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English

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Marwari Language & Resource Center Pakistan


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MARWARI WRITING-SYSTEM PROPOSAL


Copyright Note:
2006 2008 Dr. Younis kashali
All rights reserved.

Presented By:
Dr. Younis Kashali
Presented to:
1. M.L.T.C Marwari Literacy & Translation Committee
2. M.C.D.O Marwari Community Development Organization
3. K.S.L.P Kinship Systematic Lead Panel
4. mlrc-Pak Marwari Language& Resource Center Pakistan
5. M.C.F Marwari Christian Fellowship
6. S.L.D.P, 7. I.A.L, 8. K.O.Q, 9. and to Marwari Leaders.

Special Thanks:
Mr. Simon Ager
The Online Encyclopedia of Writing systems & Languages

http://www.omniglot.com

Re-Published on this 2012 A.D.

Proposal for Marwari writing system by Kashali

Page 2 of 61

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Page 4 of 61

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Page 5 of 61

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Page 6 of 61

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Proposal for Marwari writing system by Kashali

Page 7 of 61

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Proposal for Marwari writing system by Kashali

Page 8 of 61


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Proposal for Marwari writing system by Kashali

Page 9 of 61

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Proposal for Marwari writing system by Kashali

Page 10 of 61

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Proposal for Marwari writing system by Kashali

Page 11 of 61


:nd `P E : < Q
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Proposal for Marwari writing system by Kashali

Page 12 of 61

 I*J { *  m : < Q


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Vowel Charts.
1. Marwari Oral Vowel Chart.
Front
Unrounded

Central

Long Vowel Short Vowel


Close

Short Vowel Long Vowel

Half Close

Back
Rounded

Open

2. Marwari Nasalized Vowel Chart.


Front
Unrounded

Central

Long Vowel Short Vowel


Close

Short Vowel Long Vowel

Half Close

Back
Rounded

Open



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Page 13 of 61

z Fy
0
(Marwari syllable structure) Q
 
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Syllables
VV

Marwari words in IPA


Regularity
Regular
[]
Regular
[o]

VC

[]

Regular

VCV

[do]

Regular

VCCV

[ko]

Irregular

VVC

[u]

Regular

VVCV

[o]

Regular

VCVC

[pip]

Regular

CV

[k]

Regular

CVV

[ko]

Regular

CVVC

[ ]

Irregular

CVC

[k]

Regular

CVCC

[k]

Irregular

CVCCV

[vt o]

Irregular

CVCV

[kko]

Regular

CCVC

[kod]

Irregular

CVCVC

[kod]

Regular

CCVCC

[nt ]

Irregular

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Proposal for Marwari writing system by Kashali

Page 14 of 61

Marwari as a written language

 
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G
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Marwari had two scripts before the present Devanagari script. The script presently is a
modified form of the one used for Hindi with the most notable difference being the
addition of a retroflex lateral "". This character is found in Sanskrit but not in Hindi.
Some publications in Marwari also use some other characters in substitution for
accepted letters.

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Page 15 of 61


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Proposal for Marwari writing system by Kashali

Page 16 of 61

Section B

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Proposal for Marwari writing system by Kashali

Page 17 of 61

Writing systems




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Arabic, Baybayin, Bengali, Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics, Chinese, Cyrillic,
Devanagari, Ge'ez (Ethiopic), Georgian (Mkhedruli), Hebrew, Latin, Tifinagh


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Arabic alphabet
Arabic, Azeri, Bosnian, Dari, Hausa, Kabyle, Kashmiri, Kazakh, Kurdish, Kyrghyz,
Malay, Morisco, Pashto, Persian/Farsi, Punjabi, Sindhi, Siraiki, Tatar, Turkish, Urdu,
Uyghur
Please note: some of these languages, such as Bosnian and Turkish, were once written
with the Arabic alphabet, but nowadays are normally written with a different alphabet,
such as Latin or Cyrillic.

Baybayin syllabary
Ilocano, Tagalog

Bengali alphabet (Eastern Nagari / Eastern Neo-Brahmic script)


Bengali, Assamese
Proposal for Marwari writing system by Kashali

Page 18 of 61

Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics


Blackfoot, Carrier, Cree, Inuktitut, Naskapi, Ojibwe

Chinese script
Modern Standard Chinese, Cantonese, Japanese (kanji), Korean (hanja), Vietnamese
(ch-nm)

Cyrillic alphabet
Abaza, Abkhaz, Adyghe, Avar, Azeri, Balkar, Bashkir, Belarusian, Bulgarian, Buryat,
Chechen, Chukchi, Church Slavonic, Chuvash, Crimean Tatar, Dargwa, Dungan,
Erzya, Even, Evenki, Gagauz, Ingush, Kabardian, Kalmyk, Kazakh, Khanty, Komi,
Koryak, Kurdish, Kyrghyz, Lak, Lezgi, Lingua Franca Nova, Macedonian, Mansi,
Mari, Moksha, Moldovan, Mongolian, Nanai, Nenets, Nivkh, Old Church Slavonic,
Ossetian, Russian, Ruthenian, Serbian, Slovio, Tabassaran, Tajik, Tatar, Tsez,
Turkmen, Tuvan, Ubykh, Udmurt, Ukrainian, Uyghur, Uzbek, Votic, Yakut, Yupik

Devanagari alphabet
Hindi, Marathi, Nepali, Pali, Sanskrit, Sindhi

Ge'ez (Ethiopic) script


Amharic, Ge'ez, Tigrinya

Georgian (Mkhedruli) alphabet


Georgian, Laz, Svan

Hebrew alphabet
Hebrew, Judeo-Arabic, Ladino, Yiddish

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Latin alphabet
Abenaki, Afaan Oromo, Afar, Afrikaans, Akan, Albanian, Aleut, Alsatian, Apache,
Aranese, Arapaho, Aromanian, Arrernte, Asturian, Aymara, Azeri, Bambara, Basque,
Belarusian, Bemba, Bikol, Bislama, Breton, Burushaski, Catalan, Cayuga, Cebuano,
Chamorro, Chechen, Cheyenne, Cimbrian, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Comanche, Cornish,
Corsican, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Delaware, Dinka, Drehu, Dutch, English,
Esperanto, Estonian, Ewe, Ewondo, Faroese, Fijian, Filipino, Finnish, Folkspraak,
French, Frisian, Ga, Gagauz, Galician, Ganda, Genoese, German, Gooniyandi,
Greenlandic, Guarani, Gwichin, Haida, Haitian Creole, Hn, Hausa, Hawaiian,
Hiligaynon, Hixkaryana, Hopi, Hotck, Hungarian, Icelandic, Ido, Igbo, Ilocano,
Indonesian, Interglossa, Interlingua, Irish, Kaingang, Kala Lagaw Ya, Italian, Jrriais,
Kabyle, Karelian, Kashubian, Kinyarwanda, Kiribati, Kirundi, Klallam, Klamath,
Kurdish, Kwakiutl, Lingala, Latin, Latvian, Lingua Franca Nova, Lithuanian, Livonian,
Lojban, Lombard, Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, Maasai, Makhuwa, Malagasy, Malay,
Maltese, Manx, Mori, Marshallese, Meriam Mir, Mi'kmaq, Mohawk, Montagnais,
Murrinh-Patha, Nahuatl, Nama, Naskapi, Navajo, Naxi, Ngiyambaa, Noongar,
Norwegian, Novial, Occidental, Occitan, O'odham, Old Norse, Ossetian, Piedmontese,
Pitjantjatjara, Polish, Portuguese, Potawatomi, Quechua, Romanian, Romansh,
Romany, Rotuman, Saami/Sami, Saanich, Samoan, Sango, Sardinian, Scots, Scottish
Gaelic, Serbian, Shavante, Shawnee, Sicilian, Sioux, Slovak, Slovene, Slovio, Somali,
Sorbian, Southern Sotho, Spanish, Swahili, Swedish, Tagalog, Tahitian, Tatar,
Taiwanese, Tlingit, Tok Pisin, Tongan, Turkish, Turkmen, Tuvaluan, Tuvan, Twi,
Uyghur, Venetian, Vietnamese, Volapk, Vro, Walloon, Warlpiri, Waray-Waray,
Welsh, Wik-Mungkan, Wiradjuri, Wolof, Xhosa, Yapese, Yindjibarndi, Yolngu,
Yoruba, Zhuang, Zulu

Tifinagh alphabet
Kabyle, Tamazight

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Proposal for Marwari writing system by Kashali

Page 20 of 61

#
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Latin alphabet

2.

Cyrillic alphabet

3.

Arabic alphabet

4.

Chinese script

5.

Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics and Devanagari alphabet

6.

Ge'ez (Ethiopic) script and Georgian (Mkhedruli) alphabet

7.

Baybayin syllabary and Bengali alphabet (Eastern Nagari / Eastern NeoBrahmic script) and Tifinagh alphabet

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Proposal for Marwari writing system by Kashali

Page 21 of 61

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Proposal for Marwari writing system by Kashali

Page 22 of 61

O
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1. Latin alphabet

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Latin alphabet

Ancient Latin alphabet


Roman alphabet for Latin
Irish uncial alphabet
Old English alphabet
Modern Latin alphabet
Accented letters & special characters
Languages written with the Latin alphabet

Ancient Latin alphabet


The earliest known inscriptions in the Latin alphabet date from the 6th century BC. It
was adapted from the Etruscan alphabet during the 7th century BC. The letters Y and Z
were taken from the Greek alphabet to write Greek loan words. Other letters were
added from time to time as the Latin alphabet was adapted for other languages and
many letters had several different shapes.

Other versions of the Latin alphabet


Ancient Latin, Irish Uncial, Old English

Roman alphabet for Latin


The Romans used just 23 letters to write Latin:
ABCDEFGHIKLMNOPQRSTVXYZ
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Page 23 of 61

There were no lower case letters, and K, Y and Z used only for writing words of Greek
origin. The letters J, U and W were added to the alphabet at a later stage to write
languages other than Latin. J is a variant of I, U is a variant of V, and W was
introduced as a 'double-v' to make a distinction between the sounds we know as 'v' and
'w' which was unnecessary in Latin.

Modern Latin alphabet


The modern Latin alphabet consists of 52 letters, including both upper and lower case,
plus 10 numerals, punctuation marks and a variety of other symbols such as &, % and
@. Many languages add a variety of accents to the basic letters, and a few also use
extra letters and ligatures.
The lowercase letters developed from cursive versions of the uppercase letters.

Uppercase
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

Lowercase
abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz

Accented letters & special characters


Accented letters
Many languages supplement the basic Latin alphabet with a variety of accented letters:

These accented letters can have a number of different functions:

Modifying the pronunciation of a letter


Indicating where the stress should fall in a word
Indicating emphasis in a sentence
Indicating pitch or intonation of a word or syllable
Indicating vowel length
Visually distinguishing homophones

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Page 24 of 61

Some extra letters

Eth, Thorn, Yogh and Wynn were used in Old English; Eth and Thorn are also used in
Icelandic; the dotless i is used in Turkish, and the schwa is used in Azeri. The other
letters are used in various other languages, particularly those spoken in West Africa.

Ligatures (two or three letters joined together)


These are used in a number of languages including French, German, Icelandic, Croatian
and Dutch:

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Page 25 of 61

2. Devanagari alphabet

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Introduction:
The Ngar or Devangar alphabet descended from the Brahmi script sometime around
the 11th century AD. It was originally developed to write Sanksrit but was later adapted
to write many other languages.
The name Devangar is made up of two Sanskrit words: deva, which means god,
brahman or celestial, and ngar, which means city. The name is variously translated as
"script of the city", "heavenly/sacred script of the city" or "[script of the] city of the
Gods or priests". The origins and meaning of the name are uncertain.

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Page 26 of 61

Consonants

Variant letters
Some letters are two forms: the Classical, Northern or Kalikata (Calcutta) form is used
in the north of India; while the Modern, Southern or Mumbai (Bombay) form is used in
the south India and has become the standard form

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Page 27 of 61

A selection of conjunct consonants


There are about a thousand conjunct consonants, most of which combine two or three
consonants. There are also some with four-consonant conjuncts and at least one wellknown conjunct with five consonants.

Numerals

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Page 28 of 61

3. Arabic alphabet

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Arabic script

Origin
The Arabic script evolved from the Nabataean Aramaic script. It has been used since
the 4th century AD, but the earliest document, an inscription in Arabic, Syriac and
Greek, dates from 512 AD. The Aramaic language has fewer consonants than Arabic,
so during the 7th century new Arabic letters were created by adding dots to existing
letters in order to avoid ambiguities. Further diacritics indicating short vowels were
introduced, but are only generally used to ensure the Qur'an was read aloud without
mistakes.
There are two main types of written Arabic:
1. Classical Arabic - the language of the Qur'an and classical literature. It differs
from Modern Standard Arabic mainly in style and vocabulary, some of which is
archaic. All Muslims are expected to recite the Qur'an in the original language,
however many rely on translations in order to understand the text.
2. Modern Standard Arabic - the universal language of the Arabic-speaking
world which is understood by all Arabic speakers. It is the language of the vast
majority of written material and of formal TV shows, lectures, etc.
Each Arabic speaking country or region also has its own variety of colloquial spoken
Arabic. These colloquial varieties of Arabic appear in written form in some poetry,
cartoons and comics, plays and personal letters. There are also translations of the bible
into most varieties of colloquial Arabic.
Arabic has also been written with the Hebrew, Syriac and Latin scripts.

Notable Features

The Arabic alphabet contains 28 letters. Some additional letters are used in
Arabic when writing placenames or foreign words containing sounds which do
not occur in Standard Arabic, such as /p / or /g /.
Words are written in horizontal lines from right to left, numerals are written
from left to right
Most letters change form depending on whether they appear at the beginning,
middle or end of a word, or on their own.
Letters that can be joined are always joined in both hand-written and printed
Arabic. The only exceptions to this rule are crossword puzzles and signs in
which the script is written vertically.
The long vowels /a:/, /i:/ and /u:/ are represented by the letters 'alif, y' \ and
ww respectively.
Vowel diacritics, which are used to mark short vowels, and other special
symbols appear only in the Qur'an. They are also used, though with less

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Page 29 of 61

consistency, in other religious texts, in classical poetry, in textbooks children


and foreign learners, and occasionally in complex texts to avoid ambiguity.
Sometimes the diacritics are used for decorative purposes in book titles,
letterheads, nameplates, etc.

Arabic consonants

Arabic vowel diacritics and other symbols

Arabic numerals and numbers


These numerals are those used when writing Arabic and are written from left to right.
In Arabic they are known as "Indian numbers" (`_a d`efg arqa-m hindiyyah). The term
'Arabic numerals' is also used to refer to 1, 2, 3, etc.
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The first set of numbers are Modern Standard Arabic. The others are Moroccan Arabic.

9
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Arabic script for Sindhi (

Sindhi is an Indo-Aryan language with about 17 million speakers in the south-eastern


province of Sind in Pakistan and about 2.8 million people in India.
The Sindhi language first appeared in writing in the 8th century AD. Sindhi literature,
in particular lyric poetry, began to appear towards the end of the 15th century. During
the 19th century, the Landa script was adapted to write Sindhi.
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Page 31 of 61

The modern Sindhi abjad is based on the version of the Perso-Arabic script used to
write Urdu and was adopted, under British influence, in 1852. In India Sindhi is also
written with the Devanagari script.

Numerals

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Page 32 of 61

Urdu ($)
Urdu is an Indo-Aryan language with about 104 million speakers, including those who
speak it as a second language. It is the national language of Pakistan and is closely
related to Hindi, though a lot of Urdu vocabulary comes from Persian and Arabic,
which is not the case for Hindi.
Urdu is also spoken in Afghanistan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Botswana, Fiji, Germany,
Guyana, India, Malawi, Mauritius, Nepal, Norway, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, South
Africa, Thailand, the UAE, the UK and Zambia.
Urdu has been written with a version of the Perso-Arabic script since the 12th century
and is normally written in Nastaliq style. The word Urdu is Turkish for 'foreign' or
'horde'.

Proposal for Marwari writing system by Kashali

Page 33 of 61

Urdu numerals

Proposal for Marwari writing system by Kashali

Page 34 of 61

Section C


Z 


Proposal for Marwari writing system by Kashali

Page 35 of 61



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90
80
70
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90
80
70
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Urdu

Sindhi

Proposal for Marwari writing system by Kashali

Urdu

Page 36 of 61



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Proposal for Marwari writing system by Kashali

Page 37 of 61

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Marwari normal LETTERS.

Marwari additional LETTERS.

Marwari aspirated LETTERS.

Proposal for Marwari writing system by Kashali

&

d
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Page 38 of 61







Marwari LETTERS for VOWELS.

Symbol for Nasalized Vowels.


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Proposal for Marwari writing system by Kashali

Page 39 of 61

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Proposal for Marwari writing system by Kashali

Page 40 of 61


M
0& A x y  (  O) ;
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  1  0
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Marwari alphabet from Latin script


Marwari normal LETTERS.

J-j

P-p

Z-z

H-h

W-w

N-n

Y-y
j

S-s

M-m

D-d

K-k

G-g

B-b

R-r

L-l

T-t

F-f

Marwari additional LETTERS.

X-x

Marwari aspirated LETTERS.

Jh-jh

Zh-zh
z

Lh-lh
l

h-h

Ph-ph
p

h-h

Gh-gh

h-h

h-h

Rh-rh

Kh-kh
k

Xh-xh

Proposal for Marwari writing system by Kashali

Th-th
t

h-h

h-h

Nh-nh
n

Bh-bh
b

Dh-dh
d

Sh-sh
s

Mh-mh
m

Page 41 of 61

h-h

h-h



h-h



Marwari LETTERS for VOWELS.

U-u

O-o

A-a

E-e
e

I-i
i

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Proposal for Marwari writing system by Kashali

Page 42 of 61

 
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Proposal for Marwari writing system by Kashali

Page 43 of 61

M
N


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Marwari alphabet from Arabic based Sindhi script


Marwari normal LETTERS.

Marwari additional LETTERS.

Marwari aspirated LETTERS.

Proposal for Marwari writing system by Kashali

Page 44 of 61








Marwari LETTERS for VOWELS.

G
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Proposal for Marwari writing system by Kashali

Page 45 of 61

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& g 
j 

Marwari alphabet from Arabic based Urdu script


Marwari normal LETTERS.

Proposal for Marwari writing system by Kashali

Page 46 of 61

Marwari additional LETTERS.

Marwari aspirated LETTERS.

1

0

6

5






2

3

4

-

.

/






Marwari LETTERS for VOWELS.

Proposal for Marwari writing system by Kashali

Page 47 of 61

G
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Proposal for Marwari writing system by Kashali

Page 48 of 61


9

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1.

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2.

Latin alphabet

3.

Devanagari alphabet

AaBbCc

G 0 xy
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Proposal for Marwari writing system by Kashali

Page 49 of 61

Section D



 
Proposal

Proposal for Marwari writing system by Kashali

Page 50 of 61

 
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1. Post office Box No. 07, Khairpur Mirs.
2. Kashali house, Model Town, Near Marvi Kanta, Sindhri Road Mirpurkhas.

E-mail: youniskashali@gmail.com

Proposal for Marwari writing system by Kashali

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Looking forward,

Proposal for Marwari writing system by Kashali

Page 61 of 61