ÷ + ÷
¬ = (Ans)

28. Solve by Cardan’s method, the equation
3 2
27 54 198 73 0 x x x + + ÷ = .
Ans:
3 2
27 54 198 73 0 x x x + + ÷ =

3 2
22 73
2 0
3 27
x x x ¬ + + ÷ = ------------(1)
Let us compare this equation with
3 2
0 ax bx cx d + + + =
Then
22 73
1, 2, ,
3 27
a b c d ¬ = = = = ÷
Putting
2 2
3 3
z ax b x x z = + = + ¬ = ÷ in (1) we get

3 2
2 2 22 2 73
2 0
3 3 3 3 27
z z z
| | | | | |
¬ ÷ + ÷ + ÷ ÷ =
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

3 2 2
4 8 8 8 22 44 73
2 2 0
3 27 3 9 3 9 27
z z z z z z ¬ ÷ + ÷ + ÷ + + ÷ ÷ =

3
6 7 0 z z ¬ + ÷ = ------------------------(2)
Now comparing with
3
3 0 z Hz G + + =
Where 2, 7 H G = = ÷
| |
3 2
1 1 1
4 7 32 49 7 9 8
2 2 2
p G H G
(
(
= ÷ + + = + + = + =
¸ ¸
¸ ¸

So roots of given cubic equation (2) are
(i)
1/3
1/3
2
2 1
2
H
p
p
÷ = ÷ =
(ii)
1/3 2 2 2
1/3
2
2 2 2( ) 3
2
H
wp w w w w w w
wp w
÷ = ÷ = ÷ = + ÷
1/3
1/3
1 3 4 3 3 3 1 3 3
2 3
2 2 2
H i i i
wp
wp
| |
÷ ÷ ÷ + + ÷ +
÷ = ÷ ÷ = =
|
|
\ .

(iii)
2 1/3 2 2 2
2 1/3 2
2
2 2 2( ) 3
2
H
w p w w w w w w
w p w
÷ = ÷ = ÷ = + ÷
2 1/3
2 1/3
1 3 4 3 3 3 1 3 3
2 3
2 2 2
H i i i
w p
w p
| |
÷ + ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ = ÷ ÷ = =
|
|
\ .

So, roots of equation (2) are
1 3 3 1 3 3
1, ,
2 2
i i
| | | |
÷ + ÷ ÷
| |
| |
\ . \ .
.
Now, roots of given equation (1) are
2 1 3 3 2 1 3 3 2
1 , ,
3 2 3 2 3
i i ÷ + ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷

1 3 9 3 4 3 9 3 4
, ,
3 6 6
i i ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
=

1 7 9 3 7 9 3
, ,
3 6 6
i i ÷ + ÷ ÷
= (Ans).

Nov-Dec, 2009

29. Write the relation between roots and coefficients of the equation.
1 2
0 1 2 1
.......... 0
n n n
n n
a x ax a x a x a
÷ ÷
÷
+ + + + + =
Ans: Let
1 2
, ,.........,
n
   are roots of
1 2
0 1 2 1
.......... 0
n n n
n n
a x ax a x a x a
÷ ÷
÷
+ + + + + = .

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

Then
1
1
0
i
i n
a
a

s s
= ÷
¿
,
2 2
0
( 1)
i j
i j
a
a
 
=
= ÷
¿

3 3
0
( 1)
i j k
i j k
a
a
  
= =
= ÷
¿

Similarly,
1 2
0
......... ( 1)
n n
n
a
a
   = ÷
30. I f    , , are the roots of the equation
3
0 x px q + + = , then show that
i.
5 5 5
5      + + = ÷
¿

ii.
2 5 3 4
3 5     =
¿ ¿ ¿ ¿
.
Ans: As , ,    are the roots of the cubic
3
0 x px q + + = .--------(1)
So, 0, , p q    = = = ÷
¿ ¿

Now,
( )
2
2
2 0 2 2 p p    = ÷ = ÷ = ÷
¿ ¿ ¿
.

2
2p  ¬ = ÷
¿
-----------(2)
As
3 3
0 3 0 3( ) 0 q     = ¬ ÷ = ¬ ÷ ÷ =
¿ ¿ ¿

3
3q  ¬ = ÷
¿
-------------(3)
Let us multiply equation (1) by x we get

4 2
0 x px qx + + =

4 2
0 p q    ¬ + + =
¿ ¿ ¿

4 2 2
( 2 ) (0) 2 p q p p q p    ¬ = ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ ÷ =
¿ ¿ ¿

4 2
2p  ¬ =
¿
---------------(3)
(i)
5 5 5
5      + + = ÷
¿

Ans: Now by multiplying (1) by
2
x we get
5 3 2
0 x px qx + + =

5 3 2
0 p q    + + =
¿ ¿ ¿

5 3 2
( 3 ) ( 2 ) 5 p q p q q p pq    ¬ = ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ =
¿ ¿ ¿
----------(4)

5
5( ) q p  ¬ = ÷ ÷
¿

5
5    ¬ = ÷
¿ ¿

5 5 5
5      ¬ + + = ÷
¿
(Proved)
(ii)
2 5 3 4
3 5     =
¿ ¿ ¿ ¿

Ans:
2 5 2
3 3.( 2 ).(5 ) 30 p pq p q   = ÷ = ÷
¿ ¿
-------------(5)

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

3 4 2 2
5 5( 3 )(2 ) 30 q p p q   = ÷ = ÷
¿ ¿
------------(6)
From(5) and (6)
2 5 3 4
3 5     ¬ =
¿ ¿ ¿ ¿
(Proved)
31. Show that the equation
4 3 2
10 23 6 15 0 x x x x ÷ + ÷ ÷ = can be transformed into reciprocal
equation by diminishing the roots by 2. Hence solve the equation
Ans: Let us diminished the roots of
4 3 2
10 23 6 15 0 x x x x ÷ + ÷ ÷ = --------------(1) by 2.
Putting 2 2 y x x y = ÷ ¬ = +
By Using synthetic division method

The transformed equation is
4 3 2
2 13 2 1 0 y y y y ÷ ÷ ÷ + = ------------(2)
Equation (2) is a reciprocal equation of even degree having coefficients of terms
equidistant fromthe beginning and end equal.
Dividing equation (2) by
2
y we get
2
2
2 1
2 13 0 y y
y y
÷ ÷ ÷ + =

2
2
1 1
2 13 0 y y
y y
| | | |
¬ + ÷ + ÷ =
| |
\ . \ .

Now putting
2 2
2
1 1
2 y z y z
y y
+ = ¬ + = ÷

2
2 2 13 0 z z ¬ ÷ ÷ ÷ =

2
2 15 0 ( 5)( 3) 0 z z z z ¬ ÷ ÷ = ¬ ÷ + =
3,5 z ¬ = ÷

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

1
3 y
y
¬ + = ÷
1
5 y
y
¬ + =

2
1 3 y y ¬ + = ÷
2
1 5 y y ¬ + =
2
3 1 0 y y ¬ + + =
2
5 1 0 y y ¬ ÷ + =
3 9 4
2
y
÷ ± ÷
¬ =
5 25 4
2
y
± ÷
¬ =
3 5
2
y
÷ ±
¬ =
5 21
2
y
±
¬ =
3 5 3 5 5 21 5 21
, , ,
2 2 2 2
y
÷ + ÷ ÷ + ÷
¬ =
So, solution for 2 x y = +
3 5 3 5 5 21 5 21
2, 2, 2, 2
2 2 2 2
x
÷ + ÷ ÷ + ÷
¬ = + + + +
1 5 1 5 9 21 9 21
, , ,
2 2 2 2
x
+ ÷ + ÷
¬ = (Ans)

32. Solve by Cardan’s method, the equation
3 2
27 54 198 73 0 x x x + + ÷ = .
Ans:
3 2
27 54 198 73 0 x x x + + ÷ =

3 2
22 73
2 0
3 27
x x x ¬ + + ÷ = ------------(1)
Let us compare this equation with
3 2
0 ax bx cx d + + + =
Then
22 73
1, 2, ,
3 27
a b c d ¬ = = = = ÷
Putting
2 2
3 3
z ax b x x z = + = + ¬ = ÷ in (1) we get

3 2
2 2 22 2 73
2 0
3 3 3 3 27
z z z
| | | | | |
¬ ÷ + ÷ + ÷ ÷ =
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

3 2 2
4 8 8 8 22 44 73
2 2 0
3 27 3 9 3 9 27
z z z z z z ¬ ÷ + ÷ + ÷ + + ÷ ÷ =

3
6 7 0 z z ¬ + ÷ = ------------------------(2)
Now comparing with
3
3 0 z Hz G + + =
Where 2, 7 H G = = ÷
| |
3 2
1 1 1
4 7 32 49 7 9 8
2 2 2
p G H G
(
(
= ÷ + + = + + = + =
¸ ¸
¸ ¸

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

So roots of given cubic equation (2) are
(i)
1/3
1/3
2
2 1
2
H
p
p
÷ = ÷ =
(ii)
1/3 2 2 2
1/3
2
2 2 2( ) 3
2
H
wp w w w w w w
wp w
÷ = ÷ = ÷ = + ÷
1/3
1/3
1 3 4 3 3 3 1 3 3
2 3
2 2 2
H i i i
wp
wp
| |
÷ ÷ ÷ + + ÷ +
÷ = ÷ ÷ = =
|
|
\ .

(iii)
2 1/3 2 2 2
2 1/3 2
2
2 2 2( ) 3
2
H
w p w w w w w w
w p w
÷ = ÷ = ÷ = + ÷
2 1/3
2 1/3
1 3 4 3 3 3 1 3 3
2 3
2 2 2
H i i i
w p
w p
| |
÷ + ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ = ÷ ÷ = =
|
|
\ .

So, roots of equation (2) are
1 3 3 1 3 3
1, ,
2 2
i i
| | | |
÷ + ÷ ÷
| |
| |
\ . \ .
.
Now, roots of given equation (1) are
2 1 3 3 2 1 3 3 2
1 , ,
3 2 3 2 3
i i ÷ + ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷

1 3 9 3 4 3 9 3 4
, ,
3 6 6
i i ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
=

1 7 9 3 7 9 3
, ,
3 6 6
i i ÷ + ÷ ÷
= (Ans).
May-J une 2010
33. I f    , , are the roots of the equation 0 8 12 6
2 3
= ÷ + ÷ x x x , find an equation whose
roots are 2 , 2 , 2 ÷ ÷ ÷    .
Ans: - It is same as to find an equation whose roots are diminished by 2 of
0 8 12 6
2 3
= ÷ + ÷ x x x 0 ) 2 (
3
= ÷ ¬ x -----------------(1) Let 2 2 + = ¬ ÷ = y x x y ,
so eqn (1) becomes 0
3
= ¬ y . Then the equation is
3
0 x = .
34. I f the roots of the equation 0
2 3
= ÷ + ÷ r qx px x are in H.P., then prove that
0 2 9 27
3 2
= + ÷ q pqr r .
Ans: - Let    , , are the roots of the equation 0
2 3
= ÷ + ÷ r qx px x .
Here , , p q r        + + = + + = =
Given that roots are in HP.

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

So,
1 1 2
  
+ =

2
2 3
 
      
 
+
¬ = ¬ + = ¬ + + =
( )
( )
3 3
3
r
q

     
  
¬ + + = ¬ = =
+ +

As  is a root of the given eqn so it must satisfy the equation.
Hence
3 2
0 p q r    ÷ + ÷ =

3 2
3 2 3
3
3 3 3 27 9 2
0 0
r r r r pqr rq
p q r
q q q q
| | | | | | ÷ +
¬ ÷ + ÷ = ¬ =
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

3 2 3
27 9 2 0 r pqr rq ¬ ÷ + =

2 3
27 9 2 0 r pqr q ¬ ÷ + = (Proved).

35. I f    , , are the roots of the equation 0
3
= + + r qx x , form an equation whose roots are:
(i)






, , .
(ii)
2 2 2
, ,
     
  
+ + +

Ans: - Here 0, , q r        + + = + + = = ÷

i. , ,
  
  

Let
2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
, , , , , ,
r r r r r
y x
x y
     
        
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= = = = ¬ =
Now, 0
3
= + + r qx x
3 6 4 2 2 2
2 x qx r x qx q x r ¬ + = ÷ ¬ + + =
3 2
2 2
2
r r r
q q r
y y y
| | | | ÷ ÷ ÷
¬ + + =
| |
\ . \ .
3 2
2 2
3 2
2
r r r
q q r
y y y
÷
¬ + ÷ =
2 2 2 3
2 r qry q y ry ¬ ÷ + ÷ =
3 2 2 2
2 0 ry q y qry r ¬ + ÷ + =
New eqn is
3 2 2 2
2 0 rx q x qrx r ¬ + ÷ + =

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

(ii)
2 2 2
, ,

 

 

  + + +

Ans: - Here 0, , q r        + + = + + = = ÷
Let
2 2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1
, , , , y
              
        
+ + + + + + + + +
= = ÷ ÷ ÷
     
1
,
1
,
1 1
0 ,
1
0 ,
1
0 ÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ ÷ = ¬ y as 0    + + =
y
x
x
y
1 1
÷ = ¬ ÷ = ¬
So, eqn 0
3
= + + r qx x becomes 0 1 0
1 1
3 2
3
= + ÷ ÷ ¬ = +
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ ry qy r
y
q
y

0 1
2 3
= ÷ ÷ ¬ qy ry
New eqn is 0 1
2 3
= ÷ ÷ ¬ qx rx

36. Solve by Cardan’s method: 0 1 9 28
2 3
= + ÷ x x
Ans: - 0 1 9 28
2 3
= + ÷ x x ------------------(1)
Let
1 1
y x
x y
= ¬ = , then eqn (1) becomes
3
9 28 0 y y ÷ + = ---------------(2)
Here the equation having terms involving
2
y termmissing.
Let y u v = + be the solution of equation (2).
3 3 3
3 ( ) y u v uv u v ¬ = + + +
3 3 3
3 y u v uvy ¬ = + +
( )
3 3 3
3 0 y uvy u v ¬ ÷ ÷ + = -------------(3)
By comparing equation(2) and (3) we get
3 3
3, 28 uv u v ¬ = + = ÷
3 3 3 3
27, 28 u v u v ¬ = + = ÷
So,
3 3
, u v are the roots of the equation
2
28 27 0 t t + + =
( 1)( 27) 0 1, 27 t t t ¬ + + = ¬ = ÷ ÷ . So, let
3 3
1, 27 u v = ÷ = ÷ .
2
1, , u w w ¬ = ÷ ÷ ÷ , then
2
3
3, 3 , 3 v w w
u
¬ = = ÷ ÷ ÷
Then
2 2
1 3, 3 , 3 y u v w w w w ¬ = + = ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
2
4,1 2 ,1 2 y u v w w ¬ = + = ÷ ÷ ÷

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

1 3 1 3
4,1 2 ,1 2
2 2
i i
y u v
| | | |
÷ ÷ ÷ +
¬ = + = ÷ ÷ ÷
| |
| |
\ . \ .

4,2 3,2 3 y i i ¬ = ÷ + ÷

1 1 2 3 2 3
, ,
4 7 7
i i
x
y
÷ ÷ +
¬ = =
So, roots are
1 2 3 2 3
, ,
4 7 7
i i
x
÷ ÷ +
= . (Ans).
Nov-Dec 2010
37. State the intermediate property.
Ans Intermediate property of roots says that for the equation ( ) 0 f x = for two numbers
let a and b such that, ) (a f and ) (b f have different sign then equation 0 ) ( = x f has at least
one root lies between a and b.
38. I f    , , are the roots of the equation
3
0 x px q + + = , then show that
i.
5 5 5
5      + + = ÷
¿

ii.
2 5 3 4
3 5     =
¿ ¿ ¿ ¿
.
Ans: As , ,    are the roots of the cubic
3
0 x px q + + = .--------(1)
So, 0, , p q    = = = ÷
¿ ¿

Now,
( )
2
2
2 0 2 2 p p    = ÷ = ÷ = ÷
¿ ¿ ¿
.

2
2p  ¬ = ÷
¿
-----------(2)
As
3 3
0 3 0 3( ) 0 q     = ¬ ÷ = ¬ ÷ ÷ =
¿ ¿ ¿

3
3q  ¬ = ÷
¿
-------------(3)
Let us multiply equation (1) by x we get

4 2
0 x px qx + + =

4 2
0 p q    ¬ + + =
¿ ¿ ¿

4 2 2
( 2 ) (0) 2 p q p p q p    ¬ = ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ ÷ =
¿ ¿ ¿

4 2
2p  ¬ =
¿
---------------(3)
(i)
5 5 5
5      + + = ÷
¿

Ans: Now by multiplying (1) by
2
x we get
5 3 2
0 x px qx + + =

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

5 3 2
0 p q    + + =
¿ ¿ ¿

5 3 2
( 3 ) ( 2 ) 5 p q p q q p pq    ¬ = ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ =
¿ ¿ ¿
----------(4)

5
5( ) q p  ¬ = ÷ ÷
¿

5
5    ¬ = ÷
¿ ¿

5 5 5
5      ¬ + + = ÷
¿
(Proved)
(ii)
2 5 3 4
3 5     =
¿ ¿ ¿ ¿

Ans:
2 5 2
3 3.( 2 ).(5 ) 30 p pq p q   = ÷ = ÷
¿ ¿
-------------(5)

3 4 2 2
5 5( 3 )(2 ) 30 q p p q   = ÷ = ÷
¿ ¿
------------(6)
From(5) and (6)
2 5 3 4
3 5     ¬ =
¿ ¿ ¿ ¿
(Proved)
39. Solve:
5 4 3 2
6 41 97 97 41 6 0 x x x x x ÷ + ÷ + ÷ = .
Ans:
5 4 3 2
6 43 43 6 0 x x x x x + ÷ ÷ + + =
The given equation is a reciprocal equation of odd degree having coefficient of terms
equidistance frombeginning and end.
So, 1 x= ÷ is its root.
4 3 2
( 1)(6 5 38 5 6) 0 x x x x x ¬ + ÷ ÷ ÷ + =
4 3 2
(6 5 38 5 6) 0 x x x x ¬ ÷ ÷ ÷ + =
Dividing by
2
x we get
2
2
5 6
6 5 38 0 x x
x x
¬ ÷ ÷ ÷ + =
2
2
1 1
6 5 38 0 x x
x x
| | | |
¬ + ÷ + ÷ =
| |
\ . \ .

2
1 1
6 2 5 38 0 x x
x x
| |
| | | |
¬ + ÷ ÷ + ÷ =
|
| |
|
\ . \ .
\ .

( )
2
6 2 5 38 0 t t ¬ ÷ ÷ ÷ = where
1
x t
x
| |
+ =
|
\ .

2
6 5 50 0 t t ¬ ÷ ÷ =
10 5
(3 10)(2 5) 0 ,
3 2
t t t ¬ ÷ + = ¬ = ÷
1 10 1 5
3 2
x and x
x x
¬ + = ¬ + = ÷

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

2 2
3 3 10 2 2 5 x x and x x ¬ + = ¬ + = ÷
2 2
3 10 3 0 2 5 2 0 x x and x x ¬ ÷ + = ¬ + + =
10 100 36 5 25 16
6 4
x and x
± ÷ ÷ ± ÷
¬ = ¬ =
10 8 5 3
6 4
x and x
± ÷ ±
¬ = ¬ =
1 1
3, 2,
2 2
x and x ¬ = ¬ = ÷ ÷
So, roots are
1 1
2, 1, , , 3
2 2
x ¬ = ÷ ÷ ÷ (Ans)
40. Solve by Ferrari’s method: 0 3 10 5 2
2 3 4
= ÷ + ÷ ÷ x x x x .
Ans: - 0 3 10 5 2
2 3 4
= ÷ + ÷ ÷ x x x x
---------------------------(1)
Equation (1) can be written as by combining
x
4
and x
3
into perefect square
0 ) ( ) (
2 2 2
= + ÷ + ÷ n mx x x  ----------------------------(2)
0 ) 2 2 ( ) 1 2 ( 2
2 2 2 2 3 4
= ÷ + ÷ ÷ + ÷ + + ÷ ¬ n mn x m x x x    ----------(3)
From (1)onJ (3)

¸

+ = ¬ ÷ = ÷
÷ ÷ = ¬ = ÷ ÷
+ = ¬ ÷ = ÷ +
¬
3 3
5 10 2 2
6 2 5 1 2
2 2 2 2
2 2
 
 
 
n n
mn mn
m m
--------------------(4)
From(4)
2 2 2
) ( . mn n m = ¬
2 2
) 5 ( ) 3 ).( 6 2 ( ÷ ÷ = + + ¬   
0 7 4 5 2
2 3
= ÷ ÷ + ¬   
Then 1 ÷ = ¬  is one of the root.
So, 2 4 6 ) 1 ( 2
2
= ¬ = + ÷ = ¬ m m (one of the value)
2 4 5 ÷ = ¬ ÷ = ÷ ÷ = ¬ n mn 
So, (2) can be written as 0 ) 2 2 ( ) 1 (
2 2 2
= ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ x x x
0 ) 2 2 1 )( 2 2 1 (
2 2
= + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷ ¬ x x x x x x
0 ) 1 3 )( 3 (
2 2
= + ÷ ÷ + ¬ x x x x
0 ) 1 3 ( , 0 ) 3 (
2 2
= + ÷ = ÷ + ¬ x x x x
2
4 9 3
,
2
12 1 1 ÷ ±
=
+ ± ÷
= ¬ x x

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

2
5 3
,
2
13 1 ±
=
± ÷
= ¬ x x (Ans)

April -May-2011
41. What is geometrical meaning of root of the equation f(x)=0
Ans. For any value of x which satisfies 0 ) ( = x f are called as solution of 0 ) ( = x f or root of
0 ) ( = x f .
Example: - For 0 6 2 = + x
a. If 2 = x , it is not satisfies 0 6 2 = + x . So, 2 = x is not a solution of 0 6 2 = + x .
If 3 ÷ = x , it is not satisfies 0 6 2 = + x . So, 3 ÷ = x is a solution of 0 6 2 = + x .
Geometrically for the curve f(x) =0 the roots are the curve of , , ,................ x a x b x c = = =
which touches the curve at a, b, and c respectively.

42. Solve the following equations : 6x
5
-41x
4
+97x
3
-97x
2
+41x-6=0
Ans:
5 4 3 2
6 43 43 6 0 x x x x x + ÷ ÷ + + =
The given equation is a reciprocal equation of odd degree having coefficient of terms
equidistance frombeginning and end.
So, 1 x= ÷ is its root.
4 3 2
( 1)(6 5 38 5 6) 0 x x x x x ¬ + ÷ ÷ ÷ + =
4 3 2
(6 5 38 5 6) 0 x x x x ¬ ÷ ÷ ÷ + =
Dividing by
2
x we get
2
2
5 6
6 5 38 0 x x
x x
¬ ÷ ÷ ÷ + =
2
2
1 1
6 5 38 0 x x
x x
| | | |
¬ + ÷ + ÷ =
| |
\ . \ .

2
1 1
6 2 5 38 0 x x
x x
| |
| | | |
¬ + ÷ ÷ + ÷ =
|
| |
|
\ . \ .
\ .

( )
2
6 2 5 38 0 t t ¬ ÷ ÷ ÷ = where
1
x t
x
| |
+ =
|
\ .

2
6 5 50 0 t t ¬ ÷ ÷ =
10 5
(3 10)(2 5) 0 ,
3 2
t t t ¬ ÷ + = ¬ = ÷

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

1 10 1 5
3 2
x and x
x x
¬ + = ¬ + = ÷
2 2
3 3 10 2 2 5 x x and x x ¬ + = ¬ + = ÷
2 2
3 10 3 0 2 5 2 0 x x and x x ¬ ÷ + = ¬ + + =
10 100 36 5 25 16
6 4
x and x
± ÷ ÷ ± ÷
¬ = ¬ =
10 8 5 3
6 4
x and x
± ÷ ±
¬ = ¬ =
1 1
3, 2,
2 2
x and x ¬ = ¬ = ÷ ÷
So, roots are
1 1
2, 1, , , 3
2 2
x ¬ = ÷ ÷ ÷ (Ans)

43. Find the equation of squared difference of the roots of the cubic
3 2
x 6x 7x 2 0. + + + =
Ans: Let , ,    are the roots of
3 2
x 6x 7x 2 0. + + + = …………………(1)

Now, 6    + + = ÷ --------------(2)
7    + + = ------------(3)
2  = ÷ -------------(4)
As sum of the roots is -6 therefore to remove the 2
nd
term we will make a new equation
whose roots will be increased by 2
Here by removing the term containing
2
x
We will have
2 1 6 7 2
0 2 8 2
1 4 1 4
0 2 4
1 2 5
0 2
1 0
÷
÷ ÷
÷
÷ ÷
÷
÷

The transformed equation will be
3
-5y 4 0. y + = and roots of it will be 2, 2, 2    + + + …(5)
Let 2, 2, 2 a b c    = + = + = +

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

Now, 0 a b c + + = --------------(6)
5 ab bc ca + + = ÷ ------------(7)
4 abc = ÷ -------------(8)
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
2 2
b c
c a
a b
   
   
   
÷ = + ÷ + = ÷
÷ = + ÷ + = ÷
÷ = + ÷ + = ÷

And we are here to find
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
, ,       ÷ ÷ ÷
which is equivalent to
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
, , a b b c c a ÷ ÷ ÷ if z be the root of the equation squared differences we will have
( ) ( )
2 2
4 z b c b c bc = ÷ = + ÷
( ) ( )
2 2
4 z b c b c bc ¬ = ÷ = + ÷ from equation 6 and 8 we will have
( ) ( ) ( )
3
2 2 2 4 16
4
abc a
z b c b c bc a
a a
+
¬ = ÷ = + ÷ ¬ ÷ ÷ =
3
16 a
z
a
+
¬ =
3
16 y
z
y
+
¬ = as y is the root of the equation
3
-5y 4 0. y + = and equivalent to a, b, and c
3
16 0 y zy ¬ ÷ + = ………………………(9)
Subtracting the equation 9 from equation 8 we will have ( )
( )
12
5 12 0
5
z y y
z
¬ ÷ ÷ = ¬ =
÷

Putting the value of y in the equation 8 we will have
( ) ( )
3
12 12
-5 4 0.
5 5 z z
| | | |
+ =
| |
| |
÷ ÷
\ . \ .

3 2
-30z 225 68 0. z z + ÷ = and roots of the obtained equation are ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
, , a b b c c a ÷ ÷ ÷
which is equivalent to ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
, ,       ÷ ÷ ÷ .
Hence
3 2
-30z 225 68 0. z z + ÷ = is the required equation.

44. Solve by Cardan’s methods: x
3
-3x+1=0.
Ans:
3
3 1 0 x x ÷ + = --------------(1)
Hence the transformed equation is
3
3 1 0 x x ÷ + = ---------(2)where
Let
1/3 1/3
x p q = + be the solution of equation (2).

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

( )
3 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3
3 x p q p q p q ¬ = + + +

3 1/3 1/3
3 x p q p q x ¬ = + +

3 1/3 1/3
3 ( ) 0 y p q y p q ¬ ÷ ÷ + = -------------(3)
By comparing equation (2) and (3) we get

1/3 1/3
1, ( ) 1 p q p q ¬ = + =
1, ( ) 1 pq p q ¬ = + =
So, p and q are the roots of the equation
2
1 0 t t + + =

1 1 4 1 3
2 2
i
t
÷ ± ÷ ÷ ±
¬ = = .
So, let
1 3 1 3
,
2 2
i i
p q
÷ + ÷ ÷
= = .
So roots of given cubic equation (1) are
(i)
1/3 1/3
1/3 1/3
1 3 1 3
2 2
i i
p q
| | | |
÷ + ÷ ÷
+ = +
| |
| |
\ . \ .

1/3 1/3
2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin
3 3 3 3
i i
    | | | |
= + + ÷
| |
\ . \ .

2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin
9 9 9 9
i i
    | | | |
= + + ÷
| |
\ . \ .

2
2cos
9

=
(ii)
1/3 1/3
1/3 2 1/3
1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3
2 2 2 2
i i i i
wp wq
| || | | || |
÷ + ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
+ = +
| | | |
| | | |
\ .\ . \ .\ .

4/3 4/3
1 3 1 3
2 2
i i
| | | |
÷ + ÷ ÷
= +
| |
| |
\ . \ .

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

4/3 4/3
2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin
3 3 3 3
i i
    | | | |
= + + ÷
| |
\ . \ .

8 8 8 8
cos sin cos sin
9 9 9 9
i i
    | | | |
= + + ÷
| |
\ . \ .
8
2cos
9

=
(iii)
1/3 1/3
2 1/3 1/3
1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3
2 2 2 2
i i i i
w p wq
| || | | | | |
÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷ + ÷ ÷
+ = +
| | | |
| | | |
\ .\ . \ . \ .

1/3 1/3
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin cos sin cos sin
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
i i i i
        | || | | || |
= ÷ + + + ÷
| | | |
\ .\ . \ .\ .

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin cos sin cos sin
3 3 9 9 3 3 9 9
i i i i
        | || | | || |
= ÷ + + + ÷
| | | |
\ .\ . \ .\ .

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin
9 3 9 3 9 3 9 3
i i
        | | | | | | | | | | | |
= ÷ + ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷
| | | | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ .

4 4 4 4
cos sin cos sin
9 9 9 9
i i
    | | | |
= + + ÷
| |
\ . \ .

4 4 14
2cos 2cos 2 2cos
9 9 9
  

| |
= = ÷ =
|
\ .

So, roots of equation (2) are
2 8 14
2cos , 2cos , 2cos
9 9 9
  

Dec-J an-2011
45. Explain Descartes’ rule of sign of equation.
Ans Descarte’s Rule of Sign:-
a. Maximum number of positive real root of 0 ) ( = x f is same as the number of sign changes
in ) (x f .
b. Maximum number of negative real root of 0 ) ( = x f is same as the number of sign changes
in ) ( x f ÷ .
c. If an equation having degree n such that at most p number of positive roots, at most q
number of negative roots, then equation has atleast ) ( q p n + ÷ number of imaginary
roots.

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

46. I f O, A, B, C are the four point on a straight line such that the distance of A, B and C from
O are the roots of the equation
3
3 0 ax cx d + + = . If B is the middle point of AC show that
3 3
3 2 0 a d abc b ÷ + =
Ans . Let us assume , ,    are the roots of the equation
3 2
3 3 0 ax bx cx d + + + = and
, , OA OB OC    = = =

According to the given condition     ÷ = ÷

2   = + --------------(1)

According to the property of roots
Now,
3b
a
  
÷
+ + = --------------(2)

3c
a
   + + = ------------(3)
d
a

÷
= -------------(4)
From 2 and 3 we will have
3
3
b b
a a
 
÷
= ÷ ¬ = -------------(5)
( )
3 3 c c
a a
       + + = ¬ + + =
From 1
2
2
3 3
2 2
c b c
a a a
  
÷ | |
+ = ¬ + =
|
\ .

2
2
3
2
c b
a a
 ¬ = ÷ -------------(6)
again from 4 we have

d
a

÷
=

( )
d
a
 
÷
=

From 5 and 6 we have
2
2
3
2
b c b d
a a a a
| | ÷ ÷ | |
÷ =
| |
\ .
\ .

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

By solving above we will have
( )
2
2
3 2 ca b
b d
a
| | ÷
=
|
\ .

Hence we will have
3 3
3 2 0 a d abc b ÷ + =

47. Solve by Cardan’s methods : X
3
– 3X
2
+3 =0.
Ans:
3 2
3 3 0 x x ÷ + = --------------(1)
Here we can remove second termof equation (1) by diminishing its roots by

3
1
3 1
b
h
na
÷
= ÷ = ÷ =
×

We can diminished each root by 1 by synthetic division method

Hence the transformed equation is
3
3 1 0 y y ÷ + = ---------(2)where 1 y x = ÷
Let
1/3 1/3
y p q = + be the solution of equation (2).

( )
3 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3
3 y p q p q p q ¬ = + + +

3 1/3 1/3
3 y p q p q y ¬ = + +

3 1/3 1/3
3 ( ) 0 y p q y p q ¬ ÷ ÷ + = -------------(3)
By comparing equation (2) and (3) we get

1/3 1/3
1, ( ) 1 p q p q ¬ = + =
1, ( ) 1 pq p q ¬ = + =

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

So, p and q are the roots of the equation
2
1 0 t t + + =

1 1 4 1 3
2 2
i
t
÷ ± ÷ ÷ ±
¬ = = .
So, let
1 3 1 3
,
2 2
i i
p q
÷ + ÷ ÷
= = .
So roots of given cubic equation (1) are
(i)
1/3 1/3
1/3 1/3
1 3 1 3
2 2
i i
p q
| | | |
÷ + ÷ ÷
+ = +
| |
| |
\ . \ .

1/3 1/3
2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin
3 3 3 3
i i
    | | | |
= + + ÷
| |
\ . \ .

2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin
9 9 9 9
i i
    | | | |
= + + ÷
| |
\ . \ .

2
2cos
9

=
(ii)
1/3 1/3
1/3 2 1/3
1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3
2 2 2 2
i i i i
wp wq
| || | | || |
÷ + ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
+ = +
| | | |
| | | |
\ .\ . \ .\ .

4/3 4/3
1 3 1 3
2 2
i i
| | | |
÷ + ÷ ÷
= +
| |
| |
\ . \ .

4/3 4/3
2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin
3 3 3 3
i i
    | | | |
= + + ÷
| |
\ . \ .

8 8 8 8
cos sin cos sin
9 9 9 9
i i
    | | | |
= + + ÷
| |
\ . \ .
8
2cos
9

=
(iii)
1/3 1/3
2 1/3 1/3
1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3
2 2 2 2
i i i i
w p wq
| || | | | | |
÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷ + ÷ ÷
+ = +
| | | |
| | | |
\ .\ . \ . \ .

1/3 1/3
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin cos sin cos sin
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
i i i i
        | || | | || |
= ÷ + + + ÷
| | | |
\ .\ . \ .\ .

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin cos sin cos sin
3 3 9 9 3 3 9 9
i i i i
        | || | | || |
= ÷ + + + ÷
| | | |
\ .\ . \ .\ .

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin
9 3 9 3 9 3 9 3
i i
        | | | | | | | | | | | |
= ÷ + ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷
| | | | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ .

4 4 4 4
cos sin cos sin
9 9 9 9
i i
    | | | |
= + + ÷
| |
\ . \ .

4 4 14
2cos 2cos 2 2cos
9 9 9
  

| |
= = ÷ =
|
\ .

So, roots of equation (2) are
2 8 14
2cos , 2cos , 2cos
9 9 9
  

Now, roots of given equation (1) are
2 8 14
1 2cos , 1 2cos , 1 2cos
9 9 9
  
+ + + (Ans)

48. Solve by Ferrari’s method:
4 3 2
12 41 18 72 0 x x x x ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = .
Ans:
4 3 2
12 41 18 72 0 x x x x ÷ + ÷ ÷ =
Let
4 3 2 2 2 2
( ) 12 41 18 72 ( 6 ) ( ) 0 f x x x x x x x mx n  = ÷ + ÷ ÷ = ÷ + ÷ + = ----------(1)

4 3 2 4 2 2 3 2 2 2 2
12 41 18 72 36 12 12 2 2 x x x x x x x x x mx mnx n    ¬ ÷ + ÷ ÷ = + + ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷

4 3 2 4 3 2 2 2 2
12 41 18 72 12 (36 2 ) ( 12 2 ) x x x x x x m x mn x n    ¬ ÷ + ÷ ÷ = ÷ + + ÷ + ÷ ÷ + ÷

Equating the coefficients we get

2 2 2
(36 2 ) 41, ( 12 2 ) 18, 72 m mn n    ¬ + ÷ = ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ = ÷

2 2 2
2 5, 9 6 , 72 m mn n    ¬ = ÷ = ÷ = +
( )( ) ( )
2
2
2 5 72 9 6    ¬ ÷ + = ÷

3 2 2
2 144 5 360 81 36 108 0      ¬ + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ + =

3 2
2 41 252 441 0    ¬ ÷ + ÷ =

2
( 3)(2 35 147) 0    ¬ ÷ ÷ + =

21
2
3,7,  ¬ =
By taking 3 1, 9 m n  = ¬ = = ÷ equation (1) becomes

4 3 2 2 2 2
12 41 18 72 ( 6 3) ( 9) 0 x x x x x x x ¬ ÷ + ÷ ÷ = ÷ + ÷ ÷ =

2 2
( 6 3 9)( 6 3 9) 0 x x x x x x ¬ ÷ + + ÷ ÷ + ÷ + =

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

2 2
( 5 6)( 7 12) 0 x x x x ¬ ÷ ÷ ÷ + =
( 6)( 1)( 3)( 4) 0 x x x x ¬ ÷ + ÷ ÷ =
1,3,4,6 x ¬ = ÷ (Ans)

April -May-2012
49. Solve the equation
3
6x 20 0 x + + = , one root being 1 3. i ÷
Ans . As we know that from the general properties of roots of an equation that In an equation
with real coefficients, if   i + is a root then   i ÷ is also one of the root, therefore two
roots of the equation
3
( ) 6x 20 f x x = + + are 1 3. i ÷ and 1 3. i +
( ) ( ) | | ( ) 1-3i 1+3i f x x x x a ¬ = ÷ ÷ ÷ ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

( ) ( ) | | ( ) 1 3 1 3 f x x i x i x a ¬ = ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
( ) ( ) | | ( ) 1 3 1 3 f x x i x i x a ¬ = ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
( ) | |
2
( ) 1 9 f x x x a
(
¬ = ÷ ÷ ÷
¸ ¸

| |
2
( ) 2 1 9 f x x x x a ( ¬ = ÷ + ÷ ÷
¸ ¸

| |
2
( ) 2 8 f x x x x a ( ¬ = ÷ ÷ ÷
¸ ¸

| |
2
( )
2 8
f x
x a
x x
¬ = ÷
( ÷ ÷
¸ ¸

| |
3
2
6x 20
2 8
x
x a
x x
( + +
¸ ¸
¬ = ÷
( ÷ ÷
¸ ¸

| | | | 2 2 x x a a ¬ + = ÷ ¬ = ÷
Roots of the equation
3
6x 20 x ( + +
¸ ¸
are 1 3.,1 3 2 i i and ÷ + ÷ and
50. Solve the equation Solve the equation
3 2
x 4x 20x 48 0 ÷ ÷ + = , given that the roots o onJ [
are connected by the relation 0   + =
Ans . Let us assume , ,    are the roots of the equation
3 2
x 4x 20x 48 0 ÷ ÷ + = and
According to the given condition 0     + = ¬ = ÷ --------------(1)
According to the property of roots
Now, 4    + + = --------------(2)
From 1 we will have 0 4 4   + = ¬ =
20    + + = ÷ ------------(3)
48  = ÷ -------------(4)

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

From 2 and 4 we will have ( ) 4 48 12   = ÷ ¬ = ÷ -------------(5)
By using the equation 1 and 5 we 0   + = and 12  = ÷
We can have quadratic equation from above i.e
2
-12 0 y = and 2 3 y= ±
2 3 2 3 and   = = ÷ and three roots of the equation
3 2
x 4x 20x 48 0 ÷ ÷ + = are
2 3 , 2 3 4 and    = = ÷ =
51. Solve the equation
3 2
6x 11x 3x 2 0 ÷ ÷ + = , given that its roots are in H.P.
Ans. We know that H.P is reciprocal of A.P then by taking 1/ y x = the new equation will be
3 2
3 2
1 1 1
6 11 3 2 0 2 3y 11 6 0 y y
y y y
| | | | | |
÷ ÷ + = ¬ ÷ ÷ + =
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

now roots of the equation
3 2
2 3y 11 6 0 y y ÷ ÷ + = are in A.P As , , d d    ÷ + are the roots of the cubic equation
3 2
2 3y 11 6 0 y y ÷ ÷ + = .
By properties of relation between roots and coefficient of the equation we will have
( ) ( ) ( ) 3/ 2 d d    ¬ ÷ + + + =
3 3/ 2 1/ 2   ¬ = ¬ =
Again we will have ( ) ( ) ( ) 3 d d    ¬ ÷ × × + = ÷
( ) ( )
2 2
3 d   ¬ ÷ × = ÷
2
2
1 1
3
2 2
d
| |
| | | |
¬ ÷ × = ÷
|
| |
|
\ . \ .
\ .

2
1
6
4
d
| | | |
¬ ÷ = ÷
| |
\ . \ .

2
1 25
6
4 4
d
| |
¬ = + =
|
\ .

5
2
d ¬ = ± by putting the value of 5/ 2 d = in , , d d    ÷ + we will have roots of the
equation
3 2
2 3y 11 6 0 y y ÷ ÷ + = are 2,1/ 2,3 ÷ and roots of the equation
3 2
6x 11x 3x 2 0 ÷ ÷ + = are 1/ 2, 2 1/ 3 and ÷
52. Solve by Cardan’s methods:
3
x 18x 35 0. ÷ + =
Ans:
3
x 18x 35 0. ÷ + =

Here the equation having terms involving
2
x termmissing.
Let x u v = + be the solution of equation (1).

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

( )
3 3 3
3 x u v uv u v ¬ = + + +

3 3 3
3 x u v uvx ¬ = + +

( )
3 3 3
3 0 x uvx u v ¬ ÷ ÷ + = -------------(2)
By comparing equation(1) and (2) we get
3 3
6, ( ) 35 uv u v ¬ = + = ÷ ------------(3)
3 3 3 3 3 3
6, ( ) 35 216, ( ) 35 uv u v u v u v ¬ = + = ÷ ¬ = + = ÷
So,
3
u and
3
v are the roots of the equation
2
35 216 0 t t + + =

2
35 216 ( 27)( 8) 27, 8 t t t t t ¬ + + = + + ¬ = ÷ ÷ .
So, let
3
u =-27 and
2
3, 3 , 3 u w w = ÷ ÷ ÷ therefore from3 we will have
2
2, 2 , 2 v w w = ÷ ÷ ÷
So roots of given cubic equation (1) are
(iv) 3 2 5 u v + = ÷ ÷ = ÷
(v)
2
1 3 1 3 5 3
3 2 3 2
2 2 2
i i i
u v w w
| | | | | |
÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷
+ = ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ =
| | |
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

(vi)
2
1 3 1 3 5 3
3 2 3 2
2 2 2
i i i
u v w w
| | | | | |
÷ ÷ ÷ + +
+ = ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ =
| | |
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

So, roots are
5 3 5 3
5, ,
2 2
i i
| | | |
÷ +
÷
| |
| |
\ . \ .
(Ans).

Dec –J an -2012
53. From the equation of the fourth degree whose roots are 3 +i and √7 .
Ans . As we know that from the general properties of roots of an equation that In an equation
with real coefficients, if   i + is a root then   i ÷ is also one of the root, and for the
irrational roots if an equation has b a+ is one of the root, then b a÷ is also another root.
Therefore two roots of the equation we will have   3  i and 3-i , 7 7 and + ÷ and the
equation will be
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) 3+i 3-i 7 7 f x x x x x
( (
= ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

( ) ( ) ( ) 3 3 7 7 f x x i x i x x
( (
¬ = ÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷ + ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

( )
( )
2
2
2 2
( ) 3 7 f x x i x
(
(
¬ = ÷ ÷ ÷
( ¸ ¸
¸ ¸

( )
( )
2
2
2 2
( ) 3 7 f x x i x
(
(
¬ = ÷ ÷ ÷
( ¸ ¸
¸ ¸

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

2 2
( ) 9 6 1 7 f x x x x ( ( ¬ = + ÷ + ÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

4 2 2 3 2
( ) 7 9 63 6 42 7 f x x x x x x x ¬ = ÷ + ÷ ÷ + + ÷

4 3 2
( ) 6 3 42 70 f x x x x x ¬ = ÷ + + ÷
54. Solve the equations:
5 4 3 2
6x    x  43x –  43x      6  0 . x + ÷ + + =
Ans:
5 4 3 2
6 43 43 6 0 x x x x x + ÷ ÷ + + =
The given equation is a reciprocal equation of odd degree having coefficient of terms
equidistance frombeginning and end.So, 1 x= ÷ is its root.
4 3 2
( 1)(6 5 38 5 6) 0 x x x x x ¬ + ÷ ÷ ÷ + =
4 3 2
(6 5 38 5 6) 0 x x x x ¬ ÷ ÷ ÷ + =
Dividing by
2
x we get
2
2
5 6
6 5 38 0 x x
x x
¬ ÷ ÷ ÷ + =
2
2
1 1
6 5 38 0 x x
x x
| | | |
¬ + ÷ + ÷ =
| |
\ . \ .

2
1 1
6 2 5 38 0 x x
x x
| |
| | | |
¬ + ÷ ÷ + ÷ =
|
| |
|
\ . \ .
\ .

( )
2
6 2 5 38 0 t t ¬ ÷ ÷ ÷ = where
1
x t
x
| |
+ =
|
\ .

2
6 5 50 0 t t ¬ ÷ ÷ =
10 5
(3 10)(2 5) 0 ,
3 2
t t t ¬ ÷ + = ¬ = ÷
1 10 1 5
3 2
x and x
x x
¬ + = ¬ + = ÷
2 2
3 3 10 2 2 5 x x and x x ¬ + = ¬ + = ÷
2 2
3 10 3 0 2 5 2 0 x x and x x ¬ ÷ + = ¬ + + =
10 100 36 5 25 16
6 4
x and x
± ÷ ÷ ± ÷
¬ = ¬ =
10 8 5 3
6 4
x and x
± ÷ ±
¬ = ¬ =
1 1
3, 2,
2 2
x and x ¬ = ¬ = ÷ ÷

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

So, roots are
1 1
2, 1, , , 3
2 2
x ¬ = ÷ ÷ ÷ (Ans)
55.
Solve by Cardan’s methods :
3
– 27x 54=0 x +

Ans:
3
– 27x 54=0 x +

Here the equation having terms involving
2
x termmissing.
Let x u v = + be the solution of equation (1).
( )
3 3 3
3 x u v uv u v ¬ = + + +

3 3 3
3 x u v uvx ¬ = + +

( )
3 3 3
3 0 x uvx u v ¬ ÷ ÷ + = -------------(2)
By comparing equation(1) and (2) we get

3 3
9, ( ) 54 uv u v ¬ = + = ÷ ------------(3)
3 3 3 3 3 3
9, ( ) 54 729, ( ) 54 uv u v u v u v ¬ = + = ÷ ¬ = + = ÷
So,
3
u and
3
v are the roots of the equation
2
54 729 0 t t + + =

2 2 2
54 27 ( 27) 27 t t t t ¬ + + = + ¬ = ÷ .
So, let
3
u =-27 and
2
3, 3 , 3 u w w = ÷ ÷ ÷ therefore from3 we will have
2
3, 3 , 3 v w w = ÷ ÷ ÷
So roots of given cubic equation (1) are
(vii) 3 3 6 u v + = ÷ ÷ = ÷
(viii)
2
1 3 1 3 6
3 3 3 3 3
2 2 2
i i
u v w w
| | | |
÷ + ÷ ÷ | |
+ = ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ = =
| |
|
| |
\ .
\ . \ .

(ix)
2
1 3 1 3 6
3 3 3 3 3
2 2 2
i i
u v w w
| | | |
÷ ÷ ÷ + | |
+ = ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ = =
| |
|
| |
\ .
\ . \ .

So, roots are 6, 3, 3 ÷ (Ans).
56. Solve by Ferrari;s method : X
4
– 4X
3
–X
2
+16X – 12=0.
Ans:
4 3 2
– 4x – 16x – 12 0. x x + =
Let
4 3 2 2 2 2
( ) – 4x – 16x – 12 ( 2 ) ( ) 0 f x x x x x mx n  = + = ÷ + ÷ + = ----------(1)

4 3 2 4 2 2 3 2 2 2 2
– 4x – 16x – 12 4 4 4 2 2 x x x x x x x mx mnx n    ¬ + = + + ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷
4 3 2 4 3 2 2 2 2
– 4x – 16x – 12 4 (4 2 ) ( 4 2 ) x x x x m x mn x n    ¬ + = ÷ + + ÷ + ÷ ÷ + ÷
Equating the coefficients we get

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
PRAGATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING and MANAGEMENT

2 2 2
(4 2 ) 1, ( 4 2 ) 16, 12 m mn n    ¬ + ÷ = ÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷ = ÷

2 2 2
2 5, 8 2 , 12 m mn n    ¬ = + = ÷ ÷ = + ……………………..(2)
( )( ) ( )
2
2
2 5 12 8 2    ¬ + + = ÷ ÷
3 2 2
2 24 5 60 64 4 32      ¬ + + + = + +
3 2
2 8 4 0    ¬ + ÷ ÷ =
By solving the above equation we will have
2, 2, 1/ 2  ¬ = ÷ ÷
By taking 2,  = in the equation 2 we will have
2 2
9, 12, 16 m mn n ¬ = = ÷ =
2
3, 12, 4 m mn n ¬ = ± = ÷ = ±
( ) ( )
3, 4 3, 4 m n or m n ¬ = = ÷ = ÷ =
By putting the value of above in the equation 1 we will have
4 3 2 2 2 2
( ) – 4x – 16x – 12 ( 2 2) (3 4) 0 f x x x x x x = + = ÷ + ÷ ÷ =
4 3 2 2 2
( ) – 4x – 16x – 12 ( 2 2) (3 4) ( 2 2) (3 4) f x x x x x x x x x ( ( = + = ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ + + ÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
4 3 2 2 2
( ) – 4x – 16x – 12 2 2 3 4 2 2 3 4 f x x x x x x x x x ( ( = + = ÷ + ÷ + ÷ + + ÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

4 3 2 2 2
( ) – 4x – 16x – 12 5 6 2 f x x x x x x x ( ( = + = ÷ + + ÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

( )( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
5 6 3 2 , 2 2 1 x x x x x x x x ÷ + = ÷ ÷ + ÷ = + ÷ 
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
4 3 2
( ) – 4x – 16x – 12 3 2 2 1 f x x x x x x x = + = ÷ ÷ + ÷
Roots of the equation
4 3 2
– 4x – 16x – 12 0. x x + =

3,2,-2and 1