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DR SHYAM KUMAR DGM(CHEMISTRY) I/C OPERATIONS MUD SERVICES ONGC, ASSAM ASSET, SIVASAGAR
• MUD ENGG. - PRE REQUISITE FOR DRILLING A WELL
• DRILLING - PRE REQUISITE FOR PRODUCTION OF HYDROCARBON .
SIGNIFICANCE OF MUD ENGG.
NO MUD ENGG. – NO DRILLING
NO DRILLING – NO HYDROCARBON
• ENABLE DRILLING OF OIL WELLS • ACHIEVE DRILLING TARGETS • ACHIEVE PRODUCTION TARGET • PROTECT ENVIRONMENT
FRACTURE/ MICROFRACTURE . HYDRATION.CHALLENGES • PHYSICO-CHEMICAL NATURE OF SUB SURFACE ROCKS LIKE COMPACTION/ CONSOLIDATION. COMPOSITION.
SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL COMPLIANCE .• SUB SURFACE ROCK STRESS MECHANICS • SUB SURFACE PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE • QUALITY .
HOLE PACK OFF & BRIDGES… Cement or junk in the hole .
HOLE PACK OFF & BRIDGES… Unconsolidated formations .
HOLE PACK OFF & BRIDGES… Shale instability Reactive Formation Pressured Formation Fractured & Faulted Formation .
HOLE PACK OFF & BRIDGES Settled Cuttings .
HOLE PACK OFF & BRIDGES… Junk in the hole .
WELLBORE GEOMETRY INTERFERENCES Key Seat .
WELLBORE GEOMETRY INTERFERENCES… Stiff assembly .
WELLBORE GEOMETRY INTERFERENCES… Mobile formation .
.WELLBORE GEOMETRY INTERFERENCES… Ledges and micro-doglegs.
MECHANICS OF DIFFERENTIAL STUCK UP .
. Cracking effect of filter cake using oil only (left) vs.FREEING STUCK PIPE WITH SPOTTING FLUIDS The PIPE-LAX oil spotting technique is thought to work by altering the contact area between the filter cake and the pipe. PIPE-LAX and oil (right). This is accomplished by cracking the filter cake.
faults and transition zones in carbonates or hard shales. a d c . c: Natural fractures. b: Cavernous or vugular zones in carbonates (limestone or dolomite). d: Induced fractures from excessive pressure.a LOST CIRCULATION SECTIONS d b a: High-permeability unconsolidated sands and gravel.
Suspend and release cuttings . Control formation pressures.FUNCTIONS OF DRILLING FLUID – 1. – 2. Remove cuttings from the well. – 3.
– 4. – 5. . Maintain wellbore stability. – 6. Minimize reservoir damage. Seal permeable formations/Reduce invasion.
– 7. – 8. Transmit hydraulic energy to tools and bit. – 9. lubricate. Ensure adequate formation evaluation . and support the bit and drilling assembly. Cool.
Minimize impact on the environment. – 12. Control corrosion. – 11.– 10. . Facilitate cementing and completion.
COMPOSITION • LIQUID/GAS .CONTINUOUS PHASE • DISOLVED / DISPERSED CHEMICALS/SUSPENDED PARTICLES .
foam or gas as the circulating medium. • The last one consists of air. . • Next two are oil. mist. • First six are water-based.and synthetic-based.CLASSIFICATION OF DRILLING FLUIDS • Nine distinct drilling fluid systems are defined as per API (American Petroleum Institute) & IADC (International Association of Drilling Contractors).
mist. Polymer 5. Calcium treated 4. Low solids 6. Non-dispersed 2. Dispersed 3.Drilling Fluid Systems Water Based 1. foam and gas Oil Mud Synthetic Oil based Mud Oil Mud Invert Emulsion . Salt water systems Oil Based Air.
. These systems normally contain a minimum amount of bentonite and may be sensitive to divalent cations such as calcium and magnesium. Various types of polymers are available for these purposes.POLYMER FLUIDS Muds incorporating generally long-chain. cellulose and natural gum-based products. Most polymers have temperature limits below 1500 C . high-molecularweight polymers are utilized to either encapsulate drill solids to prevent dispersion and coat shales for inhibition. including acrylamide. but under certain conditions may be used in wells with appreciably higher BHTs. or for increasing viscosity and reducing fluid loss. Frequently. inhibiting salts such as KCl or NaCl are used to provide greater shale stability.
. Clay solids to be 3% or less and exhibit a ratio of drilled solids to bentonite of less than 2:1. Low-solids systems typically use polymer additive as a viscosifier or bentonite extender and are non-dispersed.Low Solids Fluids Systems in which the amount (volume) and type of solids are controlled. Total solids should not range higher than about 6% to 10% by volume. One primary advantage of low-solids systems is that they significantly improve drilling penetration rate.
. Although these systems pick up water from the formation. and where sticking and hole stabilization is a problem.Oil-Based Fluids Oil-based systems are used for a variety of applications where fluid stability and inhibition are necessary such as high-temperature wells. deep holes. b. amine treated organic materials. surfactants. high-molecularweight soaps. filtration and emulsion stability. no additional water or brine is added. Oil-based muds: are formulated with only oil as the liquid phase and are often used as coring fluids. They may contain as much as 50% brine in the liquid phase. Specialized oil-based mud additives include: emulsifiers and wetting agents (commonly fatty acids and amine derivatives). Invert emulsion muds: are water-in-oil emulsions typically with calcium chloride brine as the emulsified phase and oil as the continuous phase. Concentration of additives and brine content/salinity are varied to control rheological. They consist of two types of systems: a. organo clays and lime for alkalinity.
ethers. without the environmental hazards. poly alpha olefins and isomerized alpha olefins. .Synthetic Oil Based Muds (SOBM) Synthetic fluids are designed to mirror oilbased mud performance. can be discharged offshore and are non-sheening and biodegradable. They are environmentally friendly. Primary types of synthetic fluids are esters.
. 2) Mist drilling involves injecting a foaming agent into the air stream. These include: 1) Dry air drilling. 4) Aerated fluids rely on mud with injected air (which reduces hydrostatic head) to remove drilled solids from the wellbore. which involves injecting dry air or gas into the well-bore at rates capable of achieving annular velocities that will remove cuttings. which mixes with produced water and coats the cuttings which prevents mud rings allowing drill solids to be removed. 3) Foam uses surfactants and possibly clays or polymers to form a high carrying-capacity foam. mist.Air. foam and gas Four basic types are included in this specialized (reduced drilling fluid weight) category.
Gravity • Drilling fluid mass per unit volume • Measurement done using Mud balance. .MONITORING OF DRILLING FLUIDS 1. Sp.
Gel strengths – Resistance to initiate fluid motion . YP (yield point) Electrical resistance in the fluid in motion.resistance to flow. PV( Plastic viscosity) –Frictional (solid particles) resistance in the fluid in motion.2. Viscosity Viscosity or thickness of fluid . . Measured By.Marsh Funnel & Fan VG meter.
gr.Sand content measured by using a Sand content Kit.High sand content contributes to undesired thick filter cakes. Sand Content Sand is abrasive & harmful to equipment & tools that come in contact with the circulating mud system.Sand (>74 microns) recommended <1%(v/v). raise unwanted sp. . . causing induced lost circulation /formation invasion/ drill string sticking problems.3. . .
Loss of fluid . . formation invasion.Filtration .thick & restrictive filter cakes.clear fluid invading formation .stuck pipe. .Fluid loss Measured By API Filter Press. .loss of fluid to formation. Filter Cake -The Filter cake . formation swelling & sloughing .Filtrate .mud solids deposited on the walls of bore hole. .4.
• SOLIDS UNDESIRABLE – OPTIMSED BY REMOVAL • REMOVAL EQUIPMENTS .SHALE SHAKERS./DSANDER/D-SILTER/MUD CLEANERS/CENTRIFUGES .SOLIDS CONTENT • VOLUME /VOLUME MEASUREMENT OF SOLIDS BY DISTILATION METHOD USING RETORT KIT.
SALINITY/K+ ION/PHPA ESTIMATION • PRECIPITATION METHOD – FILTRATE • SALINITY – POTASSIUM CHROMATE & SILVER NITRATE • K + ION SODIUM PERCHLORATE • PHPA – STANNIC CHLORIDE .
2 .LUBRICITY CO-EFFICIENT • LUBRICITY TESTER • LUBRICANT USED – EXTREME PRESSURE LUBRICANT • DESIRABLE VALUE <0.
GEO TECHNICAL ORDER PLANNING MUD ENGG. POLICY .
HOLE PROFILE 6. MUD LOSS ZONES 7. CASING POLICY 5. COMPANY SPECIFIC POLICY DECISION 9. FORMATION PRESSURE 2. FORMATION TEMPERARURE 3. ECONOMICS & ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS 8. LITHOLOGY 4.DECIDING FACTORS OF MUD ENGG. POLICY 1. AVAILABILITY OF MUD CHEMICALS AT SPECIFIC TIME & PLACE .
MUD ENGG. POLICY • High Viscous Gel : for Top hole section • Non Dispersed mud / Gel Polymer : for Intermediate sections • KCl-PHPA-Polyol system : for BCS & KOPILI • Clay free / Barytes free – NDDF : for pay Zones .
MUD POLICY FOR THREE CASING WELL Girujan Nam Sang & AlluUpper Sand vium Clay • HVG for drilling 17 ½” hole • Non Dispersed / Gel-Polymer for 12 ¼” hole TS-1 TS-2 TS-3 TS-4 TS-5 TS-6 BCS Tipam •NDDF for drilling 8 ½” inclined section covering pay zone .
MUD POLICY FOR FOUR CASING WELL Girujan Nam Sang & AlluUpper Sand vium Clay • HVG for 26” hole • Non dispersed mud/ Gel-CMC for 17 ½” hole • Gel-Polymer/ KCl-PHPA for 12 ¼” Girujan & Tipam • KCl-PHPA-Polyol for BCS & BMS in 8 ½” final phase KOPILI BMS BCS Tipam .
MUD POLICY FOR FIVE CASING WELL Girujan Nam Sang & AlluUpper Sand vium Clay • HVG for 26” hole • Non dispersed mud for 17 ½” hole • Gel-Polymer/ KCl-PHPA for 12 ¼” Girujan & Tipam • KCl-PHPA-Polyol for BCS in 8 ½” phase •NDDF in 6” phase for pay zone KOPILI BMS BCS Tipam .
Usage & MSDS .MUD CHEMICALS Product.
. dielectric constant. WATER • Most important single substance involved in drilling fluid technology.highest surface tension. • In some locations quality of water also decides mud composition or water must be treated to counteract some dissolved substances. • Reaction between water and clay surfaces and the effect of electrolytes dissolved in water on the claywater interaction are primarily responsible for drilling mud properties. acids & bases occurs in water.1. heat of fusion. heat of vaporization & the superior ability to dissolve a variety of substances. • Dissociation of salts. • Unusual properties of water in comparison with other liquids . It is major component (by volume) in mud.
5%) . to reduce foaming action • Insoluble in water • Partially Soluble in Diesel & hence treated by making solution in diesel (2.2. ALUMINIUM STEARATE • White powder • Used as de-foamer i.e.
Degradation of natural organic additives in polymer mud.3. • Dose: 0. • Care should be taken while handling it. BACTERICIDE • To control Bio. • Avoid contact with skin. • Chemically it is an aldehyde or amine & acts as bacteria killer. • Volatile & fumes are irritating. .1% (1000ppm).
4.gr.-2. • Suspension is prepared in fresh water as its hydration does not occur in salty water . • To promote hole stability in loose formations • To avoid or overcome loss of circulation. • To reduce water seepage or filtration in to permeable formation • To increase hole cleaning capacity • To form thin filter cake of low permeability. • Dose: (A) 3 to 7% depending up in mud system • (B) 7 to 10% to stabilize caving formation. • (C) 8 to 11% for loss of circulation. • In terms of performance also classified as high yield & low yield bentonite. • It is basic requirement of drilling fluid/mud (other than NDDF). • Classified as sodium bentonite or calcium bentonite depending on the dominant exchangeable cation.55.45-2. BENTONITE • Minimum 85% montmorillonite): Sp. Occur as natural deposits.
S.4.2 4.S.5.S. present some times as impurity causes contamination in fresh water muds. • Occurs naturally & is used to increase sp.gr.25 • virtually insoluble in water & does not react with other component of mud. caving & for pulling of dry pipe. or equivalent) sieve. gr. or equivalent) sieve). BARITE(BaSO4) • Grey powder(97% of material should pass through 200 mesh B. • Maximum sp.2 • Dose: As per requirement of weight . (90±5)% of material should pass through 300 mesh B.S.. of mud to control formation pressure. Calcium sulphate (Gypsum). gr. achievable with barite is 2. Sp.
gr. gr.2 are: • Hematite.-7.4.4-7.7 & is used to prepare only very heavy muds because of high cost. an Iron ore Fe2O3. . self sp. more than 2.7 • Galena (PbS with self sp.OTHER WEIGHING MATERIALS • Other weighing materials required to raise mud sp.gr.
6.. gr. • Do not get into contact with this on skin. • Solution should be added slowly in the mud to avoid sudden high pH in mud which will result in decomposition of polymers & unwanted sudden rise of viscosity in bentonite mud. clothes. Dose: 0. • Handle with Chemical goggles & chemical impervious gloves. . If comes in contact.13) • Should be added slowly to make water solution as making of its solution is exothermic reaction (heat is evolved). CAUSTIC SODA (NaOH) • Used to increase pH of mud (Sp. eyes or cloth.15% • Avoid contact with skin.2. leather etc as It is corrosive in nature & hazardous for health. immediately wash with plenty of water for 15 minutes.
eyes or cloth. • Do not get into contact with this on skin. .0.2% for normal mud treatment & 0. If comes in contact. CAUSTIC POTASH (KOH) • Used to increase pH of potassium treated muds & to solubilize lignite (Sp gr. leather etc. • Avoid contact with skin. • Solution should be added slowly in the mud to avoid sudden high pH in mud which will result in decomposition of polymers & unwanted sudden rise of viscosity in bentonite mud.8% to solubilize lignite).2. It is corrosive in nature & hazardous for health.04) • Doses: 0. Handle with Chemical goggles & chemical impervious gloves. .7.1 . clothes. • Should added slowly to make water solution as making of its solution is exothermic reaction (heat is evolved). immediately wash with plenty of water for 15 minutes.
75-1% . Its effectiveness is decreases as salt concentration in mud increases. odorless. Its thermal degradation starts as temp. Filtration is sharply reduced by low (0. CMC is coprecipitated along with calcium & magnesium by raising pH. Its suspensions are shear thinning. The viscosity at 300° F (150°C) is about one-tenth that at 80°F (27°C).75-1. non toxic powder & does not ferment under normal conditions of use. It is of 2 types: 1) CMC-LVG. Like starch.0%) concentrations of CMC. colourless. • Calcium containing muds are thinned by small addition of CMC. Like other polymers AV decreases with rise in temperature. have high apparent viscosity (AV) at low shear rate.8. 2) CMC-HVG • It is an anionic polymer & is adsorbed on clays. CMC (Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose) • The most widely used organic polymers are the semi-synthetic gums produced by chemical modification of cellulose. approaches 300° F(1500C). Used to increase viscosity & reduce filtration loss. Of all the cellulose derivatives CMC was first to be used in mud. • Water-dispersible. • Dose: 0. Hence it is preferred to starch other than high-pH & salt saturated muds.
(Used for inhibition i. gr.) • Maximum sp.9. of brine.e. to prevent swelling of clay in producing zone thus maintaining porosity & permeability. COMMON SALT • Used to prepare brine during activation of well.20 • Dose: 3% minimum for inhibition .1.
100ppm . CORROSION INHIBITOR • To control corrosion of equipments (especially by KCl mud & brines) • Dose: (a) Win Corr.10. Inhibitor.
35 • Min.11.6-2. gr. CALCIUM CARBONATE (MCC) • MCC is very fine powder & practically insoluble in water (Sp. Dose for wall cake formation : 5% . achievable with Calcium Carbonate = 1. : 2.8) • Used as bridging agent & weighting material in NDDF because the filter cake formed by it on productive formation can be removed easily. Maximum sp. gr.
8% .12.0.1-0. • Dose. DRILLING DETERGENT • To clean bit/stabillisers/tool joints during drilling of clay and increase ROP.
• Film strength: 20000-25000psi in fresh water mud & up to 20000 psi in salt water muds.13.6% . It makes a film of very high film strength between formation & string surface thus reduces friction. E P LUBE • As lubricant at deeper depths. • Dose: 0.4 to 0. • Basically vegetable oil based lubricant.
high temperature stability( up to 260°C) • Deflocculant. LIGNITE (Leonardite) • It is mild dispersant • Acts as thinner & F/L control agent.5% (Solution with caustic soda / caustic potash(1:5) has to be prepared first .reduces attraction between clay particles • Dose.14.
gr. • Basically it is impure form of Calcium carbonate.-2. sp. can be achieved-1.( sp. gr.35 • Dose: As per requirement of weight .15. LIME STONE • Used as weighing material .65) • Max.
It creates a film between two surfaces (i. between formation & string).e.6% .16.4 to 0. • Dose: 0. LINSEED OIL • It is vegetable oil & used as lubricant.
• Dose: up to 5%/depending up on severity) .17. MICA • Loss circulation material. • It is in form of flakes which plug the large gapes in the formation in case of mud loss.
Stability-120°C • Dose: 0.gr. pH of 1% solution is 5-8. -1. Stability-120°C • (b) PAC (RG): Viscosifier & Filtration control. Available in two forms: • (a) PAC (LVG): Viscosifier & Filtration control. Temp.5-1.5-1% . Temp. PAC (Poly anionic cellulose) • The limitation of CMC in salt solution led to development of “polyanionic cellulosic polymer of high molecular weight”-PAC (Sp.6) • Thickens salt solutions & is an environmentally acceptable polymer electrolyte • Has shale inhibition qualities. ( Its polymer chains are longer than that of PAC(LVG).18.
• It is long chain polymer. • It is of two types having temperature stability of 110°C & 140°C.2 to 0. PHPA • Used for shale stabilization & inhibition by encapsulation of cutting in mud as well as forming a layer on the wall of open hole.5% . • Dose: 0.19.
• Thickens filtrate & act as lubricant at all temperatures. • Dose: 3-5% .20. • Plugs formation pores & prevents formation invasion (by cloud formation) & thus imparts borehole stability. POLYOL (Poly glycol) • Used for shale stabilization & lubrication. • Clouding at a temperature above 78°C.
• Dose for brine (minimum for inhibition)1% . • Replaces Na+ in bentonite (sodium montmorillonite) with K+ thus preventing swelling of clays (in pay zones) • Dose for mud – 3 to 8 % or as required. POTASSIUM CHLORIDE • Used for shale stabilization & Brine preparation.21.
• Stable at temperature up to 160° C • Dose: 1-2% . RESINATED LIGNITE • It is a dispersant & used for filtration control & temperature stabilization of rheology.22.
having a softening point of over 500 deg F (260 deg C).5 to 3%. . • Temperature stable. • Dose – 1. & stabilizes emulsions of oil in water. • Reduces torque & drill pipe drag. SULPHONATED ASPHALT • Shale stabilizer ( plugs micro fractures) • Used in water based muds for hole stabilization.23. • Readily dispersible in water. • Adsorbed on shale & its beneficial effects are attributed to plugging of microfractures in the shale.
24. STARCH (PGS)
• Viscosifier & Filtration control agent. The first organic polymer used in mud. (Dose- 3%) • Most economical substance for reducing filtration of strongly-alkaline & salt saturated muds for shallow drilling. 0.1% dose of biocide is required to reduce fermentation (bio degradation) of starch • The ambient temperature affects the microbial decomposition rate; if ambience is cold or very hot, the rate is slow. • Starch is degraded by heat & by agitation. With continued circulation in a hole at temperature of 200° F (93°C) and above, starch breaks down rapidly. The resulting product continues to affect viscosity but loses the sealing action of starch in filter cake. Consequently filtration rate & cake thickness are markedly greater under static bottom hole conditions than those indicated by tests at surface temperature. Dose- 0.6 to 3.0%
25. SODA ASH (Sodium Carbonate)
• Used for removal of calcium from muds & make up waters (Sp. gr.- 2.53) • Used to increase pH in mud (especially in polymer muds). • It is skin & eye irritant. • If comes in contact wash with plenty of water. • Doses-0.15-0.2%
26. SPOTTING FLUID
• For freeing Stuck pipe by reducing interfacial tension between string & filter cake and eventually cracking the cake. • Dose: 2.5 - 3% in diesel • Should be allowed to soak for minimum 4-6hrs.
27. XC POLYMER (Xanthan gum)
• Viscosifying Polymer in water & salt solutions • Water-soluble polysaccharide produced by bacterial action (genus Xanthomonas) on carbohydrates. • Displays exceptional shear-thinning properties. • Cross-linking with chromic ion significantly increases viscosity. • Doses: (a) NDDF - 0.5-0.8% (b) KCl-PHPA – 0.15 to 0.2%
Fax ----OPERATING ASSET/LOCATION ---------------------------------------------Contact No. ----------------------------MANUFACTURER /SUPPLIER -----------------------------------------Emergency Tel.13 .---------------- 1.IDT . PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION Trade Name : Caustic Soda (All Grades) Chemical Name: Sodium Hydroxide 2. Chemistry Division ONGC Ltd. PHYSICAL DATA Boiling Point: 25300F Melting point: NA Density: Bulk 133 lb/ft3 Sp. Dehradun Telephone no. : 2.Material Safety Data Sheet (Caustic Soda) Prepared by:.----. Gr. No.
4.0 Appearance: White solid pH: 0. & metals Stability: Unstable under extreme heat Hazardous Polymerization: Will not occur Hazardous Decomposition: Hydrogen gas may form with some metals. HAZARDOUS INGREDIENTS: Ingredient Sodium Hydroxide Material code % 85-90 Hazard Corrosive Material . Acid reactions generate heat. Moisture can ganerate sufficient heat to ignite combustible.01Moles/L has pH 3. acids. REACTIVITY Incompatibility: Keep away from water.Material Safety Data Sheet (Caustic Soda) ------Odour : No distinct odor pallets Solubility in water : Appreciable 12.
HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION Exposure and Effects: Skin: Causes severe pain. burns & possible perforation Eyes: Eye contact may cause vascular tissue destruction & corneal scarring Inhalation : May cause breathing difficulty & dizziness Ingestion: May cause vomiting. dry or chemical foam 7.Material Safety Data Sheet (Caustic Soda) ------5. diarrhea & collapse . FIRE AND EXPLOSION DATA Flash Point: NA Flammable Limits: LEL: NA UEL : NA Unusual Fire/Explosion Hazardous: ----------------------------Extinguishing media : Water. edema. Carbon dioxide. HMIS/NFPA HAZARD IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM 0 = LEAST Health = 3 1 = SLIGHT 2 = MODERATE 3 = HIGH Fire = 0 4 = EXTREME Reactivity = 1 6.
Always wear PPE & wash after handling. severe eye. corrosive. .Material Safety Data Sheet (Caustic Soda) ------8. on skin or on clothing . Avoid breathing dust. skin & mucous membrane irritant. HANDLING AND USE PRECAUTIONS: Handling & Storage Precautions: DANGER!! Toxic. Emergency and First Aid Procedures: Skin: Flush skin profusely -------------------------------------------------------------------Eyes: Flush immediately with clean running water --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Inhalation : Remove to fresh air --------------------------------------------Ingestion : Dilute the alkali by giving water or milk to drink immediately & allow vomiting to occur ---------------------------------------------- 9. Do not get in eyes.
resistant safety goggles Gloves: Wear butyl. 11. 10 HYGINE CONTROL MEASURES Ventilation Requirement: Provide local exhaust Eye Protection: Wear splash–proof or dust. Contain the spill if possible.Material Safety Data Sheet (Caustic Soda) ------Waste Disposal Methods: Waste product is hazardous & corrosive. Steps to be taken if material is released or spilled: Isolate spill area. Comply with local or SPCB regulations. SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS. Small quantities may be neutralized for non hazardous disposal. Dike large spills to prevent discharge. IF ANY . Respirator : Particle dust mask.rubber or neoprene gauntlets to prevent contact wear neoprene or rubber boots. Other Protective Clothing or equipments: Wear long protective clothing Emergency eye wash & drenching shower stations nearby product use. Keep water away.
• • • • • • • CHEMICALS HANDLING EQUIPMENTS MUD TESTING LABORATORY MANPOWER ENVIRONMENT SAFETY LOGISTICS .ECONOMICS OF MUD ENGG.
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