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II sem (csvtu) Mathematics Unit 2 (Linear Differential Equation )Solustions

II sem (csvtu) Mathematics Unit 2 (Linear Differential Equation )Solustions

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Previous Years Solutions from 2006-2012 for both summer and winter
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10/14/2013

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Prepared by Mrityunjoy Dutta

Unit I I – Differential Equations of higher order
April -May, 2006
1. Solve:
2
2 3
2
2 cos2
x x
d y
y x e e x
dx
+ = +
Ans:
( )
2 2 3
2 cos2
x x
D y x e e x + = + -----------(1)
Here Auxiliary equation is
2
2 0 2 D D i + = ¬ = ±
So, cos 2 sin 2
h
y A x B x = +

( )
2 3
2
1
. . cos2
2
x x
p
P I y x e e x
D
= = +
+

( ) ( )
3 2
2 2
1 1
cos2
( 3) 2 ( 1) 2
x x
p
y e x e x
D D
¬ = +
+ + + +

( ) ( )
3
2
2 2
1 1
cos2
11 2 3 6
1
11
x
x
p
e
y x e x
D D D D
¬ = +
+ + | | +
+
|
\ .

( ) ( )
3
2
2 2
1 1
cos2
6 11 4 2 3
1
11
x
x
p
e
y x e x
D D D
¬ = +
+ ÷ + +
+

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2 3
2 2
3 2
2
2
6 6
6 2 13
1 ... cos2
11 11 121 1331 4 169
x
x
p
D D D D
e D D D
y x e x
D
(
+ +
+ +
(
¬ = ÷ + ÷ + +
( ÷
¸ ¸

( ) ( )
3
2 2
2
6 1 36 2 13
1 ... cos2
11 11 11 121 4 169
x
x
p
e D D
y D x e x
D
( + | |
¬ = ÷ ÷ + + +
| (
÷
\ . ¸ ¸

( ) ( )
3
2 2
2
6 47 2 13
1 ... cos2
11 11 121 4 4 169
x
x
p
e D D
y D x e x
+ (
¬ = ÷ ÷ + +
(
÷ × ÷
¸ ¸

( )
3
2
6 47 2 13
2 2 0 0 ... cos2
11 11 121 233
x
x
p
e D
y x x e x
+ (
¬ = ÷ × ÷ × + + + +
(
÷
¸ ¸

( )
3
2
12 94
4sin2 13cos2
11 11 121 233
x x
p
e x e
y x x x
(
¬ = ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ +
(
¸ ¸

So, Solution
h p
y y y = +
( )
3
2
12 94
cos 2 sin 2 4sin2 13cos2
11 11 121 233
x x
e x e
y A x B x x x x
(
¬ = + + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ +
(
¸ ¸

Prepared by Mrityunjoy Dutta
2. Solve:
3 2
3 2
3 2
1
2 2 10( )
d y d y
x x y x
dx dx x
+ + = +
Ans:
3 2
3 2
3 2
1
2 2 10
d y d y
x x y x
dx dx x
| |
+ + = +
|
\ .
-------------(1)
Let log
z
x e z x = ¬ =
So,
2 3
2 3
2 3
', '( ' 1) , '( ' 1)( ' 2)
dy d y d y
x D x D D y x D D D y
dx dx dx
¬ = = ÷ = ÷ ÷ where
'
d
D
dz
=
Putting all these values in (1) we get
| | '( ' 1)( ' 2) 2 '( ' 1) 2 10( )
z z
D D D D D y e e
÷
¬ ÷ ÷ + ÷ + = +

3 2
' ' 2 10( )
z z
D D y e e
÷
( ¬ ÷ + = +
¸ ¸
-------(2)
Its auxiliary equation is
3 2
2 0 m m ÷ + =

2
( 1)( 2 2) 0 m m m ¬ + ÷ + =

2 4
1,
2
m
± ÷
¬ = ÷
1, 1 m i ¬ = ÷ ±
So, ( ) . . cos sin )
z z
h
C F y Ae e B z C z
÷
= = + +
( ) . . cos(log ) sin(log )
h
A
C F y x B x C x
x
= = + + -------------(3)
Now,
3 2
1
. . 10( )
' ' 2
z z
p
P I y e e
D D
÷
= = +
÷ +

3 2 3 2
1 1
10 10
' ' 2 ' ' 2
z z
p
y e e
D D D D
÷
¬ = +
÷ + ÷ +

3 2 3 2
1 1
10 10 (1)
1 1 2 ( ' 1) ( ' 1) 2
z z
p
y e e
D D
÷
¬ = +
÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ +

2
1
5 10 (1)
'( ' 4 ' 5)
z z
p
y e e
D D D
÷
¬ = +
÷ +

Prepared by Mrityunjoy Dutta

1
2
1 4 1
5 10 1 ' ' (1)
5 ' 5 5
z z
p
y e e D D
D
÷
÷
| |
¬ = + ÷ +
|
\ .

1 4
5 2 1 ' ..... (1)
' 5
z z
p
y e e D
D
÷
| |
¬ = + ÷ ÷
|
\ .

1
5 2 (1)
'
z z
p
y e e
D
÷
¬ = +
5 2
z z
p
y e ze
÷
¬ = +

2log
5
p
x
y x
x
¬ = +
So, Solution
h p
y y y = +
( )
2log
cos(log ) sin(log ) 5
A x
y x B x C x x
x x
¬ = + + + + (Ans)

3. Solve the following simultaneous equation: 2 , 2 , 2
dx dy dz
y z x
dt dt dt
= = =
(Ans.) The given equation is:
2 =
dx
y
dt
………..(1), 2 ..........(2)
dy
z
dt
=
,
2 ..........(3)
dz
x
dt
=
Differentiating (1)w . r. “t.”, we get
2
2
2 2(2 )
d x dy
z
dt dt
= = using(2)
Differentiating again w. r. t. “t”,, we get
3
3
4 4(2 )
d x dz
x
dt dt
= =
3
3 2
2
1 2 3
2
1 2 3 2 3
2
1 2 3 3
2
1 2
( 8) 0,
8 0 ( 2)() 2 4) 0
2, 1 3
cos( 3 )
1
2
1
2 cos( 3 ) 3 sin( 3 )
2
2 2
cos cos( 3 ) sin sin( 3 )
3 3
cos 3
t t
t t t
t t
t t
d
D x whereD
dt
D or D D D
D i
x ce c e t c
dx
y
dt
ce c e t c c e t c
ce c e t c t c
ce c e t
 
÷
÷ ÷
÷
÷
÷ = =
÷ = ÷ + + =
= ÷ ±
= + ÷
=
(
= ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
¸ ¸
(
= + ÷ ÷ ÷
(
¸ ¸
= + ÷
3
2
3
c
 | |
+
|
\ .

Prepared by Mrityunjoy Dutta
From(2)…..
2
1 2 3 2 3
2
1 2 3
1
2
1 2 2
2 cos( 3 ) 3 sin( 3 )
2 3 3
4
cos( 3 )
3
t t t
t t
dy
z
dt
ce c e t c c e t c
ce c e t c
 

÷ ÷
÷
=
(
= ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷ +
(
¸ ¸
= + ÷ +

Nov-Dec 2006
4. Solve the following : sin , cos
dx dx
y t x t
dt dt
+ = + = , Given that , 2, 0, , 0 x y when t = = =
Ans: Given simultaneous differential equation are
sin
dx
y t
dt
+ = -------------(1)
cos
dy
x t
dt
+ = ------------(2)
Fromequation (2) we get cos
dy
x t
dt
= ÷ + ---------(3)
Differentiating (3) with respect to t we get

2
2
sin
dx d y
t
dt dt
¬ = ÷ ÷ ---------(4)
From(1) and (4) we get

2
2
sin sin
d y
t y t
dt
¬ ÷ = ÷ ÷

2
2
2sin
d y
y t
dt
¬ ÷ = ÷

2
( 1) 2sin D y t ¬ ÷ = ÷ -----------(5)
Its Auxiliary equation is
2
1 0 1,1 m m ÷ = ¬ = ÷
So, . .
t t
h
C F y Ae Be
÷
= = +
And
2
1
. . ( 2sin )
1
p
P I y t
D
= = ÷
÷

2
1
( 2sin ) sin
1 1
p
y t t ¬ = ÷ =
÷ ÷

So,
h p
y y y = +
sin
t t
y Ae Be t
÷
¬ = + + -------(6)
Putting the value of y in (2) we get

Prepared by Mrityunjoy Dutta
cos cos
t t
Ae Be t x t
÷
¬ ÷ + + =

t t
x Ae Be
÷
¬ = ÷ + ---------(7)
Given that 2, 0, 0 x y whent = = =
So, equation (6) and (7) becomes 0 A B ¬ = + and 2 A B ¬ = ÷ +
1, 1 A B ¬ = ÷ =
So, solution
t t
x e e
÷
¬ = + and sin
t t
y e e t
÷
¬ = ÷ + + (Ans)
5. Solve the differential equation:
3 2
3 2
3 2
1
2 2 10( )
d y d y
x x y x
dx dx x
+ + = +
Ans:
3 2
3 2
3 2
1
2 2 10
d y d y
x x y x
dx dx x
| |
+ + = +
|
\ .
-------------(1)
Let log
z
x e z x = ¬ =
So,
2 3
2 3
2 3
', '( ' 1) , '( ' 1)( ' 2)
dy d y d y
x D x D D y x D D D y
dx dx dx
¬ = = ÷ = ÷ ÷ where '
d
D
dz
=
Putting all these values in (1) we get
| | '( ' 1)( ' 2) 2 '( ' 1) 2 10( )
z z
D D D D D y e e
÷
¬ ÷ ÷ + ÷ + = +

3 2
' ' 2 10( )
z z
D D y e e
÷
( ¬ ÷ + = +
¸ ¸
-------(2)
Its auxiliary equation is
3 2
2 0 m m ÷ + =

2
( 1)( 2 2) 0 m m m ¬ + ÷ + =

2 4
1,
2
m
± ÷
¬ = ÷
1, 1 m i ¬ = ÷ ±
So, ( ) . . cos sin )
z z
h
C F y Ae e B z C z
÷
= = + +
( ) . . cos(log ) sin(log )
h
A
C F y x B x C x
x
= = + + -------------(3)

Prepared by Mrityunjoy Dutta
Now,
3 2
1
. . 10( )
' ' 2
z z
p
P I y e e
D D
÷
= = +
÷ +

3 2 3 2
1 1
10 10
' ' 2 ' ' 2
z z
p
y e e
D D D D
÷
¬ = +
÷ + ÷ +

3 2 3 2
1 1
10 10 (1)
1 1 2 ( ' 1) ( ' 1) 2
z z
p
y e e
D D
÷
¬ = +
÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ +

2
1
5 10 (1)
'( ' 4 ' 5)
z z
p
y e e
D D D
÷
¬ = +
÷ +

1
2
1 4 1
5 10 1 ' ' (1)
5 ' 5 5
z z
p
y e e D D
D
÷
÷
| |
¬ = + ÷ +
|
\ .

1 4
5 2 1 ' ..... (1)
' 5
z z
p
y e e D
D
÷
| |
¬ = + ÷ ÷
|
\ .

1
5 2 (1)
'
z z
p
y e e
D
÷
¬ = +
5 2
z z
p
y e ze
÷
¬ = +

2log
5
p
x
y x
x
¬ = +
So, Solution
h p
y y y = +
( )
2log
cos(log ) sin(log ) 5
A x
y x B x C x x
x x
¬ = + + + + (Ans)
6. Using method of variation of parameters:
2
2
4 tan2
d y
y x
dx
+ =
Ans: Homogeneous equation is 4 0 y y '' + =
Its characteristics equation is
2
4 0  + = 2i  ¬ =
Hence, Homogeneous solution is cos2 sin2
h
y A x B x = +

1 2
cos2 , sin2 y x y x = =

1 1 2 2
2 2
cos2 sin2
2cos 2 2sin 2 2
2sin2 2cos2
y y x x
W x x
x x
y y
'
= = = + =
'
÷

} }
+ ÷ =
W
rdx y
y
W
rdx y
y y
p
. .
1
2
2
1

sin2 .tan2 cos2 tan2
cos2 sin2
2 2
p
x xdx x xdx
y x x ¬ = ÷ +
} }

cos2 sin2
(sec2 cos2 ) sin2 .
2 2
p
x x
y x x dx xdx ¬ = ÷ ÷ +
} }

cos2 log(sec2 tan2 ) sin2 sin2 cos2
2 2 2 2 2
p
x x x x x x
y
+ | | | |
¬ = ÷ ÷ + ÷
| |
\ . \ .

Prepared by Mrityunjoy Dutta

cos2 .log(sec2 tan2 )
4
p
x x x
y
+
¬ = ÷
So, Solution
cos2 .log(sec2 tan2 )
cos2 sin2
4
h p
x x x
y y y A x B x
+
= + = + ÷ (Ans)
April -May, 2007
7. Solve the differential equation
2
2
2 sin
x
d y dy
y xe x
dx dx
÷ + = .
Ans:
2
2
2 sin
x
d y dy
y xe x
dx dx
÷ + =
Its auxiliary equation is
2 2
2 1 0 ( 1) 0 1,1 m m m m ÷ + = ¬ ÷ = ¬ =
So, . .
x x
h
C F y Ae Bxe = = +
Now,
2
1
. . sin
( 1)
x
p
P I y xe x
D
= =
÷

2 2
1 1
sin sin
( 1 1)
x x
p
y e x x e x x
D D
¬ = =
+ ÷

1
sin
x
p
y e x xdx
D
¬ =
}

( )
1
cos sin
x
p
y e x x x
D
¬ = ÷ +
( ) cos sin
x
p
y e x x x dx ¬ = ÷ +
}

( ) sin cos cos
x
p
y e x x x x ¬ = ÷ ÷ ÷
( ) sin 2cos
x
p
y e x x x ¬ = ÷ +
So, general solution
h p
y y y = +
( ) sin 2cos
x x x
y Ae Bxe e x x x ¬ = + ÷ + (Ans)
8. Solve by method of variation of parameters of : -
2
2
sin
d y
y x x
dx
+ = .
Ans: Homogeneous equation is 0 y y '' + =
Its characteristics equation is
2
1 0  + =
2i  ¬ =
Hence, Homogeneous solution is cos sin
h
y A x B x = +

1 2
cos2 , sin2 y x y x = =

1 1 2 2
2 2
cos sin
cos sin 1
sin cos
y y x x
W x x
x x
y y
'
= = = + =
'
÷

Prepared by Mrityunjoy Dutta

} }
+ ÷ =
W
rdx y
y
W
rdx y
y y
p
. .
1
2
2
1

sin . sin cos . sin
cos sin
1 1
p
xx xdx xx xdx
y x x ¬ = ÷ +
} }

2
cos sin . sin sin cos
p
y x x xdx x x x xdx ¬ = ÷ +
} }

cos sin
(1 cos2 ) sin2 .
2 2
p
x x
y x x dx x xdx ¬ = ÷ ÷ +
} }

2
cos sin2 cos2 sin cos2 sin2
2 2 2 4 2 2 4
p
x x x x x x x x x
y
(
(
¬ = ÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷ +
(
(
¸ ¸
¸ ¸

2
cos cos sin2 cos cos2 sin cos2 sin sin2
4 4 8 4 8
p
x x x x x x x x x x x x
y ¬ = ÷ + + ÷ +

( )
2
cos sin2 sin cos2 cos cos cos2 sin sin2
4 4 8
p
x x x x x x x x x x x
y
÷ +
¬ = ÷ + +

2
cos sin cos
4 4 8
p
x x x x x
y ¬ = ÷ + +
So, Solution
2
cos sin cos
cos sin
4 4 8
h p
x x x x x
y y y A x B x = + = + ÷ + + (Ans)
9. Solve the differential equation
2
2 2
2
3 4 (1 )
d y dy
x x y x
dx dx
÷ + = + .
Ans:
2
2 2
2
3 4 (1 )
d y dy
x x y x
dx dx
÷ + = + ---------(1)
Let log
z
x e z x = ¬ = and
2
2
2
' , '( ' 1)
dy d y
x D y x D D y
dx dx
= = ÷ where '
d
D
dz
=
Putting all the values in (1) we get
| |
2
'( ' 1) 3 ' 4 (1 )
z
D D D y e ¬ ÷ ÷ + = +
2 2
' 4 ' 4 1 2
z z
D D y e e ( ¬ ÷ + = + +
¸ ¸
-----------(2)
Its auxiliary equation is
2 2
4 4 0 ( 2) 0 2,2 m m m m ÷ + = ¬ ÷ = ¬ =
So,
2 2 2 2
. . log
z z
h
C F y Ae BZe Ax Bx x = = + = +
Now,
2
2
1
. . (1 2 )
( ' 2)
z z
p
P I y e e
D
= = + +
÷

0 2
2 2 2
1 1 1
2
( ' 2) ( ' 2) ( ' 2)
z z z
p
y e e e
D D D
¬ = + +
÷ ÷ ÷

2
2 2 2
1 1 1
.1 2 1
(0 2) (1 2) ( ' 2 2)
z z
p
y e e
D
¬ = + +
÷ ÷ + ÷

2
2
1 1
2 1
4 '
z z
p
y e e
D
¬ = + +
2
1
2 1
4
z z
p
y e e dzdz ¬ = + +
} }

Prepared by Mrityunjoy Dutta

2 2 2 2
1 1 (log )
2 2
4 2 4 2
z
z
p
z e x x
y e x ¬ = + + = + +
So, general solution is
2 2
2 2
1 (log )
log 2
4 2
h p
x x
y y y Ax Bx x x = + = + + + + (Ans).
Nov-Dec 2007
10. Solve:
2
2
3 4 0
d y dy
y
dx dx
÷ ÷ =
Sol. It’s symbolic form is:
2
2
3 4 0
( 3 4) 0
D y Dy y
D D y
÷ ÷ =
÷ ÷ =

It’s auxiliary equation is :
2
3 4 0 D D ÷ ÷ =

4, 1 D= ÷

Hence C.F.=
4
1 2
x x
y ce c e
÷
= +
(Ans.)

11. Solve:
2
2
5 6 sin3
d y dy
y x
dx dx
÷ + =
Sol. It’ s symbolic form is
( )
2
5 6 tan2 D D y x ÷ + =
It’s auxiliary equation is:
( )
2
5 6 0 D D ÷ + =
( 2)( 3) 0
2,3
D D
D
÷ ÷ =
=

Hence C.F.=y=
2 3
1 2
x x
ce c e +

And P.I.=
2 2
2 2
1 1
sin3 sin3
( 5 6) 3 5 6
1 1 5 3
sin3 [ ][ ]sin3
5 3 5 3 5 3
5 3 5 3
sin3 sin3
25 9 25( 3 ) 9
1 15cos3 3sin3
(5 3)sin3
234 234
5cos3 sin3
78
x x
D D D
D
x x
D D D
D D
x x
D
x x
D x
x x
= =
÷ + ÷ ÷ +
÷
= ÷ = ÷
+ + ÷
÷ ÷
= ÷ = ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
÷
= ÷ =
÷
=

Hence complete solution is:y=C.F.+P.I.
2 3
1 2
1
(5cos3 sin3 )
78
x x
y ce c e x x = + + ÷

Prepared by Mrityunjoy Dutta

12. Solve by method variation of parameters:

2
2
4 tan2
d y
y x
dx
+ =
Ans: Homogeneous equation is 4 0 y y '' + =
Its characteristics equation is
2
4 0  + = 2i  ¬ =
Hence, Homogeneous solution is cos2 sin2
h
y A x B x = +

1 2
cos2 , sin2 y x y x = =

1 1 2 2
2 2
cos2 sin2
2cos 2 2sin 2 2
2sin2 2cos2
y y x x
W x x
x x
y y
'
= = = + =
'
÷

} }
+ ÷ =
W
rdx y
y
W
rdx y
y y
p
. .
1
2
2
1

sin2 .tan2 cos2 tan2
cos2 sin2
2 2
p
x xdx x xdx
y x x ¬ = ÷ +
} }

cos2 sin2
(sec2 cos2 ) sin2 .
2 2
p
x x
y x x dx xdx ¬ = ÷ ÷ +
} }

cos2 log(sec2 tan2 ) sin2 sin2 cos2
2 2 2 2 2
p
x x x x x x
y
+ | | | |
¬ = ÷ ÷ + ÷
| |
\ . \ .

cos2 .log(sec2 tan2 )
4
p
x x x
y
+
¬ = ÷
So, Solution
cos2 .log(sec2 tan2 )
cos2 sin2
4
h p
x x x
y y y A x B x
+
= + = + ÷ (Ans)
13. Solve the simultaneously equation:
2 5 , 4 3
t
dx dx
x y e x y t
dt dt
+ + = + + =
Sol. The given equation can be expressed as:
( 5) 3 ............(1)
2 ( 5) ......(2)
t
D x y t
x D y e
+ + =
+ + = =

To eliminate y , operating equation (1) by (D+5) and equation (2) by 3 then subtracting , we get
2
( 5)( 4) 6 ( 5) 3
( 9 14) 1 5 3
t
t
D D x x D t e
D D x t e
+ + ÷ = + ÷
+ + = + ÷ …………………..(3)
The root of auxiliary equation of the equation corresponding homogeneous equation
2
( 9 14) 0 D D x + + =
of the equation (3) is given by

Prepared by Mrityunjoy Dutta
2
( 9 14) 0
, 2, 7
D D
or D
+ + =
= ÷ ÷

Hence the complementary function of equation (3) is:
2 7
1 2
. .
t t
C F ce c e
÷ ÷
= +
The particular integral of equation (3) is
2
2 2
2
1
. . (1 5 3 )
( 9 14)
1 1
(1 5) 3
( 9 14) ( 9 14)
1 9 3
1 ............. (1 5)
14 14 14 1 9 14
1 9
1 5 .5
14 14 8
1 31
5
14 14 8
t
t
t
t
t
P I t e
D D
t e
D D D D
D e
D t
e
t
e
t
= + ÷
+ +
= + ÷
+ + + +
| |
= ÷ + ÷ + ÷
|
+ +
\ .
| |
= + ÷ ÷
|
\ .
| |
= ÷ ÷
|
\ .

Hence the general solution of equation (3) is:
2 7
1 2
2 7
1 2
. . . .
1 31
5
14 14 8
5
, 2 7
14 8
t
t t
t
t t
x C F P I
e
x ce c e t
dx e
Now ce c e
dt
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
= +
| |
= + + ÷ ÷
|
\ .
= ÷ ÷ + ÷
…………………….(4)
Substituting the above values of x and dx/dt in equation (1), we get;

2 7 2 7
1 2 1 2
2 7
1 2
5 20 124
3 2 7 4 4
14 8 14 196 2
1 3 5 27
2 3 .......................(5)
3 7 8 98
t t
t t t t
t t t
e e
y ce c e ce c e t t
y ce c e t e
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷
= + ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ + + +
(
= ÷ + ÷ + +
(
¸ ¸

Since the degree of D in the determinant
4 3
,2
2 5
D
is
D
+ | |
|
+
\ .
it follows that the number of
independent constant in general solution must be two. Hence (4) and (5) together constitute the
general solution of the given system.

April -May, 2008

14. State Cauchy’s Linear equation.
Ans: - A Differential equation of the form

Prepared by Mrityunjoy Dutta
X y a
dx
y d
x a
dx
y d
x a
dx
y d
x
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
= + + + +
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
........
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
is known as Cauchy’s
Linear differential equation.

15. Solve
2
2
2
4 sin2
x
d y dy
y e x
dx dx
÷ + = .
(ANS). It’s symbolic form is :
2 2
( 4 1) sin2
x
D D y e x ÷ + =
It’s auxiliary equation is:
2
( 4 1) 0 D D ÷ + =

16. Solve by method of variation of parameters of : -
2
2
4 4tan2 .
d y
y x
dx
+ =
Ans: Homogeneous equation is 4 0 y y '' + =
Its characteristics equation is
2
4 0  + = 2i  ¬ =
Hence, Homogeneous solution is cos2 sin2
h
y A x B x = +

1 2
cos2 , sin2 y x y x = =

1 1 2 2
2 2
cos2 sin2
2cos 2 2sin 2 2
2sin2 2cos2
y y x x
W x x
x x
y y
'
= = = + =
'
÷

} }
+ ÷ =
W
rdx y
y
W
rdx y
y y
p
. .
1
2
2
1

sin2 .tan2 cos2 tan2
cos2 sin2
2 2
p
x xdx x xdx
y x x ¬ = ÷ +
} }

cos2 sin2
(sec2 cos2 ) sin2 .
2 2
p
x x
y x x dx xdx ¬ = ÷ ÷ +
} }

cos2 log(sec2 tan2 ) sin2 sin2 cos2
2 2 2 2 2
p
x x x x x x
y
+ | | | |
¬ = ÷ ÷ + ÷
| |
\ . \ .

cos2 .log(sec2 tan2 )
4
p
x x x
y
+
¬ = ÷
So, Solution
cos2 .log(sec2 tan2 )
cos2 sin2
4
h p
x x x
y y y A x B x
+
= + = + ÷ (Ans)

17. Solve + + + = 2 0
dy dx
x y
dt dt

and + + + = 5 3 0
dy dx
x y
dt dt

(Ans). The given equation are:
+ + + = 2 0.....................(1)
dy dx
x y
dt dt

Prepared by Mrityunjoy Dutta
+ + + = 5 3 0.....................(2)
dy dx
x y
dt dt

Subtracting equation (2) from equation (1), we get
3 2 0...............(3)
dx
x y
dt
÷ ÷ =
Writing equation (2)and (3) symbolically (i.e;D=d/dt),we have
5 ( 3) 0..........(4)
( 3) 2 0..........(5)
x D y
D x y
+ + =
÷ ÷ =
Operating equation (5)by D+3 ,we get
2
( 9) 2( 3) 0.........(6) D x D y ÷ ÷ + =
Now, multiplying equation(4) by 2 and adding in equation (6),we get
2
( 1) 0 D x + = ………………………….(7)
This is the linear equation in x with constant coefficient s for which the auxiliary equation is
2
( 1) 0 D
D i
+ =
= ±

Hence the general solution of linear equation is:
0
1 2
1 2
( cos sin )
( cos sin )..........................(8)
t
x e c t c t
x c t c t
= +
= +

From equation (8)
1 2
1 2
sin cos
sin cos
dx
c t c t
dt
Dx c t c t
= ÷ +
= ÷ +
Substituting these values in equation(5) we get
| |
1 2 1 2
2 1 1 2
1 1
( 3 ) ( sin cos ) 3( cos sin )
2 2
1 1
( 3 )cos ( 3 )sin
2 2
y Dx x c t c t c t c t
y c c t c c t
= ÷ = ÷ + ÷ +
= ÷ ÷ +

Nov-Dec 2008
18. Define the linear differential equation.
Ans. A differential equation in which the dependent variable & its derivatives occur only in the first
degree & are not multiplied together is known as Linear Differential equation.
General form of Linear Differential Equation of nth order is:
X y P
dx
y d
P
dx
y d
P
dx
y d
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
= + + + +
÷
÷
÷
÷
........
2
2
2
1
1
1
, where X P P P
n
, ,........, ,
2 1
are functions of x.
19. Solve the differential equation:

Prepared by Mrityunjoy Dutta

2
2
3 2
x d y dy
e
y e
dx dx
+ + =
Ans: - Its symbolic formis
( )
2
3 2
x
e
D D y e + + = .
Its Auxiliary equation is
2
3 2 0 D D + + = 1, 2 D ¬ = ÷ ÷
Hence, Complementary function is
2 x x
c
y Ae Be
÷ ÷
= +
Now,
( ) 2
1 1 1 1
3 2 ( 2)( 1) ( 2) ( 1)
x x x
e e e
PI e e e
D D D D D D
= = =
+ + + + + +

2 2 2
1 1
2 2
x x x x x x x x
x x x x
e e e e
PI e e e dx e e e e e e dx e e e dx
D D
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
¬ = = = =
+ +
} } }

2x
x
e
PI e e
÷
¬ =
So, Solution
2 2 x x x
c p
x
e
y y y Ae Be e e
÷ ÷ ÷
= + = + + (Ans)

20. Solve by method variation of parameters:
2 3
2 2
6 9
x
d y dy e
y
dx dx x
÷ + =
Ans: -
2
3
2
2
9 6
x
e
y
dx
dy
dx
y d
x
= + ÷
Its Homogeneous equation is 0 9 6
2
2
= + ÷ y
dx
dy
dx
y d

Its symbolic formis 0 ) 9 6 (
2
= + ÷ y D D
Its characteristics equation is 0 ) 9 6 (
2
= + ÷ D D
3 , 3 = ¬ D
Hence, Homogeneous solution is
2 1
3
) ( By Ay e Bx A y
x
h
+ = + =

x x
xe y e y
3
2
3
1
, = = ¬

x x x x
x x x
x x
e xe xe e
xe e e
xe e
y y
y y
W
6 6 6 6
3 3 3
3 3
2 1
2 1
3 3
3 3 ' '
= ÷ + =
+
= =

} }
+ ÷ =
W
rdx y
y
W
rdx y
y y
p
. .
1
2
2
1

} }
+ ÷ = ¬ dx
x
e
e
e
xe dx
x
e
e
xe
e y
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
p
2
3
6
3
3
2
3
6
3
3
. .

} }
+ ÷ = ¬ dx
x
xe dx
x
e y
x x
p
2
3 3
1 1

|
.
|

\
|
÷ + ÷ = ¬
x
xe x e y
x
e
x
p
1
log
3 3 x
e
x
p
e x e y
3 3
log ÷ ÷ = ¬
So, Solution
x
e
x x x
p h
e x e Bxe Ae y y y
3 3 3 3
log ÷ ÷ + = + = ¬ (Ans).

Prepared by Mrityunjoy Dutta

21. Solve the simultaneously equation:
5 2 , 2 0
dx dy
x y t x y
dt dt
+ ÷ = + + = being x=y=0 when t=0.
Ans: -
dx
dt
+5x − 2y =t,

dt
+2x +y =0
Its symbolic formis (Ð +5)x −2y =t------------------(1)
2x +(Ð +1)y =0-------------------(2)
Now, eq(1) X (D+1) +eq(2) X 2 we get
⇒ [(Ð +1)(Ð +5) +4]x =(Ð +1)t +0
⇒ (Ð
2
+6Ð +9)x =1+t, which is linear differential equation.
Its auxiliary equation is (Ð
2
+6Ð +9) =0 ⇒ Ð =−3,−3
So, C.F.=(C
1
+C
2
t)c
-3t

Now, P.I.=
1
(Ð+3)
2
(1+t) =
1
9
[1+
Ð
3
¸
-2
(1+t) =
1
9
[1− 2
Ð
3
+3
Ð
2
9
+ ………….¸(1+t)
⇒ P.I.=
1
9
[1+t −
2
3
¸ =
1
9
[t +
1
3
¸ =
t
9
+
1
27

So, x =(C
1
+C
2
t)c
-3t
+
t
9
+
1
27
---------------------------------(3)
Now, from(1) 2y =(Ð +5)x − t =Ðx +5x −t
⇒ 2y =5(C
1
+C
2
t)c
-3t
+
5t
9
+
5
27
− 3(C
1
+C
2
t)c
-3t
+C
2
c
-3t
+
1
9
−t
⇒ y =
c
-3t
2
(2C
1
+C
2
) +tC
2
c
-3t

2t
9
+
4
27
---------------(4)
Given that at t =0, x =y =0, so equation (3) and (4) becomes
C
1
+
1
27
=0 ⇒ C
1
=−
1
27
and

1
2
(2C
1
+C
2
) +
4
27
=0 ⇒ C
2
=−
8
27
−2C
1
==−
8
27
+
2
27
=−
6
27
=−
2
9

So, Solution is
x =(−
1
27

2
9
t)c
-3t
+
t
9
+
1
27
and y =
c
-3t
2
[−
2
27
+
2
9
¸ +
2
9
tc
-3t

2t
9
+
4
27

⇒ x =−
1
27
{(1+6t)c
-3t
− (3t +1)} and y =−
1
27
{(4+6t)c
-3t
+(6t −4)}
April -May, 2009
22. Explain briefly the method of variation of parameter.
Ans: Let us solve
2
2
d y dy
P Qy X
dx dx
+ + = by variation of parameter method.
Let its complementary function is
1 1 2 2 c
y c y c y = +
Then find out wronskian
1 2
1 2
1 2
( , )
' '
y y
W y y
y y
=
Now, particular integral
2 1
1 2
1 2 1 2
. .
( , ) ( , )
p
y X y X
y y dx y dx
W y y W y y
÷
= +
} }

Then general solution is
c p
y y y = + (Ans).

Prepared by Mrityunjoy Dutta
23. Solve the differential equation
( )
2 2 3
2 cos2
x x
D y x e e x + = + .
Ans:
( )
2 2 3
2 cos2
x x
D y x e e x + = + -----------(1)
Here Auxiliary equation is
2
2 0 2 D D i + = ¬ = ±
So, cos 2 sin 2
h
y A x B x = +

( )
2 3
2
1
. . cos2
2
x x
p
P I y x e e x
D
= = +
+

( ) ( )
3 2
2 2
1 1
cos2
( 3) 2 ( 1) 2
x x
p
y e x e x
D D
¬ = +
+ + + +

( ) ( )
3
2
2 2
1 1
cos2
6 11 2 3
1
11
x
x
p
e
y x e x
D D D D
¬ = +
+ + +
+

( ) ( )
3
2
2 2
1 1
cos2
6 11 4 2 3
1
11
x
x
p
e
y x e x
D D D
¬ = +
+ ÷ + +
+

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2 3
2 2
3 2
2
2
6 6
6 2 13
1 ... cos2
11 11 121 1331 4 169
x
x
p
D D D D
e D D D
y x e x
D
(
+ +
+ +
(
¬ = ÷ + ÷ + +
( ÷
¸ ¸

( ) ( )
3
2 2
2
6 1 36 2 13
1 ... cos2
11 11 11 121 4 169
x
x
p
e D D
y D x e x
D
( + | |
¬ = ÷ ÷ + + +
| (
÷
\ . ¸ ¸

( ) ( )
3
2 2
2
6 47 2 13
1 ... cos2
11 11 121 4 4 169
x
x
p
e D D
y D x e x
+ (
¬ = ÷ ÷ + +
(
÷ × ÷
¸ ¸

( )
3
2
6 47 2 13
2 2 0 0 ... cos2
11 11 121 233
x
x
p
e D
y x x e x
+ (
¬ = ÷ × ÷ × + + + +
(
÷
¸ ¸

( )
3
2
12 94
4sin2 13cos2
11 11 121 233
x x
p
e x e
y x x x
(
¬ = ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ +
(
¸ ¸

So, Solution
h p
y y y = +
( )
3
2
12 94
cos 2 sin 2 4sin2 13cos2
11 11 121 233
x x
e x e
y A x B x x x x
(
¬ = + + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ +
(
¸ ¸

24. Solve the equation : - | |
2
2
2
(1 ) (1 ) sin 2log(1 )
d y dy
x x y x
dx dx
+ + + + = + .
Ans: | |
2
2
2
(1 ) (1 ) sin 2log(1 )
d y dy
x x y x
dx dx
+ + + + = + ……(1) is a Legendre’s equation.
Now let us put 1
t
x e + = we get

2
2
2
(1 ) ( 1) , (1 )
d y dy
x D D y x Dy
dx dx
+ = ÷ + = where
d
D
dt
=

Prepared by Mrityunjoy Dutta
So, equation (1) becomes ( 1) sin2 D D y Dy y t ÷ + + =

2
( 1) sin2 D y t ¬ + = which is linear differential equation with constant coefficients.
Its auxiliary equation is
2
( 1) 0 D D i ¬ + = ¬ = ±
So,
1 2
. . cos sin C F c t c t = + ……………..(2)
Now,
2 2
1 sin2 sin2
. . sin2
1 2 1 3
t t
P I t
D
= = = ÷
+ ÷ +

So, solution
1 2
sin2
. . . . cos sin
3
t
y C F P I c t c t = + = + ÷ (Ans)
25. Solve the simultaneous equation: -
2 , 2
t t
dx dy
y e x e
dt dt
÷
+ = ÷ = .
Ans: 2 , 2
t t
dx dy
y e x e
dt dt
÷
+ = ÷ =
2 ...............(1) 2 ..............(2)
t t
Dx y e Dy x e
÷
¬ + = ÷ = where
d
D
dt
=
(1) 2 (2) D × + × we get

2
2 4 2 2
t t
Dx y D y Dx e e
÷
¬ + + ÷ = ÷

2
( 4) 2
t t
D y e e
÷
¬ + = ÷ …………..(3)
Here Its auxiliary equation is
2
( 4) 0 2 D D i ¬ + = ¬ = ±
So,
1 2
. . cos2 sin2 C F c t c t = + ……………..(4)
Now,
( )
2 2 2
1 1 1
. . 2 2
1 1 1
t t t t
P I e e e e
D D D
÷ ÷
= ÷ = ÷
+ + +

2 2
1 1
. . 2
1 1 ( 1) 1 2
t
t t t
e
P I e e e
÷
÷
¬ = ÷ = ÷
+ ÷ +

So, solution
1 2
. . . . cos2 sin2
2
t
t
e
y C F P I c t c t e
÷
= + = + + ÷ ……………..(5)
Now putting the value of y in (2) we get
2
t
Dy x e
÷
¬ ÷ =

1 2
2 sin2 2 cos2 2
2
t
t t
e
c t c t e x e
÷
÷
¬ ÷ + + + ÷ =

1 2
2 2 sin2 2 cos2
2
t
t
e
x c t c t e
÷
¬ = ÷ + + ÷

1 2
sin2 cos2
2 4
t t
e e
x c t c t
÷
¬ = ÷ + + ÷ ………………(6)
So, solution
1 2 1 2
sin2 cos2 , cos2 sin2
2 4 2
t t t
t
e e e
x c t c t y c t c t e
÷ ÷
= ÷ + + ÷ = + + ÷ (Ans)

Prepared by Mrityunjoy Dutta
Nov-Dec 2009

26. Solve the equation:
2
( 2) 0 D D y + ÷ = .
Ans: -
2
( 2) 0 D D y + ÷ =
Its auxiliary equation is
2
( 2) 0 1, 2 D D D + ÷ = ¬ = ÷
So, solution is
2 x x
y Ae Be
÷
= + (Ans).
27. Solve the following differential equation:

2
2
2
log
d y dy
x x y x
dx dx
÷ + = .
Ans: - x
2
d
2
¡
dx
2
− x

dx
+y =logx

--------------------(1)

Given equation is Cauchy’s Homogeneous Linear differential equation.

Put x =c
t
⇒ t =logx, if Ð =
d
dt
, x

dx
=Ðy, x
2
d
2
¡
dx
2
=Ð(Ð −1)y
So, equation (1) is Ð(Ð −1)y − Ðy +y =t ⇒ (Ð
2
− 2Ð +1)y =t
Which is linear differential equation with constant coefficients.
So, its Auxiliary equation is Ð
2
− 2Ð +1 =0 ⇒ Ð =1,1
So, C.F.=C
1
c
t
+C
2
tc
t
------------------------(2)
Now, P.I.=
1
(Ð-1)
2
t =(1− Ð)
-2
t =(1+2Ð +3Ð
2
+ ………….)t
⇒ P.I.=t +2
So, solution is y =C.F.+P.I.=C
1
c
t
+C
2
tc
t
+t +2
⇒ y =C
1
x +C
2
xlogx +logx +2 (Ans).
OR
28. Solve the simultaneous differential equation:
5 2 , 2 0
dx dy
x y t x y
dt dt
+ ÷ = + + = , given that 0 x y = = when 0 t = .
Ans: -
dx
dt
+5x − 2y =t,

dt
+2x +y =0
Its symbolic formis (Ð +5)x −2y =t------------------(1)
2x +(Ð +1)y =0-------------------(2)
Now, eq(1) X (D+1) +eq(2) X 2 we get
⇒ [(Ð +1)(Ð +5) +4]x =(Ð +1)t +0
⇒ (Ð
2
+6Ð +9)x =1+t, which is linear differential equation.
Its auxiliary equation is (Ð
2
+6Ð +9) =0 ⇒ Ð =−3,−3
So, C.F.=(C
1
+C
2
t)c
-3t

Now, P.I.=
1
(Ð+3)
2
(1+t) =
1
9
[1+
Ð
3
¸
-2
(1+t) =
1
9
[1− 2
Ð
3
+3
Ð
2
9
+ ………….¸(1+t)
⇒ P.I.=
1
9
[1+t −
2
3
¸ =
1
9
[t +
1
3
¸ =
t
9
+
1
27

So, x =(C
1
+C
2
t)c
-3t
+
t
9
+
1
27
---------------------------------(3)
Now, from(1) 2y =(Ð +5)x − t =Ðx +5x −t

Prepared by Mrityunjoy Dutta
⇒ 2y =5(C
1
+C
2
t)c
-3t
+
5t
9
+
5
27
− 3(C
1
+C
2
t)c
-3t
+C
2
c
-3t
+
1
9
−t
⇒ y =
c
-3t
2
(2C
1
+C
2
) +tC
2
c
-3t

2t
9
+
4
27
---------------(4)
Given that at t =0, x =y =0, so equation (3) and (4) becomes
C
1
+
1
27
=0 ⇒ C
1
=−
1
27
and

1
2
(2C
1
+C
2
) +
4
27
=0 ⇒ C
2
=−
8
27
−2C
1
==−
8
27
+
2
27
=−
6
27
=−
2
9

So, Solution is
x =(−
1
27

2
9
t)c
-3t
+
t
9
+
1
27
and y =
c
-3t
2
[−
2
27
+
2
9
¸ +
2
9
tc
-3t

2t
9
+
4
27

⇒ x =−
1
27
{(1+6t)c
-3t
− (3t +1)} and y =−
1
27
{(4+6t)c
-3t
+(6t −4)}
29. Solve the following differential equation:
2
2
4 sinh
d y
y x x
dx
÷ = .
Ans: -
d
2
¡
dx
2
− 4y =
xc
x
-xc
-x
2

d
2
¡
dx
2
− 4y =
xc
x
-xc
-x
2

Its Symbolic formis ⇒ (Ð
2
−4)y =
xc
x
-xc
-x
2

Its Auxiliary equation is ⇒ (Ð
2
−4) =0 ⇒ Ð =±2
So, C.F.=C
1
c
2x
+C
2
c
-2x

Now, P.I.=
1
Ð
2
-4
xc
x
-xc
-x
2
=
1
2
j
1
Ð
2
-4
xc
x

1
Ð
2
-4
xc
-x
[
⇒ P.I.=
1
2
jc
x
1
(Ð+1)
2
-4
x − c
-x
1
(Ð-1)
2
-4
x[ =
1
2
jc
x
1
Ð
2
+2Ð-3
x −c
-x
1
Ð
2
-2Ð-3
x[
⇒ P.I.=
1
2
_
c
x
-3
1
1-
D
2
+2D
3
x +
c
-x
3
1
1-
D
2
-2D
3
x_
⇒ P.I.=
1
2
j
c
x
-3
[1+
Ð
2
+2Ð
3
+ ……¸ x +
c
-x
3
[1+
Ð
2
-2Ð
3
+ ……¸x[
⇒ P.I.=
1
2
j
c
x
-3
[x +
2
3
¸ +
c
-x
3
[x −
2
3
¸[ =
1
9
j
-3x(c
x
-c
-x
)
2

2(c
x
+c
-x
)
2
[
⇒ P.I.=
1
9
[−3xsinℎx −2cosℎx]
So, solution is y =C.F.+P.I.=C
1
c
2x
+C
2
c
-2x
+
1
9
[−3xsinℎx −2cosℎx] (Ans).
April -May, 2010
30. Define Cauchy and Legendre Linear differential equation.
Ans: - A Differential equation of the form

Prepared by Mrityunjoy Dutta
X y a
dx
y d
x a
dx
y d
x a
dx
y d
x
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
= + + + +
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
........
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
is known as Cauchy’s
Linear differential equation.

A Differential equation of the form
X y a
dx
y d
b ax a
dx
y d
b ax a
dx
y d
b ax
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
= + + + + + + +
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
........ ) ( ) ( ) (
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
is
known as Legendre’s Linear differential equation.
31. Solve
3
3
3 2
x d y dy
e
y e
dx dx
+ + = .
Ans: - Its symbolic formis
( )
2
3 2
x
e
D D y e + + = .
Its Auxiliary equation is
2
3 2 0 D D + + = 1, 2 D ¬ = ÷ ÷
Hence, Complementary function is
2 x x
c
y Ae Be
÷ ÷
= +
Now,
( )
2
1 1 1 1
3 2 ( 2)( 1) ( 2) ( 1)
x x x
e e e
PI e e e
D D D D D D
= = =
+ + + + + +

2 2 2
1 1
2 2
x x x x
x x e x e x x x e x x e
PI e e e dx e e e e e e dx e e e dx
D D
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
¬ = = = =
+ +
} } }

2
x
x e
PI e e
÷
¬ =
So, Solution
2 2
x
x x x e
c p
y y y Ae Be e e
÷ ÷ ÷
= + = + + (Ans)
32. Solve, by the method of variation of parameters: x e D D
x
log ) 1 2 (
2 ÷
= + + .
Ans: - Its Auxiliary equation is
2
2 1 0 D D + + = 1, 1 D ¬ = ÷ ÷
Hence, Complementary function is ( )
x
c
y A Bx e
÷
= +

1 2
,
x x
y e y xe
÷ ÷
= =

1 2
2 2 2 2
1 2
x x
x x x x
x x x
y y
e xe
W e xe xe e
e e xe
y y
÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
= = = ÷ + =
' '
÷ ÷

} }
+ ÷ =
W
Xdx y
y
W
Xdx y
y y
p
. .
1
2
2
1

2 2
. log . log
x x x x
x x
p x x
xe e xdx e e xdx
y e xe
e e
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
¬ = ÷ +
} }

log log
x x
p
y e x xdx xe xdx
÷ ÷
¬ = ÷ +
} }

( )
2 2
log log
2 4
x x
p
x x
y e x xe x x x
÷ ÷
| |
¬ = ÷ ÷ + ÷
|
\ .

( )
2 2 2
3
log 2log 3
2 4 4
x x x
p
x x x
y e x e e x
÷ ÷ ÷
¬ = ÷ = ÷

Prepared by Mrityunjoy Dutta
So, Solution ( )
2
( ) 2log 3
4
x x
c p
x
y y y A Bx e e x
÷ ÷
= + = + + ÷ (Ans)
33. Solve the simultaneous equation: -
0 = + y
dt
dx
t , 0 = + x
dt
dy
t , given that 0 ) 1 ( , 1 ) 1 ( = ÷ = y x .
Ans: - 0 = + y
dt
dx
t -------------------(1), 0 = + x
dt
dy
t -------------(2)
Differentiating (1) w.e.t. t we get
2
2
0
dx d x dy
t
dt dt dt
+ + = , by multiplying t both side we get

2
2
2
0
dx d x dy
t t t
dt dt dt
¬ + + = --------------------(3)
By putting (2) in (3) we get
2 2
2 2
2 2
0
d x dx d x
t t t x
dt dt dt
¬ + + ÷ = -----(4) which is Cauchy
Linear Differential Equation.
Put log
z
t e z t = ¬ = and
2
2
2
( 1) ,
d x dx
t D D x t Dx
dt dt
¬ = ÷ = where
d
D
dz
=
So, eqn (4) becomes
2
( 1) 0 ( 1) 0 D D x Dx x D x ¬ ÷ ÷ ÷ = ¬ ÷ =
Its Auxiliary equation is
2
( 1) 0 1,1 D D ¬ ÷ = ¬ = ÷
So,
z z
B
x Ae Be At
t
÷
= + = + -------(5)
Putting in (1) we get
2
dx B B
y t t A At
dt t t
| |
¬ = ÷ ¬ ÷ ÷ = ÷
|
\ .
-----------(6)
So, Solution is
B
x At
t
= + and
B
y At
t
= ÷ (Ans).
Given x(1) =1 and y(-1) =0, so
2
1
,
2
1
0 , 1 = = ¬ + ÷ = + = B A A B B A
Hence solution is |
.
|

\
|
÷ = + |
.
|

\
|
+ = t
t
y B A
t
t x
1
2
1
,
1
2
1
(Ans).
Nov-Dec 2010
34. Write the formula for P.I . for the method of variation of parameters.
Ans: - Let equation is r y b aD D = + + ) (
2
, then P.I is given by
} }
+ ÷ =
W
rdx y
y
W
rdx y
y y
p
. .
1
2
2
1
where
' '
2 1
2 1
y y
y y
W = .
35. Solve ) 2 sin ( 8 ) 2 (
2 2 2
x x e y D
x
+ + = ÷ .
Ans: - ) 2 sin ( 8 ) 2 (
2 2 2
x x e y D
x
+ + = ÷ ---------------------(1)
Its characteristics equation is 2 , 2 0 ) 2 (
2
= ¬ = ÷ D D

Prepared by Mrityunjoy Dutta
So,
x x
h
Bxe Ae y F C
2 2
. . + = = -----------------------(2)
Now, ) 2 sin ( 8
) 2 (
1
. .
2 2
2
x x e
D
y I P
x
p
+ +
÷
= =

(
¸
(

¸

÷
+
÷
+
÷
= ¬
2
2 2
2
2
) 2 (
1
2 sin
) 2 (
1
) 2 (
1
8 x
D
x
D
e
D
y
x
p

(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
÷
+
+ ÷
+
÷
= ¬
2
2 2
2
2
1
1
4
1
2 sin
4 4
1
) 2 ( 2
1
8 x
D
x
D D
e
D
x y
x
p

(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + +
+ ÷ ÷
+ = ¬
2
2
2
2 2
..........
4
3
2
2 1
4
1
2 sin
4 4 2
1
2
1
8 x
D D
x
D
e x y
x
p

(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
+ + + + + |
.
|

\
| ÷
÷ = ¬ .......... 0 0
4
6
2
4
1
2
2 cos
4
1
2
8
2 2
2
x x
x
e
x
y
x
p

3 4 2 2 cos 4
2 2 2
+ + + + = ¬ x x x e x y
x
p

So, Solution 3 4 2 2 cos 4
2 2 2 2 2
+ + + + + + = + = ¬ x x x e x Bxe Ae y y y
x x x
p h
(Ans).
36. Solve, by the method of variation of parameters:
2
3
2
2
9 6
x
e
y
dx
dy
dx
y d
x
= + ÷ .
Ans: -
2
3
2
2
9 6
x
e
y
dx
dy
dx
y d
x
= + ÷
Its Homogeneous equation is 0 9 6
2
2
= + ÷ y
dx
dy
dx
y d

Its symbolic formis 0 ) 9 6 (
2
= + ÷ y D D
Its characteristics equation is 0 ) 9 6 (
2
= + ÷ D D
3 , 3 = ¬ D
Hence, Homogeneous solution is
2 1
3
) ( By Ay e Bx A y
x
h
+ = + =

x x
xe y e y
3
2
3
1
, = = ¬

x x x x
x x x
x x
e xe xe e
xe e e
xe e
y y
y y
W
6 6 6 6
3 3 3
3 3
2 1
2 1
3 3
3 3 ' '
= ÷ + =
+
= =

} }
+ ÷ =
W
rdx y
y
W
rdx y
y y
p
. .
1
2
2
1

} }
+ ÷ = ¬ dx
x
e
e
e
xe dx
x
e
e
xe
e y
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
p
2
3
6
3
3
2
3
6
3
3
. .

} }
+ ÷ = ¬ dx
x
xe dx
x
e y
x x
p
2
3 3
1 1

Prepared by Mrityunjoy Dutta
|
.
|

\
|
÷ + ÷ = ¬
x
xe x e y
x
e
x
p
1
log
3 3 x
e
x
p
e x e y
3 3
log ÷ ÷ = ¬
So, Solution
x
e
x x x
p h
e x e Bxe Ae y y y
3 3 3 3
log ÷ ÷ + = + = ¬ (Ans).
37. Solve: x y
dx
dy
x
dx
y d
x
e
log
2
2
2
= + ÷ .
Ans: - x y
dx
dy
x
dx
y d
x
e
log
2
2
2
= + ÷ ---------(1)
Let log
z
x e z x = ¬ = and
2
2
2
' , '( ' 1)
dy d y
x D y x D D y
dx dx
= = ÷ where '
d
D
dz
=
Putting all the values in (1) we get
| | z y D D z y D D D = + ' ÷ ' ¬ = + ' ÷ ÷ ' ' ¬ ] 1 2 [ 1 ) 1 (
2
-----------(2)
Its auxiliary equation is 1 , 1 0 1 2
2
= ¬ = + ÷ m m m
So, x Bx Ax Bze Ae y F C
e
z z
h
log . . + = + = =
Now, z
D
y I P
p
2
) 1 (
1
. .
÷ '
= =
z D D z D y
p
.........) 3 2 1 ( ) 1 (
2 2
+ ' + ' + = ' ÷ = ¬
÷

x z z y
e p
log 2 2 ........ 0 0 0 2 + = + = + + + + = ¬
So, general solution is x x Bx Ax y y y
e e p h
log 2 log + + + = + = ¬ (Ans).
April -May, 2011
38. Find the particular integral of Solve
3
3.
4 sin2
d y dy
x
dx dx
+ =
Ans.
3
3.
4 sin2
d y dy
x
dx dx
+ =
P.I will be
3
1
sin2
4
PI x
D D
=
+

( )
3 2
1 1
sin2 sin2
4 4
x x
D D D D
¬ =
+ +

( )
3 2
1 1
sin2 sin2
4 2 4
x x
D D D
¬ =
+ ÷ +

( )
3
1 1
sin2 sin2
4 0
x x
D D D
¬ =
+

By differentiating
3
4 D D + as
( )
( )
1
, 0 in f D can not be
f D

Prepared by Mrityunjoy Dutta
( )
3 2
1 1
sin2 sin2
4 3 4
x x x
D D D
¬ =
+ +

( )
3 2
1 1
sin2 sin2
4 3( 2 ) 4
x x x
D D
¬ =
+ ÷ +

( )
3
1
sin2 sin2
4 8
x
x x
D D
¬ =
+ ÷

3
1 sin2
sin2
4 8
x x
x
D D
÷
¬ =
+

P.I of
3
3.
4 sin2
d y dy
x
dx dx
+ = will be
sin2
8
x x ÷

39. Solve
2
2
3 2
x d y dy
e
x y e
dx dx
+ + =
Ans: - Its symbolic formis
( )
2
3 2
x
e
D D y e + + = .
Its Auxiliary equation is
2
3 2 0 D D + + = 1, 2 D ¬ = ÷ ÷
Hence, Complementary function is
2 x x
c
y Ae Be
÷ ÷
= +
Now,
( )
2
1 1 1 1
3 2 ( 2)( 1) ( 2) ( 1)
x x x
e e e
PI e e e
D D D D D D
= = =
+ + + + + +

2 2 2
1 1
2 2
x x x x
x x e x e x x x e x x e
PI e e e dx e e e e e e dx e e e dx
D D
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
¬ = = = =
+ +
} } }

2
x
x e
PI e e
÷
¬ =
So, Solution
2 2 x x
c p
x
x e
y y y Ae Be e e
÷ ÷ ÷
= + = + + (Ans)
40. Solve the differential equation:
2
2
2
5 4 .log .
d y dy
x x y x x
dx dx
+ + =
(Ans). Let
z
x e = and
d
D
dz
= . Then
2
2
2
, ( 1)
dy d y
x Dy x D D y
dx dx
= = ÷
Thus the given differential equation reduces to the following fotm:
| |
2
( 1) 5 4
( 4 4)
z
z
D D D y ze
D D y ze
÷ + + =
+ + =

Which is the linear differential equation with constant coefficient s, for which the auxiliary
equation is:
2
4 4 0 D D + + =
2, 2 D= ÷ ÷
C.F=( ) ( )
2 2
1 2 1 2
log
z
c c z e c c x x
÷ ÷
+ = +
P.I Will be

Prepared by Mrityunjoy Dutta
1
( )
z
ze
f D
i.e
2
1
.
( 4 4)
z
P I ze
D D
=
+ +

2 2 2
1
.
( 4 4) ( 1) 4( 1) 4 ( 6 9)
z z
z
e e
P I ze z z
D D D D D D
= = =
+ + ( ( + + + + + +
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

2
6
. (1 )
9 9 9
z
e D D
P I z
(
= + +
(
¸ ¸

6
.
9 9
z
e
P I z
(
= +
(
¸ ¸

2
. log
9 3
x
P I x
(
= +
(
¸ ¸

Complete Ans is C.F +P.I
( )
2
1 2
log c c x x
÷
+ +
2
log
9 3
x
x
(
+
(
¸ ¸

41. Solve sin , cos ,
dx dy
y t x t
dt dt
+ = + = Given that x=2 and y=0 when t=0.
Ans: Given simultaneous differential equation are

sin
dx
y t
dt
+ =
-------------(1)

cos
dy
x t
dt
+ =
------------(2)
From equation (2) we get cos
dy
x t
dt
= ÷ + ---------(3)
Differentiating (3) with respect to t we get

2
2
sin
dx d y
t
dt dt
¬ = ÷ ÷
---------(4)
From (1) and (4) we get

2
2
sin sin
d y
t y t
dt
¬ ÷ = ÷ ÷

2
2
2sin
d y
y t
dt
¬ ÷ = ÷

2
( 1) 2sin D y t ¬ ÷ = ÷
-----------(5)
Its Auxiliary equation is
2
1 0 1,1 m m ÷ = ¬ = ÷
So,
. .
t t
h
C F y Ae Be
÷
= = +

Prepared by Mrityunjoy Dutta
And
2
1
. . ( 2sin )
1
p
P I y t
D
= = ÷
÷

2
1
( 2sin ) sin
1 1
p
y t t ¬ = ÷ =
÷ ÷

So,
h p
y y y = +

sin
t t
y Ae Be t
÷
¬ = + +
-------(6)
Putting the value of y in (2) we get

cos cos
t t
Ae Be t x t
÷
¬ ÷ + + =

t t
x Ae Be
÷
¬ = ÷ +
---------(7)
Given that
2, 0, 0 x y whent = = =

So, equation (6) and (7) becomes
0 A B ¬ = +
and
2 A B ¬ = ÷ +

1, 1 A B ¬ = ÷ =

So, solution
t t
x e e
÷
¬ = + and sin
t t
y e e t
÷
¬ = ÷ + + (Ans)

Nov-Dec 2011

42. Explain Cauchy’s homogeneous linear differential equation.
Ans: - A Differential equation of the form
X y a
dx
y d
x a
dx
y d
x a
dx
y d
x
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
= + + + +
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
........
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
is known as Cauchy’s
Linear differential equation.
43. Solve the differential equation
2
2
2 sin
x
d y dy
y xe x
dx dx
÷ + = .
Ans:
2
2
2 sin
x
d y dy
y xe x
dx dx
÷ + =
Its auxiliary equation is
2 2
2 1 0 ( 1) 0 1,1 m m m m ÷ + = ¬ ÷ = ¬ =
So, . .
x x
h
C F y Ae Bxe = = +
Now,
2
1
. . sin
( 1)
x
p
P I y xe x
D
= =
÷

2 2
1 1
sin sin
( 1 1)
x x
p
y e x x e x x
D D
¬ = =
+ ÷

1
sin
x
p
y e x xdx
D
¬ =
}

( )
1
cos sin
x
p
y e x x x
D
¬ = ÷ +
( ) cos sin
x
p
y e x x x dx ¬ = ÷ +
}

Prepared by Mrityunjoy Dutta
( ) sin cos cos
x
p
y e x x x x ¬ = ÷ ÷ ÷
( ) sin 2cos
x
p
y e x x x ¬ = ÷ +
So, general solution
h p
y y y = +
( ) sin 2cos
x x x
y Ae Bxe e x x x ¬ = + ÷ + (Ans)

44. Solve the differential equation
2
2
2
log .sin(log ) + + =
d y dy
x y x x
dx dx

z
x e = and
d
D
dz
= . Then
2
2
2
, ( 1)
dy d y
x Dy x D D y
dx dx
= = ÷
Thus the given differential equation reduces to the following fotm:
| |
2
( 1) 1 (sin )
( 1) sin
D D D y z z
D y z z
÷ + + =
+ =

Which is the linear differential equation with constant coefficient s, for which the auxiliary
equation is:
2
1 0 D + =
, D i i = ÷
C.F=( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 1 2
cos sin cos log sin log c z c z c x c x + = +
P.I Will be
1
sin
( )
z z
f D
i.e
2 2
1 1
. sin .
( 1) ( 1)
iz
P I z z I P ze
D D
(
= =
(
+ +
¸ ¸

( )
2 2
1
. sin .
( 1)
1)
iz
e
P I z z I P z
D
D i
(
= = (
+
+ + (
¸ ¸

( )
2
1
. sin .
( 1) 2
iz
e
P I z z I P z
D D i
(
= =
(
+ +
(
¸ ¸

2
1 1 1
. sin .
( 1) 2
1
2
iz
P I z z I Pe z
D D i
i
(
(
( = =
+ | |
(
+
|
(
\ . ¸ ¸

1
2
1 1
. sin . 1
( 1) 2 2
D
iz
P I z z I Pe z
D i i
÷
(
| |
= = +
(
|
+
\ .
(
¸ ¸

2
1 1
. sin . 1
( 1) 2 2
D
iz
P I z z I Pe z
D i i
(
| |
= = ÷
| (
+
\ . ¸ ¸

Prepared by Mrityunjoy Dutta
2
1 1 1
. sin .
( 1) 2 2
iz
P I z z I Pe z
D i i
(
| |
= = ÷
| (
+
\ . ¸ ¸

2
1
. sin .
( 1) 2 2
i i
iz
P I z z I Pe z
D
( ÷ | |
= = +
| (
+
\ . ¸ ¸

2
1 1
. sin .
( 1) 2 4
i
iz
P I z z I Pe z
D
( ÷ | |
= = +
| (
+
\ . ¸ ¸

( )
2
1 1
. sin . cos sin
( 1) 2 4
i
P I z z I P z i z z
D
( ÷ | |
= = + +
| (
+
\ . ¸ ¸

2
1 cos sin sin
. sin . cos
( 1) 2 4 2 4
i z z z i z
P I z z I P z z
D
÷ | |
= = + + +
|
+
\ .

2
1 cos sin sin 1
. sin . cos
( 1) 4 2 4 2
z z z z
P I z z I P i z z
D
| |
| | | |
= = + + ÷
| | |
+
\ . \ . \ .

2
1 sin 1
. sin cos
( 1) 4 2
z
P I z z z z
D
| |
= = ÷
|
+
\ .

2
1 sinlog 1
. sin log coslog
( 1) 4 2
x
P I z z x x
D
| |
= = ÷
|
+
\ .

Ans.=C.F+P.I
( ) ( ) ( )
1 2
cos log sin log c x c x + +
sinlog 1
log coslog
4 2
x
x x
| |
÷
|
\ .

45. Solve the following simultaneous equation 2 =
dx
y
dt
, 2 =
dy
z
dt
,
2 . =
dz
x
dt

(Ans.) The given equation is:
2 =
dx
y
dt
………..(1), 2 ..........(2)
dy
z
dt
=
,
2 ..........(3)
dz
x
dt
=
Differentiating (1)w . r. “t.”, we get
2
2
2 2(2 )
d x dy
z
dt dt
= = using(2)
Differentiating again w. r. t. “t”,, we get
3
3
4 4(2 )
d x dz
x
dt dt
= =
3
3 2
2
1 2 3
( 8) 0,
8 0 ( 2)() 2 4) 0
2, 1 3
cos( 3 )
1
2
t t
d
D x whereD
dt
D or D D D
D i
x ce c e t c
dx
y
dt
÷
÷ = =
÷ = ÷ + + =
= ÷ ±
= + ÷
=

Prepared by Mrityunjoy Dutta
2
1 2 3 2 3
2
1 2 3 3
2
1 2 3
1
2 cos( 3 ) 3 sin( 3 )
2
2 2
cos cos( 3 ) sin sin( 3 )
3 3
2
cos 3
3
t t t
t t
t t
ce c e t c c e t c
ce c e t c t c
ce c e t c
 

÷ ÷
÷
÷
(
= ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
¸ ¸
(
= + ÷ ÷ ÷
(
¸ ¸
| |
= + ÷ +
|
\ .

From(2)…..
2
1 2 3 2 3
2
1 2 3
1
2
1 2 2
2 cos( 3 ) 3 sin( 3 )
2 3 3
4
cos( 3 )
3
t t t
t t
dy
z
dt
ce c e t c c e t c
ce c e t c
 

÷ ÷
÷
=
(
= ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷ +
(
¸ ¸
= + ÷ +

April -May, 2012
46. Solve
3
3
0
d y
y
dx
+ =
Ans: - Its symbolic form is Solve ( ) 0 1
3
= + y D .
Its Auxiliary equation is 0 ) 1 )( 1 ( 0 1
2 3
= + + + ¬ = + D D D D

2
3 1
,
2
3 1
, 1
i i
D
÷ +
÷ = ¬

So, solution ( )
2
3
2 3 2 2 1
sin cos . .
x
x x
x
e C C e C y F C + + = =
÷
(Ans).
47. Solve
2
2
2
5 4 log
d y dy
x x y x x
dx dx
+ + =
(Ans). Let
z
x e = and
d
D
dz
= . Then
2
2
2
, ( 1)
dy d y
x Dy x D D y
dx dx
= = ÷
Thus the given differential equation reduces to the following fotm:
| |
2
( 1) 5 4
( 4 4)
z
z
D D D y ze
D D y ze
÷ + + =
+ + =

Which is the linear differential equation with constant coefficient s, for which the auxiliary
equation is:
2
4 4 0 D D + + =
2, 2 D= ÷ ÷
C.F=( ) ( )
2 2
1 2 1 2
log
z
c c z e c c x x
÷ ÷
+ = +
P.I Will be
1
( )
z
ze
f D
i.e

Prepared by Mrityunjoy Dutta
2
1
.
( 4 4)
z
P I ze
D D
=
+ +

2 2 2
1
.
( 4 4) ( 1) 4( 1) 4 ( 6 9)
z z
z
e e
P I ze z z
D D D D D D
= = =
+ + ( ( + + + + + +
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

2
6
. (1 )
9 9 9
z
e D D
P I z
(
= + +
(
¸ ¸

6
.
9 9
z
e
P I z
(
= +
(
¸ ¸

2
. log
9 3
x
P I x
(
= +
(
¸ ¸

Complete Ans is C.F +P.I
( )
2
1 2
log c c x x
÷
+ +
2
log
9 3
x
x
(
+
(
¸ ¸

48. Solve :

3 2
3. 2
2 sin2
x
d y d y dy
e x
dx dx dx
÷
+ + = +

Sol. It’s symbolic form is ( ) x e y D D D
x
2 sin 2
2 3
+ = + +
÷

Its Auxiliary equation is 0 ) 1 2 ( 0 2
2 2 3
= + + ¬ = + + D D D D D D
1 , 1 , 0 ÷ ÷ = ¬ D
So, ( )
x x
c
e x C C e C y F C
÷
+ + = =
3 2
0
1
. .
( )
x
c
e x C C C y
÷
+ + = ¬
3 2 1
---------------------(1)
Now, ( ) x e
D D D
y I P
x
p
2 sin
2
1
. .
2 3
+
+ +
= =
÷

x
D D D
e
D D D
y
x
p
2 sin
2
1
2
1
2 3 2 3
+ +
+
+ +
= ¬
÷

x
D D D D
e
D D
x y
x
p
2 sin
2 .
1
1 4 3
1
2 2 2
+ +
+
+ +
= ¬
÷

x
D D
e
D
x y
x
p
2 sin
) 4 ( 2 ) 4 .(
1
4 6
1
2
+ ÷ + ÷
+
+
= ¬
÷

x
D
e
x y
x
p
2 sin
8 3
1
4 ) 1 ( 6
2
+
÷
+ ÷
= ¬
÷

x
D
D e x
y
x
p
2 sin
64 9
8 3
2
2
2
÷
÷
÷ ÷ = ¬
÷

x
D e x
y
x
p
2 sin
64 ) 4 ( 9
8 3
2
2
÷ ÷
÷
÷ ÷ = ¬
÷

Prepared by Mrityunjoy Dutta

10
2 sin 8 2 cos 6
2
2
x x e x
y
x
p
÷
+ ÷ = ¬
÷
-------------------(2)
So, solution ( )
10
2 sin 8 2 cos 6
2
2
3 2 1
x x e x
e x C C C y y y
x
x
p c
÷
+ ÷ + + = + =
÷
÷
(Ans).

49. Solve the equations simultaneously

5 2 , 2 0, 0
dx dy
x t t x y x y
dt dt
+ ÷ = + + = = = when t=0
Ans: -
dx
dt
+5x − 2y =t,

dt
+2x +y =0
Its symbolic formis (Ð +5)x −2y =t------------------(1)
2x +(Ð +1)y =0-------------------(2)
Now, eq(1) X (D+1) +eq(2) X 2 we get
⇒ [(Ð +1)(Ð +5) +4]x =(Ð +1)t +0
⇒ (Ð
2
+6Ð +9)x =1+t, which is linear differential equation.
Its auxiliary equation is (Ð
2
+6Ð +9) =0 ⇒ Ð =−3,−3
So, C.F.=(C
1
+C
2
t)c
-3t

Now, P.I.=
1
(Ð+3)
2
(1+t) =
1
9
[1+
Ð
3
¸
-2
(1+t) =
1
9
[1− 2
Ð
3
+3
Ð
2
9
+ ………….¸(1+t)
⇒ P.I.=
1
9
[1+t −
2
3
¸ =
1
9
[t +
1
3
¸ =
t
9
+
1
27

So, x =(C
1
+C
2
t)c
-3t
+
t
9
+
1
27
---------------------------------(3)
Now, from(1) 2y =(Ð +5)x − t =Ðx +5x −t
⇒ 2y =5(C
1
+C
2
t)c
-3t
+
5t
9
+
5
27
− 3(C
1
+C
2
t)c
-3t
+C
2
c
-3t
+
1
9
−t
⇒ y =
c
-3t
2
(2C
1
+C
2
) +tC
2
c
-3t

2t
9
+
4
27
---------------(4)
Given that at t =0, x =y =0, so equation (3) and (4) becomes
C
1
+
1
27
=0 ⇒ C
1
=−
1
27
and

1
2
(2C
1
+C
2
) +
4
27
=0 ⇒ C
2
=−
8
27
−2C
1
==−
8
27
+
2
27
=−
6
27
=−
2
9

So, Solution is
x =(−
1
27

2
9
t)c
-3t
+
t
9
+
1
27
and y =
c
-3t
2
[−
2
27
+
2
9
¸ +
2
9
tc
-3t

2t
9
+
4
27

⇒ x =−
1
27
{(1+6t)c
-3t
− (3t +1)} and y =−
1
27
{(4+6t)c
-3t
+(6t −4)}

scribd
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