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Table of Contents:
How it started?………………...…………………………………………………..…....3
The wireless networks components...………………………………………….…......
Wireless Network Technolo!"# $%er%iew and Applications ………………..…..….
T"pes o& Wireless Networks………………………………...………………………....'
(omparin! Wireless )AN with Wireless WAN…………….………………………..*
I--- standard ./0.**………………………………………………………………...*,
Architecture o& I--- ./0.** standard…………………………………………....…*.
The independent 1++ as an ad hoc network…………………………………...….*.
The I--- ./0.** subsets…………………………………………………...………..*'
I--- standard ./0.*………………………………………………………………...0/
I--- standard ./0.*2………………………………………………………………...0*
Wireless 3esh Network……………………………………………………….………03
Wireless Networks +o&tware………………………………………………………….02
Wireless Networks +ecurit"…………………………………………………………..0'
+ocietal Implications o& Wireless (onnecti%it"………………………………..……30
The 4olitics o& Wireless Networkin!…………………………………………………33
(onclusion .………………………………………………………………..…………. 3
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Undoubtedly, Wireless networks are changing the way people connect to each other and that
very fast. This kind of networks has become popular since the first days of introduction and use. I
believe that this was our primary reason, why we as a team have chosen this topic as our
Research Project. Through him RP!, we think to cover some important details and necessary
things which have to know everyone who thinks to use this kind of network.
The Project includes an introduction part and overview" skip through general types of wireless
networks and their applications to wireless standards, to later on continue with wireless software
and also with the wireless security. #ur idea was to cover also the impact of this new technology
in the modern world and changes made. With the paper, comes everything which fulfils normal
Research Project standards. We suppose that time spent on reading it, wont be a wasted time.
An" su&&icientl" ad%anced technolo!" is
indistin!uishable &rom ma!ic.
$rthur %. %lark
I& "ou want to make a call &rom "our mobile7 i& "ou want to check "our email &rom "our 48A7 i&
"ou want to recei%e a messa!e in "our pa!er7 i& "ou want to make data portable and i& "ou don9t
want to ha%e cable problems than all "ou need is WIR-)-++ N-TW$R:.
How it started?
Wireless Network started as a research project o& the ;ni%ersit" o& Hawaii. It has been
surprisin!l" around &or a little o%er 3/ "ears.
In Hawaii Islands7 people there needed a wireless network to connect uni%ersities in 6 Islands.
The result o& the researchers was Alohanet which was predecessor o& nowada"s W)AN. -%en
that Alohanet it was a mess o& networks it still reached the !oal and achie%ed data transmission
*<03bps which was %er" impressi%e &or that time.
$%er the last couple o& "ears Wireless Network has be!un to see %arious incremental
enhancements and adaptations to the protocol as it !rows to meet industr"9s needs
Wireless technolo!ies are increasin!l" becomin! popular in our e%er"da" li%es. 5o%ernment
a!encies7 public places7 businesses are usin! it more and more in their en%ironment.
8e%ices commonl" used &or wireless networkin! include portable computers7 desktop
computers7 hand<held computers7 personal di!ital assistants =48As>7 cellular phones7 pen<based
computers7 and pa!ers.
?ou ma" also ask wh" wireless instead o& wired networks? 1ecause in the simplest sense
wired networks are &or communication between &i@ed locations and wireless is &or communication
between de%ices7 so this means that we are not an"more dependable on the location.
Also the air is &ree so wh" don9t we use it…
+o7 as we said the basic idea behind the wireless network is network connections without
)ess wirin! means !reater &le@ibilit"7 portabilit"7 increased e&&icienc"7 and reduced wirin!
costs. Wireless technolo!ies co%er a broad ran!e o& di&&erin! capabilities oriented toward di&&erent
uses and needs. The" ran!e &rom !lobal %oice and data networks7 which allow users to establish
wireless connections across lon! distances7 to in&rared li!ht and radio &reAuenc" technolo!ies
that are optimiBed &or short<ran!e wireless connections.
Introduction to 802.11 Wireless Networks standard; CyberScience laboratory; May 2003
3 | P a g e
(omponents o& Wireless Networks =as we can see &rom the con&i!uration in the &i!ure *
all directl" replacin! the common wired network components one per one where wireless network
card replaces the wired network cardC radio wa%es replaces -thernet cablin!7 plu!s and jacks and
a wireless network access point unit replaces the -thernet hub.
Fig 1. Wired network components replaced b wireless network component
This &i!ure contains the simplest network con&i!uration and it doesn9t show the network
addressin! and con&i!uration details<I4 addresses7 !atewa"s7 8N+ etc.
Aspinwall,Jim Installing, troubleshooting and repairing wireless networks USA 2003Mc!raw"#ill
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T!e wireless networks components
It is consisted o& two t"pes o& eAuipment#
< Wireless station =it can be laptop7 notebook personal computer7 desktop 4(7 48A7 barcode
< $ccess point =it &unctions as a base station &or wireless network7 a!!re!atin! multiple
wireless stations onto wired network.
Theoretical ran!es &or wireless )AN ./0.** are &rom 0' meters =&or ** 3bps> in a closed
o&&ice area to 6. meters =&or * 3bps> in an open area.
Howe%er7 throu!h empirical anal"sis7 the t"pical ran!e &or connecti%it" o& ./0.** eAuipment is
appro@imatel" / meters =about *23 &t.> indoors. A ran!e o& 6// meters7 nearl" D mile7 makes
W)AN the ideal technolo!" &or man" campus applications. It is important to reco!niBe that special
hi!h<!ain antennas can increase the ran!e to se%eral miles.
Figure ". Tpical #ange of $%".11 W&A'
(se of Wireless 'etworks in real)life
Wireless networks can be used an"where. Its %er" use&ul in uni%ersit" campuses where
students can sit under the tree and read mail or search librar" &or books7 it is o& !reat %alue to
&leets o& trucks7 ta@is7 deli%er" %ehicles7 and repairpersons &or keepin! in contact with home7 are
also important to the militar"7 wireless parkin! meters7 important use also is &or &ood7 drink7 and
other %endin! machines …
$nce "ou be!in usin! wireless data7 "ouEll wonder how "ou e%er li%ed without it.
Wireless 'etwork Tec!nolog: *+er+iew and Applications
It is ob%ious that Wireless Networks are makin! a bi! mess &or the other and older kind o&
networkin! technolo!ies. Researches tr" to make that kind o& connection e%en more secure7
which is another thin! that does wireless technolo!" to proli&erate as a &ire.
+o7 makin! a wireless networks &rom a side o& the bi!!est cities in the world it is not
%arygiannis,&om ; 'wens()es CWireless Network Security 802.11, Bluetooth and andheld !e"ices
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FA &ew 'ork Times article =+cheisel7 0//> recentl" reported that more than */ million homes
in the ;nited +tates emplo" a wireless router to access the Internet7 up &rom %irtuall" none in the
)e!islati%e battles ra!e o%er the ri!ht o& municipalities to pro%ide &ree or ine@pensi%e wireless
Internet access to citiBens. The technolo!" to support wireless networkin! continues to e%ol%e at
a rapid pace7 promisin! that &aster7 cheaper7 more per%asi%e wireless computin! solutions will be
a%ailable to businesses and consumers who will reAuire alwa"s<on7 seamless7 wireless
computin! e@periences. Wireless networks clearl" o&&er an arra" o& ad%anta!es o%er traditional
wired networkin! solutions to users in all t"pes o& networks and industries. These ad%anta!es
include mobilit"7 ease o& installation7 reduced cost o& ownership and scalabilit"7 which in turn lead
to increased producti%it" and interpersonal communication.G
In this project will be discussed in deeper wa" about the histor"7 t"pes o& wireless networks7
their applications7 the standards used toda" &or this kind o& network. We won9t &or!et also to
mention somethin! about the securit" aspect7 which is one o& the unpleasant sides &or the
wireless technolo!". This paper will also outline an interestin! part which deals with installin!7
troubleshootin! and possible repairin! o& the network.
FW4AN technolo!ies enable users to establish ad hoc7 wireless communications &or de%ices
=such as 48As7 cellular phones7 or laptops> that are used within a personal operatin! space
=4$+>. A 4$+ is the space surroundin! a person7 up to a distance o& */ meters. (urrentl"7 the
two ke" W4AN technolo!ies are 1luetooth and in&rared li!ht. 1luetooth is a cable replacement
technolo!" that uses radio wa%es to transmit data to a distance o& up to 3/ &eet. 1luetooth data
can be trans&erred throu!h walls7 pockets7 and brie&cases. Technolo!" de%elopment &or 1luetooth
is dri%en b" the 1luetooth +pecial Interest 5roup =+I5>7 which published the 1luetooth %ersion *./
speci&ication in *'''. Alternati%el"7 to connect de%ices at a %er" close ran!e =* meter or less>7
users can create in&rared links.
To standardiBe the de%elopment o& W4AN technolo!ies7 I--- has established the ./0.*
workin! !roup &or W4ANs. This workin! !roup is de%elopin! a W4AN standard7 based on the
1luetooth %ersion *./ speci&ication. :e" !oals &or this dra&t standard are low comple@it"7 low
power consumption7 interoperabilit"7 and coe@istence with ./0.** networks.G
At this point in time7 wireless connecti%it" solutions can be !rouped into three main cate!ories.
All three use Radio HreAuenc" =RH> technolo!" to transmit data throu!h the air. The &irst
cate!or"7 wireless local area networkin! =W)AN>7 transmits data between a wired network and a
mobile user or users =T"pes7 0//>. Its ori!ins lie in the encr"pted radio si!nals sent b" allied
operati%es across enem" lines durin! World War II. Re&erred to as Fspread spectrum technolo!"7G
the wartime messa!es pa%ed the wa" &or the &irst computational wireless network7 which was
created in *',* at the ;ni%ersit" o& Hawaii. The project7 called A)$HN-T7 had se%en computers
set up on &our islands communicatin! with one central computer on $ahu7 none o& them usin!
phone lines =1autts7 0//>. In a modern<da" e@ample o& W)AN technolo!"7 businesses
commonl" issue network<connected laptops with wireless cards to their emplo"ees to replace
desktop computers. This allows their emplo"ees to be producti%e an"where within the bounds o&
the corporate network. It also encoura!es collaboration b" !i%in! them the abilit" to &orm ad hoc
work !roups. In certain situations7 it can pro%ide emplo"ees with incenti%es to use their computers
at home or in co&&ee shops7 where the" ma" do work outside o& traditional work hours. In this
case7 because the emplo"ees9 work time seeps into their leisure time7 a percei%ed bene&it &or the
#( ,o/ler, A 0orl/ 0it*o+t 0ires &*e 1+t+re o1 0ireless ,etwor2ing, %nowle/ge Management Systems,
3r( 3on &+rnb+ll, May 3, 200.
5 | P a g e
emplo"ee =the use o& a computer with wireless capabilities> becomes a %er" real bene&it &or the
Wireless )ANs operate usin! a transcei%er de%ice to send and recei%e data. This de%ice7 also
re&erred to as an Faccess point7G connects the computers on the wireless network to a wired
network. The computers are eAuipped with wireless networkin! de%ices7 which come standard on
man" laptop and handheld computers now. -ach access point ensures connection to the network
within a radius o& an"where &rom *// to se%eral hundred &eet. Access points are strate!icall"
placed across a network area so that connection areas o%erlap and users can tra%el between
them without interruption o& ser%ice7 a process called Froamin!.G =4ro@im7 *''.> +e%eral di&&erent
protocols e@ist &or wireless local area networkin!C all appro%ed b" the Institute o& -lectrical and
-lectronics -n!ineers =I--->. To!ether7 )AN protocols ha%e been assi!ned the numerical
!roupin! ./0. The" are then broken down into &urther !roupin!s. ./0.**b =Wireless Hidelit" <
commonl" re&erred to as FWiHiG> is the standard used b" most W)ANs toda". A new standard
./0.*2 =Wi3a@> is currentl" bein! de%eloped to pro%ide connecti%it" with a 3/<mile radius around
each access point.G
W3AN technolo!ies enable users to establish wireless connections between multiple
locations within a metropolitan area =&or e@ample7 between multiple o&&ice buildin!s in a cit" or on
a uni%ersit" campus>7 without the hi!h cost o& la"in! &iber or copper cablin! and leasin! lines. In
addition7 W3ANs can ser%e as backups &or wired networks7 should the primar" leased lines &or
wired networks become una%ailable. W3ANs use either radio wa%es or in&rared li!ht to transmit
data. 1roadband wireless access networks7 which pro%ide users with hi!h<speed access to the
Internet7 are in increasin! demand. Althou!h di&&erent technolo!ies7 such as the multichannel
multipoint distribution ser%ice =338+> and the local multipoint distribution ser%ices =)38+>7 are
bein! used7 the I--- ./0.*2 workin! !roup &or broadband wireless access standards is still
de%elopin! speci&ications to standardiBe de%elopment o& these technolo!ies.
WWAN technolo!ies enable users to establish wireless connections o%er remote public or
pri%ate networks. These connections can be maintained o%er lar!e !eo!raphical areas7 such as
cities or countries7 throu!h the use o& multiple antenna sites or satellite s"stems maintained b"
wireless ser%ice pro%iders. (urrent WWAN technolo!ies are known as second<!eneration =05>
s"stems. :e" 05 s"stems include 5lobal +"stem &or 3obile (ommunications =5+3>7 (ellular
8i!ital 4acket 8ata =(848>7 and (ode 8i%ision 3ultiple Access =(83A>. -&&orts are under wa"
to transition &rom 05 networks7 some o& which ha%e limited roamin! capabilities and are
incompatible with each other7 to third<!eneration =35> technolo!ies that would &ollow a !lobal
standard and pro%ide worldwide roamin! capabilities. The IT; is acti%el" promotin! the
de%elopment o& a !lobal standard &or 35.
1elow is a table indicatin! the ran!e that wireless data networks can handle#
/<*/ 4ersonal Area Network
/<*// )ocal Area Network
/<*//// Wide Area Network
Table 1. Wireless range
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Wireless -es! 'etwork
FIn a mesh network7 the wireless connection e@tends not onl" to client computers7 such as
wireless laptops7 but between other network nodes. This is in contrast with a t"pical wireless local
area network7 where the client computers connect wirelessl" to an access point but that de%ice is
in turn plu!!ed into the wired corporate network. The connection between the local area network
and a lar!er corporate network or the Internet is known as the Ibackhaul.IF
Connecti+it and .andwidt!
In *'.7 the H(( made se!ments o& the bandwidth spectrum a%ailable &or use b" certain
telecommunications de%ices without a license. The unre!ulated spectrum was known as the I+3
=Industrial7 +cienti&ic and 3edical> bands7 and the H(( recentl" added to the unre!ulated a
spectrum 3// 3HB o& additional bandwidth. This dedicated &ree bandwidth ensures that an"one
adherin! to pre<set standards o& power and technolo!ies applied can reap the bene&its o& wireless
connecti%it" without ha%in! to obtain a license or pa" &ees.
Future W&A' Applications
Wireless connecti%it" has to a !reat e@tent chan!ed the wa" we li%e7 and it promises to do so
increasin!l". (urrentl"7 W)ANs allow emplo"ees in or!aniBations to carr" out their duties and
remain constantl" connected to a network7 where the" can retrie%e7 and e@chan!e and store
in&ormation. 8octors and nurses in hospitals &reAuentl" carr" handheld de%ices connected to the
hospital9s W)AN to record and download %ital patient in&ormation to and &rom the network.
=4ro@im7 *''.> +tudents on colle!e campuses tote laptop computers &rom class to class7
remainin! constantl" connected to the Internet7 and supplementin! their classroom educations.
W)ANs are also increasin!l" emplo"ed to establish %oice connections between users with Joice<
o%er Internet 4rotocol =JoI4>7 which transmits %oice data across the Internet in data packets. The
appeal o& JoI4 is that since most pro%iders char!e a &lat monthl" rate7 calls can be connected
without incurrin! lon!<distance &ees. This can pro%ide a %er" cost<e&&ecti%e solution to users who
routinel" make international calls. Joice<o%er WiHi =JoWiHi> combines JoI4 with wireless
networkin! technolo!". ;sin! a 48A or a laptop computer eAuipped with a wireless card and
Internet telephon" so&tware7 a user can make a telephone call o%er a wireless network. $ne
ad%anta!e o& this technolo!" o%er traditional cellular phone technolo!" is impro%ed connection
Aualit" indoors or under!round. +ome cellular phone companies ha%e de%eloped h"brid
telephones that operate usin! JoWiHi most o& the time but can switch to a re!ular cellular
connection i& the user happens to mo%e out o& the )AN area. =1eal7 0//>
Future W,A' Applications
The possibilities o& W4AN e@tend be"ond the abilit" to s"nc one9s 4alm 4ilot to a desktop
without wires. (urrentl"7 the 1luetooth protocol is bein! applied in the de%elopment o& per%asi%e
computin! solutions &or the home. In the %er" near &uture7 the majorit" o& people ma" use a
1luetooth<enabled wireless connection and a personal controller to access or remotel" control
man" Fintelli!entG de%ices7 such as handheld computers7 mobile telephones7 cars7 kitchen
appliances7 home li!htin! s"stems7 etc.7 which can detect users9 chan!in! locations and respond
to their needs accordin!l" =W4AN7 0//>
8e%elopers are workin! on a !eneration o& wearable de%ices that will per&orm &unctions such
as allowin! the wearer to input data without usin! a ke"board or mouse7 or monitorin! the
wearer9s %ital statistics. These applications7 to!ether with home and o&&ice per%asi%e computin!7
could sa%e time and be o& tremendous help to people with illnesses or disabilities.
8 | P a g e
The de%elopin! !enerations o& wireless technolo!" we belie%e that will ha%e soon access to
an unprecedented breadth o& wireless standards. Those should increase the ran!e7 speed7 and
Aualit" o& wireless connecti%it". A speci&ic topic deals about those standards in !eneral7 and the
most known o& them.
To mana!e the hardware o& the new wireless technolo!"7 we need some tools that would
indirect those tools to us. As the number and t"pe o& wireless de%ices increase to networks7 the
need &or their mana!ement and control is a priorit". This part deals with this middleware7 as an
important part o& usin! the wireless network.
Wireless securit" is a discussable topic7 which should be one o& the primar" concerns o& the
e%er" networks administration. 3echanisms are a lot7 but i& the" are pla"in! the real role and
pro%idin! the needed securit" protection7 is a topic that should be e@plained later on.
We li%e in e@citin! times7 when hosts o& emer!in! wireless technolo!ies promise radical
chan!e in our modes o& perception7 interaction7 democratic participation7 and time and
in&ormation mana!ement. As new technolo!" is de%eloped7 we will witness e%en !reater chan!e7
which hope&ull" will bene&it societ"7 rather than harm it. In the meantime7 we ha%e an obli!ation to
approach that technolo!" with a certain de!ree o& criticalit".
Tpes of Wireless 'etworks
Till now we ha%e mentioned what our project will consist and we ha%e described their
essence. Now we are !oin! to e@plain thin!s more detailed.
In this project we will discus about wireless networks cate!ories#
*. +"stem interconnection =1luetooth>
0. Wireless 4ANs
3. Wireless )ANs
6. Wireless 3ANs
. Wireless WANs
+"stem interconnection is all about interconnectin! the components o& a computer usin!
$ personal area network P$&> is A 4AN is a subset o& a wireless )AN7 it is a computer
network used &or communication amon! computer de%ices includin! telephones and personal
di!ital assistants close to one person.
The reach o& a 4AN is t"picall" a &ew meters. 4ANs can be used &or communication amon!
the personal de%ices themsel%es7 or &or connectin! to a hi!her le%el network and the Internet.
Now that we e@plain what 4AN is we can continue with the Wireless 4AN which is tone o& the
objecti%e o& this research paper.
&anenba+m, An/rew S; #o$puter Networks
7 | P a g e
A wireless 4AN is a collection o& mobile de%ices that make up a FpiconetG =tin" network>7
t"picall" located in one room. The 4AN replaces the wires that would normall" connect one piece
o& eAuipment to another
+o7 Wireless 4AN can be made possible %ia Ir8A and 1luetooth.
(luetooth is a personal area network =4AN> standard and is the most common W4AN
It is a low power7 short ran!e7 two<wa" wireless communication network.
Its !oal is to connect components without wires. 1luetooth7 the new technolo!" was named
a&ter the */th (entur" 8anish :in! Harold 1luetooth.
It was desi!ned to allow low bandwidth wireless connections to become so simple to use that
the" seamlessl" inte!rate into our dail" li&e. The 1luetooth speci&ication is an open speci&ication
that is !o%erned b" the 1luetooth +pecial Interest 5roup =+I5>
. Intel, I(), Toshiba, &okia7 and
*ricsson &ormed the +I5 5R$;4 in *''..
It9s a !reat opportunit" i& we want to connect scanners7 di!ital cameras7 headsets7 mobile
phones etc b" onl" bein! brou!ht within the ran!e7 no dri%er installation7 just turn them on and
1luetooth has short ran!e =*/ m>7 low power consumption7 license<&ree 0.6 5HB I+37 %oice
and data transmission7 appro@. * 3bitKs !ross data rate
Figure 0. 12amples of .luetoot! and t!eir connection
Another t"pe o& wireless networks is Wireless )etropolitan $rea &etwork + W)$&.
It was based on the ./0.*2a standard and appeared in Lune 0//6 and it pro%ides a
communications path between a subscriber site and a core network such as the public telephone
network and the Internet.
The !oal o& W3ANs is to pro%ide hi!h<speed wireless Internet access similar to wired access
technolo!ies such as cable modem7 di!ital subscriber line =8+)>7 -thernet7 and &iber optic. I---
was moti%ated b" the abilit" o& the wireless technolo!ies to co%er lar!e !eo!raphic areas without
the need to deplo" wires.
The Wireless 3AN standard has a ran!e up to 3/ miles with a data rate o& up to ,/ 3bits per
second7 capable o& pro%idin! 2/ businesses with Internet connections at T* speeds o& *.
3e!abits or up to 6// homes at 8+) rates
.It is a sin!le<carrier =+(> modulation scheme
desi!ned to operate in the */<22 5HB spectrum. Howe%er7 the */<22 5HB spectrum is strictl"
Wireless 3AN can ser%e as the IbackhaulI or Internet connection &or Wi<Hi hotspots
participation in the wireless 3AN industr" is a major FwildcardG &actor7 %er" important &actor
White paper ;HP Broadband Wireless notebooks: integrated high-speed
10 | P a g e
because it has inte!rated Wi<Hi &unctionalit" in its (entrino mobile computin! chipset. Now Intel is
toutin! Wi3a@ as the metropolitan area %ersion o& Wi<Hi. The -uropean or!aniBation7 -T+I7 has
been workin! on a similar project7 re&erred to as Hiper3AN.
Wireless 3AN has interestin! ad%anta!es. It can deli%er real<time %oice<o%er<I4 and %ideo
ser%ices at %er" low costs7 in terms o& data<carr"in! capabilit"7 wireless 3AN &ar surpasses 35
wireless networks7 it allows deli%er" o& ser%ice in a hi!hl" &le@ible wa"7 e@tends7 replaces or backs
up e@istin! &iber in&rastructure within hours7 eliminates &iber trenchin! and leased line cost etc.
This table shows the comparison between W3AN7 W)AN and 1luetooth
4arameters $%".13a 4Wi-A56 $%".11 4W&A'6 $%".17 4.luetoot!6
HreAuenc" 1and# 0<**5HB 0.65HB Jaries
Ran!e M3* miles M*// meters M*/meters
8ata trans&er rate# ,/ 3bps ** 3bps < 3bps 0/:bps < 3bps
Number o& users# Thousands
Table 8. W-A'9 W&A' and .luetoot! comparison
Hi!ure 6 shows an e@ample o& a network topolo!" in which 434 and mesh topolo!ies are
used to co%er a lar!e metropolitan area.
Figure 8. 'etwork Topolog
0i"=i is a way to connect to t*e >nternet wirelessly " no p*one ?ac2 re@+ire/( 0i"=i *otspots are
locations w*ere yo+ can 1in/ a 0i"=i connection(
11 | P a g e
T!e use of W-A' in realit
W3AN is a %er" power&ul tool &or linkin! all hi!h schools in around / %illa!esC it lets teachers7
stu&& and students in touch between themsel%es7 &armers can communicate with a!ricultural
e@perts7 health care pro&essionals at %illa!es can consult specialist at the 3ain Hospital etc.
3ANs brin! people into a communit" and assist them with social7 educational and career
A ,ocal $rea &etwork or )AN is simpl" a wa" o& connectin! computers to!ether within a sin!le
or!aniBation7 and usuall" in a sin!le site =which ma" comprise man" buildin!s such as a colle!e
campus>. A )AN can be considered to be the same as an intranet7 althou!h the term intranet is
o&ten used to include the computers7 ser%ers and the so&tware s"stems attached to it as well
We ha%e wired )ANs and wireless )ANs.
The basic distinction between them is their construction where wired )ANs are connected
throu!h wires and wireless )ANs %ia radio links or in&rared li!ht.
In this part o& the project we will be concentrated in wireless ,$&s.
How it started?
W)AN technolo!" and the W)AN industr" date back to the mid<*'./s when the Hederal
(ommunications (ommission =H((> &irst made the RH spectrum a%ailable to industr". 8urin! the
*'./s and earl" *''/s7 !rowth was relati%el" slow. Toda"7 howe%er7 W)AN technolo!" is
e@periencin! tremendous !rowth. The ke" reason &or this !rowth is the increased bandwidth
made possible b" the I--- ./0.** standard
Wireless )AN is a t"pe o& local area network that uses hi!h &reAuenc" radio wa%es to
communicate between computers7 peripherals7 and networkin! de%ices.
These wireless de%ices needs wireless card which will send and recei%e si!nals. Nowada"s
laptops come with cards alread" installed.
A wireless )AN comprises a number o& Iaccess pointsI linked into the main campus network
backbone. An access point is a piece o& eAuipment which acts as a brid!e between the wireless
parts o& the )AN and the wired parts. The" are radio transmitters and recei%ers which
communicate with the computers in ran!e and with the )AN backbone.
T"picall" onl" one or two access points will be needed in a room =dependin! on the siBe o& the
room7 the e@pected number o& users and its construction
.It permits data rates up to 63bps &or
co%era!e indoor spots. An access point communicates with de%ices eAuipped with wireless
network adaptorsC it connects to a wired -thernet )AN %ia an RL<6 port. Access point de%ices
t"picall" ha%e co%era!e areas o& up to 3// &eet =appro@imatel" *// meters>. This co%era!e area
is called a cell or ran!e
Wireless )AN uses electroma!netic airwa%es to communicate in&ormation &rom one point to
another without rel"in! on an" ph"sical connection. -lectroma!netic airwa%es &or transmittin!
si!nals can be radio wa%es which simpl" per&orm the &unction o& deli%erin! ener!" to a remote
recei%er and in&rared wa%es which are cheaper to install and also some de%ices ha%e alread"
installed in&rared ports.
A wireless )AN can be used as an e@tension to or as an alternati%e &or a wired )AN7 a stand<
alone network7 or as a !roup access point to the Internet.
+o7 wireless )ANs will be used in conjunction with wired )ANs to ma@imiBe the bene&its.
Wireless de%ices can be simpl" a part o& the traditional wired )AN as we see in the &i!ure .
=ran2lin, &om Wireless %ocal &rea Network 2001
%arygiannis,&om ; 'wens()es CWireless Network Security 802.11, Bluetooth and andheld !e"ices
=ran2lin, &om Wireless %ocal &rea Network 2001
%arygiannis,&om ; 'wens()es CWireless Network Security 802.11, Bluetooth and andheld !e"ices
12 | P a g e
Figure 7. .asic wireless &A's
It is a &le@ible data communication s"stemC it transmits and recei%es data o%er the air7
minimiBin! the need &or wired connections. Also It is %er" important cause it combines data
connecti%it" with user mobilit".
This leads to a number o& bene&its which can be economic and educational. -conomic
bene&its in the aspect o& settin! wireless network in the buildin!s or places where is %er" di&&icult
to la" cables and where drillin! walls is %er" e@pensi%e7 makin! rooms &le@ible and e@tend
co%era!e to new areas etc.
Also educational bene&its &or students who are computin! with wireless connecti%it" this
means new methods into classrooms and new educational possibilities &or e@plorin!. Hurthermore
the" can be accessed &rom an"where7 so users with access to a )AN can share applications and
de%ices an"where in )AN.
W!o mostl needs wireless &A'?
Wireless mostl" needs those who cannot run wires throu!h the en%ironment or those who li%e
in places where wires cannot be set up7 companies that need common shared &acilities7 those
who will use temporar" o&&ices &or e@ample &or campai!n where is bad to in%ol%e mone" in )AN
in&rastructure and than to lea%e that en%ironment7 its ideal thin! &or tra%elers and commuters
which ha%e to be connected
$ne important issue &or Wireless )ANs is their cost. It will depend on the in&rastructure alread"
in that place7 the con&i!uration o& the campus includin! the buildin!s7 the buildin! materials that
the" are constructed &rom and o& course the co%era!e that the )AN is e@pected to pro%ide
+o &ar W)ANs ha%e been installed in uni%ersities7 airports7 and other major public places.
Their use is ine%itable. 8ecreasin! costs o& W)AN eAuipment has also brou!ht it to man" homes.
)ar!e &uture markets are estimated to be in health care7 corporate o&&ices and the downtown
area o& major cities.
Toda" wireless )ANs are becomin! more widel" reco!niBed as !eneral purpose connecti%it"
alternati%e &or a broad ran!e o& business customers.
=ran2lin, &om Wireless %ocal &rea Network 2001
13 | P a g e
+o7 we mentioned abo%e so man" impressin! thin!s about wireless )ANs. 1ut nothin! in this
world is per&ect7 and so is )AN. It also has a number o& disad%anta!es.
As disad%anta!es we can mention#
Wired )ANs are more secure than Wireless ones. As we now the si!nal produced " Wireless
)AN will pass throu!h walls which means that hackers does not e%en need to be inside the
premises to access )AN7 and be inside the &irewall. Also its easier to monitor the tra&&ic on the
network and so acAuire user names and passwords.
-tandards still evolving
+tandards are still rapidl" e%ol%in! and sometimes the" are not compatible with each other
because there are man" or!aniBations &rom man" countries which ha%e been de&inin! %arious
Network cards &or wireless Networks are more e@pensi%e than those &or wired
networks. Hor e@ample we can mention that the card &or -thernet start at N */ and wireless
cards start at around N 2/. -%en
that the price is !oin! down e%er"da" more it still the" cannot be as cheap as wired cards cause
the" are more comple@ ones.
Interference from other devices
Wireless )ANs &reAuencies are part o& unlicensed spectrum which is shared amon! man"
de%ices. These include cordless telephones7 !ara!e door openers7 microwa%e cookers and
1luetooth. Till now it doesn9t seems as !reat problem but as we see the number o& wireless
de%ices is increasin! and this ma" be a serious problem in the &uture.
Wireless W$& has been utiliBes since the mid *'./s and it is a communications network
utiliBin! de%ices such as telephone lines7 satellite dishes7 antennas7 and microwa%es to span a
lar!er !eo!raphic area than can be co%ered b" a local area network.
Wireless WANs are used to !i%e Internet connecti%it" o%er a much broader co%era!e area. It
allows users to ha%e access to the Internet7 e<mail and corporate applications and in&ormation
e%en while awa" &rom their o&&ices or home.
Wireless WANs use e@istin! cellular telephone networks7 so there is also the option o& makin!
%oice calls o%er a wireless WAN. 1oth cellular telephones and wireless WAN 4( (ards ha%e the
abilit" to make %oice calls as well as pass data tra&&ic on wireless WAN networks.
A WWAN di&&ers &rom a W)AN since it uses cellular network technolo!ies such as 54R+ K
(83A0/// K 5+3 K (848 K 3obite@ to trans&er data. These cellular technolo!ies are o&&ered
re!ionall"7 nationwide7 or e%en !loball" and are pro%ided b" a wireless ser%ice pro%ider such as#
ATOT Wireless7 (in!ular Wireless7 +print 4(+ or JeriBon &or a monthl" usa!e &ee
Althou!h wireless )ANs and wireless WANs ma" appear to be competin! technolo!ies7 the"
are &ar more use&ul as complementar" technolo!ies. ;sed to!ether7 a user would ha%e the best o&
both technolo!ies7 o&&erin! hi!h<speed wireless access in a campus area7 and access to all their
data and applications with hi!h<speed cellular access &rom an"where with wireless WAN network
WWAN toda" and tomorrow
*ttp44en(wi2ipe/ia(org4wi2i400A,4 Microso1t " 0ireless 0A, >nter1ace
1$ | P a g e
-mbedded Radio 3odules
N8I+ usin! custom $I8s
WWAN N8I+ Inter&ace
(ustom con&i!uration so&tware
(omplicated $$1 con&i!uration
No inte!ration with W)AN
8i&&icult to !et Windows lo!o
No test tools pro%ided
-@tensible Nati%e WWAN ;I
-as" $$1 con&i!uration
-nables W)AN<WWAN Roamin!
-as" to !et Windows lo!o
Test tool included with beta
Table ". WWA' toda and tomorrow
With wireless WAN7 customer satis&action is up and support costs are down. WWAN brou!ht
man" bene&its to man" companies and satis&action to the emplo"ers as we see &rom the
. The wireless W$& has dramatically improved the way we
service our customers. /P provides on0site
technical support faster than ever before 1 and at
less cost. .
5ice president0-ervice 6elivery
#perations $merica Technology -ervices
Comparing Wireless &A' wit! Wireless WA'
Now that we know the basic concepts &or Wireless )AN and Wireless WAN we can make a
comparison between them. A wireless wide area network =Wireless WAN>7 co%ers a much more
e@tensi%e area than wireless )ANs. (o%era!e is !enerall" o&&ered on a nationwide le%el with
wireless network in&rastructure pro%ided b" a wireless ser%ice carrier.
While wireless )ANs are used to allow network users to be mobile within a small &i@ed area7
wireless WANs are used to !i%e Internet connecti%it" o%er a much broader co%era!e area7 &or
mobile users such as business tra%elers or &ield ser%ice technicians.
We can compare them in these &ields#
./0.**b wireless ,$& standard trans&ers data at speeds o& up to ** 3bps7 with t"pical
rates o& between *P6 3bps7 decreasin! as more users share the same wireless
)AN connection. The ne@t %ersion7 ./0.**a7 is supposed to trans&er data at speeds o& up
to 6 3bps
< Wireless W$& speeds di&&er dependin! on the technolo!" used. 54R+ networks o&&er a
ma@imum user data rate o& o%er ** kbps i& all ei!ht timeslots in a cell are allocated &or
data transmission7 =one timeslot can pro%ide between ' and 0* kbps
0*ite paper ' Wireless %&Ns "s. Wireless W&Ns ; 2002 ,o-ember 18; Sierra 0ireless
0*ite paper ' Wireless %&Ns "s. Wireless W&Ns ; 2002 ,o-ember 18; Sierra 0ireless
1. | P a g e
"6 :ata securit
+ecurit" is one o& the most important &eatures when usin! a wireless network. +ecurit" is
one o& the bi!!est stren!ths &or cellular wireless networks =WWANs> and one o& the
bi!!est weaknesses in ./0.** networks =W)ANs>. +ecurit" can be increased on wireless
)ANs b" usin! shared ke" authentication. This shared ke" must be deli%ered throu!h a
secure method other than the ./0.** connection.
Hotspots are wireless )ANs a%ailable to the public in a location7 like an airport7 co&&ee
shop7 or cit" nei!hborhood. These =hotspots> enable users to access the network either
&ree o& char!e7 or &or a &ee paid to the network operator.
+ince wireless )ANs operate in the unlicensed &reAuenc" ran!e7 there is no ser%ice cost
&or usin! a pri%ate wireless )AN. There will be a monthl" Internet ser%ice pro%ider cost &or
accessin! the Internet throu!h "our wireless )AN access point
Hor cellular wireless WANs7 the wireless network is actin! as "our Internet ser%ice
pro%ider b" pro%idin! access to the Internet o%er their wireless network. The wireless
pro%ider there&ore char!es a monthl" subscription rate to their network7 similar to a
wireless phone subscription.
As a !reat /*&(TI*' is to W)AN and WWAN work to!ether.
;sed to!ether7 a user would ha%e the best o& both technolo!ies7 o&&erin! hi!h<speed wireless
access in a campus area7 and access to all their data and applications with hi!h<speed cellular
access &rom an"where with wireless WAN network co%era!e.
15 | P a g e
All standard that are de%eloped &or Wireless Network ha%e one author7 it is the I--- or
Institute o& -lectrical and -lectronics -n!ineers Inc. I--- is a non<pro&it7 technical pro&essional
association o& more than 32/7/// indi%idual members in appro@imatel" *, countries that is an
authorit" in technical areas such as computer en!ineerin! and telecommunications.
1elow in this chapter we will describe more details about W)AN I--- ./0.** +tandard
especiall" its architecture and subsets. Therea&ter we will talk about characteristics &or W4AN
I--- ./0.* and W3AN I--- ./0.*2.
I111 standard $%".11
I--- +tandards are documents that are de%eloped within the Technical (ommittees o& the
I--- +ocieties and the +tandards (oordinatin! (ommittees o& the I--- +tandards 1oard. The
standards de%eloped within I--- represent a consensus o& the broad e@pertise on the subject
within the Institute as well as those acti%ities outside o& I--- that ha%e e@pressed an interest in
participatin! in the de%elopment o& the standard.
The &i!ure below enables us to show the relationship between the I--- standard ./0.** =that
is part o& a &amil" o& standards &or local =W)AN> and metropolitan area networks =W3AN>> and
other members o& the &amil"#
Figure 3. I111 $%".114for local W&A'6 and W-A'
Wireless )AN standard de&ines the protocols and compatible interconnection o& data
communication tools b" means o& the air7 in&rared or radio in a )AN usin! the carrier sense
multiple access protocol with collision a%oidance =(+3AK(A> medium sharin! mechanism. 3A(
or the medium access control supports operation under control o& an access point as well as
between independent stations. 4ower mana!ement to reduce power consumption in mobile
stations7 and a point coordination &unction &or time bounded trans&er o& data7 %eri&ication7
association7 and re<association ser%ices and an optional encr"ptionKdecr"ption procedure are
includes b" the protocols.
The standard includes the de&inition o& the mana!ement in&ormation base =3I1> usin! Abstract
+"nta@ Notation * =A+N.*> and speci&ies the 3A( protocol in a &ormal wa"7 usin! the
+peci&ication and 8escription )an!ua!e =+8)>. 1oth A+N.* and +8) source code ha%e been
added on a &lopp" diskette.
16 | P a g e
The main purpose o& this standard is to pro%ide wireless connecti%it" to automatic machiner"7
eAuipment7 or stations that reAuire rapid deplo"ment7 which ma" be mana!eable or hand<held7 or
which ma" be mounted on mo%in! %ehicles within a local area =this is used in !ames>. This
standard also o&&ers re!ulator" bodies a resource o& standardiBin! access to one or more
&reAuenc" bands &or the purpose o& local area communication.
Arc!itecture of I111 $%".11 standard
$ne most important part o& Wireless )AN +tandard is the architecture o& I--- ./0.**7
because it describes the components that interact to pro%ide a wireless )AN that supports
location mobilit" transparentl" to its upper la"ers.
The &undamental construction 1lock o& an I--- ./0.** Wireless )AN is the 1asic ser%ice set
or 1++ because all radio<related &unctions are per&ormed in the 1++7 constricts o& base station
controller =1+(> and the base transcei%er station =1T+>. 1+( pro%ides all the control &unctions
and ph"sical links between the 3+( =mobile ser%ices switchin! center> and 1T+ whereb"
handles the radio inter&ace to the mobile station.
In &i!ure * show two 1++7 each o& which has two stations that are members o& the 1++. It is
use&ul to think o& the o%als used to represent a 1++ as the e@posure area within which the
member stations o& the 1++ ma" sta" behind in communication. I& a station mo%es out o& its 1++7
it can no lon!er directl" communicate with other members o& the 1++.
T!e independent .// as an ad !oc network
Hirstl"7 let we sa" &ew words about ad hoc network =includin! the de&inition> and them we will
describe the independent 1++ as an ad hoc network.
FAn ad<hoc =sometimes known as a IspontaneousI> network is a local area network or other
small network7 especiall" one with wireless or temporar" plu!<in connections7 in which some o&
the network de%ices are part o& the network onl" &or the duration o& a communications session or7
in the case o& mobile or portable de%ices7 while in some close pro@imit" to the rest o& the network.
In )atin7 ad hoc e@actl" means I&or this7I &urther meanin! I&or this purpose onl"7I and as a result
The independent 1++ or I1++ is the most basic t"pe o& I--- ./0.** )AN standard. When
I--- ./0.** stations are able to communicate directl" is possible I1++. A minimum I--- ./0.**
)AN ma" consist o& onl" two stations. In &i!ure * shows two I1++. This t"pe o& operation is o&ten
18 | P a g e
re&erred to as an ad hoc network7 &or the reason that this t"pe o& standard is o&ten &ormed with no
pre<plannin!7 &or onl" as lon! as the )AN is needed.
:istribution sstem concepts
Hor some networks7 the ph"sical limitations a!ree on the direct station<to<station distance that
ma" be supported7 this distance is su&&icient. Hor some others networks this distance is not
constant7 it is d"namic =increased reportin! is reAuired>.
The architectural component used to interconnect 1++ is the distribution s"stem =8+>. Instead
o& e@istin! competition7 a 1++ ma" also &orm a component o& an e@tended &orm o& network that is
built with multiple 1++. The distribution s"stem mediums =8+3> are separates &rom the wireless
medium lo!icall" I--- ./0.** standard. It9s coherent that each lo!ical medium is used &or
di&&erent component o& course &or purposes o& architecture. The distribution s"stem enables
mobile de%ice support b" pro%idin! the lo!ical ser%ices necessar" to handle address to
destination mappin! and seamless inte!ration o& multiple 1++.
An access point =A4> is a station =+TA> that pro%ides access to the 8+ b" pro%idin! 8+
ser%ices in addition to actin! as a station.
As a result7 data mo%e between a 1++ and the 8+ %ia an A4. The addresses used b" an A4
&or communication on the W3 and on the 8+3 are not necessaril" the same.
T!e I111 $%".11 subsets
The I-- ./0.** wireless )AN standard inland has ' subsets. Those subsets or substandard
are used because Wireless )AN works with di&&erent &reAuenc" ran!e7 si!nals and some others
characteristics that we will describe bellow &or each subset.
I--- ./0.**a operates in the <5HB &reAuenc" ran!e =.*0 to .. 5HB> with a ma@imum
63bitKsec. si!nalin! rate. The <5HB &reAuenc" band isnEt as crowded as the 0.6<5HB &reAuenc"
because it o&&ers considerabl" more radio channels than the ./0.**b and is used b" smaller
number applications. It has a shorter ran!e than ./0.**!7 is essentiall" newer than ./0.**b and
isnEt well<matched with ./0.**b.
17 | P a g e
$perates in the 0.6<5HB Industrial7 +cienti&ic and 3easurement =I+3> band =0.6 to 0.6.3
5HB> and pro%ides si!nalin! rates o& up to **3bitKsec. This is a %er" commonl" used &reAuenc".
3icrowa%e o%ens7 cordless phones7 medical and scienti&ic eAuipment7 as well as 1luetooth
de%ices7 all work within the 0.6<5HB I+3 band.
Rati&ied in late +eptember o& 0//7 the ./0.**e Aualit"<o&<ser%ice speci&ication is desi!ned to
!uarantee the Aualit" o& %oice and %ideo tra&&ic. It will be particularl" important &or companies
interested in usin! Wireless &idelit" =Wi<Hi> phones.
+imilar t o ./0.**b7 but this standard supports si!nalin! rates o& up to 63bitKsec. It also
operates in the hea%il" used 0.6<5HB I+3 band but uses a di&&erent radio technolo!" to boost
+ometimes called Wi<Hi 4rotected Access 0 =W4A 0>7 ./0.**i was rati&ied in Lune 0//6. W4A
0 supports the *0.<bit <and<abo%e Ad%anced -ncr"ption +tandard7 alon! with ./0.*@
authentication and ke" mana!ement &eatures.
4redicted &or rati&ication in mid<0//27 the ./0.**k Radio Resource 3ana!ement standard will
pro%ide measurement in&ormation &or access points and switches to make wireless )ANs run
more e&&icientl". It ma"7 &or e@ample7 better distribute tra&&ic loads across access points or allow
d"namic adjustments o& transmission power to minimiBe inter&erence.
The +tandard &or -nhancements &or Hi!her Throu!hput is desi!ned to raise e&&ecti%e W)AN
throu!hput to more than *//3bitKsec. Hinal rati&ication is e@pected in late 0//2.
-@pected to be rati&ied in mid to late 0//27 the ./0.**r Hast Roamin! standard will address
maintainin! connecti%it" as a user mo%es &rom one access point to another. This is especiall"
important in applications that need low latenc" and hi!h Aualit"<o&<ser%ice standards such as
This standard will deal with mesh networkin!. It is predicted to be rati&ied in mid<0//..
I111 standard $%".17
A wireless personal area network =W4AN> has its standard as wireless )AN7 de%eloped b"
Institute o& -lectrical and -lectronics -n!ineers +tandards Association =I---<+A>. The name o&
this standard is I--- standard ./0.*7 it was appro%es in 0//0. The &irst %ersion o& this standard7
./0.*.* was adapted &rom the 1luetooth speci&ication and is completel" compatible with
4arameters &or wireless communications amon! portable di!ital de%ices includin! notebook
computers7 peripherals7 cellular telephones7 beepers7 and consumer electronic de%ices are
&amiliar and usuall" used b" 1luetooth. The speci&ication also allows &or connection to the
20 | P a g e
The I--- ./0.* Workin! 5roup proposes two !eneral cate!ories o& ./0.*7 called T56 =low
rate> and T53 =hi!h rate>. The T56 %ersion pro%ides data speeds o& 0/ :bps or 0/ :bps. The
T53 %ersion supports data speeds ran!in! &rom ** 3bps to 3bps. Added skin contain the use
o& up to 06 network de%ices7 d"namic de%ice addressin!7 support &or de%ices in which latenc" is
critical7 &ull handshakin!7 securit" supplies7 and power mana!ement. There will be *2 channels in
the 0.6<5HB band7 */ channels in the '*<3HB band7 and one channel in the .2.<3HB band.
4lans o& I--- are to re&ine the ./0.* speci&ication to work with the +peci&ication and
8escription )an!ua!e =+8)>7 particularl" +8)<..7 +8)<'07 and +8)<0/// updates o& the
International Telecommunication ;nion =IT;> recommendation Q.*//.
I111 standard $%".13
I--- ./0.*2 is a Wireless 3etropolitan area network standard &or */ to 22 5HB published b"
Institute o& -lectrical and -lectronics -n!ineers7 appro%es in 0//0. It addresses the I&irst<mile
and last<mileI connection in wireless metropolitan area networks.
Inland this standard is created a plat&orm that enables to build a broadband wireless industr"
usin! hi!h<rate s"stems that install Auickl" without e@tensi%e metropolitan cable in&rastructures.
The I--- ./0.*2 standard enables interoperabilit" between de%ices &rom multiple manu&acturers.
It also7 includes a medium access control la"er =3A(> that supports multiple ph"sical la"er
speci&ications. The ph"sical la"er is optimiBed &or bands &rom */ to 22 5HB.
Akin the Wireless )AN I--- ./0.** standard and Wireless 3AN I--- ./0.*2 standard has
its subsets. I--- ./0.*2a is one o& them. It is ad%anced &rom principles to support multimedia
ser%ices like a %ideocon&erencin!7 %oice7 and !amin!. There also are includes optional mesh
$ur &ocus within this chapter is to describe the concept o& Wireless Home7 in underwa" we are
!oin! to e@plain more details which are in relations with mobile telecommunication.
(TIA or the (ellular Telecommunications O Internet Association is the international
or!aniBation that aims to represent all elements o& wireless communication < cellular7 personal
communications ser%ices7 enhanced specialiBed mobile radio and mobile satellite ser%ices and
ser%es the interests o& ser%ice pro%iders7 manu&acturers and others.
IThe wireless home is a terri&ic wa" to demonstrate the wireless li&est"le. -ach "ear we
become more and more wireless in our e%er"da" li%es7 and the home is a !reat wa" to
demonstrate the per%asi%eness o& this medium. It has a new look and &eel this "ear that is sure to
capture the attention o& e%er"one in attendanceI7 said Robert 3esirow7 %ice president and show
director &or (TIA WIR-)-++.
Hig!lig!ts of t!e Wireless Home
The car compan" F(hr"slerG will demo a crash<proo& wireless<enabled car o& the &uture.
Thanks to , 3HB o& spectrum recentl" allocated b" the H(( &or dedicated short ran!e
communications7 an in<board unit will communicate wirelessl" with roadside units and alert the
dri%er i& heKshe is in dan!er o& dri&tin! o&& the road. Research to de%elop this cooperati%e
communication network between %ehicles and the road is bein! conducted under the ;.+.
8epartment o& TransportationEs Intelli!ent Transportation 4ro!ram7 in partnership with the
automoti%e industr" and state departments o& transportation. This smart car can also transmit
anon"mous tra&&ic data to tra&&ic operation centers and deli%er real<time in&ormation to news
outlets and other dri%ers.
21 | P a g e
;se o& this technolo!" ma@imiBes e&&icienc" and reduces costs &or the consumer. Accenture
will demonstrate smart meterin! with a series o& networked intelli!ent meters and appliances that
allow utilit" companies to better monitor ener!" usa!e
Wireless technolo!" is just scratchin! the ser%ice o& what is possible in kitchens toda"R
+amsun!Es Internet re&ri!erator is the IbrainsI o& the kitchen.
In the powder room7 Accenture will displa" an online medicine cabinet that inte!rates
smart labels7 &ace reco!nition7 %oice s"nthesis and &lat panel displa"s. This displa" will be used to
reco!niBe members o& a household and in return7 displa" a list o& personaliBed health reminders
such as aller!" alerts7 doctorEs appointments and medication reminders. 1ecause it is connected
to the Internet7 all o& this in&ormation can be shared securel" with ph"sicians and pharmacists
&rom the com&ort and the con%enience o& "our home. In the same time with the de%ice7 "ou can
monitor %ital si!ns such as blood pressure7 pulse rate7 cholesterol and blood su!ar7 and it will
e%en send a warnin! i& "ou pick up the wron! medication.
Hor sure that &or e%er" parent is %er" important the sa&et" and securit" o& children. 1ecause o&
this &act7 3obile 5uardian comes into pla"7 pro%idin! operators with an end<to<end solution that
blocks unwanted7 unauthoriBed and harm&ul content and contact &rom mobile phones. $n displa"
in the childEs bedroom7 %isitors will e@perience how mobile operators can take ad%anta!e o& &ull"<
inte!rated a!e %eri&ication7 content access controls7 content &ilterin! and usa!e controlsC and how
this product allows all aspects o& mobile ser%ice to be controlled directl" b" subscribers7 parents
and administrators &rom Web<based or handset<based inter&aces.
Also &rom Accenture this "ear is a media trans&ormation protot"pe << a no%el approach to
media stora!e that replaces the (8K8J8 &ormat b" almost an" shape or &orm. In the &amil" room7
this de%ice will enable music7 mo%ies7 %ideo !ames and other interacti%e media to be embedded
into standardiBed &orms smaller than a credit card or other creati%e shapes such as concert
tickets7 T<shirts7 booklets or &i!urines.
The +amsun! i.3/ world phone is an international &a%orite that can be used %irtuall"
an"where "our tra%els ma" take "ou with its dual mode 5+3K(83A &unctionalit". Also on displa"
in the li%in! room7 the i.3/ is packed with Windows=R> 4ocket 4( applications7 1luetooth wireless
technolo!"7 ad%anced speech reco!nition7 speakerphone7 343 pla"er7 built<in SW-RT?
ke"board7 and -J8$ connecti%it" &or &aster data trans&er. 3otorolaEs (* (ommunication +"stem
is a .. 5HB di!ital e@pandable7 cordless phone s"stem that connects to a 1luetooth mobile
phone and has audioK%ideo monitorin! capabilities. A camera located at the &ront door inte!rates
with the phone s"stem and enhances an" securit" s"stem.
The home o&&ice is where wireless technolo!" &irst made its entr" into the home7 but
technolo!" &or this important room certainl" hasnEt stopped e%ol%in!R The :"ocera :R* 3obile
Router creates a wireless broadband network and &unctions like an access point supportin!
multiple computers and de%ices with hi!h<speed wireless data ser%ices. Jeri+i!nEs 1ackup 4lus is
an o%er<the<air7 mobile phone data backup and restore solution that empowers and protects the
mobile li&est"le. 8e%eloped &or mass<market de%ices7 1ackup 4lus stores "our %aluable mobile
data such as contacts7 pictures7 %ideo7 and music to a secure Jeri+i!n ser%er where "ou can
mana!e "our data directl" &rom a phone or online I%irtual locker.I
As the premiere !lobal e%ent representin! the complete wireless7 mobile computin! and
wireless Internet industr" and the lar!est wireless show in the world7 (TIA WIR-)-++ 0//2
brin!s to!ether all industries within the communications ecos"stem and all those a&&ected b"
wireless technolo!" &or three da"s o& intense learnin! and networkin!.
22 | P a g e
Wireless -es! 'etwork
;ntil now7 there were mentioned man" t"pes o& the wireless networks7 but certainl" not the
most interestin! one o& them7 wireless mesh network.
This t"pe o& network7 as the name sa"s7 is Fmesh networkin! implemented o%er a Wireless
The mesh networkin! is not a thin! which is new. That is a smarter and an e&&icient wa"
o& combinin! two components =e@# computers> &or transmittin! data7 %oice and other stu&&s. This
t"pe o& continuous connection is established with hoppin! &rom node to node. A better de&inition
stands &rom Tomas :ra! and +ebastian 1Tettrich7 who de&ined it as a Fnetwork that emplo"s one
o& two connection arran!ements7 &ull mesh topolo!" or partial mesh topolo!". In the &ull mesh
topolo!"7 each node is connected directl" to each o& the others. In the partial mesh topolo!"
nodes are connected to onl" some7 not all o& the other nodesG.
)et9s !o back where we start7 about the Wireless mesh networks. Wireless mesh networks are
networks which are similar to Internet7 e@cept that are smaller. There Fare 9multihop9 s"stems in
which de%ices assist each other in transmittin! packets throu!h the network7 especiall" in
ad%erse conditions. ?ou can drop these ad hoc networks into place with minimal preparation7 and
the" pro%ide a reliable7 &le@ible s"stem that can be e@tended to thousands o& de%ices.G
With this kind o& networkin! we are in the bene&it7 because in&ormation &rom one node is
transmitted just to the other ne@t node7 but e%er" one o& them is linked with man" others7 and not
just with one. +o7 i& a node is o&& =&rom dama!e>7 her work is done b" her nei!hbors7 whose job is
to &ind another route &or transmittin! the same data. It implies that Wireless mesh networkin! is
reliable and resilient.
Figure <. 'odes organi=ed in a mes! network
Those nodes pla" the role o& mesh routers and mesh clients. The" operate not onl" as a host7
but also as a router. The connection between nodes is established automaticall" and that mesh
connecti%it" is maintained amon! them<sel%es. That9s wh" when mentionin! Wireless mesh
network7 we mean about network7 which is sel&<con&i!ured and sel&<or!aniBed.
The reasons &or usin! the Wireless mesh networks aren9t in small numbers. In the most
important ones7 we are numberin!#
23 | P a g e
F,rice: ./0.** radios ha%e become Auite cheap7 but the radios are o&ten still amon! the
most e@pensi%e elements o& such network. The &act that each mesh node runs both as a
client and as a repeater potentiall" means sa%in! on the number o& radios needed and
thus the total bud!et.
1ase and simplicit: I& "ou ha%e a bo@ that is pre<installed with wireless mesh
so&tware and uses standard wireless protocols such as ./0.**bK!7 the setup is e@tremel"
simple. +ince routes are con&i!ured d"namicall"7 it is o&ten enou!h to simpl" drop the bo@
into the network7 and attach whate%er antennas are reAuired &or it to reach one or more
e@istin! nei!hborin! nodes =assumin! that we can sol%e the issue o& I4 address
*rgani=ation and business models# The decentraliBed nature o& mesh networks
lends itsel& well to a decentraliBed ownership model wherein each participant in the
network owns and maintains their own hardware7 which can !reatl" simpli&" the &inancial
and communit" aspects o& the s"stem.
'etwork robustness: The character o& mesh topolo!" and ad<hoc routin! promises
!reater stabilit" in the &ace o& chan!in! conditions or &ailure at sin!le nodes7 which will
Auite likel" be under rou!h and e@perimental conditions.
,ower: The substrate nodes o& a mesh network P possibl" e@ceptin! those nodes that
maintain an up<link to the Internet P can be built with e@tremel" low power reAuirements7
meanin! that the" can be deplo"ed as completel" autonomous units with solar7 wind7 or
h"dro power. =A side comment# 4i!!"backin! mesh networks on projects that primaril"
aim at ener!" production mi!ht be a %er" &easible strate!" P with e%er" panel or windmill7
a node. 4ower !eneratin! units are t"picall" connected to points o& in&rastructure and
human presence. This makes them %alid locations &or network nodes. As a secondar"
bene&it7 the presence o& inte!rated network nodes within power networks ma" aloe &or
better monitorin! and mana!ement.>
Integration: 3esh hardware is t"picall" small7 noiseless7 and eas" encapsulated in
weatherproo& bo@es. This means it also inte!rates nicel" outdoors as well as in human
#ealit fit: Realit" rarel" comes as a star7 rin! or a strai!ht line. In di&&icult terrain P be
that urban or remote P where not e%er" user can see one or &ew central points7 chances
are she can see one or more nei!hborin! users. F
How is created this kind o& network?R It9s %er" eas"C Fusin! a series o& special ./0.**b Access
4oints =3eshA4s> that create a sin!le7 scalable wireless network. The !atewa" 3eshA4s =that is7
the 3eshA4 that is connected to the internet> can obtain its internet access &rom WiHi7 local
broadband7 dial<up modem7 I+8N or e%en a sel& contained 5+3K54R+ module &or reall"
)ater one7 in order we want the network we ha%e to become bi!!er in
siBe7 we ha%e to add just another 3eshA4. 1uilt around standard ./0.**b =WiHi> Hardware7
access to the networks is similar7 and that with a standard WiHi network card.
F(on%entional nodes =e.!.7 desktops7 laptops7 48As7 4ocket4(s7 phones7 etc.> eAuipped with
wireless network inter&ace card =NI(s> can connect directl" to wireless mesh routers. (ustomers
without wireless NI(s can access W3Ns b" connectin! to wireless mesh routers throu!h7 &or
e@ample7 -thernet. Thus7 W3Ns will !reatl" help the users to be alwa"s<on<line an"where
an"time. 3oreo%er7 the !atewa"Kbrid!e &unctionalities in mesh routers enable the inte!ration o&
W3Ns with warious e@istin! wireless networks such as cellular7 wireless sensor7 wireless<&idelit"
=Wi<Hi>7 worldwide inter<operabilit" &or microwa%e access =Wi3AU>7 Wi3edia networks.
(onseAuentl"7 throu!h an inte!rated W3N7 the users o& e@istin! network can be pro%ided with
otherwise impossible ser%ices o& these networks.G
>(=(A2yil/iB, A( 0ang, 0( 0ang C0ireless mes* networ2s a s+r-eyD, 1( >ntro/+ction, a-ailable
onlineE1rom 1 Jan+ary 200.F
2$ | P a g e
Toda"9s network technolo!" is &illed up with man" protocols7 standards and products7 includin!
the Wireless mesh networks. The importance di&&ers &rom one to another. 1ut7 all the" tr" to
mana!e one job7 and that is better communication rules between sides.
8i&&erent approaches are re%iew hereina&ter#
FA*:> is a routin! protocol &or ad<hoc networks desi!ned with mobile wireless de%ices in
mind. It is not subject to cop"ri!ht protection and is in the public domain.
-obile -es! protocol contains three separate protocols7 each addressin! a speci&ic
*. )ink 8isco%er"
3. 1order 8isco%er"
The 3obile 3esh so&tware is co%ered b" the 5N; 5eneral 4ublic )icense =Jersion
T.#,F7 or Topolo!" 1roadcast based on Re%erse<4ath Horwardin!7 is a proacti%e7
link<state routin! protocol desi!ned &or mobile as<hoc networks7 which pro%ides hop<
b"<hop routin! alon! minimum hop paths to each destination. It seems it is patent<
protected unless it becomes an I-TH standard.
*/,F is a link<state routin! protocol. It is desi!ned to be run internal to a sin!le
Autonomous +"stem. -ach $+4H router maintains an identical database describin!
the Autonomous +"stem9s topolo!". Hrom this database7 a routin! table is calculated
b" constructin! a shortest<path tree.
?'( @ebra is &ree so&tware that mana!es T(4KI4<based routin! protocols. It is
released as part o& the 5N; 4roject7 and is distributed under the 5N; 5eneral 4ublic
)icense. It supports 154<6 protocol as described in RH(*,,* =A 1order 5atewa"
4rotocol 6> s well as RI4%*7 RI4%07 and $+4H%0.
&ocustWorld de%elops a &ree bootable (8 solution based on the A$8J protocol7
and also de%elops and sells a complete read"<to<deplo" 3esh1o@ runnin! its
so&tware7 most =but not all> o& which is a%ailable under the 54). The 3esh 1o@ and
mesh so&tware ha%e been used in a number o& communit" networks in the ;:.
8? -es!Cube. The 5erman compan" 65 3obile +"stems has de%eloped a tin"
3esh(ube runnin! 8ebian )inu@ on a 3I4+ processor7 usin! 3ITR- 3obile 3esh
routin! so&tware. This is a read"<to<deplo" !atewa" with both a wireless and a wired
inter&ace. With a power consumption o& 6W =and potentiall" lower>7 it is ideal &or
deplo"ment with an autonomous sustainable power source.G
As a conclusion# F(learl"7 wireless mesh networks are !ainin! traction. The promise o& more
complete co%era!e7 &aster speed7 stron! reliabilit"7 ease o& deplo"ment and a lower cost than
man" e@istin! options make wireless mesh networks a %er" attracti%e and a&&ordable alternati%e.
As cit" !o%ernments7 metropolitan areas and businesses e%aluate mesh networks7 keep in mind
the"9re best suited &or lar!e indoor and outdoor spaces where cablin! doesn9t e@ist and the
desi!n o& the network is the most critical &actor &or completin! a success&ul implementation.G
2. | P a g e
Figure 1%. An e2ample of a W-' in a cit
We can &reel" sa" that this technolo!" is promisin! a lot &or the !enerations that come. In the
;+A7 Fmost o& the interest in this technolo!" has come &rom municipalities wantin! to pro%ide
cit"wide data networkin! to police7 &ire&i!hters and other public emplo"ees. +ome cities and
!rassroots or!aniBations are o&&erin! Internet access %ia mesh topolo!"C the cit" o& 4hiladelphia is
plannin! an ambitious project o& this sort. (ities o&ten can mount the reAuired eAuipment on li!ht
poles throu!hout area.G
With 4hiladelphia7 are startin! to joint the Wireless mesh network also
Taipei7 Tempe7 etc.7 and this is not the end. 1ut7 Fto stren!then the market penetration and secure
the success o& W3Ns7 more research is needed.G
Wireless 'etworks /oftware
Hi@in! problems wireless technolo!" need some e@tra tool that ma"be indirect tool. This more
to see what is happenin! to the radio si!nal or data9s that are passin! between adapter and
access point or between adapters in one Fad hocG network.
$& course to mana!e these tests7 die<hard techies and serious radio &reAuenc" en!ineers will
use hi!h tech eAuipment that cost like e@pensi%e test eAuipmentVsi!nal !enerators7 spectrum
anal"Bers7 and network packet sni&&ersKanal"BersVto assess the en%ironment o& and around a
wireless network installation. This means that &or most o& us is di&&icult to pa" such cost &or
hi!hl" specialiBed electronic eAuipment we will use onl" once or twice.
4racticall" wireless networkin! is not as lo!ical or measurable as tests "ou ma" per&orm on a
hard dri%e or serial IK$ port. In these cases "ou will not &ind dia!nostic pro!rams7 but instead7
meterin! so&tware that pro%ides some %isualiBations o& wireless si!nals. Howe%er there are a &ew
e@amples o& adapter cardPspeci&ic si!nal stren!th and network a%ailabilit" monitors that pro%ide a
!ood relati%e indication o& si!nal stren!th7 but as "ou !et into network desi!n and reliabilit"7 "ou
need somethin! more absolute than a poorKweak7 !ood7 or e@cellent indication. In &act7 what is
>(=(A2yil/iB, A( 0ang, 0( 0ang C0ireless mes* networ2s a s+r-eyD, 18( Concl+sion, a-ailable
onlineE1rom 1 Jan+ary 200.F
25 | P a g e
needed is somethin! that will tell "ou in known absolute %alues which si!nals e@ist nearb"7 and
how stron! the" are
Hortunatel"7 man" pro!rammers took it upon themsel%es to &ind out how these new wireless
de%ices work and pulled out some %er" %aluable data. The" ha%e &ound wa"s to present us the
in&ormation that will help to make sense o& this in%isible connection between computers and
The results are se%eral pro!rams that can help to see and somehow understand what is !oin!
on in one wireless networkin! en%ironments. Herewith should be underlined that most o& those
pro!rams are &or )inu@ s"stems. All this results are comin! to us throu!h the &eatures7 &unctions7
and admitted limitations o& what a wireless network adapter can re%eal to us. +a"in! that the
world o& )inu@ is a !ood !round &or some o& the deepest and most pro&ound network and internet
inno%ation7 this does not mean that Windows and 3acintosh users are not le&t in the dark.
Wireless ma" be the one thin!7 ne@t to the Internet7 that brin!s these separate and distinct
plat&orms to!ether &or the !ood o& all. It is not about replacin! wires with in%isible ener!" &ields. It
is that all at once7 three distinct computin! plat&orms are thrust into workin! to!ether at the same
time. Throu!h wireless and all that it promises &or networkin! and applications outside o& pure
computin!7 users o& these plat&orms must con&i!ure and e@chan!e a %ariet" o& common
in&ormation in order to establish a common networkin! !round. It is no lon!er AppleTalk %ersus
Net1I$+7 T(4KI4 %ersus I4UK+4U7 or %ariants and workarounds in between7 but purel" the same
technolo!" and the same terms applicable to all plat&orms. The interaction o& users with wireless7
si!nal inte!rit"7 wireless securit" and &ailure anal"sis brin! these plat&orms to!ether.
In the same time the tools used to monitor and anal"Be wireless and securit" is not in same
le%el a%ailable &or all plat&orms. In this direction the most known applications &or determinin!
wireless network securit" le%els7 Air+nort and W-4(rack7 are a%ailable onl" &or )inu@K;NIU
plat&orms. This &act makes all Windows and 3ac networks s"stem administrators7 who do not
know to use )inu@7 to tr" to learn it Auickl" or to hire a consultant &rom outside to help them to
assess the securit" &or their networks. $& course hirin! this t"pe o& consultants has usuall" hi!h
cost. 1ut7 Air+nort and W-4(rack could be labeled as tools that ha%e been desi!ned onl" &or the
purpose o& hackin! into someone9s wireless network. 1ut in order to assess securit"7 "ou need
somethin! or someone to tr" to breach it. 1etter "ou usin! these tools on "oursel& and ti!htenin!
up securit" than someone unknown7 with moti%es unknown7 tr"in! to breach "our network9s
It can deal with the operatin! s"stem just so much be&ore becomin! &rustrated at the lack o&
concise step<b"<step documentation to !et "ou Auickl" to the point where a new de%ice7 &eature7
or pro!ram simpl" &unctions. Hor )inu@ to be %iable7 some de!ree o& detailed technical support
must e@ist with or &or the user7 this more &or wireless applications. In terms o& realiBin! the user<
&riendl" attributes that make an operatin! s"stem approachable and practical ore at least tolerable
to work with7 ;NIU s"stems ha%e &ar to !o. 3ost o& us do not want to 5;nBip7 untar7 compile7 link7
debu!7 decipher lo! &iles7 decipher and edit obscure and esoteric con&i!uration &ile parameters7
learn ( and shell scriptin! to be able to read and e@tract salient bits o& command parameters7 and
do so o%er and o%er a!ain &or *0 to 06 hours7 onl" to &ail to !et a simple wireless network card or
two to work. )inu@ and ;NIU in !eneral7 need more user<&riendl" tools7 at least in the conte@t o&
wireless networkin!7 be&ore it can make a dent in the Windows market. In realit"7 it is need more
time to &ind in&ormation on the internet to !et %arious &ra!ments o& in&ormation that &inall" can help
!ettin! a wireless adapter to work with )inu@. There is Auit bi! need &or manual about steps
throu!h ;NIU s"stem con&i!uration &or the masses. These are not reli!ious or philosophical
issues7 abidin! respect &or ;NIU e@perts and the man" !reat thin!s about ;NIU<based s"stems7
but this !enre o& operatin! s"stem is still about &i%e "ears behind the 8$+<to<Windows7 plu!<and<
pla"7 auto reco%er"7 !oo& protection pro!ress that has been made in the WinTel =WindowsWIntel>
market recentl". Howe%er7 there are wa"s to !et )inu@ to do at least one thin! it is !ood at with
wireless de%icesVroutin!7 &irewall7 and access control. This can be done without immersin!
"oursel& in the stru!!les o& !ettin! this card or that to be reco!niBed and automaticall" con&i!ured
26 | P a g e
at boot time7 usin! e@ternal wireless brid!es or access points connected to an otherwise
ubiAuitous -thernet card in the )inu@ s"stem.
While "ou a%oid the trials and tribulations o& con&i!urin! )inu@ &or wireless7 "ou will not be able
to use Air+nort7 W-4(rack7 or the other low<le%el sni&&in! tools with an e@ternal wireless de%ice7
but the practical !oal is wireless W )inu@7 lea%in! the sni&&in! and packet anal"sis to those with
more time on their hands.
I& "ou ha%e accomplished !ettin! a peripheral component interconnect =4(I> or personal
computer =4(> card<based wireless adapter to work with )inu@7 "ou are probabl" &amiliar with
man" o& the tools and discussion !roups a%ailable that helped !et "ou throu!h the e@perience
and allowed "ou to pla" with wireless all "ou wanted.
The lack o& in&ormation and eas"7 lo!ical accessibilit" to essential s"stem and &eature
con&i!uration that would make it about **/ percent easier to do man" common7 e@pected thin!s
with a 3acintosh operatin! s"stem7 is a concern &or man" users as well. (ommon7 e@pected
thin!s in this conte@t7 mean bein! able to install7 troubleshoot7 and support -thernet connections.
To become &amiliar with the user inter&ace7 control panels7 pro!ram installations there is a need to
maintain about */ 3ac 53s7 56s7 and a &ew i1ooks. 1ut there is a lot missin! &rom the 3ac. Hor
all the eas"<to<use h"pe7 at least is e@pected one complete panel o& Fidiot li!htsG to tell us what is
happenin! or not with these s"stems. -%en settle &or a simple )ink )-8 indicator &or the -thernet
connection I acceptable7 but apparentl" that is askin! too much. $+ U is the best thin! to happen
to Apple since it &irst hit the market. 3a"be there is hope7 onl" because $+ U o&&ers a &ull ran!e o&
;NIU<based network troubleshootin! toolsVat least 4IN5 and TRA(-R$;T-V without ha%in!
to scroun!e &or7 download7 and install se%eral di&&erent third<part" tools to pro%ide these &eatures
to $+ '.
Althou!h 3icroso&t Windows is in ad%anta!e &or personal and business computin!7 the
number o& wireless<speci&ic tools a%ailable &or Windows &alls well behind )inu@. This short&all does
not pre%ent "ou &rom usin! Windows &or access control or as a !atewa" &or a wireless network.
Windows &or desktops pro%ides Internet connection sharin!. Windows 0/// can act as a remote
access ser%er to a )AN or the Internet7 and will host RA8I;+ and other &orms o& access control
and user authentication.
/ummar 4about Wireless /tandard6
Wireless networkin! support pro%ided in the current operatin! s"stems7 and the so&tware that
comes with "our network card7 can help on easil" jump in on the basics o& the wireless wa%e. Hor
more intense wireless projects7 "ou will &ind the so&tware and in&ormation links pro%ided here to
be in%aluable in !ettin! "ou &arther alon! into a robust and secure wireless in&rastructure.
-@pensi%e and precise test eAuipment &rom A!ilent =&ormerl" Hewlett<4ackard9s test eAuipment
di%ision>7 Tektroni@7 Anritsu7 IHR7 or 3otorola are the onl" solution in case "ou need to know more
about the si!nals &loatin! around in the wireless spectrum7 because no amount o& so&tware &or
an" operatin! s"stem will help "ou. I& "ou need more speci&ic in&ormation about a particular
network product7 technolo!"7 or problem7 consult an" o& the Web sites and list ser%ers listed7 or
use "our &a%orite Web search en!ine. I& "ou &eel the prospect o& implementin! a wireless network
is wa" o%er "our head7 "ou can probabl" &ind a suitable local %endor to help "ou desi!n and build
a network to suit "our needs. $& course on the internet "ou will be amaBed at the wealth o&
speci&ic data a%ailable.
28 | P a g e
Wireless 'etworks /ecurit
With the !ood7 alwa"s comes the other part# the bad. $ur job is to &ace with it7 because i& we
close our e"es7 that wont disappears.
We all a!ree that wireless technolo!"7 in man" cases is makin! bene&its to people7 &or the
reason that is makin! connection amon! them7 also in places that wires cannot. 1ut7 undoubtedl"
it comes with man" risks7 and those in !ood number. It is a thin! which is %ulnerable to human
hackin! or biolo!ical bu!sC that is7 the network users. Julnerabilit" doesn9t come just &rom the
humans7 but also &rom the other sources o& wireless si!nals7 but especiall" humans.
The &irst and the most important one o& them is its securit". FThe term Fwireless securit"G ma"
seem a contradiction in terms. A&ter all7 how can an" data sent into the open air be secure?G
Almost e%er" da" we hear about some tries to access to some network7 &rom someone interested
&or in&ormationC a modern thie&7 who doesn9t want to besmirch his hands7 but he seats in &ront o&
his computer7 time on his hands and a lot o& ner%es while tr"in! to decode some banks accounts.
$&ten7 the" !ain their !oal. Those network stakes7 will ri!ht we can sa" that are raised with
F+uddenl"7 one no lon!er needs ph"sical presence to lo! data# sh" bother tr"in! to smu!!le
eAuipment onsite when "ou can crack &rom "our own home or o&&ice two blocks awa" with a hi!h<
The balance between makin! an eas" connection &or an a%era!e user and a sa&et" one is not
an eas" job. We ha%en9t done an" work i& we couldn9t made a simpler &orm o& checkin! the e<mail
&rom an" user7 and on the other side we ha%e the most cr"pto!raphicall" sound method on the
planet &or authenticatin! a user to the s"stem. Thus7 the balance must be &ound7 or sa"in! with
another words7 we should tr" to make ma@imum securit" but with minimum problems in
communication between users o& the network.
There are man" threats that come to the computers in network7 which the NI+T handbook An
Introduction to (omputer +ecurit" !enericall" classi&ies in nine cate!ories ran!in! &rom errors and
omissions to threat to personal pri%ac".G
The risks that comes &rom these threats7 is harmless
&or the people7 and o& course &or their data =in&ormation>.
FNI+T +pecial 4ublication =+4> .//<027 +ecurit" +el&<Assessment 5uide &or In&ormation
Technolo!" +"stems7 states that in&ormation must be protected &rom unauthoriBed7 unanticipated7
or unintentional modi&ication. +ecurit" reAuirements include the &ollowin!#
Authenticit" P A third part" must be able to %eri&" that the content o& a messa!e has not
been chan!ed in transit.
Nonrepudiation P The ori!in o& the receipt o& a speci&ic messa!e must be %eri&iable b" a
Accountabilit" P The actions o& an entit" must be traceable uniAuel" to that entit".G
Wireless networks7 like a new wa" o& makin! connections between two sides7 is plent" with
risks. Those are eAual to the sum o& the risks o& the operatin! a wired network =as in operatin! a
network in !eneral> plus the new risks introduced b" weaknesses in wireless protocols.
FThere are a couple o& reasons wh" wireless networks are currentl" less secure than their
wired counterparts. Hirst o&&7 there is the &act o& their ph"sical nature. The" ate wireless7
broadcastin! a si!nal out o%er an area. An" computer within this area with the correct eAuipment
can be considered to be Xconnected to the network9.
No wires eAual easier access to the network &or e%er"one. This also makes one o& the most
popular Xhackin!9 tactics %astl" easier# Xpacket sni&&in!97 or capturin! data sent o%er the network to
anal"Be it &or in&ormation. An"one on ran!e can recei%e all tra&&ic sent o%er the wireless network.
Gob =lic2enger, <+il/ing 0ireless Comm+nity ,etwor2s, C*apter 3( ,etwor2 )ayo+t H 3(3 Sec+rity
Consi/erations, =irst I/ition, 'JGeilly, Jan+ary 2002
&*e ,>S& #an/boo2, Special P+blication 800"12, An >ntro/+ction to Comp+ter Sec+rity
&( %arygiannis an/ )( 'wens, 0ireless ,etwor2 Sec+rity H 802(11, <l+etoot* an/ #an/*el/ 3e-ices,
,>S&, &ec*nology A/ministration, U(S( 3epartment o1 Commerce, Special P+blication 800"$8
27 | P a g e
Figure 11. $%".11. Arc!itecture
+econdl"7 current securit" methods &or the most widel" a%ailable wireless technolo!"7
./0.**b7 are either eas" to de&eat or di&&icult to implement.G
Threats and %ulnerabilities that come ne@t are some o& the more salient ones o& the wireless
FAll the %ulnerabilities that e@ist in a con%entional wired network appl" to wireless
3alicious entities ma" !ain unauthoriBed access to an a!enc"9s computer or %oice =I4
telephon"> network throu!h wireless connections7 potentiall" b"passin! an" &irewall
+ensiti%e in&ormation that is not encr"pted =or that is encr"pted with poor cr"pto!raphic
techniAues> and that is transmitted between two wireless de%ices ma" be intercepted and
8enial o& ser%ice =8o+> attacks ma" be directed at wireless connections or de%ices.
3alicious entities ma" steal the identit" o& le!itimate users and masAuerade as them on
internal or e@ternal corporate networks.
+ensiti%e data ma" be corrupted durin! improper s"nchroniBation.
3alicious entities ma" deplo" unauthoriBed eAuipment =e.!.7 client de%ices and access
points> to surreptitiousl" !ain access to sensiti%e in&ormation.
8ata ma" be e@tracted without detection &rom improperl" con&i!ured de%ices.
Jiruses or other malicious code ma" be corrupt data on a wireless de%ice and be
subseAuentl" introduced to a wired network connection.
3alicious entities ma"7 throu!h wireless connections7 connect to other a!encies &or the
purposes o& launchin! attacks and concealin! their acti%it".
Interlopers7 &rom inside or out7 ma" be able to !ain connecti%it" to network mana!ement
controls and thereb" disable or disrupt operations.
3alicious entities ma" use a third part"7 untrusted wireless network ser%ices to !ain
access to an a!enc"9s network resources.
Internal attacks ma" be possible %ia as hoc transmissions.G
The ./0.**b networks can be secured =normall"7 not *//Y percent> in two wa"s# b" W-4
=wireless encr"ption protocol> and 3A( addressin! &ilter.
&( %arygiannis an/ )( 'wens, 0ireless ,etwor2 Sec+rity H 802(11, <l+etoot* an/ #an/*el/ 3e-ices,
,>S&, &ec*nology A/ministration, U(S( 3epartment o1 Commerce, Special P+blication 800"$8
30 | P a g e
With the packets encr"ption at the 3A( la"er7 an access point<to<point =peer<to<peer> !roup
can associate onl" clients who know the Fsecret ke"G. $thers can see those packets in the
network tra&&ic7 but Xun&ortunatel"9 the" are encr"pted.
This encr"ption ke" emplo"s a 6/<bit7 shared R(6 4RN5 =4seudo<Random Number
5enerator> al!orithm &rom R+A 8ata +ecurit". There are manu&acturers that ha%e implemented
their own proprietar" e@tensions to W-4. The" =e.!.7 A!ere and (isco> ha%e included *0.<bit
ke"s and d"namic ke" mana!ement. 1ecause the" are belon! and de&ined b" the ./0.**b
standard7 in practice it is shown that these cards &rom di&&erent manu&acturers that use these
3A( address &ilterin! is another wa" that people ha%e tried to secure their networks o%er and
abo%e the ./0.**b standards. The 3A( address o& a network card is a *0 di!it he@adecimal
number that is uniAue to each and e%er" network card in the world. 1ecause each card has its
own indi%idual address7 i& "ou limit access to the A4 to onl" those 3A( addresses o& authoriBed
de%ices7 "ou can easil" shut out e%er"one who should not be on "our network.
1ut7 also and this
has its disad%anta!es7 and as the bi!!est one is the mana!ement aspect o& it.
1ut we must ha%e in minded that althou!h these di&&iculties7 it doesn9t mean that we shouldn9t
use this kind o& networkin!. There are some basic precautions that we ha%e to take7 in order to
make more di&&icult &or curiosit" seekers to !et into our personal in&ormation. The &ollowin! are
some steps7 which are mentioned b" Ton" 1radle"#
BC!ange t!e /stem I:: 8e%ices come with a de&ault s"stem I8 called the ++I8
=+er%ice +et Identi&ier> or -++I8 =-@tended +er%ice +et Identi&ier>. It is eas" &or a hacker
to &ind out what the de&ault identi&ier is &or each manu&acturer o& wireless eAuipment so
"ou need to chan!e this to somethin! else. ;se somethin! uniAue< not "our name or
somethin! easil" !uessed.
:isable Identifier .roadcasting: Announcin! that "ou ha%e a wireless connection to the
world is an in%itation &or hackers. ?ou alread" know "ou ha%e one so "ou don9t need to
broadcast it. (heck the manual &or "our hardware and &i!ure out how to disable
1nable 1ncrption: W-4 =Wired -Aui%alent 4ri%ac"> and W4A =Wi<Hi 4rotected Access>
encr"pt "our data so that onl" the intended recipient is supposed to be able to read it.
W-4 has man" holes and is easil" cracked. *0.<bit ke"s impact per&ormance sli!htl" without
a si!ni&icant increase in securit" so 6/<bit =or 26<bit on some eAuipment> encr"ption is just as
well. As with all securit" measures there are wa"s around it7 but b" usin! encr"ption "ou will keep
the casual hackers out o& "our s"stems. I& possible7 "ou should use W4A encr"ption =most older
eAuipment can be up!raded to be W4A compatible>. W4A &i@es the securit" &laws in W-4 but is
still subject to 8$+ =denial<o&<ser%ice> attacks.
#estrict (nnecessar Traffic: 3an" wired and wireless routers ha%e built<in &irewalls.
The" are not the most technicall" ad%anced &irewalls7 but the" help create one more line
o& de&ense. Read the manual &or "our hardware and learn how to con&i!ure "our router to
onl" allow incomin! or out!oin! tra&&ic that "ou ha%e appro%ed.
C!ange t!e :efault Administrator ,assword: This is just !ood practice &or A))
hardware and so&tware. The de&ault passwords are easil" obtained and because so man"
people don9t bother to take the simple step o& chan!in! them the" are usuall" what
hackers tr" &irst. 3ake sure "ou chan!e the de&ault password on "our wireless router K
access point to somethin! that is not easil" !uessed like "our last name.
,atc! and ,rotect Cour ,CDs: As a last line o& de&ense "ou should ha%e personal
&irewall so&tware such as Qone Alarm 4ro and anti<%irus so&tware installed on "our
computer. As important as installin! the anti<%irus so&tware7 "ou must keep it up to date.
New %iruses are disco%ered dail" and anti<%irus so&tware %endors !enerall" release
updates at least once a week. ?ou also must keep up to date with patches &or known
31 | P a g e
securit" %ulnerabilities. Hor 3icroso&t operatin! s"stems "ou can use Windows ;pdate to
tr" and help keep "ou current with patches.G
F+purred b" the insecurities and mana!ement issues e@posed with W-4 as it was
standardiBed in ./0.**b7 the I--- &ormed Task Horce ./0.**i to write a !ood standard &or
wireless securit". The ./0.**i standard is a work in pro!ress7 but enou!h has been done to &i!ure
out what much o& it will be. Wireless implementations are di%ided into two !roups7 le!ac" and
new. )e!ac" networks are those which were put in place be&ore the .**i standard was rati&ied7
and new networks are those put in place a&ter it is rati&ied. 1oth !roups use ./0.*U as the means
o& handlin! credential %eri&ication7 but the encr"ption method di&&ers. ./0.**i also speci&ies that
onl" -A4 standards which handle d"namic ke" !eneration ma" be used.
To con&orm to ./0.**i le!ac" networks will be reAuired to use */6 bit W-47 and also use
Temporal :e" Inte!rit" 4rotocol =T:I47 &ormerl" known as W-40> and 3essa!e Inte!rit" (heck
=3I(>. 1oth o& these technolo!ies were de%eloped b" (isco as proprietar" means o&
stren!thenin! W-4. Thou!h the" are a%ailable toda"7 these are onl" a%ailable on all (isco
networks7 and then not on all plat&orms. T:I4 addresses the IJ attacks on W-4 b" encr"ptin!
e%er"thin! be&ore it is run throu!h the W-4 machine7 essentiall" addin! another la"er o&
encr"ption to the packet. 3I( adds stron!er inte!rit" checkin! than a simple (R( check to
pre%ent attackers &rom chan!in! messa!es a&ter transmission.G
Hor the Wireless Technolo!"7
scientists ha%en9t !i%en the &inal word "et. FNew tools7 methodolo!ies7 and technolo!ies are
Wireless Network +ecurit" bein! introduced re!ularl" to implement7 enhance7 detect7 combat7
secure7 and add %alue to this resource. The most %ulnerable part o& "our network ma" not be the
limitations o& technolo!"7 and are no technical. In addition to the a%ailable solutions &or the
technolo!" at hand7 it is important to remember that man" securit" issues are biolo!ical or human
in nature. Julnerabilit" includes usin! simple passwords instead o& those that are more di&&icult to
!uess or reproduceC usin! de&ault ++I8s or passwordsC sharin! passwords with othersC lea%in!
passwords on Fstick" notesG ne@t to s"stemC and o& course dis!runtled emplo"ees takin! data
awa" &rom the network on paper7 diskettes7 (8s7 or transmittin! b" e<mail or &ile trans&er protocol
=HT4>. The easiest pickin!s are had when "ou ha%e direct and ob%ious access to the in&ormation
"ou want. +o limitin! access to in&ormation on a need<to<know basis is also crucial. F
/ocietal Implications of Wireless Connecti+it
FAs a rule7 technolo!ical inno%ations &orce a societ" to ree%aluate its core principles and
sometimes make si!ni&icant7 o&ten irre%ersible7 cultural adjustments to accommodate the new
technolo!". Wireless networkin! is uniAuel" poised to chan!e the world in a relati%el" short
period o& time7 inso&ar as it en!enders an unprecedented cultural situation in which users are
constantl" connected to each other with mobile de%ices throu!h the Internet or ad hoc peer<to<
In -mart )obs =0//0>7 Howard Rhein!old considers man" o& the implications o& such a
situation en%isionin! a Fwireless commonsG in which e%er" person7 object and place is connected
to the Web and assi!ned a uniAue ;R)7 transmittin! and recei%in! in&ormation constantl" across
the network. In this dense =and mostl" in%isible> web o& data7 roamin! human nodes in the
network will be able to retrie%e and share in&ormation about everything7 e%er"where7 e&&ortlessl".
$n the positi%e side7 Rhein!old %iews such a network as a means o& dissol%in! barriers between
people and &osterin! the &ormation o& communities7 both o& di%er!ent se!ments o& the population
who stand to bene&it &rom each other9s knowled!e7 and o& like<minded indi%iduals who choose to
con%ene &or social purposes or &or spur<o&<the moment7 cooperati%e political action. 1oth
&unctions are critical &or e&&ecti%e knowled!e mana!ement. Rhein!old cites se%eral &eats o&
political coordination enabled b" wireless computer connecti%it"7 includin! the *''' World Trade
$r!aniBation protests in +eattle and the on!oin! demonstrations b" bic"clin! F(ritical 3assG
protesters. $n a more mundane le%el7 the process o& arran!in! one9s social or business calendar
&( <ra/ley, >ntro/+ction to 0ireless ,etwor2 Sec+rity, *ttp44netsec+rity(abo+t(com4mbiopage(*tm
Jim Aspinwall, K>nstalling, &ro+bles*ooting, an/ Gepairing 0ireless ,etwor2sJ, Mc!raw"#ill, 2003, USA
32 | P a g e
is streamlined when &riends and collea!ues can keep tabs on each other9s whereabouts7 and
communicate across the network instantl". As Rhein!old points out7 howe%er7 this omniscience
comes with a price. 1ein! permanentl" tied into a network reAuires one to relinAuish a pri%ile!e
that people in this countr" ha%e traditionall" held %er" dear# pri%ac". I& in&ormation &lows &reel"
across the network7 it has the potential to be seen b" an"one. In&ormation can be intercepted o%er
networks7 whether b" a nos" &amil" member7 a male%olent thie&7 or a !o%ernment authorit".
Alread"7 the pre%alence o& personal data the&t has created calls &or !o%ernmental re!ulation o&
data brokers and massi%e network securit" initiati%es =Qetter7 0//>. 3an" people are war" o& an"
technolo!" that has the abilit" to make our pri%ate li%es public. With that in mind7 Rhein!old
su!!ests that more power&ul encr"ption technolo!"7 alon! the lines o& the Wireless -ncr"ption
4rotocol =W-4>7 ma" be the onl" wa" that users will be able to maintain an" semblance o& pri%ac"
in the new wireless world.
4hilip A!re in his essa" FWelcome to the Alwa"s $n World7G =0//*> presents a &ew more
social discom&orts that can7 and ha%e7 resulted &rom ubiAuitous human networkin!. Amon! them
are# *> constant interruptions P the Falwa"s onG mentalit" can distract people &rom their tasksC 0>
divided attention P when people are constantl" pa"in! attention to maintainin! their social
networks and communications de%ices7 the" ha%e little attention to de%ote to indi%idual personal
relationshipsC 3> addiction P some people become addicted to in&ormation in a networked
en%ironment7 constantl" checkin! their email7 blo!s7 messa!e boards7 etc.7 because the" &ear
the" mi!ht miss out on somethin! importantC 6> boundaries P when people !i%e each other tacit
permission to keep track o& each others a&&airs7 social boundaries collapse7 causin! what can be
percei%ed as an in%asion o& each other9s pri%ac" =A!re7 0//*>. These concerns ha%e been
mani&ested in use o& wireless technolo!"7 and as wireless computin! becomes more ubiAuitous7
the" will onl" !row more intense. There&ore7 it is incumbent upon people in this a!e to approach
the use o& new technolo!" with a critical e"e. 4eople should be able to ask7 FWhat are the
implications o& usin! this technolo!"? 8oes it make m" li&e more mana!eable or more
complicated? Are its bene&its worth its conseAuences?G (ertainl"7 wireless networkin! will chan!e
the %er" &abric o& our societ"7 but we as societal participants ha%e the opportunit" to make
decisions re!ardin! just how this chan!e will take place.
T!e ,olitics of Wireless 'etworking
The adoption o& wireless networkin! technolo!" comes with man" political considerations as
well. $ne concern is how it a&&ects the so<called Fdi!ital di%ide.G +ome people %iew wireless
networks as openin! up new opportunities &or learnin! and participation in societ" &or people who
are at a disad%anta!e either throu!h lack o& material resources or in&ormation illiterac". A
counterar!ument posits7 howe%er7 that buildin! a wireless network into our societ"9s core will onl"
ser%e to alienate those without access to Internet ser%ice7 laptops7 48As7 or wearable de%ices.
Accordin! to 3etcal&e9s )aw7 the addition o& people to the network will increase the network9s
%alue7 while Reed9s )aw su!!ests that addin! a new !roup o& people will increase its %alue e%en
more. In short7 a wireless societ" stands to bene&it &rom the inclusion o& all citiBens7 especiall"
those who would otherwise be e@cluded.
$ne response to this issue has been the creation o& low<cost or &ree public wireless networks
to ensure that all citiBens ha%e access to the Internet. +ponsored b" libraries7 philanthropists and
cit" or state !o%ernments7 these projects ha%e created much contro%ers" and a series o& territorial
disputes7 in part because broadband Internet ser%ice pro%iders &eel the" should be able to char!e
people &or wireless ser%ice without &ear o& competition &rom the !o%ernment. 8ue to their stron!
lobb"in! power in (on!ress7 the broadband companies ha%e posed a &ormidable challen!e to
municipalities7 and se%eral states are considerin! bills to outlaw municipal wireless projects.
=Tanner7 0//> While corporations think that the" should control the networks7 others think that
networks should remain uncontrolled and subject to the will o& the people. +till others ar!ue &or
more !o%ernment in%ol%ement. Rhein!old =0//0> discusses the case o& !o%ernment projects7 like
(ali&ornia9s (enter &or In&ormation Technolo!" Research in the Interest o& +ociet" =(ITRI+> that
use wireless networks as a securit" in&rastructure in case o& a catastrophic e%ent. In part because
wireless networks lack the ph"sical constraints o& wired networks7 the Auestion o& who has the
33 | P a g e
ri!ht to e@ercise control o%er them is a di&&icult one that will need to be decided in the near
We li%e in e@citin! times7 when hosts o& emer!in! wireless technolo!ies promise radical
chan!e in our modes o& perception7 interaction7 democratic participation7 and time and
in&ormation mana!ement. As new technolo!" is de%eloped7 we will witness e%en !reater chan!e7
which hope&ull" will bene&it societ"7 rather than harm it. In the meantime7 we ha%e an obli!ation to
approach that technolo!" with a certain de!ree o& criticalit". F
#( ,o/ler, A 0orl/ 0it*o+t 0ires &*e 1+t+re o1 0ireless ,etwor2ing, %nowle/ge Management
Systems, 3r( 3on &+rnb+ll, May 3, 200.
3$ | P a g e
Increasin! the securit" o& wireless networkin! is becomin! essential and necessit". This
because the wireless networks ha%e the undesirable propert" that all data transmitted is
broadcast to all wireless clients on the network. This lea%es open the possibilit" o& ea%esdroppin!
on pri%ate in&ormation and it appears as per&ect opportunit" &or hackers to use it &or their own
Howe%er there are impro%ements that ha%e occurred in both con&identialit" and
authentication7 b" includin! the ./0.** wireless standards. This standard is a protocol &or
encr"ption in wireless networks called W-4. 1asicall" this was a hu!e impro%ement o%er plain<
te@t communication. Abo%e mentioned standard it also ser%ed as a catal"st &or hackers who
wished to !ain access the data that are bein! transmitted throu!h a wireless network. This secure
data included bank transactions7 e<commerce sales7 and se%eral others. )ater on se%eral
weaknesses were disco%ered in the W-4 protocol that allowed hackers to decode data.
In the same time the computer securit" communit" reaches b" impro%in! some o& the
known weaknesses in the W-4 protocol. Also7 the most secure networks do not use a sin!le pre<
shared ke"7 because most o& the weaknesses with W-4 in%ol%ed capture %ast amounts o& data
encr"pted with a sin!le ke". As substitute &or this the" use a protocol that pro%ides user with a
session ke" a&ter authenticates each o& them. 1ut7 i& sin!le user keeps a session open &or a lon!
time7 it is likel" that an attacker could disco%er the session ke". -%en i& the case when the session
ke" is compromised7 the attacker will onl" ha%e the abilit" to read the messa!es &or the remainder
o& that session.
Wireless Network use will continue to !row and become more important o%er the ne@t
$ne o& the most common Auestions about wireless is7 How &ar will it !o?
As with most answers about technical thin!s7 it depends. ./0.**b was desi!ned with nati%e7
unmodi&ied7 unenhanced de%ices to e@tend the len!th o& a */1aseT -thernet wire b" 3// meters.
This eAuals '. &eet7 about a cit" block7 or /.*. miles. ;nobstructed7 unimpeded with line<o&<
si!ht7 ./0.**b will do just that and probabl" more. 1ut who is !oin! to hold their laptops abo%e
their heads or mount an access point itsel& on a roo&top to communicate di!itall"?
Who knows what will happen a&ter */ "ears…New standards will be created7 old standards will
It is the choices o& toda" which will ine%itabl" help to shape the emer!in! world o& wireless
3. | P a g e
*. (all &or 4apers Wireless 3esh Networkin!
0. $EReill" Network << Wireless 3esh Networkin!
3. 4( 3a!aBine Wireless 3esh Networks * O
6. 4( 3a!aBine Wireless 3esh Networks 0
. 4rimer Wireless 3esh Networks
2. +ur&abilit" solutions Wireless EmeshE networks
,. Wireless mesh network < Wikipedia7 the &ree enc"clopedia
.. Wireless mesh networks boost reliabilit" < Network World
'. I.H.Ak"ildiB7 U. Wan!7 W. Wan!# FWireless mesh networks# a sur%e"G7a%ailable online=&rom *
*/. An $%er%iew o& Wireless Network +ecurit"
**. 1e!inners 5uides Wireless Network +ecurit" < 4(+tatsZcom *O
1e!inners 5uides Wireless Network +ecurit" < 4(+tatsZcom 0
*0. (omplete 5uide to Wi<Hi +ecurit"
*3. Robert L. 1oncella7 WIR-)-++ +-(;RIT?# AN $J-RJI-W7 Washburn ;ni%ersit"7
(ommunications o& the Association &or In&ormation +"stems =Jolume '7 0//0>
*6. Lim Aspinwall7 XInstallin!7 Troubleshootin!7 and Repairin! Wireless Networks97
3c5raw<Hill7 0//37 ;+A
*. T. :ar"!iannis and ). $wens7 Wireless Network +ecurit" P ./0.**7 1luetooth and
Handheld 8e%ices7 NI+T7 Technolo!" Administration7 ;.+. 8epartment o& (ommerce7
+pecial 4ublication .//<6.
*2. N.Abouda!!a7 8. 5ir"\7 L.L.SuisAuaterCWIR-)-++ +-(;RIT? 8-+I5N $J-RJI-W7
;() (r"pto 5roup < 4lace du le%ant7 3 < *36. )ou%ain<la<Neu%e 1el!ium
*,. Tara 3.7 (harles R. -ldenC Wireless +ecurit" and 4ri%ac"# 1est 4ractices and
8esi!n TechniAues7 Addison Wesle"7 +eptember *37 0//0
*.. Rob Hlicken!er7 1uildin! Wireless (ommunit" Networks7 Hirst -dition7 $9Reill"7
35 | P a g e
*'. Wireless home#
0/. Wireless +tandard#
0/. *. I--- ./0.*2 <] http#KKwirelessman.or!KtutorialK
0/.0. ./0.* <]
Wireless )AN 3edium Access I--- ./0.**I7 Lune7 0//3
William A. Arbau!h7 Narendar +hankar7 and ?.(. Lustin Wan7 I./0.** Wireless Network.pd&I7
3arch 3/7 0//*
• Wireless ./0.** +tandards.pd&
0*. Wireless Networks +o&tware
LI3 A+4INWA))7 IInstallin!7 Troubleshootin!7 and Repairin! Wireless Networks.pd&G
00. H. Nodler7 A World Without Wires# The &uture o& Wireless Networkin!7
:nowled!e 3ana!ement +"stems7 8r. 8on Turnbull7 3a" 37 0//
03. 3icroso&t7 5ettin! +tarted 5uide To Wireless Networks7 ;ni%ersit" o& 1irmin!ham7 0//3
06. Introduction to ./0.** Wireless Networks standardC ("ber+cience laborator"C 3a" 0//3
0. Tanenbaum7 Andrew +C (omputer Networks
0,. White paperC H4 1roadband Wireless notebooks# inte!rated hi!h<speed wireless connecti%it"
3* Hranklin7 Tom Wireless )ocal Area Network 0//*
36 | P a g e
36 http#KKen.wikipedia.or!KwikiKWWANK 3icroso&t < Wireless WAN Inter&ace
/ Introduction to ./0.** Wireless Networks standardC ("ber+cience laborator"C 3a" 0//3
* Aspinwall7 Lim Installin!7 troubleshootin! and repairin! wireless networks ;+A 0//3#3c5raw<
0 :ar"!iannis7Tom C $wens.)es CWireless Network +ecurit" ./0.**7 1luetooth and Handheld
8e%ices7 5aithersbur!7No%ember 0//0.
3 Tanenbaum7 Andrew + C (omputer Networks
6 White paper CH4 1roadband Wireless notebooks# inte!rated hi!h<speed
38 | P a g e
.. Hranklin7 Tom Wireless )ocal Area Network7 0//*
'. White paperC Wireless )ANs %s. Wireless WANsC 0//0 No%ember *.C +ierra Wireless
48A P 4ersonal di!ital assistance
W4AN P Wireless 4ersonal Area Network
W)AN P Wireless )ocal Area Network
W3AN P Wireless 3etropolitan Area Network
4( P 4ersonal (omputer
8N+ P 8omain Name +"stem
3bps P 3e!a bit per second
4$+ P 4ersonal $peratin! +pace
+I5 P +pecial Interest 5roup
I--- P Institute o& -lectrical and -lectronics -n!ineers
RH P Radio &reAuenc"
Wi<Hi P Wireless Hidelit"
338+ P 3ultichannel multipoint distribution ser%ice
5+3 P 5lobal +"stem &or 3obile (ommunications
(848 P (ellular 8i!ital 4acket 8ata
(83A P (ode 8i%ision 3ultiple Access
I+3 P Industrial7 +cienti&ic and 3edical
JoI4 P Joice<o%er Internet 4rotocol
8+) P 8i!ital +ubscriber )ine
+( P +in!le<(arrier
++ P +ubscriber +tation
H(( P Hederal (ommunications (ommission
37 | P a g e
54R+ P 5eneral 4acket Radio +er%ice
$0 | P a g e
FAn ad<hoc network =sometimes known as a IspontaneousI> is a local area network or other small
network7 especiall" one with wireless or temporar" plu!<in connections7 in which some o& the
network de%ices are part o& the network onl" &or the duration o& a communications session or7 in
the case o& mobile or portable de%ices7 while in some close pro@imit" to the rest o& the network. In
)atin7 ad hoc e@actl" means I&or this7I &urther meanin! I&or this purpose onl"7I and as a result
4ersonal 8i!ital Assistant is a term &or an" small mobile hand held de%ice that pro%ides
computin! and in&ormation stora!e retrie%al capabilities &or personal or business use7 o&ten &or
keepin! schedule calendars and adress book in&ormation hand".
Wireless 4ersonal Area NetworkC personal area means up to */ meter radius. -@ample#
1luetooth7 I--- ./0.*
A wireless )AN or W)AN is a wireless local area network that uses radio wa%es as its carrier# the
last link with the users is wireless7 to !i%e a network connection to all users in the surroundin!
area. Areas ma" ran!e &rom a sin!le room to an entire campus. The backbone network usuall"
uses cables7 with one or more wireless access points connectin! the wireless users to the wired
Wireless 3etropolitan Area Network# A re!ional wireless computer or communication network
spannin! the area co%ered b" an a%era!e to lar!e cit".
WWAN stands &or Wireless wide area network. )ike W)AN i.e7 wireless )AN WWAN works but
on a wider scale. The architectural details about WWAN can be obtained &rom an" site describin!
or de&inin! wireless network
A uniAue number identi&"in! e%er" computer on the Internet =like 20.*20.''.>
A computer pro!ram runnin! on a web ser%er7 translatin! domain names into I4 addresses
Access point 4A,6
A wireless network inter&ace de%ice7 actin! as or replacin! the &unction o& the hub or switch in a
wired network7 to allow wireless network cards in client s"stems to connect to a )AN or the
$1 | P a g e
Institute o& -lectrical and -lectronics -n!ineers Inc. is a nonpro&it7 technical pro&essional
association o& more than 32/7/// indi%idual members in appro@imatel" *, countries that is an
authorit" in technical areas such as computer en!ineerin! and telecommunications.
#adio FreEuenc 4#F6
-lectro<ma!netic wa%es used in radio communications to carr" in&ormation.
Wireless &idelit" is the !eneric term &or ./0.** technolo!"
4opular name o& the ./0.*2 wireless metropolitan<area network standard thatEs currentl" bein!
de%eloped. Wi3a@7 which will ha%e a ran!e o& up to 3* miles7 is primaril" aimed at makin!
broadband network access widel" a%ailable without the e@pense o& strin!in! wires =as in cable<
access broadband> or the distance limitations o& 8i!ital +ubscriber )ine. There are two &la%ors o&
Wi3a@# ./0.*2<0//6 or ./0.*2d7 &or &i@ed implementations7 and ./0.*2e7 &or mobile ser%ice
3ost common t"pe o& wireless telephone communication toda". It allows slow data
communication7 but its primar" &ocus is %oice.
35 stands &or the third !eneration o& wireless communication technolo!". It re&ers to pendin!
impro%ements in wireless data and %oice communications throu!h an" o& a %ariet" o& proposed
standards. The immediate !oal is to raise transmission speeds to 03bitKsec.
Code :i+ision -ultiple Access 4C:-A6
(ode 8i%ision 3ultiple Access is a di!ital cellular technolo!" that uses spread spectrum
techniAues that7 instead o& separatin! users b" &reAuenc"7 separates them throu!h the use o&
di!ital &reAuenc" codes across the &ull a%ailable spectrum. (ompetes with 5+3 and T83A
(83A0/// is a radio transmission technolo!" &or the e%olution o& narrowband cdma$neKI+<' to
3rd<!eneration addin! up multiple carriers.
I/- 4Industrial9 /cientific and -edical6
Industrial +cienti&ic and 3edical bands were ori!inall" created &or the purpose o& short ran!e
connecti%it" between eAuipment used in these &ields o& application.
Federal Communications Commission 4FCC6
A !o%ernment a!enc" in the ;nited +tates. The H((9s recent limitations on -3I ha%e !reatl"
a&&ected di!ital electronic s"stems and power supplies in desi!n and production
$2 | P a g e
Joice o%er Internet 4rotocol is a s"stem &or deli%erin! di!itiBed %oice communications across I4
networks. JoI4 technolo!" allows phone calls to be made between compatible handsets or on
computers with appropriate so&tware.
1T/I 4T!e 1uropean organi=ation6
The -uropean Telecommunications +tandards Institute =-T+I> is a standardiBation or!aniBation
o& the telecommunications industr" =eAuipment makers and network operators> in -urope7 with
worldwide projection. -T+I has been success&ul in standardiBin! the 5+3 cell phone s"stem.
A short<ran!e radio technolo!" aimed at simpli&"in! communications amon! %arious de%ices. It is
most o&ten used &or nonnetworkKInternet applications7 such as remote controls7 wireless headsets7
mice and ke"boards7 and printers.
5eneral 4acket Radio +er%ice technolo!" runs at speeds up to **:bitKsec.7 compared with the
'.2:bitKsec. o& older 5+3 s"stems. It enables hi!h<speed wireless Internet and other
communications such as e<mail7 !ames and applications. It supports a wide ran!e o& bandwidths
and is an e&&icient use o& limited bandwidth. ItEs particularl" suited &or sendin! and recei%in! small
amounts o& data7 such as e<mail and Web browsin!7 as well as lar!e %olumes o& data.
5lobal +"stem &or 3obile (ommunications is a di!ital cellular s"stem based on T83A
narrowband technolo!"7 which !i%es users access to time slots on the same &reAuenc" bands. It
allows up to ei!ht simultaneous communications on the same &reAuenc". It competes with (83A
(ellular 8i!ital 4acket 8ata technolo!" is used b" telecommunications carriers to trans&er data to
users %ia unused analo! cellular networks. I& one part o& the network << a speci&ic !eo!raphic area
or IcellI << is o%erused7 (848 can automaticall" reallocate network resources to handle e@tra
The Internet protocol =I4> address o& the router7 switch7 cable7 or di!ital subscriber line =8+)>
modem throu!h which "our 4(s !ain access to the Internet or &orei!n =nonlocal> networks.
3obite@ is a packet<switched7 narrowband 4(+ network7 desi!ned &or wide<area wireless data
communications. It was de%eloped in *'.6 b" -ritel7 an -ricsson subsidiar"7 a nd there are now
o%er 3/ 3obite@ networks in operation worldwide
ATOT Wireless +er%ices7 Inc. was7 be&ore $ctober 027 0//67 the third<lar!est wireless telephone
carrier in the ;nited +tates7 based in Redmond7 Washin!ton7 and tradin! on the New ?ork +tock
-@chan!e under the stock s"mbol7 AW-. Hormerl" part o& ATOT (orp.7 as o& Lanuar" *7 0//67 the
lar!est sin!le shareholder o& ATOT Wireless was LapanEs NTT 8o(o3o.
$3 | P a g e
+print (orporation is one o& the worldEs lar!est telecommunication companies. It is a !lobal
communications pro%ider and a major competitor in the American cellular phone market7 throu!h
its +print 4(+ ser%ice based on (83A and 4(+7 and local telephone ser%ice in some smaller
markets. It is also a Tier * internet ser%ice pro%ider under the name +print)ink.
JeriBon (ommunications is a New ?ork (it"<based local e@chan!e telephone compan" &ormed
b" the mer!er o& 1ell Atlantic7 a &ormer 1ell $peratin! (ompan"7 and 5T-7 which was the lar!est
independent local<e@chan!e telephone compan" in the ;.+.7 with presence in most all o& the
continental ;nited +tates and Hawaii.
Network 8ri%er Inter&ace +peci&ication < de&inition o& inter&ace between the local network operatin!
s"stem and the network adapter.
(arrier +ense 3ultiple AccessK(ollision A%oidance is the principle medium access method
emplo"ed b" I--- ./0.** W)ANs. It is a Ilisten be&ore talkI method o& minimiBin! =but not
eliminatin!> collisions caused b" simultaneous transmission b" multiple radios. I--- ./0.**
states collision a%oidance method rather than collision detection must be used7 because the
standard emplo"s hal& duple@ radios < radios capable o& transmission or reception7 but not both
-%er" wireless ./0.** de%ice has its own speci&ic 3edia Access (ontrol address hard<coded into
it. This uniAue identi&ier can be used to pro%ide securit" &or wireless networks. When a network
uses a 3A( table7 onl" the ./0.** radios that ha%e had their 3A( addresses added to that
networkEs 3A( table are able to !et onto the network.
Abstract /nta2 'otation 4A/'6
An $+I lan!ua!e used to de&ine datat"pes &or networks. It is used within T(4KI4 to pro%ide
con&ormance with the $+I model.
:istribution sstem 4:/6
3eans a distribution network7 to!ether with the connection assets associated with the distribution
network7 which is connected to another transmission or distribution s"stem.
International Telecommunication (nion 4IT(6
The (ellular Telecommunications O Internet Association is the international or!aniBation that
aims to represent all elements o& wireless communication < cellular7 personal communications
ser%ices7 enhanced specialiBed mobile radio and mobile satellite ser%ices and ser%es the
interests o& ser%ice pro%iders7 manu&acturers and others.
$$ | P a g e
Accenture is a !lobal mana!ement consultin!7 technolo!" ser%ices and outsourcin! compan". Its
or!aniBational structure includes di%isions based on client industr" t"pes and emplo"ee
work&orces. Industr" di%isions7 re&erred to as $peratin! 5roups7 include 4roducts7
(ommunications and Hi!h Technolo!"7
The name SW-RT? &or our t"pewriter ke"board comes &rom the &irst si@ letters in the top
alphabet row=The one below the numbers>. It is also called the ;ni%ersal :e"board. It was
in%ented b" ()+holes who put to!ether the protot"pes o& the &irst commercial t"pewriter back in
the *.2/^s. The ke"board arran!ement was considered important enou!h to be included on
+hole^s patent !ranted in *.,.7 some "ears a&ter the machine was put into production
-%olution 8ata $nl"7-%olution 8ata $ptimiBed7 o&ten abbre%iated as -J8$7 -J<8$7 -%8$7
*@-J<8$ or *@-%8$ is a wireless radio broadband data protocol bein! adopted b" man" (83A
mobile phone pro%iders in Lapan7 :orea7 Israel7 the ;nited +tates7 and (anada as part o& the
Wintel is a colloAuial7 o&ten pejorati%e7 term used to describe desktop computers o& the t"pe
commonl" used in homes and businesses since the late *'./s.
NI+T in the 8epartment o& (ommerce9s Technolo!" Administration was established b" (on!ress
to assist industr" in the de%elopment o& technolo!" needed to impro%e product Aualit"7 moderniBe
manu&acturin! processes7 ensure product reliabilit"7 and &acilitate rapid commercialiBation o&
products based on new scienti&ic disco%eries.
In computin!7 T:I4 =Temporal :e" Inte!rit" 4rotocol> is a securit" protocol de&ined in I---
./0.**i speci&ications &or WiHi networks to replace W-4. T:I4 was desi!ned to replace W-4
without replacin! le!ac" hardware. This was necessar" because the breakin! o& W-4 le&t WiHi
networks without %iable link<la"er securit".
2 | Page Abstraction
Undoubtedly, Wireless networks are changing the way people connect to each other and that very fast. This kind of networks has become popular since the first days of introduction and use. I believe that this was our primary reason, why we as a team have chosen this topic as our Research Project. Through him (RP), we think to cover some important details and necessary things which have to know everyone who thinks to use this kind of network. The Project includes an introduction part and overview; skip through general types of wireless networks and their applications to wireless standards, to later on continue with wireless software and also with the wireless security. Our idea was to cover also the impact of this new technology in the modern world and changes made. With the paper, comes everything which fulfils normal Research Project standards. We suppose that time spent on reading it, wont be a wasted time.
Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic. Arthur C. Clark If you want to make a call from your mobile, if you want to check your email from your PDA, if you want to receive a message in your pager, if you want to make data portable and if you don’t want to have cable problems than all you need is WIRELESS NETWORK.
How it started?
Wireless Network started as a research project of the University of Hawaii. It has been surprisingly around for a little over 30 years. In Hawaii Islands, people there needed a wireless network to connect universities in 4 Islands. The result of the researchers was Alohanet which was predecessor of nowadays WLAN. Even that Alohanet it was a mess of networks it still reached the goal and achieved data transmission 1-2Mbps which was very impressive for that time. Over the last couple of years Wireless Network has begun to see various incremental enhancements and adaptations to the protocol as it grows to meet industry’s needs1. Wireless technologies are increasingly becoming popular in our everyday lives. Government agencies, public places, businesses are using it more and more in their environment. Devices commonly used for wireless networking include portable computers, desktop computers, hand-held computers, personal digital assistants (PDAs), cellular phones, pen-based computers, and pagers. You may also ask why wireless instead of wired networks? Because in the simplest sense wired networks are for communication between fixed locations and wireless is for communication between devices, so this means that we are not anymore dependable on the location. Also the air is free so why don’t we use it… So, as we said the basic idea behind the wireless network is network connections without wires. Less wiring means greater flexibility, portability, increased efficiency, and reduced wiring costs. Wireless technologies cover a broad range of differing capabilities oriented toward different uses and needs. They range from global voice and data networks, which allow users to establish wireless connections across long distances, to infrared light and radio frequency technologies that are optimized for short-range wireless connections.
Introduction to 802.11 Wireless Networks standard; CyberScience laboratory; May 2003
3 | Page
Components of Wireless Networks (as we can see from the configuration in the figure 12) are all directly replacing the common wired network components one per one where wireless network card replaces the wired network card; radio waves replaces Ethernet cabling, plugs and jacks and a wireless network access point unit replaces the Ethernet hub.
Fig 1. Wired network components replaced by wireless network component
This figure contains the simplest network configuration and it doesn’t show the network addressing and configuration details-IP addresses, gateways, DNS etc.
Aspinwall,Jim Installing, troubleshooting and repairing wireless networks USA 2003:McGraw-Hill
4 | Page
The wireless networks components
It is consisted of two types of equipment: - Wireless station (it can be laptop, notebook personal computer, desktop PC, PDA, barcode scanner etc) - Access point (it functions as a base station for wireless network, aggregating multiple wireless stations onto wired network. Theoretical ranges for wireless LAN 802.11 are from 29 meters (for 11 Mbps) in a closed office area to 485 meters (for 1 Mbps) in an open area. However, through empirical analysis, the typical range for connectivity of 802.11 equipment is approximately 50 meters (about 163 ft.) indoors. A range of 400 meters, nearly ¼ mile, makes WLAN the ideal technology for many campus applications. It is important to recognize that special high-gain antennas can increase the range to several miles.3
Figure 2. Typical Range of 802.11 WLAN Use of Wireless Networks in real-life Wireless networks can be used anywhere. Its very useful in university campuses where students can sit under the tree and read mail or search library for books, it is of great value to fleets of trucks, taxis, delivery vehicles, and repairpersons for keeping in contact with home, are also important to the military, wireless parking meters, important use also is for food, drink, and other vending machines … Once you begin using wireless data, you'll wonder how you ever lived without it.
Wireless Network Technology: Overview and Applications
It is obvious that Wireless Networks are making a big mess for the other and older kind of networking technologies. Researches try to make that kind of connection even more secure, which is another thing that does wireless technology to proliferate as a fire. So, making a wireless networks from a side of the biggest cities in the world it is not accidentally.
Karygiannis,Tom ; Owens.Les ;Wireless Network Security 802.11, Bluetooth and Handheld Devices Gaithersburg,November 2002.
had seven computers set up on four islands communicating with one central computer on Oahu. Referred to as “spread spectrum technology. Its origins lie in the encrypted radio signals sent by allied operatives across enemy lines during World War II. wireless local area networking (WLAN). wireless computing experiences. which in turn lead to increased productivity and interpersonal communication. All three use Radio Frequency (RF) technology to transmit data through the air. called ALOHNET. The project. Currently. 2005). Don Turnbull. and coexistence with 802. promising that faster. where they may do work outside of traditional work hours. To standardize the development of WPAN technologies.15 working group for WPANs.0 specification in 1999. up to a distance of 10 meters. 2005 5 http://technet2. The technology to support wireless networking continues to evolve at a rapid pace. cheaper. which is one of the unpleasant sides for the wireless technology. Alternatively. This allows their employees to be productive anywhere within the bounds of the corporate network. These advantages include mobility. It also encourages collaboration by giving them the ability to form ad hoc work groups. Technology development for Bluetooth is driven by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG). it can provide employees with incentives to use their computers at home or in coffee shops. 4 April 2008 H.mspx?mfr=true . or laptops) that are used within a personal operating space (POS). because the employees’ work time seeps into their leisure time.microsoft. businesses commonly issue network-connected laptops with wireless cards to their employees to replace desktop computers. which published the Bluetooth version 1. A POS is the space surrounding a person.com/WindowsServer/en/Library/f2552467-f693-4c14-b42149cb2491bb361033.0 specification. May 3. Key goals for this draft standard are low complexity. pockets. the two key WPAN technologies are Bluetooth and infrared light. This paper will also outline an interesting part which deals with installing. We won’t forget also to mention something about the security aspect. based on the Bluetooth version 1. users can create infrared links. more pervasive wireless computing solutions will be available to businesses and consumers who will require always-on. cellular phones. their applications. Dr. The first category. IEEE has established the 802. Bluetooth is a cable replacement technology that uses radio waves to transmit data to a distance of up to 30 feet. In certain situations.”5 WLAN At this point in time. wireless communications for devices (such as PDAs. Wireless networks clearly offer an array of advantages over traditional wired networking solutions to users in all types of networks and industries. and briefcases. Nodler. wireless connectivity solutions can be grouped into three main categories.” 4 In this project will be discussed in deeper way about the history. reduced cost of ownership and scalability. A World Without Wires: The future of Wireless Networking. WPAN “WPAN technologies enable users to establish ad hoc. Bluetooth data can be transferred through walls.11 networks. a perceived benefit for the employee (the use of a computer with wireless capabilities) becomes a very real benefit for the employer. none of them using phone lines (Bautts.” the wartime messages paved the way for the first computational wireless network. seamless. troubleshooting and possible repairing of the network. Knowledge Management Systems. the standards used today for this kind of network. ease of installation. In a modern-day example of WLAN technology. Legislative battles rage over the right of municipalities to provide free or inexpensive wireless Internet access to citizens. up from virtually none in the year 2000. interoperability. low power consumption. transmits data between a wired network and a mobile user or users (Types. This working group is developing a WPAN standard. 2005). In this case.5 | Page “A New York Times article (Scheisel. types of wireless networks. 2005) recently reported that more than 10 million homes in the United States employ a wireless router to access the Internet. which was created in 1971 at the University of Hawaii. to connect devices at a very close range (1 meter or less).
some of which have limited roaming capabilities and are incompatible with each other. such as cities or countries. Key 2G systems include Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM). The computers are equipped with wireless networking devices. WWAN WWAN technologies enable users to establish wireless connections over remote public or private networks. Access points are strategically placed across a network area so that connection areas overlap and users can travel between them without interruption of service. WMANs can serve as backups for wired networks. Below is a table indicating the range that wireless data networks can handle: Meters 0-10 0-100 0-10000 Network Personal Area Network Local Area Network Wide Area Network Table 1. are in increasing demand. Efforts are under way to transition from 2G networks. a process called “roaming. LAN protocols have been assigned the numerical grouping 802. They are then broken down into further groupings. 802. such as wireless laptops.” connects the computers on the wireless network to a wired network. between multiple office buildings in a city or on a university campus). Although different technologies. Each access point ensures connection to the network within a radius of anywhere from 100 to several hundred feet. such as the multichannel multipoint distribution service (MMDS) and the local multipoint distribution services (LMDS). The ITU is actively promoting the development of a global standard for 3G. A new standard 802. and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). This device. without the high cost of laying fiber or copper cabling and leasing lines.6 | Page Wireless LANs operate using a transceiver device to send and receive data. also referred to as an “access point. should the primary leased lines for wired networks become unavailable. where the client computers connect wirelessly to an access point but that device is . These connections can be maintained over large geographical areas.16 working group for broadband wireless access standards is still developing specifications to standardize development of these technologies.” WMAN WMAN technologies enable users to establish wireless connections between multiple locations within a metropolitan area (for example. the wireless connection extends not only to client computers. are being used. Wireless range April 2008 Wireless Mesh Network “In a mesh network. This is in contrast with a typical wireless local area network. WMANs use either radio waves or infrared light to transmit data. which come standard on many laptop and handheld computers now. all approved by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). to third-generation (3G) technologies that would follow a global standard and provide worldwide roaming capabilities. Broadband wireless access networks. through the use of multiple antenna sites or satellite systems maintained by wireless service providers. Together.” (Proxim. In addition. Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD). the IEEE 802.11b (Wireless Fidelity commonly referred to as “WiFi”) is the standard used by most WLANs today. Current WWAN technologies are known as second-generation (2G) systems.16 (WiMax) is currently being developed to provide connectivity with a 30-mile radius around each access point. but between other network nodes. 1998) Several different protocols exist for wireless local area networking. which provide users with high-speed access to the Internet.
2005) Future WPAN Applications The possibilities of WPAN extend beyond the ability to sync one’s Palm Pilot to a desktop without wires. Some cellular phone companies have developed hybrid telephones that operate using VoWiFi most of the time but can switch to a regular cellular connection if the user happens to move out of the LAN area. Voice-over WiFi (VoWiFi) combines VoIP with wireless networking technology. and quality of wireless connectivity. Scientific and Medical) bands.com/print_article2/0. These applications. cars. and the most known of them. etc. Currently. where they can retrieve. Those should increase the range."“6 Connectivity and Bandwidth In 1985. 2005) Developers are working on a generation of wearable devices that will perform functions such as allowing the wearer to input data without using a keyboard or mouse. WLANs allow employees in organizations to carry out their duties and remain constantly connected to a network. 1998) Students on college campuses tote laptop computers from class to class.asp . Future WLAN Applications Wireless connectivity has to a great extent changed the way we live. kitchen appliances. The unregulated spectrum was known as the ISM (Industrial. which can detect users’ changing locations and respond to their needs accordingly (WPAN. Doctors and nurses in hospitals frequently carry handheld devices connected to the hospital’s WLAN to record and download vital patient information to and from the network. A specific topic deals about those standards in general. together with home and office pervasive computing. and supplementing their classroom educations.1217. The appeal of VoIP is that since most providers charge a flat monthly rate. speed. In the very near future. remaining constantly connected to the Internet. the majority of people may use a Bluetooth-enabled wireless connection and a personal controller to access or remotely control many “intelligent” devices. could save time and be of tremendous help to people with illnesses or disabilities. Currently. This dedicated free bandwidth ensures that anyone adhering to pre-set standards of power and technologies applied can reap the benefits of wireless connectivity without having to obtain a license or pay fees. a user can make a telephone call over a wireless network. the Bluetooth protocol is being applied in the development of pervasive computing solutions for the home. the FCC made segments of the bandwidth spectrum available for use by certain telecommunications devices without a license. and exchange and store information. The connection between the local area network and a larger corporate network or the Internet is known as the "backhaul.. which transmits voice data across the Internet in data packets.00. home lighting systems. (Proxim.a=159982. One advantage of this technology over traditional cellular phone technology is improved connection quality indoors or underground. WLANs are also increasingly employed to establish voice connections between users with Voiceover Internet Protocol (VoIP). (Beal. 6 http://www. mobile telephones. Wireless Standards April 2008 The developing generations of wireless technology we believe that will have soon access to an unprecedented breadth of wireless standards. and it promises to do so increasingly. This can provide a very cost-effective solution to users who routinely make international calls. and the FCC recently added to the unregulated a spectrum 300 MHz of additional bandwidth. Using a PDA or a laptop computer equipped with a wireless card and Internet telephony software. such as handheld computers.baselinemag. or monitoring the wearer’s vital statistics. calls can be connected without incurring long-distance fees.7 | Page in turn plugged into the wired corporate network.
3. interaction. rather than harm it. Mechanisms are a lot. we will witness even greater change. This part deals with this middleware. A personal area network (PAN) is A PAN is a subset of a wireless LAN. Andrew S. Wireless PAN can be made possible via IrDA and Bluetooth. Wireless Security Wireless security is a discussable topic. 5. In this project we will discus about 5 wireless networks categories: 1. and time and information management. The PAN replaces the wires that would normally connect one piece of equipment to another9. Types of Wireless Networks Till now we have mentioned what our project will consist and we have described their essence. or for connecting to a higher level network and the Internet. PANs can be used for communication among the personal devices themselves. As the number and type of wireless devices increase to networks. As new technology is developed. we have an obligation to approach that technology with a certain degree of criticality. So. In the meantime. Conclusion We live in exciting times. A wireless PAN is a collection of mobile devices that make up a “piconet” (tiny network). Computer Networks http://en.8 Now that we explain what PAN is we can continue with the Wireless PAN which is tone of the objective of this research paper. 7 8 Tanenbaum. System interconnection (Bluetooth) Wireless PANs Wireless LANs Wireless MANs Wireless WANs April 2008 System interconnection is all about interconnecting the components of a computer using short-range radio7. typically located in one room. the need for their management and control is a priority. democratic participation. 4. Now we are going to explain things more detailed.HP Broadband Wireless notebooks: integrated high-speed wireless connectivity .wikipedia. as an important part of using the wireless network. is a topic that should be explained later on. it is a computer network used for communication among computer devices including telephones and personal digital assistants close to one person. which should be one of the primary concerns of the every networks administration. but if they are playing the real role and providing the needed security protection.8 | Page Wireless software To manage the hardware of the new wireless technology. when hosts of emerging wireless technologies promise radical change in our modes of perception. we need some tools that would indirect those tools to us. The reach of a PAN is typically a few meters.org/wiki/Wireless_PAN 9 White paper . 2. which hopefully will benefit society.
Wireless MAN can serve as the "backhaul" or Internet connection for Wi-Fi hotspots 13. Bluetooth. Ethernet. Toshiba. just turn them on and they’ll work. headsets.no phone jack required. Wireless MAN has interesting advantages.45 GHz ISM. It was based on the 802. the new technology was named after the 10th Century Danish King Harold Bluetooth. approx.9 | Page Bluetooth is a personal area network (PAN) standard and is the most common WPAN technology. two-way wireless communication network. and Ericsson formed the SIG GROUP in 1998.5 Megabits or up to 400 homes at DSL rates12. voice and data transmission. in terms of data-carrying capability. It can deliver real-time voice-over-IP and video services at very low costs. Intel participation in the wireless MAN industry is a major “wildcard” factor. wireless MAN far surpasses 3G 10 11 April 2008 http://www.com/channels/bluetooth/features/bluetooth.wi-fiplanet.com/columns/article.php/2195771 12 13 Wi-Fi is a way to connect to the Internet wirelessly . short range. It was designed to allow low bandwidth wireless connections to become so simple to use that they seamlessly integrate into our daily life. Nokia. Examples of Bluetooth and their connection Another type of wireless networks is Wireless Metropolitan Area Network – WMAN.16a standard and appeared in June 2004 and it provides a communications path between a subscriber site and a core network such as the public telephone network and the Internet.org/lecture/bluetooth/Bluetooth. IEEE was motivated by the ability of the wireless technologies to cover large geographic areas without the need to deploy wires. has been working on a similar project. It’s a great opportunity if we want to connect scanners. Now Intel is touting WiMax as the metropolitan area version of Wi-Fi. license-free 2. The goal of WMANs is to provide high-speed wireless Internet access similar to wired access technologies such as cable modem. The Bluetooth specification is an open specification that is governed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG)10. Wi-Fi hotspots are locations where you can find a Wi-Fi connection. . The European organization. the 10-66 GHz spectrum is strictly line-of-sight. Figure 3. IBM.html http://www. and fiber optic. referred to as HiperMAN. The Wireless MAN standard has a range up to 30 miles with a data rate of up to 70 Mbits per second. However. no driver installation. Intel. Bluetooth has short range (10 m). ETSI. mobile phones etc by only being brought within the range. digital cameras.pdf http://www. digital subscriber line (DSL). capable of providing 60 businesses with Internet connections at T1 speeds of 1. 1 Mbit/s gross data rate11.It is a single-carrier (SC) modulation scheme designed to operate in the 10-66 GHz spectrum. low power consumption.holtmann.wirelessdevnet. very important factor because it has integrated Wi-Fi functionality in its Centrino mobile computing chipset. It is a low power. Its goal is to connect components without wires.
and usually in a single site (which may comprise many buildings such as a college campus). Figure 4. Parameters Frequency Band: Range Data transfer rate: Number of users: 802. replaces or backs up existing fiber infrastructure within hours. WMAN. stuff and students in touch between themselves.16a (WiMAX) 2-11GHz ~31 miles 70 Mbps Thousands 802.4GHz ~100 meters 11 Mbps . April 2008 A Local Area Network or LAN is simply a way of connecting computers together within a single organization.javvin.html Franklin. This table shows the comparison between WMAN. farmers can communicate with agricultural experts. extends. 14 15 http://www. MANs bring people into a community and assist them with social.11 (WLAN) 2.com/protocolWiMAX. it lets teachers.15 (Bluetooth) Varies ~10meters 20Kbps . servers and the software systems attached to it as well15. WLAN and Bluetooth comparison Figure 4 shows an example of a network topology in which PMP and mesh topologies are used to cover a large metropolitan area. A LAN can be considered to be the same as an intranet. educational and career challenges. although the term intranet is often used to include the computers. Network Topology The use of WMAN in reality WMAN is a very powerful tool for linking all high schools in around 50 villages.55 Mbps 802. health care professionals at villages can consult specialist at the Main Hospital etc. Tom Wireless Local Area Network 2001 . it allows delivery of service in a highly flexible way. WLAN and Bluetooth14.10 | P a g e wireless networks. eliminates fiber trenching and leased line cost etc.55 Mbps Table 4.
They are radio transmitters and receivers which communicate with the computers in range and with the LAN backbone.11 | P a g e We have wired LANs and wireless LANs.November 2002. or as a group access point to the Internet. How it started? WLAN technology and the WLAN industry date back to the mid-1980s when the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) first made the RF spectrum available to industry.Wireless Network Security 802. This coverage area is called a cell or range18.Tom . Owens. .11 standard16. An access point communicates with devices equipped with wireless network adaptors. however. The key reason for this growth is the increased bandwidth made possible by the IEEE 802.Wireless Network Security 802. These wireless devices needs wireless card which will send and receive signals. Wireless LAN is a type of local area network that uses high frequency radio waves to communicate between computers. Bluetooth and Handheld Devices Gaithersburg. April 2008 16 Karygiannis. Owens.Tom . A wireless LAN can be used as an extension to or as an alternative for a wired LAN. Access point devices typically have coverage areas of up to 300 feet (approximately 100 meters). growth was relatively slow. An access point is a piece of equipment which acts as a bridge between the wireless parts of the LAN and the wired parts.November 2002. So. Electromagnetic airwaves for transmitting signals can be radio waves which simply perform the function of delivering energy to a remote receiver and infrared waves which are cheaper to install and also some devices have already installed infrared ports. Nowadays laptops come with cards already installed. peripherals. it connects to a wired Ethernet LAN via an RJ-45 port.Les . A wireless LAN comprises a number of "access points" linked into the main campus network backbone. WLAN technology is experiencing tremendous growth.It permits data rates up to 54Mbps for coverage indoor spots. Wireless LAN uses electromagnetic airwaves to communicate information from one point to another without relying on any physical connection. Tom Wireless Local Area Network 2001 18 Karygiannis. During the 1980s and early 1990s. and networking devices. Bluetooth and Handheld Devices Gaithersburg. wireless LANs will be used in conjunction with wired LANs to maximize the benefits. Today. In this part of the project we will be concentrated in wireless LANs. a standalone network. The basic distinction between them is their construction where wired LANs are connected through wires and wireless LANs via radio links or infrared light. Typically only one or two access points will be needed in a room (depending on the size of the room.11. the expected number of users and its construction17.Les . 17 Franklin. Wireless devices can be simply a part of the traditional wired LAN as we see in the figure 5.11.
corporate offices and the downtown area of major cities. Furthermore they can be accessed from anywhere. Today wireless LANs are becoming more widely recognized as general purpose connectivity alternative for a broad range of business customers. Decreasing costs of WLAN equipment has also brought it to many homes.20 19 April 2008 Franklin.windowsnetworking. the building materials that they are constructed from and of course the coverage that the LAN is expected to provide19.html . companies that need common shared facilities. Their use is inevitable. Also It is very important cause it combines data connectivity with user mobility. it transmits and receives data over the air. Large future markets are estimated to be in health care. Economic benefits in the aspect of setting wireless network in the buildings or places where is very difficult to lay cables and where drilling walls is very expensive. those who will use temporary offices for example for campaign where is bad to involve money in LAN infrastructure and than to leave that environment. This leads to a number of benefits which can be economic and educational. Also educational benefits for students who are computing with wireless connectivity this means new methods into classrooms and new educational possibilities for exploring. Tom Wireless Local Area Network 2001 20 http://www. its ideal thing for travelers and commuters which have to be connected One important issue for Wireless LANs is their cost. So far WLANs have been installed in universities. minimizing the need for wired connections. Basic wireless LANs It is a flexible data communication system.12 | P a g e Figure 5. so users with access to a LAN can share applications and devices anywhere in LAN. It will depend on the infrastructure already in that place.com/articles_tutorials/Introduction-Wireless-Networking-Part1. the configuration of the campus including the buildings. and other major public places. making rooms flexible and extend coverage to new areas etc. airports. Who mostly needs wireless LAN? Wireless mostly needs those who cannot run wires through the environment or those who live in places where wires cannot be set up.
wikipedia. Both cellular telephones and wireless WAN PC Cards have the ability to make voice calls as well as pass data traffic on wireless WAN networks. or even globally and are provided by a wireless service provider such as: AT&T Wireless. As we now the signal produced y Wireless LAN will pass through walls which means that hackers does not even need to be inside the premises to access LAN. and access to all their data and applications with high-speed cellular access from anywhere with wireless WAN network coverage. These cellular technologies are offered regionally. WWAN today and tomorrow22 April 2008 21 22 http://en. and so is LAN. a user would have the best of both technologies. Network cards Network cards for wireless Networks are more expensive than those for wired networks. so there is also the option of making voice calls over a wireless WAN. Although wireless LANs and wireless WANs may appear to be competing technologies. Wireless WANs are used to give Internet connectivity over a much broader coverage area. It also has a number of disadvantages. e-mail and corporate applications and information even while away from their offices or home. Used together. Interference from other devices Wireless LANs frequencies are part of unlicensed spectrum which is shared among many devices. Sprint PCS or Verizon for a monthly usage fee21. they are far more useful as complementary technologies. Standards still evolving Standards are still rapidly evolving and sometimes they are not compatible with each other because there are many organizations from many countries which have been defining various standards. Cingular Wireless. we mentioned above so many impressing things about wireless LANs. A WWAN differs from a WLAN since it uses cellular network technologies such as GPRS / CDMA2000 / GSM / CDPD / Mobitex to transfer data. Wireless WAN has been utilizes since the mid 1980s and it is a communications network utilizing devices such as telephone lines.org/wiki/WWAN/ Microsoft . It allows users to have access to the Internet. and microwaves to span a larger geographic area than can be covered by a local area network. But nothing in this world is perfect.org/wiki/WWAN http://en. satellite dishes. antennas. Also its easier to monitor the traffic on the network and so acquire user names and passwords. As disadvantages we can mention: Security Wired LANs are more secure than Wireless ones. and be inside the firewall. Till now it doesn’t seems as great problem but as we see the number of wireless devices is increasing and this may be a serious problem in the future. microwave cookers and Bluetooth.wikipedia.Wireless WAN Interface . For example we can mention that the card for Ethernet start at £ 10 and wireless cards start at around £ 60. Even that the price is going down everyday more it still they cannot be as cheap as wired cards cause they are more complex ones. nationwide. offering high-speed wireless access in a campus area. These include cordless telephones. Wireless WANs use existing cellular telephone networks. garage door openers.13 | P a g e So.
11b wireless LAN standard transfers data at speeds of up to 11 Mbps. GPRS networks offer a maximum user data rate of over 115 kbps if all eight timeslots in a cell are allocated for data transmission. WWAN today and tomorrow With wireless WAN. Sierra Wireless 24 25 . “ Bob Floyd23 Vice president-Service Delivery Operations America Technology Services Comparing Wireless LAN with Wireless WAN Now that we know the basic concepts for Wireless LAN and Wireless WAN we can make a comparison between them. 802. HP provides on-site technical support faster than ever before — and at less cost.com/business/resources/CaseStudy_HP. April 2008 - Wireless WAN speeds differ depending on the technology used. Sierra Wireless White paper . Coverage is generally offered on a nationwide level with wireless network infrastructure provided by a wireless service carrier.pdf White paper . WWAN brought many benefits to many companies and satisfaction to the employers as we see from the quotation. Wireless WANs . customer satisfaction is up and support costs are down. covers a much more extensive area than wireless LANs.11a. “The wireless WAN has dramatically improved the way we service our customers. for mobile users such as business travelers or field service technicians. The next version. A wireless wide area network (Wireless WAN). (one timeslot can provide between 9 and 21 kbps25) 23 http://www. 2002 November 18. Wireless WANs . Wireless LANs vs.sprint. decreasing as more users share the same wireless LAN connection. Wireless LANs vs.14 | P a g e Today PC Cards Cell Phones NDIS using custom OIDs Modem Emulation Longhorn Embedded Radio Modules PC Cards Cell Phones WWAN NDIS Interface Device Types Driver Model Features Custom configuration software Complicated OOB configuration No integration with WLAN Difficult to get Windows logo No test tools provided Extensible Native WWAN UI Easy OOB configuration Enables WLAN-WWAN Roaming Easy to get Windows logo Test tool included with beta Table 2. wireless WANs are used to give Internet connectivity over a much broader coverage area. While wireless LANs are used to allow network users to be mobile within a small fixed area. is supposed to transfer data at speeds of up to 54 Mbps24. with typical rates of between 1–4 Mbps. 2002 November 18. We can compare them in these fields: 1) Speed 802.
These (hotspots) enable users to access the network either free of charge. a user would have the best of both technologies. Security can be increased on wireless LANs by using shared key authentication.11 networks (WLANs). similar to a wireless phone subscription. Security is one of the biggest strengths for cellular wireless networks (WWANs) and one of the biggest weaknesses in 802. April 2008 . and access to all their data and applications with high-speed cellular access from anywhere with wireless WAN network coverage.11 connection. 3) Hotspots Hotspots are wireless LANs available to the public in a location. offering high-speed wireless access in a campus area. coffee shop. Used together.15 | P a g e 2) Data security Security is one of the most important features when using a wireless network. This shared key must be delivered through a secure method other than the 802. 4) Costs Since wireless LANs operate in the unlicensed frequency range. like an airport. the wireless network is acting as your Internet service provider by providing access to the Internet over their wireless network. The wireless provider therefore charges a monthly subscription rate to their network. there is no service cost for using a private wireless LAN. As a great SOLUTION is to WLAN and WWAN work together. There will be a monthly Internet service provider cost for accessing the Internet through your wireless LAN access point For cellular wireless WANs. or for a fee paid to the network operator. or city neighborhood.
16 | P a g e Wireless Standards All standard that are developed for Wireless Network have one author.11(for local WLAN) and WMAN Wireless LAN standard defines the protocols and compatible interconnection of data communication tools by means of the air. and re-association services and an optional encryption/decryption procedure are includes by the protocols. and a point coordination function for time bounded transfer of data. Below in this chapter we will describe more details about WLAN IEEE 802.1) and specifies the MAC protocol in a formal way. using the Specification and Description Language (SDL). it is the IEEE or Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. The standard includes the definition of the management information base (MIB) using Abstract Syntax Notation 1 (ASN.000 individual members in approximately 175 countries that is an authority in technical areas such as computer engineering and telecommunications. verification. MAC or the medium access control supports operation under control of an access point as well as between independent stations.1 and SDL source code have been added on a floppy diskette. Both ASN. IEEE is a non-profit.16. IEEE 802. infrared or radio in a LAN using the carrier sense multiple access protocol with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) medium sharing mechanism.15 and WMAN IEEE 802.11 IEEE Standards are documents that are developed within the Technical Committees of the IEEE Societies and the Standards Coordinating Committees of the IEEE Standards Board. Thereafter we will talk about characteristics for WPAN IEEE 802. The figure below enables us to show the relationship between the IEEE standard 802. April 2008 .11 (that is part of a family of standards for local (WLAN) and metropolitan area networks (WMAN)) and other members of the family: Figure 6. association. The standards developed within IEEE represent a consensus of the broad expertise on the subject within the Institute as well as those activities outside of IEEE that have expressed an interest in participating in the development of the standard.11 Standard especially its architecture and subsets. IEEE standard 802. technical professional association of more than 360. Power management to reduce power consumption in mobile stations.
" and as a result usually temporary.11 LAN standard. because it describes the components that interact to provide a wireless LAN that supports location mobility transparently to its upper layers. Architecture of IEEE 802." further meaning "for this purpose only. In figure 1 shows two IBSS. or which may be mounted on moving vehicles within a local area (this is used in games). Figure 7. which may be manageable or hand-held. each of which has two stations that are members of the BSS. If a station moves out of its BSS.11 Wireless LAN is the Basic service set or BSS because all radio-related functions are performed in the BSS. especially one with wireless or temporary plug-in connections. or stations that require rapid deployment. In Latin. It is useful to think of the ovals used to represent a BSS as the exposure area within which the member stations of the BSS may stay behind in communication.” The independent BSS or IBSS is the most basic type of IEEE 802. This type of operation is often April 2008 . ad hoc exactly means "for this. “An ad-hoc (sometimes known as a "spontaneous") network is a local area network or other small network. in the case of mobile or portable devices.11.11 stations are able to communicate directly is possible IBSS. in which some of the network devices are part of the network only for the duration of a communications session or. constricts of base station controller (BSC) and the base transceiver station (BTS). This standard also offers regulatory bodies a resource of standardizing access to one or more frequency bands for the purpose of local area communication. In figure 1 show two BSS. A minimum IEEE 802. equipment. The independent BSS as an ad hoc network Firstly. When IEEE 802.17 | P a g e The main purpose of this standard is to provide wireless connectivity to automatic machinery. it can no longer directly communicate with other members of the BSS. let we say few words about ad hoc network (including the definition) and them we will describe the independent BSS as an ad hoc network. BSC provides all the control functions and physical links between the MSC (mobile services switching center) and BTS whereby handles the radio interface to the mobile station.11 LAN may consist of only two stations. The fundamental construction Block of an IEEE 802.11 standard One most important part of Wireless LAN Standard is the architecture of IEEE 802. while in some close proximity to the rest of the network.
The distribution system mediums (DSM) are separates from the wireless medium logically IEEE 802. Those subsets or substandard are used because Wireless LAN works with different frequency range. signals and some others characteristics that we will describe bellow for each subset. Distribution system concepts For some networks. Instead of existing competition. a BSS may also form a component of an extended form of network that is built with multiple BSS. It has a shorter range than 802.11b. The IEEE 802.85 GHz) with a maximum 54Mbit/sec. Figure 8.11 wireless LAN standard inland has 9 subsets. The addresses used by an AP for communication on the WM and on the DSM are not necessarily the same. The 5-GHz frequency band isn't as crowded as the 2.11b and isn't well-matched with 802. 802.18 | P a g e referred to as an ad hoc network. 802. the physical limitations agree on the direct station-to-station distance that may be supported.11b April 2008 .125 to 5. this distance is sufficient. it is dynamic (increased reporting is required). for the reason that this type of standard is often formed with no pre-planning. signaling rate.4-GHz frequency because it offers considerably more radio channels than the 802. for only as long as the LAN is needed. is essentially newer than 802. data move between a BSS and the DS via an AP. The architectural component used to interconnect BSS is the distribution system (DS). As a result. For some others networks this distance is not constant.11a operates in the 5-GHz frequency range (5.11a IEEE 802.11 subsets The IEE 802. An access point (AP) is a station (STA) that provides access to the DS by providing DS services in addition to acting as a station.11 standard. The distribution system enables mobile device support by providing the logical services necessary to handle address to destination mapping and seamless integration of multiple BSS.11g.11b and is used by smaller number applications. It’s coherent that each logical medium is used for different component of course for purposes of architecture.
11e quality-of-service specification is designed to guarantee the quality of voice and video traffic.4 to 2. cellular telephones. medical and scientific equipment.1 was adapted from the Bluetooth specification and is completely compatible with Bluetooth 1.11g Similar t o 802.11b. The first version of this standard.11k Radio Resource Management standard will provide measurement information for access points and switches to make wireless LANs run more efficiently.11k Predicted for ratification in mid-2006. It may. April 2008 . the 802. developed by Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standards Association (IEEE-SA).15 A wireless personal area network (WPAN) has its standard as wireless LAN. along with 802.11e Ratified in late September of 2005. 802. Parameters for wireless communications among portable digital devices including notebook computers.4-GHz Industrial. all work within the 2.11n The Standard for Enhancements for Higher Throughput is designed to raise effective WLAN throughput to more than 100Mbit/sec. 802. This is a very commonly used frequency. It is predicted to be ratified in mid-2008. as well as Bluetooth devices. 802.4835 GHz) and provides signaling rates of up to 11Mbit/sec. Microwave ovens. 802. The specification also allows for connection to the Internet. This is especially important in applications that need low latency and high quality-of-service standards such as voice-over-WLAN. the 802. the 802.19 | P a g e Operates in the 2.11i was ratified in June 2004. Scientific and Measurement (ISM) band (2.11r Fast Roaming standard will address maintaining connectivity as a user moves from one access point to another.1.11s This standard will deal with mesh networking.4-GHz ISM band but uses a different radio technology to boost overall throughput. 802.1x authentication and key management features. for example. peripherals.4-GHz ISM band. and consumer electronic devices are familiar and usually used by Bluetooth. 802. 802. Final ratification is expected in late 2006. It also operates in the heavily used 2. but this standard supports signaling rates of up to 54Mbit/sec.15. better distribute traffic loads across access points or allow dynamic adjustments of transmission power to minimize interference.15.11r Expected to be ratified in mid to late 2006. The name of this standard is IEEE standard 802. 802. It will be particularly important for companies interested in using Wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi) phones. it was approves in 2002.11i Sometimes called Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 (WPA 2). beepers. cordless phones. WPA 2 supports the 128-bit -and-above Advanced Encryption Standard. IEEE standard 802. 802.
security supplies. Thanks to 75 MHz of spectrum recently allocated by the FCC for dedicated short range communications. and power management. Inland this standard is created a platform that enables to build a broadband wireless industry using high-rate systems that install quickly without extensive metropolitan cable infrastructures. It is advanced from principles to support multimedia services like a videoconferencing.16a is one of them.16 standard has its subsets.S. Research to develop this cooperative communication network between vehicles and the road is being conducted under the U. It addresses the "first-mile and last-mile" connection in wireless metropolitan area networks.16 IEEE 802. in underway we are going to explain more details which are in relations with mobile telecommunication. particularly SDL-88.4-GHz band. CTIA or the Cellular Telecommunications & Internet Association is the international organization that aims to represent all elements of wireless communication . Plans of IEEE are to refine the 802. IEEE 802.11 standard and Wireless MAN IEEE 802. April 2008 . The TG4 version provides data speeds of 20 Kbps or 250 Kbps. SDL-92. It also. personal communications services. and SDL-2000 updates of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) recommendation Z. The physical layer is optimized for bands from 10 to 66 GHz. IEEE standard 802. Highlights of the Wireless Home The car company “Chrysler” will demo a crash-proof wireless-enabled car of the future. Akin the Wireless LAN IEEE 802. There also are includes optional mesh architecture.15 specification to work with the Specification and Description Language (SDL). in partnership with the automotive industry and state departments of transportation. There will be 16 channels in the 2. It has a new look and feel this year that is sure to capture the attention of everyone in attendance".16 standard enables interoperability between devices from multiple manufacturers. voice. includes a medium access control layer (MAC) that supports multiple physical layer specifications. "The wireless home is a terrific way to demonstrate the wireless lifestyle. full handshaking. Each year we become more and more wireless in our everyday lives.15 Working Group proposes two general categories of 802. vice president and show director for CTIA WIRELESS.20 | P a g e The IEEE 802. and one channel in the 868-MHz band. This smart car can also transmit anonymous traffic data to traffic operation centers and deliver real-time information to news outlets and other drivers. called TG4 (low rate) and TG3 (high rate). and gaming. manufacturers and others.16 is a Wireless Metropolitan area network standard for 10 to 66 GHz published by Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. The IEEE 802. approves in 2002. and the home is a great way to demonstrate the pervasiveness of this medium. Department of Transportation's Intelligent Transportation Program. Added skin contain the use of up to 254 network devices.100. said Robert Mesirow.cellular. an in-board unit will communicate wirelessly with roadside units and alert the driver if he/she is in danger of drifting off the road. 10 channels in the 915-MHz band.15. dynamic device addressing. enhanced specialized mobile radio and mobile satellite services and serves the interests of service providers. support for devices in which latency is critical. The TG3 version supports data speeds ranging from 11 Mbps to 55 Mbps. Wireless Home Our focus within this chapter is to describe the concept of Wireless Home.
Developed for mass-market devices. In the powder room. visitors will experience how mobile operators can take advantage of fullyintegrated age verification. booklets or figurines. This display will be used to recognize members of a household and in return. this device will enable music. Because of this fact. The Samsung i830 world phone is an international favorite that can be used virtually anywhere your travels may take you with its dual mode GSM/CDMA functionality. Accenture will display an online medicine cabinet that integrates smart labels. cholesterol and blood sugar. content access controls. Bluetooth wireless technology. mobile phone data backup and restore solution that empowers and protects the mobile lifestyle. On display in the child's bedroom. movies. pictures. doctor's appointments and medication reminders. content filtering and usage controls. built-in QWERTY keyboard. voice synthesis and flat panel displays. T-shirts. and EVDO connectivity for faster data transfer. Because it is connected to the Internet. Also from Accenture this year is a media transformation prototype -. pulse rate.a novel approach to media storage that replaces the CD/DVD format by almost any shape or form. CTIA WIRELESS 2006 brings together all industries within the communications ecosystem and all those affected by wireless technology for three days of intense learning and networking. video games and other interactive media to be embedded into standardized forms smaller than a credit card or other creative shapes such as concert tickets. you can monitor vital signs such as blood pressure. parents and administrators from Web-based or handset-based interfaces. Also on display in the living room. In the family room. For sure that for every parent is very important the safety and security of children. The home office is where wireless technology first made its entry into the home. April 2008 . display a list of personalized health reminders such as allergy alerts. mobile computing and wireless Internet industry and the largest wireless show in the world.8 GHz digital expandable. face recognition. Mobile Guardian comes into play. In the same time with the device. speakerphone. advanced speech recognition. MP3 player. and music to a secure VeriSign server where you can manage your data directly from a phone or online "virtual locker. all of this information can be shared securely with physicians and pharmacists from the comfort and the convenience of your home. Accenture will demonstrate smart metering with a series of networked intelligent meters and appliances that allow utility companies to better monitor energy usage Wireless technology is just scratching the service of what is possible in kitchens today! Samsung's Internet refrigerator is the "brains" of the kitchen. A camera located at the front door integrates with the phone system and enhances any security system. but technology for this important room certainly hasn't stopped evolving! The Kyocera KR1 Mobile Router creates a wireless broadband network and functions like an access point supporting multiple computers and devices with high-speed wireless data services. video. and it will even send a warning if you pick up the wrong medication. and how this product allows all aspects of mobile service to be controlled directly by subscribers. cordless phone system that connects to a Bluetooth mobile phone and has audio/video monitoring capabilities. unauthorized and harmful content and contact from mobile phones." As the premiere global event representing the complete wireless. providing operators with an end-to-end solution that blocks unwanted. Backup Plus stores your valuable mobile data such as contacts.21 | P a g e Use of this technology maximizes efficiency and reduces costs for the consumer. the i830 is packed with Windows(R) Pocket PC applications. Motorola's C51 Communication System is a 5. VeriSign's Backup Plus is an over-the-air.
and not just with one. In the full mesh topology. but certainly not the most interesting one of them. and they provide a reliable.php . It implies that Wireless mesh networking is reliable and resilient. but also as a router.wikipedia.” 26 The mesh networking is not a thing which is new. which is self-configured and self-organized. So. because information from one node is transmitted just to the other next node. Figure 9. voice and other stuffs. as the name says.org/wiki/Wireless_mesh_network http://www. especially in adverse conditions. That is a smarter and an efficient way of combining two components (ex: computers) for transmitting data. but every one of them is linked with many others.surfability.” 28 With this kind of networking we are in the benefit. about the Wireless mesh networks. is “mesh networking implemented over a Wireless LAN. not all of the other nodes”. This type of network. That’s why when mentioning Wireless mesh network. there were mentioned many types of the wireless networks. The connection between nodes is established automatically and that mesh connectivity is maintained among them-selves. we mean about network. whose job is to find another route for transmitting the same data. In the partial mesh topology nodes are connected to only some. There “are ’multihop’ systems in which devices assist each other in transmitting packets through the network. full mesh topology or partial mesh topology. each node is connected directly to each of the others.com/pub/a/wireless/2004/01/22/wirelessmesh. wireless mesh network. 27 Let’s go back where we start. The reasons for using the Wireless mesh networks aren’t in small numbers. A better definition stands from Tomas Krag and Sebastian Büettrich.oreillynet. In the most important ones. if a node is off (from damage). except that are smaller. who defined it as a “network that employs one of two connection arrangements. Wireless mesh networks are networks which are similar to Internet. we are numbering: 26 27 28 April 2008 http://en. flexible system that can be extended to thousands of devices.com/ITC/mesh. They operate not only as a host. her work is done by her neighbors.html http://www. This type of continuous connection is established with hopping from node to node. You can drop these ad hoc networks into place with minimal preparation. Nodes organized in a mesh network Those nodes play the role of mesh routers and mesh clients.22 | P a g e Wireless Mesh Network Until now.
scalable wireless network. Ease and simplicity: If you have a box that is pre-installed with wireless mesh software and uses standard wireless protocols such as 802.”30 Later one. available online(from 1 January 2005) .oreillynet.11b Access Points (MeshAPs) that create a single. and attach whatever antennas are required for it to reach one or more existing neighboring nodes (assuming that we can solve the issue of IP address allocation). Network robustness: The character of mesh topology and ad-hoc routing promises greater stability in the face of changing conditions or failure at single nodes. desktops. 1. Moreover. Power generating units are typically connected to points of infrastructure and human presence. Since routes are configured dynamically. X. (A side comment: Piggybacking mesh networks on projects that primarily aim at energy production might be a very feasible strategy – with every panel or windmill. it is often enough to simply drop the box into the network. chances are she can see one or more neighboring users. Reality fit: Reality rarely comes as a star. Power: The substrate nodes of a mesh network – possibly excepting those nodes that maintain an up-link to the Internet – can be built with extremely low power requirements. Consequently.) equipped with wireless network interface card (NICs) can connect directly to wireless mesh routers. Built around standard 802. wireless-fidelity (Wi-Fi). WiMedia networks. Wang. The gateway MeshAPs (that is. ring or a straight line.com/pub/a/wireless/2004/01/22/wirelessmesh. wind. This means it also integrates nicely outdoors as well as in human housing. which will quite likely be under rough and experimental conditions.11 radios have become quite cheap. etc. we have to add just another MeshAP. PocketPCs. W. Organization and business models: The decentralized nature of mesh networks lends itself well to a decentralized ownership model wherein each participant in the network owns and maintains their own hardware. “using a series of special 802. worldwide inter-operability for microwave access (WiMAX). Thus. local broadband. which can greatly simplify the financial and community aspects of the system. Wang: “Wireless mesh networks: a survey”.surfability. through an integrated WMN. for example.html http://www. in order we want the network we have to become bigger in size.11b/g. or hydro power. In difficult terrain – be that urban or remote – where not every user can see one or few central points. meaning that they can be deployed as completely autonomous units with solar. noiseless.. the presence of integrated network nodes within power networks may aloe for better monitoring and management.”31 29 30 31 http://www. wireless sensor.g. The fact that each mesh node runs both as a client and as a repeater potentially means saving on the number of radios needed and thus the total budget.) Integration: Mesh hardware is typically small. dial-up modem. “Conventional nodes (e. ISDN or even a self contained GSM/GPRS module for really unconnected locations. “ 29 April 2008 How is created this kind of network?! It’s very easy. the MeshAP that is connected to the internet) can obtain its internet access from WiFi. Ethernet. PDAs.F. the setup is extremely simple. access to the networks is similar. This makes them valid locations for network nodes.com/ITC/mesh. Customers without wireless NICs can access WMNs by connecting to wireless mesh routers through.11b (WiFi) Hardware. the gateway/bridge functionalities in mesh routers enable the integration of WMNs with warious existing wireless networks such as cellular. Introduction. the users of existing network can be provided with otherwise impossible services of these networks. and that with a standard WiFi network card. As a secondary benefit. and easy encapsulated in weatherproof boxes. but the radios are often still among the most expensive elements of such network. WMNs will greatly help the users to be always-on-line anywhere anytime. a node. phones. laptops.php I.Akyildiz.23 | P a g e “Price: 802.
html . GNU Zebra is free software that manages TCP/IP-based routing protocols. Mobile Mesh protocol contains three separate protocols.html http://www.”33 April 2008 32 33 http://www.oreillynet. wireless mesh networks are gaining traction. and is distributed under the GNU General Public License. The importance differs from one to another. keep in mind they’re best suited for large indoor and outdoor spaces where cabling doesn’t exist and the design of the network is the most critical factor for completing a successful implementation. using MITRE Mobile Mesh routing software. all they try to manage one job.com/pub/a/wireless/2004/01/22/wirelessmesh. strong reliability. But. or Topology Broadcast based on Reverse-Path Forwarding. LocustWorld develops a free bootable CD solution based on the AODV protocol. which provides hopby-hop routing along minimum hop paths to each destination. Border Discovery The Mobile Mesh software is covered by the GNU General Public License (Version 2). and also develops and sells a complete ready-to-deploy MeshBox running its software. It is not subject to copyright protection and is in the public domain.com/issues/issue200507/00001406003. RIPv2. The German company 4G Mobile Systems has developed a tiny MeshCube running Debian Linux on a MIPS processor. Routing 3. It seems it is patentprotected unless it becomes an IETF standard. including the Wireless mesh networks. ease of deployment and a lower cost than many existing options make wireless mesh networks a very attractive and affordable alternative. As city governments. and that is better communication rules between sides. It supports BGP-4 protocol as described in RFC1771 (A Border Gateway Protocol 4) s well as RIPv1.dominopower. It is released as part of the GNU Project. link-state routing protocol designed for mobile as-hoc networks. faster speed. metropolitan areas and businesses evaluate mesh networks. Different approaches are review hereinafter: “AODV is a routing protocol for ad-hoc networks designed with mobile wireless devices in mind. The promise of more complete coverage. standards and products. 4G MeshCube. is a proactive. This is a ready-to-deploy gateway with both a wireless and a wired interface.”32 As a conclusion: “Clearly. OSPF is a link-state routing protocol.24 | P a g e Today’s network technology is filled up with many protocols. With a power consumption of 4W (and potentially lower). Link Discovery 2. most (but not all) of which is available under the GPL. The Mesh Box and mesh software have been used in a number of community networks in the UK. and OSPFv2. Each OSPF router maintains an identical database describing the Autonomous System’s topology. it is ideal for deployment with an autonomous sustainable power source. From this database. each addressing a specific function: 1. TBRPF. a routing table is calculated by constructing a shortest-path tree. It is designed to be run internal to a single Autonomous System.
18. X. “most of the interest in this technology has come from municipalities wanting to provide citywide data networking to police. etc. This means that for most of us is difficult to pay such cost for highly specialized electronic equipment we will use only once or twice. and this is not the end. Tempe. “to strengthen the market penetration and secure the success of WMNs. but as you get into network design and reliability. But. firefighters and other public employees. In these cases you will not find diagnostic programs. good. Practically wireless networking is not as logical or measurable as tests you may perform on a hard drive or serial I/O port. or excellent indication. what is 34 35 April 2008 http://www.1540. but instead.25 | P a g e Figure 10. In fact. Conclusion.00. you need something more absolute than a poor/weak. are starting to joint the Wireless mesh network also Taipei.”35 Wireless Networks Software Fixing problems wireless technology need some extra tool that maybe indirect tool.asp I. Wang: “Wireless mesh networks: a survey”. Some cities and grassroots organizations are offering Internet access via mesh topology. However there are a few examples of adapter card–specific signal strength and network availability monitors that provide a good relative indication of signal strength. This more to see what is happening to the radio signal or data’s that are passing between adapter and access point or between adapters in one “ad hoc” network. Wang. and network packet sniffers/analyzers—to assess the environment of and around a wireless network installation. An example of a WMN in a city We can freely say that this technology is promising a lot for the generations that come. die-hard techies and serious radio frequency engineers will use high tech equipment that cost like expensive test equipment—signal generators. the city of Philadelphia is planning an ambitious project of this sort. Of course to manage these tests.”34 With Philadelphia. available online(from 1 January 2005) . Cities often can mount the required equipment on light poles throughout area. metering software that provides some visualizations of wireless signals.F.com/article2/0.1858551. W. In the USA.. more research is needed. spectrum analyzers.baselinemag.Akyildiz.
The interaction of users with wireless. Through wireless and all that it promises for networking and applications outside of pure computing. Linux and UNIX in general. goof protection progress that has been made in the WinTel (Windows+Intel) market recently. TCP/IP versus IPX/SPX. at least in the context of wireless networking. plug-andplay. there are ways to get Linux to do at least one thing it is good at with wireless devices—routing. compile. UNIX systems have far to go. need more user-friendly tools. But. only to fail to get a simple wireless network card or two to work. This fact makes all Windows and Mac networks system administrators. This can be done without immersing yourself in the struggles of getting this card or that to be recognized and automatically configured April 2008 . They have found ways to present us the information that will help to make sense of this invisible connection between computers and networks. There is quit big need for manual about steps through UNIX system configuration for the masses. this does not mean that Windows and Macintosh users are not left in the dark. or variants and workarounds in between. many programmers took it upon themselves to find out how these new wireless devices work and pulled out some very valuable data.26 | P a g e needed is something that will tell you in known absolute values which signals exist nearby. untar. But in order to assess security. decipher log files. All this results are coming to us through the features. but purely the same technology and the same terms applicable to all platforms. this more for wireless applications. link. who do not know to use Linux. Of course hiring this type of consultants has usually high cost. or program simply functions. trying to breach your network’s borders. It is not about replacing wires with invisible energy fields. debug. AirSnort and WEPCrack. However. Most of us do not want to GUnzip. learn C and shell scripting to be able to read and extract salient bits of command parameters. feature. some degree of detailed technical support must exist with or for the user. abiding respect for UNIX experts and the many great things about UNIX-based systems. The results are several programs that can help to see and somehow understand what is going on in one wireless networking environments. AirSnort and WEPCrack could be labeled as tools that have been designed only for the purpose of hacking into someone’s wireless network. decipher and edit obscure and esoteric configuration file parameters. with motives unknown. and admitted limitations of what a wireless network adapter can reveal to us. before it can make a dent in the Windows market. auto recovery. and how strong they are Fortunately. In terms of realizing the userfriendly attributes that make an operating system approachable and practical ore at least tolerable to work with. Better you using these tools on yourself and tightening up security than someone unknown. users of these platforms must configure and exchange a variety of common information in order to establish a common networking ground. it is need more time to find information on the internet to get various fragments of information that finally can help getting a wireless adapter to work with Linux. In this direction the most known applications for determining wireless network security levels. firewall. Saying that the world of Linux is a good ground for some of the deepest and most profound network and internet innovation. In the same time the tools used to monitor and analyze wireless and security is not in same level available for all platforms. signal integrity. wireless security and failure analysis bring these platforms together. Herewith should be underlined that most of those programs are for Linux systems. but this genre of operating system is still about five years behind the DOS-to-Windows. In reality. functions. you need something or someone to try to breach it. three distinct computing platforms are thrust into working together at the same time. It is no longer AppleTalk versus NetBIOS. and access control. It is that all at once. UNIX/Linux It can deal with the operating system just so much before becoming frustrated at the lack of concise step-by-step documentation to get you quickly to the point where a new device. and do so over and over again for 12 to 24 hours. to try to learn it quickly or to hire a consultant from outside to help them to assess the security for their networks. For Linux to be viable. next to the Internet. are available only for Linux/UNIX platforms. that brings these separate and distinct platforms together for the good of all. Wireless may be the one thing. These are not religious or philosophical issues.
For all the easy-to-use hype. logical accessibility to essential system and feature configuration that would make it about 110 percent easier to do many common. or the other low-level sniffing tools with an external wireless device. But there is a lot missing from the Mac. troubleshoot. Anritsu. using external wireless bridges or access points connected to an otherwise ubiquitous Ethernet card in the Linux system. Expensive and precise test equipment from Agilent (formerly Hewlett-Packard’s test equipment division). and the software that comes with your network card. If you need more specific information about a particular network product. If you have accomplished getting a peripheral component interconnect (PCI) or personal computer (PC) card-based wireless adapter to work with Linux. OS X is the best thing to happen to Apple since it first hit the market. This shortfall does not prevent you from using Windows for access control or as a gateway for a wireless network. you will not be able to use AirSnort. download. Apple Macintosh The lack of information and easy. For more intense wireless projects. expected things in this context. you are probably familiar with many of the tools and discussion groups available that helped get you through the experience and allowed you to play with wireless all you wanted. Tektronix. and install several different third-party tools to provide these features to OS 9. Summary (about Wireless Standard) Wireless networking support provided in the current operating systems. G4s. program installations there is a need to maintain about 10 Mac G3s. technology. because no amount of software for any operating system will help you. Maybe there is hope. Windows for desktops provides Internet connection sharing. you will find the software and information links provided here to be invaluable in getting you farther along into a robust and secure wireless infrastructure. and support Ethernet connections. and will host RADIUS and other forms of access control and user authentication. Microsoft Windows Although Microsoft Windows is in advantage for personal and business computing. Of course on the internet you will be amazed at the wealth of specific data available. you can probably find a suitable local vendor to help you design and build a network to suit your needs. Common. is a concern for many users as well. but apparently that is asking too much. or problem. or use your favorite Web search engine.27 | P a g e at boot time. can help on easily jump in on the basics of the wireless wave. Windows 2000 can act as a remote access server to a LAN or the Internet. and a few iBooks. While you avoid the trials and tribulations of configuring Linux for wireless. WEPCrack. only because OS X offers a full range of UNIX-based network troubleshooting tools—at least PING and TRACEROUTE— without having to scrounge for. If you feel the prospect of implementing a wireless network is way over your head. control panels. expected things with a Macintosh operating system. or Motorola are the only solution in case you need to know more about the signals floating around in the wireless spectrum. leaving the sniffing and packet analysis to those with more time on their hands. IFR. April 2008 . at least is expected one complete panel of “idiot lights” to tell us what is happening or not with these systems. mean being able to install. Even settle for a simple Link LED indicator for the Ethernet connection I acceptable. consult any of the Web sites and list servers listed. To become familiar with the user interface. the number of wireless-specific tools available for Windows falls well behind Linux. but the practical goal is wireless + Linux.
com/wi-fi-security-introduction-overview. O’Reilly.3 Security Considerations. January 2002 38 The NIST Handbook. Accountability – The actions of an entity must be traceable uniquely to that entity. First Edition. “There are a couple of reasons why wireless networks are currently less secure than their wired counterparts.28 | P a g e Wireless Networks Security With the good. in many cases is making benefits to people. unanticipated. Special Publication 800-48 . Owens. or capturing data sent over the network to analyze it for information. Chapter 3. But. time on his hands and a lot of nerves while trying to decode some banks accounts. also in places that wires cannot.jiwire. is plenty with risks. Anyone on range can receive all traffic sent over the wireless network. we should try to make maximum security but with minimum problems in communication between users of the network. states that information must be protected from unauthorized. Network Layout – 3. Wireless Network Security – 802. or unintentional modification.S. which the NIST handbook An Introduction to Computer Security generically classifies in nine categories ranging from errors and omissions to threat to personal privacy. After all. is harmless for the people. Building Wireless Community Networks. Karygiannis and L. “NIST Special Publication (SP) 800-26. Security requirements include the following: Authenticity – A third party must be able to verify that the content of a message has not been changed in transit. always comes the other part: the bad. Special Publication 800-12. Thus. Those network stakes. the network users. Technology Administration. We all agree that wireless technology. Vulnerability doesn’t come just from the humans. Department of Commerce. First off. An Introduction to Computer Security 39 T. a modern thief.”38 The risks that comes from these threats. broadcasting a signal out over an area. from someone interested for information. Security Self-Assessment Guide for Information Technology Systems. There are many threats that come to the computers in network. or saying with another words. how can any data sent into the open air be secure?”36 Almost every day we hear about some tries to access to some network. like a new way of making connections between two sides. They ate wireless. No wires equal easier access to the network for everyone. NIST. and those in good number. the balance must be found. there is the fact of their physical nature. U. “Suddenly. undoubtedly it comes with many risks.11. because if we close our eyes. but he seats in front of his computer. for the reason that is making connection among them.htm Rob Flickenger. that wont disappears. will right we can say that are raised with wireless. that is. Nonrepudiation – The origin of the receipt of a specific message must be verifiable by a third party. This also makes one of the most popular ‘hacking’ tactics vastly easier: ‘packet sniffing’. one no longer needs physical presence to log data: shy bother trying to smuggle equipment onsite when you can crack from your own home or office two blocks away with a highgain antenna?”37 The balance between making an easy connection for an average user and a safety one is not an easy job. “The term “wireless security” may seem a contradiction in terms. Often. and on the other side we have the most cryptographically sound method on the planet for authenticating a user to the system. Any computer within this area with the correct equipment can be considered to be ‘connected to the network’. who doesn’t want to besmirch his hands. The first and the most important one of them is its security. Bluetooth and Handheld Devices.”39 Wireless networks. Our job is to face with it. but especially humans. but also from the other sources of wireless signals. 36 37 April 2008 http://www. We haven’t done any work if we couldn’t made a simpler form of checking the e-mail from any user. and of course for their data (information). It is a thing which is vulnerable to human hacking or biological bugs. Those are equal to the sum of the risks of the operating a wired network (as in operating a network in general) plus the new risks introduced by weaknesses in wireless protocols. they gain their goal.
Karygiannis and L. Viruses or other malicious code may be corrupt data on a wireless device and be subsequently introduced to a wired network connection. through wireless connections.11..S. connect to other agencies for the purposes of launching attacks and concealing their activity. Denial of service (DoS) attacks may be directed at wireless connections or devices.11. may be able to gain connectivity to network management controls and thereby disable or disrupt operations.29 | P a g e Figure 11. Malicious entities may deploy unauthorized equipment (e. U. Technology Administration. Malicious entities may steal the identity of legitimate users and masquerade as them on internal or external corporate networks. 40 41 April 2008 http://www. Internal attacks may be possible via as hoc transmissions.”41 The 802. Special Publication 800-48 . current security methods for the most widely available wireless technology. Architecture Secondly. Wireless Network Security – 802. 802. untrusted wireless network services to gain access to an agency’s network resources. not 100% percent) in two ways: by WEP (wireless encryption protocol) and MAC addressing filter. Sensitive information that is not encrypted (or that is encrypted with poor cryptographic techniques) and that is transmitted between two wireless devices may be intercepted and disclosed. Malicious entities may gain unauthorized access to an agency’s computer or voice (IP telephony) network through wireless connections. client devices and access points) to surreptitiously gain access to sensitive information. Malicious entities may use a third party.11b.11b networks can be secured (normally. potentially bypassing any firewall protections. Owens. Bluetooth and Handheld Devices. Interlopers.cfm?articleID=1489 T. Data may be extracted without detection from improperly configured devices.com/articleview. Department of Commerce. Sensitive data may be corrupted during improper synchronization.”40 Threats and vulnerabilities that come next are some of the more salient ones of the wireless systems: “All the vulnerabilities that exist in a conventional wired network apply to wireless technologies. 802.pcstats. Malicious entities may.g. NIST. are either easy to defeat or difficult to implement. from inside or out.
not your name or something easily guessed. If possible. As important as installing the anti-virus software. which are mentioned by Tony Bradley: “Change the System ID: Devices come with a default system ID called the SSID (Service Set Identifier) or ESSID (Extended Service Set Identifier). you can easily shut out everyone who should not be on your network. shared RC4 PRNG (Pseudo-Random Number Generator) algorithm from RSA Data Security. you must keep it up to date. They are not the most technically advanced firewalls. New viruses are discovered daily and anti-virus software vendors generally release updates at least once a week. You already know you have one so you don’t need to broadcast it. also and this has its disadvantages. but they help create one more line of defense. Use something unique.g. Others can see those packets in the network traffic.11b standard. but ‘unfortunately’ they are encrypted. There are some basic precautions that we have to take. 128-bit keys impact performance slightly without a significant increase in security so 40-bit (or 64-bit on some equipment) encryption is just as well.11b standards. The default passwords are easily obtained and because so many people don’t bother to take the simple step of changing them they are usually what hackers try first. Disable Identifier Broadcasting: Announcing that you have a wireless connection to the world is an invitation for hackers. Agere and Cisco) have included 128-bit keys and dynamic key management. But we must have in minded that although these difficulties. Restrict Unnecessary Traffic: Many wired and wireless routers have built-in firewalls. an access point-to-point (peer-to-peer) group can associate only clients who know the “secret key”. It is easy for a hacker to find out what the default identifier is for each manufacturer of wireless equipment so you need to change this to something else. in practice it is shown that these cards from different manufacturers that use these extensions. This encryption key employs a 40-bit. As with all security measures there are ways around it. in order to make more difficult for curiosity seekers to get into our personal information. interoperate. Change the Default Administrator Password: This is just good practice for ALL hardware and software. The following are some steps.com/articles/paedia/security. You also must keep up to date with patches for known 42 April 2008 http://arstechnica. Because they are belong and defined by the 802. Because each card has its own individual address. and as the biggest one is the management aspect of it. but by using encryption you will keep the casual hackers out of your systems. 42 But.ars/3 . Patch and Protect Your PC’s: As a last line of defense you should have personal firewall software such as Zone Alarm Pro and anti-virus software installed on your computer. Check the manual for your hardware and figure out how to disable broadcasting. WEP has many holes and is easily cracked. it doesn’t mean that we shouldn’t use this kind of networking.. MAC address filtering is another way that people have tried to secure their networks over and above the 802. Make sure you change the default password on your wireless router / access point to something that is not easily guessed like your last name. They (e. Read the manual for your hardware and learn how to configure your router to only allow incoming or outgoing traffic that you have approved. There are manufacturers that have implemented their own proprietary extensions to WEP. if you limit access to the AP to only those MAC addresses of authorized devices. WPA fixes the security flaws in WEP but is still subject to DOS (denial-of-service) attacks.30 | P a g e With the packets encryption at the MAC layer. Enable Encryption: WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) and WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) encrypt your data so that only the intended recipient is supposed to be able to read it. The MAC address of a network card is a 12 digit hexadecimal number that is unique to each and every network card in the world. you should use WPA encryption (most older equipment can be upgraded to be WPA compatible).
MIC adds stronger integrity checking than a simple CRC check to prevent attackers from changing messages after transmission. For Microsoft operating systems you can use Windows Update to try and help keep you current with patches. effortlessly. ‘Installing. Both functions are critical for effective knowledge management. The easiest pickings are had when you have direct and obvious access to the information you want.31 | P a g e security vulnerabilities. often irreversible. transmitting and receiving information constantly across the network. “New tools.11b. roaming human nodes in the network will be able to retrieve and share information about everything.11i standard was ratified. but enough has been done to figure out what much of it will be. sharing passwords with others. In this dense (and mostly invisible) web of data. TKIP addresses the IV attacks on WEP by encrypting everything before it is run through the WEP machine.about. Wireless networking is uniquely poised to change the world in a relatively short period of time.”43 “Spurred by the insecurities and management issues exposed with WEP as it was standardized in 802. including the 1999 World Trade Organization protests in Seattle and the ongoing demonstrations by bicycling “Critical Mass” protesters. everywhere. essentially adding another layer of encryption to the packet. Vulnerability includes using simple passwords instead of those that are more difficult to guess or reproduce. the process of arranging one’s social or business calendar 43 44 45 April 2008 T. secure. Introduction to Wireless Network Security. and are no technical. and new networks are those put in place after it is ratified. cooperative political action. The most vulnerable part of your network may not be the limitations of technology. and Repairing Wireless Networks’. diskettes. and add value to this resource. leaving passwords on “sticky notes” next to system.1X as the means of handling credential verification. “ 45 Societal Implications of Wireless Connectivity “As a rule.11i standard is a work in progress. and also use Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP. the IEEE formed Task Force 802. The 802.11i also specifies that only EAP standards which handle dynamic key generation may be used. 802. detect. using default SSIDs or passwords. both of divergent segments of the population who stand to benefit from each other’s knowledge. and of like-minded individuals who choose to convene for social purposes or for spur-of-the moment. McGraw-Hill. and of course disgruntled employees taking data away from the network on paper.ars/5 Jim Aspinwall. Howard Rheingold considers many of the implications of such a situation envisioning a “wireless commons” in which every person. To conform to 802.com/mbiopage. In Smart Mobs (2002). these are only available on all Cisco networks. object and place is connected to the Web and assigned a unique URL. insofar as it engenders an unprecedented cultural situation in which users are constantly connected to each other with mobile devices through the Internet or ad hoc peer-to-peer networks. Though they are available today. USA . but the encryption method differs. In addition to the available solutions for the technology at hand. or transmitting by e-mail or file transfer protocol (FTP). Troubleshooting. Legacy networks are those which were put in place before the .” 44 For the Wireless Technology. So limiting access to information on a need-to-know basis is also crucial. Both of these technologies were developed by Cisco as proprietary means of strengthening WEP.htm http://arstechnica.11i legacy networks will be required to use 104 bit WEP. On the positive side. Both groups use 802. and then not on all platforms. combat.11i to write a good standard for wireless security. Rheingold cites several feats of political coordination enabled by wireless computer connectivity. scientists haven’t given the final word yet. enhance. legacy and new. it is important to remember that many security issues are biological or human in nature. http://netsecurity. and technologies are Wireless Network Security being introduced regularly to implement. technological innovations force a society to reevaluate its core principles and sometimes make significant. Wireless implementations are divided into two groups. Bradley. cultural adjustments to accommodate the new technology. CDs. formerly known as WEP2) and Message Integrity Check (MIC). methodologies. 2003.com/articles/paedia/security. On a more mundane level. Rheingold views such a network as a means of dissolving barriers between people and fostering the formation of communities.
causing what can be perceived as an invasion of each other’s privacy (Agre. constantly checking their email. 2005). Still others argue for more government involvement.” Some people view wireless networks as opening up new opportunities for learning and participation in society for people who are at a disadvantage either through lack of material resources or information illiteracy. 2005) While corporations think that they should control the networks. laptops. but we as societal participants have the opportunity to make decisions regarding just how this change will take place. however. and as wireless computing becomes more ubiquitous. Being permanently tied into a network requires one to relinquish a privilege that people in this country have traditionally held very dear: privacy. “What are the implications of using this technology? Does it make my life more manageable or more complicated? Are its benefits worth its consequences?” Certainly. The Politics of Wireless Networking The adoption of wireless networking technology comes with many political considerations as well. Already. Rheingold suggests that more powerful encryption technology. the broadband companies have posed a formidable challenge to municipalities. People should be able to ask. 3) addiction – some people become addicted to information in a networked environment.” (2001) presents a few more social discomforts that can. wireless networking will change the very fabric of our society. especially those who would otherwise be excluded. Due to their strong lobbying power in Congress. 4) boundaries – when people give each other tacit permission to keep track of each others affairs. As Rheingold points out. the addition of people to the network will increase the network’s value. blogs. resulted from ubiquitous human networking. (Tanner. Rheingold (2002) discusses the case of government projects. and have. etc. or a government authority. a wireless society stands to benefit from the inclusion of all citizens. Philip Agre in his essay “Welcome to the Always On World. These concerns have been manifested in use of wireless technology. A counterargument posits. Information can be intercepted over networks. In part because wireless networks lack the physical constraints of wired networks. a malevolent thief. like California’s Center for Information Technology Research in the Interest of Society (CITRIS) that use wireless networks as a security infrastructure in case of a catastrophic event. while Reed’s Law suggests that adding a new group of people will increase its value even more. the prevalence of personal data theft has created calls for governmental regulation of data brokers and massive network security initiatives (Zetter. it has the potential to be seen by anyone. they have little attention to devote to individual personal relationships. the question of who has the April 2008 . With that in mind. Many people are wary of any technology that has the ability to make our private lives public. others think that networks should remain uncontrolled and subject to the will of the people. and communicate across the network instantly. these projects have created much controversy and a series of territorial disputes. According to Metcalfe’s Law. One concern is how it affects the so-called “digital divide. social boundaries collapse.32 | P a g e is streamlined when friends and colleagues can keep tabs on each other’s whereabouts. Among them are: 1) constant interruptions – the “always on” mentality can distract people from their tasks. Sponsored by libraries. or wearable devices. they will only grow more intense. that building a wireless network into our society’s core will only serve to alienate those without access to Internet service. because they fear they might miss out on something important. PDAs. Therefore. this omniscience comes with a price. may be the only way that users will be able to maintain any semblance of privacy in the new wireless world. One response to this issue has been the creation of low-cost or free public wireless networks to ensure that all citizens have access to the Internet.. 2) divided attention – when people are constantly paying attention to maintaining their social networks and communications devices. In short. along the lines of the Wireless Encryption Protocol (WEP). message boards. 2001). and several states are considering bills to outlaw municipal wireless projects. however. philanthropists and city or state governments. it is incumbent upon people in this age to approach the use of new technology with a critical eye. If information flows freely across the network. whether by a nosy family member. in part because broadband Internet service providers feel they should be able to charge people for wireless service without fear of competition from the government.
interaction. In the meantime. “ April 2008 46 H. when hosts of emerging wireless technologies promise radical change in our modes of perception. rather than harm it. Dr. 2005 . we have an obligation to approach that technology with a certain degree of criticality. May 3. Nodler. Don Turnbull.”46 We live in exciting times. and time and information management.33 | P a g e right to exercise control over them is a difficult one that will need to be decided in the near future. which hopefully will benefit society. democratic participation. A World Without Wires: The future of Wireless Networking. we will witness even greater change. Knowledge Management Systems. As new technology is developed.
e-commerce sales. Unobstructed.11 wireless standards. Basically this was a huge improvement over plaintext communication. This secure data included bank transactions. In the same time the computer security community reaches by improving some of the known weaknesses in the WEP protocol.34 | P a g e Conclusion Increasing the security of wireless networking is becoming essential and necessity. unmodified. This equals 985 feet. But who is going to hold their laptops above their heads or mount an access point itself on a rooftop to communicate digitally? Who knows what will happen after 10 years…New standards will be created. by including the 802. Even if the case when the session key is compromised. or 0. This standard is a protocol for encryption in wireless networks called WEP.11b will do just that and probably more. One of the most common questions about wireless is. How far will it go? As with most answers about technical things. it is likely that an attacker could discover the session key. Wireless Network use will continue to grow and become more important over the next five years. Later on several weaknesses were discovered in the WEP protocol that allowed hackers to decode data. because most of the weaknesses with WEP involved capture vast amounts of data encrypted with a single key. the most secure networks do not use a single preshared key. it depends.11b was designed with native. This leaves open the possibility of eavesdropping on private information and it appears as perfect opportunity for hackers to use it for their own benefit. As substitute for this they use a protocol that provides user with a session key after authenticates each of them. unenhanced devices to extend the length of a 10BaseT Ethernet wire by 300 meters. April 2008 . However there are improvements that have occurred in both confidentiality and authentication. old standards will die off… It is the choices of today which will inevitably help to shape the emerging world of wireless tomorrow. if single user keeps a session open for a long time. This because the wireless networks have the undesirable property that all data transmitted is broadcast to all wireless clients on the network. 802. the attacker will only have the ability to read the messages for the remainder of that session. about a city block. unimpeded with line-ofsight. 802.18 miles. Also. and several others. But. Above mentioned standard it also served as a catalyst for hackers who wished to gain access the data that are being transmitted through a wireless network.
Wireless Security and Privacy: Best Practices and Design Techniques.available online(from 1 January 2005) 10. Elden.Network World www. Special Publication 800-48 April 2008 16.PCStats_com 1& Beginners Guides Wireless Network Security .html 11. U. McGraw-Hill.Place du levant.com/ITC/mesh. the free encyclopedia http://en. Communications of the Association for Information Systems (Volume 9.com/pub/a/ wireless/2004/01/22/wirelessmesh.com/news/tech/2003/1110techupdate. Rob Flickenger. I. January 2002 . PC Magazine Wireless Mesh Networks 2 http://www.wikipedia. Building Wireless Community Networks. Primer Wireless Mesh Networks www. Department of Commerce.00. 2002) 14.networkworld. Wireless Network Security – 802. T. X.11. USA 15. W.1540.asp 6. 3 . WIRELESS SECURITY: AN OVERVIEW.surfability. An Overview of Wireless Network Security http://www.com/p/articles/mi_zdpcm/is_200307/ai_ziff43564 5. Charles R.findarticles.org/wiki/Wireless_mesh_network 8. Call for Papers Wireless Mesh Networking www.J.comsoc. O’Reilly.Quisquater. NIST. Surfability solutions Wireless 'mesh' networks www. Troubleshooting. Robert J.windowsnetworking. Karygiannis and L.com/wi-fi-security-introduction-overview.35 | P a g e References 1. Complete Guide to Wi-Fi Security www. Beginners Guides Wireless Network Security . Tara M.com/article2/0. Washburn University.htm 13. 2002 18.cfm?articleID=1489 12. Owens.html 9.baselinemag.com/articles_tutorials/Overview-Wireless-Network-Security. PC Magazine Wireless Mesh Networks 1 & 4.F. Wang.Wireless Mesh Networking http://www.Wikipedia. First Edition. UCL Crypto Group . Giry*. Wireless mesh networks boost reliability . O'Reilly Network -. J.jiwire.1858551. Boncella.Akyildiz. Jim Aspinwall.oreillynet. Technology Administration.htm 2. September 13.PCStats_com 2 http://www. and Repairing Wireless Networks’.php 7.S. ‘Installing. Addison Wesley. D.pcstats.Aboudagga. Bluetooth and Handheld Devices.com/articleview.WIRELESS SECURITY DESIGN OVERVIEW.html 3. Wang: “Wireless mesh networks: a survey”.org/dl/pcm/mesh_cfp.1348 Louvain-la-Neuve Belgium 17. N. 2003.. Wireless mesh network .
1.geek. Getting Started Guide To Wireless Networks. 2003 William A.. March 30.ieee.wikipedia. 2003 24. Tanenbaum.2.html 20.16 -> http://wirelessman. http://en. University of Birmingham.techtarget.asp?ID=4936 • • http://www. H.wirelessdevnet.php/2195771 31 Franklin.holtmann. White paper. Wireless home: 1. "Installing.org/ieeestore/product. Dr. May 3. June.11 Wireless Network. Troubleshooting. Knowledge Management Systems.11".36 | P a g e 19. Introduction to 802. http://www. 802. Arbaugh. Microsoft.org/comp/mags/ds/2004/08/o8004.hometechnews.C. 802. http://www.computer.org/tutorial/ • http://www. Wireless Standard: 20. Don Turnbull.15 http://searchmobilecomputing. Andrew S.html 2. CyberScience laboratory.html 29 http://www. IEEE 802.11 Wireless Networks standard.com/sDefinition/0.aspx?product_no=SP1131 20. "802.00. HP Broadband Wireless notebooks: integrated high-speed wireless connectivity 28 http://www.pdf 21.wi-fiplanet.wirelessdevnet.com/columns/article. 2001 • Wireless 802.pdf” 22.pdf".com/news/2006/mar/31/news5.html .sid40_gci837226.com/view_story. and Y. Tom Wireless Local Area Network 2001 32 http://www.com/info/2006/03/31/122000.windowsnetworking. 2005 23. Justin Wan.com/articles_tutorials/Introduction-Wireless-NetworkingPart1.palminfocenter.11 Standards.3. Computer Networks 26.htm http://csdl2.html • http://shop.pdf April 2008 30 http://www. May 2003 25. Wireless Networks Software JIM ASPINWALL. Nodler.11 Wireless LAN Medium Access IEEE 802.org/lecture/bluetooth/Bluetooth.com/news/geeknews/2003Feb/bpd20030203018457. Narendar Shankar.pdf -> 20. A World Without Wires: The future of Wireless Networking. and Repairing Wireless Networks.org/wiki/Wireless_PAN 27.com/channels/bluetooth/features/bluetooth.
sprint.37 | P a g e 33 http://en.html?src=ggbp74185i&CMP=KNCGoogleAdwords&HBX_PK=wireless+LAN&HBX_OU=50 39 http://www. Jim Installing. Owens. CyberScience laboratory.org/wiki/WWAN 34 http://en.wirelessdevnet.com/business/resources/CaseStudy_HP.windowsnetworking. May 2003 51 Aspinwall.Wireless Network Security 802. Bluetooth and Handheld Devices.html 41 http://www.html 45 http://www-run.html 42 http://www.newsfactor. Computer Networks 54 White paper .php/2195771 44 http://www.montefiore.Tom . pdf 37 http://www.com/business/resources/CaseStudy_HP.com/articles_tutorials/Introduction-Wireless-NetworkingPart2.November 2002.com/wlan.wikipedia.windowsnetworking.%20Erik%20Fledderus.verilan.com/columns/article.ac.html 40 http://www.bitpipe.holtmann. Andrew S . 53 Tanenbaum.html 43 http://www.com/channels/bluetooth/features/bluetooth.pdf 49 http://www.com/protocolWiMAX.be/Research/Topics/index.brabantbreedband.pdf 50 Introduction to 802.shtml 47 http://en.org/wiki/Wireless_PAN 48 http://www.com/articles_tutorials/Introduction-Wireless-NetworkingPart1.Les .Wireless WAN Interface 35 http://www.wikipedia.com/rlist/term/WLAN.php?topic=Mobile 46 http://www.sprint.xhtml?story_id=41852 38 http://www.javvin.sss-mag.com/news/wilan.pdf 36 http://www.wikipedia.11.11 Wireless Networks standard. Gaithersburg.nl/publications/openingssymposium/08.org/lecture/bluetooth/Bluetooth.org/wiki/WWAN/ Microsoft .com/story.ulg.wi-fiplanet.HP Broadband Wireless notebooks: integrated high-speed . troubleshooting and repairing wireless networks USA 2003:McGrawHill April 2008 52 Karygiannis.
38 | P a g e wireless connectivity 58. Franklin. Sierra Wireless Abbreviations List PDA WPAN WLAN WMAN PC DNS Mbps POS SIG IEEE RF Wi-Fi MMDS GSM CDPD CDMA ISM VoIP – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Personal digital assistance Wireless Personal Area Network Wireless Local Area Network Wireless Metropolitan Area Network Personal Computer Domain Name System Mega bit per second Personal Operating Space Special Interest Group Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Radio frequency Wireless Fidelity Multichannel multipoint distribution service Global System for Mobile Communications Cellular Digital Packet Data Code Division Multiple Access Industrial. Tom Wireless Local Area Network. 2001 59. Scientific and Medical Voice-over Internet Protocol Digital Subscriber Line Single-Carrier Subscriber Station Federal Communications Commission April 2008 DSL SC SS FCC . 2002 November 18. Wireless LANs vs. Wireless WANs. White paper.
39 | P a g e GPRS – General Packet Radio Service April 2008 .
IEEE ." further meaning "for this purpose only. especially one with wireless or temporary plug-in connections.99. to allow wireless network cards in client systems to connect to a LAN or the Internet.” PDA Personal Digital Assistant is a term for any small mobile hand held device that provides computing and information storage retrieval capabilities for personal or business use.e. personal area means up to 10 meter radius. in which some of the network devices are part of the network only for the duration of a communications session or. Example: Bluetooth. acting as or replacing the function of the hub or switch in a wired network. in the case of mobile or portable devices. WPAN Wireless Personal Area Network. translating domain names into IP addresses April 2008 Access point (AP) A wireless network interface device.15 WLAN A wireless LAN or WLAN is a wireless local area network that uses radio waves as its carrier: the last link with the users is wireless." and as a result usually temporary. WWAN WWAN stands for Wireless wide area network. Like WLAN i. In Latin. to give a network connection to all users in the surrounding area. while in some close proximity to the rest of the network. The architectural details about WWAN can be obtained from any site describing or defining wireless network IP addresses A unique number identifying every computer on the Internet (like 62. often for keeping schedule calendars and adress book information handy. The backbone network usually uses cables. IEEE 802.40 | P a g e Glossary Ad-hoc “An ad-hoc network (sometimes known as a "spontaneous") is a local area network or other small network. with one or more wireless access points connecting the wireless users to the wired network. Areas may range from a single room to an entire campus. WMAN Wireless Metropolitan Area Network: A regional wireless computer or communication network spanning the area covered by an average to large city. wireless LAN WWAN works but on a wider scale. ad hoc exactly means "for this.162.55) DNS A computer program running on a web server.
instead of separating users by frequency. for fixed implementations. WiFi Wireless fidelity is the generic term for 802.16-2004 or 802. The FCC’s recent limitations on EMI have greatly affected digital electronic systems and power supplies in design and production VoIP April 2008 .41 | P a g e Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. Scientific and Medical) Industrial Scientific and Medical bands were originally created for the purpose of short range connectivity between equipment used in these fields of application. Competes with GSM and TDMA CDMA2000 CDMA2000 is a radio transmission technology for the evolution of narrowband cdmaOne/IS-95 to 3rd-generation adding up multiple carriers. and 802. It allows slow data communication. for mobile service 2G Most common type of wireless telephone communication today.11 technology WiMax Popular name of the 802. separates them through the use of digital frequency codes across the full available spectrum. There are two flavors of WiMax: 802. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) A government agency in the United States. Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) Code Division Multiple Access is a digital cellular technology that uses spread spectrum techniques that. WiMax. but its primary focus is voice. is a nonprofit. It refers to pending improvements in wireless data and voice communications through any of a variety of proposed standards. Radio Frequency (RF) Electro-magnetic waves used in radio communications to carry information. 3G 3G stands for the third generation of wireless communication technology. The immediate goal is to raise transmission speeds to 2Mbit/sec. technical professional association of more than 360.16 wireless metropolitan-area network standard that's currently being developed. ISM (Industrial.16e.000 individual members in approximately 175 countries that is an authority in technical areas such as computer engineering and telecommunications.16d. is primarily aimed at making broadband network access widely available without the expense of stringing wires (as in cableaccess broadband) or the distance limitations of Digital Subscriber Line. which will have a range of up to 31 miles.
Formerly part of AT&T Corp. It supports a wide range of bandwidths and is an efficient use of limited bandwidth. games and applications. Gateway The Internet protocol (IP) address of the router.6Kbit/sec. an Ericsson subsidiary. If one part of the network -. GSM Global System for Mobile Communications is a digital cellular system based on TDMA narrowband technology. Washington. cable. mice and keyboards. It was developed in 1984 by Eritel. compared with the 9. was. which gives users access to time slots on the same frequency bands.. as well as large volumes of data. It competes with CDMA CDPD Cellular Digital Packet Data technology is used by telecommunications carriers to transfer data to users via unused analog cellular networks. It's particularly suited for sending and receiving small amounts of data. the third-largest wireless telephone carrier in the United States. such as e-mail and Web browsing. ETSI (The European organization) The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) is a standardization organization of the telecommunications industry (equipment makers and network operators) in Europe.. or digital subscriber line (DSL) modem through which your PCs gain access to the Internet or foreign (nonlocal) networks. Mobitex Mobitex is a packet-switched. 2004. as of January 1. wireless headsets. a nd there are now over 30 Mobitex networks in operation worldwide April 2008 AT&T Wireless AT&T Wireless Services. based in Redmond. and printers. with worldwide projection. AWE. VoIP technology allows phone calls to be made between compatible handsets or on computers with appropriate software. narrowband PCS network. Inc. such as remote controls. ETSI has been successful in standardizing the GSM cell phone system. It is most often used for nonnetwork/Internet applications. CDPD can automatically reallocate network resources to handle extra traffic.42 | P a g e Voice over Internet Protocol is a system for delivering digitized voice communications across IP networks. Bluetooth A short-range radio technology aimed at simplifying communications among various devices. before October 26. designed for wide-area wireless data communications. .a specific geographic area or "cell" -. and trading on the New York Stock Exchange under the stock symbol. GPRS General Packet Radio Service technology runs at speeds up to 115Kbit/sec. 2004. It enables high-speed wireless Internet and other communications such as e-mail. of older GSM systems. It allows up to eight simultaneous communications on the same frequency.is overused. the largest single shareholder of AT&T Wireless was Japan's NTT DoCoMo. switch.
.43 | P a g e Sprint PCS Sprint Corporation is one of the world's largest telecommunication companies. and local telephone service in some smaller markets. through its Sprint PCS service based on CDMA and PCS. CSMA/CA Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance is the principle medium access method employed by IEEE 802. which is connected to another transmission or distribution system. It is a global communications provider and a major competitor in the American cellular phone market.11 radios that have had their MAC addresses added to that network's MAC table are able to get onto the network.definition of interface between the local network operating system and the network adapter. because the standard employs half duplex radios .radios capable of transmission or reception. with presence in most all of the continental United States and Hawaii. manufacturers and others. International Telecommunication Union (ITU) April 2008 CTIA The Cellular Telecommunications & Internet Association is the international organization that aims to represent all elements of wireless communication . When a network uses a MAC table. Abstract Syntax Notation (ASN) An OSI language used to define datatypes for networks. It is used within TCP/IP to provide conformance with the OSI model. NDIS Network Driver Interface Specification . This unique identifier can be used to provide security for wireless networks. Distribution system (DS) Means a distribution network.11 states collision avoidance method rather than collision detection must be used. a former Bell Operating Company. together with the connection assets associated with the distribution network. It is a "listen before talk" method of minimizing (but not eliminating) collisions caused by simultaneous transmission by multiple radios.11 device has its own specific Media Access Control address hard-coded into it. and GTE. MAC Every wireless 802. IEEE 802. Verizon Verizon Communications is a New York City-based local exchange telephone company formed by the merger of Bell Atlantic. but not both simultaneously. which was the largest independent local-exchange telephone company in the U.11 WLANs. only the 802. It is also a Tier 1 internet service provider under the name SprintLink. . personal communications services. enhanced specialized mobile radio and mobile satellite services and serves the interests of service providers.cellular.S.
Industry divisions. TKIP In computing. and facilitate rapid commercialization of products based on new scientific discoveries. modernize manufacturing processes. The keyboard arrangement was considered important enough to be included on Shole`s patent granted in 1878. include Products. WinTel Wintel is a colloquial. EV-DO. TKIP was designed to replace WEP without replacing legacy hardware. ensure product reliability. NIST NIST in the Department of Commerce’s Technology Administration was established by Congress to assist industry in the development of technology needed to improve product quality. term used to describe desktop computers of the type commonly used in homes and businesses since the late 1980s. This was necessary because the breaking of WEP left WiFi networks without viable link-layer security. Israel. TKIP (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol) is a security protocol defined in IEEE 802. Communications and High Technology. the United States.11i specifications for WiFi networks to replace WEP. It is also called the Universal Keyboard. April 2008 . Its organizational structure includes divisions based on client industry types and employee workforces. and Canada as part of the CDMA2000 standard GUnzip. 1xEVDO or 1xEvDO is a wireless radio broadband data protocol being adopted by many CDMA mobile phone providers in Japan. often abbreviated as EVDO. often pejorative. QWERTY The name QWERTY for our typewriter keyboard comes from the first six letters in the top alphabet row(The one below the numbers).44 | P a g e Accenture Accenture is a global management consulting. some years after the machine was put into production EVDO Evolution Data Only. It was invented by CLSholes who put together the prototypes of the first commercial typewriter back in the 1860`s. Korea. EvDO.Evolution Data Optimized. referred to as Operating Groups. technology services and outsourcing company.
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