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# 1 HW1 1. Two spheres are cut from a certain uniform rock. One has radius r=5.0 cm.

The mass of the other is eight times greater. Find its radius R. Since mass radius3 R = r 81/3 = 10 cm

2. The mass of a copper atom is m = 2.27 1025 kg , and the density of copper is = 8920kg/m3 . (a) Determine the number of atoms in V = 1 cm3 of copper. N = V /m = 3.93 1022 (b) Visualize the one cubic centimeter as formed by stacking up identical cubes, with one copper atom at the center of each. Determine the volume of each cube. V /N = 2.54 1029 m3 (c) Find the edge dimension of each cube, which represents an estimate for the spacing between atoms. V N
1/3

= 2.94 1010 m

3. Newtons law of universal gravitation is represented by F = GM m/r2 where F is the magnitude of the gravitational force exerted by one small object on another, M and m are the masses of the objects, and r is a distance. Force has the SI units kg m/s2 . What are the SI units of the proportionality constant G? [G] = [F ]m2 /kg 2 = m3 /kg/s2 4. Kinetic energy KE (Chapter 5) has dimensions kg m2 /s2 . It can be written in terms of the momentum p (Chapter 6) and mass m as KE = p2 /2m (a) Determine the proper units for momentum using dimensional analysis. (Use the following as necessary: kg, m, and s.) [p] = kg m/s (b) Given the units of force, write a simple equation relating a constant force F exerted on an object, an interval of time t during which the force is applied, and the resulting momentum of the object, p. Look for F t p with yet unknown , . Compare the dimensions: kg m/s2 s (kg m/s) Thus, = 1, = 1 and Ft p

2 5. a) Assume the equation x = At3 + Bt describes the motion of a particular object, with x having the dimension of length and t having the dimension of time. Determine the dimensions of the constants A and B. (Use the following as necessary: L and T, where L is the unit of length and T is the unit of time.) [A] = L/T 3 , [B ] = L/T (b) Determine the dimensions of the derivative dx/dt = 3At2 + B .(Use the following as necessary: L and T, where L is the unit of length and T is the unit of time.) [dx/dt] = L/T 6. A rectangular building lot has a width of 72.5 ft and a length of 110 ft. Determine the area of this lot in square meters 72.5 110 f t2 = 72.5 110 (0.305 m)2 = 740.9 m2 7. A solid piece of lead has a mass of 31.14 g and a volume of 2.72 cm3. From these data, calculate the density of lead in SI units (kilograms per cubic meter). 1 kg/m3 31.14 (0.001 kg ) = 11.45 103 kg/m3 2.72 (0.01 m)3 8. Suppose your hair grows at the rate 1/31 in. per day. Find the rate at which it grows in nanometers per second. Because the distance between atoms in a molecule is on the order of 0.1 nm, your answer suggests how rapidly layers of atoms are assembled in this protein synthesis 1 2.54 102 nm 109 1 in = = 9.48 nm/s 31 day 31 24 3600 s 9. Find the order of magnitude of the number of table-tennis balls that would t into a typical-size room (without being crushed). (Assume that the dimensions of the room are 4 m by 4 m by 3 m.) 106 10. a) Compute the order of magnitude of the mass of a bathtub half full of water. (Assume the tub measures 1.3 m by 0.5 m by 0.3 m.) m = V 102 kg (b) Compute the order of magnitude of the mass of a bathtub half full of pennies. (Assume the pennies are made entirely of copper.) m = Cu V 103 kg

3 11. A surveyor measures the distance across a straight river by the following method. Starting directly across from a tree on the opposite bank, she walks d = 92 m along the riverbank to establish a baseline. Then she sights across to the tree. The angle from her baseline to the tree is = 31.0. How wide is the river? d tan = 55.28 m 12. The displacement vectors and shown in the gure below both have magnitudes of L=1.58 m. The direction of vector A is =38.8.
y

a) Find C = A + B First, nd components A = (L cos , L sin ) , B = (0 , L) Then, Cx = Ax + Bx = L cos = 1.23 , Cy = Ay + By = L sin + L = 2.57 magnitude
2 + C 2 = 2.85 Cx y

direction arctan(Cy /Cx ) = 64.4o (b) Find C = A B Cx = Ax Bx = L cos = 1.23 > 0 , Cy = Ay By = L sin L = 0.59 < 0 magnitude
2 + C 2 = 1.37 Cx y

direction arctan(Cy /Cx ) + 3600 = 334.40 (c) Find C = A + B Cx = Ax + Bx = L cos < 0 , Cy = Ay + By = L sin + L > 0

4 magnitude
2 + C 2 = 1.37 Cx y

direction arctan(Cy /Cx ) + 1800 = 154.4o Note: arctan is conned between 90o while angle is measured from 0 to 360. Hence the above corrections - need to look at the picture. 13. The polar coordinates of a point are r = 6.00 m and = 250. What are the Cartesian coordinates of this point? r = (x, y ) , x = r cos = 2.05 m , y = r sin = 5.64 m 14. Vector A has a magnitude of A=26 units and points in the positive y-direction. When vector B is added to A, the resultant vector C = A + B points in the negative y-direction with a magnitude of C=16 units. Find the magnitude of B? First, write in components A = (0, A) , C = (0, C ) Then B = C A = (0 0 , C A) = (0, C A) and B = A + C = 42 15. A vector r has an x component of -24.5 units and a y component of 39.8 units. Find the magnitude and direction of this vector. magnitude r = x2 + y 2 = 46.73 direction = arctan(y/x) + 180o = 121.6o counterclockwise from the +x axis 16. Use the component method to add the vectors and shown in the gure. The length of B is 3.55 m and the angle = 33.0. Length of A is 3.0 m. Express the resultant in unit-vector notation.
y

5 One has A = A cos i + A sin j = 2.516i + 1.63j , B = B j = 3.55j Then A + B = A cos i + A sin j + B j = A cos i + (A sin + B )j = 2.51i + 5.18j 17. Consider the two vectors A = i 3j and B = i 4j . (a) Calculate A + B = 0i 7j (b) Calculate A B = 2i + j (c) Calculate |A + B | = 7 (d) Calculate |A B | = (e) Calculate the directions of + and - . A + B : 270o (counterclockwise from the +x axis) A B : 26.6o (counterclockwise from the +x axis) 5