"The 802.11 Protocol Stack and Physical
Table of Contents
1. Abstraction
2. Introduction
2.1 Overview
2.2 Wireless Local Area Network
2.3 The Basic Structure of a Wireless LAN
2.4 Comari!" a Wireless LAN to a Wire# Network
2.$ The %&&& Sta!#ar#
3. 802.11 Protocol Stack
3.1 'rotocol Structure
3.2 'rotocol Stack Architecture
3.2.1 Statio! (STA) Architecture*
3.2.2 Access+'oi!t (A') Architecture*
3.2.3 Basic Service Set (BSS)*
3.2.4 %!#ee!#e!t Basic Service Set (%BSS)*
3.2.$ %!frastructure
3.2., &-te!#e# Service Set (&SS)*
3.2.. Service Set %#e!tifier (SS%/)*
3.2.0 Basic Service Set %#e!tifier (BSS%/)
3.3 'rotocol Stack for 1N%2
3.4 Comare Overall Structure of 032.114 5 032.1$.1 Coe-iste!ce 6echa!ism
3.$.1 6%7 SA' 8efere!ce 6o#el for 032.11
3.$.2 6%7 SA' 8efere!ce 6o#el for 032.1,
3., /ata Li!k La9er
3.,.1 Suort for Time+Bou!#e# /ata
3.. 6AC :u!ctio!al /escritio!
3...1 6AC Architecture
3.0 Securit9
3.0.1 'reve!ti!" Access to Network 8esources
3.0.2 &aves#roi!"
4. Physical ayer
4.1 The h9sical la9er 4asics
4.2 'LC' :rame :iel#s
4.3 %!frare# (%8)
4.4 Srea# Sectrum
4.$ :re;ue!c9 7oi!" Srea# Sectrum (:7SS)
4., /irect Se;ue!ce Srea# Sectrum (/SSS)
4.,.1 /SSS 6o#ulatio!
4.,.2 Tra!smit :re;ue!cies
4.. The %&&& 032.11a
4...1 'ractice 032.11a
4.0 The %&&& 032.114
4.0.1 'ractice 032.114
4.<Comariso! of 032.11a a!# 032.114
!. Conclusion
". Abbre#iation
$. %lossary
The writi!" of this 8esearch 8eort was romte# to mai!tai! two mai! #evelome!ts of the
%&&& 032.11 Sta!#ar# h9sical rotocol stack a!# 'h9sical La9er e!ha!ce# from the
#evelome!ts i! wireless commu!icatio! i! the ast #eca#e. :irst we ha# to #o hu"e research
activities i! this toic. This has 4ee! a su4=ect stu#9 si!ce the si-ties> so that #uri!" our
e-lori!" work we have selecte# a lot of materials a!# icke# u the most visi4le thi!"s for the
stu#e!t to u!#ersta!# it more easil9 a!# clearl9. So that we were co!ce!trate# to rese!t the
issue i! mo#er! wireless co!cets i! a cohere!t a!# u!ifie# ma!!er a!# to illustrate the co!cets
i! that wa9 the9 are alie#.
The co!cets ca! 4e structure# i!to these levels*
+ Listi!" characteristics a!# mo#eli!"
+ Alicatio! of these co!cets
But of course there is i!terla9 4etwee! these structures.
So this 8esearch reort is writte! 4ase# o! the material for the stu#e!ts i! the si-th semester.
Also i! the e!# to u!#ersta!# 4etter the termi!olo"9 a!# the hu"e !um4er of a44reviatio!s
e-lai!e# a!# some #efi!itio!s.
The ast #eca#e has see! ma!9 a#va!ces i! h9sical+la9er commu!icatio! theor9 a!# their
imleme!tatio! i! wireless s9stems. So that i! this 8esearch 8eort we are "oi!" to #efi!e a!#
view fu!#ame!tals of wireless commu!icatio! a!# that eseciall9 the %&&& 032.11 Sta!#ar# a!#
e-lai! the a#va!ta"es at a level that is accessi4le to our au#ie!ce with a 4asic 4ack"rou!#.
Wireless commu!icatio! is o!e of the most vi4ra!t areas i! the commu!icatio! fiel# to#a9. This
is #ue to a co!flue!ce of several factors. :irst> there has 4ee! a! e-losive i!crease i! #ema!#
for the tether less co!!ectivit9> #rive! so far mai!l9 49 cellular teleho!9 4ut e-ecte# to 4e
soo! eclise# 49 wireless #ata alicatio!.
:irst there has 4ee! a! e-losive i!crease i! #ema!# for tether less co!!ectivit9> #rive! so far
mai!l9 49 cellular teleho!9 4ut e-ecte# to 4e soo! eclise# 49 wireless #ata alicatio!s.
Seco!#> the #ramatic rocess i! ?LS% tech!olo"9 has e!a4le# small area a!# low ower
imleme!tatio! of sohisticate# si"!al rocessi!" al"orithms a!# co#i!" tech!i;ues.
Thir#> the success of seco!# "e!eratio! #i"ital wireless sta!#ar#s a!# rovi#e a co!crete
#emo!stratio! that "oo# i#eas from commu!icatio! theor9 ca! have imact i! ractice.
There are two fu!#ame!tal asects of wireless commu!icatio! that make the ro4lem
challe!"i!" a!# i!teresti!". These asects are 49 a!# lar"e !ot as si"!ifica!t i! wire li!e
:irst the he!ome!o! of fa#i!"* the time variatio! of the cha!!el stre!"ths #ue to the small+scale
effect of multiath fa#i!"> as well as lar"e scale effects.
Seco!#> u!like the i! the wire# worl# where each tra!smitter+receiver air ca! ofte! 4e thou"ht
of as a! isolate# oi!t+to oi!t li!k> wireless users commu!icate over the air a!# there is
si"!ifica!t i!terface 4etwee! them.
The ori"i!al 032.11 sta!#ar# secifie# three searate h9sical la9ers. Two are ra#io+
4ase# a!# o!e is i!frare# li"ht+4ase#. The ori"i!al ra#io+4ase# la9ers are srea# sectrum*
fre;ue!c9 hoi!" a!# #irect se;ue!ce. These are all i! the 2.4 @7A 4a!#. A! a##itio!al
h9sical la9er i! the $ @7A 4a!# was a##e# with the 032.1a release> which is also ra#io+4ase#*
ortho"o!al fre;ue!c9 #ivisio! multile-i!" (O:/6).
The latest release> 032.11"> a##e# 9et a!other '7B* comlime!tar9 co#e ke9i!"
ortho"o!al fre;ue!c9 #ivisio! multile-i!" (CCC+O:/6). This is secifie# i! 4oth the 2.4 a!#
the $ @7A 4a!#s. Note that for 2 #evices to 4e a4le to i!teract> the9 must co!form to the same
'7B la9er. There are two su4 la9ers i! the 032.11 h9sical la9ers> the h9sical me#ium
#ee!#e!t la9er ('6/) a!# the h9sical la9er co!ver"e!ce roce#ure ('LC'). The '6/ is the
su4 la9er lowest o! the stack. %t tra!smits a!# receives 4its over the air. The '7B la9er has three
4asic fu!ctio!s. These are the carrier se!se fu!ctio!> the tra!smit fu!ctio!> a!# the receive
Wireless tech!olo"ies> i! the simlest se!se> e!a4le o!e or more #evices to commu!icate
without h9sical co!!ectio!s D without re;uiri!" !etwork ca4li!". Wireless tech!olo"ies use
ra#io tra!smissio!s as the mea!s for tra!smitti!" #ata> whereas wire# tech!olo"ies use ca4les.
Wireless tech!olo"ies ra!"e from comle- s9stems> such as WLANs a!# cell ho!es> to simle
#evices such as wireless hea#ho!es> microho!es> a!# other #evices that #o !ot rocess or store
i!formatio!. %! Comuter !etwork a su4sta!tial art is the Wireless Local Area Network
(WLAN)> is a closel9 "roue# s9stem of #evices that commu!icate via ra#io waves i!stea# of
wires. Wireless LANEs t9icall9 au"me!t or relace wire# comuter !etworks> rovi#i!" users
with more fle-i4ilit9 a!# free#om of moveme!t withi! the worklace. %! a t9ical WLAN
co!fi"uratio!> a tra!sceiverFor access oi!tFco!!ects to the wire# !etwork from a fi-e#
ilocatio! usi!" a sta!#ar# &ther!et ca4le. The access oi!t receives> 4uffers> a!# tra!smits #ata
4etwee! the como!e!ts of the WLAN. :or over a ce!tur9> the %&&&+SA has offere# a!
esta4lishe# sta!#ar#s #evelome!t ro"ram that features 4ala!ce> oe!!ess> #ue rocess> a!#
co!se!sus. The %!stitute of &lectrical a!# &lectro!ics &!"i!eers Sta!#ar#s Associatio! (%&&&+
SA) is the lea#i!" #eveloer of "lo4al i!#ustr9 sta!#ar#s i! a 4roa#+ra!"e of i!#ustries>
i!clu#i!"* 'ower a!# &!er"9G Biome#ical a!# 7ealthcareG %!formatio! Tech!olo"9G
Telecommu!icatio!sG Tra!sortatio!G Na!otech!olo"9G %!formatio! Assura!ce. We have
#iscusse# a4out them i! this raort.
A rotocol stack is a articular software imleme!tatio! of a comuter !etworki!"
rotocol suite. The terms are ofte! use# i!tercha!"ea4l9. Strictl9 seaki!"> the suite is the
#efi!itio! of the rotocols> a!# the stack is the software imleme!tatio! of them.
Securit9 is o!e of the first co!cer!s of eole #elo9i!" a Wireless LANG the 032.11
committee has a##resse# the issue 49 rovi#i!" what is calle# W&' (Wire# &;uivale!t 'rivac9)
Authe!ticatio!* A fu!ctio! that #etermi!es whether a Statio! is allowe# to articiate i!
!etwork commu!icatio!. The sta!#ar# %&&& 032.11i is #esi"!e# to rovi#e secure#
commu!icatio! of wireless LAN as #efi!e# 49 all the %&&& 032.11 secificatio!s. %&&& 032.11i
e!ha!ces the W&' (Wireli!e &;uivale!t 'rivac9)G a tech!olo"9 use# for ma!9 9ears for the
WLAN securit9> i! the areas of e!cr9tio!> authe!ticatio! a!# ke9 ma!a"eme!t.
The %&&& (#efi!e) 032.11 sta!#ar# i!clu#es a commo! 6e#ium Access Co!trol (6AC)
La9er> which #efi!es rotocols that "over! the oeratio! of the wireless LAN. %! a##itio!>
032.11 comrise several alter!ative h9sical la9ers that secif9 the tra!smissio! a!# recetio! of
032.11 frames.
A!# as co!clusio! we will sa9 that wireless !etworki!" has a romisi!" future with
032.11 lea#i!" the wa9 as the sta!#ar# for a#otio! i! local !etworki!" e!viro!me!ts. 032.11
a##resses mo4ilit9> securit9> relia4ilit9> a!# the #9!amic !ature of wireless LANS while keei!"
comati4ilit9 with 032+t9e le"ac9 !etworks. &-ect to see availa4ilit9 of 032.11 ro#ucts
i!crease #ramaticall9 i! the !ear future as 4usi!esses #iscover the i!crease# ro#uctivit9
rovi#e# 49 Hu!tethere#E !etworks.
(ireless ocal Area )et'ork
%! Comuter !etwork a su4sta!tial art is the Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN)> is
a closel9 "roue# s9stem of #evices that commu!icate via ra#io waves i!stea# of wires. Wireless
LANEs t9icall9 au"me!t or relace wire# comuter !etworks> rovi#i!" users with more
fle-i4ilit9 a!# free#om of moveme!t withi! the worklace. 1sers ca! access the coma!9
i!tra!et or eve! the Worl# Wi#e We4 from a!9where o! the coma!9 camus without rel9i!"
o! the availa4ilit9 of wire# ca4les a!# co!!ectio!. %f i!formatio! is the life4loo# of to#a9Is
4usi!ess e!viro!me!t> the! wireless !etworks are its heart. Wireless LANs ca! um
i!formatio! a!# #ata
to e-ecutives i! the
4oar#room a!# to
emlo9ees i! the
warehouse. A
wireless LAN
(WLAN) is a fle-i4le
#ata commu!icatio!
s9stem imleme!te#
as a! e-te!sio! or as
a! alter!ative for> a
wire# LAN withi! a
4uil#i!" or camus.
waves> WLANEs
tra!smits a!# receive
#ata over the air>
mi!imiAi!" the !ee# for wire# co!!ectio!s. Thus> WLANs com4i!e #ata co!!ectivit9 with user
mo4ilit9> a!#> throu"h simlifie# co!fi"uratio!> e!a4le mova4le LANs. Over the last seve!
9ears> WLANs have "ai!e# stro!" oularit9 i! a !um4er of vertical markets> i!clu#i!" the
health+care> retail> ma!ufacturi!"> warehousi!"> a!# aca#emic are!as. These i!#ustries have
rofite# from the ro#uctivit9 "ai!s of usi!" ha!#+hel# termi!als a!# !ote4ook comuters to
tra!smit real+time i!formatio! to ce!traliAe# hosts for rocessi!". To#a9 WLANs are 4ecomi!"
more wi#el9 reco"!iAe# as a "e!eral+urose co!!ectivit9 alter!ative for a 4roa# ra!"e of
4usi!ess customers. The 1.S. wireless LAN market is rai#l9 aroachi!" J1 4illio! i!
reve!ues. A wi#e variet9 of i!#ustries have #iscovere# the 4e!efits a WLAN ca! 4ri!"F!ot
o!l9 to #ail9 tasks 4ut also to the 4ala!ce sheet.
The *asic Structure of a (ireless A)
%! a t9ical WLAN co!fi"uratio!> a tra!sceiverFor access oi!tFco!!ects to the wire#
!etwork from a fi-e# locatio! usi!" a sta!#ar# &ther!et ca4le. The access oi!t receives> 4uffers>
a!# tra!smits #ata 4etwee! the como!e!ts of the WLANFwhether latos> ri!ters> ha!#hel#
#evices> or a!9 other wireless e;uime!tFa!# the wire# !etwork i!frastructure. A si!"le access
oi!t ca! suort a small "rou of users a!# ca! fu!ctio! withi! a ra!"e of a!9where from 33 to
several hu!#re# feet. The access oi!t ca! 4e i!stalle# a!9where i! the facilit9 as lo!" as "oo#
ra#io covera"e is mai!tai!e#. 1sers e;uie# with ha!#hel# #evices or !ote4ook comuters ca!
tra!smit #ata to the access oi!t whe! withi! ra!"e. The wireless #evices commu!icate with the
!etwork oerati!" s9stem via WLAN a#aters> usuall9 i! the form of ra#io !etwork i!terface
car#s (N%Cs)> as i! the case of !ote4ook comuters> %SA or 'C% a#aters for #eskto comuters>
or similar #evices i!te"rate# i!to ha!#hel# u!its.
Co+,arin- a (ireless A) to a (ired )et'ork
The see# at which a WLAN erforms #ee!#s o! the t9e a!# co!fi"uratio! of the
#evices withi! the !etwork. The !um4er of users> the #ista!ce 4etwee! !etwork como!e!ts> the
t9e of WLAN s9stem i! use> a!# the efficie!c9 of the wire# !etwork eleme!ts all i!flue!ce the
overall see# a!# erforma!ce of a wireless !etwork. Such factors also affect wire# !etwork
see#s> 4ut most commercial LANs oerate at see#s from 13 me"a4its er seco!# (13BaseT) to
133 64s (133BaseT). Wireless LAN como!e!ts that use the 032.11a hi"h #ata rate sta!#ar#
erform at see#s u to $4 64s> almost a five+fol# i!crease from the erforma!ce of the
032.114 sta!#ar#. Almost all mo4ile alicatio!s to#a9 le!# themselves to #elo9me!t of a!
032.11 WLAN i!frastructure. Of the three mai! variatio!s of 032.11> a lethora of alicatio!s
a!# #evices suort the 032.114 sta!#ar#> which oerates i! the 2.4 @7A fre;ue!c9 ra!"e.
Althou"h this sta!#ar# is much more wi#el9 imleme!te# tha! its !ewer sister tech!olo"ies>
i!#ustr9 e-erts a!ticiate that it wo!Et 4e lo!" 4efore 032.11" a!# 032.11a e-cee# 032.114 i!
oularit9. Wireless users reco"!iAe the 4e!efits of the tech!olo"9 a!# !ee# to k!ow how to
rotect their 4usi!ess+critical #ata. These usersFas well as those who hesitate to #elo9 wireless
tech!olo"9 4ecause of securit9 co!cer!sF sta!# to 4e!efit from u!#ersta!#i!" the securit9
otio!s curre!tl9 availa4le> eve! as the i!#ustr9 moves a""ressivel9 to rovi#e eve! more secure
rotocols. B9 worki!" with a wireless ve!#or well+verse# i! securit9 issues> coma!ies ca!
#ramaticall9 e!ha!ce the securit9 of its wireless commu!icatio!s s9stem.
WLANs t9icall9 use the u!lice!se# %!#ustrial> Scie!tific> a!# 6e#ical (%S6) ra#io
fre;ue!c9 4a!#s. %! the 1!ite# States> the %S6 4a!#s i!clu#e the <33+67A 4a!# (<32D<20
67A)> 2.4+@7A 4a!# (2433D2403.$67A)> a!# the $..+@7A 4a!# ($.2$D$0$367A). The most
wi#el9 a#ote# WLAN sta!#ar# arou!# the worl# is
032.11 K20L to#a9. %&&& 032.11 co!sists of a famil9 of sta!#ar#s that #efi!es the h9sical
la9ers ('7B) a!# the 6e#ium Access Co!trol (6AC) la9er of a WLAN> WLAN !etwork
architectures> how a WLAN i!teracts with a! %' core !etwork> a!# the frameworks a!# mea!s
for suorti!" securit9 a!# ;ualit9 of service over a WLAN. The %&&& 032.11 sta!#ar#s famil9
i!clu#es the followi!" ke9 sta!#ar#s*
The I... Standard
:or over a ce!tur9> the %&&&+SA has offere# a! esta4lishe# sta!#ar#s #evelome!t
ro"ram that features 4ala!ce> oe!!ess> #ue rocess> a!# co!se!sus. The %!stitute of &lectrical
a!# &lectro!ics &!"i!eers Sta!#ar#s Associatio! (%&&&+SA) is the lea#i!" #eveloer of "lo4al
i!#ustr9 sta!#ar#s i! a 4roa#+ra!"e of i!#ustries> i!clu#i!"*
• 'ower a!# &!er"9
• Biome#ical a!# 7ealthcare
• %!formatio! Tech!olo"9
• Telecommu!icatio!s
• Tra!sortatio!
• Na!otech!olo"9
• %!formatio! Assura!ce
The followi!" ta4le lists hi"hli"hts of the most oular sectio!s of %&&& 032 a!# has
li!ks for a##itio!al i!formatio!*
032 Overview Basics of h9sical a!# lo"ical !etworki!" co!cets.
032.1 Bri#"i!"
LAN56AN 4ri#"i!" a!# ma!a"eme!t. Covers ma!a"eme!t
a!# the lower su4+la9ers of OS% La9er 2> i!clu#i!" 6AC+4ase#
4ri#"i!" (6e#ia Access Co!trol)> virtual LANs a!# ort+4ase#
access co!trol.
032.2 Lo"ical Li!k
Commo!l9 referre# to as the LLC or Lo"ical Li!k Co!trol
secificatio!. The LLC is the to su4+la9er i! the #ata+li!k
la9er> OS% La9er 2. %!terfaces with the !etwork La9er 3.
032.3 &ther!et
M@ra!##a##9M of the 032 secificatio!s. 'rovi#es
as9!chro!ous !etworki!" usi!" Mcarrier se!se> multile access
with collisio! #etectM (CS6A5C/) over coa-> twiste#+air
coer> a!# fi4er me#ia. Curre!t see#s ra!"e from 13 64s to
13 @4s. Click for a list of the MhotM 032.3 tech!olo"ies.
032.4 Toke! Bus /is4a!#e#
032.$ Toke! 8i!"
The ori"i!al toke!+assi!" sta!#ar# for twiste#+air> shiel#e#
coer ca4les. Suorts coer a!# fi4er ca4li!" from 4 64s
to 133 64s. Ofte! calle# M%B6 Toke!+8i!".M
;ueue #ual 4us
MSuerse#e# OO8evisio! of 032.1/+1<<3 e#itio! (%SO5%&C
13330). 032.1/ i!cororates '032.1 a!# '032.12e. %t also
i!cororates a!# suerse#es u4lishe# sta!#ar#s 032.1= a!#
032.,k. Suerse#e# 49 032.1/+2334.M (See %&&& status a"e.)
Broa#4a!# LAN
With#raw! Sta!#ar#. With#raw! /ate* :e4 3.> 2333. No
lo!"er e!#orse# 49 the %&&&. (See %&&& status a"e.)
:i4er Otic
With#raw! 'A8. Sta!#ar#s ro=ect !o lo!"er e!#orse# 49 the
%&&&. (See %&&& status a"e.)
Services LAN
With#raw! 'A8. Sta!#ar#s ro=ect !o lo!"er e!#orse# 49 the
%&&&. (See %&&& status a"e.)
LAN securit9
Suerse#e# OOCo!tai!s* %&&& St# 032.134+1<<2. (See %&&&
status a"e.)
032.11 Wi+:i
Wireless LAN 6e#ia Access Co!trol a!# 'h9sical La9er
secificatio!. 032.11a> 4> "> etc. are ame!#me!ts to the ori"i!al
032.11 sta!#ar#. 'ro#ucts that imleme!t 032.11 sta!#ar#s
must ass tests a!# are referre# to as MWi+:i certifie#.M
Secifies a '7B that oerates i! the $ @7A 1+N%% 4a!# i! the
1S + i!itiall9 $.1$+$.3$ AN/ $..2$+$.0$ + si!ce e-a!#e# to
a##itio!al fre;ue!cies
1ses Ortho"o!al :re;ue!c9+/ivisio! 6ultile-i!"
&!ha!ce# #ata see# to $4 64s
8atifie# after 032.114
&!ha!ceme!t to 032.11 that a##e# hi"her #ata rate mo#es to
the /SSS (/irect Se;ue!ce Srea# Sectrum) alrea#9 #efi!e#
i! the ori"i!al 032.11 sta!#ar#
Booste# #ata see# to 11 64s
22 67A Ba!#wi#th 9iel#s 3 !o!+overlai!" cha!!els i! the
fre;ue!c9 ra!"e of 2.433 @7A to 2.403$ @7A
Beaco!s at 1 64s> falls 4ack to $.$> 2> or 1 64s from 11
64s ma-.
&!ha!ceme!t to 032.11a a!# 032.114 that allows for "lo4al
'articulars ca! 4e set at 6e#ia Access Co!trol (6AC) la9er
&!ha!ceme!t to 032.11 that i!clu#es ;ualit9 of service (NoS)
:acilitates rioritiAatio! of #ata> voice> a!# vi#eo tra!smissio!s
&-te!#s the ma-imum #ata rate of WLAN #evices that oerate
i! the 2.4 @7A 4a!#> i! a fashio! that ermits i!teroeratio!
with 032.114 #evices
1ses O:/6 6o#ulatio! (Ortho"o!al :/6)
Oerates at u to $4 me"a4its er seco!# (64s)> with fall+
4ack see#s that i!clu#e the M4M see#s
&!ha!ceme!t to 032.11a that resolves i!terfere!ce issues
/9!amic fre;ue!c9 selectio! (/:S)
Tra!smit ower co!trol (T'C)
&!ha!ceme!t to 032.11 that offers a##itio!al securit9 for
WLAN alicatio!s
/efi!es more ro4ust e!cr9tio!> authe!ticatio!> a!# ke9
e-cha!"e> as well as otio!s for ke9 cachi!" a!# re+
Paa!ese re"ulator9 e-te!sio!s to 032.11a secificatio!
:re;ue!c9 ra!"e 4.< @7A to $.3 @7A
8a#io resource measureme!ts for !etworks usi!" 032.11
famil9 secificatio!s
6ai!te!a!ce of 032.11 famil9 secificatio!s
Correctio!s a!# ame!#me!ts to e-isti!" #ocume!tatio!
7i"her+see# sta!#ar#s ++ u!#er #evelome!t
Several cometi!" a!# !o!+comati4le tech!olo"iesG ofte!
calle# Mre+!M
To see#s claime# of 130> 243> a!# 3$3Q 67A
Cometi!" roosals come from the "rous> &WC> T@! S9!c>
a!# WWiS& a!# are all variatio!s 4ase# o! 6%6O (multile
i!ut> multile outut)
032.11- 6iss+use# M"e!ericM term for 032.11 famil9 secificatio!s
032.12 /ema!# 'riorit9
%!creases &ther!et #ata rate to 133 64s 49 co!trolli!" me#ia
032.13 Not use# Not use#
032.14 Ca4le mo#ems
With#raw! 'A8. Sta!#ar#s ro=ect !o lo!"er e!#orse# 49 the
'erso!al Area
Commu!icatio!s secificatio! that was arove# i! earl9 2332
49 the %&&& for wireless erso!al area !etworks (W'ANs).
032.1$.1 Bluetooth
Short ra!"e (13m) wireless tech!olo"9 for cor#less mouse>
ke94oar#> a!# ha!#s+free hea#set at 2.4 @7A.
032.1$.3a 1WB Short ra!"e> hi"h+4a!#wi#th Multra wi#e4a!#M li!k
032.1$.4 Ri"Bee Short ra!"e wireless se!sor !etworks
032.1$.$ 6esh !etwork
&-te!sio! of !etwork covera"e without i!creasi!" the tra!smit
ower or the receiver se!sitivit9
&!ha!ce# relia4ilit9 via route re#u!#a!c9
&asier !etwork co!fi"uratio! + Better #evice 4atter9 life
Area Networks
This famil9 of sta!#ar#s covers :i-e# a!# 6o4ile Broa#4a!#
Wireless Access metho#s use# to create Wireless 6etroolita!
Area Networks (W6ANs.) Co!!ects Base Statio!s to the
%!ter!et usi!" O:/6 i! u!lice!se# (<33 67A> 2.4> $.0 @7A)
or lice!se# (.33 67A> 2.$ D 3., @7A) fre;ue!c9 4a!#s.
'ro#ucts that imleme!t 032.1, sta!#ar#s ca! u!#er"o
Wi6A2 certificatio! testi!".
8esilie!t 'acket
%&&& worki!" "rou #escritio!
8e"ulator9 TA@
%&&& 032.10 sta!#ar#s committee
032.1< Coe-iste!ce %&&& 032.1< Coe-iste!ce Tech!ical A#visor9 @rou
Wireless Access
%&&& 032.23 missio! a!# ro=ect scoe
%&&& 032.21 missio! a!# ro=ect scoe
8e"io!al Area
%&&& 032.22 missio! a!# ro=ect scoe
802.11 Protocol Stack
A rotocol stack is a articular software imleme!tatio! of a comuter !etworki!"
rotocol suite. The terms are ofte! use# i!tercha!"ea4l9. Strictl9 seaki!"> the suite is the
#efi!itio! of the rotocols> a!# the stack is the software imleme!tatio! of them. %!#ivi#ual
rotocols withi! a suite are ofte! #esi"!e# with a si!"le urose i! mi!#. This mo#ulariAatio!
makes #esi"! a!# evaluatio! easier. Because each rotocol mo#ule usuall9 commu!icates with
two others> the9 are commo!l9 ima"i!e# as layers i! a stack of rotocols. The lowest rotocol
alwa9s #eals with Mlow+levelM> h9sical i!teractio! of the har#ware. &ver9 hi"her la9er a##s
more features. 1ser alicatio!s ha4ituall9 #eal o!l9 with the tomost la9ers (See also OS%
The rotocols use# 49 all the 032 varia!ts> i!clu#i!" &ther!et> have a certai!
commo!alit9 of structure. %! the fi"ure 4elow we see a artial view of the 032.11 rotocol stack.
The h9sical la9er correso!#s to the OS% h9sical la9er fairl9 well> 4ut the #ata li!k la9er i! all
the 032 rotocols is slit i!to two or more su4la9ers. %! 032.11> the 6AC (6e#ium Access
Co!trol) su4la9er #etermi!es how the cha!!el is allocate#> that is> a!# who "ets to tra!smit !e-t.
A4ove it is the LLC (Lo"ical Li!k Co!trol) su4la9er> whose =o4 it is to hi#e the #iffere!ces
4etwee! the #iffere!t 032 varia!ts a!# make them i!#isti!"uisha4le as far as the !etwork la9er is
co!cer!e#. We stu#ie# the LLC whe! e-ami!i!" &ther!et earlier i! this chater a!# will !ot
reeat that material here. The 1<<. 032.11 sta!#ar# secifies three tra!smissio! tech!i;ues
allowe# i! the h9sical la9er. The i!frare# metho# uses much the same tech!olo"9 as televisio!
remote co!trols #o. The other two use short+ra!"e ra#io> usi!" tech!i;ues calle# :7SS a!#
/SSS. Both of these use a art of the sectrum that #oes !ot re;uire lice!si!" (the 2.4+@7A %S6
4a!#). 8a#io+co!trolle# "ara"e #oor oe!ers also use this iece of the sectrum> so 9our
!ote4ook comuter
ma9 fi!# itself i!
cometitio! with 9our
"ara"e #oor. Cor#less
teleho!es a!#
microwave ove!s also
use this 4a!#. All of
these tech!i;ues
oerate at 1 or 2
64s a!# at low
e!ou"h ower that
the9 #o !ot co!flict
too much. %! 1<<<>
two !ew tech!i;ues
were i!tro#uce# to
achieve hi"her
4a!#wi#th. These are
calle# O:/6 a!#
78/SSS. The9
oerate at u to $4
64s a!# 11 64s>
resectivel9. %! 2331>
a seco!# O:/6
mo#ulatio! was
i!tro#uce#> 4ut i! a
#iffere!t fre;ue!c9 4a!# from the first o!e. Now we will e-ami!e each of them 4riefl9.
Protocol Structure
%! the fi"ure 4elow we ca! see the Wireless LAN 49 %&&& 032.11> 032.11a>
032.114>032.11"> 032.11!031.11 rotocol famil9 6AC frame structure*
2 2 , , , 2 ,
:rame Co!trol Structure*
2 2 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
?ersio! T9e Su4t9e To /S :rom /S 6: 8etr9 'wr 6ore W O
• 'rotocol ?ersio! + i!#icates the versio! of %&&& 032.11 sta!#ar#.
• T9e + :rame t9e* 6a!a"eme!t> Co!trol a!# /ata.
• Su4t9e + :rame su4t9e* Authe!ticatio! frame> /eauthe!ticatio! frameG Associatio!
re;uest frameG Associatio! reso!se frameG 8eassociatio! re;uest frameG 8eassociatio!
reso!se frameG /isassociatio! frameG Beaco! frameG 'ro4e frameG 'ro4e re;uest frame
a!# 'ro4e reso!se frame.
• To /S + is set to 1 whe! the frame is se!t to /istri4utio! S9stem (/S)
• :rom /S + is set to 1 whe! the frame is receive# from the /istri4utio! S9stem (/S)
• 6:+ 6ore :ra"me!t is set to 1 whe! there are more fra"me!ts 4elo!"i!" to the same
frame followi!" the curre!t fra"me!t
• 8etr9 i!#icates that this fra"me!t is a retra!smissio! of a reviousl9 tra!smitte#
fra"me!t. (:or receiver to reco"!iAe #ulicate tra!smissio!s of frames)
• 'wr + 'ower 6a!a"eme!t i!#icates the ower ma!a"eme!t mo#e that the statio! will 4e
i! after the tra!smissio! of the frame.
• 6ore + 6ore /ata i!#icates that there are more frames 4uffere# to this statio!.
• W + W&' i!#icates that the frame 4o#9 is e!cr9te# accor#i!" to the W&' (wire#
e;uivale!t rivac9) al"orithm.
• + Or#er i!#icates that the frame is 4ei!" se!t usi!" the Strictl9+Or#ere# service class.
• /uratio!5%/ (%/) +
• Statio! %/ is use# for 'ower+Save oll messa"e frame t9e.
• The #uratio! value is use# for the Network Allocatio! ?ector (NA?) calculatio!.
• A##ress fiel#s (1+4) + co!tai! u to 4 a##resses (source> #esti!atio!> tra!smittio! a!#
receiver a##resses) #ee!#i!" o! the frame co!trol fiel# (the To/S a!# :rom/S 4its).
• Se;ue!ce Co!trol + co!sists of fra"me!t !um4er a!# se;ue!ce !um4er. %t is use# to
rerese!t the or#er of #iffere!t fra"me!ts 4elo!"i!" to the same frame a!# to reco"!iAe
acket #ulicatio!s.
• /ata + is i!formatio! that is tra!smitte# or receive#.
• C8C + co!tai!s a 32+4it C9clic 8e#u!#a!c9 Check (C8C).
Protocol Stack Architecture
&ach comuter> mo4ile> orta4le or fi-e#> is
referre# to as a statio! i! 032.11 (Wireless Local Area
The #iffere!ce 4etwee! a orta4le a!# mo4ile
statio! is that a orta4le statio! moves from oi!t to oi!t
4ut is o!l9 use# at a fi-e# oi!t. 6o4ile statio!s access the
LAN #uri!" moveme!t
Station /STA0 Architecture1
The Statio! Architecture is a #evice that co!tai!s
the %&&& co!forma!t 6AC a!# '7B i!terface i! the
wireless me#ium> 4ut o! the other si#e it #oes !ot rovi#e
access to a #istri4utio! s9stem. The Statio! Architecture is
most ofte! availa4le i! termi!als like latos> work+statio!s
a!# it is imleme!te# i! the Ava9a Wireless %&&& 032.11
• The most imorta!t features a!# co!#itio!s of the
Statio! Architecture are
• %t has a #river i!terface like the &ther!et
• All rotocol Stacks are virtuall9 suorte# 49 the STA
• The :rame tra!slatio! is #o!e accor#i!" to the %&&& ST/ 032.17
• The %&&& 032.3 frames with this architecture are tra!slate# to 032.11
• ?ia the Bri#"e Tu!!el e!casulatio! scheme are e!casulate# the &ther!et T9es 013.
(Novell %'2) a!# 03:3 (AA8')
• All other &ther!et T9es* e!casulate# via the 8:C 1342 (Sta!#ar# for the Tra!smissio!
of %' /ata"ramEs over %&&& 032 Networks) e!casulatio! scheme
• 6a-imum /ata limite# to 1$33 octets
• Bri#"i!" to &ther!et is #o!e tra!sare!tl9
Access2Point /AP0 Architecture1
A! Access 'oi!t is a #evice fou!# withi! a! %&&& 032.11 !etwork which rovi#es the
oi!t of i!terco!!ectio! 4etwee! the wireless Statio! (lato comuter> '/A ('erso!!el /i"ital
Assista!t) etc.) a!# the wire# !etwork.
The Access 'oi!t Architecture is a #evice that co!tai!s
%&&& 032.11 co!forma!t 6AC a!# '7B i!terface to the
wireless me#ium> a!# rovi#es access to a #istri4utio!
s9stem for associate# statio!s. 6ost ofte! it co!tai!s
i!fra+structure ro#ucts that co!!ect to wire# 4ack4o!es
%t is imleme!te# i! Ava9a Wireless %&&& 032.11 'C+
Car# whe! it is i!serte# i! a! A'+$33 or A'+1333
The +ost i+,ortant features and conditions of
Access2Point /AP0 Architecture1
• The Statio!s select a! Access+'oi!t a!# the9
associate with that. The Access oi!t is a art that
suorts roami!" a!# also the9 rovi#e time
s9!chro!iAatio! fu!ctio!s like 4eaco!i!". The
Access+'oi!t Architecture offers a 'ower
6a!a"eme!t suort. %! a rotocol stack architecture
the traffic t9icall9 flows throu"h the Access+'oi!t.
So that i! the %BSS architecture takes lace the #irect
Statio!+to+Statio! commu!icatio! s9stem.
*asic Ser#ice Set /*SS01
The Basic Service Set is a term use# to #escri4e the collectio! of Statio!s which ma9
commu!icate to"ether withi! a! 032.11 WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network). The BSS ma9
or ma9 !ot i!clu#e A' (Access 'oi!t) which rovi#es a co!!ectio! o!to a fi-e# #istri4utio!
s9stem such as a! &ther!et !etwork. Two t9es of BSS e-istG %BSS (%!#ee!#e!t Basic Service
Set) a!# %!frastructure Basic Service Set. Whe! two or more statio!s come to"ether to
commu!icate with each other> the9 form a Basic Service Set (BSS). The mi!imum BSS co!sists
of two statio!s. 032.11 LANs use the BSS as the sta!#ar# 4uil#i!" 4lock.
%! the BSS architecture a set of statio!s is co!trolle# 49 a si!"le SCoor#i!atio! :u!ctio!T> that is
the lo"ical fu!ctio! that #etermi!es whe! a statio! ca! tra!smit or receive.
%! this case we have similarit9 to a ScellT i! the re %&&& termi!olo"9 also a BSS ca! have a!
Access+'oi!t a!# that 4oth i! sta!#alo!e !etworks a!# i! 4uil#i!"+wi#e co!fi"uratio!s> or it =ust
ca! ru! without a!# Access+'oi!t 4ut o!l9 i! sta!#alo!e !etworks. The #iameter of the cells is
twice the covera"e+#ista!ce 4etwee! two wireless statio!s.
Inde,endent *asic Ser#ice Set /I*SS01
A! %!#ee!#e!t Basic Service Set also calle# a# hoc !etwork is the simlest of all %&&& 032.11
!etworks i! that !o !etwork i!frastructure is re;uire#. As such> a! %BSS is siml9 comrise# of
o!e or more Statio!s which commu!icate #irectl9 with each other. The co!tractio! shoul# !ot 4e
co!fuse# with a! %!frastructure BSS (Basic Service Set).A BSS that sta!#s alo!e a!# is !ot
co!!ecte# to a 4ase is calle# a! %!#ee!#e!t Basic Service Set (%BSS) or is referre# to as a! A#+
7oc Network. A! a#+hoc !etwork is a !etwork where statio!s commu!icate o!l9 eer to eer.
There is !o 4ase a!# !o o!e "ives ermissio! to talk. 6ostl9 these !etworks are so!ta!eous a!#
ca! 4e set u rai#l9. A#+7oc or %BSS !etworks are characteristicall9 limite# 4oth temorall9
a!# satiall9. So that the Basic Service Set (BSS) forms a self+co!tai!e# !etwork i! which !o
access to a /istri4utio! S9stem is availa4le> or it is also similar to a BSS without a! Access+
'oi!t. O!e of the statio!s i! the %BSS ca! 4e co!fi"ure# to Si!itiateT the !etwork a!# assume the
Coor#i!atio! :u!ctio!. The #iameter of the cell is #etermi!e# 49 covera"e #ista!ce 4etwee! two
wireless statio!s.
Whe! BSSIs are i!terco!!ecte# the !etwork 4ecomes o!e with i!frastructure. %!frastructure is
esta4lishe# i! the !etwork whe! BSS are i!terco!!ecte#> so that the 032.11 i!frastructures have
several eleme!ts. Two or more BSSIs are i!terco!!ecte# usi!" a /istri4utio! S9stem or /S. This
co!cet of /S i!creases !etwork covera"e. &ach BSS 4ecomes a como!e!t of a! e-te!#e#>
lar"er !etwork. &!tr9 to the /S is accomlishe# with the use of Access 'oi!ts (A'). A! access
oi!t is a statio!> thus a##ressa4le. With hel of the Access+'oi!ts #ata moves the! 4etwee! the
BSS a!# the /S.
.3tended Ser#ice Set /.SS01
A! &-te!#e# Service Set is comrise# of a !um4er of %&&& 802.11 BSS (Basic Service Set) a!#
e!a4les limite# mo4ilit9 withi! the (A) (Wireless Local Area Network). Statio!s are a4le to
move 4etwee! *SS withi! a si!"le &SS 9et still remai! Sco!!ecte#T to the fi-e# !etwork a!# so
co!ti!ue to receive emails etc. As a Station moves i!to a !ew BSS> it will carr9 out a
reassociatio! roce#ure with the !ew AP (Access 'oi!t). Creati!" lar"e a!# comle- !etworks
usi!" BSSIs a!# /SIs lea#s us to the !e-t level of hierarch9> the &-te!#e# Service Set or &SS.
The 4eaut9 of the &SS is the e!tire !etwork looks like a! i!#ee!#e!t 4asic service set to the
Lo"ical Li!k Co!trol la9er (LLC). This mea!s that statio!s withi! the &SS ca! commu!icate or
eve! move 4etwee! BSSEs tra!sare!tl9 to the LLC.
%t is the same here that the traffic alwa9s flows via Access+'oi!t> a!# the #iameter of the cell is
#ou4le the covera"e #ista!ce 4etwee! two wireless statio!s /istri4utio! S9stem (/S).There is
availa4le a s9stem to i!terco!!ect a set of Basic Service Sets a!# there is i!te"rate# a si!"le
Access+'oi!t i! a sta!#alo!e !etwork. %! the wire# !etwork there are use# ca4les to i!terco!!ect
the Access+'oi!ts. %! the wireless !etwork are use# wirelesses to i!terco!!ect the Access+'oi!ts.
&-amle* of &-te!#e# Service Set (&SS) with si!"le BSS a!# i!te"rate# /S
Example: &-te!#e# Service Set (&SS) BSSEs with wire# /istri4utio! S9stem (/S)
Example: &-te!#e# Service Set (&SS) BSSEs a!# wireless /istri4utio! S9stem (/S)
Ser#ice Set Identifier /SSI401
The Service Set %#e!tifier or Network Name is secifie# withi! %&&& 802.11 !etworks to
i#e!tif9 a articular !etwork. %t is usuall9 set 49 the a#mi!istrator setti!" u the (A) a!# will
4e u!i;ue withi! a *SS (Basic Service Set) or .SS (&-te!#e# Service Set). The SS%/ ma9 4e
4roa#cast from a! AP withi! the wireless !etwork to e!a4le Stations to #etermi!e which
!etwork to SAssociateT with. 7owever> this feature shoul# 4e #isa4le# as it ma9 assist hackers or
'ardri#ers i! "ai!i!" access to a rivate !etwork. The most imorta!t thi!"s a4out the SS%/
are that it is 32 octets lo!" a!# it is similar to S/omai!+%/T i! the re+%&&& Wave LAN s9stems.
So we ca! co!clu#e that o!e !etwork i!#ee!#e!t from that if it is &SS or %BSS it has alwa9s
o!e SS%/.
*asic Ser#ice Set Identifier /*SSI40
The BSS%/ is a 404it i#e!tit9 use# to i#e!tif9 a articular BSS (Basic Service Set) withi! o!e
area. %! the i!frastructure BSS !etworks> the BSS%/ is the 6AC (6e#ium Access Co!trol)
a##ress of the A' a!# i! %!#ee!#e!t BSS or a# hoc !etworks> the BSS%/ is "e!erate#
ra!#oml9. The BSS%/ i#e!tifies the cells a!# it is , octets lo!"> that mea!s that it is i! the 6AC
a##ress format. There is also visi4le a similarit9 to the NW%/ i! the re+ %&&& Wave LAN
s9stems. The value of the BSS%/ is the same as the 6AC a##ress of the ra#io i! the Access+
Protocol Stack for 5)I6
Also there are k!ow! #evelome!ts for architectural e!ha!ceme!ts for 1!i-+4ase# servers to
rovi#e a rotocol stack for 1N%2. To "ive a 4etter i#ea how it looks like the fi"ure 4elow
shows the 4asic como!e!ts of the e!ha!ce# rotocol stack architecture> with the !ew
caa4ilities utiliAe# either 49 user+sace a"e!ts or alicatio!s themselves. This architecture
ermits co!trol over a! alicatio!Is i!4ou!# !etwork traffic via olic9+4ase# traffic
ma!a"eme!tG a! a#atatio!5olic9 a"e!t i!stalls olicies i!to the ker!el via a secial A'%. The
olic9 a"e!t i!teracts with the ker!el via a! e!ha!ce# socket i!terface 49 se!#i!" (receivi!")
messa"es to (from) secial co!trol sockets. The olicies secif9 filters to select the traffic to 4e
co!trolle#> a!# actio!s to erform o! the selecte# traffic. The fi"ure shows the flow of a!
i!comi!" re;uest throu"h the various co!trol mecha!isms.
Co+,are &#erall Structure of 802.11b 7 802.1!.1 Coe3istence 8echanis+
A! AW6A tra!smissio! co!trol e!tit9 is i!te"rate# with the WLAN 6AC la9er a!# rovi#es a
6e#ium :ree si"!al to the Bluetooth Base4a!# la9er. This is a 4i!ar9 si"!al that "ates whe! the
WLAN a!# W'AN ca! each tra!smit ackets.
The 032.114 6AC a!# 032.1$.1 L6 Q LC e!tities rovi#e status i!formatio! to the 6&7TA
co!trol e!tities. The 6&7TA co!trol e!tit9 receives a er+tra!smissio! tra!smit re;uest (T2
8e;uest) a!# issues a er+tra!smissio! tra!smit co!firm (T2 Co!firm) to each stack to i!#icate
whether the tra!smissio! ca! rocee#. The T2 Co!firm carries a status value that is o!e of*
allowe# or #e!ie#. The T2 8e;uest a!# T2 Co!firm are #iscreet si"!als e-cha!"e# for ever9
acket tra!smissio! attemt.
802.15.1 LM
+ LC
802.11 PLCP
Status Status
T Enable T Enable
T Con!"r#
T Con!"r#
T &e'uest T &e'uest
802.11 Stack 802.15.1 Stack
8I9 SAP :eference 8odel for 802.11
The lo"ical laceme!t of the 6%7 :u!ctio! i! the 032.11 rotocol stack for statio!s a!# access
oi!ts is show! i! the fi"ure. %t is similar to the 032.3> where the LLC SA' (LSA') #efi!es the
i!terface of the 6%7 :u!ctio! with the 032.11 #ata la!e a!# ca! e!casulate 6%7 messa"es i!
#ata frames. 7owever> si!ce 032.11 #oes !ot curre!tl9 suort Class 1 #ata frames> 6%7
messa"es ca! 4e tra!sorte# over the 032.11 #ata la!e o!l9 after the 6o4ile No#e has
associate# with the 032.11 access oi!t. Before the associatio! 4etwee! 6o4ile No#e a!# access
oi!t takes lace> the L2 tra!sort of 6%7 messa"es ca! rel9 o! 032.11 ma!a"eme!t frames
from the 032.11 ma!a"eme!t la!e (6L6&). The 6%7 6L6& SA' #efi!es the i!terface
4etwee! the 6%7 :u!ctio! a!# the 6L6&.

Layer 3 Mobility Protocol (L3MP! "i#her$Layer Mobility
Protocol! "an%over Policy! &rans'ort! (''lications

Me%ia )n%e'en%ent
"an%over (M)" *+nction
M)" ,vent Service
M)" Comman% Service
M)" )n-ormation Service



Lo#ical Link Control






8I9 SAP :eference 8odel for 802.1"
The lo"ical laceme!t of the 6%7 :u!ctio! i! the 032.1, rotocol stack is show! i! the fi"ure>
so that we ca! comare 4etter what is the #iffere!ce 4etwee! the 032.11 a!# 032.1,.
The 6%7 :u!ctio! a!# the Network Co!trol a!# 6a!a"eme!t S9stem (NC6S) share the CUSA'
a!# 6USA' for access to the mo4ilit9+ma!a"eme!t services of the 6o4ilit9 Co!trol &!tit9 a!#
6a!a"eme!t &!tit9 i! the 032.1, 6a!a"eme!t 'la!e.
The mecha!isms for the #irect e!casulatio! of 6%7 frames i!to 032.1, #ata frames ma9 take
multile forms. The Service+Secific Co!ver"e!ce Su4la9er i!sta!ces curre!tl9 availa4le i! the
032.1, sta!#ar#s a!# Wi6A2 o!l9 e!a4le the e!casulatio! of %' ackets a!# &ther!et frames.
The o!l9 otio! availa4le for L2 tra!sort woul# 4e to first e!casulate the 6%7 messa"es i!to
&ther!et frames with a! 6%7 &thert9e value> a!# the! ma!#ate the a#otio! of &ther!et CS for
032.1, co!!ectio!s that carr9 the 6%7 messa"es. This aroach limits 4oth the efficie!c9 of the
L2 tra!sort of 6%7 messa"es> a!# that si!ce it imoses the a##itio! of full &ther!et overhea# D
at least 10 49tes D to the 6%7 frame a!# the availa4ilit9 of L2 tra!sort caa4ilities for 6%7>
si!ce &ther!et CS is !ot u4i;uitous.
Alter!ativel9> a solutio! that e!a4les 4etter efficie!c9 a!# easier accessi4ilit9 of L2 tra!sort
caa4ilities coul# 4ecome availa4le with the ossi4le sta!#ar#iAatio! of the @e!eric 'acket
Co!ver"e!ce Su4la9er (@'CS) rece!tl9 roose# withi! 032.1,". With @'CS a more efficie!t
LLC5SNA' e!casulatio! (0 49tes overhea#) coul# create the !ee#e# room for the 6%7
&thert9e i! 032.1, frame.

Sec+rity S+blayer

Layer 3 Mobility Protocol (L3MP! "i#her$Layer Mobility
Protocol! "an%over Policy! &rans'ort! (''lications

Me%ia )n%e'en%ent
"an%over (M)" *+nction
M)" ,vent Service
M)" Comman% Service
M)" )n-ormation Service

Mana#ement Plane

Service$S'eci-ic Conver#ence S+blayer (CS


M(C Common Part S+blayer (M(C CPS

Physical Layer (P"/


4ata ink ayer
As a! imorta!t art of the rotocol stack> the #ata li!k la9er withi! 032.11 co!sists of two
su4la9ers* Lo"ical Li!k Co!trol (LLC) a!# 6e#ia Access Co!trol (6AC). The 032.11 uses the
same 032.2 LLC a!# 40+4it a##ressi!" as other 032 LANs> allowi!" for ver9 simle 4ri#"i!"
from wireless to %&&& wire# !etworks> 4ut the 6AC is u!i;ue to WLANs. The 032.11 6AC is
ver9 similar i! co!cet comare# to the 032.3> which is #esi"!e# to suort multile users o! a
share# me#ium 49 havi!" the se!#er se!se the me#ium 4efore accessi!" it.
:or 032.3 &ther!et LANs> the Carrier Se!se 6ultile Access with Collisio! /etectio!
(CS6A5C/) it is re"ulate# from the rotocol how &ther!et statio!s are "oi!" to esta4lish access
to the wire a!# how the9 #etect a!# ha!#le collisio!s that occur whe! two or more #evices tr9 to
simulta!eousl9 commu!icate over the LAN. %! a! 032.11 WLAN> collisio! #etectio! is !ot
ossi4le #ue to what is k!ow! as the S!ear5farT ro4lem* to #etect a collisio!> a statio! must 4e
a4le to tra!smit a!# liste! at the same time> 4ut i! ra#io s9stems the tra!smissio! #row!s out the
a4ilit9 of the statio! to ShearT a collisio!. To accou!t for this #iffere!ce> 032.11 use a sli"htl9
mo#ifie# rotocol k!ow! as Carrier Se!se 6ultile Access with Collisio! Avoi#a!ce
(CS6A5CA) or the /istri4ute# Coor#i!atio! :u!ctio! (/C:). CS6A5CA attemts to avoi#
collisio!s 49 usi!" e-licit acket ack!owle#"me!t (ACC)> which mea!s a! ACC acket is se!t
49 the receivi!" statio! to co!firm that the #ata acket arrive# i!tact.
CS6A5CA works as follows. A statio! wishi!" to tra!smit se!ses the air> a!#> if !o activit9 is
#etecte#> the statio! waits a! a##itio!al> ra!#oml9 selecte# erio# of time a!# the! tra!smits if
the me#ium is still free. %f the acket is receive# i!tact> the receivi!" statio! issues a! ACC
frame that> o!ce successfull9 receive# 49 the se!#er> comletes the rocess. %f the ACC frame is
!ot #etecte# 49 the se!#i!" statio!> either 4ecause the ori"i!al #ata acket was !ot receive#
i!tact or the ACC was !ot receive# i!tact> a collisio! is assume# to have occurre# a!# the #ata
acket is tra!smitte# a"ai! after waiti!" a!other ra!#om amou!t of time.
CS6A5CA thus rovi#es a wa9 of shari!" access over the air. This e-licit ACC mecha!ism
also ha!#les i!terfere!ce a!# other ra#io relate# ro4lems ver9 effectivel9. 7owever> it #oes a##
some overhea# to 032.11 that 032.3 #oes !ot have> so that a! 032.11 LAN will alwa9s have
slower erforma!ce tha! a! e;uivale!t &ther!et LAN.
A!other 6AC+la9er ro4lem secific to wireless is the Shi##e! !o#eT issue> i! which two
statio!s o! oosite si#es of a! access oi!t ca! 4oth ShearT activit9 from a! access oi!t> 4ut
!ot from each other> usuall9 #ue to #ista!ce or a! o4structio!.
8TS5CTS 'roce#ure elimi!ates the S7i##e! No#eT 'ro4lem
To solve this ro4lem> 032.11 secif9 a! otio!al 8e;uest to Se!#5Clear to Se!# (8TS5CTS)
rotocol at the 6AC la9er. Whe! this feature is i! use> a se!#i!" statio! tra!smits a! 8TS a!#
waits for the access oi!t to rel9 with CTS. Si!ce all statio!s i! the !etwork ca! hear the access
oi!t> the CTS causes them to #ela9 a!9 i!te!#e# tra!smissio!s> allowi!" the se!#i!" statio! to
tra!smit a!# receive a acket ack!owle#"me!t without a!9 cha!ce of collisio!. Si!ce 8TS5CTS
a##s a##itio!al overhea# to the !etwork 49 temoraril9 reservi!" the me#ium> it is t9icall9 use#
o!l9 o! the lar"est+siAe# ackets> for which retra!smissio! woul# 4e e-e!sive from a
4a!#wi#th sta!#oi!t. :i!all9> the 032.11 6AC la9er rovi#es for two other ro4ust!ess features*
C8C checksum a!# acket fra"me!tatio!. &ach acket has a C8C checksum calculate# a!#
attache# to e!sure that the #ata was !ot corrute# i! tra!sit. This is #iffere!t from &ther!et>
where hi"her+level rotocols such as TC' ha!#le error checki!". 'acket fra"me!tatio! allows
lar"e ackets to 4e 4roke! i!to smaller u!its whe! se!t over the air> which is useful i! ver9
co!"este# e!viro!me!ts or whe! i!terfere!ce is a factor> si!ce lar"er ackets have a 4etter
cha!ce of 4ei!" corrute#. This tech!i;ue re#uces the !ee# for retra!smissio! i! ma!9 cases a!#
thus imroves overall wireless !etwork erforma!ce. The 6AC la9er is reso!si4le for
reassem4li!" fra"me!ts receive#> re!#eri!" the rocess tra!sare!t to hi"her level rotocols.
Su,,ort for Ti+e2*ounded 4ata
Time+4ou!#e# #ata such as voice a!# vi#eo is suorte# i! the 032.11 6AC secificatio!s
throu"h the 'oi!t Coor#i!atio! :u!ctio! ('C:). As oose# to the /C:> where co!trol is
#istri4ute# to all statio!s> i! 'C: mo#e a si!"le access oi!t co!trols access to the me#ia. %f a
BSS is set u with 'C: e!a4le#> time is slice# 4etwee! the s9stem 4ei!" i! 'C: mo#e a!# i!
/C: (CS6A5CA) mo#e. /uri!" the erio#s whe! the s9stem is i! 'C: mo#e> the access oi!t
will oll each statio! for #ata> a!# after a "ive! time move o! to the !e-t statio!. No statio! is
allowe# to tra!smit u!less it is olle#> a!# statio!s receive #ata from the access oi!t o!l9 whe!
the9 are olle#. Si!ce 'C: "ives ever9 statio! a tur! to tra!smit i! a re#etermi!e# fashio!> a
ma-imum late!c9 is "uara!tee#. A #ow!si#e to 'C: is that it is !ot articularl9 scala4le> i! that
a si!"le oi!t !ee#s to have co!trol of me#ia access a!# must oll all statio!s> which ca! 4e
i!effective i! lar"e !etworks.
8AC ;unctional 4escri,tion
The 032.11 sta!#ar# secifies a commo! me#ium access co!trol (6AC) La9er> which rovi#es a
variet9 of fu!ctio!s that suort the oeratio! of 032.11+4ase# wireless LANs. %! "e!eral> the
6AC La9er ma!a"es a!# mai!tai!s commu!icatio!s 4etwee! 032.11 statio!s (ra#io !etwork
car#s a!# access oi!ts) 49 coor#i!ati!" access to a share# ra#io cha!!el a!# utiliAi!" rotocols
that e!ha!ce commu!icatio!s over a wireless me#ium. Ofte! viewe# as the M4rai!sM of the
!etwork> the 032.11 6AC La9er uses a! 032.11 'h9sical ('7B) La9er> such as 032.114 or
032.11a> to erform the tasks of carrier se!si!"> tra!smissio!> a!# receivi!" of 032.11 frames.
Before tra!smitti!" frames> a statio! must first "ai! access to the me#ium> which is a ra#io
cha!!el that statio!s share. The 032.11 sta!#ar# #efi!es two forms of me#ium access> #istri4ute#
coor#i!atio! fu!ctio! (/C:) a!# oi!t coor#i!atio! fu!ctio! ('C:). /C: is ma!#ator9 a!#
4ase# o! the CS6A5CA (carrier se!se multile access with collisio! avoi#a!ce) rotocol. With
/C:> 032.11 statio!s co!te!# for access a!# attemt to se!# frames whe! there is !o other
statio! tra!smitti!". %f a!other statio! is se!#i!" a frame> statio!s are olite a!# wait u!til the
cha!!el is free.
As a co!#itio! to accessi!" the me#ium> the 6AC La9er checks the value of its !etwork
allocatio! vector (NA?)> which is a cou!ter resi#e!t at each statio! that rerese!ts the amou!t of
time that the revious frame !ee#s to se!# its frame. The NA? must 4e Aero 4efore a statio! ca!
attemt to se!# a frame. 'rior to tra!smitti!" a frame> a statio! calculates the amou!t of time
!ecessar9 to se!# the frame 4ase# o! the frameIs le!"th a!# #ata rate. The statio! laces a value
rerese!ti!" this time i! the #uratio! fiel# i! the hea#er of the frame. Whe! statio!s receive the
frame> the9 e-ami!e this #uratio! fiel# value a!# use it as the 4asis for setti!" their
correso!#i!" NA?s. This rocess reserves the me#ium for the se!#i!" statio!.
A! imorta!t asect of the /C: is a ra!#om 4ack off timer that a statio! uses if it #etects a 4us9
me#ium. %f the cha!!el is i! use> the statio! must wait a random erio# of time 4efore attemti!"
to access the me#ium a"ai!. This e!sures that multile statio!s wa!ti!" to se!# #ata #o!It
tra!smit at the same time. The ra!#om #ela9 causes statio!s to wait #iffere!t erio#s of time a!#
avoi#s all of them se!si!" the me#ium at e-actl9 the same time> fi!#i!" the cha!!el i#le>
tra!smitti!"> a!# colli#i!" with each other. The 4ack off timer si"!ifica!tl9 re#uces the !um4er
of collisio!s a!# correso!#i!" retra!smissio!s> eseciall9 whe! the !um4er of active users
With ra#io+4ase# LANs> a tra!smitti!" statio! ca!It liste! for collisio!s while se!#i!" #ata>
mai!l9 4ecause the statio! ca!It have itIs receiver o! while tra!smitti!" the frame. As a result>
the receivi!" statio! !ee#s to se!# a! ack!owle#"eme!t (ACC) if it #etects !o errors i! the
receive# frame. %f the se!#i!" statio! #oes!It receive a! ACC after a secifie# erio# of time> the
se!#i!" statio! will assume that there was a collisio! (or 8: i!terfere!ce) a!# retra!smit the
:or suorti!" time+4ou!#e# #eliver9 of #ata frames> the 032.11 sta!#ar# #efi!es the otio!al
oi!t coor#i!atio! fu!ctio! ('C:) where the access oi!t "ra!ts access to a! i!#ivi#ual statio! to
the me#ium 49 olli!" the statio! #uri!" the co!te!tio! free erio#. Statio!s ca!It tra!smit
frames u!less the access oi!t olls them first. The erio# of time for 'C:+4ase# #ata traffic (if
e!a4le#) occurs alter!atel9 4etwee! co!te!tio! (/C:) erio#s.
The access oi!t olls statio!s accor#i!" to a olli!" list> the! switches to a co!te!tio! erio#
whe! statio!s use /C:. This rocess e!a4les suort for 4oth s9!chro!ous (i.e.> vi#eo
alicatio!s) a!# as9!chro!ous (i.e.> e+mail a!# We4 4rowsi!" alicatio!s) mo#es of oeratio!.
8AC Architecture
The !ew 6AC access scheme #escri4e# hereafter e!ha!ces the curre!t 032.11 6AC. The 6AC
SA' is ket i#e!tical while the '7B SA' ma9 4e mo#ifie# accor#i!" to the caa4ilities of the
'7B la9er. As show! i! &rror* 8efere!ce source !ot fou!#> the e!ha!ce# 6AC la9er is
co!stitute# of two Co!ver"e!ce su4+la9ers> LLC Co!ver"e!ce Su4+La9er (LLCCS) a!#
Se"me!tatio! a!# 8e+assem4l9 (SA8)> a!# two tra!sfer su4+la9ers> 6AC %!terme#iate Su4+
La9er (6%S) a!# 6AC Lower Su4+la9er (6LS).
The 6AC SA' co!siste!c9 is mai!tai!e# 49 the LLCCS su4+la9er. The 6%S em4e#s the core
tra!sfer fu!ctio! of the 6AC la9er a!# is 4ase# o! short fi-e#+siAe tra!sfer u!its. The 6%S also
i!te"rates the &rror a!# :low Co!trol fu!ctio!s. The SA8 su4+la9er erforms the a#atatio!
4etwee! the varia4le siAe acket rovi#e# 49 the LLCCS a!# the tra!sfer u!its ma!a"e# 49 the
6%S. The 6LS su4+la9er is i! char"e of 4uil#i!" 032.11 comati4le 6'/1s from 6%S tra!sfer
u!it a!# si"!ali!" i!formatio!> a!# #elivers them to the '7B la9er. %! a##itio!> it ca! imleme!t
Sequence Number Assignment
Error and Flow Control
Packet Sequence Number Assignment
Segment Sequence Number Assignment
MP! "eader # C$C
MP! "eader
Le"ac9 032.11 &-te!#e# 6AC
Signalling %nsertion
MAC Protocol Stack Comparison
Securit9 is o!e of the first co!cer!s of eole #elo9i!" a Wireless LANG the 032.11 committee
has a##resse# the issue 49 rovi#i!" what is calle# W&' (Wire# &;uivale!t 'rivac9)
Authe!ticatio!* A fu!ctio! that #etermi!es whether a Statio! is allowe# to articiate i!
!etwork commu!icatio!. The sta!#ar# %&&& 032.11i is #esi"!e# to rovi#e secure#
commu!icatio! of wireless LAN as #efi!e# 49 all the %&&& 032.11 secificatio!s. %&&& 032.11i
e!ha!ces the W&' (Wireli!e &;uivale!t 'rivac9)G a tech!olo"9 use# for ma!9 9ears for the
WLAN securit9> i! the areas of e!cr9tio!> authe!ticatio! a!# ke9 ma!a"eme!t. %&&& 032.11i is
4ase# o! the Wi+:i 'rotecte# Access (W'A)> which is a ;uick fi- of the W&B weak!esses.
The %&&& 032.11i has the followi!" ke9 como!e!ts*
1. Temoral Ce9 %!te"rit9 'rotocol (TC%')* it is #ata+co!fi#e!tialit9 rotocol a!# it was
#esi"!e# to imrove the securit9 of ro#ucts that were imleme!te# throu"h W&'. TC%' uses a
messa"e i!te"rit9 co#e to e!a4le #evices to authe!ticate that the ackets are comi!" from the
claime# source> this co#e is calle# 6ichael. Also TC%' uses a mi-i!" fu!ctio! to #efeat weak+
ke9 attacks> which e!a4le# attackers to #ecr9t traffic.
2. Cou!ter+6o#e5CBC+6AC 'rotocol (CC6')* a #ata+co!fi#e!tialit9 rotocol that is
reso!si4le for acket authe!ticatio! as well as e!cr9tio!. :or co!fi#e!tialit9> CC6' uses A&S
i! cou!ter mo#e. :or authe!ticatio! a!# i!te"rit9> CC6' uses Ciher Block Chai!i!" 6essa"e
Authe!ticatio! Co#e (CBC+6AC). %! %&&& 032.11i> CC6' uses a 120+4it ke9. CC6' rotects
some fiel#s that are!It e!cr9te#. The a##itio!al arts of the %&&& 032.11 frame that "et
rotecte# are k!ow! as a##itio!al authe!ticatio! #ata (AA/). AA/ i!clu#es the ackets source
a!# #esti!atio! a!# rotects a"ai!st attackers rela9i!" ackets to #iffere!t #esti!atio!s.
3.%&&& 032.1-* offers a! effective framework for authe!ticati!" a!# co!trolli!" user traffic to a
rotecte# !etwork> as well as #9!amicall9 var9i!" e!cr9tio! ke9s. 032.12 ties a rotocol calle#
&A' (&-te!si4le Authe!ticatio! 'rotocol) to 4oth the wire# a!# wireless LAN me#ia a!#
suort multile authe!ticatio! metho#s.
4. &A' e!casulatio! over LANs (&A'OL)D it is the ke9 rotocol i! %&&& 032.1- for ke9
e-cha!"e. Two mai! &A'OL+ke9 e-cha!"es are #efi!e# i! %&&& 032.11i. The first is referre# to
as the 4+wa9 ha!#shake a!# the seco!# is the "rou ke9 ha!#shake.
Because %&&& 032.11i has more tha! o!e #ata+co!fi#e!tialit9 rotocol> %&&& 032.11i rovi#es
a! al"orithm for the %&&& 032.11i clie!t car# a!# access oi!t to !e"otiate which rotocol to use
#uri!" secific traffic circumsta!ces a!# to #iscover a!9 u!k!ow! securit9 arameters.
Protocol Structure & %EEE '()*++i: ,-AN Security Standards
Pre#entin- Access to )et'ork :esources
This is #o!e 49 the use of a! Authe!ticatio! mecha!ism where a statio! !ee#s to rove
k!owle#"e of the curre!t ke9G this is ver9 similar to the Wire# LAN rivac9> o! the se!se that a!
i!tru#er !ee#s to e!ter the remises (49 usi!" a h9sical ke9) i! or#er to co!!ect his workstatio!
to the wire# LAN.
&aves#roi!" is reve!te# 49 the use of the W&' al"orithm> which is a 'seu#o 8a!#om
Num4er @e!erator ('8N@)> i!itialiAe# 49 a share# secret ke9. This '8N@ oututs a ke9
se;ue!ce of seu#o+ra!#om 4its e;ual i! le!"th to the lar"est ossi4le acket> which is com4i!e#
with the out"oi!"5i!comi!" acket ro#uci!" the acket tra!smitte# i! the air.
The W&' al"orithm is a simle al"orithm 4ase# o! 8SAVs 8C4 al"orithm> which has the
followi!" roerties*
8easo!a4le stro!"* Brute+force attack to this al"orithm is #ifficult 4ecause of the fact that ever9
frame is se!t with a! %!itialiAatio! ?ector> which restarts the '8N@ for each frame.
Self S9!chro!iAi!"* The al"orithm s9!chro!iAe# a"ai! for each messa"e> this is !ee#e# i! or#er
to work o! a co!!ectio!less e!viro!me!t> where ackets ma9 "et lost (as a!9 LAN).
Physical ayer
The %&&& (#efi!e) 032.11 sta!#ar# i!clu#es a commo! 6e#ium Access Co!trol (6AC) La9er>
which #efi!es rotocols that "over! the oeratio! of the wireless LAN. %! a##itio!> 032.11
comrise several alter!ative h9sical la9ers that secif9 the tra!smissio! a!# recetio! of 032.11
The ,hysical layer basics
To k!ow the h9sical la9er termi!olo"9 we !ee# to u!#ersta!# the esse!tial i!tricacies of
@:SC is a mo#ulatio! scheme i! which the #ata are first filtere# 49 a @aussia! filter i! the
Base4a!#> a!# the! mo#ulate# with a simle fre;ue!c9 mo#ulatio!. 2 a!# 4 4it rerese!t the
!um4er of fre;ue!c9 offsets use# to rerese!t #ata s9m4ols of o!e a!# two 4its> resectivel9.
/B'SC is hase mo#ulatio! usi!" two #isti!ct carrier hases for #ata si"!ali!" rovi#i!" o!e 4it
er s9m4ol.
/N'SC is a t9e of hase mo#ulatio! usi!" two airs of #isti!ct carrier hases> i! ;ua#rature> to
si"!al two 4its er s9m4ol. The #iffere!tial characteristic of the mo#ulatio! schemes i!#icates
the use of the #iffere!ce i! hase from the last cha!"e or s9m4ol to #etermi!e the curre!t
s9m4olIs value> rather tha! a!9 a4solute measureme!ts of the hase cha!"e.
Both the :7SS a!# /SSS mo#es are secifie# for oeratio! i! the 2.4 @7A i!#ustrial> scie!tific
a!# me#ical (%S6) 4a!#> which has sometimes 4ee! =oki!"l9 referre# to as the i!terfere!ce
suressio! is ma!#ator9 4a!# 4ecause it is heavil9 use# 49 various electro!ic ro#ucts. The
thir# h9sical la9er alter!ative is a! i!frare# s9stem usi!" !ear+visi4le li"ht i! the 0$3 !m to <$3
!m ra!"e as the tra!smissio! me#ium.
At the forefro!t of the !ew WLAN otio!s that will e!a4le much hi"her #ata rates are two
suleme!ts to the %&&& 032.11 sta!#ar#* 032.114 a!# 032.11a> as well as a &uroea!
Telecommu!icatio!s Sta!#ar#s %!stitute (&TS%) sta!#ar#> 7i"h 'erforma!ce LAN
(7%'&8LAN5%%). Both 032.11 a!# 7%'&8LAN5%% have similar h9sical la9er characteristics
oerati!" i! the $ @7A 4a!# a!# use the mo#ulatio! scheme ortho"o!al fre;ue!c9 #ivisio!
multile-i!" (O:/6)> 4ut the 6AC la9ers are co!si#era4l9 #iffere!t. The focus here> however>
will 4e to comare the h9sical la9er characteristics of 032.11a a!# 032.114. With
7%'&8LAN5%% shari!" several of the same h9sical roerties as 032.11a> ma!9 of the same
issues will al9.
A!other sta!#ar# that warra!ts me!tio! i! this co!te-t is %&&& 032.11". With a ruli!" from the
:e#eral Commu!icatio!s Commissio! that will !ow allow O:/6 #i"ital tra!smissio!
tech!olo"9 to oerate i! the %S6 4a!# a!# the romise of i!teroera4ilit9 with a lar"e i!stalle#
4ase of 032.114 ro#ucts> the 032.11" e-te!sio! to the sta!#ar# 4e"i!s to "ar!er the atte!tio! of
WLAN e;uime!t rovi#ers. Althou"h !ot #etaile# here> it will offer #ata rates e;ual to or
e-cee#i!" 22 645s with ro#ucts availa4le late i! 2332.
&ach of the five ermitte# tra!smissio! tech!i;ues makes it ossi4le to se!# a 6AC frame from
o!e statio! to a!other. The9 #iffer> however> i! the tech!olo"9 use# a!# see# achieva4le. The
i!frare# otio! uses #iffuse# (i.e.> !ot li!e of si"ht) tra!smissio! at 3.0$ or 3.<$ micro!s. Two
see#s are ermitte#* 1 64s a!# 2 64s. At 1 64s> a! e!co#i!" scheme is use# i! which a
"rou of 4 4its is e!co#e# as a 1,+4it co#ewor# co!tai!i!" fiftee! 3s a!# a si!"le 1> usi!" what is
calle# @ra9 co#e. This co#e has the roert9 that a small error i! time s9!chro!iAatio! lea#s to
o!l9 a si!"le 4it error i! the outut. At 2 64s> the e!co#i!" takes 2 4its a!# ro#uces a 4+4it
co#ewor#> also with o!l9 a si!"le 1> that is o!e of 3331> 3313> 3133> or 1333. %!frare# si"!als
ca!!ot e!etrate walls> so cells i! #iffere!t rooms are well isolate# from each other.
Nevertheless> #ue to the low 4a!#wi#th (a!# the fact that su!li"ht swams i!frare# si"!als)> this
is !ot a oular otio!.
As with other 032.11 'h9sical la9ers> 032.114 i!clu#es 'h9sical La9er Co!ver"e!ce 'roce#ure
('LC') a!# 'h9sical 6e#ium /ee!#e!t ('6/) su4+la9ers. These are somewhat sohisticate#
terms that the sta!#ar# uses to #ivi#e the ma=or fu!ctio!s that occur withi! the 'h9sical La9er.
The 'LC' reares 032.11 frames for tra!smissio! a!# #irects the '6/ to actuall9 tra!smit
si"!als> cha!"e ra#io cha!!els> receive si"!als> a!# so o!.
PCP ;ra+e ;ields
The 'LC' takes each 032.11 frame that a statio! wishes to tra!smit a!# forms what the 032.11
sta!#ar# refers to as a 'LC' rotocol #ata u!it (''/1). The resulti!" ''/1 i!clu#es the
followi!" fiel#s i! a##itio! to the frame fiel#s imose# 49 the 6AC La9er*
S9!c. This fiel# co!sists of alter!ati!" 3s a!# 1s> alerti!" the receiver that a receiva4le si"!al is
rese!t. The receiver 4e"i!s s9!chro!iAi!" with the i!comi!" si"!al after #etecti!" the S9!c.
Start :rame /elimiter. This fiel# is alwa9s 1111331113133333 a!# #efi!es the 4e"i!!i!" of a
Si"!al. This fiel# i#e!tifies the #ata rate of the 032.11 frame> with its 4i!ar9 value e;ual to the
#ata rate #ivi#e# 49 133C4s. :or e-amle> the fiel# co!tai!s the value of 33331313 for 164s>
33313133 for 264s> a!# so o!. The 'LC' fiel#s> however> are alwa9s se!t at the lowest rate>
which is 164s. This e!sures that the receiver is i!itiall9 uses the correct #emo#ulatio!
mecha!ism> which cha!"es with #iffere!t #ata rates.
Service. This fiel# is alwa9s set to 33333333 a!# the 032.11 sta!#ar# reserves it for future use.
Le!"th. This fiel# rerese!ts the !um4er of microseco!#s that it takes to tra!smit the co!te!ts of
the ''/1> a!# the receiver uses this i!formatio! to #etermi!e the e!# of the frame.
:rame Check Se;ue!ce. %! or#er to #etect ossi4le errors i! the 'h9sical La9er hea#er> the
sta!#ar# #efi!es this fiel# for co!tai!i!" 1,+4it c9clic re#u!#a!c9 check (C8C) result. The 6AC
La9er also erforms error #etectio! fu!ctio!s o! the ''/1 co!te!ts as well.
'S/1. The 'S/1> which sta!#s for 'h9sical La9er Service /ata 1!it> is a fa!c9 !ame that
rerese!ts the co!te!ts of the ''/1 (i.e.> the actual 032.11 frame 4ei!" se!t).
/o!It e-ect to see the h9sical la9er fiel#s with 032.11 a!al9Aers from Air6a"!et a!#
Wil#ackets> however. The 032.11 ra#io car# removes these fiel#s 4efore the resulti!" #ata is
rocesse# 49 the 6AC La9er a!# offere# to the a!al9Aer for viewi!".
Ne-t> we come to 78+/SSS (7i"h 8ate /irect Se;ue!ce Srea# Sectrum)> a!other srea#
sectrum tech!i;ue> which uses 11 millio! chis5sec to achieve 11 64s i! the 2.4+@7A 4a!#. %t
is calle# 032.114 4ut is !ot a follow+u to 032.11a. %! fact> its sta!#ar# was arove# first a!# it
"ot to market first. /ata rates suorte# 49 032.114 are 1> 2> $.$> a!# 11 64s. The two slow
rates ru! at 1 64au#> with 1 a!# 2 4its er 4au#> resectivel9> usi!" hase shift mo#ulatio! (for
comati4ilit9 with /SSS). The two faster rates ru! at 1.3.$ 64au#> with 4 a!# 0 4its er 4au#>
resectivel9> usi!" Walsh57a#amar# co#es. The #ata rate ma9 4e #9!amicall9 a#ate# #uri!"
oeratio! to achieve the otimum see# S&C. 4.4 W%8&L&SS LANS 2<$ ossi4le u!#er curre!t
co!#itio!s of loa# a!# !oise. %! ractice> the oerati!" see# of 032.114 is !earl9 alwa9s 11
64s. Althou"h 032.114 is slower tha! 032.11a> its ra!"e is a4out . times "reater> which is more
imorta!t i! ma!9 situatio!s. A! e!ha!ce# versio! of 032.114> 032.11"> was arove# 49 %&&&
i! Novem4er 2331 after much oliticki!" a4out whose ate!te# tech!olo"9 it woul# use. %t uses
the O:/6 mo#ulatio! metho# of 032.11a 4ut oerates i! the !arrow 2.4+ @7A %S6 4a!# alo!"
with 032.114. %! theor9 it ca! oerate at u to $4 6Bs. %t is !ot 9et clear whether this see# will
4e realiAe# i! ractice. What it #oes mea! is that the 032.11 committee has ro#uce# three
#iffere!t hi"h+see# wireless LANs* 032.11a> 032.114> a!# 032.11" (!ot to me!tio! three low+
see# wireless LANs). O!e ca! le"itimatel9 ask if this is a "oo# thi!" for a sta!#ar#s committee
The 032.11 h9sical la9er ('7B) is the i!terface 4etwee! the 6AC a!# the wireless me#ia
where frames are tra!smitte# a!# receive#. The '7B rovi#es three fu!ctio!s. :irst> the '7B
rovi#es a! i!terface to e-cha!"e frames with the uer 6AC la9er for tra!smissio! a!#
recetio! of #ata. Seco!#l9> the '7B uses si"!al carrier a!# srea# sectrum mo#ulatio! to
tra!smit #ata frames over the me#ia. Thir#l9> the '7B rovi#es a carrier se!se i!#icatio! 4ack to
the 6AC to verif9 activit9 o! the me#ia.
032.11 rovi#es three #iffere!t '7B #efi!itio!s* Both Frequency "opping Spread Spectrum
(:7SS) a!# irect Sequence Spread Spectrum (/SSS) suort 1 a!# 2 64s #ata rates. A!
e-te!sio! to the 032.11 architecture (032.11a) #efi!es #iffere!t multile-i!" tech!i;ues that ca!
achieve #ata rates u to $4 64s. A!other e-te!sio! to the sta!#ar# (032.114) #efi!es 11 64s
a!# $.$ 64s #ata rates (i! a##itio! to the 1 a!# 264s rates) utiliAi!" a! e-te!sio! to /SSS
calle# 7i"h 8ate /SSS (785/SSS). 032.114 also #efi!es a rate shifti!" tech!i;ue where 11
64s !etworks ma9 fall 4ack to $.$ 64s> 2 64s> or 1 6s u!#er !ois9 co!#itio!s or to i!ter+
oerate with le"ac9 032.11 '7B la9ers.
Infrared /I:0
The %!frare# '7B utiliAes i!frare# li"ht to tra!smit 4i!ar9 #ata either at 1 64s (4asic access
rate) or 2 64s (e!ha!ce# access rate) usi!" a secific mo#ulatio! tech!i;ue for each. :or 1
64s> the i!frare# '7B uses a 1,+ulse ositio! mo#ulatio! (''6). The co!cet of ''6 is to
var9 the ositio! of a ulse to rerese!t #iffere!t 4i!ar9 s9m4ols. %!frare# tra!smissio! at 2
64s utiliAes a 4 ''6 mo#ulatio! tech!i;ue.
S,read S,ectru+
Srea# sectrum is a tech!i;ue tra#i!" 4a!#wi#th for relia4ilit9. The "oal is to use more
4a!#wi#th tha! the s9stem reall9 !ee#s for tra!smissio! to re#uce the imact of localiAe#
i!terfere!ce o! the me#ia. Srea# sectrum srea#s the tra!smitte# 4a!#wi#th of the resulti!"
si"!al> re#uci!" the eak ower 4ut keei!" total ower the same.
;re<uency 9o,,in- S,read S,ectru+ /;9SS0
%! :7SS the total fre;ue!c9 4a!# is slit i!to a !um4er of cha!!els. The 4roa#cast #ata is srea#
across the e!tire fre;ue!c9 4a!# 49 hoi!" 4etwee! the cha!!els i! a seu#o ra!#om fashio!.
:re;ue!c9+hoi!" srea# sectrum (:7SS) is a srea#+sectrum metho# of tra!smitti!" ra#io
si"!als 49 rai#l9 switchi!" a carrier amo!" ma!9 fre;ue!c9 cha!!els> usi!" a seu#ora!#om
se;ue!ce k!ow! to 4oth tra!smitter a!# receiver.
A srea#+sectrum tra!smissio! offers three mai! a#va!ta"es over a fi-e#+fre;ue!c9
Srea#+sectrum si"!als are hi"hl9 resista!t to !oise a!# i!terfere!ce. The rocess of re+
collecti!" a srea# si"!al srea#s out !oise a!# i!terfere!ce> causi!" them to rece#e i!to the
Srea#+sectrum si"!als are #ifficult to i!tercet. A :re;ue!c9+7o srea#+sectrum si"!al
sou!#s like a mome!tar9 !oise 4urst or siml9 a! i!crease i! the 4ack"rou!# !oise for short
:re;ue!c9+7o co#es o! a!9 !arrow4a!# receiver e-cet a :re;ue!c9+7o srea#+sectrum
receiver usi!" the e-act same cha!!el se;ue!ce as was use# 49 the tra!smitter.
Srea#+sectrum tra!smissio!s ca! share a fre;ue!c9 4a!# with ma!9 t9es of co!ve!tio!al
tra!smissio!s with mi!imal i!terfere!ce. The srea#+sectrum si"!als a## mi!imal !oise to the
!arrow+fre;ue!c9 commu!icatio!s> a!# vice versa. As a result> 4a!#wi#th ca! 4e utiliAe# more
:re;ue!c9 7oi!" utiliAes a set of !arrow cha!!els a!# MhosM throu"h all of them i! a
re#etermi!e# se;ue!ce. :or e-amle> the 2.4 @7A fre;ue!c9 4a!# is #ivi#e# i!to .3 cha!!els
of 1 67A each. &ver9 23 to 433 msec the s9stem MhosM to a !ew cha!!el followi!" a
re#etermi!e# c9clic atter!.
The 032.11 :re;ue!c9 7oi!" Srea# Sectrum (:7SS) '7B uses the 2.4 @7A ra#io
fre;ue!c9 4a!#> oerati!" with at 1 or 2 64s #ata rate.
:7SS (:re;ue!c9 7oi!" Srea# Sectrum) uses .< cha!!els> each 1+ 67A wi#e> starti!" at
the low e!# of the 2.4+@7A %S6 4a!#. A seu#ora!#om !um4er "e!erator is use# to ro#uce the
se;ue!ce of fre;ue!cies hoe# to. As lo!" as all statio!s use the same see# to the
seu#ora!#om !um4er "e!erator a!# sta9 s9!chro!iAe# i! time> the9 will ho to the same
fre;ue!cies simulta!eousl9. The amou!t of time se!t at each fre;ue!c9> the #well time> is a!
a#=usta4le arameter> 4ut must 4e less tha! 433 msec. :7SSE ra!#omiAatio! rovi#es a fair wa9
to allocate sectrum i! the u!re"ulate# %S6 4a!#. %t also rovi#es a mo#icum of securit9 si!ce
a! i!tru#er who #oes !ot k!ow the hoi!" se;ue!ce or #well time ca!!ot eaves#ro o!
tra!smissio!s. Over lo!"er #ista!ces> multiath fa#i!" ca! 4e a! issue> a!# :7SS offers "oo#
resista!ce to it. %t is also relativel9 i!se!sitive to ra#io i!terfere!ce> which makes it oular for
4uil#i!"+to+4uil#i!" li!ks. %ts mai! #isa#va!ta"e is its low 4a!#wi#th. The thir# mo#ulatio!
:re;ue!c9 hoi!" relies o! fre;ue!c9 #iversit9 to com4at i!terfere!ce. This is accomlishe#
49 multile fre;ue!c9> co#e selecte#> :SC. Basicall9> the i!comi!" #i"ital stream is shifte# i!
fre;ue!c9 49 a! amou!t #etermi!e# 49 a co#e that srea#s the si"!al ower over a wi#e
4a!#wi#th. %! comariso! to 4i!ar9 :SC> which has o!l9 two ossi4le fre;ue!cies> :7SS ma9
have 2O13W23 or more.
The :7SS tra!smitter is a seu#o+!oise 'N co#e co!trolle# fre;ue!c9 s9!thesiAer. The
i!sta!ta!eous fre;ue!c9 outut of the tra!smitter =ums from o!e value to a!other 4ase# o! the
seu#o+ra!#om i!ut from the co#e "e!erator. ?ar9i!" the i!sta!ta!eous fre;ue!c9 results i! a!
outut sectrum that is effectivel9 srea# over the ra!"e of fre;ue!cies "e!erate#.
:i".1 :7SS Sectrum
%! this s9stem> the !um4er of #iscrete fre;ue!cies #etermi!es the 4a!#wi#th of the
s9stem. 7e!ce> the rocess "ai! is #irectl9 #ee!#e!t o! the !um4er of availa4le fre;ue!c9
choices for a "ive! i!formatio! rate.
A!other imorta!t factor i! :7SS s9stems is the rate at which the hos occur. The mi!imum
time re;uire# to cha!"e fre;ue!cies is #ee!#e!t o! the i!formatio! 4it rate> the amou!t of
re#u!#a!c9 use#> a!# the #ista!ce to the !earest i!terfere!ce source.
4irect Se<uence S,read S,ectru+ /4SSS0
/irect Se;ue!ce Srea# Sectrum is 4ase# o! the multil9i!" of the 4ase4a!# si"!al #ata with a
4roa#4a!# srea#i!" co#e. The result is terme# the chi rate. The characteristics of the
4roa#4a!# srea#i!" co#e are that of seu#ora!#om !oise. Co!se;ue!tl9 the receiver
s9!chro!iAe# to the co#e will o4tai! the !arrow4a!# si"!al. All other receivers will see the
srea# si"!al as white or colore# !oise.
%! co!trast> fre;ue!c9+hoi!" srea# sectrum seu#o+ra!#oml9 retu!es the carrier> i!stea# of
a##i!" seu#o+ra!#om !oise to the #ata> which results i! a u!iform fre;ue!c9 #istri4utio! whose
wi#th is #etermi!e# 49 the outut ra!"e of the seu#o+ra!#om !um4er "e!erator.
%! telecommu!icatio!s> #irect+se;ue!ce srea# sectrum is a mo#ulatio! tech!i;ue where the
tra!smitte# si"!al takes u more 4a!#wi#th tha! the i!formatio! si"!al that is 4ei!" mo#ulate#>
which is the reaso! that it is calle# srea# sectrum. /SSS has the followi!" features*
for "e!erati!" srea#+sectrum tra!smissio!s 49 hase+mo#ulati!" a si!e wave seu#o ra!#oml9
with a co!ti!uous stri!" of seu#o !oise co#e s9m4ols> each of #uratio! much smaller tha! a 4it.
A si"!al structuri!" tech!i;ue utiliAi!" a #i"ital co#e se;ue!ce ('N Se;ue!ces) havi!" a chi
rate much hi"her tha! the i!formatio! si"!al 4it rate. &ach i!formatio! 4it of a #i"ital si"!al is
tra!smitte# as a seu#ora!#om se;ue!ce of chis.
The ri!cile of irect Sequence is to srea# a si"!al o! a lar"er fre;ue!c9 4a!# 49 multile-i!"
it with a si"!ature or co#e to mi!imiAe localiAe# i!terfere!ce a!# 4ack"rou!# !oise. To srea#
the si"!al> each 4it is mo#ulate# 49 a co#e. %! the receiver> the ori"i!al si"!al is recovere# 49
receivi!" the whole srea# cha!!el a!# #emo#ulati!" with the same co#e use# 49 the
tra!smitter. The 032.11 irect Sequence Spread Spectrum (/SSS) '7B also uses the 2.4 @7A
ra#io fre;ue!c9 4a!#.
%t is also a art of the 032.11 4 a!# " sta!#ar#s. Note that i! the ori"i!al 032.11 sta!#ar#> either
:7SS or /SSS ma9 4e use#.
/SSS (/irect Se;ue!ce Srea# Sectrum) is also restricte# to 1 or 2 64s. The scheme use# has
some similarities to the C/6A s9stem> 4ut #iffers i! other wa9s. &ach 4it is tra!smitte# as 11
chis> usi!" what is calle# a Barker se;ue!ce. %t uses hase shift mo#ulatio! at 1 64au#>
tra!smitti!" 1 4it er 4au# whe! oerati!" at 1 64s a!# 2 4its er 4au# whe! oerati!" at 2
64s. 032.114 uses /SSS to #iserse the #ata frame si"!al over a relativel9 wi#e
(aro-imatel9 3367A) ortio! of the 2.4@7A fre;ue!c9 4a!#. This results i! "reater immu!it9
to ra#io fre;ue!c9 (8:) i!terfere!ce as comare# to !arrow4a!# si"!ali!"> which is wh9 the
:e#eral Commu!icatio!s Commissio! (:CC) (#efi!e) #eems the oeratio! of srea# sectrum
s9stems as lice!se free. :or 9ears> the :CC re;uire# all wireless commu!icatio!s e;uime!t
oerati!" i! the %S6 4a!#s i! the 1.S. to use srea# sectrum> 4ut i! 6a9 2332> that rule was
#roe# as !ew tech!olo"ies emer"e#. The first of the hi"h+see# wireless LANs> 032.11a> uses
O:/6 (Ortho"o!al :re;ue!c9 /ivisio! 6ultile-i!") to #eliver u to $4 64s i! the wi#er $+
@7A %S6 4a!#. As the term :/6 su""ests> #iffere!t fre;ue!cies are use#F$2 of them> 40 for
#ata a!# 4 for s9!chro!iAatio!F!ot u!like A/SL. Si!ce tra!smissio!s are rese!t o! multile
fre;ue!cies at the same time> this tech!i;ue is co!si#ere# a form of srea# sectrum> 4ut
#iffere!t from 4oth C/6A a!# :7SS. Slitti!" the si"!al i!to ma!9 !arrow 4a!#s has some ke9
a#va!ta"es over usi!" a si!"le wi#e 4a!#> i!clu#i!" 4etter immu!it9 to !arrow4a!# i!terfere!ce
a!# the ossi4ilit9 of usi!" !o!co!ti"uous 4a!#s. A comle- e!co#i!" s9stem is use#> 4ase# o!
hase+shift mo#ulatio! for see#s u to 10 64s a!# o! NA6 a4ove that. At $4 64s> 21, #ata
4its are e!co#e# i!to 200+4it s9m4ols. 'art of the motivatio! for O:/6 is comati4ilit9 with the
&uroea! 7ierLAN52 s9stem (/oufe-i et al.> 2332). The tech!i;ue has a "oo# sectrum
efficie!c9 i! terms of 4its57A a!# "oo# immu!it9 to multiath fa#i!". This is ro4a4l9 the most
wi#el9 reco"!iAe# form of srea# sectrum. The /SSS rocess is erforme# 49 effectivel9
multil9i!" a! 8: carrier a!# a seu#o+!oise ('N) #i"ital si"!al. :irst the 'N co#e is mo#ulate#
o!to the i!formatio! si"!al usi!" o!e of several mo#ulatio! tech!i;ues (e". B'SC> N'SC>
etc). The!> a #ou4l9 4ala!ce# mi-er is use# to multil9 the 8: carrier a!# 'N mo#ulate#
i!formatio! si"!al. This rocess causes the 8: si"!al to 4e relace# with a ver9 wi#e 4a!#wi#th
si"!al with the sectral e;uivale!t of a !oise si"!al. The #emo#ulatio! rocess (for the B'SC
case) is the! siml9 the mi-i!"5multil9i!" of the same 'N mo#ulate# carrier with the i!comi!"
8: si"!al. The outut is a si"!al that is a ma-imum whe! the two si"!als e-actl9 e;ual o!e
a!other or are Mcorrelate#M. The correlate# si"!al is the! filtere# a!# se!t to a B'SC
The si"!als "e!erate# with this tech!i;ue aear as !oise i! the fre;ue!c9 #omai!. The wi#e
4a!#wi#th rovi#e# 49 the 'N co#e allows the si"!al ower to #ro 4elow the !oise threshol#
without loss of i!formatio!. The sectral co!te!t of a! SS si"!al is show! i! :i". 1. Note that
this is =ust the sectrum of a B'SC si"!al with a (si! - 5 -) 2 form.
:i". 1 B'SC /SSS Sectrum
The 4a!#wi#th i! /SSS s9stems is ofte! take! as the !ull+to+!ull 4a!#wi#th of the mai! lo4e of
the ower sectral #e!sit9 lot (i!#icate# as 28c i! :i". 1). The half ower 4a!#wi#th of this
lo4e is 1.2 8c> where 8c is the chi rate. Therefore> the 4a!#wi#th of a /SSS s9stem is a #irect
fu!ctio! of the chi rateG secificall9 28c58%N:O. This is =ust a! e-te!sio! of the revious
e;uatio! for rocess "ai!. %t shoul# 4e !ote# that the ower co!tai!e# i! the mai! lo4e
comrises <3 erce!t of the total ower. This allows a !arrower 8: 4a!#wi#th to accommo#ate
the receive# si"!al with the effect of rou!#i!" the receive# ulses i! the time #omai!.
O!e feature of /SSS is that N'SC ma9 4e use# to i!crease the #ata rate. This i!crease of a
factor of two 4its er s9m4ol of tra!smitte# i!formatio! over B'SC causes a! e;uivale!t
re#uctio! i! the availa4le rocess "ai!. The rocess "ai! is re#uce# 4ecause for a "ive! chi
rate> the 4a!#wi#th (which sets the rocess "ai!) is halve# #ue to the two+fol# i!crease i!
i!formatio! tra!sfer. The result is that s9stems i! a sectrall9 ;uiet e!viro!me!t 4e!efit from the
ossi4le i!crease i! #ata tra!sfer rate.
4SSS 8odulation
The mo#ulator co!verts the srea# 4i!ar9 si"!al i!to a! a!alo" waveform throu"h the use of
#iffere!t mo#ulatio! t9es> #ee!#i!" o! which #ata rate is chose!. :or e-amle with 164s
oeratio!> the '6/ uses #iffere!tial 4i!ar9 hase shift ke9i!" (/B'SC). This is!It reall9 as
comle- as it sou!#s. The mo#ulator merel9 shifts the hase of the ce!ter tra!smit fre;ue!c9 to
#isti!"uish a 4i!ar9 1 from a 4i!ar9 3 withi! the #ata stream.
:or 264s tra!smissio!> the '6/ uses #iffere!tial ;ua#rature hase shift ke9i!" (/N'SC)>
which is similar to /B'SC e-cet that there are four ossi4le hase shifts that rerese!ts ever9
two #ata 4its. This is a clever rocess that e!a4les the #ata stream to 4e se!t at 264s while
usi!" the same amou!t of 4a!#wi#th as the o!e se!t at 164s. The mo#ulator uses similar
metho#s for the hi"her> $.$64s a!# 1164s #ata rates.
Trans+it ;re<uencies
The tra!smitterIs mo#ulator tra!slates the srea# si"!al i!to a! a!alo" form with a ce!ter
fre;ue!c9 correso!#i!" to the ra#io cha!!el chose! 49 the user. The followi!" i#e!tifies the
ce!ter fre;ue!c9 of each cha!!el*
Cha!!el :re;ue!c9 (@7A)
1 2.412
2 2.41.
3 2.422
4 2.42.
$ 2.432
, 2.43.
. 2.442
0 2.44.
< 2.4$2
13 2.4$.
11 2.4,2
12 2.4,.
13 2.4.2
14 2.404
?arious cou!tries limit the use of these cha!!els. :or e-amle> the 1.S. o!l9 allows the use of
cha!!els 1 throu"h 11> a!# the 1.C. ca! use cha!!els 1 throu"h 13. Paa!> however> authoriAes
the use all 14 cha!!els. This comlicates matters whe! #esi"!i!" i!ter!atio!al u4lic wireless
LANs. %! that case> 9ou !ee# to choose cha!!els with the least commo! #e!omi!ator.
After 8: amlificatio! takes lace 4ase# o! the tra!smit ower 9ouIve chose! (133mW
ma-imum for the 1.S.)> the tra!smitter oututs the mo#ulate# /SSS si"!al to the a!te!!a i!
or#er to roa"ate the si"!al to the #esti!atio!. The tri i! route to the #esti!atio! will
si"!ifica!tl9 atte!uate (#efi!e) the si"!al> 4ut the receiver at the #esti!atio! will #etect the
i!comi!" 'h9sical La9er hea#er a!# reverse (#emo#ulate a!# #isrea#) the rocess imleme!te#
49 the tra!smitter
The I... 802.11a
While 032.11a was arove# i! Setem4er 1<<<> !ew ro#uct #evelome!t has rocee#e# much
more slowl9 tha! 032.114. This is #ue to the cost a!# comle-it9 of imleme!tatio!. This
sta!#ar# uses 333 67A of 4a!#wi#th i! the $ @7A u!lice!se# !atio!al i!formatio! i!frastructure
(1N%%) 4a!#. The sectrum is #ivi#e# i!to three #omai!s> each havi!" restrictio!s imose# o!
the ma-imum allowe# outut ower (see :i"ure 1). The first 133 67A i! the lower fre;ue!c9
ortio! is restricte# to a ma-imum ower outut of $3 mW. The seco!# 133 67A has a hi"her
2$3 mW ma-imum> while the thir# 133 67A> which is mai!l9 i!te!#e# for out#oor alicatio!s>
has a ma-imum of 1.3 W ower outut.
O:/6 oerates 49 #ivi#i!" the tra!smitte# #ata i!to multile arallel 4it streams> each with
lower relative 4it rates a!# mo#ulati!" searate !arrow4a!# carriers> referre# to as su4+carriers.
The su4+carriers are ortho"o!al> so each ca! 4e receive# without i!terfere!ce from a!other.
032.11a secifies ei"ht !o!+overlai!" 23 67A cha!!els i! the lower two 4a!#sG each of these
are #ivi#e# i!to $2 su4+carriers (four of which carr9 ilot #ata) of 333+k7A 4a!#wi#th each. :our
!o!+overlai!" 23 67A cha!!els are secifie# i! the uer 4a!#. The receiver rocesses the $2
i!#ivi#ual 4it streams> reco!structi!" the ori"i!al hi"h+rate #ata stream. :our comle-
mo#ulatio! metho#s are emlo9e#> #ee!#i!" o! the #ata rate that ca! 4e suorte# 49 cha!!el
co!#itio!s 4etwee! the tra!smitter a!# receiver. These i!clu#e B'SC> N'SC> 1,+NA6> a!# ,4+
Nua#rature amlitu#e mo#ulatio! is a comle- mo#ulatio! metho# where #ata are carrie# i!
s9m4ols rerese!te# 49 the hase a!# amlitu#e of the mo#ulate# carrier. 1,+NA6 has 1,
s9m4ols. &ach rerese!ts four #ata 4its. ,4+NA6 has 1, s9m4ols with each rerese!ti!" four
#ata 4its.
B'SC mo#ulatio! is alwa9s use# o! the four ilot su4+carriers. Althou"h it a##s a #e"ree of
comlicatio! to the Base4a!# rocessi!"> 032.11a i!clu#es forwar# error correctio! (:&C) as
art of the secificatio!. :&C> which #oes !ot e-ist withi! 032.114> e!a4les the receiver to
i#e!tif9 a!# correct errors ma#e #uri!" tra!smissio! 49 se!#i!" a##itio!al #ata alo!" with the
rimar9 tra!smissio!. This !earl9 elimi!ates the !ee# for retra!smissio!s whe! acket errors are
#etecte#. The #ata rates availa4le i! 032.11a are !ote# i! Ta4le 2> to"ether with the t9e of
mo#ulatio! a!# the co#i!" rate.
032.11a ro#ucts are e-ecte# to 4e"i! arrivi!" i! the first half of 2332. Some of the coma!ies
#eveloi!" chiset solutio!s for 032.11a are touti!" the availa4ilit9 of oeratio!al mo#es that
e-cee# the $4 645s state# i! the secificatio!. Of course> 4ecause faster #ata rates are out of the
secificatio!Is scoe> the9 re;uire the use of e;uime!t from a si!"le source throu"hout the
e!tire !etwork.
Co!si#eri!" the comosite waveform resulti!" from the com4i!atio! of $2 su4+carriers> the
format re;uires more li!earit9 i! the amlifiers 4ecause of the hi"her eak+to+avera"e ower
ratio of the tra!smitte# O:/6 si"!al. %! a##itio!> 4etter hase !oise erforma!ce is re;uire#
4ecause of the closel9 sace#> overlai!" carriers. These issues a## to the imleme!tatio! cost
of 032.11a ro#ucts. Alicatio!+secific measureme!t tools ai# i! the #esi"! a!#
trou4leshooti!" of O:/6 si"!als a!# s9stems.
Practice 802.11a
/esi"! of #evices usi!" 032.11a with O:/6 si"!als a!# oerati!" at $ @7A will 4ri!" !ew
challe!"es i! testi!"> articularl9 4ecause the #ata rate will 4e i!creasi!" 49 a factor of five a!#
usi!" the same 4a!#wi#th (23 67A) to #o it. The hi"h eak+to+avera"e ower ratio
rerese!tative of multicarrier O:/6 si"!als #ictates the !ee# for hi"hl9 li!ear a!# efficie!t
amlifiers> as well as a metho# to characteriAe them.
Tra!smitte# si"!als such as O:/6> which #o !ot have a co!sta!t ower e!veloe> are !ot well+
characteriAe# 49 eak+to+avera"e ower ratio. This metric is !ot useful> as the true eak ower
ma9 !ot occur ofte!. %t is usuall9 more mea!i!"ful for O:/6 si"!als to associate a erce!ta"e
ro4a4ilit9 with a ower level.
A more mea!i!"ful metho# for viewi!" O:/6 si"!al ower characteristics uses the
comleme!tar9 cumulative #istri4utio! fu!ctio! (CC/:). This metric li!ks a erce!ta"e
ro4a4ilit9 to a ower level. %! this measureme!t> a! i!strume!t with time+"ati!" caa4ilit9 is
use# to select o!l9 the active ortio! of the 4urst (see :i"ure 2 lower trace).
%f time "ati!" were !ot use#> the erio#s whe! the 4urst is off woul# re#uce the avera"e ower
calculatio!. The CC/:> which is siml9 the more commo! cumulative #istri4utio! fu!ctio!
(C/:) su4tracte# from 1.3> shows the !um4er of #eci4els a4ove the avera"e ower o! the
horiAo!tal a-is> a!# erce!t ro4a4ilit9 o! vertical a-is (see :i"ure 2 uer trace). A CC/:
measureme!t woul# 4e ma#e over several 4ursts to imrove the accurac9 of the measureme!t.
The I... 8102.11b
032.114> which was arove# 49 the %&&& i! 1<<<> is a! e-te!sio! of the 032.11 /SSS s9stem
reviousl9 me!tio!e# a!# suorts hi"her $.$ a!# 11 645s a9loa# #ata rates i! a##itio! to the
ori"i!al 1 a!# 2 645s rates. 'ro#ucts are !ow wi#el9 availa4le> a!# the i!stalle# 4ase of s9stems
is "rowi!" rai#l9. 032.114 also oerates i! the hi"hl9 oulate# 2.4 @7A %S6 4a!# (2.43 to
2.403$ @7A)> which rovi#es o!l9 03 67A of sectrum to accommo#ate a variet9 of other
ra#iati!" ro#ucts> i!clu#i!" cor#less ho!es> microwave ove!s> other WLANs> a!# erso!al
area !etworks ('ANS). This makes susceti4ilit9 to i!terfere!ce a rimar9 co!cer!. The
occuie# 4a!#wi#th of the srea#+sectrum cha!!el is 22 67A> so the %S6 4a!# accommo#ates
o!l9 three !o!+overlai!" cha!!els sace# 2$ 67A aart. To hel miti"ate i!terfere!ce effects>
032.114 #esi"!ates a! otio!al fre;ue!c9 a"ile or hoi!" mo#e usi!" the three !o!+overlai!"
cha!!els or si- overlai!" cha!!els sace# at 13 67A.
032.114 uses ei"ht+chi comleme!tar9 co#e ke9i!" (CCC) as the mo#ulatio! scheme to
achieve the hi"her #ata rates. %!stea# of the Barker co#es use# to e!co#e a!# srea# the #ata for
the lower rates> CCC uses a !earl9 ortho"o!al comle- co#e set calle# comleme!tar9
se;ue!ces. The chi rate remai!s co!siste!t with the ori"i!al /SSS s9stem at 11 6chi5s> while
the #ata rate varies to match cha!!el co!#itio!s 49 cha!"i!" the srea#i!" factor a!#5or the
mo#ulatio! scheme.
To achieve #ata rates of $.$ a!# 11 645s> the srea#i!" le!"th is first re#uce# from 11 to ei"ht
chis. This i!creases the s9m4ol rate from 1 6s9m5s to 1.3.$ 6s9m5s. :or the $.$+645s 4it rate
with a 1.3.$ 67A s9m4ol rate> it is !ecessar9 to tra!smit 4 4its5s9m4ol ($.$ 645s51.3.$
6s9m5s) a!# for 11 645s> a! 0 4its5s9m4ol. The CCC aroach take! i! 032.114> which kees
the N'SC srea#+sectrum si"!al a!# still rovi#es the re;uire# !um4er of 4its5s9m4ol> uses all
4ut two of the 4its to select from a set of srea#i!" se;ue!ces a!# the remai!i!" two 4its to
rotate the se;ue!ce. The selectio! of the se;ue!ce> coule# with the rotatio!> rerese!ts the
s9m4ol co!ve9i!" the four or ei"ht 4its of #ata. :or all 032.114 a9loa# #ata rates> the ream4le
a!# hea#er are se!t at the 1 645s rate.
Practice 802.11b
The 23 67A+wi#e 4a!#wi#th of WLAN si"!als makes ower e!veloe measureme!ts #ifficult
4ecause most sectrum a!al9Aers have resolutio! 4a!#wi#th filters that are limite# to 13 67A or
less. Therefore> the si"!al is co!si#era4l9 atte!uate# 49 the time the ower is measure# withi!
the i!strume!t. ?ector si"!al a!al9Aers are availa4le with i!formatio! 4a!#wi#ths that are
co!si#era4l9 "reater tha! 23 67A> maki!" WLAN si"!al a!al9sis more accurate.
The 032.114 sta!#ar# uses error vector ma"!itu#e (&?6) as a measure of mo#ulatio! ;ualit9.
This measureme!t has 4ecome commo! for most wireless alicatio!s. The u!#erl9i!"
hilosoh9 of &?6 is that a!9 si"!al #eteriorate# 49 a !ois9 cha!!el ca! 4e rerese!te# as the
sum of a! i#eal si"!al a!# a! error si"!al. The test i!strume!t #etermi!es the error si"!al 49
reco!structi!" the i#eal si"!al 4ase# o! #etecte# si"!al i!formatio! a!# su4tracti!" it from the
actual si"!al at each samle oi!t.
Co+,arison of 802.11a and 802.11b
A #raw4ack of the $ @7A 4a!#> which has receive# co!si#era4le atte!tio!> is its shorter
wavele!"th. 7i"her+fre;ue!c9 si"!als will have more trou4le roa"ati!" throu"h h9sical
o4structio!s e!cou!tere# i! a! office (walls> floors> a!# fur!iture) tha! those at 2.4 @7A. A!
a#va!ta"e of 032.11a is its i!tri!sic a4ilit9 to ha!#le #ela9 srea# or multiath reflectio! effects.
The slower s9m4ol rate a!# laceme!t of si"!ifica!t "uar# time arou!# each s9m4ol> usi!" a
tech!i;ue calle# c9clical e-te!sio!> re#uces the i!ter+s9m4ol i!terfere!ce (%S%) cause# 49
multiath i!terfere!ce. (The last o!e+;uarter of the s9m4ol ulse is coie# a!# attache# to the
4e"i!!i!" of the 4urst. /ue to the erio#ic !ature of the si"!al> the =u!ctio! at the start of the
ori"i!al 4urst will alwa9s 4e co!ti!uous.) To co!trast> 032.114 !etworks are "e!erall9 ra!"e+
limite# 49 multiath i!terfere!ce rather tha! the loss of si"!al stre!"th over #ista!ce.
Whe! it comes to #elo9me!t of a wireless LAN> oeratio!al characteristics have 4ee!
comare# to those of cellular s9stems> where fre;ue!c9 la!!i!" of overlai!" cells mi!imiAes
mutual i!terfere!ce suort mo4ilit9 a!# seamless cha!!el ha!#off. The three !o!+overlai!"
fre;ue!c9 cha!!els availa4le for %&&& 032.114 are at a #isa#va!ta"e comare# to the "reater
!um4er of cha!!els availa4le to 032.11a. The a##itio!al cha!!els allow more overlai!" access
oi!ts withi! a "ive! area while avoi#i!" a##itio!al mutual i!terfere!ce.
Both 032.114 a!# 032.11a use #9!amic rate shifti!" where the s9stem will automaticall9 a#=ust
the #ata rate 4ase# o! the co!#itio! of the ra#io cha!!el. %f the cha!!el is clear> the! the mo#es
with the hi"hest #ata rates are use#. But as i!terfere!ce is i!tro#uce# i!to the cha!!el> the ra#io
will fall 4ack to a slower> al4eit more ro4ust> tra!smissio! scheme.
Network la!!i!" is critical to the #evelome!t of a! otimiAe# s9stem. &ach !etwork must 4e
customiAe# to satisf9 the la!!e# alicatio!s a!# the h9sical e!viro!me!t. 8e;uireme!ts must
4e researche# a!# well+#ocume!te#> i!clu#i!" a!ticiate# roami!" a!# #ata rates !ee#e# for
alicatio!s to 4e use# at secific locatio!s. A site surve9 must 4e thorou"h a!# realistic to
a#e;uatel9 characteriAe the 8: e!viro!me!t of the roose# wireless !etwork i! terms of ra!"e>
cha!!el i!terfere!ce a!# #ela9 srea#.
%t woul# 4e u!realistic to e-ect to realiAe the full #ata rate caa4ilit9 ($4 645s) of 032.11a if the
access oi!ts of a! e-isti!" 032.114 !etwork otimiAe# to oerate at full see# (11 645s) XYT
were siml9 relace#. But as has 4ee! show!> 032.11a is faster tha! 032.114 at a!9 ra!"e. Cost
vs. erforma!ce re;uireme!ts !ee# thorou"h a!al9sis #uri!" the !etwork la!!i!" sta"e to arrive
at the aroriate imleme!tatio! #ecisio!.
Testi!" is critical to a!9 ro#uct #evelome!t rocess. WLAN ro#ucts re;uire that secial
atte!tio! 4e "ive! to #esi"! verificatio! a!# characteriAatio! 4ecause sta!#ar#iAe# oeratio!
across multive!#or ro#ucts ma9 4e re;uire#. To rovi#e a! efficie!t #evelome!t e!viro!me!t>
test tools are availa4le to ;uickl9 #ia"!ose ro4lems a!# isolate them throu"hout all #esi"!
se"me!ts. These tools ca! 4e use# withi! the ma!ufacturi!" rocess to "e!erate a!# a!al9Ae
ro#uctio! metrics for rocess a!# ro#uct imroveme!t.
&ve! #uri!" these lea! eco!omic times> whe! there is a re#uce# #ema!# for tech!olo"9
ro#ucts> the !ew> 4ut alrea#9 ro4ust WLAN market is ro=ecte# to "row 49 a! or#er of
ma"!itu#e over the !e-t five 9ears. These wireless !etworks will re;uire i!creasi!" #ata rates to
rovi#e the simulta!eous #istri4utio! of %!ter!et #ata> hi"h+;ualit9 vi#eo a!# au#io i! the office
or at home. %! a##itio! to hi"her #ata rates> it is almost a fore"o!e co!clusio! that e!#+users will
4e #ema!#i!" co!ti!uous imroveme!ts i! fu!ctio!alit9> ease+of+use a!# relia4ilit9.
Wireless !etworki!" has a romisi!" future with 032.11 lea#i!" the wa9 as the sta!#ar# for
a#otio! i! local !etworki!" e!viro!me!ts. 032.11 a##resses mo4ilit9> securit9> relia4ilit9> a!#
the #9!amic !ature of wireless LANS while keei!" comati4ilit9 with 032+t9e le"ac9
!etworks. &-ect to see availa4ilit9 of 032.11 ro#ucts i!crease #ramaticall9 i! the !ear future as
4usi!esses #iscover the i!crease# ro#uctivit9 rovi#e# 49 Hu!tethere#E !etworks.
032.11+4ase# !etworks have see! wi#esrea# #elo9me!t across ma!9 fiel#s> mai!l9 #ue to the
h9sical co!ve!ie!ces of ra#io+4ase# commu!icatio!. This #elo9me!t> however> was
re#icate# i! art o! the user e-ectatio! of co!fi#e!tialit9 a!# availa4ilit9. This aer
a##resse# the availa4ilit9 asect of that e;uatio!. We e-ami!e# the 032.11 6AC la9er a!#
#escri4e# the architecture a!# the mai! fu!ctio!s of the 6AC as art of the rotocol stack also
we ma#e a few comariso!s. W& thi!k that with the comariso!s we have offere# a! i!teresti!"
issue a!# that the #escritio! has more efficie!c9. Securit9 as a art of the rotocol stack has
also 4ee! me!tio! 4ecause the rotocol stack as a art of the software is the first art i! what
eole are i!tereste# i!. The wi#esrea# acceta!ce of WLANs #ee!#s o! i!#ustr9
sta!#ar#iAatio! to e!sure ro#uct comati4ilit9 a!# relia4ilit9 amo!" the various ma!ufacturers.
The %!stitute of &lectrical a!# &lectro!ics &!"i!eers (%&&&) ratifie# the ori"i!al 032.11
secificatio! i! 1<<. as the sta!#ar# for wireless LANs. That versio! of 032.11 rovi#es for 1
64s a!# 2 64s #ata rates a!# a set of fu!#ame!tal si"!ali!" metho#s a!# other services.
The most critical issue affecti!" WLAN #ema!# has 4ee! limite# throu"hut. The #ata rates
suorte# 49 the ori"i!al 032.11 sta!#ar# are too slow to suort most "e!eral 4usi!ess
re;uireme!ts a!# have slowe# a#otio! of WLANs. 8eco"!iAi!" the critical !ee# to suort
hi"her #ata+tra!smissio! rates> the %&&& rece!tl9 ratifie# the 032.114 sta!#ar# (also k!ow! as
032.11 7i"h 8ate) for tra!smissio!s of u to 11 64s. @lo4al re"ulator9 4o#ies a!# ve!#or
allia!ces have e!#orse# this !ew hi"h+rate sta!#ar#> which romises to oe! !ew markets for
WLANs i! lar"e e!terrise> small office> a!# home e!viro!me!ts. With 032.114> WLANs will
4e a4le to achieve wireless erforma!ce a!# throu"hut comara4le to wire# &ther!et.
To#a9Es 4usi!ess e!viro!me!t is characteriAe# 49 a! i!creasi!"l9 mo4ile workforce a!# flatter
or"a!iAatio!s. &mlo9ees are e;uie# with !ote4ook comuters a!# se!# more of their time
worki!" i! teams that cross fu!ctio!al> or"a!iAatio!al> a!# "eo"rahic 4ou!#aries. 6uch of
these workersE ro#uctivit9 occurs i! meeti!"s a!# awa9 from their #esks. 1sers !ee# access to
the !etwork far 4e9o!# their erso!al #esktos. WLANs fit well i! this work e!viro!me!t>
"ivi!" mo4ile workers much+!ee#e# free#om i! their !etwork access. With a wireless !etwork>
workers ca! access i!formatio! from a!9where i! the cororatio!Fa co!fere!ce room> the
cafeteria> or a remote 4ra!ch office. Wireless LANs rovi#e a 4e!efit for %T ma!a"ers as well>
allowi!" them to #esi"!> #elo9> a!# e!ha!ce !etworks without re"ar# to the availa4ilit9 of
wiri!"> savi!" 4oth effort a!# #ollars.
Busi!esses of all siAes ca! 4e!efit from #elo9i!" a WLAN s9stem> which rovi#es a owerful
com4i!atio! of wire# !etwork throu"hut> mo4ile access> a!# co!fi"uratio! fle-i4ilit9. The
eco!omic 4e!efits ca! a## u to as much as J1,>333 er userFmeasure# i! worker ro#uctivit9>
or"a!iAatio!al efficie!c9> reve!ue "ai!> a!# cost savi!"sFover wire# alter!atives.
So at the e!# we hoe that we have offere# a "e!eral overview of the %&&& 032.11> eseciall9
rotocol stack a!# h9sical la9ers> arts that are #efi!e# i! the %&&& Sta!#ar#. The %&&& 032.11
is a hu"e toic a!# the Sta!#ar#s we ca! #ow!loa# free from the i!ter!et.
WLAN D Wireless Local Area Network
LAN + Local Area Network
6AC + 6e#ium Access Co!trol
'7B D 'h9sical La9er
%S6 + %!#ustrial> Scie!tific> a!# 6e#ical
CS6A5C/ + Carrier Se!se> 6ultile Access with Collisio! /etect
%SO + %!ter!atio!al Sta!#ar#s Or"a!iAatio!
/SSS + /irect Se;ue!ce Srea# Sectrum
NoS + Nualit9 Of Service
TC' + Tra!smit ower co!trol
/:S + /9!amic fre;ue!c9 selectio!
6%6O + 6ultile %!ut> 6ultile Outut
LLC + Lo"ical Li!k Co!trol
/S + /istri4utio! S9stem
W&' + Wire# &;uivale!t 'rivac9
NA? + Network Allocatio! ?ector
C8C + C9clic 8e#u!#a!c9 Check
%&&&+SA + %!stitute of &lectrical a!# &lectro!ics &!"i!eers Sta!#ar#s Associatio!
&?6 + &rror ?ector 6a"!itu#e
CCC + comleme!tar9 co#e ke9i!"
C/: + Cumulative /istri4utio! :u!ctio!
CC/: + Comleme!tar9 Cumulative /istri4utio! :u!ctio!
:&C + :orwar# &rror Correctio!
/N'SC + /iffere!tial Nua#rature 'hase Shift Ce9i!"
/B'SC + /iffere!tial Bi!ar9 'hase Shift Ce9i!"
'N D 'seu#o Noise
8: D 8a#io :re;ue!c9
O:/6 + Ortho"o!al :re;ue!c9 /ivisio! 6ultile-i!"
::C + :e#eral Commu!icatio!s Commissio!
/SSS + /irect Se;ue!ce Srea# Sectrum
:7SS + :re;ue!c9 7oi!" Srea# Sectrum
''6 + 'ulse 'ositio! 6o#ulatio!
78+/SSS + 7i"h 8ate /irect Se;ue!ce Srea# Sectrum
''/1 + 'LC' 'rotocol /ata 1!it
'6/ + 'h9sical 6e#ium /ee!#e!t
'LC' + 'h9sical La9er Co!ver"e!ce 'roce#ure
IS& 2 International Standards &r-ani=ation
The %!ter!atio!al Sta!#ar#s Or"a!iAatio! is reso!si4le for a wi#e ra!"e of sta!#ar#s> i!clu#i!"
those releva!t to !etworki!". The %SO #eveloe# the OS% (Oe! S9stem %!terco!!ectio!)
refere!ce mo#el which is a oular !etworki!" refere!ce tool.
(A) 2 (ireless ocal Area )et'ork
This is a "e!eric term coveri!" a multitu#e of tech!olo"ies rovi#i!" local area !etworki!" via a
ra#io li!k. &-amles of WLAN tech!olo"ies i!clu#e (i2;i (Wireless :i#elit9)> 802.11b a!#
802.11a> 7ierLAN> *luetooth> Ir4A (%!frare# /ata Associatio!) a!# 4.CT (/i"ital
&!ha!ce# Cor#less Telecommu!icatio!s) etc.
(i8A6 2 (orld'ide Intero,erability for 8icro'a#e Access
The term Wi6A2 has 4ecome s9!o!9mous with the %&&& 032.1, suite of sta!#ar#s. These
#efi!e the ra#io or air i!terface withi! two 4roa# ra#io 4a!#s 2@7A to 11@7A (%&&& 032.1,a)
a!# 13@7A + ,,@7A (%&&& 032.1,c) althou"h i!itial i!terest is co!fi!e# to the li!e of si"ht
4a!#s + 2.$@7A> 3.$@7A a!# $.0@7A. %t is a!ticiate# that Wi6A2 will 4e use# i!itiall9 as a
4ackhaul co!!ectio! with other tech!olo"ies such as Wi+:i 4ei!" use# to cover the Sfi!al mileT.
(i2;i 2 (ireless ;idelity
Wi+:i is a! i!teroera4ilit9 sta!#ar# #eveloe# 49 W&CA (Wireless &ther!et Comati4ilit9
Allia!ce) a!# issue# to those ma!ufacturers whose %&&& 802.11a a!# 802>11b e;uime!t has
asse# a suite of 4asic i!teroera4ilit9 tests. &;uime!t assi!" these tests carries the Wi+:i
Note* Wi+:i !ot Wi:i.
8AC 2 8ediu+ Access Control
6e#ia Access Co!trol is the lower of the two su4la9ers of the /ata Li!k La9er. %! "e!eral terms>
6AC ha!#les access to a share# me#ium> a!# ca! 4e fou!# withi! ma!9 #iffere!t tech!olo"ies.
:or e-amle> 6AC metho#olo"ies are emlo9e# withi! .thernet> %P:S> a!# 58TS etc.

Physical ink
A 'h9sical Li!k is the co!!ectio! 4etwee! #evices.
4SSS 2 4irect Se<uence S,read S,ectru+
/irect Se;ue!ce Srea# Sectrum is 4ase# o! the multil9i!" of the Base4a!# si"!al #ata with a
4roa#4a!# srea#i!" co#e. The result is terme# the chi rate. The characteristics of the
4roa#4a!# srea#i!" co#e are that of seu#ora!#om !oise. Co!se;ue!tl9 the receiver
s9!chro!iAe# to the co#e will o4tai! the !arrow4a!# si"!al. All other receivers will see the
srea# si"!al as white or colore# !oise.
?oS 2 ?uality of Ser#ice
The erforma!ce of a commu!icatio!s cha!!el or s9stem is usuall9 e-resse# i! terms of NoS
(Nualit9 of Service). /ee!#i!" uo! the commu!icatio! s9stem> NoS ma9 relate to service
erforma!ce> S): (Si"!al to Noise 8atio)> *.: (Bit &rror 8atio)> ma-imum a!# mea!
throu"hut rate> relia4l9> riorit9 a!# other factors secific to each service.
TCP 2 Trans+ission Control Protocol
Tra!smissio! Co!trol 'rotocol is a relia4le octet streami!" rotocol use# 49 the ma=orit9 of
alicatio!s o! the Internet. %t rovi#es a co!!ectio!+orie!te#> full+#ule-> oi!t to oi!t service
4etwee! hosts.
C 2 o-ical ink Control
%! the %P:S s9stem the LLC rotocol rovi#es a hi"hl9 relia4le cihere# lo"ical li!k 4etwee!
the 8S (6o4ile Statio!) a!# S%S) (Servi!" @'8S Suort No#e). %t is i!#ee!#e!t of the
u!#erl9i!" ra#io i!terface rotocols e!a4li!" the i!tro#uctio! of alter!ative @'8S ra#io
solutio!s with mi!imal cha!"es to the Network Switchi!" S9stem.
C:C 2 Cyclic :edundancy Code
A li!ear error co#e that is "e!erate# usi!" a ol9!omial fu!ctio! o! the #ata to 4e se!t> the
remai!#er from the rocess 4ei!" the C8C. This is se!t alo!" with #ata so that a arit9 check of
the receive# #ata ca! 4e co!#ucte#.
I... 2 Institute of .lectrical and .lectronics .n-ineers
The %!stitute of &lectrical a!# &lectro!ics &!"i!eers is a rofessio!al or"a!iAatio! whose
activities i!clu#e the #evelome!t of commu!icatio!s a!# !etwork sta!#ar#s.

I... 802.11a
'art of the I... 802.11 famil9 of secificatio!s> this wireless local area !etwork tech!olo"9 is
comrise# of a hi"h see# h9sical la9er oerati!" i! the $@7A u!lice!se# 4a!# a!# suorts
#ata rates u to $464s. &;uime!t oerati!" i! accor#a!ce with the %&&& secificatio!s a!#
assi!" the Allia!ces i!teroera4ilit9 tests is a4le to #isla9 the Wi+:i lo"o.
Several ma!ufacturers have #eveloe# e;uime!t which is caa4le of oerati!" i! accor#a!ce
with 4oth %&&& 032.11a a!# I... 802.11bsecificatio!s.
I... 802.11b
'art of the I... 802.11 famil9 of secificatio!s> %&&& 032.114 is curre!tl9 the most oular
wireless !etworki!" tech!olo"9. The e;uime!t oerates i! the 2.4@7A u!lice!se# 4a!# a!#
utiliAes 9:74SSS (7i"h 8ate + /irect Se;ue!ce Srea# Sectrum) e!a4li!" #ata rates of u to
1164s to 4e achieve#. &;uime!t oerati!" i! accor#a!ce with the %&&& secificatio!s a!#
assi!" the (i2;i Alliances i!teroera4ilit9 tests is a4le to #isla9 the Wi+:i lo"o.
Several manufacturers have developed equipment which is capable of
operating in accordance with both I... 802.11a and IEEE 802.11b
I... 802.11 2 (ireless
This is a! I... (%!stitute of &lectrical a!# &lectro!ic &!"i!eers) tech!ical sta!#ar# coveri!"
(A) (Wireless Local Area Network) tech!olo"9. The sta!#ar#s have 4ee! #ivi#e# i!to su4
"rous with 032.114 curre!tl9 the most commo!. This rovi#es a wireless commu!icatio! at u
to 1164s a!# oerates withi! the 2.4@7A IS8 (%!#ustrial Scie!tific a!# 6e#ical) 4a!#. The
032.11a 4ase# e;uime!t is !ow commerciall9 availa4le a!# rovi#es #ata rates u to $464s
a!# oerates i! the $@7A %S6 4a!#. %&&& 032.11 !etworks are comrise# of Stations> Wireless
6e#ium> AP (Access 'oi!ts) a!# a /S (/istri4utio! S9stem).
AP 2 Access Point
A! Access 'oi!t is a #evice fou!# withi! a! %&&& 802.11 !etwork which rovi#es the oi!t of
i!terco!!ectio! 4etwee! the wireless Station (lato comuter> P4A ('erso!!el /i"ital
Assista!t) etc.) a!# the wire# !etwork.
.SS 2 .3tended Ser#ice Set
A! &-te!#e# Service Set is comrise# of a !um4er of %&&& 802.11 BSS (Basic Service Set) a!#
e!a4les limite# mo4ilit9 withi! the (A) (Wireless Local Area Network). Statio!s are a4le to
move 4etwee! *SS withi! a si!"le &SS 9et still remai! Sco!!ecte#T to the fi-e# !etwork a!# so
co!ti!ue to receive emails etc. As a Station moves i!to a !ew BSS> it will carr9 out a
resuscitatio! roce#ure with the !ew AP (Access 'oi!t).
SSI4 2 Ser#ice Set Identifier
The Service Set %#e!tifier or Network Name is use# withi! %&&& 802.11 !etworks to i#e!tif9 a
articular !etwork. %t is usuall9 set 49 the a#mi!istrator setti!" u the (A) (Wireless Local
Area Network) a!# will 4e u!i;ue withi! a *SS (Basic Service Set) or .SS (&-te!#e# Service
Set). The SS%/ ma9 4e 4roa#cast from a! AP (Access 'oi!t) withi! the wireless !etwork to
e!a4le Stations to #etermi!e which !etwork to SAssociateT with. 7owever> this feature shoul#
4e #isa4le# as it ma9 assist Shackers> or war#riversT i! "ai!i!" access to a rivate !etwork.
SAP 2 Ser#ice Access Point
A co!cetual oi!t where a rotocol la9er offers access to its services to the la9er a4ove or

Table of Contents 1. Abstraction 2. Introduction
2.1 Overview 2.2 Wireless Local Area Network 2.3 The Basic Structure of a Wireless LAN 2.4 Comparing a Wireless LAN to a Wired Network 2.5 The IEEE Standard

3. 802.11 Protocol Stack
3.1 Protocol Structure 3.2 Protocol Stack Architecture 3.2.1 Station (STA) Architecture: 3.2.2 Access-Point (AP) Architecture: 3.2.3 Basic Service Set (BSS): 3.2.4 Independent Basic Service Set (IBSS): 3.2.5 Infrastructure 3.2.6 Extended Service Set (ESS): 3.2.7 Service Set Identifier (SSID): 3.2.8 Basic Service Set Identifier (BSSID) 3.3 Protocol Stack for UNIX 3.4 Compare Overall Structure of 802.11b / 802.15.1 Coexistence Mechanism 3.5.1 MIH SAP Reference Model for 802.11 3.5.2 MIH SAP Reference Model for 802.16 3.6 Data Link Layer 3.6.1 Support for Time-Bounded Data 3.7 MAC Functional Description 3.7.1 MAC Architecture 3.8 Security


3.8.1 Preventing Access to Network Resources 3.8.2 Eavesdropping

4. Physical Layer
4.1 The physical layer basics 4.2 PLCP Frame Fields 4.3 Infrared (IR) 4.4 Spread Spectrum 4.5 Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) 4.6 Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) 4.6.1 DSSS Modulation 4.6.2 Transmit Frequencies 4.7 The IEEE 802.11a 4.7.1 Practice 802.11a 4.8 The IEEE 802.11b 4.8.1 Practice 802.11b 4.9Comparison of 802.11a and 802.11b

5. Conclusion 6. Abbreviation 7. Glossary


The writing of this Research Report was prompted to maintain two main developments of the IEEE 802.11 Standard physical protocol stack and Physical Layer enhanced from the developments in wireless communication in the past decade. First we had to do huge research activities in this topic. This has been a subject study since the sixties, so that during our exploring work we have selected a lot of materials and picked up the most visible things for the student to understand it more easily and clearly. So that we were concentrated to present the issue in modern wireless concepts in a coherent and unified manner and to illustrate the concepts in that way they are applied. The concepts can be structured into these levels: - Listing characteristics and modeling - Application of these concepts But of course there is interplay between these structures. So this Research report is written based on the material for the students in the sixth semester. Also in the end to understand better the terminology and the huge number of abbreviations explained and some definitions.

The past decade has seen many advances in physical-layer communication theory and their implementation in wireless systems. So that in this Research Report we are going to define and view fundamentals of wireless communication and that especially the IEEE 802.11 Standard and explain the advantages at a level that is accessible to our audience with a basic background. Wireless communication is one of the most vibrant areas in the communication field today. This is due to a confluence of several factors. First, there has been an explosive increase in demand for the tether less connectivity, driven so far mainly by cellular telephony but expected to be soon eclipsed by wireless data application. First there has been an explosive increase in demand for tether less connectivity, driven so far mainly by cellular telephony but expected to be soon eclipsed by wireless data applications. Second, the dramatic process in VLSI technology has enabled small area and low power implementation of sophisticated signal processing algorithms and coding techniques. Third, the success of second generation digital wireless standards and provide a concrete demonstration that good ideas from communication theory can have impact in practice. There are two fundamental aspects of wireless communication that make the problem challenging and interesting. These aspects are by and large not as significant in wire line communication. First the phenomenon of fading: the time variation of the channel strengths due to the small-scale effect of multipath fading, as well as large scale effects. Second, unlike the in the wired world where each transmitter-receiver pair can often be thought of as an isolated point-to point link, wireless users communicate over the air and there is significant interface between them. The original 802.11 standard specified three separate physical layers. Two are radiobased and one is infrared light-based. The original radio-based layers are spread spectrum: frequency hopping and direct sequence. These are all in the 2.4 GHz band. An additional 4

11i is designed to provide secured communication of wireless LAN as defined by all the IEEE 802. The latest release. Information Technology. enable one or more devices to communicate without physical connections – without requiring network cabling. Strictly speaking.11i enhances the WEP (Wireline Equivalent Privacy). openness. Note that for 2 devices to be able to interact. due process.physical layer in the 5 GHz band was added with the 802. the suite is the definition of the protocols. Security is one of the first concerns of people deploying a Wireless LAN. The terms are often used interchangeably. Telecommunications. providing users with more flexibility and freedom of movement within the workplace. including: Power and Energy. In addition. and the stack is the software implementation of them. There are two sub layers in the 802. added yet another PHY: complimentary code keying orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (CCK-OFDM). Wireless technologies range from complex systems. is a closely grouped system of devices that communicate via radio waves instead of wires. and transmits data between the components of the WLAN. These are the carrier sense function. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standards Association (IEEESA) is the leading developer of global industry standards in a broad-range of industries.4 and the 5 GHz bands. such as WLANs and cell phones. whereas wired technologies use cables. the IEEE-SA has offered an established standards development program that features balance.11g. The IEEE (define) 802.11 comprise several alternative physical layers that specify the transmission and reception of 802. the physical medium dependent layer (PMD) and the physical layer convergence procedure (PLCP). 802. a technology used for many years for the WLAN security. which defines protocols that govern the operation of the wireless LAN. In a typical WLAN configuration. in the areas of encryption. to simple devices such as wireless headphones. buffers. For over a century. The PHY layer has three basic functions. Wireless LAN’s typically augment or replace wired computer networks. microphones. 5 . and consensus.11 physical layers. and the receive function. The PMD is the sub layer lowest on the stack. In Computer network a substantial part is the Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN). Information Assurance. authentication and key management. Biomedical and Healthcare. Transportation. they must conform to the same PHY layer. We have discussed about them in this rapport.11 frames. in the simplest sense. 802. the transmit function. Overview Wireless technologies. a transceiver—or access point—connects to the wired network from a fixed ilocation using a standard Ethernet cable. The standard IEEE 802. Wireless technologies use radio transmissions as the means for transmitting data. The access point receives.11 standard includes a common Medium Access Control (MAC) Layer.11 specifications. A protocol stack is a particular software implementation of a computer networking protocol suite. and other devices that do not process or store information. This is specified in both the 2. which is also radio-based: orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM).11 committee has addressed the issue by providing what is called WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) Authentication: A function that determines whether a Station is allowed to participate in network communication. Nanotechnology. It transmits and receives bits over the air.1a release. the 802. IEEE 802.

wireless LAN market is rapidly approaching $1 billion in revenues. a wired LAN within a building or campus.And as conclusion we will say that wireless networking has a promising future with 802. minimizing the need for wired connections.S. including the health-care. A wide variety of industries have discovered the benefits a WLAN can bring—not only to daily tasks but also to the balance sheet. WLANs have gained strong popularity in a number of vertical markets. and academic arenas. WLANs combine data connectivity with user mobility. The U. security. Wireless LAN’s typically augment or replace wired computer networks. WLAN’s transmits and receive data over the air. providing users with more flexibility and freedom of movement within the workplace. is a closely grouped system of devices that communicate via radio waves instead of wires. through simplified configuration. Today WLANs are becoming more widely recognized as a general-purpose connectivity alternative for a broad range of business customers. These industries have profited from the productivity gains of using hand-held terminals and notebook computers to transmit real-time information to centralized hosts for processing. and the dynamic nature of wireless LANS while keeping compatibility with 802-type legacy networks. manufacturing. If information is the lifeblood of today's business environment. Using electromagnetic waves. 802. 6 . Over the last seven years. Users can access the company intranet or even the World Wide Web from anywhere on the company campus without relying on the availability of wired cables and connection. and. A wireless LAN (WLAN) is a flexible data communication system implemented as an extension or as an alternative for. Wireless LANs can pump information and data to executives in the boardroom and to employees in the warehouse. then wireless networks are its heart. enable movable LANs.11 products increase dramatically in the near future as businesses discover the increased productivity provided by ‘untethered’ networks. Wireless Local Area Network In Computer network a substantial part is the Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN). retail.11 addresses mobility. reliability. Expect to see availability of 802. warehousing.11 leading the way as the standard for adoption in local networking environments. Thus.

the distance between network components. or similar devices integrated into handheld units. Wireless users recognize the benefits of the technology and need to know how to protect their business-critical data. a transceiver—or access point—connects to the wired network from a fixed location using a standard Ethernet cable. Although this standard is much more widely implemented than its newer sister technologies.11a exceed 802. which operates in the 2. The wireless devices communicate with the network operating system via WLAN adapters. The number of users. or any other wireless equipment—and the wired network infrastructure. buffers. 7 . handheld devices. Of the three main variations of 802. printers. and transmits data between the components of the WLAN—whether laptops. usually in the form of radio network interface cards (NICs).11a high data rate standard perform at speeds up to 54 Mbps. Such factors also affect wired network speeds. The access point receives.11. even as the industry moves aggressively to provide even more secure protocols. but most commercial LANs operate at speeds from 10 megabits per second (10BaseT) to 100 Mbps (100BaseT). a plethora of applications and devices support the 802.11g and 802. companies can dramatically enhance the security of its wireless communications system. and the efficiency of the wired network elements all influence the overall speed and performance of a wireless network. Comparing a Wireless LAN to a Wired Network The speed at which a WLAN performs depends on the type and configuration of the devices within the network. These users—as well as those who hesitate to deploy wireless technology because of security concerns— stand to benefit from understanding the security options currently available. industry experts anticipate that it won’t be long before 802.The Basic Structure of a Wireless LAN In a typical WLAN configuration.11b in popularity.11b standard. A single access point can support a small group of users and can function within a range of anywhere from 30 to several hundred feet. Users equipped with handheld devices or notebook computers can transmit data to the access point when within range.11b standard.11 WLAN infrastructure. By working with a wireless vendor well-versed in security issues. as in the case of notebook computers. almost a five-fold increase from the performance of the 802. Almost all mobile applications today lend themselves to deployment of an 802. Wireless LAN components that use the 802. ISA or PCI adapters for desktop computers. The access point can be installed anywhere in the facility as long as good radio coverage is maintained. the type of WLAN system in use.4 GHz frequency range.

Scientific. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standards Association (IEEE-SA) is the leading developer of global industry standards in a broad-range of industries.11 consists of a family of standards that defines the physical layers (PHY) and the Medium Access Control (MAC) layer of a WLAN. 2. and the frameworks and means for supporting security and quality of service over a WLAN.5MHz). In the United States. openness. The most widely adopted WLAN standard around the world is 802. the IEEE-SA has offered an established standards development program that features balance. and Medical (ISM) radio frequency bands. and consensus.7-GHz band (5725–5850MHz). how a WLAN interacts with an IP core network. due process.WLANs typically use the unlicensed Industrial. including: • Power and Energy • Biomedical and Healthcare • Information Technology • Telecommunications • Transportation • Nanotechnology • Information Assurance 8 . the ISM bands include the 900-MHz band (902–928 MHz). WLAN network architectures.11 standards family includes the following key standards: The IEEE Standard For over a century. IEEE 802. and the 5.11 [28] today. The IEEE 802.4-GHz band (2400–2483.

11a 9 . (See IEEE status page. twisted-pair copper. multiple access with collision detect" (CSMA/CD) over coax.1D-2004." "Superseded **Revision of 802.9 802.6 802.5 Token Bus Token Ring Distributed queue dual bus (DQDB) 802. 802. Withdrawn Date: Feb 07. Disbanded The original token-passing standard for twisted-pair.6k. No longer Practices endorsed by the IEEE. and fiber media. Click for a list of the "hot" 802." (See IEEE status page.4 802." Specifies a PHY that operates in the 5 GHz U-NII band in the 802. LAN/MAN bridging and management.11 Wi-Fi 802.3 Ethernet 802.11 standard.3 technologies.10b-1992. Standards project no longer endorsed by the IEEE.2 Logical Link 802. Superseded by 802. (See IEEE status page. 802.11 standards must pass tests and are referred to as "Wi-Fi certified. g. The LLC is the top sub-layer in the data-link layer.1j and 802.The following table lists highlights of the most popular sections of IEEE 802 and has links for additional information: 802 802. Standards project no longer endorsed by the IEEE. are amendments to the original 802.8 802. Commonly referred to as the LLC or Logical Link Control specification. It also incorporates and supersedes published standards 802.) Fiber Optic Practices Integrated Services LAN Interoperable LAN security Withdrawn PAR.12e. 2003.1 Overview Bridging Basics of physical and logical networking concepts. virtual LANs and port-based access control. Products that implement 802.) Superseded **Contains: IEEE Std 802.10 Broadband LAN Withdrawn Standard. Often called "IBM Token-Ring. Provides asynchronous networking using "carrier sense. including MAC-based bridging (Media Access Control).1D-1990 edition (ISO/IEC 10038).) Withdrawn PAR.1p and P802.) Wireless LAN Media Access Control and Physical Layer specification. Supports copper and fiber cabling from 4 Mbps to 100 Mbps. (See IEEE status page. Interfaces with the network Layer 3. b.7 802. shielded copper cables. OSI Layer 2. "Granddaddy" of the 802 specifications. Covers management and the lower sub-layers of OSI Layer 2. Current speeds range from 10 Mbps to 10 Gbps. (See IEEE status page.) 802.1D incorporates P802.11a. etc.

11g 802.initially 5.11a and 802. 2.11 that includes quality of service (QoS) features Facilitates prioritization of data.11 family specifications Corrections and amendments to existing documentation 802. authentication.11h 802.11 that added higher data rate modes to the DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum) already defined in the original 802. falls back to 5.15-5.4 GHz band.11 family specifications Maintenance of 802.400 GHz to 2. in a fashion that permits interoperation with 802.0 GHz Radio resource measurements for networks using 802. as well as options for key caching and preauthentication Japanese regulatory extensions to 802.11b that allows for global roaming Particulars can be set at Media Access Control (MAC) layer Enhancement to 802.4835 GHz Beacons at 1 Mbps. and key exchange.11b 802.85 .35 AND 5.11 standard Boosted data speed to 11 Mbps 22 MHz Bandwidth yields 3 non-overlapping channels in the frequency range of 2.11a specification Frequency range 4.11k 802.11i 802.11 that offers additional security for WLAN applications Defines more robust encryption. or 1 Mbps from 11 Mbps max.725-5. Enhancement to 802.11m 10 .11j 802.US .11e 802.5.since expanded to additional frequencies Uses Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing Enhanced data speed to 54 Mbps Ratified after 802. with fallback speeds that include the "b" speeds Enhancement to 802.9 GHz to 5.11b devices Uses OFDM Modulation (Orthogonal FDM) Operates at up to 54 megabits per second (Mbps).11d 802. and video transmissions Extends the maximum data rate of WLAN devices that operate in the 2.11b Enhancement to 802.11a that resolves interference issues Dynamic frequency selection (DFS) Transmit power control (TPC) Enhancement to 802. voice.

13 802.19 802. Communications specification that was approved in early 2002 by the IEEE for wireless personal area networks (WPANs). keyboard. and 350+ MHz Competing proposals come from the groups.15 802. 2.19 Coexistence Technical Advisory Group IEEE 802.3a 802. TGn Sync. and WWiSE and are all variations based on MIMO (multiple input.14 802.8 GHz) or licensed (700 MHz. Not used Withdrawn PAR.4 802.4.Better device battery life This family of standards covers Fixed and Mobile Broadband Wireless Access methods used to create Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks (WMANs.20 Resilient Packet IEEE working group description Ring Radio IEEE 802.12 802. Products that implement 802.15.18 802. high-bandwidth "ultra wideband" link Short range wireless sensor networks Extension of network coverage without increasing the transmit power or the receiver sensitivity Enhanced reliability via route redundancy Easier network configuration .16 Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks 802.11n Higher-speed standards -.5 802. Short range (10m) wireless technology for cordless mouse. Standards project no longer endorsed by the IEEE.1 802. multiple output) Miss-used "generic" term for 802. 240. Short range. GHz.20 mission and project scope 11 . and hands-free headset at 2.16 standards can undergo WiMAX certification testing.) Connects Base Stations to the Internet using OFDM in unlicensed (900 MHz.6 GHz) frequency bands. 802.11 family specifications Demand Priority Not used Cable modems Wireless Personal Area Networks Bluetooth UWB ZigBee Mesh network Increases Ethernet data rate to 100 Mbps by controlling media utilization. often called "pre-n" Top speeds claimed of 108. 5. EWC.18 standards committee Regulatory TAG Coexistence Mobile IEEE 802.802.under development Several competing and non-compatible technologies. 2.17 802.11x 802.5 – 3.

The lowest protocol always deals with "low-level". Individual protocols within a suite are often designed with a single purpose in mind. Because each protocol module usually communicates with two others. User applications habitually deal only with the topmost layers (See also OSI model). The physical layer corresponds to the OSI physical layer fairly well. and the stack is the software implementation of them. Every higher layer adds more features. In the figure below we see a partial view of the 802.11. In 802.11 Protocol Stack A protocol stack is a particular software implementation of a computer networking protocol suite.21 mission and project scope IEEE 802.22 mission and project scope 802. The protocols used by all the 802 variants. the MAC (Medium Access 12 . the suite is the definition of the protocols. have a certain commonality of structure.21 802.11 protocol stack. they are commonly imagined as layers in a stack of protocols. but the data link layer in all the 802 protocols is split into two or more sublayers. This modularization makes design and evaluation easier. The terms are often used interchangeably. physical interaction of the hardware.22 Media Independent Handoff Wireless Regional Area IEEE 802. including Ethernet. Strictly speaking.Broadband Wireless Access 802.

They operate at up to 54 Mbps and 11 Mbps. Both of these use a part of the spectrum that does not require licensing (the 2. 13 . and who gets to transmit next. All of these techniques operate at 1 or 2 Mbps and at low enough power that they do not conflict too much. so your notebook computer may find itself in competition with your garage door. The 1997 802. The other two use short-range radio. that is.4-GHz ISM band).Control) sublayer determines how the channel is allocated. We studied the LLC when examining Ethernet earlier in this chapter and will not repeat that material here. two new techniques were introduced to achieve higher bandwidth. a second OFDM modulation was introduced. Now we will examine each of them briefly. but in a different frequency band from the first one.11 standard specifies three transmission techniques allowed in the physical layer. These are called OFDM and HRDSSS. Radio-controlled garage door openers also use this piece of the spectrum. Above it is the LLC (Logical Link Control) sublayer. whose job it is to hide the differences between the different 802 variants and make them indistinguishable as far as the network layer is concerned. respectively. In 1999. using techniques called FHSS and DSSS. In 2001. Cordless telephones and microwave ovens also use this band. The infrared method uses much the same technology as television remote controls do.

Protocol Structure In the figure below we can see the Wireless LAN by IEEE 802. Address fields (1-4) . Control and Data. Type . destination. Probe frame. Beacon frame. transmittion and receiver addresses) depending on the frame control field (the ToDS and FromDS bits).Frame subtype: Authentication frame. set to 1 when the frame is received from the Distribution System (DS) MF. 802. Association request frame. Sequence Control . Reassociation request frame. 802.11n801. Reassociation response frame. Duration/ID (ID) Station ID is used for Power-Save poll message frame type.11g.consists of fragment number and sequence number.indicates the version of IEEE 802. Association response frame. 14 .WEP indicates that the frame body is encrypted according to the WEP (wired equivalent privacy) algorithm. More .11b.Power Management indicates the power management mode that the station will be in after the transmission of the frame. .Frame type: Management. The duration value is used for the Network Allocation Vector (NAV) calculation.802. To DS . Subtype . It is used to represent the order of different fragments belonging to the same frame and to recognize packet duplications.More Fragment is set to 1 when there are more fragments belonging to the same frame following the current fragment Retry indicates that this fragment is a retransmission of a previously transmitted fragment.contain up to 4 addresses (source.Order indicates that the frame is being sent using the Strictly-Ordered service class.11.11 protocol family MAC frame structure: 02 2 6 6 6 2 6 2312 Frame Address Duration Control 1 Frame Control Structure: 2 Version • • • 2 Type 4 Subtype 1 To DS Address 2 Address 3 Se q Address 4 Data 4 Check sum 1 From DS 1 MF 1 Retry 1 Pwr 1 More 1 W 1 O • • • • • • • • • • • • • Protocol Version .11a. Disassociation frame. W .More Data indicates that there are more frames buffered to this station. (For receiver to recognize duplicate transmissions of frames) Pwr .is set to 1 when the frame is sent to Distribution System (DS) From DS .11 standard. Probe request frame and Probe response frame. Deauthentication frame.

work-stations and it is implemented in the Avaya Wireless IEEE 802. Mobile stations access the LAN during movement .11 PC-Card.11 (Wireless Local Area Networks). is referred to as a station in 802. Station (STA) Architecture: The Station Architecture is a device that contains the IEEE conformant MAC and PHY interface in the wireless medium.• • Data .11 Via the Bridge Tunnel encapsulation scheme are encapsulated the Ethernet Types 8137 (Novell IPX) and 80F3 (AARP) All other Ethernet Types: encapsulated via the RFC 1042 (Standard for the Transmission of IP Datagram’s over IEEE 802 Networks) encapsulation scheme Maximum Data limited to 1500 octets Bridging to Ethernet is done transparently 15 . Protocol Stack Architecture Each computer. CRC .contains a 32-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC).3 frames with this architecture are translated to 802. mobile. but on the other side it does not provide access to a distribution system. The difference between a portable and mobile station is that a portable station moves from point to point but is only used at a fixed point.1H The IEEE 802. • • • • • • • • • The most important features and conditions of the Station Architecture are It has a driver interface like the Ethernet All protocol Stacks are virtually supported by the STA The Frame translation is done according to the IEEE STD information that is transmitted or received. portable or fixed. The Station Architecture is most often available in terminals like laptops.

and provides access to a distribution system for associated stations. The Access Point Architecture is a device that contains IEEE 802. Basic Service Set (BSS): 16 .11 network which provides the point of interconnection between the wireless Station (laptop computer. The Access-Point Architecture offers a Power Management support. In a protocol stack architecture the traffic typically flows through the Access-Point. Most often it contains infra-structure products that connect to wired backbones It is implemented in Avaya Wireless IEEE 802. PDA (Personnel Digital Assistant) etc.11 PCCard when it is inserted in an AP-500 or AP-1000 The most important features and conditions of AccessPoint (AP) Architecture: • The Stations select an Access-Point and they associate with that.Access-Point (AP) Architecture: An Access Point is a device found within an IEEE 802.11 conformant MAC and PHY interface to the wireless medium. The Access point is a part that supports roaming and also they provide time synchronization functions like beaconing.) and the wired network. So that in the IBSS architecture takes place the direct Station-to-Station communication system.

11 LANs use the BSS as the standard building block. they form a Basic Service Set (BSS).A BSS that stands alone and is not connected to a base is called an Independent Basic Service Set (IBSS) or is referred to as an AdHoc Network. The diameter of the cells is twice the coverage-distance between two wireless stations. The contraction should not be confused with an Infrastructure BSS (Basic Service Set). In this case we have similarity to a “cell” in the pre IEEE terminology also a BSS can have an Access-Point and that both in standalone networks and in building-wide configurations. that is the logical function that determines when a station can transmit or receive. When two or more stations come together to communicate with each other.11 networks in that no network infrastructure is required. There is no base and no one gives permission to talk.The Basic Service Set is a term used to describe the collection of Stations which may communicate together within an 802. An ad-hoc network is a network where stations communicate only peer to peer. 802. IBSS (Independent Basic Service Set) and Infrastructure Basic Service Set. Independent Basic Service Set (IBSS): An Independent Basic Service Set also called ad hoc network is the simplest of all IEEE 802. or it just can run without and Access-Point but only in standalone networks.11 WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network). The BSS may or may not include AP (Access Point) which provides a connection onto a fixed distribution system such as an Ethernet network. Two types of BSS exist. Ad-Hoc or IBSS networks are characteristically limited both temporally and spatially. As such. In the BSS architecture a set of stations is controlled by a single “Coordination Function”. So that the Basic Service Set (BSS) forms a self-contained network in which no 17 . an IBSS is simply comprised of one or more Stations which communicate directly with each other. Mostly these networks are spontaneous and can be set up rapidly. The minimum BSS consists of two stations.

11 BSS (Basic Service Set) and enables limited mobility within the WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network). This means that stations within the ESS can communicate or even move between BSS’s transparently to the LLC. thus addressable. Creating large and complex networks using BSS's and DS's leads us to the next level of hierarchy. Entry to the DS is accomplished with the use of Access Points (AP). so that the 802.access to a Distribution System is available. As a Station moves into a new BSS. Stations are able to move between BSS within a single ESS yet still remain “connected” to the fixed network and so continue to receive emails etc. Infrastructure When BSS's are interconnected the network becomes one with infrastructure. or it is also similar to a BSS without an AccessPoint. One of the stations in the IBSS can be configured to “initiate” the network and assume the Coordination Function. Infrastructure is established in the network when BSS are interconnected. Each BSS becomes a component of an extended. This concept of DS increases network coverage.11 infrastructures have several elements. With help of the Access-Points data moves then between the BSS and the DS. the Extended Service Set or ESS. The beauty of the ESS is the entire network looks like an independent basic service set to the Logical Link Control layer (LLC). An access point is a station. Two or more BSS's are interconnected using a Distribution System or DS. larger network. it will carry out a reassociation procedure with the new AP (Access Point). The diameter of the cell is determined by coverage distance between two wireless stations. Extended Service Set (ESS): An Extended Service Set is comprised of a number of IEEE 802. 18 .

There is available a system to interconnect a set of Basic Service Sets and there is integrated a single Access-Point in a standalone network. and the diameter of the cell is double the coverage distance between two wireless stations Distribution System (DS). Example: of Extended Service Set (ESS) with single BSS and integrated DS 19 . In the wireless network are used wirelesses to interconnect the Access-Points.It is the same here that the traffic always flows via Access-Point. In the wired network there are used cables to interconnect the Access-Points.

So we can conclude that one network independent from that if it is ESS or IBSS it has always one SSID. The SSID may be broadcast from an AP within the wireless network to enable Stations to determine which network to “Associate” with. this feature should be disabled as it may assist hackers or wardrivers in gaining access to a private network. The most important things about the SSID are that it is 32 octets long and it is similar to “Domain-ID” in the pre-IEEE Wave LAN systems. However.11 networks to identify a particular network. It is usually set by the administrator setting up the WLAN and will be unique within a BSS (Basic Service Set) or ESS (Extended Service Set). 20 .Example: Extended Service Set (ESS) BSS’s with wired Distribution System (DS) Example: Extended Service Set (ESS) BSS’s and wireless Distribution System (DS) Service Set Identifier (SSID): The Service Set Identifier or Network Name is specified within IEEE 802.

and actions to perform on the selected traffic. an adaptation/policy agent installs policies into the kernel via a special API. with the new capabilities utilized either by user-space agents or applications themselves. that means that it is in the MAC address format. Protocol Stack for UNIX Also there are known developments for architectural enhancements for Unix-based servers to provide a protocol stack for UNIX. The value of the BSSID is the same as the MAC address of the radio in the AccessPoint. In the infrastructure BSS networks. This architecture permits control over an application's inbound network traffic via policybased traffic management. The figure shows the flow of an incoming request through the various control mechanisms. To give a better idea how it looks like the figure below shows the basic components of the enhanced protocol stack architecture. There is also visible a similarity to the NWID in the pre. The BSSID identifies the cells and it is 6 octets long. The policies specify filters to select the traffic to be controlled. The policy agent interacts with the kernel via an enhanced socket interface by sending (receiving) messages to (from) special control sockets.Basic Service Set Identifier (BSSID) The BSSID is a 48bit identity used to identify a particular BSS (Basic Service Set) within one area. the BSSID is the MAC (Medium Access Control) address of the AP and in Independent BSS or ad hoc networks. the BSSID is generated randomly.IEEE Wave LAN systems. 21 .

Compare Overall Structure of 802.11 PLCP + PHY 802. It is similar to the 802.15. since 802.11 protocol stack for stations and access points is shown in the figure.11 Stack Collaborative Coexistence Mechanism Tx Enable 802.11 MAC Status Status 802.15. 802.11 management frames from the 802.1 Stack TDMA Control Tx Enable 802.3. 22 .11 data plane and can encapsulate MIH messages in data frames. The TX Confirm carries a status value that is one of: allowed or denied.15.11 access point.1 LM + LC Tx Request Tx Confirm (status) MEHTA Control Tx Request Tx Confirm (status) 802. where the LLC SAP (LSAP) defines the interface of the MIH Function with the 802. the L2 transport of MIH messages can rely on 802.11 The logical placement of the MIH Function in the 802. The TX Request and TX Confirm are discreet signals exchanged for every packet transmission attempt.15. The 802.1 LM + LC entities provide status information to the MEHTA control entities.11b MAC and 802.1 Baseband MIH SAP Reference Model for 802.15.11 does not currently support Class 1 data frames. The MEHTA control entity receives a per-transmission transmit request (TX Request) and issues a per-transmission transmit confirm (TX Confirm) to each stack to indicate whether the transmission can proceed. MIH messages can be transported over the 802.11 data plane only after the Mobile Node has associated with the 802. Before the association between Mobile Node and access point takes place.11 management plane (MLME).1 Coexistence Mechanism An AWMA transmission control entity is integrated with the WLAN MAC layer and provides a Medium Free signal to the Bluetooth Baseband layer.11b / 802. The MIH MLME SAP defines the interface between the MIH Function and the MLME. This is a binary signal that gates when the WLAN and WPAN can each transmit packets. However.

since Ethernet CS is not ubiquitous. The only option available for L2 transport would be to first encapsulate the MIH messages into Ethernet frames with an MIH Ethertype value. The mechanisms for the direct encapsulation of MIH frames into 802. Applications 802.16 data frames may take multiple forms.16 standards and WiMAX only enable the encapsulation of IP packets and Ethernet frames.Layer 3 Mobility Protocol (L3MP). Transport. Alternatively.21 Scope MIH_SAP Media Independent Handover (MIH) Function MIH_SME_SAP MIH Event Service MIH Command Service MIH Information Service LSAP SME MLME_SAP MLME_SAP Logical Link Control (LLC) MLME MAC_SAP MAC PHY_SAP MLME_PLME_SAP PLME_SAP PHY PLME MIH SAP Reference Model for 802.16 connections that carry the MIH messages. 23 .11 and 802. Higher-Layer Mobility Protocol. Handover Policy.16 The logical placement of the MIH Function in the 802. This approach limits both the efficiency of the L2 transport of MIH messages. a solution that enables better efficiency and easier accessibility of L2 transport capabilities could become available with the possible standardization of the Generic Packet Convergence Sublayer (GPCS) recently proposed within 802. The MIH Function and the Network Control and Management System (NCMS) share the C_SAP and M_SAP for access to the mobility-management services of the Mobility Control Entity and Management Entity in the 802. and that since it imposes the addition of full Ethernet overhead – at least 18 bytes – to the MIH frame and the availability of L2 transport capabilities for MIH. and then mandate the adoption of Ethernet CS for 802.16g.16.16 protocol stack is shown in the figure. The Service-Specific Convergence Sublayer instances currently available in the 802.16 frame. so that we can compare better what is the difference between the 802.16 Management Plane. With GPCS a more efficient LLC/SNAP encapsulation (8 bytes overhead) could create the needed room for the MIH Ethertype in 802.

802. the station waits an additional. which means an ACK packet is sent by the receiving station to confirm that the data packet arrived intact. If the packet is received intact. In an 802. For 802. The 802.3 Ethernet LANs. the Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) it is regulated from the protocol how Ethernet stations are going to establish access to the wire and how they detect and handle collisions that occur when two or more devices try to simultaneously communicate over the LAN. once successfully received by the sender. completes the process. and.21 Scope MIH_SAP NCMS Media Independent Handover (MIH) Function MIH Event Service MIH Command Service MIH Information Service CS_SAP Service-Specific Convergence Sublayer (CS) MAC_SAP C_SAP MAC Common Part Sublayer (MAC CPS) Security Sublayer PHY_SAP Management Plane M_SAP Physical Layer (PHY) Data Link Layer As an important part of the protocol stack. CSMA/CA attempts to avoid collisions by using explicit packet acknowledgment (ACK). but in radio systems the transmission drowns out the ability of the station to “hear” a collision.11 WLAN. Applications 802. the receiving station issues an ACK frame that. collision detection is not possible due to what is known as the “near/far” problem: to detect a collision. Transport.Layer 3 Mobility Protocol (L3MP).3. randomly selected period of time and then transmits if the medium is still free. If the ACK frame is 24 . CSMA/CA works as follows.11 MAC is very similar in concept compared to the 802. a station must be able to transmit and listen at the same time. allowing for very simple bridging from wireless to IEEE wired networks.2 LLC and 48-bit addressing as other 802 LANs. which is designed to support multiple users on a shared medium by having the sender sense the medium before accessing it. the data link layer within 802. Handover Policy. Higher-Layer Mobility Protocol. To account for this difference. A station wishing to transmit senses the air. if no activity is detected.11 consists of two sublayers: Logical Link Control (LLC) and Media Access Control (MAC). The 802. but the MAC is unique to WLANs.11 uses the same 802.11 use a slightly modified protocol known as Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) or the Distributed Coordination Function (DCF).

allowing the sending station to transmit and receive a packet acknowledgment without any chance of collision. usually due to distance or an obstruction. Each packet has a CRC checksum calculated and attached to ensure that the data was not corrupted in transit. it does add some overhead to 802. the 802. where higher-level protocols such as TCP handle error checking. either because the original data packet was not received intact or the ACK was not received intact. This is different from Ethernet. Support for Time-Bounded Data 25 . which is useful in very congested environments or when interference is a factor.11 MAC layer provides for two other robustness features: CRC checksum and packet fragmentation. 802. Finally. The MAC layer is responsible for reassembling fragments received. in which two stations on opposite sides of an access point can both “hear” activity from an access point. but not from each other. However.11 LAN will always have slower performance than an equivalent Ethernet LAN. CSMA/CA thus provides a way of sharing access over the air. This technique reduces the need for retransmission in many cases and thus improves overall wireless network performance.3 does not have. RTS/CTS Procedure eliminates the “Hidden Node” Problem To solve this problem.11 that 802. the CTS causes them to delay any intended transmissions. rendering the process transparent to higher level protocols. for which retransmission would be expensive from a bandwidth standpoint. Since RTS/CTS adds additional overhead to the network by temporarily reserving the medium. a sending station transmits an RTS and waits for the access point to reply with CTS.not detected by the sending station. When this feature is in use. it is typically used only on the largest-sized packets. a collision is assumed to have occurred and the data packet is transmitted again after waiting another random amount of time. Since all stations in the network can hear the access point. This explicit ACK mechanism also handles interference and other radio related problems very effectively. so that an 802. Packet fragmentation allows large packets to be broken into smaller units when sent over the air. Another MAC-layer problem specific to wireless is the “hidden node” issue.11 specify an optional Request to Send/Clear to Send (RTS/CTS) protocol at the MAC layer. since larger packets have a better chance of being corrupted.

The 802. If the channel is in use. a station calculates the amount of time necessary to send the frame based on the frame's length and data rate. Since PCF gives every station a turn to transmit in a predetermined fashion.html 26 .11 standard defines two forms of medium access.11b or 802. Often viewed as the "brains" of the network. As opposed to the DCF. If another station is sending a frame. The NAV must be zero before a station can attempt to send a frame. When stations receive the frame.Time-bounded data such as voice and video is supported in the 802. to perform the tasks of carrier sensing. The random delay causes stations to wait different periods of time and avoids all of them sensing the medium at exactly the same time. which can be ineffective in large networks.javvin. DCF is mandatory and based on the CSMA/CA (carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance) protocol. which is a radio channel that stations share. A downside to PCF is that it is not particularly scalable.11 stations (radio network cards and access points) by coordinating access to a shared radio channel and utilizing protocols that enhance communications over a wireless medium. In general. transmission.11 Physical (PHY) Layer.11 MAC specifications through the Point Coordination Function (PCF). This ensures that multiple stations wanting to send data don't transmit at the same time. and after a given time move on to the next station. such as 802. An important aspect of the DCF is a random back off timer that a station uses if it detects a busy medium.11 standard specifies a common medium access control (MAC) Layer. distributed coordination function (DCF) and point coordination function (PCF). If a BSS is set up with PCF enabled. they examine this duration field value and use it as the basis for setting their corresponding NAVs. 1 http://www.11 frames. which is a counter resident at each station that represents the amount of time that the previous frame needs to send its frame. a maximum latency is guaranteed. finding the channel idle. time is spliced between the system being in PCF mode and in DCF (CSMA/CA) mode. stations are polite and wait until the channel is free. MAC Functional Description The 802. The station places a value representing this time in the duration field in the header of the frame. During the periods when the system is in PCF mode. in PCF mode a single access point controls access to the media. the MAC Layer manages and maintains communications between 802. Prior to transmitting a frame. where control is distributed to all stations. As a condition to accessing the medium. which provides a variety of functions that support the operation of 802.1 Before transmitting frames. This process reserves the medium for the sending station. a station must first gain access to the stations contend for access and attempt to send frames when there is no other station transmitting. and stations receive data from the access point only when they are polled.11-based wireless LANs. the station must wait a random period of time before attempting to access the medium again. the MAC Layer checks the value of its network allocation vector (NAV). the access point will poll each station for data. With DCF.11a. the 802. and receiving of 802.11 MAC Layer uses an 802. 802. No station is allowed to transmit unless it is polled. in that a single point needs to have control of media access and must poll all stations.

e. If the sending station doesn't receive an ACK after a specified period of time. The MIS also integrates the Error and Flow Control functions. especially when the number of active users increases. The MAC SAP is kept identical while the PHY SAP may be modified according to the capabilities of the PHY layer. The access point polls stations according to a polling list.. As shown in . a transmitting station can't listen for collisions while sending data. MAC Architecture The new MAC access scheme described hereafter enhances the current 802. The MLS sub-layer is in charge of building 802. For supporting time-bounded delivery of data frames. The SAR sub-layer performs the adaptation between the variable size packet provided by the LLCCS and the transfer units managed by the MIS. mainly because the station can't have it's receiver on while transmitting the frame. In addition. the receiving station needs to send an acknowledgement (ACK) if it detects no errors in the received frame. the 802. As a result.e. and delivers them to the PHY layer. Stations can't transmit frames unless the access point polls them first.11 standard defines the optional point coordination function (PCF) where the access point grants access to an individual station to the medium by polling the station during the contention free period. The back off timer significantly reduces the number of collisions and corresponding retransmissions. video applications) and asynchronous (i. and colliding with each other.. the enhanced MAC layer is constituted of two Convergence sub-layers. MAC Intermediate Sub-Layer (MIS) and MAC Lower Sub-layer (MLS). With radio-based LANs.11 MAC. This process enables support for both synchronous (i.11 compatible MPDUs from MIS transfer unit and signaling information. e-mail and Web browsing applications) modes of operation. The MIS embeds the core transfer function of the MAC layer and is based on short fixed-size transfer units.transmitting. The MAC SAP consistency is maintained by the LLCCS sub-layer. and two transfer sub-layers. the sending station will assume that there was a collision (or RF interference) and retransmit the frame. then switches to a contention period when stations use DCF. LLC Convergence Sub-Layer (LLCCS) and Segmentation and Re-assembly (SAR). it can implement the 27 . The period of time for PCF-based data traffic (if enabled) occurs alternately between contention (DCF) periods.

11i. TKIP uses a message integrity code to enable devices to authenticate that the packets are coming from the claimed source. CCMP uses Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code (CBC-MAC). IEEE 802. CCMP uses AES in counter mode. CCMP uses a 128-bit key.LLC MAC Packet Sequence Number Assignment LLC Sequence Number Assignment Fragmentation Encryption MPDU Header + CRC LLCCS Segmentation Segment Sequence Number Assignment SAR Error and Flow Control MAC MIS Encryption MPDU Header Signalling Insertion MLS PHY Extended MAC PHY Legacy 802. The standard IEEE 802.11i enhances the WEP (Wireline Equivalent Privacy).11 frame that get protected are known as additional authentication data (AAD). The IEEE 802. which is a quick fix of the WEB weaknesses. For authentication and integrity. the 802. Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP): it is data-confidentiality protocol and it was designed to improve the security of products that were implemented through WEP. a technology used for many years for the WLAN security. this code is called Michael. 28 .11i has the following key components: 1.11i is designed to provide secured communication of wireless LAN as defined by all the IEEE 802. Also TKIP uses a mixing function to defeat weak-key attacks. which enabled attackers to decrypt traffic. For confidentiality. authentication and key management. AAD includes the packets source and destination and protects against attackers replaying packets to different destinations. In IEEE 802. CCMP protects some fields that aren't encrypted. IEEE 802.11i is based on the Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA). in the areas of encryption. Counter-Mode/CBC-MAC Protocol (CCMP): a data-confidentiality protocol that is responsible for packet authentication as well as encryption.11 committee has addressed the issue by providing what is called WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) Authentication: A function that determines whether a Station is allowed to participate in network communication. 2.11 MAC Protocol Stack Comparison Security Security is one of the first concerns of people deploying a Wireless LAN. The additional parts of the IEEE 802.11 specifications.

11i client card and access point to negotiate which protocol to use during specific traffic circumstances and to discover any unknown security parameters.1x for key exchange.1x: offers an effective framework for authenticating and controlling user traffic to a protected network.IEEE 802.1X ties a protocol called EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) to both the wired and wireless LAN media and support multiple authentication methods.11i provides an algorithm for the IEEE 802.11i. Two main EAPOL-key exchanges are defined in IEEE 802. on the sense that an intruder needs to enter the premises (by using a physical key) in order to connect his workstation to the wired LAN. this is very similar to the Wired LAN privacy.3.11i: WLAN Security Standards Preventing Access to Network Resources This is done by the use of an Authentication mechanism where a station needs to prove knowledge of the current key. EAP encapsulation over LANs (EAPOL)– it is the key protocol in IEEE 802. Protocol Structure . This PRNG outputs a key sequence of pseudo-random bits equal in length to the largest possible packet. The WEP algorithm is a simple algorithm based on RSA?s RC4 algorithm. which restarts the PRNG for each frame. 802. which is a Pseudo Random Number Generator (PRNG). 4. 29 . this is needed in order to work on a connectionless environment. Eavesdropping Eavesdropping is prevented by the use of the WEP algorithm. Because IEEE 802. IEEE 802. which is combined with the outgoing/incoming packet producing the packet transmitted in the air. as well as dynamically varying encryption keys. Self Synchronizing: The algorithm synchronized again for each message.11i has more than one data-confidentiality protocol.IEEE 802. which has the following properties: Reasonable strong: Brute-force attack to this algorithm is difficult because of the fact that every frame is sent with an Initialization Vector. The first is referred to as the 4-way handshake and the second is the group key handshake. where packets may get lost (as any LAN). initialized by a shared secret key.

11a.11b and 802.11 and HIPERLAN/II have similar physical layer characteristics operating in the 5 GHz band and use the modulation scheme orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM).11b products. Two speeds are permitted: 1 Mbps and 2 Mbps.11a.11g extension to the standard begins to garner the attention of WLAN equipment providers.11b. The differential characteristic of the modulation schemes indicates the use of the difference in phase from the last change or symbol to determine the current symbol's value.11a and 802. in the technology used and speed achievable. With a ruling from the Federal Communications Commission that will now allow OFDM digital transmission technology to operate in the ISM band and the promise of interoperability with a large installed base of 802. respectively. At the forefront of the new WLAN options that will enable much higher data rates are two supplements to the IEEE 802. which has sometimes been jokingly referred to as the interference suppression is mandatory band because it is heavily used by various electronic products. Both 802.Physical Layer The IEEE (define) 802. Both the FHSS and DSSS modes are specified for operation in the 2.e.11 frames. DBPSK is phase modulation using two distinct carrier phases for data signaling providing one bit per symbol. 2 and 4 bit represent the number of frequency offsets used to represent data symbols of one and two bits. In addition.4 GHz industrial. which defines protocols that govern the operation of the wireless LAN. using what is called Gray code. however. Each of the five permitted transmission techniques makes it possible to send a MAC frame from one station to another. rather than any absolute measurements of the phase change. an encoding scheme is used in which a group of 4 bits is encoded as a 16-bit codeword containing fifteen 0s and a single 1.11g. The focus here. not line of sight) transmission at 0. however. Another standard that warrants mention in this context is IEEE 802. the 802. They differ. it will offer data rates equal to or exceeding 22 Mb/s with products available late in 2002. At 1 Mbps.11 comprise several alternative physical layers that specify the transmission and reception of 802. DQPSK is a type of phase modulation using two pairs of distinct carrier phases.85 or 0.95 microns. This code has the property that a small error in time synchronization leads to 30 . as well as a European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) standard.11 standard includes a common Medium Access Control (MAC) Layer. The physical layer basics To know the physical layer terminology we need to understand the essential intricacies of 802. With HIPERLAN/II sharing several of the same physical properties as 802. 802. High Performance LAN (HIPERLAN/II).. The infrared option uses diffused (i. GFSK is a modulation scheme in which the data are first filtered by a Gaussian filter in the Baseband.11 standard: 802. but the MAC layers are considerably different.11. and then modulated with a simple frequency modulation. scientific and medical (ISM) band. many of the same issues will apply. Although not detailed here. The third physical layer alternative is an infrared system using near-visible light in the 850 nm to 950 nm range as the transmission medium. will be to compare the physical layer characteristics of 802. in quadrature. to signal two bits per symbol.

This field is always 1111001110100000 and defines the beginning of a frame. PSDU. is a fancy name that represents the contents of the PPDU (i. The receiver begins synchronizing with the incoming signal after detecting the Sync. In fact.4 WIRELESS LANS 295 possible under current conditions of load and noise.11 Physical layers.4-GHz band. 5. are always sent at the lowest rate. In order to detect possible errors in the Physical Layer header. Next. The data rate may be dynamically adapted during operation to achieve the optimum speed SEC.11 frame. 0100. These are somewhat sophisticated terms that the standard uses to divide the major functions that occur within the Physical Layer. Length. This field identifies the data rate of the 802.. respectively. due to the low bandwidth (and the fact that sunlight swamps infrared signals). and the receiver uses this information to determine the end of the frame. using phase shift modulation (for compatibility with DSSS).11 frame being sent). change radio channels. that is one of 0001. Service. the standard defines this field for containing 16-bit cyclic redundancy check (CRC) result. In practice. the encoding takes 2 bits and produces a 4-bit codeword. At 2 Mbps. so cells in different rooms are well isolated from each other. Frame Check Sequence.11 frames for transmission and directs the PMD to actually transmit signals.11b is nearly always 11 31 . with 1 and 2 bits per baud.11 analyzers from AirMagnet and Wildpackets. however. The 802. The two slow rates run at 1 Mbaud. PLCP Frame Fields The PLCP takes each 802.11 frame that a station wishes to transmit and forms what the 802. This ensures that the receiver is initially uses the correct demodulation mechanism. with its binary value equal to the data rate divided by 100Kbps.11b includes Physical Layer Convergence Procedure (PLCP) and Physical Medium Dependent (PMD) sub-layers. As with other 802. The two faster rates run at 1. receive signals. the field contains the value of 00001010 for 1Mbps. 4. respectively. or 1000. 0010. 802. and 11 Mbps. The PLCP prepares 802.5. The PSDU. also with only a single 1. another spread spectrum technique. The resulting PPDU includes the following fields in addition to the frame fields imposed by the MAC Layer: Sync. the actual 802. 00010100 for 2Mbps. This field is always set to 00000000 and the 802. this is not a popular option.11 standard reserves it for future use. with 4 and 8 bits per baud. The MAC Layer also performs error detection functions on the PPDU contents as well. Signal.11b but is not a follow-up to 802. For example. the operating speed of 802. Nevertheless. Data rates supported by 802. which uses 11 million chips/sec to achieve 11 Mbps in the 2. and so on.11 radio card removes these fields before the resulting data is processed by the MAC Layer and offered to the analyzer for viewing.only a single bit error in the output. alerting the receiver that a receivable signal is present.375 Mbaud. The PLCP fields. Start Frame Delimiter. Don't expect to see the physical layer fields with 802. which changes with different data rates. its standard was approved first and it got to market first. however. we come to HR-DSSS (High Rate Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum).11b are 1.11 standard refers to as a PLCP protocol data unit (PPDU).11a. This field consists of alternating 0s and 1s. which stands for Physical Layer Service Data Unit. Infrared signals cannot penetrate walls. using Walsh/Hadamard codes. It is called 802. This field represents the number of microseconds that it takes to transmit the contents of the PPDU. 2. which is 1Mbps. and so on.e.

and 802. Thirdly. The concept of PPM is to vary the position of a pulse to represent different binary symbols. One can legitimately ask if this is a good thing for a standards committee The 802.11a. the PHY provides an interface to exchange frames with the upper MAC layer for transmission and reception of data.11 PHY layers. Spread spectrum spreads the transmitted bandwidth of the resulting signal.11 committee has produced three different high-speed wireless LANs: 802. reducing the peak power but keeping total power the same.11a. Although 802.4.5 Mbps data rates (in addition to the 1 and 2Mbps rates) utilizing an extension to DSSS called High Rate DSSS (HR/DSSS). Secondly. Spread Spectrum Spread spectrum is a technique trading bandwidth for reliability.11 provides three different PHY definitions: Both Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) and Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) support 1 and 2 Mbps data rates.11b also defines a rate shifting technique where 11 Mbps networks may fall back to 5. Another extension to the standard (802. the PHY uses signal carrier and spread spectrum modulation to transmit data frames over the media.11b) defines 11 Mbps and 5. or 1 Mps under noisy conditions or to interoperate with legacy 802. It is not yet clear whether this speed will be realized in practice. Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) 32 . 802. was approved by IEEE in November 2001 after much politicking about whose patented technology it would use. In theory it can operate at up to 54 MBps.11g.11g (not to mention three lowspeed wireless LANs). Infrared (IR) The Infrared PHY utilizes infrared light to transmit binary data either at 1 Mbps (basic access rate) or 2 Mbps (enhanced access rate) using a specific modulation technique for each. An enhanced version of 802. Infrared transmission at 2 Mbps utilizes a 4 PPM modulation technique.GHz ISM band along with 802. its range is about 7 times greater. which is more important in many situations. The goal is to use more bandwidth than the system really needs for transmission to reduce the impact of localized interference on the media.11 physical layer (PHY) is the interface between the MAC and the wireless media where frames are transmitted and received. the infrared PHY uses a 16-pulse position modulation (PPM). It uses the OFDM modulation method of 802.11a but operates in the narrow 2.Mbps. 802.11b.11 architecture (802. 802.11b is slower than 802. The PHY provides three functions. 802. What it does mean is that the 802. For 1 Mbps.11b.11a) defines different multiplexing techniques that can achieve data rates up to 54 Mbps. 2 Mbps. the PHY provides a carrier sense indication back to the MAC to verify activity on the media.5 Mbps. First.11b. An extension to the 802.

A spread-spectrum transmission offers three main advantages over a fixed-frequency transmission: Spread-spectrum signals are highly resistant to noise and interference. each 1.11 Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) PHY uses the 2. FSK. multipath fading can be an issue. FHSS may have 2*10^20 or more. bandwidth can be utilized more efficiently. the dwell time. but must be less than 400 msec. they will hop to the same frequencies simultaneously. In comparison to binary FSK. starting at the low end of the 2. Frequency-hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) is a spread-spectrum method of transmitting radio signals by rapidly switching a carrier among many frequency channels. Spread-spectrum transmissions can share a frequency band with many types of conventional transmissions with minimal interference.4 GHz frequency band is divided into 70 channels of 1 MHz each. The instantaneous frequency output of the transmitter jumps from one value to another based on the 33 . The amount of time spent at each frequency. code selected. A Frequency-Hop spread-spectrum signal sounds like a momentary noise burst or simply an increase in the background noise for short Frequency-Hop codes on any narrowband receiver except a Frequency-Hop spread-spectrum receiver using the exact same channel sequence as was used by the transmitter. the incoming digital stream is shifted in frequency by an amount determined by a code that spreads the signal power over a wide bandwidth. It also provides a modicum of security since an intruder who does not know the hopping sequence or dwell time cannot eavesdrop on transmissions. As long as all stations use the same seed to the pseudorandom number generator and stay synchronized in time. The broadcast data is spread across the entire frequency band by hopping between the channels in a pseudo random fashion. the 2. The spread-spectrum signals add minimal noise to the narrow-frequency communications. As a result. For example. FHSS’ randomization provides a fair way to allocate spectrum in the unregulated ISM band.4-GHz ISM band. and vice versa. Frequency hopping relies on frequency diversity to combat interference. Every 20 to 400 msec the system "hops" to a new channel following a predetermined cyclic pattern. The process of recollecting a spread signal spreads out noise and interference. Spread-spectrum signals are difficult to intercept. using a pseudorandom sequence known to both transmitter and receiver. and FHSS offers good resistance to it. The third modulation method. The 802. It is also relatively insensitive to radio interference. Basically.MHz wide. The FHSS transmitter is a pseudo-noise PN code controlled frequency synthesizer. Its main disadvantage is its low bandwidth. Over longer distances. is an adjustable parameter. operating with at 1 or 2 Mbps data rate. FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum) uses 79 channels. which makes it popular for building-to-building links.4 GHz radio frequency band. which has only two possible frequencies.In FHSS the total frequency band is split into a number of channels. Frequency Hopping utilizes a set of narrow channels and "hops" through all of them in a predetermined sequence. causing them to recede into the background. A pseudorandom number generator is used to produce the sequence of frequencies hopped to. This is accomplished by multiple frequency.

Hence. which is the reason that it is called spread spectrum. each bit is modulated by a code. the original signal is recovered by 34 . Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum is based on the multiplying of the baseband signal data with a broadband spreading code.1 FHSS Spectrum In this system. The characteristics of the broadband spreading code are that of pseudorandom noise. and the distance to the nearest interference source. Another important factor in FHSS systems is the rate at which the hops occur. In the receiver. Varying the instantaneous frequency results in an output spectrum that is effectively spread over the range of frequencies generated. In contrast. instead of adding pseudo-random noise to the data. A signal structuring technique utilizing a digital code sequence (PN Sequences) having a chip rate much higher than the information signal bit rate. frequency-hopping spread spectrum pseudo-randomly retunes the carrier. To spread the signal. The result is termed the chip rate. which results in a uniform frequency distribution whose width is determined by the output range of the pseudo-random number generator. DSSS has the following features: for generating spread-spectrum transmissions by phase-modulating a sine wave pseudo randomly with a continuous string of pseudo noise code symbols.pseudo-random input from the code generator. the number of discrete frequencies determines the bandwidth of the system. The principle of Direct Sequence is to spread a signal on a larger frequency band by multiplexing it with a signature or code to minimize localized interference and background noise. All other receivers will see the spread signal as white or colored noise. the amount of redundancy used. direct-sequence spread spectrum is a modulation technique where the transmitted signal takes up more bandwidth than the information signal that is being modulated. Consequently the receiver synchronized to the code will obtain the narrowband signal. Each information bit of a digital signal is transmitted as a pseudorandom sequence of chips. In telecommunications. the process gain is directly dependent on the number of available frequency choices for a given information rate. each of duration much smaller than a bit. The minimum time required to change frequencies is dependent on the information bit rate. Fig.

4 GHz radio frequency band. It uses phase shift modulation at 1 Mbaud. A complex encoding system is used. this technique is considered a form of spread spectrum. It is also a part of the 802. At 54 Mbps. For years.S. Part of the motivation for OFDM is compatibility with the European HiperLAN/2 system (Doufexi et al. Each bit is transmitted as 11 chips. but differs in other ways. different frequencies are used—52 of them. which is why the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) (define) deems the operation of spread spectrum systems as license free. The demodulation process (for the BPSK case) is then simply the mixing/multiplying of the same PN modulated carrier with the incoming RF signal.11 standard. The technique has a good spectrum efficiency in terms of bits/Hz and good immunity to multipath fading. This results in greater immunity to radio frequency (RF) interference as compared to narrowband signaling.11 Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) PHY also uses the 2. a doubly balanced mixer is used to multiply the RF carrier and PN modulated information signal. The correlated signal is then filtered and sent to a BPSK demodulator. The output is a signal that is a maximum when the two signals exactly equal one another or are "correlated".11a. This process causes the RF signal to be replaced with a very wide bandwidth signal with the spectral equivalent of a noise signal. 1.11 b and g standards. The scheme used has some similarities to the CDMA system.11b uses DSSS to disperse the data frame signal over a relatively wide (approximately 30MHz) portion of the 2. that rule was dropped as new technologies emerged. 802. Note that this is just the spectrum of a BPSK signal with a (sin x / x) 2 form. Then. based on phase-shift modulation for speeds up to 18 Mbps and on QAM above that. transmitting 1 bit per baud when operating at 1 Mbps and 2 bits per baud when operating at 2 Mbps.receiving the whole spread channel and demodulating with the same code used by the transmitter.4GHz frequency band. using what is called a Barker sequence. to use spread spectrum. Since transmissions are present on multiple frequencies at the same time. As the term FDM suggests. The wide bandwidth provided by the PN code allows the signal power to drop below the noise threshold without loss of information. 802. 216 data bits are encoded into 288-bit symbols. The signals generated with this technique appear as noise in the frequency domain. uses OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) to deliver up to 54 Mbps in the wider 5GHz ISM band. 2002). but different from both CDMA and FHSS. Splitting the signal into many narrow bands has some key advantages over using a single wide band. Note that in the original 802. First the PN code is modulated onto the information signal using one of several modulation techniques (eg. The first of the high-speed wireless LANs. either FHSS or DSSS may be used. including better immunity to narrowband interference and the possibility of using noncontiguous bands. but in May 2002. BPSK. The DSSS process is performed by effectively multiplying an RF carrier and a pseudo-noise (PN) digital signal. the FCC required all wireless communications equipment operating in the ISM bands in the U. The 802.. QPSK. DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum) is also restricted to 1 or 2 Mbps. 35 . etc). This is probably the most widely recognized form of spread spectrum. The spectral content of an SS signal is shown in Fig. 48 for data and 4 for synchronization—not unlike ADSL.

One feature of DSSS is that QPSK may be used to increase the data rate. For 2Mbps transmission. Therefore. The result is that systems in a spectrally quiet environment benefit from the possible increase in data transfer rate. 5. which is similar to DBPSK except that there are four possible phase shifts that represents every two data bits. the bandwidth (which sets the process gain) is halved due to the two-fold increase in information transfer. the PMD uses differential binary phase shift keying (DBPSK).5Mbps and 11Mbps data rates. This isn't really as complex as it sounds. where Rc is the chip rate. specifically 2Rc/RINFO. depending on which data rate is chosen. This increase of a factor of two bits per symbol of transmitted information over BPSK causes an equivalent reduction in the available process gain.Fig. DSSS Modulation The modulator converts the spread binary signal into an analog waveform through the use of different modulation types. It should be noted that the power contained in the main lobe comprises 90 percent of the total power. The modulator merely shifts the phase of the center transmit frequency to distinguish a binary 1 from a binary 0 within the data stream. the bandwidth of a DSSS system is a direct function of the chip rate. 1). 36 . 1 BPSK DSSS Spectrum The bandwidth in DSSS systems is often taken as the null-to-null bandwidth of the main lobe of the power spectral density plot (indicated as 2Rc in Fig. the PMD uses differential quadrature phase shift keying (DQPSK). For example with 1Mbps operation. This allows a narrower RF bandwidth to accommodate the received signal with the effect of rounding the received pulses in the time domain. The modulator uses similar methods for the higher. The half power bandwidth of this lobe is 1.2 Rc. The process gain is reduced because for a given chip rate. This is a clever process that enables the data stream to be sent at 2Mbps while using the same amount of bandwidth as the one sent at 1Mbps. This is just an extension of the previous equation for process gain.

can use channels 1 through 13.427 2.462 2. only allows the use of channels 1 through 11. however.11a While 802. The first 100 MHz in the lower frequency portion is restricted to a maximum power output of 50 mW. This standard uses 300 MHz of bandwidth in the 5 GHz unlicensed national information infrastructure (UNII) band.Transmit Frequencies The transmitter's modulator translates the spread signal into an analog form with a center frequency corresponding to the radio channel chosen by the user.11b. the transmitter outputs the modulated DSSS signal to the antenna in order to propagate the signal to the destination. OFDM operates by dividing the transmitted data into multiple parallel bit streams.467 2. In that case.457 2. 37 .).472 2. but the receiver at the destination will detect the incoming Physical Layer header and reverse (demodulate and dispread) the process implemented by the transmitter The IEEE 802.452 2.S.422 2. and the U.417 2. has a maximum of 1. This complicates matters when designing international public wireless LANs.412 2.S.484 Various countries limit the use of these channels.442 2. referred to as sub-carriers. each with lower relative bit rates and modulating separate narrowband carriers. you need to choose channels with the least common denominator. new product development has proceeded much more slowly than 802. each having restrictions imposed on the maximum allowed output power (see Figure 1). The trip in route to the destination will significantly attenuate (define) the signal. For example. authorizes the use all 14 channels. which is mainly intended for outdoor applications. the U. while the third 100 MHz.0 W power output. After RF amplification takes place based on the transmit power you've chosen (100mW maximum for the U. The following identifies the center frequency of each channel: Channel 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Frequency (GHz) 2.432 2.447 2. Japan.437 2. The second 100 MHz has a higher 250 mW maximum. This is due to the cost and complexity of implementation.11a was approved in September 1999.K. The spectrum is divided into three domains.

Some of the companies developing chipset solutions for 802. The high peak-to-average power ratio representative of multicarrier OFDM signals dictates the need for highly linear and efficient amplifiers. This nearly eliminates the need for retransmissions when packet errors are detected. 802. they require the use of equipment from a single source throughout the entire network.11a includes forward error correction (FEC) as part of the specification. 16-QAM. particularly because the data rate will be increasing by a factor of five and using the same bandwidth (20 MHz) to do it. and 64QAM. It is usually more meaningful for OFDM signals to associate a percentage probability with a power level. are not wellcharacterized by peak-to-average power ratio.11a Design of devices using 802.11a specifies eight non-overlapping 20 MHz channels in the lower two bands. Practice 802. enables the receiver to identify and correct errors made during transmission by sending additional data along with the primary transmission.11a are touting the availability of operational modes that exceed the 54 Mb/s stated in the specification. because faster data rates are out of the specification's scope. 64-QAM has 16 symbols with each representing four data bits. better phase noise performance is required because of the closely spaced. overlapping carriers. the format requires more linearity in the amplifiers because of the higher peak-to-average power ratio of the transmitted OFDM signal. which do not have a constant power envelope. Considering the composite waveform resulting from the combination of 52 sub-carriers. Each represents four data bits. FEC. Transmitted signals such as OFDM. The data rates available in 802. Four complex modulation methods are employed. 38 . These issues add to the implementation cost of 802. This metric is not useful.11b.11a are noted in Table 2. Of course. as well as a method to characterize them. each of these are divided into 52 sub-carriers (four of which carry pilot data) of 300-kHz bandwidth each.11a products. Although it adds a degree of complication to the Baseband processing.11a with OFDM signals and operating at 5 GHz will bring new challenges in testing. QPSK.11a products are expected to begin arriving in the first half of 2002. which does not exist within 802. In addition. reconstructing the original high-rate data stream. These include BPSK. Four non-overlapping 20 MHz channels are specified in the upper band. depending on the data rate that can be supported by channel conditions between the transmitter and receiver. Application-specific measurement tools aid in the design and troubleshooting of OFDM signals and systems. BPSK modulation is always used on the four pilot sub-carriers.The sub-carriers are orthogonal. 802. so each can be received without interference from another. 802. The receiver processes the 52 individual bit streams. as the true peak power may not occur often. Quadrature amplitude modulation is a complex modulation method where data are carried in symbols represented by the phase and amplitude of the modulated carrier. together with the type of modulation and the coding rate. 16-QAM has 16 symbols.

This metric links a percentage probability to a power level.11b 802. If time gating were not used.4835 GHz). including cordless phones. other WLANs. This increases the symbol rate from 1 Msym/s to 1. which was approved by the IEEE in 1999.375 Msym/s.11b also operates in the highly populated 2. 802.11 DSSS system previously mentioned and supports higher 5. For all 802. Instead of the Barker codes used to encode and spread the data for the lower rates. 802. which keeps the QPSK spread-spectrum signal and still provides the required number of bits/symbol. 802.5-Mb/s bit rate with a 1. so the ISM band accommodates only three non-overlapping channels spaced 25 MHz apart.5 Mb/s/1.4 GHz ISM band (2. To achieve data rates of 5.5 and 11 Mb/s payload data rates in addition to the original 1 and 2 Mb/s rates.0. the periods when the burst is off would reduce the average power calculation. coupled with the rotation. 39 . The IEEE 8102.A more meaningful method for viewing OFDM signal power characteristics uses the complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF). the spreading length is first reduced from 11 to eight chips.11b. microwave ovens. The occupied bandwidth of the spread-spectrum channel is 22 MHz. and personal area networks (PANS).11b payload data rates. represents the symbol conveying the four or eight bits of data. and percent probability on vertical axis (see Figure 2 upper trace). an 8 bits/symbol. CCK uses a nearly orthogonal complex code set called complementary sequences. The CCK approach taken in 802. and the installed base of systems is growing rapidly. it is necessary to transmit 4 bits/symbol (5. A CCDF measurement would be made over several bursts to improve the accuracy of the measurement. is an extension of the 802.11b. Products are now widely available.375 Msym/s) and for 11 Mb/s. uses all but two of the bits to select from a set of spreading sequences and the remaining two bits to rotate the sequence. which is simply the more common cumulative distribution function (CDF) subtracted from 1.11b uses eight-chip complementary code keying (CCK) as the modulation scheme to achieve the higher data rates.375 MHz symbol rate. shows the number of decibels above the average power on the horizontal axis.5 and 11 Mb/s.40 to 2. In this measurement. while the data rate varies to match channel conditions by changing the spreading factor and/or the modulation scheme. For the 5. To help mitigate interference effects.11b designates an optional frequency agile or hopping mode using the three non-overlapping channels or six overlapping channels spaced at 10 MHz. an instrument with time-gating capability is used to select only the active portion of the burst (see Figure 2 lower trace). The chip rate remains consistent with the original DSSS system at 11 Mchip/s. The selection of the sequence. which provides only 83 MHz of spectrum to accommodate a variety of other radiating products. the preamble and header are sent at the 1 Mb/s rate. The CCDF. This makes susceptibility to interference a primary concern.

The 802. Requirements must be researched and well-documented. The test instrument determines the error signal by reconstructing the ideal signal based on detected signal information and subtracting it from the actual signal at each sample point. When it comes to deployment of a wireless LAN. where frequency planning of overlapping cells minimizes mutual interference support mobility and seamless channel handoff. Both 802. This measurement has become common for most wireless applications. floors. The three non-overlapping frequency channels available for IEEE 802.11b standard uses error vector magnitude (EVM) as a measure of modulation quality. (The last one-quarter of the symbol pulse is copied and attached to the beginning of the burst. The additional channels allow more overlapping access points within a given area while avoiding additional mutual interference. albeit more robust. Due to the periodic nature of the signal. transmission scheme. A site survey must be thorough and realistic to 40 .11b are at a disadvantage compared to the greater number of channels available to 802. Network planning is critical to the development of an optimized system. the signal is considerably attenuated by the time the power is measured within the instrument. Vector signal analyzers are available with information bandwidths that are considerably greater than 20 MHz. and furniture) than those at 2.11b and 802. An advantage of 802. If the channel is clear. which has received considerable attention. 802. The slower symbol rate and placement of significant guard time around each symbol. is its shorter wavelength. The underlying philosophy of EVM is that any signal deteriorated by a noisy channel can be represented as the sum of an ideal signal and an error signal.11a.11a and 802. Higher-frequency signals will have more trouble propagating through physical obstructions encountered in an office (walls. Comparison of 802.) To contrast. reduces the inter-symbol interference (ISI) caused by multipath interference. making WLAN signal analysis more accurate. But as interference is introduced into the channel. including anticipated roaming and data rates needed for applications to be used at specific locations.11b A drawback of the 5 GHz band. the junction at the start of the original burst will always be continuous. operational characteristics have been compared to those of cellular systems. then the modes with the highest data rates are used. the radio will fall back to a slower. using a technique called cyclical extension.Practice 802.11b networks are generally rangelimited by multipath interference rather than the loss of signal strength over distance.11b The 20 MHz-wide bandwidth of WLAN signals makes power envelope measurements difficult because most spectrum analyzers have resolution bandwidth filters that are limited to 10 MHz or less.4 GHz. Each network must be customized to satisfy the planned applications and the physical environment.11a use dynamic rate shifting where the system will automatically adjust the data rate based on the condition of the radio channel. Therefore.11a is its intrinsic ability to handle delay spread or multipath reflection effects.

but already robust WLAN market is projected to grow by an order of magnitude over the next five years. and the dynamic nature of wireless LANS while keeping compatibility with 802-type legacy networks. performance requirements need thorough analysis during the network planning stage to arrive at the appropriate implementation decision.11 products increase dramatically in the near future as businesses discover the increased productivity provided by ‘untethered’ networks. Expect to see availability of 802. however. mainly due to the physical conveniences of radio-based communication. Recognizing the critical need to support 41 .11a is faster than 802. This deployment. Even during these lean economic times.11 provides for 1 Mbps and 2 Mbps data rates and a set of fundamental signaling methods and other services. ease-of-use and reliability. security. To provide an efficient development environment. That version of 802.11-based networks have seen widespread deployment across many fields. These wireless networks will require increasing data rates to provide the simultaneous distribution of Internet data. These tools can be used within the manufacturing process to generate and analyze production metrics for process and product improvement. channel interference and delay spread. We examined the 802. 802. WE think that with the comparisons we have offered an interesting issue and that the description has more efficiency. high-quality video and audio in the office or at home. The most critical issue affecting WLAN demand has been limited throughput. In addition to higher data rates. WLAN products require that special attention be given to design verification and characterization because standardized operation across multivendor products may be required.11b network optimized to operate at full speed (11 Mb/s) — were simply replaced. The data rates supported by the original 802.11 MAC layer and described the architecture and the main functions of the MAC as part of the protocol stack also we made a few comparisons. Cost vs. Security as a part of the protocol stack has also been mention because the protocol stack as a part of the software is the first part in what people are interested in. This paper addressed the availability aspect of that equation. It would be unrealistic to expect to realize the full data rate capability (54 Mb/s) of 802. 802. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) ratified the original 802. reliability. Conclusion Wireless networking has a promising future with 802. the new. Testing is critical to any product development process. was predicated in part on the user expectation of confidentiality and availability. it is almost a foregone conclusion that end-users will be demanding continuous improvements in functionality. test tools are available to quickly diagnose problems and isolate them throughout all design segments.11 addresses mobility. when there is a reduced demand for technology products.11 standard are too slow to support most general business requirements and have slowed adoption of WLANs. The widespread acceptance of WLANs depends on industry standardization to ensure product compatibility and reliability among the various manufacturers. 802. But as has been shown.11b at any range.adequately characterize the RF environment of the proposed wireless network in terms of range.11 specification in 1997 as the standard for wireless LANs.11a if the access points of an existing 802.11 leading the way as the standard for adoption in local networking environments.

000 per user—measured in worker productivity.11 High Rate) for transmissions of up to 11 Mbps. which provides a powerful combination of wired network throughput. Users need access to the network far beyond their personal desktops. the IEEE recently ratified the 802. Businesses of all sizes can benefit from deploying a WLAN system. Today’s business environment is characterized by an increasingly mobile workforce and flatter organizations. especially protocol stack and physical layers. giving mobile workers much-needed freedom in their network access. WLANs fit well in this work environment. The IEEE 802.11b. and geographic boundaries.higher data-transmission rates. saving both effort and dollars. So at the end we hope that we have offered a general overview of the IEEE 802. mobile access. parts that are defined in the IEEE Standard. the cafeteria. deploy. revenue gain. allowing them to design. Employees are equipped with notebook computers and spend more of their time working in teams that cross functional. The economic benefits can add up to as much as $16.11 is a huge topic and the Standards we can download free from the internet. workers can access information from anywhere in the corporation—a conference room. organizational efficiency.11b standard (also known as 802. Global regulatory bodies and vendor alliances have endorsed this new high-rate standard. and enhance networks without regard to the availability of wiring. which promises to open new markets for WLANs in large enterprise. Wireless LANs provide a benefit for IT managers as well. With 802. and cost savings—over wired alternatives. 42 . organizational. and home environments. and configuration flexibility.11. WLANs will be able to achieve wireless performance and throughput comparable to wired Ethernet. small office. With a wireless network. Much of these workers’ productivity occurs in meetings and away from their desks. or a remote branch office.

Forward Error Correction QAM DQPSK . Multiple Access with Collision Detect ISO .Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum FHSS .Physical Layer Convergence Procedure 43 .Distribution System WEP .Multiple Input.High Rate Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum PPDU .Carrier Sense.Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standards Association EVM . and Medical CSMA/CD .International Standards Organization DSSS .Physical Medium Dependent PLCP .Pulse Position Modulation HR-DSSS .Cyclic Redundancy Check IEEE-SA .Logical Link Control DS .Differential Binary Phase Shift Keying PN – Pseudo Noise RF – Radio Frequency OFDM .Medium Access Control PHY – Physical Layer ISM .complementary code keying CDF .Wired Equivalent Privacy NAV .Error Vector Magnitude CCK .Abbreviation WLAN – Wireless Local Area Network LAN .Network Allocation Vector CRC .Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying DBPSK . Multiple Output LLC .Dynamic frequency selection MIMO . Scientific.Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum QoS .Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum PPM .Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing FFC .Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function FEC .Federal Communications Commission DSSS .Industrial.Quality Of Service TCP .Cumulative Distribution Function CCDF .Local Area Network MAC .PLCP Protocol Data Unit PMD .Transmit power control DFS .

3. The ISO developed the OSI (Open System Interconnection) reference model which is a popular networking reference tool. Physical Link A Physical Link is the connection between devices.11b equipment has passed a suite of basic interoperability tests. WLAN .66GHz (IEEE 802.16c) although initial interest is confined to the line of sight bands . HiperLAN. Equipment passing these tests carries the Wi-Fi logo.16 suite of standards. IrDA (Infrared Data Association) and DECT (Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications) etc. WiMAX .Wireless Local Area Network This is a generic term covering a multitude of technologies providing local area networking via a radio link. All other receivers will see the spread signal as white or colored noise.11a.Glossary ISO . Examples of WLAN technologies include Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity). The characteristics of the broadband spreading code are that of pseudorandom noise. Wi-Fi . 44 . These define the radio or air interface within two broad radio bands 2GHz to 11GHz (IEEE 802. MAC .5GHz. MAC handles access to a shared medium.2. DSSS . MAC methodologies are employed within Ethernet. In general terms.11b and 802.International Standards Organization The International Standards Organization is responsible for a wide range of standards. including those relevant to networking.5GHz and 5.16a) and 10GHz .Medium Access Control Media Access Control is the lower of the two sublayers of the Data Link Layer.Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum is based on the multiplying of the Baseband signal data with a broadband spreading code. 802.11a and 802.Wireless Fidelity Wi-Fi is an interoperability standard developed by WECA (Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance) and issued to those manufacturers whose IEEE 802. The result is termed the chip rate. It is anticipated that WiMAX will be used initially as a backhaul connection with other technologies such as Wi-Fi being used to cover the “final mile”. Consequently the receiver synchronized to the code will obtain the narrowband signal.Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access The term WiMAX has become synonymous with the IEEE 802. Note: Wi-Fi not WiFi. Bluetooth.8GHz. and UMTS etc. For example. and can be found within many different technologies. GPRS.

Depending upon the communication system.Cyclic Redundancy Code A linear error code that is generated using a polynomial function on the data to be sent. It is independent of the underlying radio interface protocols enabling the introduction of alternative GPRS radio solutions with minimal changes to the Network Switching System.Logical Link Control In the GPRS system the LLC protocol provides a highly reliable ciphered logical link between the MS (Mobile Station) and SGSN (Serving GPRS Support Node). priority and other factors specific to each service. BER (Bit Error Ratio).QoS .11 family of specifications. QoS may relate to service performance. This is sent along with data so that a parity check of the received data can be conducted.11a and IEEE 802. Equipment operating in accordance with the IEEE specifications and passing the Alliances interoperability tests is able to display the Wi-Fi logo. reliably. TCP . It provides a connection-oriented.11bspecifications. point to point service between hosts.Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers is a professional organization whose activities include the development of communications and network standards. IEEE 802. SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio). Several manufacturers have developed equipment which is capable of operating in accordance with both IEEE 802. LLC . 45 . maximum and mean throughput rate. this wireless local area network technology is comprised of a high speed physical layer operating in the 5GHz unlicensed band and supports data rates up to 54Mbps.11a Part of the IEEE 802. full-duplex.Quality of Service The performance of a communications channel or system is usually expressed in terms of QoS (Quality of Service).Transmission Control Protocol Transmission Control Protocol is a reliable octet streaming protocol used by the majority of applications on the Internet. CRC . IEEE . the remainder from the process being the CRC.

The standards have been divided into sub groups with 802.11 network which provides the point of interconnection between the wireless Station (laptop computer. The equipment operates in the 2.11b specifications. Stations are able to move between BSS within a single ESS yet still remain “connected” to the fixed network and so continue to receive emails etc. The SSID may be broadcast from an AP (Access Point) within the wireless network to enable Stations to determine which network to “Associate” with. The 802. It is usually set by the administrator setting up the WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) and will be unique within a BSS (Basic Service Set) or ESS (Extended Service Set).Wireless This is an IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers) technical standard covering WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) technology. ESS . IEEE 802.Service Access Point A conceptual point where a protocol layer offers access to its services to the layer above or below. As a Station moves into a new BSS. this feature should be disabled as it may assist “hackers.11b is currently the most popular wireless networking technology.11a and IEEE 802. Several manufacturers have developed equipment which is capable of operating in accordance with both IEEE 802. SAP .11 BSS (Basic Service Set) and enables limited mobility within the WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network).4GHz ISM (Industrial Scientific and Medical) band. However.Extended Service Set An Extended Service Set is comprised of a number of IEEE 802. Wireless Medium.Access Point An Access Point is a device found within an IEEE 802.11 networks to identify a particular network. IEEE 802.11b currently the most common. IEEE 802.11 networks are comprised of Stations.) and the wired network.Service Set Identifier The Service Set Identifier or Network Name is used within IEEE 802.11b Part of the IEEE 802.IEEE 802. AP . This provides a wireless communication at up to 11Mbps and operates within the 2.11a based equipment is now commercially available and provides data rates up to 54Mbps and operates in the 5GHz ISM band.Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum) enabling data rates of up to 11Mbps to be achieved. AP (Access Points) and a DS (Distribution System). PDA (Personnel Digital Assistant) etc. Equipment operating in accordance with the IEEE specifications and passing the Wi-Fi Alliances interoperability tests is able to display the Wi-Fi logo.4GHz unlicensed band and utilizes HR/DSSS (High Rate . or wardrivers” in gaining access to a private network. it will carry out a resuscitation procedure with the new AP (Access Point).11 . SSID .11 family of specifications. 46 .

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