PERSPECTIVE OF ANIMAL NUTRITION

• The primary purposes of keepings animals is transform feed into substances usable by humans: meats, milk, eggs, wool, and work (running). • But, the conversion of feed to these uses must be done efficiently and economically. To do this, the principles of nutrition must be applied and they must be augmented by superior breed, good health, and competent management.

Glossary / istilah2.
Ilmu Pakan Ternak (Feed science) a dicipline scoped an animal food related to feed and nutrient contents to the condition of animal physiologic Bahan Pakan Ternak (Feedstuff) any material made into or used as feed, which is edible, digestible and palatable for such animal. Food : is an edible material than provides nutrients

Feed : refer to food but it commonly applied to animal food than human food.

dalam keadaan cukup. dimana antara zat pakan satu dan lainnya dlm keadaan seimbang dan sesuai kebutuhan. Ration : is a daily supply of feed (or food) Ransum Sempurna: Ransum yg mengandung semua zat pakan yg diperlukan ternak.Zat Makanan (Nutrient) : any chemical element or compound in the diet (or given parenterally in special case) that support normal growth. lipids. . The 6 classes of nutrients are : water. reproduction. Ransum: Pakan yang terdiri satu atau lebih bahan pakan yang diberikan kepada ternak sekali atau beberapa kali selama 24 jam. protein and amino acids. Diet : is a mixture of feed stuff used to supply nutrients to an animal. lactation or maintenance of life processes. vitamins and inorganic elements. KH.

nutrien. Anabolisme: Proses pembentukan kompleks dari substansi sederhana. substansi .yg menyebabkan perubh. Katabolisme: Proses perombakan substansi kompleks menjadi substansi sederhana.Nilai nutrisi menyangkut: Kandungan kecernaan. Enzim: Suatu biokatalisator yg berupa protein gabungan yg dihasilkan oleh sel hdp.tbh.kimia dlm. Efisiensi pakan dll. Konsumsi.

Ad libitum: Pemberian pakan tdk. . terbatas tetapi terkontrol (terukur) Absorbsi: Proses penyerapan zat pakan melalui dinding usus. Kecernaan: Persentase dari pakan yg dikonsumsi dan diserap ke dalam tubuh dari pakan yg tidak diekskresikan. Hidrolisis: Reaksi kimia yg terjadi karena adanya air.

Tujuan mempelajari Ilmu Nutrisi Non Ruminansia: uUntuk mengetahui cara pemberian pakan ternak Non Ruminansia secara baik dan memenuhi kebutuhan dengan biaya semurah-murahnya. . shg diperoleh keuntungan yg sebesar-besarnya.

kucing. . unggas. Herbivora ( pemakan tumbuh-2 an) Contoh: sapi. b. kera. domba. Karnivora (pemakan daging) Contoh: anjing.KLASIFIKASI HEWAN/TERNAK 1. kambing. Berdasar jenis pakannya a. kuda. c. kelinci. Omnivora (pemakan segala) Contoh: babi. harimau. kerbau.

2. Lambung tunggal: babi. kerbau. unggas b. c. Berdasar sistem alat pencernaan a. kambing. kelinci. tikus. Lambung tunggal (sekum berfungsi): kuda. domba. Lambung majemuk: Sapi. .

ORGAN PELENGKAP SALURAN PENCERNAAN 1. HATI (liver) 5. LIDAH (tounge) 3. GIGI (teeth) 2. PANKREAS (pancreas) . SALIVA (salivary gland) 4. KEL.

sekum. . Lambung: ganda/majemuk/poligas trik 2. .Mekanis (mulut). . Lambung: tunggal/monogastrik 2.PERBEDAAN SISTEM PENCERNAAN NON RUMINANSIA 1.Fermentatif (sekum. Proses pencernaan: .Enzimatis/hidrolitis . colon).enzimatis/hidrolitis > (enzim dihasilkan alat pencernaan).Mekanis (mulut). RUMINANSIA 1. Proses pencernaan: .Fermentatif (retikulorumen.colon). .

Prot : NH3 (R-R) Asam amino (usus kecil). propionat. fruktosa. galaktosa . 5. Bentuk serapan .KH: glukosa.KH: VFA (asam asetat. . Dapat memanfaatkan NPN sbg. Pakan utama: Konsentrat 4.Prot : Asam amino .LANJUTAN 3. Pakan utama Hijauan 4. .dapat memanfaatkan NPN dan SK 5. Tdk.Lemak: asam lemak gliserol Penyerapan di usus kecil 3. Bentuk serapan . butirat).sumber prot dan SK.

Lemak: . .monoglise rida di usus kecil. gliserol. gliserol .Asam lemak.LANJUTAN .VFA.

Pada unggas oesophagus membesar membentuk kantong (crop/tembolok) untk.punya ttp. Mulut: gigi (unggas tdk. 2.dan pernafasan).ada paruh. . pharynk (sistem penc.Bagian saluran pencernaan 1.menyimpan pakan. lidah. saliva.pharynk dan lambung (ada gerakan peristaltik ke lambung dan mulut). Oesophagus: organ yg menghub.

Usus kecil: duodenum.cairan usus . ventriculus/gizzard (memprod.cairan duodenum . mucin) 4.cairan empedu .cairan pankreas . HCl. Lambung (perut kelenjar) Ayam: proventriculus. Ada 4 sekresi yg masuk usus halus: .3. jejenum. ileum. pepsinogen.

6. Colon 8. ttp ada kelenjar mukosa (enzim dihslkan mikroba). Sekum (caecum) 7. mensintesis vit. B. Anus (rectum) .kan enzim. Usus besar: tidak menghsl.5.

Poultry Gastrointestinal Tract .

Swine Gastrointestinal Tract .

• In the large intestine. • In the caecum and colon. it loses water and acquires a sticky. • This process “digests” 10 to 20% of the feed from mouth to rectum and determines the entire transit time of the digesta through the gastrointestinal tract. the digesta is modified by flora indigenous to the gastrointestinal tract. As it advances to the anus to be voided as faeces. solid consistency . digesta is still liquid.

• The digestive capacity of the pig increases with age. to prepares piglet for weaning. • The large intestine matures slower. both the small intestine and pancreas grow and develop. . this explains why the pig tends to digest fibrous feeds better in direct relation to its age. • During the first few weeks of life. Neonates and lactating piglets depend on a well-developed gastric ability to effectively clot milk.

Horses Gastrointestinal Tract .

• In the horse both the caecum and the colon are enlarged. As in the rumen. . the large cellulose molecules are broken down to smaller molecules that can be absorbed.

Rabbit Gastrointestinal Tract .

the position of the functional caecum after the main areas of digestion and absorption. • However.• The caecum in the rabbit. rat and guinea pig is greatly enlarged to provide a “fermentation vat” for micro-organisms to break down the cellulose plant cell walls. . means it is potentially less effective than the rumen. This is called a functional caecum.

• The rabbit (and rodents) solve this problem by eating their own faeces (Coprophagy) so that they pass through the gut a second time and the products of cellulose digestion can be absorbed in the small intestine. • Rabbits produce two kinds of faeces. . that have passed through the gut twice. Softer night-time faeces are eaten directly from the anus and the harder pellets.

• Next week : The factors which affects the nutrients requirement of animal Danke .

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