This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
"The 802.11 Protocol Stack and Physical
Table of Contents
2.2 Wireless Local Area Network
2.3 The Basic Structure of a Wireless LAN
2.4 Comari!" a Wireless LAN to a Wire# Network
2.$ The %&&& Sta!#ar#
3. 802.11 Protocol Stack
3.1 'rotocol Structure
3.2 'rotocol Stack Architecture
3.2.1 Statio! (STA) Architecture*
3.2.2 Access+'oi!t (A') Architecture*
3.2.3 Basic Service Set (BSS)*
3.2.4 %!#ee!#e!t Basic Service Set (%BSS)*
3.2., &-te!#e# Service Set (&SS)*
3.2.. Service Set %#e!tifier (SS%/)*
3.2.0 Basic Service Set %#e!tifier (BSS%/)
3.3 'rotocol Stack for 1N%2
3.4 Comare Overall Structure of 032.114 5 032.1$.1 Coe-iste!ce 6echa!ism
3.$.1 6%7 SA' 8efere!ce 6o#el for 032.11
3.$.2 6%7 SA' 8efere!ce 6o#el for 032.1,
3., /ata Li!k La9er
3.,.1 Suort for Time+Bou!#e# /ata
3.. 6AC :u!ctio!al /escritio!
3...1 6AC Architecture
3.0.1 'reve!ti!" Access to Network 8esources
4. Physical ayer
4.1 The h9sical la9er 4asics
4.2 'LC' :rame :iel#s
4.3 %!frare# (%8)
4.4 Srea# Sectrum
4.$ :re;ue!c9 7oi!" Srea# Sectrum (:7SS)
4., /irect Se;ue!ce Srea# Sectrum (/SSS)
4.,.1 /SSS 6o#ulatio!
4.,.2 Tra!smit :re;ue!cies
4.. The %&&& 032.11a
4...1 'ractice 032.11a
4.0 The %&&& 032.114
4.0.1 'ractice 032.114
4.<Comariso! of 032.11a a!# 032.114
The writi!" of this 8esearch 8eort was romte# to mai!tai! two mai! #evelome!ts of the
%&&& 032.11 Sta!#ar# h9sical rotocol stack a!# 'h9sical La9er e!ha!ce# from the
#evelome!ts i! wireless commu!icatio! i! the ast #eca#e. :irst we ha# to #o hu"e research
activities i! this toic. This has 4ee! a su4=ect stu#9 si!ce the si-ties> so that #uri!" our
e-lori!" work we have selecte# a lot of materials a!# icke# u the most visi4le thi!"s for the
stu#e!t to u!#ersta!# it more easil9 a!# clearl9. So that we were co!ce!trate# to rese!t the
issue i! mo#er! wireless co!cets i! a cohere!t a!# u!ifie# ma!!er a!# to illustrate the co!cets
i! that wa9 the9 are alie#.
The co!cets ca! 4e structure# i!to these levels*
+ Listi!" characteristics a!# mo#eli!"
+ Alicatio! of these co!cets
But of course there is i!terla9 4etwee! these structures.
So this 8esearch reort is writte! 4ase# o! the material for the stu#e!ts i! the si-th semester.
Also i! the e!# to u!#ersta!# 4etter the termi!olo"9 a!# the hu"e !um4er of a44reviatio!s
e-lai!e# a!# some #efi!itio!s.
The ast #eca#e has see! ma!9 a#va!ces i! h9sical+la9er commu!icatio! theor9 a!# their
imleme!tatio! i! wireless s9stems. So that i! this 8esearch 8eort we are "oi!" to #efi!e a!#
view fu!#ame!tals of wireless commu!icatio! a!# that eseciall9 the %&&& 032.11 Sta!#ar# a!#
e-lai! the a#va!ta"es at a level that is accessi4le to our au#ie!ce with a 4asic 4ack"rou!#.
Wireless commu!icatio! is o!e of the most vi4ra!t areas i! the commu!icatio! fiel# to#a9. This
is #ue to a co!flue!ce of several factors. :irst> there has 4ee! a! e-losive i!crease i! #ema!#
for the tether less co!!ectivit9> #rive! so far mai!l9 49 cellular teleho!9 4ut e-ecte# to 4e
soo! eclise# 49 wireless #ata alicatio!.
:irst there has 4ee! a! e-losive i!crease i! #ema!# for tether less co!!ectivit9> #rive! so far
mai!l9 49 cellular teleho!9 4ut e-ecte# to 4e soo! eclise# 49 wireless #ata alicatio!s.
Seco!#> the #ramatic rocess i! ?LS% tech!olo"9 has e!a4le# small area a!# low ower
imleme!tatio! of sohisticate# si"!al rocessi!" al"orithms a!# co#i!" tech!i;ues.
Thir#> the success of seco!# "e!eratio! #i"ital wireless sta!#ar#s a!# rovi#e a co!crete
#emo!stratio! that "oo# i#eas from commu!icatio! theor9 ca! have imact i! ractice.
There are two fu!#ame!tal asects of wireless commu!icatio! that make the ro4lem
challe!"i!" a!# i!teresti!". These asects are 49 a!# lar"e !ot as si"!ifica!t i! wire li!e
:irst the he!ome!o! of fa#i!"* the time variatio! of the cha!!el stre!"ths #ue to the small+scale
effect of multiath fa#i!"> as well as lar"e scale effects.
Seco!#> u!like the i! the wire# worl# where each tra!smitter+receiver air ca! ofte! 4e thou"ht
of as a! isolate# oi!t+to oi!t li!k> wireless users commu!icate over the air a!# there is
si"!ifica!t i!terface 4etwee! them.
The ori"i!al 032.11 sta!#ar# secifie# three searate h9sical la9ers. Two are ra#io+
4ase# a!# o!e is i!frare# li"ht+4ase#. The ori"i!al ra#io+4ase# la9ers are srea# sectrum*
fre;ue!c9 hoi!" a!# #irect se;ue!ce. These are all i! the 2.4 @7A 4a!#. A! a##itio!al
h9sical la9er i! the $ @7A 4a!# was a##e# with the 032.1a release> which is also ra#io+4ase#*
ortho"o!al fre;ue!c9 #ivisio! multile-i!" (O:/6).
The latest release> 032.11"> a##e# 9et a!other '7B* comlime!tar9 co#e ke9i!"
ortho"o!al fre;ue!c9 #ivisio! multile-i!" (CCC+O:/6). This is secifie# i! 4oth the 2.4 a!#
the $ @7A 4a!#s. Note that for 2 #evices to 4e a4le to i!teract> the9 must co!form to the same
'7B la9er. There are two su4 la9ers i! the 032.11 h9sical la9ers> the h9sical me#ium
#ee!#e!t la9er ('6/) a!# the h9sical la9er co!ver"e!ce roce#ure ('LC'). The '6/ is the
su4 la9er lowest o! the stack. %t tra!smits a!# receives 4its over the air. The '7B la9er has three
4asic fu!ctio!s. These are the carrier se!se fu!ctio!> the tra!smit fu!ctio!> a!# the receive
Wireless tech!olo"ies> i! the simlest se!se> e!a4le o!e or more #evices to commu!icate
without h9sical co!!ectio!s D without re;uiri!" !etwork ca4li!". Wireless tech!olo"ies use
ra#io tra!smissio!s as the mea!s for tra!smitti!" #ata> whereas wire# tech!olo"ies use ca4les.
Wireless tech!olo"ies ra!"e from comle- s9stems> such as WLANs a!# cell ho!es> to simle
#evices such as wireless hea#ho!es> microho!es> a!# other #evices that #o !ot rocess or store
i!formatio!. %! Comuter !etwork a su4sta!tial art is the Wireless Local Area Network
(WLAN)> is a closel9 "roue# s9stem of #evices that commu!icate via ra#io waves i!stea# of
wires. Wireless LANEs t9icall9 au"me!t or relace wire# comuter !etworks> rovi#i!" users
with more fle-i4ilit9 a!# free#om of moveme!t withi! the worklace. %! a t9ical WLAN
co!fi"uratio!> a tra!sceiverFor access oi!tFco!!ects to the wire# !etwork from a fi-e#
ilocatio! usi!" a sta!#ar# &ther!et ca4le. The access oi!t receives> 4uffers> a!# tra!smits #ata
4etwee! the como!e!ts of the WLAN. :or over a ce!tur9> the %&&&+SA has offere# a!
esta4lishe# sta!#ar#s #evelome!t ro"ram that features 4ala!ce> oe!!ess> #ue rocess> a!#
co!se!sus. The %!stitute of &lectrical a!# &lectro!ics &!"i!eers Sta!#ar#s Associatio! (%&&&+
SA) is the lea#i!" #eveloer of "lo4al i!#ustr9 sta!#ar#s i! a 4roa#+ra!"e of i!#ustries>
i!clu#i!"* 'ower a!# &!er"9G Biome#ical a!# 7ealthcareG %!formatio! Tech!olo"9G
Telecommu!icatio!sG Tra!sortatio!G Na!otech!olo"9G %!formatio! Assura!ce. We have
#iscusse# a4out them i! this raort.
A rotocol stack is a articular software imleme!tatio! of a comuter !etworki!"
rotocol suite. The terms are ofte! use# i!tercha!"ea4l9. Strictl9 seaki!"> the suite is the
#efi!itio! of the rotocols> a!# the stack is the software imleme!tatio! of them.
Securit9 is o!e of the first co!cer!s of eole #elo9i!" a Wireless LANG the 032.11
committee has a##resse# the issue 49 rovi#i!" what is calle# W&' (Wire# &;uivale!t 'rivac9)
Authe!ticatio!* A fu!ctio! that #etermi!es whether a Statio! is allowe# to articiate i!
!etwork commu!icatio!. The sta!#ar# %&&& 032.11i is #esi"!e# to rovi#e secure#
commu!icatio! of wireless LAN as #efi!e# 49 all the %&&& 032.11 secificatio!s. %&&& 032.11i
e!ha!ces the W&' (Wireli!e &;uivale!t 'rivac9)G a tech!olo"9 use# for ma!9 9ears for the
WLAN securit9> i! the areas of e!cr9tio!> authe!ticatio! a!# ke9 ma!a"eme!t.
The %&&& (#efi!e) 032.11 sta!#ar# i!clu#es a commo! 6e#ium Access Co!trol (6AC)
La9er> which #efi!es rotocols that "over! the oeratio! of the wireless LAN. %! a##itio!>
032.11 comrise several alter!ative h9sical la9ers that secif9 the tra!smissio! a!# recetio! of
A!# as co!clusio! we will sa9 that wireless !etworki!" has a romisi!" future with
032.11 lea#i!" the wa9 as the sta!#ar# for a#otio! i! local !etworki!" e!viro!me!ts. 032.11
a##resses mo4ilit9> securit9> relia4ilit9> a!# the #9!amic !ature of wireless LANS while keei!"
comati4ilit9 with 032+t9e le"ac9 !etworks. &-ect to see availa4ilit9 of 032.11 ro#ucts
i!crease #ramaticall9 i! the !ear future as 4usi!esses #iscover the i!crease# ro#uctivit9
rovi#e# 49 Hu!tethere#E !etworks.
(ireless ocal Area )et'ork
%! Comuter !etwork a su4sta!tial art is the Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN)> is
a closel9 "roue# s9stem of #evices that commu!icate via ra#io waves i!stea# of wires. Wireless
LANEs t9icall9 au"me!t or relace wire# comuter !etworks> rovi#i!" users with more
fle-i4ilit9 a!# free#om of moveme!t withi! the worklace. 1sers ca! access the coma!9
i!tra!et or eve! the Worl# Wi#e We4 from a!9where o! the coma!9 camus without rel9i!"
o! the availa4ilit9 of wire# ca4les a!# co!!ectio!. %f i!formatio! is the life4loo# of to#a9Is
4usi!ess e!viro!me!t> the! wireless !etworks are its heart. Wireless LANs ca! um
i!formatio! a!# #ata
to e-ecutives i! the
4oar#room a!# to
emlo9ees i! the
(WLAN) is a fle-i4le
as a! e-te!sio! or as
a! alter!ative for> a
wire# LAN withi! a
4uil#i!" or camus.
tra!smits a!# receive
#ata over the air>
mi!imiAi!" the !ee# for wire# co!!ectio!s. Thus> WLANs com4i!e #ata co!!ectivit9 with user
mo4ilit9> a!#> throu"h simlifie# co!fi"uratio!> e!a4le mova4le LANs. Over the last seve!
9ears> WLANs have "ai!e# stro!" oularit9 i! a !um4er of vertical markets> i!clu#i!" the
health+care> retail> ma!ufacturi!"> warehousi!"> a!# aca#emic are!as. These i!#ustries have
rofite# from the ro#uctivit9 "ai!s of usi!" ha!#+hel# termi!als a!# !ote4ook comuters to
tra!smit real+time i!formatio! to ce!traliAe# hosts for rocessi!". To#a9 WLANs are 4ecomi!"
more wi#el9 reco"!iAe# as a "e!eral+urose co!!ectivit9 alter!ative for a 4roa# ra!"e of
4usi!ess customers. The 1.S. wireless LAN market is rai#l9 aroachi!" J1 4illio! i!
reve!ues. A wi#e variet9 of i!#ustries have #iscovere# the 4e!efits a WLAN ca! 4ri!"F!ot
o!l9 to #ail9 tasks 4ut also to the 4ala!ce sheet.
The *asic Structure of a (ireless A)
%! a t9ical WLAN co!fi"uratio!> a tra!sceiverFor access oi!tFco!!ects to the wire#
!etwork from a fi-e# locatio! usi!" a sta!#ar# &ther!et ca4le. The access oi!t receives> 4uffers>
a!# tra!smits #ata 4etwee! the como!e!ts of the WLANFwhether latos> ri!ters> ha!#hel#
#evices> or a!9 other wireless e;uime!tFa!# the wire# !etwork i!frastructure. A si!"le access
oi!t ca! suort a small "rou of users a!# ca! fu!ctio! withi! a ra!"e of a!9where from 33 to
several hu!#re# feet. The access oi!t ca! 4e i!stalle# a!9where i! the facilit9 as lo!" as "oo#
ra#io covera"e is mai!tai!e#. 1sers e;uie# with ha!#hel# #evices or !ote4ook comuters ca!
tra!smit #ata to the access oi!t whe! withi! ra!"e. The wireless #evices commu!icate with the
!etwork oerati!" s9stem via WLAN a#aters> usuall9 i! the form of ra#io !etwork i!terface
car#s (N%Cs)> as i! the case of !ote4ook comuters> %SA or 'C% a#aters for #eskto comuters>
or similar #evices i!te"rate# i!to ha!#hel# u!its.
Co+,arin- a (ireless A) to a (ired )et'ork
The see# at which a WLAN erforms #ee!#s o! the t9e a!# co!fi"uratio! of the
#evices withi! the !etwork. The !um4er of users> the #ista!ce 4etwee! !etwork como!e!ts> the
t9e of WLAN s9stem i! use> a!# the efficie!c9 of the wire# !etwork eleme!ts all i!flue!ce the
overall see# a!# erforma!ce of a wireless !etwork. Such factors also affect wire# !etwork
see#s> 4ut most commercial LANs oerate at see#s from 13 me"a4its er seco!# (13BaseT) to
133 64s (133BaseT). Wireless LAN como!e!ts that use the 032.11a hi"h #ata rate sta!#ar#
erform at see#s u to $4 64s> almost a five+fol# i!crease from the erforma!ce of the
032.114 sta!#ar#. Almost all mo4ile alicatio!s to#a9 le!# themselves to #elo9me!t of a!
032.11 WLAN i!frastructure. Of the three mai! variatio!s of 032.11> a lethora of alicatio!s
a!# #evices suort the 032.114 sta!#ar#> which oerates i! the 2.4 @7A fre;ue!c9 ra!"e.
Althou"h this sta!#ar# is much more wi#el9 imleme!te# tha! its !ewer sister tech!olo"ies>
i!#ustr9 e-erts a!ticiate that it wo!Et 4e lo!" 4efore 032.11" a!# 032.11a e-cee# 032.114 i!
oularit9. Wireless users reco"!iAe the 4e!efits of the tech!olo"9 a!# !ee# to k!ow how to
rotect their 4usi!ess+critical #ata. These usersFas well as those who hesitate to #elo9 wireless
tech!olo"9 4ecause of securit9 co!cer!sF sta!# to 4e!efit from u!#ersta!#i!" the securit9
otio!s curre!tl9 availa4le> eve! as the i!#ustr9 moves a""ressivel9 to rovi#e eve! more secure
rotocols. B9 worki!" with a wireless ve!#or well+verse# i! securit9 issues> coma!ies ca!
#ramaticall9 e!ha!ce the securit9 of its wireless commu!icatio!s s9stem.
WLANs t9icall9 use the u!lice!se# %!#ustrial> Scie!tific> a!# 6e#ical (%S6) ra#io
fre;ue!c9 4a!#s. %! the 1!ite# States> the %S6 4a!#s i!clu#e the <33+67A 4a!# (<32D<20
67A)> 2.4+@7A 4a!# (2433D2403.$67A)> a!# the $..+@7A 4a!# ($.2$D$0$367A). The most
wi#el9 a#ote# WLAN sta!#ar# arou!# the worl# is
032.11 K20L to#a9. %&&& 032.11 co!sists of a famil9 of sta!#ar#s that #efi!es the h9sical
la9ers ('7B) a!# the 6e#ium Access Co!trol (6AC) la9er of a WLAN> WLAN !etwork
architectures> how a WLAN i!teracts with a! %' core !etwork> a!# the frameworks a!# mea!s
for suorti!" securit9 a!# ;ualit9 of service over a WLAN. The %&&& 032.11 sta!#ar#s famil9
i!clu#es the followi!" ke9 sta!#ar#s*
The I... Standard
:or over a ce!tur9> the %&&&+SA has offere# a! esta4lishe# sta!#ar#s #evelome!t
ro"ram that features 4ala!ce> oe!!ess> #ue rocess> a!# co!se!sus. The %!stitute of &lectrical
a!# &lectro!ics &!"i!eers Sta!#ar#s Associatio! (%&&&+SA) is the lea#i!" #eveloer of "lo4al
i!#ustr9 sta!#ar#s i! a 4roa#+ra!"e of i!#ustries> i!clu#i!"*
• 'ower a!# &!er"9
• Biome#ical a!# 7ealthcare
• %!formatio! Tech!olo"9
• %!formatio! Assura!ce
The followi!" ta4le lists hi"hli"hts of the most oular sectio!s of %&&& 032 a!# has
li!ks for a##itio!al i!formatio!*
032 Overview Basics of h9sical a!# lo"ical !etworki!" co!cets.
LAN56AN 4ri#"i!" a!# ma!a"eme!t. Covers ma!a"eme!t
a!# the lower su4+la9ers of OS% La9er 2> i!clu#i!" 6AC+4ase#
4ri#"i!" (6e#ia Access Co!trol)> virtual LANs a!# ort+4ase#
032.2 Lo"ical Li!k
Commo!l9 referre# to as the LLC or Lo"ical Li!k Co!trol
secificatio!. The LLC is the to su4+la9er i! the #ata+li!k
la9er> OS% La9er 2. %!terfaces with the !etwork La9er 3.
M@ra!##a##9M of the 032 secificatio!s. 'rovi#es
as9!chro!ous !etworki!" usi!" Mcarrier se!se> multile access
with collisio! #etectM (CS6A5C/) over coa-> twiste#+air
coer> a!# fi4er me#ia. Curre!t see#s ra!"e from 13 64s to
13 @4s. Click for a list of the MhotM 032.3 tech!olo"ies.
032.4 Toke! Bus /is4a!#e#
032.$ Toke! 8i!"
The ori"i!al toke!+assi!" sta!#ar# for twiste#+air> shiel#e#
coer ca4les. Suorts coer a!# fi4er ca4li!" from 4 64s
to 133 64s. Ofte! calle# M%B6 Toke!+8i!".M
;ueue #ual 4us
MSuerse#e# OO8evisio! of 032.1/+1<<3 e#itio! (%SO5%&C
13330). 032.1/ i!cororates '032.1 a!# '032.12e. %t also
i!cororates a!# suerse#es u4lishe# sta!#ar#s 032.1= a!#
032.,k. Suerse#e# 49 032.1/+2334.M (See %&&& status a"e.)
With#raw! Sta!#ar#. With#raw! /ate* :e4 3.> 2333. No
lo!"er e!#orse# 49 the %&&&. (See %&&& status a"e.)
With#raw! 'A8. Sta!#ar#s ro=ect !o lo!"er e!#orse# 49 the
%&&&. (See %&&& status a"e.)
With#raw! 'A8. Sta!#ar#s ro=ect !o lo!"er e!#orse# 49 the
%&&&. (See %&&& status a"e.)
Suerse#e# OOCo!tai!s* %&&& St# 032.134+1<<2. (See %&&&
Wireless LAN 6e#ia Access Co!trol a!# 'h9sical La9er
secificatio!. 032.11a> 4> "> etc. are ame!#me!ts to the ori"i!al
032.11 sta!#ar#. 'ro#ucts that imleme!t 032.11 sta!#ar#s
must ass tests a!# are referre# to as MWi+:i certifie#.M
Secifies a '7B that oerates i! the $ @7A 1+N%% 4a!# i! the
1S + i!itiall9 $.1$+$.3$ AN/ $..2$+$.0$ + si!ce e-a!#e# to
1ses Ortho"o!al :re;ue!c9+/ivisio! 6ultile-i!"
&!ha!ce# #ata see# to $4 64s
8atifie# after 032.114
&!ha!ceme!t to 032.11 that a##e# hi"her #ata rate mo#es to
the /SSS (/irect Se;ue!ce Srea# Sectrum) alrea#9 #efi!e#
i! the ori"i!al 032.11 sta!#ar#
Booste# #ata see# to 11 64s
22 67A Ba!#wi#th 9iel#s 3 !o!+overlai!" cha!!els i! the
fre;ue!c9 ra!"e of 2.433 @7A to 2.403$ @7A
Beaco!s at 1 64s> falls 4ack to $.$> 2> or 1 64s from 11
&!ha!ceme!t to 032.11a a!# 032.114 that allows for "lo4al
'articulars ca! 4e set at 6e#ia Access Co!trol (6AC) la9er
&!ha!ceme!t to 032.11 that i!clu#es ;ualit9 of service (NoS)
:acilitates rioritiAatio! of #ata> voice> a!# vi#eo tra!smissio!s
&-te!#s the ma-imum #ata rate of WLAN #evices that oerate
i! the 2.4 @7A 4a!#> i! a fashio! that ermits i!teroeratio!
with 032.114 #evices
1ses O:/6 6o#ulatio! (Ortho"o!al :/6)
Oerates at u to $4 me"a4its er seco!# (64s)> with fall+
4ack see#s that i!clu#e the M4M see#s
&!ha!ceme!t to 032.11a that resolves i!terfere!ce issues
/9!amic fre;ue!c9 selectio! (/:S)
Tra!smit ower co!trol (T'C)
&!ha!ceme!t to 032.11 that offers a##itio!al securit9 for
/efi!es more ro4ust e!cr9tio!> authe!ticatio!> a!# ke9
e-cha!"e> as well as otio!s for ke9 cachi!" a!# re+
Paa!ese re"ulator9 e-te!sio!s to 032.11a secificatio!
:re;ue!c9 ra!"e 4.< @7A to $.3 @7A
8a#io resource measureme!ts for !etworks usi!" 032.11
6ai!te!a!ce of 032.11 famil9 secificatio!s
Correctio!s a!# ame!#me!ts to e-isti!" #ocume!tatio!
7i"her+see# sta!#ar#s ++ u!#er #evelome!t
Several cometi!" a!# !o!+comati4le tech!olo"iesG ofte!
To see#s claime# of 130> 243> a!# 3$3Q 67A
Cometi!" roosals come from the "rous> &WC> T@! S9!c>
a!# WWiS& a!# are all variatio!s 4ase# o! 6%6O (multile
i!ut> multile outut)
032.11- 6iss+use# M"e!ericM term for 032.11 famil9 secificatio!s
032.12 /ema!# 'riorit9
%!creases &ther!et #ata rate to 133 64s 49 co!trolli!" me#ia
032.13 Not use# Not use#
032.14 Ca4le mo#ems
With#raw! 'A8. Sta!#ar#s ro=ect !o lo!"er e!#orse# 49 the
Commu!icatio!s secificatio! that was arove# i! earl9 2332
49 the %&&& for wireless erso!al area !etworks (W'ANs).
Short ra!"e (13m) wireless tech!olo"9 for cor#less mouse>
ke94oar#> a!# ha!#s+free hea#set at 2.4 @7A.
032.1$.3a 1WB Short ra!"e> hi"h+4a!#wi#th Multra wi#e4a!#M li!k
032.1$.4 Ri"Bee Short ra!"e wireless se!sor !etworks
032.1$.$ 6esh !etwork
&-te!sio! of !etwork covera"e without i!creasi!" the tra!smit
ower or the receiver se!sitivit9
&!ha!ce# relia4ilit9 via route re#u!#a!c9
&asier !etwork co!fi"uratio! + Better #evice 4atter9 life
This famil9 of sta!#ar#s covers :i-e# a!# 6o4ile Broa#4a!#
Wireless Access metho#s use# to create Wireless 6etroolita!
Area Networks (W6ANs.) Co!!ects Base Statio!s to the
%!ter!et usi!" O:/6 i! u!lice!se# (<33 67A> 2.4> $.0 @7A)
or lice!se# (.33 67A> 2.$ D 3., @7A) fre;ue!c9 4a!#s.
'ro#ucts that imleme!t 032.1, sta!#ar#s ca! u!#er"o
Wi6A2 certificatio! testi!".
%&&& worki!" "rou #escritio!
%&&& 032.10 sta!#ar#s committee
032.1< Coe-iste!ce %&&& 032.1< Coe-iste!ce Tech!ical A#visor9 @rou
%&&& 032.23 missio! a!# ro=ect scoe
%&&& 032.21 missio! a!# ro=ect scoe
%&&& 032.22 missio! a!# ro=ect scoe
802.11 Protocol Stack
A rotocol stack is a articular software imleme!tatio! of a comuter !etworki!"
rotocol suite. The terms are ofte! use# i!tercha!"ea4l9. Strictl9 seaki!"> the suite is the
#efi!itio! of the rotocols> a!# the stack is the software imleme!tatio! of them. %!#ivi#ual
rotocols withi! a suite are ofte! #esi"!e# with a si!"le urose i! mi!#. This mo#ulariAatio!
makes #esi"! a!# evaluatio! easier. Because each rotocol mo#ule usuall9 commu!icates with
two others> the9 are commo!l9 ima"i!e# as layers i! a stack of rotocols. The lowest rotocol
alwa9s #eals with Mlow+levelM> h9sical i!teractio! of the har#ware. &ver9 hi"her la9er a##s
more features. 1ser alicatio!s ha4ituall9 #eal o!l9 with the tomost la9ers (See also OS%
The rotocols use# 49 all the 032 varia!ts> i!clu#i!" &ther!et> have a certai!
commo!alit9 of structure. %! the fi"ure 4elow we see a artial view of the 032.11 rotocol stack.
The h9sical la9er correso!#s to the OS% h9sical la9er fairl9 well> 4ut the #ata li!k la9er i! all
the 032 rotocols is slit i!to two or more su4la9ers. %! 032.11> the 6AC (6e#ium Access
Co!trol) su4la9er #etermi!es how the cha!!el is allocate#> that is> a!# who "ets to tra!smit !e-t.
A4ove it is the LLC (Lo"ical Li!k Co!trol) su4la9er> whose =o4 it is to hi#e the #iffere!ces
4etwee! the #iffere!t 032 varia!ts a!# make them i!#isti!"uisha4le as far as the !etwork la9er is
co!cer!e#. We stu#ie# the LLC whe! e-ami!i!" &ther!et earlier i! this chater a!# will !ot
reeat that material here. The 1<<. 032.11 sta!#ar# secifies three tra!smissio! tech!i;ues
allowe# i! the h9sical la9er. The i!frare# metho# uses much the same tech!olo"9 as televisio!
remote co!trols #o. The other two use short+ra!"e ra#io> usi!" tech!i;ues calle# :7SS a!#
/SSS. Both of these use a art of the sectrum that #oes !ot re;uire lice!si!" (the 2.4+@7A %S6
4a!#). 8a#io+co!trolle# "ara"e #oor oe!ers also use this iece of the sectrum> so 9our
ma9 fi!# itself i!
cometitio! with 9our
"ara"e #oor. Cor#less
microwave ove!s also
use this 4a!#. All of
oerate at 1 or 2
64s a!# at low
e!ou"h ower that
the9 #o !ot co!flict
too much. %! 1<<<>
two !ew tech!i;ues
were i!tro#uce# to
4a!#wi#th. These are
calle# O:/6 a!#
oerate at u to $4
64s a!# 11 64s>
resectivel9. %! 2331>
a seco!# O:/6
i!tro#uce#> 4ut i! a
#iffere!t fre;ue!c9 4a!# from the first o!e. Now we will e-ami!e each of them 4riefl9.
%! the fi"ure 4elow we ca! see the Wireless LAN 49 %&&& 032.11> 032.11a>
032.114>032.11"> 032.11!031.11 rotocol famil9 6AC frame structure*
2 2 , , , 2 ,
:rame Co!trol Structure*
2 2 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
?ersio! T9e Su4t9e To /S :rom /S 6: 8etr9 'wr 6ore W O
• 'rotocol ?ersio! + i!#icates the versio! of %&&& 032.11 sta!#ar#.
• T9e + :rame t9e* 6a!a"eme!t> Co!trol a!# /ata.
• Su4t9e + :rame su4t9e* Authe!ticatio! frame> /eauthe!ticatio! frameG Associatio!
re;uest frameG Associatio! reso!se frameG 8eassociatio! re;uest frameG 8eassociatio!
reso!se frameG /isassociatio! frameG Beaco! frameG 'ro4e frameG 'ro4e re;uest frame
a!# 'ro4e reso!se frame.
• To /S + is set to 1 whe! the frame is se!t to /istri4utio! S9stem (/S)
• :rom /S + is set to 1 whe! the frame is receive# from the /istri4utio! S9stem (/S)
• 6:+ 6ore :ra"me!t is set to 1 whe! there are more fra"me!ts 4elo!"i!" to the same
frame followi!" the curre!t fra"me!t
• 8etr9 i!#icates that this fra"me!t is a retra!smissio! of a reviousl9 tra!smitte#
fra"me!t. (:or receiver to reco"!iAe #ulicate tra!smissio!s of frames)
• 'wr + 'ower 6a!a"eme!t i!#icates the ower ma!a"eme!t mo#e that the statio! will 4e
i! after the tra!smissio! of the frame.
• 6ore + 6ore /ata i!#icates that there are more frames 4uffere# to this statio!.
• W + W&' i!#icates that the frame 4o#9 is e!cr9te# accor#i!" to the W&' (wire#
e;uivale!t rivac9) al"orithm.
• + Or#er i!#icates that the frame is 4ei!" se!t usi!" the Strictl9+Or#ere# service class.
• /uratio!5%/ (%/) +
• Statio! %/ is use# for 'ower+Save oll messa"e frame t9e.
• The #uratio! value is use# for the Network Allocatio! ?ector (NA?) calculatio!.
• A##ress fiel#s (1+4) + co!tai! u to 4 a##resses (source> #esti!atio!> tra!smittio! a!#
receiver a##resses) #ee!#i!" o! the frame co!trol fiel# (the To/S a!# :rom/S 4its).
• Se;ue!ce Co!trol + co!sists of fra"me!t !um4er a!# se;ue!ce !um4er. %t is use# to
rerese!t the or#er of #iffere!t fra"me!ts 4elo!"i!" to the same frame a!# to reco"!iAe
• /ata + is i!formatio! that is tra!smitte# or receive#.
• C8C + co!tai!s a 32+4it C9clic 8e#u!#a!c9 Check (C8C).
Protocol Stack Architecture
&ach comuter> mo4ile> orta4le or fi-e#> is
referre# to as a statio! i! 032.11 (Wireless Local Area
The #iffere!ce 4etwee! a orta4le a!# mo4ile
statio! is that a orta4le statio! moves from oi!t to oi!t
4ut is o!l9 use# at a fi-e# oi!t. 6o4ile statio!s access the
LAN #uri!" moveme!t
Station /STA0 Architecture1
The Statio! Architecture is a #evice that co!tai!s
the %&&& co!forma!t 6AC a!# '7B i!terface i! the
wireless me#ium> 4ut o! the other si#e it #oes !ot rovi#e
access to a #istri4utio! s9stem. The Statio! Architecture is
most ofte! availa4le i! termi!als like latos> work+statio!s
a!# it is imleme!te# i! the Ava9a Wireless %&&& 032.11
• The most imorta!t features a!# co!#itio!s of the
Statio! Architecture are
• %t has a #river i!terface like the &ther!et
• All rotocol Stacks are virtuall9 suorte# 49 the STA
• The :rame tra!slatio! is #o!e accor#i!" to the %&&& ST/ 032.17
• The %&&& 032.3 frames with this architecture are tra!slate# to 032.11
• ?ia the Bri#"e Tu!!el e!casulatio! scheme are e!casulate# the &ther!et T9es 013.
(Novell %'2) a!# 03:3 (AA8')
• All other &ther!et T9es* e!casulate# via the 8:C 1342 (Sta!#ar# for the Tra!smissio!
of %' /ata"ramEs over %&&& 032 Networks) e!casulatio! scheme
• 6a-imum /ata limite# to 1$33 octets
• Bri#"i!" to &ther!et is #o!e tra!sare!tl9
Access2Point /AP0 Architecture1
A! Access 'oi!t is a #evice fou!# withi! a! %&&& 032.11 !etwork which rovi#es the
oi!t of i!terco!!ectio! 4etwee! the wireless Statio! (lato comuter> '/A ('erso!!el /i"ital
Assista!t) etc.) a!# the wire# !etwork.
The Access 'oi!t Architecture is a #evice that co!tai!s
%&&& 032.11 co!forma!t 6AC a!# '7B i!terface to the
wireless me#ium> a!# rovi#es access to a #istri4utio!
s9stem for associate# statio!s. 6ost ofte! it co!tai!s
i!fra+structure ro#ucts that co!!ect to wire# 4ack4o!es
%t is imleme!te# i! Ava9a Wireless %&&& 032.11 'C+
Car# whe! it is i!serte# i! a! A'+$33 or A'+1333
The +ost i+,ortant features and conditions of
Access2Point /AP0 Architecture1
• The Statio!s select a! Access+'oi!t a!# the9
associate with that. The Access oi!t is a art that
suorts roami!" a!# also the9 rovi#e time
s9!chro!iAatio! fu!ctio!s like 4eaco!i!". The
Access+'oi!t Architecture offers a 'ower
6a!a"eme!t suort. %! a rotocol stack architecture
the traffic t9icall9 flows throu"h the Access+'oi!t.
So that i! the %BSS architecture takes lace the #irect
Statio!+to+Statio! commu!icatio! s9stem.
*asic Ser#ice Set /*SS01
The Basic Service Set is a term use# to #escri4e the collectio! of Statio!s which ma9
commu!icate to"ether withi! a! 032.11 WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network). The BSS ma9
or ma9 !ot i!clu#e A' (Access 'oi!t) which rovi#es a co!!ectio! o!to a fi-e# #istri4utio!
s9stem such as a! &ther!et !etwork. Two t9es of BSS e-istG %BSS (%!#ee!#e!t Basic Service
Set) a!# %!frastructure Basic Service Set. Whe! two or more statio!s come to"ether to
commu!icate with each other> the9 form a Basic Service Set (BSS). The mi!imum BSS co!sists
of two statio!s. 032.11 LANs use the BSS as the sta!#ar# 4uil#i!" 4lock.
%! the BSS architecture a set of statio!s is co!trolle# 49 a si!"le SCoor#i!atio! :u!ctio!T> that is
the lo"ical fu!ctio! that #etermi!es whe! a statio! ca! tra!smit or receive.
%! this case we have similarit9 to a ScellT i! the re %&&& termi!olo"9 also a BSS ca! have a!
Access+'oi!t a!# that 4oth i! sta!#alo!e !etworks a!# i! 4uil#i!"+wi#e co!fi"uratio!s> or it =ust
ca! ru! without a!# Access+'oi!t 4ut o!l9 i! sta!#alo!e !etworks. The #iameter of the cells is
twice the covera"e+#ista!ce 4etwee! two wireless statio!s.
Inde,endent *asic Ser#ice Set /I*SS01
A! %!#ee!#e!t Basic Service Set also calle# a# hoc !etwork is the simlest of all %&&& 032.11
!etworks i! that !o !etwork i!frastructure is re;uire#. As such> a! %BSS is siml9 comrise# of
o!e or more Statio!s which commu!icate #irectl9 with each other. The co!tractio! shoul# !ot 4e
co!fuse# with a! %!frastructure BSS (Basic Service Set).A BSS that sta!#s alo!e a!# is !ot
co!!ecte# to a 4ase is calle# a! %!#ee!#e!t Basic Service Set (%BSS) or is referre# to as a! A#+
7oc Network. A! a#+hoc !etwork is a !etwork where statio!s commu!icate o!l9 eer to eer.
There is !o 4ase a!# !o o!e "ives ermissio! to talk. 6ostl9 these !etworks are so!ta!eous a!#
ca! 4e set u rai#l9. A#+7oc or %BSS !etworks are characteristicall9 limite# 4oth temorall9
a!# satiall9. So that the Basic Service Set (BSS) forms a self+co!tai!e# !etwork i! which !o
access to a /istri4utio! S9stem is availa4le> or it is also similar to a BSS without a! Access+
'oi!t. O!e of the statio!s i! the %BSS ca! 4e co!fi"ure# to Si!itiateT the !etwork a!# assume the
Coor#i!atio! :u!ctio!. The #iameter of the cell is #etermi!e# 49 covera"e #ista!ce 4etwee! two
Whe! BSSIs are i!terco!!ecte# the !etwork 4ecomes o!e with i!frastructure. %!frastructure is
esta4lishe# i! the !etwork whe! BSS are i!terco!!ecte#> so that the 032.11 i!frastructures have
several eleme!ts. Two or more BSSIs are i!terco!!ecte# usi!" a /istri4utio! S9stem or /S. This
co!cet of /S i!creases !etwork covera"e. &ach BSS 4ecomes a como!e!t of a! e-te!#e#>
lar"er !etwork. &!tr9 to the /S is accomlishe# with the use of Access 'oi!ts (A'). A! access
oi!t is a statio!> thus a##ressa4le. With hel of the Access+'oi!ts #ata moves the! 4etwee! the
BSS a!# the /S.
.3tended Ser#ice Set /.SS01
A! &-te!#e# Service Set is comrise# of a !um4er of %&&& 802.11 BSS (Basic Service Set) a!#
e!a4les limite# mo4ilit9 withi! the (A) (Wireless Local Area Network). Statio!s are a4le to
move 4etwee! *SS withi! a si!"le &SS 9et still remai! Sco!!ecte#T to the fi-e# !etwork a!# so
co!ti!ue to receive emails etc. As a Station moves i!to a !ew BSS> it will carr9 out a
reassociatio! roce#ure with the !ew AP (Access 'oi!t). Creati!" lar"e a!# comle- !etworks
usi!" BSSIs a!# /SIs lea#s us to the !e-t level of hierarch9> the &-te!#e# Service Set or &SS.
The 4eaut9 of the &SS is the e!tire !etwork looks like a! i!#ee!#e!t 4asic service set to the
Lo"ical Li!k Co!trol la9er (LLC). This mea!s that statio!s withi! the &SS ca! commu!icate or
eve! move 4etwee! BSSEs tra!sare!tl9 to the LLC.
%t is the same here that the traffic alwa9s flows via Access+'oi!t> a!# the #iameter of the cell is
#ou4le the covera"e #ista!ce 4etwee! two wireless statio!s /istri4utio! S9stem (/S).There is
availa4le a s9stem to i!terco!!ect a set of Basic Service Sets a!# there is i!te"rate# a si!"le
Access+'oi!t i! a sta!#alo!e !etwork. %! the wire# !etwork there are use# ca4les to i!terco!!ect
the Access+'oi!ts. %! the wireless !etwork are use# wirelesses to i!terco!!ect the Access+'oi!ts.
&-amle* of &-te!#e# Service Set (&SS) with si!"le BSS a!# i!te"rate# /S
Example: &-te!#e# Service Set (&SS) BSSEs with wire# /istri4utio! S9stem (/S)
Example: &-te!#e# Service Set (&SS) BSSEs a!# wireless /istri4utio! S9stem (/S)
Ser#ice Set Identifier /SSI401
The Service Set %#e!tifier or Network Name is secifie# withi! %&&& 802.11 !etworks to
i#e!tif9 a articular !etwork. %t is usuall9 set 49 the a#mi!istrator setti!" u the (A) a!# will
4e u!i;ue withi! a *SS (Basic Service Set) or .SS (&-te!#e# Service Set). The SS%/ ma9 4e
4roa#cast from a! AP withi! the wireless !etwork to e!a4le Stations to #etermi!e which
!etwork to SAssociateT with. 7owever> this feature shoul# 4e #isa4le# as it ma9 assist hackers or
'ardri#ers i! "ai!i!" access to a rivate !etwork. The most imorta!t thi!"s a4out the SS%/
are that it is 32 octets lo!" a!# it is similar to S/omai!+%/T i! the re+%&&& Wave LAN s9stems.
So we ca! co!clu#e that o!e !etwork i!#ee!#e!t from that if it is &SS or %BSS it has alwa9s
*asic Ser#ice Set Identifier /*SSI40
The BSS%/ is a 404it i#e!tit9 use# to i#e!tif9 a articular BSS (Basic Service Set) withi! o!e
area. %! the i!frastructure BSS !etworks> the BSS%/ is the 6AC (6e#ium Access Co!trol)
a##ress of the A' a!# i! %!#ee!#e!t BSS or a# hoc !etworks> the BSS%/ is "e!erate#
ra!#oml9. The BSS%/ i#e!tifies the cells a!# it is , octets lo!"> that mea!s that it is i! the 6AC
a##ress format. There is also visi4le a similarit9 to the NW%/ i! the re+ %&&& Wave LAN
s9stems. The value of the BSS%/ is the same as the 6AC a##ress of the ra#io i! the Access+
Protocol Stack for 5)I6
Also there are k!ow! #evelome!ts for architectural e!ha!ceme!ts for 1!i-+4ase# servers to
rovi#e a rotocol stack for 1N%2. To "ive a 4etter i#ea how it looks like the fi"ure 4elow
shows the 4asic como!e!ts of the e!ha!ce# rotocol stack architecture> with the !ew
caa4ilities utiliAe# either 49 user+sace a"e!ts or alicatio!s themselves. This architecture
ermits co!trol over a! alicatio!Is i!4ou!# !etwork traffic via olic9+4ase# traffic
ma!a"eme!tG a! a#atatio!5olic9 a"e!t i!stalls olicies i!to the ker!el via a secial A'%. The
olic9 a"e!t i!teracts with the ker!el via a! e!ha!ce# socket i!terface 49 se!#i!" (receivi!")
messa"es to (from) secial co!trol sockets. The olicies secif9 filters to select the traffic to 4e
co!trolle#> a!# actio!s to erform o! the selecte# traffic. The fi"ure shows the flow of a!
i!comi!" re;uest throu"h the various co!trol mecha!isms.
Co+,are &#erall Structure of 802.11b 7 802.1!.1 Coe3istence 8echanis+
A! AW6A tra!smissio! co!trol e!tit9 is i!te"rate# with the WLAN 6AC la9er a!# rovi#es a
6e#ium :ree si"!al to the Bluetooth Base4a!# la9er. This is a 4i!ar9 si"!al that "ates whe! the
WLAN a!# W'AN ca! each tra!smit ackets.
The 032.114 6AC a!# 032.1$.1 L6 Q LC e!tities rovi#e status i!formatio! to the 6&7TA
co!trol e!tities. The 6&7TA co!trol e!tit9 receives a er+tra!smissio! tra!smit re;uest (T2
8e;uest) a!# issues a er+tra!smissio! tra!smit co!firm (T2 Co!firm) to each stack to i!#icate
whether the tra!smissio! ca! rocee#. The T2 Co!firm carries a status value that is o!e of*
allowe# or #e!ie#. The T2 8e;uest a!# T2 Co!firm are #iscreet si"!als e-cha!"e# for ever9
acket tra!smissio! attemt.
T Enable T Enable
T &e'uest T &e'uest
802.11 Stack 802.15.1 Stack
8I9 SAP :eference 8odel for 802.11
The lo"ical laceme!t of the 6%7 :u!ctio! i! the 032.11 rotocol stack for statio!s a!# access
oi!ts is show! i! the fi"ure. %t is similar to the 032.3> where the LLC SA' (LSA') #efi!es the
i!terface of the 6%7 :u!ctio! with the 032.11 #ata la!e a!# ca! e!casulate 6%7 messa"es i!
#ata frames. 7owever> si!ce 032.11 #oes !ot curre!tl9 suort Class 1 #ata frames> 6%7
messa"es ca! 4e tra!sorte# over the 032.11 #ata la!e o!l9 after the 6o4ile No#e has
associate# with the 032.11 access oi!t. Before the associatio! 4etwee! 6o4ile No#e a!# access
oi!t takes lace> the L2 tra!sort of 6%7 messa"es ca! rel9 o! 032.11 ma!a"eme!t frames
from the 032.11 ma!a"eme!t la!e (6L6&). The 6%7 6L6& SA' #efi!es the i!terface
4etwee! the 6%7 :u!ctio! a!# the 6L6&.
Layer 3 Mobility Protocol (L3MP! "i#her$Layer Mobility
Protocol! "an%over Policy! &rans'ort! (''lications
"an%over (M)" *+nction
M)" ,vent Service
M)" Comman% Service
M)" )n-ormation Service
Lo#ical Link Control
8I9 SAP :eference 8odel for 802.1"
The lo"ical laceme!t of the 6%7 :u!ctio! i! the 032.1, rotocol stack is show! i! the fi"ure>
so that we ca! comare 4etter what is the #iffere!ce 4etwee! the 032.11 a!# 032.1,.
The 6%7 :u!ctio! a!# the Network Co!trol a!# 6a!a"eme!t S9stem (NC6S) share the CUSA'
a!# 6USA' for access to the mo4ilit9+ma!a"eme!t services of the 6o4ilit9 Co!trol &!tit9 a!#
6a!a"eme!t &!tit9 i! the 032.1, 6a!a"eme!t 'la!e.
The mecha!isms for the #irect e!casulatio! of 6%7 frames i!to 032.1, #ata frames ma9 take
multile forms. The Service+Secific Co!ver"e!ce Su4la9er i!sta!ces curre!tl9 availa4le i! the
032.1, sta!#ar#s a!# Wi6A2 o!l9 e!a4le the e!casulatio! of %' ackets a!# &ther!et frames.
The o!l9 otio! availa4le for L2 tra!sort woul# 4e to first e!casulate the 6%7 messa"es i!to
&ther!et frames with a! 6%7 &thert9e value> a!# the! ma!#ate the a#otio! of &ther!et CS for
032.1, co!!ectio!s that carr9 the 6%7 messa"es. This aroach limits 4oth the efficie!c9 of the
L2 tra!sort of 6%7 messa"es> a!# that si!ce it imoses the a##itio! of full &ther!et overhea# D
at least 10 49tes D to the 6%7 frame a!# the availa4ilit9 of L2 tra!sort caa4ilities for 6%7>
si!ce &ther!et CS is !ot u4i;uitous.
Alter!ativel9> a solutio! that e!a4les 4etter efficie!c9 a!# easier accessi4ilit9 of L2 tra!sort
caa4ilities coul# 4ecome availa4le with the ossi4le sta!#ar#iAatio! of the @e!eric 'acket
Co!ver"e!ce Su4la9er (@'CS) rece!tl9 roose# withi! 032.1,". With @'CS a more efficie!t
LLC5SNA' e!casulatio! (0 49tes overhea#) coul# create the !ee#e# room for the 6%7
&thert9e i! 032.1, frame.
Layer 3 Mobility Protocol (L3MP! "i#her$Layer Mobility
Protocol! "an%over Policy! &rans'ort! (''lications
"an%over (M)" *+nction
M)" ,vent Service
M)" Comman% Service
M)" )n-ormation Service
Service$S'eci-ic Conver#ence S+blayer (CS
M(C Common Part S+blayer (M(C CPS
Physical Layer (P"/
4ata ink ayer
As a! imorta!t art of the rotocol stack> the #ata li!k la9er withi! 032.11 co!sists of two
su4la9ers* Lo"ical Li!k Co!trol (LLC) a!# 6e#ia Access Co!trol (6AC). The 032.11 uses the
same 032.2 LLC a!# 40+4it a##ressi!" as other 032 LANs> allowi!" for ver9 simle 4ri#"i!"
from wireless to %&&& wire# !etworks> 4ut the 6AC is u!i;ue to WLANs. The 032.11 6AC is
ver9 similar i! co!cet comare# to the 032.3> which is #esi"!e# to suort multile users o! a
share# me#ium 49 havi!" the se!#er se!se the me#ium 4efore accessi!" it.
:or 032.3 &ther!et LANs> the Carrier Se!se 6ultile Access with Collisio! /etectio!
(CS6A5C/) it is re"ulate# from the rotocol how &ther!et statio!s are "oi!" to esta4lish access
to the wire a!# how the9 #etect a!# ha!#le collisio!s that occur whe! two or more #evices tr9 to
simulta!eousl9 commu!icate over the LAN. %! a! 032.11 WLAN> collisio! #etectio! is !ot
ossi4le #ue to what is k!ow! as the S!ear5farT ro4lem* to #etect a collisio!> a statio! must 4e
a4le to tra!smit a!# liste! at the same time> 4ut i! ra#io s9stems the tra!smissio! #row!s out the
a4ilit9 of the statio! to ShearT a collisio!. To accou!t for this #iffere!ce> 032.11 use a sli"htl9
mo#ifie# rotocol k!ow! as Carrier Se!se 6ultile Access with Collisio! Avoi#a!ce
(CS6A5CA) or the /istri4ute# Coor#i!atio! :u!ctio! (/C:). CS6A5CA attemts to avoi#
collisio!s 49 usi!" e-licit acket ack!owle#"me!t (ACC)> which mea!s a! ACC acket is se!t
49 the receivi!" statio! to co!firm that the #ata acket arrive# i!tact.
CS6A5CA works as follows. A statio! wishi!" to tra!smit se!ses the air> a!#> if !o activit9 is
#etecte#> the statio! waits a! a##itio!al> ra!#oml9 selecte# erio# of time a!# the! tra!smits if
the me#ium is still free. %f the acket is receive# i!tact> the receivi!" statio! issues a! ACC
frame that> o!ce successfull9 receive# 49 the se!#er> comletes the rocess. %f the ACC frame is
!ot #etecte# 49 the se!#i!" statio!> either 4ecause the ori"i!al #ata acket was !ot receive#
i!tact or the ACC was !ot receive# i!tact> a collisio! is assume# to have occurre# a!# the #ata
acket is tra!smitte# a"ai! after waiti!" a!other ra!#om amou!t of time.
CS6A5CA thus rovi#es a wa9 of shari!" access over the air. This e-licit ACC mecha!ism
also ha!#les i!terfere!ce a!# other ra#io relate# ro4lems ver9 effectivel9. 7owever> it #oes a##
some overhea# to 032.11 that 032.3 #oes !ot have> so that a! 032.11 LAN will alwa9s have
slower erforma!ce tha! a! e;uivale!t &ther!et LAN.
A!other 6AC+la9er ro4lem secific to wireless is the Shi##e! !o#eT issue> i! which two
statio!s o! oosite si#es of a! access oi!t ca! 4oth ShearT activit9 from a! access oi!t> 4ut
!ot from each other> usuall9 #ue to #ista!ce or a! o4structio!.
8TS5CTS 'roce#ure elimi!ates the S7i##e! No#eT 'ro4lem
To solve this ro4lem> 032.11 secif9 a! otio!al 8e;uest to Se!#5Clear to Se!# (8TS5CTS)
rotocol at the 6AC la9er. Whe! this feature is i! use> a se!#i!" statio! tra!smits a! 8TS a!#
waits for the access oi!t to rel9 with CTS. Si!ce all statio!s i! the !etwork ca! hear the access
oi!t> the CTS causes them to #ela9 a!9 i!te!#e# tra!smissio!s> allowi!" the se!#i!" statio! to
tra!smit a!# receive a acket ack!owle#"me!t without a!9 cha!ce of collisio!. Si!ce 8TS5CTS
a##s a##itio!al overhea# to the !etwork 49 temoraril9 reservi!" the me#ium> it is t9icall9 use#
o!l9 o! the lar"est+siAe# ackets> for which retra!smissio! woul# 4e e-e!sive from a
4a!#wi#th sta!#oi!t. :i!all9> the 032.11 6AC la9er rovi#es for two other ro4ust!ess features*
C8C checksum a!# acket fra"me!tatio!. &ach acket has a C8C checksum calculate# a!#
attache# to e!sure that the #ata was !ot corrute# i! tra!sit. This is #iffere!t from &ther!et>
where hi"her+level rotocols such as TC' ha!#le error checki!". 'acket fra"me!tatio! allows
lar"e ackets to 4e 4roke! i!to smaller u!its whe! se!t over the air> which is useful i! ver9
co!"este# e!viro!me!ts or whe! i!terfere!ce is a factor> si!ce lar"er ackets have a 4etter
cha!ce of 4ei!" corrute#. This tech!i;ue re#uces the !ee# for retra!smissio! i! ma!9 cases a!#
thus imroves overall wireless !etwork erforma!ce. The 6AC la9er is reso!si4le for
reassem4li!" fra"me!ts receive#> re!#eri!" the rocess tra!sare!t to hi"her level rotocols.
Su,,ort for Ti+e2*ounded 4ata
Time+4ou!#e# #ata such as voice a!# vi#eo is suorte# i! the 032.11 6AC secificatio!s
throu"h the 'oi!t Coor#i!atio! :u!ctio! ('C:). As oose# to the /C:> where co!trol is
#istri4ute# to all statio!s> i! 'C: mo#e a si!"le access oi!t co!trols access to the me#ia. %f a
BSS is set u with 'C: e!a4le#> time is slice# 4etwee! the s9stem 4ei!" i! 'C: mo#e a!# i!
/C: (CS6A5CA) mo#e. /uri!" the erio#s whe! the s9stem is i! 'C: mo#e> the access oi!t
will oll each statio! for #ata> a!# after a "ive! time move o! to the !e-t statio!. No statio! is
allowe# to tra!smit u!less it is olle#> a!# statio!s receive #ata from the access oi!t o!l9 whe!
the9 are olle#. Si!ce 'C: "ives ever9 statio! a tur! to tra!smit i! a re#etermi!e# fashio!> a
ma-imum late!c9 is "uara!tee#. A #ow!si#e to 'C: is that it is !ot articularl9 scala4le> i! that
a si!"le oi!t !ee#s to have co!trol of me#ia access a!# must oll all statio!s> which ca! 4e
i!effective i! lar"e !etworks.
8AC ;unctional 4escri,tion
The 032.11 sta!#ar# secifies a commo! me#ium access co!trol (6AC) La9er> which rovi#es a
variet9 of fu!ctio!s that suort the oeratio! of 032.11+4ase# wireless LANs. %! "e!eral> the
6AC La9er ma!a"es a!# mai!tai!s commu!icatio!s 4etwee! 032.11 statio!s (ra#io !etwork
car#s a!# access oi!ts) 49 coor#i!ati!" access to a share# ra#io cha!!el a!# utiliAi!" rotocols
that e!ha!ce commu!icatio!s over a wireless me#ium. Ofte! viewe# as the M4rai!sM of the
!etwork> the 032.11 6AC La9er uses a! 032.11 'h9sical ('7B) La9er> such as 032.114 or
032.11a> to erform the tasks of carrier se!si!"> tra!smissio!> a!# receivi!" of 032.11 frames.
Before tra!smitti!" frames> a statio! must first "ai! access to the me#ium> which is a ra#io
cha!!el that statio!s share. The 032.11 sta!#ar# #efi!es two forms of me#ium access> #istri4ute#
coor#i!atio! fu!ctio! (/C:) a!# oi!t coor#i!atio! fu!ctio! ('C:). /C: is ma!#ator9 a!#
4ase# o! the CS6A5CA (carrier se!se multile access with collisio! avoi#a!ce) rotocol. With
/C:> 032.11 statio!s co!te!# for access a!# attemt to se!# frames whe! there is !o other
statio! tra!smitti!". %f a!other statio! is se!#i!" a frame> statio!s are olite a!# wait u!til the
cha!!el is free.
As a co!#itio! to accessi!" the me#ium> the 6AC La9er checks the value of its !etwork
allocatio! vector (NA?)> which is a cou!ter resi#e!t at each statio! that rerese!ts the amou!t of
time that the revious frame !ee#s to se!# its frame. The NA? must 4e Aero 4efore a statio! ca!
attemt to se!# a frame. 'rior to tra!smitti!" a frame> a statio! calculates the amou!t of time
!ecessar9 to se!# the frame 4ase# o! the frameIs le!"th a!# #ata rate. The statio! laces a value
rerese!ti!" this time i! the #uratio! fiel# i! the hea#er of the frame. Whe! statio!s receive the
frame> the9 e-ami!e this #uratio! fiel# value a!# use it as the 4asis for setti!" their
correso!#i!" NA?s. This rocess reserves the me#ium for the se!#i!" statio!.
A! imorta!t asect of the /C: is a ra!#om 4ack off timer that a statio! uses if it #etects a 4us9
me#ium. %f the cha!!el is i! use> the statio! must wait a random erio# of time 4efore attemti!"
to access the me#ium a"ai!. This e!sures that multile statio!s wa!ti!" to se!# #ata #o!It
tra!smit at the same time. The ra!#om #ela9 causes statio!s to wait #iffere!t erio#s of time a!#
avoi#s all of them se!si!" the me#ium at e-actl9 the same time> fi!#i!" the cha!!el i#le>
tra!smitti!"> a!# colli#i!" with each other. The 4ack off timer si"!ifica!tl9 re#uces the !um4er
of collisio!s a!# correso!#i!" retra!smissio!s> eseciall9 whe! the !um4er of active users
With ra#io+4ase# LANs> a tra!smitti!" statio! ca!It liste! for collisio!s while se!#i!" #ata>
mai!l9 4ecause the statio! ca!It have itIs receiver o! while tra!smitti!" the frame. As a result>
the receivi!" statio! !ee#s to se!# a! ack!owle#"eme!t (ACC) if it #etects !o errors i! the
receive# frame. %f the se!#i!" statio! #oes!It receive a! ACC after a secifie# erio# of time> the
se!#i!" statio! will assume that there was a collisio! (or 8: i!terfere!ce) a!# retra!smit the
:or suorti!" time+4ou!#e# #eliver9 of #ata frames> the 032.11 sta!#ar# #efi!es the otio!al
oi!t coor#i!atio! fu!ctio! ('C:) where the access oi!t "ra!ts access to a! i!#ivi#ual statio! to
the me#ium 49 olli!" the statio! #uri!" the co!te!tio! free erio#. Statio!s ca!It tra!smit
frames u!less the access oi!t olls them first. The erio# of time for 'C:+4ase# #ata traffic (if
e!a4le#) occurs alter!atel9 4etwee! co!te!tio! (/C:) erio#s.
The access oi!t olls statio!s accor#i!" to a olli!" list> the! switches to a co!te!tio! erio#
whe! statio!s use /C:. This rocess e!a4les suort for 4oth s9!chro!ous (i.e.> vi#eo
alicatio!s) a!# as9!chro!ous (i.e.> e+mail a!# We4 4rowsi!" alicatio!s) mo#es of oeratio!.
The !ew 6AC access scheme #escri4e# hereafter e!ha!ces the curre!t 032.11 6AC. The 6AC
SA' is ket i#e!tical while the '7B SA' ma9 4e mo#ifie# accor#i!" to the caa4ilities of the
'7B la9er. As show! i! &rror* 8efere!ce source !ot fou!#> the e!ha!ce# 6AC la9er is
co!stitute# of two Co!ver"e!ce su4+la9ers> LLC Co!ver"e!ce Su4+La9er (LLCCS) a!#
Se"me!tatio! a!# 8e+assem4l9 (SA8)> a!# two tra!sfer su4+la9ers> 6AC %!terme#iate Su4+
La9er (6%S) a!# 6AC Lower Su4+la9er (6LS).
The 6AC SA' co!siste!c9 is mai!tai!e# 49 the LLCCS su4+la9er. The 6%S em4e#s the core
tra!sfer fu!ctio! of the 6AC la9er a!# is 4ase# o! short fi-e#+siAe tra!sfer u!its. The 6%S also
i!te"rates the &rror a!# :low Co!trol fu!ctio!s. The SA8 su4+la9er erforms the a#atatio!
4etwee! the varia4le siAe acket rovi#e# 49 the LLCCS a!# the tra!sfer u!its ma!a"e# 49 the
6%S. The 6LS su4+la9er is i! char"e of 4uil#i!" 032.11 comati4le 6'/1s from 6%S tra!sfer
u!it a!# si"!ali!" i!formatio!> a!# #elivers them to the '7B la9er. %! a##itio!> it ca! imleme!t
Sequence Number Assignment
Error and Flow Control
Packet Sequence Number Assignment
Segment Sequence Number Assignment
MP! "eader # C$C
Le"ac9 032.11 &-te!#e# 6AC
MAC Protocol Stack Comparison
Securit9 is o!e of the first co!cer!s of eole #elo9i!" a Wireless LANG the 032.11 committee
has a##resse# the issue 49 rovi#i!" what is calle# W&' (Wire# &;uivale!t 'rivac9)
Authe!ticatio!* A fu!ctio! that #etermi!es whether a Statio! is allowe# to articiate i!
!etwork commu!icatio!. The sta!#ar# %&&& 032.11i is #esi"!e# to rovi#e secure#
commu!icatio! of wireless LAN as #efi!e# 49 all the %&&& 032.11 secificatio!s. %&&& 032.11i
e!ha!ces the W&' (Wireli!e &;uivale!t 'rivac9)G a tech!olo"9 use# for ma!9 9ears for the
WLAN securit9> i! the areas of e!cr9tio!> authe!ticatio! a!# ke9 ma!a"eme!t. %&&& 032.11i is
4ase# o! the Wi+:i 'rotecte# Access (W'A)> which is a ;uick fi- of the W&B weak!esses.
The %&&& 032.11i has the followi!" ke9 como!e!ts*
1. Temoral Ce9 %!te"rit9 'rotocol (TC%')* it is #ata+co!fi#e!tialit9 rotocol a!# it was
#esi"!e# to imrove the securit9 of ro#ucts that were imleme!te# throu"h W&'. TC%' uses a
messa"e i!te"rit9 co#e to e!a4le #evices to authe!ticate that the ackets are comi!" from the
claime# source> this co#e is calle# 6ichael. Also TC%' uses a mi-i!" fu!ctio! to #efeat weak+
ke9 attacks> which e!a4le# attackers to #ecr9t traffic.
2. Cou!ter+6o#e5CBC+6AC 'rotocol (CC6')* a #ata+co!fi#e!tialit9 rotocol that is
reso!si4le for acket authe!ticatio! as well as e!cr9tio!. :or co!fi#e!tialit9> CC6' uses A&S
i! cou!ter mo#e. :or authe!ticatio! a!# i!te"rit9> CC6' uses Ciher Block Chai!i!" 6essa"e
Authe!ticatio! Co#e (CBC+6AC). %! %&&& 032.11i> CC6' uses a 120+4it ke9. CC6' rotects
some fiel#s that are!It e!cr9te#. The a##itio!al arts of the %&&& 032.11 frame that "et
rotecte# are k!ow! as a##itio!al authe!ticatio! #ata (AA/). AA/ i!clu#es the ackets source
a!# #esti!atio! a!# rotects a"ai!st attackers rela9i!" ackets to #iffere!t #esti!atio!s.
3.%&&& 032.1-* offers a! effective framework for authe!ticati!" a!# co!trolli!" user traffic to a
rotecte# !etwork> as well as #9!amicall9 var9i!" e!cr9tio! ke9s. 032.12 ties a rotocol calle#
&A' (&-te!si4le Authe!ticatio! 'rotocol) to 4oth the wire# a!# wireless LAN me#ia a!#
suort multile authe!ticatio! metho#s.
4. &A' e!casulatio! over LANs (&A'OL)D it is the ke9 rotocol i! %&&& 032.1- for ke9
e-cha!"e. Two mai! &A'OL+ke9 e-cha!"es are #efi!e# i! %&&& 032.11i. The first is referre# to
as the 4+wa9 ha!#shake a!# the seco!# is the "rou ke9 ha!#shake.
Because %&&& 032.11i has more tha! o!e #ata+co!fi#e!tialit9 rotocol> %&&& 032.11i rovi#es
a! al"orithm for the %&&& 032.11i clie!t car# a!# access oi!t to !e"otiate which rotocol to use
#uri!" secific traffic circumsta!ces a!# to #iscover a!9 u!k!ow! securit9 arameters.
Protocol Structure & %EEE '()*++i: ,-AN Security Standards
Pre#entin- Access to )et'ork :esources
This is #o!e 49 the use of a! Authe!ticatio! mecha!ism where a statio! !ee#s to rove
k!owle#"e of the curre!t ke9G this is ver9 similar to the Wire# LAN rivac9> o! the se!se that a!
i!tru#er !ee#s to e!ter the remises (49 usi!" a h9sical ke9) i! or#er to co!!ect his workstatio!
to the wire# LAN.
&aves#roi!" is reve!te# 49 the use of the W&' al"orithm> which is a 'seu#o 8a!#om
Num4er @e!erator ('8N@)> i!itialiAe# 49 a share# secret ke9. This '8N@ oututs a ke9
se;ue!ce of seu#o+ra!#om 4its e;ual i! le!"th to the lar"est ossi4le acket> which is com4i!e#
with the out"oi!"5i!comi!" acket ro#uci!" the acket tra!smitte# i! the air.
The W&' al"orithm is a simle al"orithm 4ase# o! 8SAVs 8C4 al"orithm> which has the
8easo!a4le stro!"* Brute+force attack to this al"orithm is #ifficult 4ecause of the fact that ever9
frame is se!t with a! %!itialiAatio! ?ector> which restarts the '8N@ for each frame.
Self S9!chro!iAi!"* The al"orithm s9!chro!iAe# a"ai! for each messa"e> this is !ee#e# i! or#er
to work o! a co!!ectio!less e!viro!me!t> where ackets ma9 "et lost (as a!9 LAN).
The %&&& (#efi!e) 032.11 sta!#ar# i!clu#es a commo! 6e#ium Access Co!trol (6AC) La9er>
which #efi!es rotocols that "over! the oeratio! of the wireless LAN. %! a##itio!> 032.11
comrise several alter!ative h9sical la9ers that secif9 the tra!smissio! a!# recetio! of 032.11
The ,hysical layer basics
To k!ow the h9sical la9er termi!olo"9 we !ee# to u!#ersta!# the esse!tial i!tricacies of
@:SC is a mo#ulatio! scheme i! which the #ata are first filtere# 49 a @aussia! filter i! the
Base4a!#> a!# the! mo#ulate# with a simle fre;ue!c9 mo#ulatio!. 2 a!# 4 4it rerese!t the
!um4er of fre;ue!c9 offsets use# to rerese!t #ata s9m4ols of o!e a!# two 4its> resectivel9.
/B'SC is hase mo#ulatio! usi!" two #isti!ct carrier hases for #ata si"!ali!" rovi#i!" o!e 4it
/N'SC is a t9e of hase mo#ulatio! usi!" two airs of #isti!ct carrier hases> i! ;ua#rature> to
si"!al two 4its er s9m4ol. The #iffere!tial characteristic of the mo#ulatio! schemes i!#icates
the use of the #iffere!ce i! hase from the last cha!"e or s9m4ol to #etermi!e the curre!t
s9m4olIs value> rather tha! a!9 a4solute measureme!ts of the hase cha!"e.
Both the :7SS a!# /SSS mo#es are secifie# for oeratio! i! the 2.4 @7A i!#ustrial> scie!tific
a!# me#ical (%S6) 4a!#> which has sometimes 4ee! =oki!"l9 referre# to as the i!terfere!ce
suressio! is ma!#ator9 4a!# 4ecause it is heavil9 use# 49 various electro!ic ro#ucts. The
thir# h9sical la9er alter!ative is a! i!frare# s9stem usi!" !ear+visi4le li"ht i! the 0$3 !m to <$3
!m ra!"e as the tra!smissio! me#ium.
At the forefro!t of the !ew WLAN otio!s that will e!a4le much hi"her #ata rates are two
suleme!ts to the %&&& 032.11 sta!#ar#* 032.114 a!# 032.11a> as well as a &uroea!
Telecommu!icatio!s Sta!#ar#s %!stitute (&TS%) sta!#ar#> 7i"h 'erforma!ce LAN
(7%'&8LAN5%%). Both 032.11 a!# 7%'&8LAN5%% have similar h9sical la9er characteristics
oerati!" i! the $ @7A 4a!# a!# use the mo#ulatio! scheme ortho"o!al fre;ue!c9 #ivisio!
multile-i!" (O:/6)> 4ut the 6AC la9ers are co!si#era4l9 #iffere!t. The focus here> however>
will 4e to comare the h9sical la9er characteristics of 032.11a a!# 032.114. With
7%'&8LAN5%% shari!" several of the same h9sical roerties as 032.11a> ma!9 of the same
issues will al9.
A!other sta!#ar# that warra!ts me!tio! i! this co!te-t is %&&& 032.11". With a ruli!" from the
:e#eral Commu!icatio!s Commissio! that will !ow allow O:/6 #i"ital tra!smissio!
tech!olo"9 to oerate i! the %S6 4a!# a!# the romise of i!teroera4ilit9 with a lar"e i!stalle#
4ase of 032.114 ro#ucts> the 032.11" e-te!sio! to the sta!#ar# 4e"i!s to "ar!er the atte!tio! of
WLAN e;uime!t rovi#ers. Althou"h !ot #etaile# here> it will offer #ata rates e;ual to or
e-cee#i!" 22 645s with ro#ucts availa4le late i! 2332.
&ach of the five ermitte# tra!smissio! tech!i;ues makes it ossi4le to se!# a 6AC frame from
o!e statio! to a!other. The9 #iffer> however> i! the tech!olo"9 use# a!# see# achieva4le. The
i!frare# otio! uses #iffuse# (i.e.> !ot li!e of si"ht) tra!smissio! at 3.0$ or 3.<$ micro!s. Two
see#s are ermitte#* 1 64s a!# 2 64s. At 1 64s> a! e!co#i!" scheme is use# i! which a
"rou of 4 4its is e!co#e# as a 1,+4it co#ewor# co!tai!i!" fiftee! 3s a!# a si!"le 1> usi!" what is
calle# @ra9 co#e. This co#e has the roert9 that a small error i! time s9!chro!iAatio! lea#s to
o!l9 a si!"le 4it error i! the outut. At 2 64s> the e!co#i!" takes 2 4its a!# ro#uces a 4+4it
co#ewor#> also with o!l9 a si!"le 1> that is o!e of 3331> 3313> 3133> or 1333. %!frare# si"!als
ca!!ot e!etrate walls> so cells i! #iffere!t rooms are well isolate# from each other.
Nevertheless> #ue to the low 4a!#wi#th (a!# the fact that su!li"ht swams i!frare# si"!als)> this
is !ot a oular otio!.
As with other 032.11 'h9sical la9ers> 032.114 i!clu#es 'h9sical La9er Co!ver"e!ce 'roce#ure
('LC') a!# 'h9sical 6e#ium /ee!#e!t ('6/) su4+la9ers. These are somewhat sohisticate#
terms that the sta!#ar# uses to #ivi#e the ma=or fu!ctio!s that occur withi! the 'h9sical La9er.
The 'LC' reares 032.11 frames for tra!smissio! a!# #irects the '6/ to actuall9 tra!smit
si"!als> cha!"e ra#io cha!!els> receive si"!als> a!# so o!.
PCP ;ra+e ;ields
The 'LC' takes each 032.11 frame that a statio! wishes to tra!smit a!# forms what the 032.11
sta!#ar# refers to as a 'LC' rotocol #ata u!it (''/1). The resulti!" ''/1 i!clu#es the
followi!" fiel#s i! a##itio! to the frame fiel#s imose# 49 the 6AC La9er*
S9!c. This fiel# co!sists of alter!ati!" 3s a!# 1s> alerti!" the receiver that a receiva4le si"!al is
rese!t. The receiver 4e"i!s s9!chro!iAi!" with the i!comi!" si"!al after #etecti!" the S9!c.
Start :rame /elimiter. This fiel# is alwa9s 1111331113133333 a!# #efi!es the 4e"i!!i!" of a
Si"!al. This fiel# i#e!tifies the #ata rate of the 032.11 frame> with its 4i!ar9 value e;ual to the
#ata rate #ivi#e# 49 133C4s. :or e-amle> the fiel# co!tai!s the value of 33331313 for 164s>
33313133 for 264s> a!# so o!. The 'LC' fiel#s> however> are alwa9s se!t at the lowest rate>
which is 164s. This e!sures that the receiver is i!itiall9 uses the correct #emo#ulatio!
mecha!ism> which cha!"es with #iffere!t #ata rates.
Service. This fiel# is alwa9s set to 33333333 a!# the 032.11 sta!#ar# reserves it for future use.
Le!"th. This fiel# rerese!ts the !um4er of microseco!#s that it takes to tra!smit the co!te!ts of
the ''/1> a!# the receiver uses this i!formatio! to #etermi!e the e!# of the frame.
:rame Check Se;ue!ce. %! or#er to #etect ossi4le errors i! the 'h9sical La9er hea#er> the
sta!#ar# #efi!es this fiel# for co!tai!i!" 1,+4it c9clic re#u!#a!c9 check (C8C) result. The 6AC
La9er also erforms error #etectio! fu!ctio!s o! the ''/1 co!te!ts as well.
'S/1. The 'S/1> which sta!#s for 'h9sical La9er Service /ata 1!it> is a fa!c9 !ame that
rerese!ts the co!te!ts of the ''/1 (i.e.> the actual 032.11 frame 4ei!" se!t).
/o!It e-ect to see the h9sical la9er fiel#s with 032.11 a!al9Aers from Air6a"!et a!#
Wil#ackets> however. The 032.11 ra#io car# removes these fiel#s 4efore the resulti!" #ata is
rocesse# 49 the 6AC La9er a!# offere# to the a!al9Aer for viewi!".
Ne-t> we come to 78+/SSS (7i"h 8ate /irect Se;ue!ce Srea# Sectrum)> a!other srea#
sectrum tech!i;ue> which uses 11 millio! chis5sec to achieve 11 64s i! the 2.4+@7A 4a!#. %t
is calle# 032.114 4ut is !ot a follow+u to 032.11a. %! fact> its sta!#ar# was arove# first a!# it
"ot to market first. /ata rates suorte# 49 032.114 are 1> 2> $.$> a!# 11 64s. The two slow
rates ru! at 1 64au#> with 1 a!# 2 4its er 4au#> resectivel9> usi!" hase shift mo#ulatio! (for
comati4ilit9 with /SSS). The two faster rates ru! at 1.3.$ 64au#> with 4 a!# 0 4its er 4au#>
resectivel9> usi!" Walsh57a#amar# co#es. The #ata rate ma9 4e #9!amicall9 a#ate# #uri!"
oeratio! to achieve the otimum see# S&C. 4.4 W%8&L&SS LANS 2<$ ossi4le u!#er curre!t
co!#itio!s of loa# a!# !oise. %! ractice> the oerati!" see# of 032.114 is !earl9 alwa9s 11
64s. Althou"h 032.114 is slower tha! 032.11a> its ra!"e is a4out . times "reater> which is more
imorta!t i! ma!9 situatio!s. A! e!ha!ce# versio! of 032.114> 032.11"> was arove# 49 %&&&
i! Novem4er 2331 after much oliticki!" a4out whose ate!te# tech!olo"9 it woul# use. %t uses
the O:/6 mo#ulatio! metho# of 032.11a 4ut oerates i! the !arrow 2.4+ @7A %S6 4a!# alo!"
with 032.114. %! theor9 it ca! oerate at u to $4 6Bs. %t is !ot 9et clear whether this see# will
4e realiAe# i! ractice. What it #oes mea! is that the 032.11 committee has ro#uce# three
#iffere!t hi"h+see# wireless LANs* 032.11a> 032.114> a!# 032.11" (!ot to me!tio! three low+
see# wireless LANs). O!e ca! le"itimatel9 ask if this is a "oo# thi!" for a sta!#ar#s committee
The 032.11 h9sical la9er ('7B) is the i!terface 4etwee! the 6AC a!# the wireless me#ia
where frames are tra!smitte# a!# receive#. The '7B rovi#es three fu!ctio!s. :irst> the '7B
rovi#es a! i!terface to e-cha!"e frames with the uer 6AC la9er for tra!smissio! a!#
recetio! of #ata. Seco!#l9> the '7B uses si"!al carrier a!# srea# sectrum mo#ulatio! to
tra!smit #ata frames over the me#ia. Thir#l9> the '7B rovi#es a carrier se!se i!#icatio! 4ack to
the 6AC to verif9 activit9 o! the me#ia.
032.11 rovi#es three #iffere!t '7B #efi!itio!s* Both Frequency "opping Spread Spectrum
(:7SS) a!# irect Sequence Spread Spectrum (/SSS) suort 1 a!# 2 64s #ata rates. A!
e-te!sio! to the 032.11 architecture (032.11a) #efi!es #iffere!t multile-i!" tech!i;ues that ca!
achieve #ata rates u to $4 64s. A!other e-te!sio! to the sta!#ar# (032.114) #efi!es 11 64s
a!# $.$ 64s #ata rates (i! a##itio! to the 1 a!# 264s rates) utiliAi!" a! e-te!sio! to /SSS
calle# 7i"h 8ate /SSS (785/SSS). 032.114 also #efi!es a rate shifti!" tech!i;ue where 11
64s !etworks ma9 fall 4ack to $.$ 64s> 2 64s> or 1 6s u!#er !ois9 co!#itio!s or to i!ter+
oerate with le"ac9 032.11 '7B la9ers.
The %!frare# '7B utiliAes i!frare# li"ht to tra!smit 4i!ar9 #ata either at 1 64s (4asic access
rate) or 2 64s (e!ha!ce# access rate) usi!" a secific mo#ulatio! tech!i;ue for each. :or 1
64s> the i!frare# '7B uses a 1,+ulse ositio! mo#ulatio! (''6). The co!cet of ''6 is to
var9 the ositio! of a ulse to rerese!t #iffere!t 4i!ar9 s9m4ols. %!frare# tra!smissio! at 2
64s utiliAes a 4 ''6 mo#ulatio! tech!i;ue.
Srea# sectrum is a tech!i;ue tra#i!" 4a!#wi#th for relia4ilit9. The "oal is to use more
4a!#wi#th tha! the s9stem reall9 !ee#s for tra!smissio! to re#uce the imact of localiAe#
i!terfere!ce o! the me#ia. Srea# sectrum srea#s the tra!smitte# 4a!#wi#th of the resulti!"
si"!al> re#uci!" the eak ower 4ut keei!" total ower the same.
;re<uency 9o,,in- S,read S,ectru+ /;9SS0
%! :7SS the total fre;ue!c9 4a!# is slit i!to a !um4er of cha!!els. The 4roa#cast #ata is srea#
across the e!tire fre;ue!c9 4a!# 49 hoi!" 4etwee! the cha!!els i! a seu#o ra!#om fashio!.
:re;ue!c9+hoi!" srea# sectrum (:7SS) is a srea#+sectrum metho# of tra!smitti!" ra#io
si"!als 49 rai#l9 switchi!" a carrier amo!" ma!9 fre;ue!c9 cha!!els> usi!" a seu#ora!#om
se;ue!ce k!ow! to 4oth tra!smitter a!# receiver.
A srea#+sectrum tra!smissio! offers three mai! a#va!ta"es over a fi-e#+fre;ue!c9
Srea#+sectrum si"!als are hi"hl9 resista!t to !oise a!# i!terfere!ce. The rocess of re+
collecti!" a srea# si"!al srea#s out !oise a!# i!terfere!ce> causi!" them to rece#e i!to the
Srea#+sectrum si"!als are #ifficult to i!tercet. A :re;ue!c9+7o srea#+sectrum si"!al
sou!#s like a mome!tar9 !oise 4urst or siml9 a! i!crease i! the 4ack"rou!# !oise for short
:re;ue!c9+7o co#es o! a!9 !arrow4a!# receiver e-cet a :re;ue!c9+7o srea#+sectrum
receiver usi!" the e-act same cha!!el se;ue!ce as was use# 49 the tra!smitter.
Srea#+sectrum tra!smissio!s ca! share a fre;ue!c9 4a!# with ma!9 t9es of co!ve!tio!al
tra!smissio!s with mi!imal i!terfere!ce. The srea#+sectrum si"!als a## mi!imal !oise to the
!arrow+fre;ue!c9 commu!icatio!s> a!# vice versa. As a result> 4a!#wi#th ca! 4e utiliAe# more
:re;ue!c9 7oi!" utiliAes a set of !arrow cha!!els a!# MhosM throu"h all of them i! a
re#etermi!e# se;ue!ce. :or e-amle> the 2.4 @7A fre;ue!c9 4a!# is #ivi#e# i!to .3 cha!!els
of 1 67A each. &ver9 23 to 433 msec the s9stem MhosM to a !ew cha!!el followi!" a
re#etermi!e# c9clic atter!.
The 032.11 :re;ue!c9 7oi!" Srea# Sectrum (:7SS) '7B uses the 2.4 @7A ra#io
fre;ue!c9 4a!#> oerati!" with at 1 or 2 64s #ata rate.
:7SS (:re;ue!c9 7oi!" Srea# Sectrum) uses .< cha!!els> each 1+ 67A wi#e> starti!" at
the low e!# of the 2.4+@7A %S6 4a!#. A seu#ora!#om !um4er "e!erator is use# to ro#uce the
se;ue!ce of fre;ue!cies hoe# to. As lo!" as all statio!s use the same see# to the
seu#ora!#om !um4er "e!erator a!# sta9 s9!chro!iAe# i! time> the9 will ho to the same
fre;ue!cies simulta!eousl9. The amou!t of time se!t at each fre;ue!c9> the #well time> is a!
a#=usta4le arameter> 4ut must 4e less tha! 433 msec. :7SSE ra!#omiAatio! rovi#es a fair wa9
to allocate sectrum i! the u!re"ulate# %S6 4a!#. %t also rovi#es a mo#icum of securit9 si!ce
a! i!tru#er who #oes !ot k!ow the hoi!" se;ue!ce or #well time ca!!ot eaves#ro o!
tra!smissio!s. Over lo!"er #ista!ces> multiath fa#i!" ca! 4e a! issue> a!# :7SS offers "oo#
resista!ce to it. %t is also relativel9 i!se!sitive to ra#io i!terfere!ce> which makes it oular for
4uil#i!"+to+4uil#i!" li!ks. %ts mai! #isa#va!ta"e is its low 4a!#wi#th. The thir# mo#ulatio!
:re;ue!c9 hoi!" relies o! fre;ue!c9 #iversit9 to com4at i!terfere!ce. This is accomlishe#
49 multile fre;ue!c9> co#e selecte#> :SC. Basicall9> the i!comi!" #i"ital stream is shifte# i!
fre;ue!c9 49 a! amou!t #etermi!e# 49 a co#e that srea#s the si"!al ower over a wi#e
4a!#wi#th. %! comariso! to 4i!ar9 :SC> which has o!l9 two ossi4le fre;ue!cies> :7SS ma9
have 2O13W23 or more.
The :7SS tra!smitter is a seu#o+!oise 'N co#e co!trolle# fre;ue!c9 s9!thesiAer. The
i!sta!ta!eous fre;ue!c9 outut of the tra!smitter =ums from o!e value to a!other 4ase# o! the
seu#o+ra!#om i!ut from the co#e "e!erator. ?ar9i!" the i!sta!ta!eous fre;ue!c9 results i! a!
outut sectrum that is effectivel9 srea# over the ra!"e of fre;ue!cies "e!erate#.
:i".1 :7SS Sectrum
%! this s9stem> the !um4er of #iscrete fre;ue!cies #etermi!es the 4a!#wi#th of the
s9stem. 7e!ce> the rocess "ai! is #irectl9 #ee!#e!t o! the !um4er of availa4le fre;ue!c9
choices for a "ive! i!formatio! rate.
A!other imorta!t factor i! :7SS s9stems is the rate at which the hos occur. The mi!imum
time re;uire# to cha!"e fre;ue!cies is #ee!#e!t o! the i!formatio! 4it rate> the amou!t of
re#u!#a!c9 use#> a!# the #ista!ce to the !earest i!terfere!ce source.
4irect Se<uence S,read S,ectru+ /4SSS0
/irect Se;ue!ce Srea# Sectrum is 4ase# o! the multil9i!" of the 4ase4a!# si"!al #ata with a
4roa#4a!# srea#i!" co#e. The result is terme# the chi rate. The characteristics of the
4roa#4a!# srea#i!" co#e are that of seu#ora!#om !oise. Co!se;ue!tl9 the receiver
s9!chro!iAe# to the co#e will o4tai! the !arrow4a!# si"!al. All other receivers will see the
srea# si"!al as white or colore# !oise.
%! co!trast> fre;ue!c9+hoi!" srea# sectrum seu#o+ra!#oml9 retu!es the carrier> i!stea# of
a##i!" seu#o+ra!#om !oise to the #ata> which results i! a u!iform fre;ue!c9 #istri4utio! whose
wi#th is #etermi!e# 49 the outut ra!"e of the seu#o+ra!#om !um4er "e!erator.
%! telecommu!icatio!s> #irect+se;ue!ce srea# sectrum is a mo#ulatio! tech!i;ue where the
tra!smitte# si"!al takes u more 4a!#wi#th tha! the i!formatio! si"!al that is 4ei!" mo#ulate#>
which is the reaso! that it is calle# srea# sectrum. /SSS has the followi!" features*
for "e!erati!" srea#+sectrum tra!smissio!s 49 hase+mo#ulati!" a si!e wave seu#o ra!#oml9
with a co!ti!uous stri!" of seu#o !oise co#e s9m4ols> each of #uratio! much smaller tha! a 4it.
A si"!al structuri!" tech!i;ue utiliAi!" a #i"ital co#e se;ue!ce ('N Se;ue!ces) havi!" a chi
rate much hi"her tha! the i!formatio! si"!al 4it rate. &ach i!formatio! 4it of a #i"ital si"!al is
tra!smitte# as a seu#ora!#om se;ue!ce of chis.
The ri!cile of irect Sequence is to srea# a si"!al o! a lar"er fre;ue!c9 4a!# 49 multile-i!"
it with a si"!ature or co#e to mi!imiAe localiAe# i!terfere!ce a!# 4ack"rou!# !oise. To srea#
the si"!al> each 4it is mo#ulate# 49 a co#e. %! the receiver> the ori"i!al si"!al is recovere# 49
receivi!" the whole srea# cha!!el a!# #emo#ulati!" with the same co#e use# 49 the
tra!smitter. The 032.11 irect Sequence Spread Spectrum (/SSS) '7B also uses the 2.4 @7A
ra#io fre;ue!c9 4a!#.
%t is also a art of the 032.11 4 a!# " sta!#ar#s. Note that i! the ori"i!al 032.11 sta!#ar#> either
:7SS or /SSS ma9 4e use#.
/SSS (/irect Se;ue!ce Srea# Sectrum) is also restricte# to 1 or 2 64s. The scheme use# has
some similarities to the C/6A s9stem> 4ut #iffers i! other wa9s. &ach 4it is tra!smitte# as 11
chis> usi!" what is calle# a Barker se;ue!ce. %t uses hase shift mo#ulatio! at 1 64au#>
tra!smitti!" 1 4it er 4au# whe! oerati!" at 1 64s a!# 2 4its er 4au# whe! oerati!" at 2
64s. 032.114 uses /SSS to #iserse the #ata frame si"!al over a relativel9 wi#e
(aro-imatel9 3367A) ortio! of the 2.4@7A fre;ue!c9 4a!#. This results i! "reater immu!it9
to ra#io fre;ue!c9 (8:) i!terfere!ce as comare# to !arrow4a!# si"!ali!"> which is wh9 the
:e#eral Commu!icatio!s Commissio! (:CC) (#efi!e) #eems the oeratio! of srea# sectrum
s9stems as lice!se free. :or 9ears> the :CC re;uire# all wireless commu!icatio!s e;uime!t
oerati!" i! the %S6 4a!#s i! the 1.S. to use srea# sectrum> 4ut i! 6a9 2332> that rule was
#roe# as !ew tech!olo"ies emer"e#. The first of the hi"h+see# wireless LANs> 032.11a> uses
O:/6 (Ortho"o!al :re;ue!c9 /ivisio! 6ultile-i!") to #eliver u to $4 64s i! the wi#er $+
@7A %S6 4a!#. As the term :/6 su""ests> #iffere!t fre;ue!cies are use#F$2 of them> 40 for
#ata a!# 4 for s9!chro!iAatio!F!ot u!like A/SL. Si!ce tra!smissio!s are rese!t o! multile
fre;ue!cies at the same time> this tech!i;ue is co!si#ere# a form of srea# sectrum> 4ut
#iffere!t from 4oth C/6A a!# :7SS. Slitti!" the si"!al i!to ma!9 !arrow 4a!#s has some ke9
a#va!ta"es over usi!" a si!"le wi#e 4a!#> i!clu#i!" 4etter immu!it9 to !arrow4a!# i!terfere!ce
a!# the ossi4ilit9 of usi!" !o!co!ti"uous 4a!#s. A comle- e!co#i!" s9stem is use#> 4ase# o!
hase+shift mo#ulatio! for see#s u to 10 64s a!# o! NA6 a4ove that. At $4 64s> 21, #ata
4its are e!co#e# i!to 200+4it s9m4ols. 'art of the motivatio! for O:/6 is comati4ilit9 with the
&uroea! 7ierLAN52 s9stem (/oufe-i et al.> 2332). The tech!i;ue has a "oo# sectrum
efficie!c9 i! terms of 4its57A a!# "oo# immu!it9 to multiath fa#i!". This is ro4a4l9 the most
wi#el9 reco"!iAe# form of srea# sectrum. The /SSS rocess is erforme# 49 effectivel9
multil9i!" a! 8: carrier a!# a seu#o+!oise ('N) #i"ital si"!al. :irst the 'N co#e is mo#ulate#
o!to the i!formatio! si"!al usi!" o!e of several mo#ulatio! tech!i;ues (e". B'SC> N'SC>
etc). The!> a #ou4l9 4ala!ce# mi-er is use# to multil9 the 8: carrier a!# 'N mo#ulate#
i!formatio! si"!al. This rocess causes the 8: si"!al to 4e relace# with a ver9 wi#e 4a!#wi#th
si"!al with the sectral e;uivale!t of a !oise si"!al. The #emo#ulatio! rocess (for the B'SC
case) is the! siml9 the mi-i!"5multil9i!" of the same 'N mo#ulate# carrier with the i!comi!"
8: si"!al. The outut is a si"!al that is a ma-imum whe! the two si"!als e-actl9 e;ual o!e
a!other or are Mcorrelate#M. The correlate# si"!al is the! filtere# a!# se!t to a B'SC
The si"!als "e!erate# with this tech!i;ue aear as !oise i! the fre;ue!c9 #omai!. The wi#e
4a!#wi#th rovi#e# 49 the 'N co#e allows the si"!al ower to #ro 4elow the !oise threshol#
without loss of i!formatio!. The sectral co!te!t of a! SS si"!al is show! i! :i". 1. Note that
this is =ust the sectrum of a B'SC si"!al with a (si! - 5 -) 2 form.
:i". 1 B'SC /SSS Sectrum
The 4a!#wi#th i! /SSS s9stems is ofte! take! as the !ull+to+!ull 4a!#wi#th of the mai! lo4e of
the ower sectral #e!sit9 lot (i!#icate# as 28c i! :i". 1). The half ower 4a!#wi#th of this
lo4e is 1.2 8c> where 8c is the chi rate. Therefore> the 4a!#wi#th of a /SSS s9stem is a #irect
fu!ctio! of the chi rateG secificall9 28c58%N:O. This is =ust a! e-te!sio! of the revious
e;uatio! for rocess "ai!. %t shoul# 4e !ote# that the ower co!tai!e# i! the mai! lo4e
comrises <3 erce!t of the total ower. This allows a !arrower 8: 4a!#wi#th to accommo#ate
the receive# si"!al with the effect of rou!#i!" the receive# ulses i! the time #omai!.
O!e feature of /SSS is that N'SC ma9 4e use# to i!crease the #ata rate. This i!crease of a
factor of two 4its er s9m4ol of tra!smitte# i!formatio! over B'SC causes a! e;uivale!t
re#uctio! i! the availa4le rocess "ai!. The rocess "ai! is re#uce# 4ecause for a "ive! chi
rate> the 4a!#wi#th (which sets the rocess "ai!) is halve# #ue to the two+fol# i!crease i!
i!formatio! tra!sfer. The result is that s9stems i! a sectrall9 ;uiet e!viro!me!t 4e!efit from the
ossi4le i!crease i! #ata tra!sfer rate.
The mo#ulator co!verts the srea# 4i!ar9 si"!al i!to a! a!alo" waveform throu"h the use of
#iffere!t mo#ulatio! t9es> #ee!#i!" o! which #ata rate is chose!. :or e-amle with 164s
oeratio!> the '6/ uses #iffere!tial 4i!ar9 hase shift ke9i!" (/B'SC). This is!It reall9 as
comle- as it sou!#s. The mo#ulator merel9 shifts the hase of the ce!ter tra!smit fre;ue!c9 to
#isti!"uish a 4i!ar9 1 from a 4i!ar9 3 withi! the #ata stream.
:or 264s tra!smissio!> the '6/ uses #iffere!tial ;ua#rature hase shift ke9i!" (/N'SC)>
which is similar to /B'SC e-cet that there are four ossi4le hase shifts that rerese!ts ever9
two #ata 4its. This is a clever rocess that e!a4les the #ata stream to 4e se!t at 264s while
usi!" the same amou!t of 4a!#wi#th as the o!e se!t at 164s. The mo#ulator uses similar
metho#s for the hi"her> $.$64s a!# 1164s #ata rates.
The tra!smitterIs mo#ulator tra!slates the srea# si"!al i!to a! a!alo" form with a ce!ter
fre;ue!c9 correso!#i!" to the ra#io cha!!el chose! 49 the user. The followi!" i#e!tifies the
ce!ter fre;ue!c9 of each cha!!el*
Cha!!el :re;ue!c9 (@7A)
?arious cou!tries limit the use of these cha!!els. :or e-amle> the 1.S. o!l9 allows the use of
cha!!els 1 throu"h 11> a!# the 1.C. ca! use cha!!els 1 throu"h 13. Paa!> however> authoriAes
the use all 14 cha!!els. This comlicates matters whe! #esi"!i!" i!ter!atio!al u4lic wireless
LANs. %! that case> 9ou !ee# to choose cha!!els with the least commo! #e!omi!ator.
After 8: amlificatio! takes lace 4ase# o! the tra!smit ower 9ouIve chose! (133mW
ma-imum for the 1.S.)> the tra!smitter oututs the mo#ulate# /SSS si"!al to the a!te!!a i!
or#er to roa"ate the si"!al to the #esti!atio!. The tri i! route to the #esti!atio! will
si"!ifica!tl9 atte!uate (#efi!e) the si"!al> 4ut the receiver at the #esti!atio! will #etect the
i!comi!" 'h9sical La9er hea#er a!# reverse (#emo#ulate a!# #isrea#) the rocess imleme!te#
49 the tra!smitter
The I... 802.11a
While 032.11a was arove# i! Setem4er 1<<<> !ew ro#uct #evelome!t has rocee#e# much
more slowl9 tha! 032.114. This is #ue to the cost a!# comle-it9 of imleme!tatio!. This
sta!#ar# uses 333 67A of 4a!#wi#th i! the $ @7A u!lice!se# !atio!al i!formatio! i!frastructure
(1N%%) 4a!#. The sectrum is #ivi#e# i!to three #omai!s> each havi!" restrictio!s imose# o!
the ma-imum allowe# outut ower (see :i"ure 1). The first 133 67A i! the lower fre;ue!c9
ortio! is restricte# to a ma-imum ower outut of $3 mW. The seco!# 133 67A has a hi"her
2$3 mW ma-imum> while the thir# 133 67A> which is mai!l9 i!te!#e# for out#oor alicatio!s>
has a ma-imum of 1.3 W ower outut.
O:/6 oerates 49 #ivi#i!" the tra!smitte# #ata i!to multile arallel 4it streams> each with
lower relative 4it rates a!# mo#ulati!" searate !arrow4a!# carriers> referre# to as su4+carriers.
The su4+carriers are ortho"o!al> so each ca! 4e receive# without i!terfere!ce from a!other.
032.11a secifies ei"ht !o!+overlai!" 23 67A cha!!els i! the lower two 4a!#sG each of these
are #ivi#e# i!to $2 su4+carriers (four of which carr9 ilot #ata) of 333+k7A 4a!#wi#th each. :our
!o!+overlai!" 23 67A cha!!els are secifie# i! the uer 4a!#. The receiver rocesses the $2
i!#ivi#ual 4it streams> reco!structi!" the ori"i!al hi"h+rate #ata stream. :our comle-
mo#ulatio! metho#s are emlo9e#> #ee!#i!" o! the #ata rate that ca! 4e suorte# 49 cha!!el
co!#itio!s 4etwee! the tra!smitter a!# receiver. These i!clu#e B'SC> N'SC> 1,+NA6> a!# ,4+
Nua#rature amlitu#e mo#ulatio! is a comle- mo#ulatio! metho# where #ata are carrie# i!
s9m4ols rerese!te# 49 the hase a!# amlitu#e of the mo#ulate# carrier. 1,+NA6 has 1,
s9m4ols. &ach rerese!ts four #ata 4its. ,4+NA6 has 1, s9m4ols with each rerese!ti!" four
B'SC mo#ulatio! is alwa9s use# o! the four ilot su4+carriers. Althou"h it a##s a #e"ree of
comlicatio! to the Base4a!# rocessi!"> 032.11a i!clu#es forwar# error correctio! (:&C) as
art of the secificatio!. :&C> which #oes !ot e-ist withi! 032.114> e!a4les the receiver to
i#e!tif9 a!# correct errors ma#e #uri!" tra!smissio! 49 se!#i!" a##itio!al #ata alo!" with the
rimar9 tra!smissio!. This !earl9 elimi!ates the !ee# for retra!smissio!s whe! acket errors are
#etecte#. The #ata rates availa4le i! 032.11a are !ote# i! Ta4le 2> to"ether with the t9e of
mo#ulatio! a!# the co#i!" rate.
032.11a ro#ucts are e-ecte# to 4e"i! arrivi!" i! the first half of 2332. Some of the coma!ies
#eveloi!" chiset solutio!s for 032.11a are touti!" the availa4ilit9 of oeratio!al mo#es that
e-cee# the $4 645s state# i! the secificatio!. Of course> 4ecause faster #ata rates are out of the
secificatio!Is scoe> the9 re;uire the use of e;uime!t from a si!"le source throu"hout the
Co!si#eri!" the comosite waveform resulti!" from the com4i!atio! of $2 su4+carriers> the
format re;uires more li!earit9 i! the amlifiers 4ecause of the hi"her eak+to+avera"e ower
ratio of the tra!smitte# O:/6 si"!al. %! a##itio!> 4etter hase !oise erforma!ce is re;uire#
4ecause of the closel9 sace#> overlai!" carriers. These issues a## to the imleme!tatio! cost
of 032.11a ro#ucts. Alicatio!+secific measureme!t tools ai# i! the #esi"! a!#
trou4leshooti!" of O:/6 si"!als a!# s9stems.
/esi"! of #evices usi!" 032.11a with O:/6 si"!als a!# oerati!" at $ @7A will 4ri!" !ew
challe!"es i! testi!"> articularl9 4ecause the #ata rate will 4e i!creasi!" 49 a factor of five a!#
usi!" the same 4a!#wi#th (23 67A) to #o it. The hi"h eak+to+avera"e ower ratio
rerese!tative of multicarrier O:/6 si"!als #ictates the !ee# for hi"hl9 li!ear a!# efficie!t
amlifiers> as well as a metho# to characteriAe them.
Tra!smitte# si"!als such as O:/6> which #o !ot have a co!sta!t ower e!veloe> are !ot well+
characteriAe# 49 eak+to+avera"e ower ratio. This metric is !ot useful> as the true eak ower
ma9 !ot occur ofte!. %t is usuall9 more mea!i!"ful for O:/6 si"!als to associate a erce!ta"e
ro4a4ilit9 with a ower level.
A more mea!i!"ful metho# for viewi!" O:/6 si"!al ower characteristics uses the
comleme!tar9 cumulative #istri4utio! fu!ctio! (CC/:). This metric li!ks a erce!ta"e
ro4a4ilit9 to a ower level. %! this measureme!t> a! i!strume!t with time+"ati!" caa4ilit9 is
use# to select o!l9 the active ortio! of the 4urst (see :i"ure 2 lower trace).
%f time "ati!" were !ot use#> the erio#s whe! the 4urst is off woul# re#uce the avera"e ower
calculatio!. The CC/:> which is siml9 the more commo! cumulative #istri4utio! fu!ctio!
(C/:) su4tracte# from 1.3> shows the !um4er of #eci4els a4ove the avera"e ower o! the
horiAo!tal a-is> a!# erce!t ro4a4ilit9 o! vertical a-is (see :i"ure 2 uer trace). A CC/:
measureme!t woul# 4e ma#e over several 4ursts to imrove the accurac9 of the measureme!t.
The I... 8102.11b
032.114> which was arove# 49 the %&&& i! 1<<<> is a! e-te!sio! of the 032.11 /SSS s9stem
reviousl9 me!tio!e# a!# suorts hi"her $.$ a!# 11 645s a9loa# #ata rates i! a##itio! to the
ori"i!al 1 a!# 2 645s rates. 'ro#ucts are !ow wi#el9 availa4le> a!# the i!stalle# 4ase of s9stems
is "rowi!" rai#l9. 032.114 also oerates i! the hi"hl9 oulate# 2.4 @7A %S6 4a!# (2.43 to
2.403$ @7A)> which rovi#es o!l9 03 67A of sectrum to accommo#ate a variet9 of other
ra#iati!" ro#ucts> i!clu#i!" cor#less ho!es> microwave ove!s> other WLANs> a!# erso!al
area !etworks ('ANS). This makes susceti4ilit9 to i!terfere!ce a rimar9 co!cer!. The
occuie# 4a!#wi#th of the srea#+sectrum cha!!el is 22 67A> so the %S6 4a!# accommo#ates
o!l9 three !o!+overlai!" cha!!els sace# 2$ 67A aart. To hel miti"ate i!terfere!ce effects>
032.114 #esi"!ates a! otio!al fre;ue!c9 a"ile or hoi!" mo#e usi!" the three !o!+overlai!"
cha!!els or si- overlai!" cha!!els sace# at 13 67A.
032.114 uses ei"ht+chi comleme!tar9 co#e ke9i!" (CCC) as the mo#ulatio! scheme to
achieve the hi"her #ata rates. %!stea# of the Barker co#es use# to e!co#e a!# srea# the #ata for
the lower rates> CCC uses a !earl9 ortho"o!al comle- co#e set calle# comleme!tar9
se;ue!ces. The chi rate remai!s co!siste!t with the ori"i!al /SSS s9stem at 11 6chi5s> while
the #ata rate varies to match cha!!el co!#itio!s 49 cha!"i!" the srea#i!" factor a!#5or the
To achieve #ata rates of $.$ a!# 11 645s> the srea#i!" le!"th is first re#uce# from 11 to ei"ht
chis. This i!creases the s9m4ol rate from 1 6s9m5s to 1.3.$ 6s9m5s. :or the $.$+645s 4it rate
with a 1.3.$ 67A s9m4ol rate> it is !ecessar9 to tra!smit 4 4its5s9m4ol ($.$ 645s51.3.$
6s9m5s) a!# for 11 645s> a! 0 4its5s9m4ol. The CCC aroach take! i! 032.114> which kees
the N'SC srea#+sectrum si"!al a!# still rovi#es the re;uire# !um4er of 4its5s9m4ol> uses all
4ut two of the 4its to select from a set of srea#i!" se;ue!ces a!# the remai!i!" two 4its to
rotate the se;ue!ce. The selectio! of the se;ue!ce> coule# with the rotatio!> rerese!ts the
s9m4ol co!ve9i!" the four or ei"ht 4its of #ata. :or all 032.114 a9loa# #ata rates> the ream4le
a!# hea#er are se!t at the 1 645s rate.
The 23 67A+wi#e 4a!#wi#th of WLAN si"!als makes ower e!veloe measureme!ts #ifficult
4ecause most sectrum a!al9Aers have resolutio! 4a!#wi#th filters that are limite# to 13 67A or
less. Therefore> the si"!al is co!si#era4l9 atte!uate# 49 the time the ower is measure# withi!
the i!strume!t. ?ector si"!al a!al9Aers are availa4le with i!formatio! 4a!#wi#ths that are
co!si#era4l9 "reater tha! 23 67A> maki!" WLAN si"!al a!al9sis more accurate.
The 032.114 sta!#ar# uses error vector ma"!itu#e (&?6) as a measure of mo#ulatio! ;ualit9.
This measureme!t has 4ecome commo! for most wireless alicatio!s. The u!#erl9i!"
hilosoh9 of &?6 is that a!9 si"!al #eteriorate# 49 a !ois9 cha!!el ca! 4e rerese!te# as the
sum of a! i#eal si"!al a!# a! error si"!al. The test i!strume!t #etermi!es the error si"!al 49
reco!structi!" the i#eal si"!al 4ase# o! #etecte# si"!al i!formatio! a!# su4tracti!" it from the
actual si"!al at each samle oi!t.
Co+,arison of 802.11a and 802.11b
A #raw4ack of the $ @7A 4a!#> which has receive# co!si#era4le atte!tio!> is its shorter
wavele!"th. 7i"her+fre;ue!c9 si"!als will have more trou4le roa"ati!" throu"h h9sical
o4structio!s e!cou!tere# i! a! office (walls> floors> a!# fur!iture) tha! those at 2.4 @7A. A!
a#va!ta"e of 032.11a is its i!tri!sic a4ilit9 to ha!#le #ela9 srea# or multiath reflectio! effects.
The slower s9m4ol rate a!# laceme!t of si"!ifica!t "uar# time arou!# each s9m4ol> usi!" a
tech!i;ue calle# c9clical e-te!sio!> re#uces the i!ter+s9m4ol i!terfere!ce (%S%) cause# 49
multiath i!terfere!ce. (The last o!e+;uarter of the s9m4ol ulse is coie# a!# attache# to the
4e"i!!i!" of the 4urst. /ue to the erio#ic !ature of the si"!al> the =u!ctio! at the start of the
ori"i!al 4urst will alwa9s 4e co!ti!uous.) To co!trast> 032.114 !etworks are "e!erall9 ra!"e+
limite# 49 multiath i!terfere!ce rather tha! the loss of si"!al stre!"th over #ista!ce.
Whe! it comes to #elo9me!t of a wireless LAN> oeratio!al characteristics have 4ee!
comare# to those of cellular s9stems> where fre;ue!c9 la!!i!" of overlai!" cells mi!imiAes
mutual i!terfere!ce suort mo4ilit9 a!# seamless cha!!el ha!#off. The three !o!+overlai!"
fre;ue!c9 cha!!els availa4le for %&&& 032.114 are at a #isa#va!ta"e comare# to the "reater
!um4er of cha!!els availa4le to 032.11a. The a##itio!al cha!!els allow more overlai!" access
oi!ts withi! a "ive! area while avoi#i!" a##itio!al mutual i!terfere!ce.
Both 032.114 a!# 032.11a use #9!amic rate shifti!" where the s9stem will automaticall9 a#=ust
the #ata rate 4ase# o! the co!#itio! of the ra#io cha!!el. %f the cha!!el is clear> the! the mo#es
with the hi"hest #ata rates are use#. But as i!terfere!ce is i!tro#uce# i!to the cha!!el> the ra#io
will fall 4ack to a slower> al4eit more ro4ust> tra!smissio! scheme.
Network la!!i!" is critical to the #evelome!t of a! otimiAe# s9stem. &ach !etwork must 4e
customiAe# to satisf9 the la!!e# alicatio!s a!# the h9sical e!viro!me!t. 8e;uireme!ts must
4e researche# a!# well+#ocume!te#> i!clu#i!" a!ticiate# roami!" a!# #ata rates !ee#e# for
alicatio!s to 4e use# at secific locatio!s. A site surve9 must 4e thorou"h a!# realistic to
a#e;uatel9 characteriAe the 8: e!viro!me!t of the roose# wireless !etwork i! terms of ra!"e>
cha!!el i!terfere!ce a!# #ela9 srea#.
%t woul# 4e u!realistic to e-ect to realiAe the full #ata rate caa4ilit9 ($4 645s) of 032.11a if the
access oi!ts of a! e-isti!" 032.114 !etwork otimiAe# to oerate at full see# (11 645s) XYT
were siml9 relace#. But as has 4ee! show!> 032.11a is faster tha! 032.114 at a!9 ra!"e. Cost
vs. erforma!ce re;uireme!ts !ee# thorou"h a!al9sis #uri!" the !etwork la!!i!" sta"e to arrive
at the aroriate imleme!tatio! #ecisio!.
Testi!" is critical to a!9 ro#uct #evelome!t rocess. WLAN ro#ucts re;uire that secial
atte!tio! 4e "ive! to #esi"! verificatio! a!# characteriAatio! 4ecause sta!#ar#iAe# oeratio!
across multive!#or ro#ucts ma9 4e re;uire#. To rovi#e a! efficie!t #evelome!t e!viro!me!t>
test tools are availa4le to ;uickl9 #ia"!ose ro4lems a!# isolate them throu"hout all #esi"!
se"me!ts. These tools ca! 4e use# withi! the ma!ufacturi!" rocess to "e!erate a!# a!al9Ae
ro#uctio! metrics for rocess a!# ro#uct imroveme!t.
&ve! #uri!" these lea! eco!omic times> whe! there is a re#uce# #ema!# for tech!olo"9
ro#ucts> the !ew> 4ut alrea#9 ro4ust WLAN market is ro=ecte# to "row 49 a! or#er of
ma"!itu#e over the !e-t five 9ears. These wireless !etworks will re;uire i!creasi!" #ata rates to
rovi#e the simulta!eous #istri4utio! of %!ter!et #ata> hi"h+;ualit9 vi#eo a!# au#io i! the office
or at home. %! a##itio! to hi"her #ata rates> it is almost a fore"o!e co!clusio! that e!#+users will
4e #ema!#i!" co!ti!uous imroveme!ts i! fu!ctio!alit9> ease+of+use a!# relia4ilit9.
Wireless !etworki!" has a romisi!" future with 032.11 lea#i!" the wa9 as the sta!#ar# for
a#otio! i! local !etworki!" e!viro!me!ts. 032.11 a##resses mo4ilit9> securit9> relia4ilit9> a!#
the #9!amic !ature of wireless LANS while keei!" comati4ilit9 with 032+t9e le"ac9
!etworks. &-ect to see availa4ilit9 of 032.11 ro#ucts i!crease #ramaticall9 i! the !ear future as
4usi!esses #iscover the i!crease# ro#uctivit9 rovi#e# 49 Hu!tethere#E !etworks.
032.11+4ase# !etworks have see! wi#esrea# #elo9me!t across ma!9 fiel#s> mai!l9 #ue to the
h9sical co!ve!ie!ces of ra#io+4ase# commu!icatio!. This #elo9me!t> however> was
re#icate# i! art o! the user e-ectatio! of co!fi#e!tialit9 a!# availa4ilit9. This aer
a##resse# the availa4ilit9 asect of that e;uatio!. We e-ami!e# the 032.11 6AC la9er a!#
#escri4e# the architecture a!# the mai! fu!ctio!s of the 6AC as art of the rotocol stack also
we ma#e a few comariso!s. W& thi!k that with the comariso!s we have offere# a! i!teresti!"
issue a!# that the #escritio! has more efficie!c9. Securit9 as a art of the rotocol stack has
also 4ee! me!tio! 4ecause the rotocol stack as a art of the software is the first art i! what
eole are i!tereste# i!. The wi#esrea# acceta!ce of WLANs #ee!#s o! i!#ustr9
sta!#ar#iAatio! to e!sure ro#uct comati4ilit9 a!# relia4ilit9 amo!" the various ma!ufacturers.
The %!stitute of &lectrical a!# &lectro!ics &!"i!eers (%&&&) ratifie# the ori"i!al 032.11
secificatio! i! 1<<. as the sta!#ar# for wireless LANs. That versio! of 032.11 rovi#es for 1
64s a!# 2 64s #ata rates a!# a set of fu!#ame!tal si"!ali!" metho#s a!# other services.
The most critical issue affecti!" WLAN #ema!# has 4ee! limite# throu"hut. The #ata rates
suorte# 49 the ori"i!al 032.11 sta!#ar# are too slow to suort most "e!eral 4usi!ess
re;uireme!ts a!# have slowe# a#otio! of WLANs. 8eco"!iAi!" the critical !ee# to suort
hi"her #ata+tra!smissio! rates> the %&&& rece!tl9 ratifie# the 032.114 sta!#ar# (also k!ow! as
032.11 7i"h 8ate) for tra!smissio!s of u to 11 64s. @lo4al re"ulator9 4o#ies a!# ve!#or
allia!ces have e!#orse# this !ew hi"h+rate sta!#ar#> which romises to oe! !ew markets for
WLANs i! lar"e e!terrise> small office> a!# home e!viro!me!ts. With 032.114> WLANs will
4e a4le to achieve wireless erforma!ce a!# throu"hut comara4le to wire# &ther!et.
To#a9Es 4usi!ess e!viro!me!t is characteriAe# 49 a! i!creasi!"l9 mo4ile workforce a!# flatter
or"a!iAatio!s. &mlo9ees are e;uie# with !ote4ook comuters a!# se!# more of their time
worki!" i! teams that cross fu!ctio!al> or"a!iAatio!al> a!# "eo"rahic 4ou!#aries. 6uch of
these workersE ro#uctivit9 occurs i! meeti!"s a!# awa9 from their #esks. 1sers !ee# access to
the !etwork far 4e9o!# their erso!al #esktos. WLANs fit well i! this work e!viro!me!t>
"ivi!" mo4ile workers much+!ee#e# free#om i! their !etwork access. With a wireless !etwork>
workers ca! access i!formatio! from a!9where i! the cororatio!Fa co!fere!ce room> the
cafeteria> or a remote 4ra!ch office. Wireless LANs rovi#e a 4e!efit for %T ma!a"ers as well>
allowi!" them to #esi"!> #elo9> a!# e!ha!ce !etworks without re"ar# to the availa4ilit9 of
wiri!"> savi!" 4oth effort a!# #ollars.
Busi!esses of all siAes ca! 4e!efit from #elo9i!" a WLAN s9stem> which rovi#es a owerful
com4i!atio! of wire# !etwork throu"hut> mo4ile access> a!# co!fi"uratio! fle-i4ilit9. The
eco!omic 4e!efits ca! a## u to as much as J1,>333 er userFmeasure# i! worker ro#uctivit9>
or"a!iAatio!al efficie!c9> reve!ue "ai!> a!# cost savi!"sFover wire# alter!atives.
So at the e!# we hoe that we have offere# a "e!eral overview of the %&&& 032.11> eseciall9
rotocol stack a!# h9sical la9ers> arts that are #efi!e# i! the %&&& Sta!#ar#. The %&&& 032.11
is a hu"e toic a!# the Sta!#ar#s we ca! #ow!loa# free from the i!ter!et.
WLAN D Wireless Local Area Network
LAN + Local Area Network
6AC + 6e#ium Access Co!trol
'7B D 'h9sical La9er
%S6 + %!#ustrial> Scie!tific> a!# 6e#ical
CS6A5C/ + Carrier Se!se> 6ultile Access with Collisio! /etect
%SO + %!ter!atio!al Sta!#ar#s Or"a!iAatio!
/SSS + /irect Se;ue!ce Srea# Sectrum
NoS + Nualit9 Of Service
TC' + Tra!smit ower co!trol
/:S + /9!amic fre;ue!c9 selectio!
6%6O + 6ultile %!ut> 6ultile Outut
LLC + Lo"ical Li!k Co!trol
/S + /istri4utio! S9stem
W&' + Wire# &;uivale!t 'rivac9
NA? + Network Allocatio! ?ector
C8C + C9clic 8e#u!#a!c9 Check
%&&&+SA + %!stitute of &lectrical a!# &lectro!ics &!"i!eers Sta!#ar#s Associatio!
&?6 + &rror ?ector 6a"!itu#e
CCC + comleme!tar9 co#e ke9i!"
C/: + Cumulative /istri4utio! :u!ctio!
CC/: + Comleme!tar9 Cumulative /istri4utio! :u!ctio!
:&C + :orwar# &rror Correctio!
/N'SC + /iffere!tial Nua#rature 'hase Shift Ce9i!"
/B'SC + /iffere!tial Bi!ar9 'hase Shift Ce9i!"
'N D 'seu#o Noise
8: D 8a#io :re;ue!c9
O:/6 + Ortho"o!al :re;ue!c9 /ivisio! 6ultile-i!"
::C + :e#eral Commu!icatio!s Commissio!
/SSS + /irect Se;ue!ce Srea# Sectrum
:7SS + :re;ue!c9 7oi!" Srea# Sectrum
''6 + 'ulse 'ositio! 6o#ulatio!
78+/SSS + 7i"h 8ate /irect Se;ue!ce Srea# Sectrum
''/1 + 'LC' 'rotocol /ata 1!it
'6/ + 'h9sical 6e#ium /ee!#e!t
'LC' + 'h9sical La9er Co!ver"e!ce 'roce#ure
IS& 2 International Standards &r-ani=ation
The %!ter!atio!al Sta!#ar#s Or"a!iAatio! is reso!si4le for a wi#e ra!"e of sta!#ar#s> i!clu#i!"
those releva!t to !etworki!". The %SO #eveloe# the OS% (Oe! S9stem %!terco!!ectio!)
refere!ce mo#el which is a oular !etworki!" refere!ce tool.
(A) 2 (ireless ocal Area )et'ork
This is a "e!eric term coveri!" a multitu#e of tech!olo"ies rovi#i!" local area !etworki!" via a
ra#io li!k. &-amles of WLAN tech!olo"ies i!clu#e (i2;i (Wireless :i#elit9)> 802.11b a!#
802.11a> 7ierLAN> *luetooth> Ir4A (%!frare# /ata Associatio!) a!# 4.CT (/i"ital
&!ha!ce# Cor#less Telecommu!icatio!s) etc.
(i8A6 2 (orld'ide Intero,erability for 8icro'a#e Access
The term Wi6A2 has 4ecome s9!o!9mous with the %&&& 032.1, suite of sta!#ar#s. These
#efi!e the ra#io or air i!terface withi! two 4roa# ra#io 4a!#s 2@7A to 11@7A (%&&& 032.1,a)
a!# 13@7A + ,,@7A (%&&& 032.1,c) althou"h i!itial i!terest is co!fi!e# to the li!e of si"ht
4a!#s + 2.$@7A> 3.$@7A a!# $.0@7A. %t is a!ticiate# that Wi6A2 will 4e use# i!itiall9 as a
4ackhaul co!!ectio! with other tech!olo"ies such as Wi+:i 4ei!" use# to cover the Sfi!al mileT.
(i2;i 2 (ireless ;idelity
Wi+:i is a! i!teroera4ilit9 sta!#ar# #eveloe# 49 W&CA (Wireless &ther!et Comati4ilit9
Allia!ce) a!# issue# to those ma!ufacturers whose %&&& 802.11a a!# 802>11b e;uime!t has
asse# a suite of 4asic i!teroera4ilit9 tests. &;uime!t assi!" these tests carries the Wi+:i
Note* Wi+:i !ot Wi:i.
8AC 2 8ediu+ Access Control
6e#ia Access Co!trol is the lower of the two su4la9ers of the /ata Li!k La9er. %! "e!eral terms>
6AC ha!#les access to a share# me#ium> a!# ca! 4e fou!# withi! ma!9 #iffere!t tech!olo"ies.
:or e-amle> 6AC metho#olo"ies are emlo9e# withi! .thernet> %P:S> a!# 58TS etc.
A 'h9sical Li!k is the co!!ectio! 4etwee! #evices.
4SSS 2 4irect Se<uence S,read S,ectru+
/irect Se;ue!ce Srea# Sectrum is 4ase# o! the multil9i!" of the Base4a!# si"!al #ata with a
4roa#4a!# srea#i!" co#e. The result is terme# the chi rate. The characteristics of the
4roa#4a!# srea#i!" co#e are that of seu#ora!#om !oise. Co!se;ue!tl9 the receiver
s9!chro!iAe# to the co#e will o4tai! the !arrow4a!# si"!al. All other receivers will see the
srea# si"!al as white or colore# !oise.
?oS 2 ?uality of Ser#ice
The erforma!ce of a commu!icatio!s cha!!el or s9stem is usuall9 e-resse# i! terms of NoS
(Nualit9 of Service). /ee!#i!" uo! the commu!icatio! s9stem> NoS ma9 relate to service
erforma!ce> S): (Si"!al to Noise 8atio)> *.: (Bit &rror 8atio)> ma-imum a!# mea!
throu"hut rate> relia4l9> riorit9 a!# other factors secific to each service.
TCP 2 Trans+ission Control Protocol
Tra!smissio! Co!trol 'rotocol is a relia4le octet streami!" rotocol use# 49 the ma=orit9 of
alicatio!s o! the Internet. %t rovi#es a co!!ectio!+orie!te#> full+#ule-> oi!t to oi!t service
C 2 o-ical ink Control
%! the %P:S s9stem the LLC rotocol rovi#es a hi"hl9 relia4le cihere# lo"ical li!k 4etwee!
the 8S (6o4ile Statio!) a!# S%S) (Servi!" @'8S Suort No#e). %t is i!#ee!#e!t of the
u!#erl9i!" ra#io i!terface rotocols e!a4li!" the i!tro#uctio! of alter!ative @'8S ra#io
solutio!s with mi!imal cha!"es to the Network Switchi!" S9stem.
C:C 2 Cyclic :edundancy Code
A li!ear error co#e that is "e!erate# usi!" a ol9!omial fu!ctio! o! the #ata to 4e se!t> the
remai!#er from the rocess 4ei!" the C8C. This is se!t alo!" with #ata so that a arit9 check of
the receive# #ata ca! 4e co!#ucte#.
I... 2 Institute of .lectrical and .lectronics .n-ineers
The %!stitute of &lectrical a!# &lectro!ics &!"i!eers is a rofessio!al or"a!iAatio! whose
activities i!clu#e the #evelome!t of commu!icatio!s a!# !etwork sta!#ar#s.
'art of the I... 802.11 famil9 of secificatio!s> this wireless local area !etwork tech!olo"9 is
comrise# of a hi"h see# h9sical la9er oerati!" i! the $@7A u!lice!se# 4a!# a!# suorts
#ata rates u to $464s. &;uime!t oerati!" i! accor#a!ce with the %&&& secificatio!s a!#
assi!" the Allia!ces i!teroera4ilit9 tests is a4le to #isla9 the Wi+:i lo"o.
Several ma!ufacturers have #eveloe# e;uime!t which is caa4le of oerati!" i! accor#a!ce
with 4oth %&&& 032.11a a!# I... 802.11bsecificatio!s.
'art of the I... 802.11 famil9 of secificatio!s> %&&& 032.114 is curre!tl9 the most oular
wireless !etworki!" tech!olo"9. The e;uime!t oerates i! the 2.4@7A u!lice!se# 4a!# a!#
utiliAes 9:74SSS (7i"h 8ate + /irect Se;ue!ce Srea# Sectrum) e!a4li!" #ata rates of u to
1164s to 4e achieve#. &;uime!t oerati!" i! accor#a!ce with the %&&& secificatio!s a!#
assi!" the (i2;i Alliances i!teroera4ilit9 tests is a4le to #isla9 the Wi+:i lo"o.
Several manufacturers have developed equipment which is capable of
operating in accordance with both I... 802.11a and IEEE 802.11b
I... 802.11 2 (ireless
This is a! I... (%!stitute of &lectrical a!# &lectro!ic &!"i!eers) tech!ical sta!#ar# coveri!"
(A) (Wireless Local Area Network) tech!olo"9. The sta!#ar#s have 4ee! #ivi#e# i!to su4
"rous with 032.114 curre!tl9 the most commo!. This rovi#es a wireless commu!icatio! at u
to 1164s a!# oerates withi! the 2.4@7A IS8 (%!#ustrial Scie!tific a!# 6e#ical) 4a!#. The
032.11a 4ase# e;uime!t is !ow commerciall9 availa4le a!# rovi#es #ata rates u to $464s
a!# oerates i! the $@7A %S6 4a!#. %&&& 032.11 !etworks are comrise# of Stations> Wireless
6e#ium> AP (Access 'oi!ts) a!# a /S (/istri4utio! S9stem).
AP 2 Access Point
A! Access 'oi!t is a #evice fou!# withi! a! %&&& 802.11 !etwork which rovi#es the oi!t of
i!terco!!ectio! 4etwee! the wireless Station (lato comuter> P4A ('erso!!el /i"ital
Assista!t) etc.) a!# the wire# !etwork.
.SS 2 .3tended Ser#ice Set
A! &-te!#e# Service Set is comrise# of a !um4er of %&&& 802.11 BSS (Basic Service Set) a!#
e!a4les limite# mo4ilit9 withi! the (A) (Wireless Local Area Network). Statio!s are a4le to
move 4etwee! *SS withi! a si!"le &SS 9et still remai! Sco!!ecte#T to the fi-e# !etwork a!# so
co!ti!ue to receive emails etc. As a Station moves i!to a !ew BSS> it will carr9 out a
resuscitatio! roce#ure with the !ew AP (Access 'oi!t).
SSI4 2 Ser#ice Set Identifier
The Service Set %#e!tifier or Network Name is use# withi! %&&& 802.11 !etworks to i#e!tif9 a
articular !etwork. %t is usuall9 set 49 the a#mi!istrator setti!" u the (A) (Wireless Local
Area Network) a!# will 4e u!i;ue withi! a *SS (Basic Service Set) or .SS (&-te!#e# Service
Set). The SS%/ ma9 4e 4roa#cast from a! AP (Access 'oi!t) withi! the wireless !etwork to
e!a4le Stations to #etermi!e which !etwork to SAssociateT with. 7owever> this feature shoul#
4e #isa4le# as it ma9 assist Shackers> or war#riversT i! "ai!i!" access to a rivate !etwork.
SAP 2 Ser#ice Access Point
A co!cetual oi!t where a rotocol la9er offers access to its services to the la9er a4ove or
Table of Contents 1. Abstraction 2. Introduction
2.1 Overview 2.2 Wireless Local Area Network 2.3 The Basic Structure of a Wireless LAN 2.4 Comparing a Wireless LAN to a Wired Network 2.5 The IEEE Standard
3. 802.11 Protocol Stack
3.1 Protocol Structure 3.2 Protocol Stack Architecture 3.2.1 Station (STA) Architecture: 3.2.2 Access-Point (AP) Architecture: 3.2.3 Basic Service Set (BSS): 3.2.4 Independent Basic Service Set (IBSS): 3.2.5 Infrastructure 3.2.6 Extended Service Set (ESS): 3.2.7 Service Set Identifier (SSID): 3.2.8 Basic Service Set Identifier (BSSID) 3.3 Protocol Stack for UNIX 3.4 Compare Overall Structure of 802.11b / 802.15.1 Coexistence Mechanism 3.5.1 MIH SAP Reference Model for 802.11 3.5.2 MIH SAP Reference Model for 802.16 3.6 Data Link Layer 3.6.1 Support for Time-Bounded Data 3.7 MAC Functional Description 3.7.1 MAC Architecture 3.8 Security
3.8.1 Preventing Access to Network Resources 3.8.2 Eavesdropping
4. Physical Layer
4.1 The physical layer basics 4.2 PLCP Frame Fields 4.3 Infrared (IR) 4.4 Spread Spectrum 4.5 Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) 4.6 Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) 4.6.1 DSSS Modulation 4.6.2 Transmit Frequencies 4.7 The IEEE 802.11a 4.7.1 Practice 802.11a 4.8 The IEEE 802.11b 4.8.1 Practice 802.11b 4.9Comparison of 802.11a and 802.11b
5. Conclusion 6. Abbreviation 7. Glossary
The writing of this Research Report was prompted to maintain two main developments of the IEEE 802.11 Standard physical protocol stack and Physical Layer enhanced from the developments in wireless communication in the past decade. First we had to do huge research activities in this topic. This has been a subject study since the sixties, so that during our exploring work we have selected a lot of materials and picked up the most visible things for the student to understand it more easily and clearly. So that we were concentrated to present the issue in modern wireless concepts in a coherent and unified manner and to illustrate the concepts in that way they are applied. The concepts can be structured into these levels: - Listing characteristics and modeling - Application of these concepts But of course there is interplay between these structures. So this Research report is written based on the material for the students in the sixth semester. Also in the end to understand better the terminology and the huge number of abbreviations explained and some definitions.
The past decade has seen many advances in physical-layer communication theory and their implementation in wireless systems. So that in this Research Report we are going to define and view fundamentals of wireless communication and that especially the IEEE 802.11 Standard and explain the advantages at a level that is accessible to our audience with a basic background. Wireless communication is one of the most vibrant areas in the communication field today. This is due to a confluence of several factors. First, there has been an explosive increase in demand for the tether less connectivity, driven so far mainly by cellular telephony but expected to be soon eclipsed by wireless data application. First there has been an explosive increase in demand for tether less connectivity, driven so far mainly by cellular telephony but expected to be soon eclipsed by wireless data applications. Second, the dramatic process in VLSI technology has enabled small area and low power implementation of sophisticated signal processing algorithms and coding techniques. Third, the success of second generation digital wireless standards and provide a concrete demonstration that good ideas from communication theory can have impact in practice. There are two fundamental aspects of wireless communication that make the problem challenging and interesting. These aspects are by and large not as significant in wire line communication. First the phenomenon of fading: the time variation of the channel strengths due to the small-scale effect of multipath fading, as well as large scale effects. Second, unlike the in the wired world where each transmitter-receiver pair can often be thought of as an isolated point-to point link, wireless users communicate over the air and there is significant interface between them. The original 802.11 standard specified three separate physical layers. Two are radiobased and one is infrared light-based. The original radio-based layers are spread spectrum: frequency hopping and direct sequence. These are all in the 2.4 GHz band. An additional 4
the suite is the definition of the protocols. This is specified in both the 2. in the areas of encryption. due process. Strictly speaking. a technology used for many years for the WLAN security. In a typical WLAN configuration. Wireless LAN’s typically augment or replace wired computer networks.11 standard includes a common Medium Access Control (MAC) Layer. and the receive function.11 frames.1a release. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standards Association (IEEESA) is the leading developer of global industry standards in a broad-range of industries. Wireless technologies use radio transmissions as the means for transmitting data. openness. We have discussed about them in this rapport. Transportation. the physical medium dependent layer (PMD) and the physical layer convergence procedure (PLCP). and transmits data between the components of the WLAN. a transceiver—or access point—connects to the wired network from a fixed ilocation using a standard Ethernet cable. the 802. which is also radio-based: orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). the transmit function.4 and the 5 GHz bands. authentication and key management. IEEE 802. There are two sub layers in the 802.11 specifications. 802. the IEEE-SA has offered an established standards development program that features balance. is a closely grouped system of devices that communicate via radio waves instead of wires. 802. Nanotechnology. Telecommunications. in the simplest sense. The access point receives. and the stack is the software implementation of them. The PMD is the sub layer lowest on the stack.11 comprise several alternative physical layers that specify the transmission and reception of 802. including: Power and Energy. The standard IEEE 802. added yet another PHY: complimentary code keying orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (CCK-OFDM). which defines protocols that govern the operation of the wireless LAN.11i enhances the WEP (Wireline Equivalent Privacy). to simple devices such as wireless headphones. Wireless technologies range from complex systems. A protocol stack is a particular software implementation of a computer networking protocol suite. enable one or more devices to communicate without physical connections – without requiring network cabling. Security is one of the first concerns of people deploying a Wireless LAN. microphones. Information Assurance. The PHY layer has three basic functions. In addition. For over a century. providing users with more flexibility and freedom of movement within the workplace. Information Technology. they must conform to the same PHY layer.11g. The terms are often used interchangeably. and consensus. It transmits and receives bits over the air. whereas wired technologies use cables.physical layer in the 5 GHz band was added with the 802. These are the carrier sense function. The IEEE (define) 802. buffers. The latest release.11 physical layers. Biomedical and Healthcare. Overview Wireless technologies. and other devices that do not process or store information.11i is designed to provide secured communication of wireless LAN as defined by all the IEEE 802. 5 . such as WLANs and cell phones. Note that for 2 devices to be able to interact. In Computer network a substantial part is the Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN).11 committee has addressed the issue by providing what is called WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) Authentication: A function that determines whether a Station is allowed to participate in network communication.
Expect to see availability of 802. is a closely grouped system of devices that communicate via radio waves instead of wires. WLANs have gained strong popularity in a number of vertical markets. A wide variety of industries have discovered the benefits a WLAN can bring—not only to daily tasks but also to the balance sheet.S. including the health-care. Over the last seven years.11 leading the way as the standard for adoption in local networking environments. wireless LAN market is rapidly approaching $1 billion in revenues.11 products increase dramatically in the near future as businesses discover the increased productivity provided by ‘untethered’ networks. Today WLANs are becoming more widely recognized as a general-purpose connectivity alternative for a broad range of business customers. manufacturing. providing users with more flexibility and freedom of movement within the workplace. The U. WLANs combine data connectivity with user mobility. and. through simplified configuration. reliability. Wireless LANs can pump information and data to executives in the boardroom and to employees in the warehouse. retail. security. minimizing the need for wired connections. Wireless Local Area Network In Computer network a substantial part is the Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN). and academic arenas. a wired LAN within a building or campus. Thus. 802. enable movable LANs. and the dynamic nature of wireless LANS while keeping compatibility with 802-type legacy networks. then wireless networks are its heart. Using electromagnetic waves. If information is the lifeblood of today's business environment. Wireless LAN’s typically augment or replace wired computer networks. Users can access the company intranet or even the World Wide Web from anywhere on the company campus without relying on the availability of wired cables and connection.11 addresses mobility. 6 . WLAN’s transmits and receive data over the air.And as conclusion we will say that wireless networking has a promising future with 802. warehousing. A wireless LAN (WLAN) is a flexible data communication system implemented as an extension or as an alternative for. These industries have profited from the productivity gains of using hand-held terminals and notebook computers to transmit real-time information to centralized hosts for processing.
ISA or PCI adapters for desktop computers. a plethora of applications and devices support the 802. or similar devices integrated into handheld units. printers.11b in popularity. Wireless LAN components that use the 802. buffers.11a high data rate standard perform at speeds up to 54 Mbps.The Basic Structure of a Wireless LAN In a typical WLAN configuration. A single access point can support a small group of users and can function within a range of anywhere from 30 to several hundred feet. and transmits data between the components of the WLAN—whether laptops. By working with a wireless vendor well-versed in security issues.4 GHz frequency range. These users—as well as those who hesitate to deploy wireless technology because of security concerns— stand to benefit from understanding the security options currently available. Users equipped with handheld devices or notebook computers can transmit data to the access point when within range. usually in the form of radio network interface cards (NICs). Such factors also affect wired network speeds.11a exceed 802.11. the distance between network components. Of the three main variations of 802.11g and 802. the type of WLAN system in use.11 WLAN infrastructure. industry experts anticipate that it won’t be long before 802. which operates in the 2. The access point can be installed anywhere in the facility as long as good radio coverage is maintained. and the efficiency of the wired network elements all influence the overall speed and performance of a wireless network. even as the industry moves aggressively to provide even more secure protocols. companies can dramatically enhance the security of its wireless communications system. but most commercial LANs operate at speeds from 10 megabits per second (10BaseT) to 100 Mbps (100BaseT). Wireless users recognize the benefits of the technology and need to know how to protect their business-critical data. 7 . The wireless devices communicate with the network operating system via WLAN adapters. The number of users. or any other wireless equipment—and the wired network infrastructure. Although this standard is much more widely implemented than its newer sister technologies. handheld devices. The access point receives. almost a five-fold increase from the performance of the 802.11b standard. as in the case of notebook computers. Almost all mobile applications today lend themselves to deployment of an 802. Comparing a Wireless LAN to a Wired Network The speed at which a WLAN performs depends on the type and configuration of the devices within the network. a transceiver—or access point—connects to the wired network from a fixed location using a standard Ethernet cable.11b standard.
IEEE 802. Scientific.7-GHz band (5725–5850MHz). and the 5.11  today. and the frameworks and means for supporting security and quality of service over a WLAN.5MHz). including: • Power and Energy • Biomedical and Healthcare • Information Technology • Telecommunications • Transportation • Nanotechnology • Information Assurance 8 .4-GHz band (2400–2483.11 consists of a family of standards that defines the physical layers (PHY) and the Medium Access Control (MAC) layer of a WLAN. WLAN network architectures. how a WLAN interacts with an IP core network. and consensus. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standards Association (IEEE-SA) is the leading developer of global industry standards in a broad-range of industries. 2. and Medical (ISM) radio frequency bands.WLANs typically use the unlicensed Industrial.11 standards family includes the following key standards: The IEEE Standard For over a century. due process. The IEEE 802. In the United States. The most widely adopted WLAN standard around the world is 802. openness. the ISM bands include the 900-MHz band (902–928 MHz). the IEEE-SA has offered an established standards development program that features balance.
" Specifies a PHY that operates in the 5 GHz U-NII band in the 802. (See IEEE status page. Commonly referred to as the LLC or Logical Link Control specification. Standards project no longer endorsed by the IEEE.1D incorporates P802. Interfaces with the network Layer 3. 802.1 Overview Bridging Basics of physical and logical networking concepts. The LLC is the top sub-layer in the data-link layer.1j and 802. Click for a list of the "hot" 802. Disbanded The original token-passing standard for twisted-pair.3 technologies. No longer Practices endorsed by the IEEE. g. Often called "IBM Token-Ring. "Granddaddy" of the 802 specifications.) Withdrawn PAR.1p and P802.11 Wi-Fi 802. including MAC-based bridging (Media Access Control)." (See IEEE status page. Current speeds range from 10 Mbps to 10 Gbps. Products that implement 802. Superseded by 802. shielded copper cables. It also incorporates and supersedes published standards 802. twisted-pair copper.8 802.) Fiber Optic Practices Integrated Services LAN Interoperable LAN security Withdrawn PAR.11 standards must pass tests and are referred to as "Wi-Fi certified.10 Broadband LAN Withdrawn Standard.) Superseded **Contains: IEEE Std 802. multiple access with collision detect" (CSMA/CD) over coax. Provides asynchronous networking using "carrier sense.6k.9 802. Standards project no longer endorsed by the IEEE. Withdrawn Date: Feb 07. are amendments to the original 802.6 802.11a 9 . etc.) Wireless LAN Media Access Control and Physical Layer specification.10b-1992.3 Ethernet 802.1D-2004. 802. and fiber media.The following table lists highlights of the most popular sections of IEEE 802 and has links for additional information: 802 802. LAN/MAN bridging and management." "Superseded **Revision of 802.11 standard.) 802. virtual LANs and port-based access control. 2003. OSI Layer 2. (See IEEE status page. Covers management and the lower sub-layers of OSI Layer 2.1D-1990 edition (ISO/IEC 10038).11a. (See IEEE status page.7 802.5 Token Bus Token Ring Distributed queue dual bus (DQDB) 802.2 Logical Link 802. (See IEEE status page. Supports copper and fiber cabling from 4 Mbps to 100 Mbps.4 802. b.12e.
2.11a and 802.85 .35 AND 5. in a fashion that permits interoperation with 802.11m 10 . with fallback speeds that include the "b" speeds Enhancement to 802.725-5. as well as options for key caching and preauthentication Japanese regulatory extensions to 802. Enhancement to 802.4 GHz band. voice.11 family specifications Corrections and amendments to existing documentation 802.11i 802. or 1 Mbps from 11 Mbps max.11b devices Uses OFDM Modulation (Orthogonal FDM) Operates at up to 54 megabits per second (Mbps).5.400 GHz to 2.11g 802. falls back to 5.11a specification Frequency range 4.11d 802.US .11 that added higher data rate modes to the DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum) already defined in the original 802.11b that allows for global roaming Particulars can be set at Media Access Control (MAC) layer Enhancement to 802.11h 802. authentication.0 GHz Radio resource measurements for networks using 802.initially 5.11 family specifications Maintenance of 802.9 GHz to 5.11b 802.4835 GHz Beacons at 1 Mbps.11 that includes quality of service (QoS) features Facilitates prioritization of data.11b Enhancement to 802.11 that offers additional security for WLAN applications Defines more robust encryption.11a that resolves interference issues Dynamic frequency selection (DFS) Transmit power control (TPC) Enhancement to 802.11e 802.11j 802.since expanded to additional frequencies Uses Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing Enhanced data speed to 54 Mbps Ratified after 802. and video transmissions Extends the maximum data rate of WLAN devices that operate in the 2. and key exchange.15-5.11 standard Boosted data speed to 11 Mbps 22 MHz Bandwidth yields 3 non-overlapping channels in the frequency range of 2.11k 802.
4 802.3a 802. TGn Sync.17 802.1 802.15.18 802. and hands-free headset at 2. and 350+ MHz Competing proposals come from the groups. EWC.16 Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks 802.14 802.15.15 802. 5. 2.19 802. high-bandwidth "ultra wideband" link Short range wireless sensor networks Extension of network coverage without increasing the transmit power or the receiver sensitivity Enhanced reliability via route redundancy Easier network configuration .11 family specifications Demand Priority Not used Cable modems Wireless Personal Area Networks Bluetooth UWB ZigBee Mesh network Increases Ethernet data rate to 100 Mbps by controlling media utilization.4. Not used Withdrawn PAR. Products that implement 802. Short range (10m) wireless technology for cordless mouse.8 GHz) or licensed (700 MHz. 2.16 standards can undergo WiMAX certification testing.11x 802.Better device battery life This family of standards covers Fixed and Mobile Broadband Wireless Access methods used to create Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks (WMANs.20 mission and project scope 11 . Standards project no longer endorsed by the IEEE.5 802.4 GHz.5 – 3.20 Resilient Packet IEEE working group description Ring Radio IEEE 802. Short range.15. multiple output) Miss-used "generic" term for 802.under development Several competing and non-compatible technologies.15.802. and WWiSE and are all variations based on MIMO (multiple input. often called "pre-n" Top speeds claimed of 108. 802.18 standards committee Regulatory TAG Coexistence Mobile IEEE 802.11n Higher-speed standards -.19 Coexistence Technical Advisory Group IEEE 802.6 GHz) frequency bands.12 802. 240.) Connects Base Stations to the Internet using OFDM in unlicensed (900 MHz.13 802. Communications specification that was approved in early 2002 by the IEEE for wireless personal area networks (WPANs). keyboard.
and the stack is the software implementation of them.11 protocol stack.22 Media Independent Handoff Wireless Regional Area IEEE 802. The protocols used by all the 802 variants.22 mission and project scope 802. The lowest protocol always deals with "low-level". The physical layer corresponds to the OSI physical layer fairly well. including Ethernet. User applications habitually deal only with the topmost layers (See also OSI model).Broadband Wireless Access 802. the MAC (Medium Access 12 . Every higher layer adds more features.11. This modularization makes design and evaluation easier. physical interaction of the hardware. Strictly speaking.21 802. Individual protocols within a suite are often designed with a single purpose in mind.11 Protocol Stack A protocol stack is a particular software implementation of a computer networking protocol suite. In 802. the suite is the definition of the protocols. In the figure below we see a partial view of the 802. Because each protocol module usually communicates with two others. The terms are often used interchangeably. have a certain commonality of structure. they are commonly imagined as layers in a stack of protocols. but the data link layer in all the 802 protocols is split into two or more sublayers.21 mission and project scope IEEE 802.
11 standard specifies three transmission techniques allowed in the physical layer. and who gets to transmit next. respectively. Radio-controlled garage door openers also use this piece of the spectrum. using techniques called FHSS and DSSS. whose job it is to hide the differences between the different 802 variants and make them indistinguishable as far as the network layer is concerned. These are called OFDM and HRDSSS. The infrared method uses much the same technology as television remote controls do. 13 . Both of these use a part of the spectrum that does not require licensing (the 2. so your notebook computer may find itself in competition with your garage door. Above it is the LLC (Logical Link Control) sublayer. They operate at up to 54 Mbps and 11 Mbps. two new techniques were introduced to achieve higher bandwidth. In 2001. Now we will examine each of them briefly. All of these techniques operate at 1 or 2 Mbps and at low enough power that they do not conflict too much. The other two use short-range radio. Cordless telephones and microwave ovens also use this band. a second OFDM modulation was introduced.4-GHz ISM band). but in a different frequency band from the first one. The 1997 802. We studied the LLC when examining Ethernet earlier in this chapter and will not repeat that material here. In 1999.Control) sublayer determines how the channel is allocated. that is.
More Data indicates that there are more frames buffered to this station. Beacon frame. To DS . Disassociation frame. Duration/ID (ID) Station ID is used for Power-Save poll message frame type.contain up to 4 addresses (source. transmittion and receiver addresses) depending on the frame control field (the ToDS and FromDS bits).is set to 1 when the frame is received from the Distribution System (DS) MF. 802. It is used to represent the order of different fragments belonging to the same frame and to recognize packet duplications.consists of fragment number and sequence number.11. 802.Protocol Structure In the figure below we can see the Wireless LAN by IEEE 802. Reassociation response frame. . Sequence Control .Order indicates that the frame is being sent using the Strictly-Ordered service class.WEP indicates that the frame body is encrypted according to the WEP (wired equivalent privacy) algorithm. (For receiver to recognize duplicate transmissions of frames) Pwr .More Fragment is set to 1 when there are more fragments belonging to the same frame following the current fragment Retry indicates that this fragment is a retransmission of a previously transmitted fragment.indicates the version of IEEE 802. Probe request frame and Probe response frame. Reassociation request frame. W . Association response frame. destination. 802.Power Management indicates the power management mode that the station will be in after the transmission of the frame. 14 . Subtype . Control and Data. Probe frame. Type . Deauthentication frame.11a.11 protocol family MAC frame structure: 02 2 6 6 6 2 6 2312 Frame Address Duration Control 1 Frame Control Structure: 2 Version • • • 2 Type 4 Subtype 1 To DS Address 2 Address 3 Se q Address 4 Data 4 Check sum 1 From DS 1 MF 1 Retry 1 Pwr 1 More 1 W 1 O • • • • • • • • • • • • • Protocol Version .11g. The duration value is used for the Network Allocation Vector (NAV) calculation.802.Frame subtype: Authentication frame.11b.Frame type: Management. More .is set to 1 when the frame is sent to Distribution System (DS) From DS .11 standard. Address fields (1-4) .11n801. Association request frame.
11 Via the Bridge Tunnel encapsulation scheme are encapsulated the Ethernet Types 8137 (Novell IPX) and 80F3 (AARP) All other Ethernet Types: encapsulated via the RFC 1042 (Standard for the Transmission of IP Datagram’s over IEEE 802 Networks) encapsulation scheme Maximum Data limited to 1500 octets Bridging to Ethernet is done transparently 15 . Station (STA) Architecture: The Station Architecture is a device that contains the IEEE conformant MAC and PHY interface in the wireless medium. work-stations and it is implemented in the Avaya Wireless IEEE 802.11 (Wireless Local Area Networks). The difference between a portable and mobile station is that a portable station moves from point to point but is only used at a fixed point. Mobile stations access the LAN during movement . portable or fixed. • • • • • • • • • The most important features and conditions of the Station Architecture are It has a driver interface like the Ethernet All protocol Stacks are virtually supported by the STA The Frame translation is done according to the IEEE STD 802. The Station Architecture is most often available in terminals like laptops.3 frames with this architecture are translated to 802. CRC .is information that is transmitted or received. is referred to as a station in 802. Protocol Stack Architecture Each computer. mobile. but on the other side it does not provide access to a distribution system.contains a 32-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC).• • Data .11 PC-Card.1H The IEEE 802.
So that in the IBSS architecture takes place the direct Station-to-Station communication system.) and the wired network. and provides access to a distribution system for associated stations. The Access-Point Architecture offers a Power Management support.Access-Point (AP) Architecture: An Access Point is a device found within an IEEE 802. The Access Point Architecture is a device that contains IEEE 802.11 network which provides the point of interconnection between the wireless Station (laptop computer. In a protocol stack architecture the traffic typically flows through the Access-Point. Most often it contains infra-structure products that connect to wired backbones It is implemented in Avaya Wireless IEEE 802. Basic Service Set (BSS): 16 .11 PCCard when it is inserted in an AP-500 or AP-1000 The most important features and conditions of AccessPoint (AP) Architecture: • The Stations select an Access-Point and they associate with that.11 conformant MAC and PHY interface to the wireless medium. PDA (Personnel Digital Assistant) etc. The Access point is a part that supports roaming and also they provide time synchronization functions like beaconing.
Mostly these networks are spontaneous and can be set up rapidly. an IBSS is simply comprised of one or more Stations which communicate directly with each other. The diameter of the cells is twice the coverage-distance between two wireless stations. In this case we have similarity to a “cell” in the pre IEEE terminology also a BSS can have an Access-Point and that both in standalone networks and in building-wide configurations. The BSS may or may not include AP (Access Point) which provides a connection onto a fixed distribution system such as an Ethernet network. The minimum BSS consists of two stations. So that the Basic Service Set (BSS) forms a self-contained network in which no 17 . As such. An ad-hoc network is a network where stations communicate only peer to peer.11 WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network). Ad-Hoc or IBSS networks are characteristically limited both temporally and spatially.11 LANs use the BSS as the standard building block. There is no base and no one gives permission to talk.11 networks in that no network infrastructure is required.A BSS that stands alone and is not connected to a base is called an Independent Basic Service Set (IBSS) or is referred to as an AdHoc Network. 802. Independent Basic Service Set (IBSS): An Independent Basic Service Set also called ad hoc network is the simplest of all IEEE 802. that is the logical function that determines when a station can transmit or receive. In the BSS architecture a set of stations is controlled by a single “Coordination Function”. they form a Basic Service Set (BSS). IBSS (Independent Basic Service Set) and Infrastructure Basic Service Set. Two types of BSS exist. The contraction should not be confused with an Infrastructure BSS (Basic Service Set). or it just can run without and Access-Point but only in standalone networks.The Basic Service Set is a term used to describe the collection of Stations which may communicate together within an 802. When two or more stations come together to communicate with each other.
18 . Creating large and complex networks using BSS's and DS's leads us to the next level of hierarchy. An access point is a station. Infrastructure When BSS's are interconnected the network becomes one with infrastructure.access to a Distribution System is available. Each BSS becomes a component of an extended. or it is also similar to a BSS without an AccessPoint. This concept of DS increases network coverage. The beauty of the ESS is the entire network looks like an independent basic service set to the Logical Link Control layer (LLC). One of the stations in the IBSS can be configured to “initiate” the network and assume the Coordination Function. Extended Service Set (ESS): An Extended Service Set is comprised of a number of IEEE 802. Entry to the DS is accomplished with the use of Access Points (AP). Stations are able to move between BSS within a single ESS yet still remain “connected” to the fixed network and so continue to receive emails etc. thus addressable. larger network. The diameter of the cell is determined by coverage distance between two wireless stations. the Extended Service Set or ESS.11 infrastructures have several elements. With help of the Access-Points data moves then between the BSS and the DS. Infrastructure is established in the network when BSS are interconnected. As a Station moves into a new BSS. Two or more BSS's are interconnected using a Distribution System or DS. it will carry out a reassociation procedure with the new AP (Access Point). This means that stations within the ESS can communicate or even move between BSS’s transparently to the LLC. so that the 802.11 BSS (Basic Service Set) and enables limited mobility within the WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network).
In the wired network there are used cables to interconnect the Access-Points. In the wireless network are used wirelesses to interconnect the Access-Points.It is the same here that the traffic always flows via Access-Point. Example: of Extended Service Set (ESS) with single BSS and integrated DS 19 . and the diameter of the cell is double the coverage distance between two wireless stations Distribution System (DS).There is available a system to interconnect a set of Basic Service Sets and there is integrated a single Access-Point in a standalone network.
The most important things about the SSID are that it is 32 octets long and it is similar to “Domain-ID” in the pre-IEEE Wave LAN systems. So we can conclude that one network independent from that if it is ESS or IBSS it has always one SSID. It is usually set by the administrator setting up the WLAN and will be unique within a BSS (Basic Service Set) or ESS (Extended Service Set).Example: Extended Service Set (ESS) BSS’s with wired Distribution System (DS) Example: Extended Service Set (ESS) BSS’s and wireless Distribution System (DS) Service Set Identifier (SSID): The Service Set Identifier or Network Name is specified within IEEE 802. However.11 networks to identify a particular network. this feature should be disabled as it may assist hackers or wardrivers in gaining access to a private network. The SSID may be broadcast from an AP within the wireless network to enable Stations to determine which network to “Associate” with. 20 .
21 . The figure shows the flow of an incoming request through the various control mechanisms. an adaptation/policy agent installs policies into the kernel via a special API.IEEE Wave LAN systems. the BSSID is the MAC (Medium Access Control) address of the AP and in Independent BSS or ad hoc networks. with the new capabilities utilized either by user-space agents or applications themselves. The policy agent interacts with the kernel via an enhanced socket interface by sending (receiving) messages to (from) special control sockets. In the infrastructure BSS networks. To give a better idea how it looks like the figure below shows the basic components of the enhanced protocol stack architecture. and actions to perform on the selected traffic. that means that it is in the MAC address format. Protocol Stack for UNIX Also there are known developments for architectural enhancements for Unix-based servers to provide a protocol stack for UNIX. The policies specify filters to select the traffic to be controlled.Basic Service Set Identifier (BSSID) The BSSID is a 48bit identity used to identify a particular BSS (Basic Service Set) within one area. the BSSID is generated randomly. The BSSID identifies the cells and it is 6 octets long. The value of the BSSID is the same as the MAC address of the radio in the AccessPoint. This architecture permits control over an application's inbound network traffic via policybased traffic management. There is also visible a similarity to the NWID in the pre.
11 data plane and can encapsulate MIH messages in data frames. The 802. This is a binary signal that gates when the WLAN and WPAN can each transmit packets.1 Baseband MIH SAP Reference Model for 802. It is similar to the 802.15.11 management frames from the 802.11b MAC and 802. The TX Request and TX Confirm are discreet signals exchanged for every packet transmission attempt. The TX Confirm carries a status value that is one of: allowed or denied.1 LM + LC entities provide status information to the MEHTA control entities.11 does not currently support Class 1 data frames.15.11b / 802. The MIH MLME SAP defines the interface between the MIH Function and the MLME. 802.11 MAC Status Status 802. MIH messages can be transported over the 802. where the LLC SAP (LSAP) defines the interface of the MIH Function with the 802. However. Before the association between Mobile Node and access point takes place.11 PLCP + PHY 802. since 802. the L2 transport of MIH messages can rely on 802.1 Coexistence Mechanism An AWMA transmission control entity is integrated with the WLAN MAC layer and provides a Medium Free signal to the Bluetooth Baseband layer.11 data plane only after the Mobile Node has associated with the 802. The MEHTA control entity receives a per-transmission transmit request (TX Request) and issues a per-transmission transmit confirm (TX Confirm) to each stack to indicate whether the transmission can proceed.15.11 Stack Collaborative Coexistence Mechanism Tx Enable 802.15.Compare Overall Structure of 802.11 The logical placement of the MIH Function in the 802.11 access point.1 Stack TDMA Control Tx Enable 802.11 protocol stack for stations and access points is shown in the figure.3. 22 .15.1 LM + LC Tx Request Tx Confirm (status) MEHTA Control Tx Request Tx Confirm (status) 802.11 management plane (MLME).
so that we can compare better what is the difference between the 802.16. Applications 802.16 The logical placement of the MIH Function in the 802.16 Management Plane. With GPCS a more efficient LLC/SNAP encapsulation (8 bytes overhead) could create the needed room for the MIH Ethertype in 802.Layer 3 Mobility Protocol (L3MP).16 frame. The MIH Function and the Network Control and Management System (NCMS) share the C_SAP and M_SAP for access to the mobility-management services of the Mobility Control Entity and Management Entity in the 802.11 and 802. 23 . The only option available for L2 transport would be to first encapsulate the MIH messages into Ethernet frames with an MIH Ethertype value. Alternatively.16 connections that carry the MIH messages. Handover Policy. since Ethernet CS is not ubiquitous.16 standards and WiMAX only enable the encapsulation of IP packets and Ethernet frames. This approach limits both the efficiency of the L2 transport of MIH messages.16g. The Service-Specific Convergence Sublayer instances currently available in the 802. a solution that enables better efficiency and easier accessibility of L2 transport capabilities could become available with the possible standardization of the Generic Packet Convergence Sublayer (GPCS) recently proposed within 802. and that since it imposes the addition of full Ethernet overhead – at least 18 bytes – to the MIH frame and the availability of L2 transport capabilities for MIH. Transport. and then mandate the adoption of Ethernet CS for 802.16 data frames may take multiple forms.16 protocol stack is shown in the figure. The mechanisms for the direct encapsulation of MIH frames into 802.21 Scope MIH_SAP Media Independent Handover (MIH) Function MIH_SME_SAP MIH Event Service MIH Command Service MIH Information Service LSAP SME MLME_SAP MLME_SAP Logical Link Control (LLC) MLME MAC_SAP MAC PHY_SAP MLME_PLME_SAP PLME_SAP PHY PLME MIH SAP Reference Model for 802. Higher-Layer Mobility Protocol.
once successfully received by the sender.2 LLC and 48-bit addressing as other 802 LANs. completes the process. the receiving station issues an ACK frame that. but the MAC is unique to WLANs. For 802.3. which means an ACK packet is sent by the receiving station to confirm that the data packet arrived intact. In an 802. allowing for very simple bridging from wireless to IEEE wired networks. Applications 802.21 Scope MIH_SAP NCMS Media Independent Handover (MIH) Function MIH Event Service MIH Command Service MIH Information Service CS_SAP Service-Specific Convergence Sublayer (CS) MAC_SAP C_SAP MAC Common Part Sublayer (MAC CPS) Security Sublayer PHY_SAP Management Plane M_SAP Physical Layer (PHY) Data Link Layer As an important part of the protocol stack. collision detection is not possible due to what is known as the “near/far” problem: to detect a collision.3 Ethernet LANs.11 MAC is very similar in concept compared to the 802. Higher-Layer Mobility Protocol. Transport. randomly selected period of time and then transmits if the medium is still free. if no activity is detected. but in radio systems the transmission drowns out the ability of the station to “hear” a collision. which is designed to support multiple users on a shared medium by having the sender sense the medium before accessing it. If the ACK frame is 24 . the data link layer within 802. Handover Policy. A station wishing to transmit senses the air. the Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) it is regulated from the protocol how Ethernet stations are going to establish access to the wire and how they detect and handle collisions that occur when two or more devices try to simultaneously communicate over the LAN. a station must be able to transmit and listen at the same time. If the packet is received intact.11 use a slightly modified protocol known as Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) or the Distributed Coordination Function (DCF). the station waits an additional.11 uses the same 802.Layer 3 Mobility Protocol (L3MP).11 consists of two sublayers: Logical Link Control (LLC) and Media Access Control (MAC). and.11 WLAN. To account for this difference. CSMA/CA attempts to avoid collisions by using explicit packet acknowledgment (ACK). CSMA/CA works as follows. The 802. The 802. 802.
for which retransmission would be expensive from a bandwidth standpoint. Support for Time-Bounded Data 25 . Each packet has a CRC checksum calculated and attached to ensure that the data was not corrupted in transit.3 does not have. where higher-level protocols such as TCP handle error checking. Since RTS/CTS adds additional overhead to the network by temporarily reserving the medium. which is useful in very congested environments or when interference is a factor. so that an 802. allowing the sending station to transmit and receive a packet acknowledgment without any chance of collision. Another MAC-layer problem specific to wireless is the “hidden node” issue. RTS/CTS Procedure eliminates the “Hidden Node” Problem To solve this problem. a collision is assumed to have occurred and the data packet is transmitted again after waiting another random amount of time. in which two stations on opposite sides of an access point can both “hear” activity from an access point. usually due to distance or an obstruction. Since all stations in the network can hear the access point.11 LAN will always have slower performance than an equivalent Ethernet LAN. the 802. When this feature is in use. it is typically used only on the largest-sized packets. This technique reduces the need for retransmission in many cases and thus improves overall wireless network performance. Packet fragmentation allows large packets to be broken into smaller units when sent over the air. it does add some overhead to 802. either because the original data packet was not received intact or the ACK was not received intact. This explicit ACK mechanism also handles interference and other radio related problems very effectively. This is different from Ethernet. but not from each other. a sending station transmits an RTS and waits for the access point to reply with CTS. Finally. the CTS causes them to delay any intended transmissions.not detected by the sending station.11 MAC layer provides for two other robustness features: CRC checksum and packet fragmentation. rendering the process transparent to higher level protocols. However. 802. since larger packets have a better chance of being corrupted.11 specify an optional Request to Send/Clear to Send (RTS/CTS) protocol at the MAC layer. The MAC layer is responsible for reassembling fragments received. CSMA/CA thus provides a way of sharing access over the air.11 that 802.
the MAC Layer manages and maintains communications between 802. a maximum latency is guaranteed. The NAV must be zero before a station can attempt to send a frame. This process reserves the medium for the sending station.javvin. which provides a variety of functions that support the operation of 802. A downside to PCF is that it is not particularly scalable.11 frames. 802. a station must first gain access to the medium. the station must wait a random period of time before attempting to access the medium again. During the periods when the system is in PCF mode.11 standard specifies a common medium access control (MAC) Layer.11 stations contend for access and attempt to send frames when there is no other station transmitting. which is a counter resident at each station that represents the amount of time that the previous frame needs to send its frame. As opposed to the DCF. such as 802. and stations receive data from the access point only when they are polled. distributed coordination function (DCF) and point coordination function (PCF).11 stations (radio network cards and access points) by coordinating access to a shared radio channel and utilizing protocols that enhance communications over a wireless medium. The random delay causes stations to wait different periods of time and avoids all of them sensing the medium at exactly the same time. a station calculates the amount of time necessary to send the frame based on the frame's length and data rate. and after a given time move on to the next station. Since PCF gives every station a turn to transmit in a predetermined fashion.11 MAC specifications through the Point Coordination Function (PCF).11b or 802.com/wireless/MACAddress. If another station is sending a frame. Often viewed as the "brains" of the network. The 802. the MAC Layer checks the value of its network allocation vector (NAV). time is spliced between the system being in PCF mode and in DCF (CSMA/CA) mode. they examine this duration field value and use it as the basis for setting their corresponding NAVs. The station places a value representing this time in the duration field in the header of the frame. transmission.html 26 .11 standard defines two forms of medium access. where control is distributed to all stations. and receiving of 802.Time-bounded data such as voice and video is supported in the 802. stations are polite and wait until the channel is free. This ensures that multiple stations wanting to send data don't transmit at the same time. If a BSS is set up with PCF enabled.11 MAC Layer uses an 802.11a. to perform the tasks of carrier sensing. As a condition to accessing the medium. DCF is mandatory and based on the CSMA/CA (carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance) protocol. MAC Functional Description The 802. 1 http://www. the 802. In general.1 Before transmitting frames. which is a radio channel that stations share.11 Physical (PHY) Layer. An important aspect of the DCF is a random back off timer that a station uses if it detects a busy medium. When stations receive the frame. which can be ineffective in large networks. Prior to transmitting a frame. in that a single point needs to have control of media access and must poll all stations. No station is allowed to transmit unless it is polled. If the channel is in use.11-based wireless LANs. in PCF mode a single access point controls access to the media. finding the channel idle. With DCF. the access point will poll each station for data.
and colliding with each other. With radio-based LANs. mainly because the station can't have it's receiver on while transmitting the frame. especially when the number of active users increases. a transmitting station can't listen for collisions while sending data. The back off timer significantly reduces the number of collisions and corresponding retransmissions. the enhanced MAC layer is constituted of two Convergence sub-layers.e.transmitting. MAC Intermediate Sub-Layer (MIS) and MAC Lower Sub-layer (MLS). As a result. LLC Convergence Sub-Layer (LLCCS) and Segmentation and Re-assembly (SAR). video applications) and asynchronous (i.11 standard defines the optional point coordination function (PCF) where the access point grants access to an individual station to the medium by polling the station during the contention free period.. the 802. If the sending station doesn't receive an ACK after a specified period of time. the sending station will assume that there was a collision (or RF interference) and retransmit the frame.e. The MLS sub-layer is in charge of building 802. then switches to a contention period when stations use DCF. Stations can't transmit frames unless the access point polls them first. MAC Architecture The new MAC access scheme described hereafter enhances the current 802. The MIS also integrates the Error and Flow Control functions. In addition.11 compatible MPDUs from MIS transfer unit and signaling information. The MIS embeds the core transfer function of the MAC layer and is based on short fixed-size transfer units. and two transfer sub-layers. the receiving station needs to send an acknowledgement (ACK) if it detects no errors in the received frame. The MAC SAP consistency is maintained by the LLCCS sub-layer. As shown in . The MAC SAP is kept identical while the PHY SAP may be modified according to the capabilities of the PHY layer. it can implement the 27 . This process enables support for both synchronous (i.11 MAC. and delivers them to the PHY layer. The period of time for PCF-based data traffic (if enabled) occurs alternately between contention (DCF) periods. The SAR sub-layer performs the adaptation between the variable size packet provided by the LLCCS and the transfer units managed by the MIS.. For supporting time-bounded delivery of data frames. The access point polls stations according to a polling list. e-mail and Web browsing applications) modes of operation.
11i enhances the WEP (Wireline Equivalent Privacy). which is a quick fix of the WEB weaknesses.11 specifications. 2. The IEEE 802.11i is designed to provide secured communication of wireless LAN as defined by all the IEEE 802.11i. IEEE 802.11 frame that get protected are known as additional authentication data (AAD). The standard IEEE 802. authentication and key management. this code is called Michael. CCMP uses AES in counter mode. TKIP uses a message integrity code to enable devices to authenticate that the packets are coming from the claimed source. Counter-Mode/CBC-MAC Protocol (CCMP): a data-confidentiality protocol that is responsible for packet authentication as well as encryption. The additional parts of the IEEE 802.11 committee has addressed the issue by providing what is called WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) Authentication: A function that determines whether a Station is allowed to participate in network communication. CCMP uses a 128-bit key.11i is based on the Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA). a technology used for many years for the WLAN security. For authentication and integrity. CCMP uses Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code (CBC-MAC). Also TKIP uses a mixing function to defeat weak-key attacks.11i has the following key components: 1. in the areas of encryption.11 MAC Protocol Stack Comparison Security Security is one of the first concerns of people deploying a Wireless LAN. which enabled attackers to decrypt traffic. Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP): it is data-confidentiality protocol and it was designed to improve the security of products that were implemented through WEP. For confidentiality. In IEEE 802.LLC MAC Packet Sequence Number Assignment LLC Sequence Number Assignment Fragmentation Encryption MPDU Header + CRC LLCCS Segmentation Segment Sequence Number Assignment SAR Error and Flow Control MAC MIS Encryption MPDU Header Signalling Insertion MLS PHY Extended MAC PHY Legacy 802. AAD includes the packets source and destination and protects against attackers replaying packets to different destinations. IEEE 802. CCMP protects some fields that aren't encrypted. 28 . the 802.
1X ties a protocol called EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) to both the wired and wireless LAN media and support multiple authentication methods. The WEP algorithm is a simple algorithm based on RSA?s RC4 algorithm. 4. which is a Pseudo Random Number Generator (PRNG).11i.1x for key exchange. 802. which restarts the PRNG for each frame.11i client card and access point to negotiate which protocol to use during specific traffic circumstances and to discover any unknown security parameters.3. Eavesdropping Eavesdropping is prevented by the use of the WEP algorithm. where packets may get lost (as any LAN). as well as dynamically varying encryption keys. Because IEEE 802.11i has more than one data-confidentiality protocol.1x: offers an effective framework for authenticating and controlling user traffic to a protected network. initialized by a shared secret key. this is needed in order to work on a connectionless environment.11i provides an algorithm for the IEEE 802.11i: WLAN Security Standards Preventing Access to Network Resources This is done by the use of an Authentication mechanism where a station needs to prove knowledge of the current key. EAP encapsulation over LANs (EAPOL)– it is the key protocol in IEEE 802. Self Synchronizing: The algorithm synchronized again for each message. The first is referred to as the 4-way handshake and the second is the group key handshake. on the sense that an intruder needs to enter the premises (by using a physical key) in order to connect his workstation to the wired LAN. IEEE 802. Two main EAPOL-key exchanges are defined in IEEE 802.IEEE 802. This PRNG outputs a key sequence of pseudo-random bits equal in length to the largest possible packet. Protocol Structure . this is very similar to the Wired LAN privacy. which has the following properties: Reasonable strong: Brute-force attack to this algorithm is difficult because of the fact that every frame is sent with an Initialization Vector. which is combined with the outgoing/incoming packet producing the packet transmitted in the air. 29 .IEEE 802.
but the MAC layers are considerably different. an encoding scheme is used in which a group of 4 bits is encoded as a 16-bit codeword containing fifteen 0s and a single 1. 802. the 802.11 standard includes a common Medium Access Control (MAC) Layer.11b. Both the FHSS and DSSS modes are specified for operation in the 2. This code has the property that a small error in time synchronization leads to 30 .11a and 802. respectively.11b products.95 microns. however. scientific and medical (ISM) band..11a. Each of the five permitted transmission techniques makes it possible to send a MAC frame from one station to another. The third physical layer alternative is an infrared system using near-visible light in the 850 nm to 950 nm range as the transmission medium. rather than any absolute measurements of the phase change.11g. The physical layer basics To know the physical layer terminology we need to understand the essential intricacies of 802. will be to compare the physical layer characteristics of 802. not line of sight) transmission at 0. however. which defines protocols that govern the operation of the wireless LAN.11 standard: 802.11 and HIPERLAN/II have similar physical layer characteristics operating in the 5 GHz band and use the modulation scheme orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). as well as a European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) standard. DBPSK is phase modulation using two distinct carrier phases for data signaling providing one bit per symbol. With a ruling from the Federal Communications Commission that will now allow OFDM digital transmission technology to operate in the ISM band and the promise of interoperability with a large installed base of 802. They differ. which has sometimes been jokingly referred to as the interference suppression is mandatory band because it is heavily used by various electronic products.4 GHz industrial. The differential characteristic of the modulation schemes indicates the use of the difference in phase from the last change or symbol to determine the current symbol's value. High Performance LAN (HIPERLAN/II). Although not detailed here. GFSK is a modulation scheme in which the data are first filtered by a Gaussian filter in the Baseband.11 frames.85 or 0. in the technology used and speed achievable.11a. 2 and 4 bit represent the number of frequency offsets used to represent data symbols of one and two bits.Physical Layer The IEEE (define) 802. many of the same issues will apply. At the forefront of the new WLAN options that will enable much higher data rates are two supplements to the IEEE 802. Two speeds are permitted: 1 Mbps and 2 Mbps. The focus here.11g extension to the standard begins to garner the attention of WLAN equipment providers. using what is called Gray code. in quadrature. The infrared option uses diffused (i. to signal two bits per symbol.11 comprise several alternative physical layers that specify the transmission and reception of 802. In addition. At 1 Mbps.e. With HIPERLAN/II sharing several of the same physical properties as 802. it will offer data rates equal to or exceeding 22 Mb/s with products available late in 2002.11.11b and 802. DQPSK is a type of phase modulation using two pairs of distinct carrier phases. and then modulated with a simple frequency modulation. Another standard that warrants mention in this context is IEEE 802. Both 802.
11 frame that a station wishes to transmit and forms what the 802. which changes with different data rates. due to the low bandwidth (and the fact that sunlight swamps infrared signals). also with only a single 1. Don't expect to see the physical layer fields with 802. 00010100 for 2Mbps. Frame Check Sequence. change radio channels. In practice.11 standard reserves it for future use. This field consists of alternating 0s and 1s. PSDU.11b includes Physical Layer Convergence Procedure (PLCP) and Physical Medium Dependent (PMD) sub-layers.11b is nearly always 11 31 . with 1 and 2 bits per baud.4 WIRELESS LANS 295 possible under current conditions of load and noise. receive signals. the field contains the value of 00001010 for 1Mbps.11b but is not a follow-up to 802. 802. and so on..5. Infrared signals cannot penetrate walls. The PLCP fields.11a. Signal.375 Mbaud. with its binary value equal to the data rate divided by 100Kbps.11b are 1. For example.e. however. Length. The receiver begins synchronizing with the incoming signal after detecting the Sync. the operating speed of 802. however. Service. 2. which stands for Physical Layer Service Data Unit. using phase shift modulation (for compatibility with DSSS). Start Frame Delimiter. These are somewhat sophisticated terms that the standard uses to divide the major functions that occur within the Physical Layer. As with other 802. 5. The data rate may be dynamically adapted during operation to achieve the optimum speed SEC. PLCP Frame Fields The PLCP takes each 802. In fact. The PLCP prepares 802. another spread spectrum technique. its standard was approved first and it got to market first.11 frames for transmission and directs the PMD to actually transmit signals.11 frame being sent).11 standard refers to as a PLCP protocol data unit (PPDU). At 2 Mbps. the actual 802. Nevertheless. This field represents the number of microseconds that it takes to transmit the contents of the PPDU. is a fancy name that represents the contents of the PPDU (i. This field identifies the data rate of the 802. The 802. This ensures that the receiver is initially uses the correct demodulation mechanism. that is one of 0001. and the receiver uses this information to determine the end of the frame.11 Physical layers.4-GHz band. Next. are always sent at the lowest rate.11 frame. which uses 11 million chips/sec to achieve 11 Mbps in the 2. The resulting PPDU includes the following fields in addition to the frame fields imposed by the MAC Layer: Sync. the standard defines this field for containing 16-bit cyclic redundancy check (CRC) result.only a single bit error in the output. 4. 0100. we come to HR-DSSS (High Rate Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum). The MAC Layer also performs error detection functions on the PPDU contents as well.11 radio card removes these fields before the resulting data is processed by the MAC Layer and offered to the analyzer for viewing. This field is always set to 00000000 and the 802. which is 1Mbps.11 analyzers from AirMagnet and Wildpackets. respectively. using Walsh/Hadamard codes. The two slow rates run at 1 Mbaud. the encoding takes 2 bits and produces a 4-bit codeword. It is called 802. Data rates supported by 802. or 1000. The PSDU. In order to detect possible errors in the Physical Layer header. so cells in different rooms are well isolated from each other. The two faster rates run at 1. respectively. This field is always 1111001110100000 and defines the beginning of a frame. with 4 and 8 bits per baud. and 11 Mbps. and so on. this is not a popular option. 0010. alerting the receiver that a receivable signal is present.
802.5 Mbps data rates (in addition to the 1 and 2Mbps rates) utilizing an extension to DSSS called High Rate DSSS (HR/DSSS).11b also defines a rate shifting technique where 11 Mbps networks may fall back to 5.11 committee has produced three different high-speed wireless LANs: 802. In theory it can operate at up to 54 MBps. Spread Spectrum Spread spectrum is a technique trading bandwidth for reliability.11b is slower than 802.11g. The PHY provides three functions.11 architecture (802. An enhanced version of 802. Thirdly. 802. was approved by IEEE in November 2001 after much politicking about whose patented technology it would use. 2 Mbps. The goal is to use more bandwidth than the system really needs for transmission to reduce the impact of localized interference on the media. the PHY provides a carrier sense indication back to the MAC to verify activity on the media. 802.11b) defines 11 Mbps and 5.11a. its range is about 7 times greater. the PHY provides an interface to exchange frames with the upper MAC layer for transmission and reception of data. Spread spectrum spreads the transmitted bandwidth of the resulting signal.11a) defines different multiplexing techniques that can achieve data rates up to 54 Mbps.11 PHY layers.5 Mbps.11 provides three different PHY definitions: Both Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) and Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) support 1 and 2 Mbps data rates. Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) 32 . Although 802. 802. First. The concept of PPM is to vary the position of a pulse to represent different binary symbols. Another extension to the standard (802. For 1 Mbps. or 1 Mps under noisy conditions or to interoperate with legacy 802. Infrared (IR) The Infrared PHY utilizes infrared light to transmit binary data either at 1 Mbps (basic access rate) or 2 Mbps (enhanced access rate) using a specific modulation technique for each. It is not yet clear whether this speed will be realized in practice.11a. Infrared transmission at 2 Mbps utilizes a 4 PPM modulation technique.GHz ISM band along with 802. which is more important in many situations.11 physical layer (PHY) is the interface between the MAC and the wireless media where frames are transmitted and received.11a but operates in the narrow 2. It uses the OFDM modulation method of 802.11b.11b. the PHY uses signal carrier and spread spectrum modulation to transmit data frames over the media. An extension to the 802. One can legitimately ask if this is a good thing for a standards committee The 802.11g (not to mention three lowspeed wireless LANs).Mbps. Secondly.4.11b. reducing the peak power but keeping total power the same. What it does mean is that the 802. the infrared PHY uses a 16-pulse position modulation (PPM). and 802.
FHSS’ randomization provides a fair way to allocate spectrum in the unregulated ISM band. Spread-spectrum transmissions can share a frequency band with many types of conventional transmissions with minimal interference. FSK. For example.11 Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) PHY uses the 2. Frequency Hopping utilizes a set of narrow channels and "hops" through all of them in a predetermined sequence. The third modulation method.MHz wide. which has only two possible frequencies. A pseudorandom number generator is used to produce the sequence of frequencies hopped to. This is accomplished by multiple frequency. which makes it popular for building-to-building links. Its main disadvantage is its low bandwidth. The spread-spectrum signals add minimal noise to the narrow-frequency communications. The 802. FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum) uses 79 channels. It also provides a modicum of security since an intruder who does not know the hopping sequence or dwell time cannot eavesdrop on transmissions. and FHSS offers good resistance to it. As a result. bandwidth can be utilized more efficiently.In FHSS the total frequency band is split into a number of channels. the dwell time. and vice versa. causing them to recede into the background. operating with at 1 or 2 Mbps data rate. is an adjustable parameter. using a pseudorandom sequence known to both transmitter and receiver. Over longer distances. code selected. The instantaneous frequency output of the transmitter jumps from one value to another based on the 33 . Basically. but must be less than 400 msec. the incoming digital stream is shifted in frequency by an amount determined by a code that spreads the signal power over a wide bandwidth. A Frequency-Hop spread-spectrum signal sounds like a momentary noise burst or simply an increase in the background noise for short Frequency-Hop codes on any narrowband receiver except a Frequency-Hop spread-spectrum receiver using the exact same channel sequence as was used by the transmitter. multipath fading can be an issue. each 1. starting at the low end of the 2.4 GHz frequency band is divided into 70 channels of 1 MHz each. In comparison to binary FSK. A spread-spectrum transmission offers three main advantages over a fixed-frequency transmission: Spread-spectrum signals are highly resistant to noise and interference. It is also relatively insensitive to radio interference. The broadcast data is spread across the entire frequency band by hopping between the channels in a pseudo random fashion. Spread-spectrum signals are difficult to intercept. The amount of time spent at each frequency. The process of recollecting a spread signal spreads out noise and interference. The FHSS transmitter is a pseudo-noise PN code controlled frequency synthesizer.4 GHz radio frequency band. the 2. they will hop to the same frequencies simultaneously. Frequency-hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) is a spread-spectrum method of transmitting radio signals by rapidly switching a carrier among many frequency channels. Frequency hopping relies on frequency diversity to combat interference. Every 20 to 400 msec the system "hops" to a new channel following a predetermined cyclic pattern.4-GHz ISM band. FHSS may have 2*10^20 or more. As long as all stations use the same seed to the pseudorandom number generator and stay synchronized in time.
Another important factor in FHSS systems is the rate at which the hops occur. In contrast. In telecommunications. All other receivers will see the spread signal as white or colored noise. instead of adding pseudo-random noise to the data. the amount of redundancy used. Fig. which results in a uniform frequency distribution whose width is determined by the output range of the pseudo-random number generator. The minimum time required to change frequencies is dependent on the information bit rate. The principle of Direct Sequence is to spread a signal on a larger frequency band by multiplexing it with a signature or code to minimize localized interference and background noise. The characteristics of the broadband spreading code are that of pseudorandom noise. DSSS has the following features: for generating spread-spectrum transmissions by phase-modulating a sine wave pseudo randomly with a continuous string of pseudo noise code symbols. the process gain is directly dependent on the number of available frequency choices for a given information rate. which is the reason that it is called spread spectrum. direct-sequence spread spectrum is a modulation technique where the transmitted signal takes up more bandwidth than the information signal that is being modulated. the original signal is recovered by 34 . each bit is modulated by a code. frequency-hopping spread spectrum pseudo-randomly retunes the carrier. To spread the signal. Consequently the receiver synchronized to the code will obtain the narrowband signal. The result is termed the chip rate. A signal structuring technique utilizing a digital code sequence (PN Sequences) having a chip rate much higher than the information signal bit rate. Each information bit of a digital signal is transmitted as a pseudorandom sequence of chips. Varying the instantaneous frequency results in an output spectrum that is effectively spread over the range of frequencies generated. In the receiver. Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum is based on the multiplying of the baseband signal data with a broadband spreading code. and the distance to the nearest interference source. the number of discrete frequencies determines the bandwidth of the system.pseudo-random input from the code generator. each of duration much smaller than a bit. Hence.1 FHSS Spectrum In this system.
The spectral content of an SS signal is shown in Fig. etc). At 54 Mbps.11 standard. First the PN code is modulated onto the information signal using one of several modulation techniques (eg. It uses phase shift modulation at 1 Mbaud.11b uses DSSS to disperse the data frame signal over a relatively wide (approximately 30MHz) portion of the 2.. The scheme used has some similarities to the CDMA system.S.11a. A complex encoding system is used. to use spread spectrum. which is why the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) (define) deems the operation of spread spectrum systems as license free. The 802. 1. different frequencies are used—52 of them. This results in greater immunity to radio frequency (RF) interference as compared to narrowband signaling. either FHSS or DSSS may be used. that rule was dropped as new technologies emerged. Since transmissions are present on multiple frequencies at the same time. This process causes the RF signal to be replaced with a very wide bandwidth signal with the spectral equivalent of a noise signal.4 GHz radio frequency band. The first of the high-speed wireless LANs. 2002).4GHz frequency band. 802. including better immunity to narrowband interference and the possibility of using noncontiguous bands. but different from both CDMA and FHSS. Note that this is just the spectrum of a BPSK signal with a (sin x / x) 2 form. 48 for data and 4 for synchronization—not unlike ADSL. transmitting 1 bit per baud when operating at 1 Mbps and 2 bits per baud when operating at 2 Mbps. The technique has a good spectrum efficiency in terms of bits/Hz and good immunity to multipath fading. It is also a part of the 802. BPSK. Each bit is transmitted as 11 chips. The correlated signal is then filtered and sent to a BPSK demodulator. This is probably the most widely recognized form of spread spectrum. DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum) is also restricted to 1 or 2 Mbps. using what is called a Barker sequence.11 Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) PHY also uses the 2.receiving the whole spread channel and demodulating with the same code used by the transmitter. Splitting the signal into many narrow bands has some key advantages over using a single wide band. For years. Part of the motivation for OFDM is compatibility with the European HiperLAN/2 system (Doufexi et al. Then. The DSSS process is performed by effectively multiplying an RF carrier and a pseudo-noise (PN) digital signal. The output is a signal that is a maximum when the two signals exactly equal one another or are "correlated". a doubly balanced mixer is used to multiply the RF carrier and PN modulated information signal. but differs in other ways. uses OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) to deliver up to 54 Mbps in the wider 5GHz ISM band. 35 . 802. Note that in the original 802. but in May 2002. The wide bandwidth provided by the PN code allows the signal power to drop below the noise threshold without loss of information. the FCC required all wireless communications equipment operating in the ISM bands in the U. this technique is considered a form of spread spectrum. QPSK. 216 data bits are encoded into 288-bit symbols. The demodulation process (for the BPSK case) is then simply the mixing/multiplying of the same PN modulated carrier with the incoming RF signal. based on phase-shift modulation for speeds up to 18 Mbps and on QAM above that.11 b and g standards. As the term FDM suggests. The signals generated with this technique appear as noise in the frequency domain.
This is a clever process that enables the data stream to be sent at 2Mbps while using the same amount of bandwidth as the one sent at 1Mbps. For example with 1Mbps operation.Fig. The modulator merely shifts the phase of the center transmit frequency to distinguish a binary 1 from a binary 0 within the data stream. the bandwidth of a DSSS system is a direct function of the chip rate. The result is that systems in a spectrally quiet environment benefit from the possible increase in data transfer rate. The modulator uses similar methods for the higher. 1 BPSK DSSS Spectrum The bandwidth in DSSS systems is often taken as the null-to-null bandwidth of the main lobe of the power spectral density plot (indicated as 2Rc in Fig. One feature of DSSS is that QPSK may be used to increase the data rate. the bandwidth (which sets the process gain) is halved due to the two-fold increase in information transfer. the PMD uses differential binary phase shift keying (DBPSK). This allows a narrower RF bandwidth to accommodate the received signal with the effect of rounding the received pulses in the time domain. specifically 2Rc/RINFO. It should be noted that the power contained in the main lobe comprises 90 percent of the total power. The process gain is reduced because for a given chip rate. the PMD uses differential quadrature phase shift keying (DQPSK).5Mbps and 11Mbps data rates. For 2Mbps transmission. 1). 36 . depending on which data rate is chosen.2 Rc. DSSS Modulation The modulator converts the spread binary signal into an analog waveform through the use of different modulation types. where Rc is the chip rate. The half power bandwidth of this lobe is 1. This isn't really as complex as it sounds. 5. Therefore. This increase of a factor of two bits per symbol of transmitted information over BPSK causes an equivalent reduction in the available process gain. which is similar to DBPSK except that there are four possible phase shifts that represents every two data bits. This is just an extension of the previous equation for process gain.
The first 100 MHz in the lower frequency portion is restricted to a maximum power output of 50 mW. while the third 100 MHz. OFDM operates by dividing the transmitted data into multiple parallel bit streams. 37 .422 2. each with lower relative bit rates and modulating separate narrowband carriers. only allows the use of channels 1 through 11.457 2.484 Various countries limit the use of these channels. however.452 2. new product development has proceeded much more slowly than 802.467 2. the U. has a maximum of 1. The trip in route to the destination will significantly attenuate (define) the signal. This standard uses 300 MHz of bandwidth in the 5 GHz unlicensed national information infrastructure (UNII) band.S.427 2. This complicates matters when designing international public wireless LANs.447 2. which is mainly intended for outdoor applications. authorizes the use all 14 channels.432 2. The spectrum is divided into three domains. but the receiver at the destination will detect the incoming Physical Layer header and reverse (demodulate and dispread) the process implemented by the transmitter The IEEE 802.11a While 802.S.417 2. Japan.Transmit Frequencies The transmitter's modulator translates the spread signal into an analog form with a center frequency corresponding to the radio channel chosen by the user. For example.462 2.412 2.442 2. The second 100 MHz has a higher 250 mW maximum. In that case. and the U.11b.437 2.472 2. This is due to the cost and complexity of implementation. each having restrictions imposed on the maximum allowed output power (see Figure 1). the transmitter outputs the modulated DSSS signal to the antenna in order to propagate the signal to the destination. After RF amplification takes place based on the transmit power you've chosen (100mW maximum for the U. can use channels 1 through 13. referred to as sub-carriers.K.0 W power output. The following identifies the center frequency of each channel: Channel 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Frequency (GHz) 2.). you need to choose channels with the least common denominator.11a was approved in September 1999.
11a with OFDM signals and operating at 5 GHz will bring new challenges in testing. Practice 802. they require the use of equipment from a single source throughout the entire network. This nearly eliminates the need for retransmissions when packet errors are detected. 802.11a products are expected to begin arriving in the first half of 2002. particularly because the data rate will be increasing by a factor of five and using the same bandwidth (20 MHz) to do it. enables the receiver to identify and correct errors made during transmission by sending additional data along with the primary transmission. Each represents four data bits. Four complex modulation methods are employed.11a Design of devices using 802.11b. as well as a method to characterize them. The data rates available in 802. and 64QAM. FEC.11a are touting the availability of operational modes that exceed the 54 Mb/s stated in the specification. These include BPSK. These issues add to the implementation cost of 802. each of these are divided into 52 sub-carriers (four of which carry pilot data) of 300-kHz bandwidth each. overlapping carriers. 802. Four non-overlapping 20 MHz channels are specified in the upper band. 16-QAM. QPSK. Considering the composite waveform resulting from the combination of 52 sub-carriers. because faster data rates are out of the specification's scope.11a specifies eight non-overlapping 20 MHz channels in the lower two bands.11a includes forward error correction (FEC) as part of the specification. together with the type of modulation and the coding rate. reconstructing the original high-rate data stream.11a are noted in Table 2. better phase noise performance is required because of the closely spaced. In addition. which do not have a constant power envelope. Some of the companies developing chipset solutions for 802. This metric is not useful. Although it adds a degree of complication to the Baseband processing. as the true peak power may not occur often. The receiver processes the 52 individual bit streams. Of course. Transmitted signals such as OFDM. 64-QAM has 16 symbols with each representing four data bits. which does not exist within 802. BPSK modulation is always used on the four pilot sub-carriers. depending on the data rate that can be supported by channel conditions between the transmitter and receiver. The high peak-to-average power ratio representative of multicarrier OFDM signals dictates the need for highly linear and efficient amplifiers. Application-specific measurement tools aid in the design and troubleshooting of OFDM signals and systems. 802. 38 . It is usually more meaningful for OFDM signals to associate a percentage probability with a power level.11a products. Quadrature amplitude modulation is a complex modulation method where data are carried in symbols represented by the phase and amplitude of the modulated carrier. so each can be received without interference from another. are not wellcharacterized by peak-to-average power ratio. 16-QAM has 16 symbols. the format requires more linearity in the amplifiers because of the higher peak-to-average power ratio of the transmitted OFDM signal.The sub-carriers are orthogonal.
microwave ovens.375 Msym/s. coupled with the rotation. 802. The IEEE 8102. Products are now widely available. shows the number of decibels above the average power on the horizontal axis.4835 GHz).11b.40 to 2. To achieve data rates of 5.11b payload data rates. while the data rate varies to match channel conditions by changing the spreading factor and/or the modulation scheme.11b uses eight-chip complementary code keying (CCK) as the modulation scheme to achieve the higher data rates. represents the symbol conveying the four or eight bits of data. The chip rate remains consistent with the original DSSS system at 11 Mchip/s. 802. the spreading length is first reduced from 11 to eight chips.11b also operates in the highly populated 2.375 MHz symbol rate. Instead of the Barker codes used to encode and spread the data for the lower rates. and personal area networks (PANS).11b 802. The CCDF. so the ISM band accommodates only three non-overlapping channels spaced 25 MHz apart.5 Mb/s/1.11b designates an optional frequency agile or hopping mode using the three non-overlapping channels or six overlapping channels spaced at 10 MHz. 39 . For all 802. If time gating were not used. the preamble and header are sent at the 1 Mb/s rate. it is necessary to transmit 4 bits/symbol (5. The CCK approach taken in 802.11b. uses all but two of the bits to select from a set of spreading sequences and the remaining two bits to rotate the sequence. CCK uses a nearly orthogonal complex code set called complementary sequences. This increases the symbol rate from 1 Msym/s to 1.4 GHz ISM band (2. which provides only 83 MHz of spectrum to accommodate a variety of other radiating products. an 8 bits/symbol.5 and 11 Mb/s payload data rates in addition to the original 1 and 2 Mb/s rates. other WLANs. The selection of the sequence. For the 5. is an extension of the 802. including cordless phones. which keeps the QPSK spread-spectrum signal and still provides the required number of bits/symbol.0. In this measurement.11 DSSS system previously mentioned and supports higher 5. which was approved by the IEEE in 1999. which is simply the more common cumulative distribution function (CDF) subtracted from 1. and the installed base of systems is growing rapidly.375 Msym/s) and for 11 Mb/s. To help mitigate interference effects. A CCDF measurement would be made over several bursts to improve the accuracy of the measurement. an instrument with time-gating capability is used to select only the active portion of the burst (see Figure 2 lower trace).5-Mb/s bit rate with a 1. This metric links a percentage probability to a power level.A more meaningful method for viewing OFDM signal power characteristics uses the complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF).5 and 11 Mb/s. 802. This makes susceptibility to interference a primary concern. The occupied bandwidth of the spread-spectrum channel is 22 MHz. and percent probability on vertical axis (see Figure 2 upper trace). the periods when the burst is off would reduce the average power calculation.
operational characteristics have been compared to those of cellular systems. But as interference is introduced into the channel.11b The 20 MHz-wide bandwidth of WLAN signals makes power envelope measurements difficult because most spectrum analyzers have resolution bandwidth filters that are limited to 10 MHz or less. If the channel is clear. An advantage of 802.11b networks are generally rangelimited by multipath interference rather than the loss of signal strength over distance. Both 802. making WLAN signal analysis more accurate. where frequency planning of overlapping cells minimizes mutual interference support mobility and seamless channel handoff.11b and 802. Therefore. A site survey must be thorough and realistic to 40 .4 GHz. albeit more robust. 802. Requirements must be researched and well-documented. Comparison of 802. then the modes with the highest data rates are used. transmission scheme.11b A drawback of the 5 GHz band.11b are at a disadvantage compared to the greater number of channels available to 802. Due to the periodic nature of the signal.Practice 802. the radio will fall back to a slower.11a. (The last one-quarter of the symbol pulse is copied and attached to the beginning of the burst. When it comes to deployment of a wireless LAN. The additional channels allow more overlapping access points within a given area while avoiding additional mutual interference. The 802. reduces the inter-symbol interference (ISI) caused by multipath interference. including anticipated roaming and data rates needed for applications to be used at specific locations. Network planning is critical to the development of an optimized system.) To contrast. the junction at the start of the original burst will always be continuous. The three non-overlapping frequency channels available for IEEE 802. which has received considerable attention. The slower symbol rate and placement of significant guard time around each symbol. floors. Vector signal analyzers are available with information bandwidths that are considerably greater than 20 MHz.11a is its intrinsic ability to handle delay spread or multipath reflection effects.11a use dynamic rate shifting where the system will automatically adjust the data rate based on the condition of the radio channel. using a technique called cyclical extension. and furniture) than those at 2. the signal is considerably attenuated by the time the power is measured within the instrument.11b standard uses error vector magnitude (EVM) as a measure of modulation quality.11a and 802. is its shorter wavelength. Each network must be customized to satisfy the planned applications and the physical environment. The underlying philosophy of EVM is that any signal deteriorated by a noisy channel can be represented as the sum of an ideal signal and an error signal. Higher-frequency signals will have more trouble propagating through physical obstructions encountered in an office (walls. This measurement has become common for most wireless applications. The test instrument determines the error signal by reconstructing the ideal signal based on detected signal information and subtracting it from the actual signal at each sample point.
That version of 802. It would be unrealistic to expect to realize the full data rate capability (54 Mb/s) of 802. These wireless networks will require increasing data rates to provide the simultaneous distribution of Internet data.11 addresses mobility. This deployment. 802. mainly due to the physical conveniences of radio-based communication. The widespread acceptance of WLANs depends on industry standardization to ensure product compatibility and reliability among the various manufacturers. The data rates supported by the original 802.11-based networks have seen widespread deployment across many fields.11 products increase dramatically in the near future as businesses discover the increased productivity provided by ‘untethered’ networks. This paper addressed the availability aspect of that equation.adequately characterize the RF environment of the proposed wireless network in terms of range. Even during these lean economic times. The most critical issue affecting WLAN demand has been limited throughput. But as has been shown. Security as a part of the protocol stack has also been mention because the protocol stack as a part of the software is the first part in what people are interested in. Cost vs. security. ease-of-use and reliability.11 standard are too slow to support most general business requirements and have slowed adoption of WLANs. WLAN products require that special attention be given to design verification and characterization because standardized operation across multivendor products may be required. 802. it is almost a foregone conclusion that end-users will be demanding continuous improvements in functionality. Recognizing the critical need to support 41 . Expect to see availability of 802. Conclusion Wireless networking has a promising future with 802. however.11 MAC layer and described the architecture and the main functions of the MAC as part of the protocol stack also we made a few comparisons.11 specification in 1997 as the standard for wireless LANs. and the dynamic nature of wireless LANS while keeping compatibility with 802-type legacy networks. but already robust WLAN market is projected to grow by an order of magnitude over the next five years. These tools can be used within the manufacturing process to generate and analyze production metrics for process and product improvement. test tools are available to quickly diagnose problems and isolate them throughout all design segments. high-quality video and audio in the office or at home.11 leading the way as the standard for adoption in local networking environments. 802. To provide an efficient development environment. WE think that with the comparisons we have offered an interesting issue and that the description has more efficiency. was predicated in part on the user expectation of confidentiality and availability. the new.11a if the access points of an existing 802.11b at any range. when there is a reduced demand for technology products. We examined the 802. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) ratified the original 802.11a is faster than 802. channel interference and delay spread. reliability. Testing is critical to any product development process.11 provides for 1 Mbps and 2 Mbps data rates and a set of fundamental signaling methods and other services. performance requirements need thorough analysis during the network planning stage to arrive at the appropriate implementation decision. In addition to higher data rates.11b network optimized to operate at full speed (11 Mb/s) â€” were simply replaced.
11b standard (also known as 802. revenue gain. giving mobile workers much-needed freedom in their network access. Businesses of all sizes can benefit from deploying a WLAN system. or a remote branch office. and configuration flexibility.11.11 High Rate) for transmissions of up to 11 Mbps. Users need access to the network far beyond their personal desktops. allowing them to design. So at the end we hope that we have offered a general overview of the IEEE 802. Today’s business environment is characterized by an increasingly mobile workforce and flatter organizations. which provides a powerful combination of wired network throughput. The IEEE 802.000 per user—measured in worker productivity. With a wireless network. and geographic boundaries. WLANs will be able to achieve wireless performance and throughput comparable to wired Ethernet. the IEEE recently ratified the 802. saving both effort and dollars. parts that are defined in the IEEE Standard. small office. With 802. which promises to open new markets for WLANs in large enterprise. Much of these workers’ productivity occurs in meetings and away from their desks. 42 . and cost savings—over wired alternatives. the cafeteria. and enhance networks without regard to the availability of wiring. workers can access information from anywhere in the corporation—a conference room.higher data-transmission rates. mobile access. Employees are equipped with notebook computers and spend more of their time working in teams that cross functional. Wireless LANs provide a benefit for IT managers as well. organizational. organizational efficiency. especially protocol stack and physical layers. deploy. Global regulatory bodies and vendor alliances have endorsed this new high-rate standard. WLANs fit well in this work environment.11b. The economic benefits can add up to as much as $16.11 is a huge topic and the Standards we can download free from the internet. and home environments.
Local Area Network MAC .Physical Layer Convergence Procedure 43 .Pulse Position Modulation HR-DSSS .Dynamic frequency selection MIMO .Differential Binary Phase Shift Keying PN – Pseudo Noise RF – Radio Frequency OFDM .Cumulative Distribution Function CCDF . Multiple Access with Collision Detect ISO .Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying DBPSK .Abbreviation WLAN – Wireless Local Area Network LAN .Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum PPM .Physical Medium Dependent PLCP .Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standards Association EVM .Quality Of Service TCP .Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function FEC .Carrier Sense.Logical Link Control DS .Error Vector Magnitude CCK .Transmit power control DFS .Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum QoS .Wired Equivalent Privacy NAV .Network Allocation Vector CRC .Medium Access Control PHY – Physical Layer ISM . and Medical CSMA/CD .complementary code keying CDF .Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum FHSS . Multiple Output LLC .Multiple Input.Distribution System WEP .High Rate Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum PPDU .Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing FFC .Federal Communications Commission DSSS .International Standards Organization DSSS . Scientific.Cyclic Redundancy Check IEEE-SA .Industrial.Forward Error Correction QAM DQPSK .PLCP Protocol Data Unit PMD .
MAC methodologies are employed within Ethernet. and can be found within many different technologies.16c) although initial interest is confined to the line of sight bands . All other receivers will see the spread signal as white or colored noise. The ISO developed the OSI (Open System Interconnection) reference model which is a popular networking reference tool. The result is termed the chip rate. Note: Wi-Fi not WiFi. MAC handles access to a shared medium.Wireless Local Area Network This is a generic term covering a multitude of technologies providing local area networking via a radio link.Wireless Fidelity Wi-Fi is an interoperability standard developed by WECA (Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance) and issued to those manufacturers whose IEEE 802.11a. Bluetooth.International Standards Organization The International Standards Organization is responsible for a wide range of standards. IrDA (Infrared Data Association) and DECT (Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications) etc. For example.5GHz. Physical Link A Physical Link is the connection between devices.Glossary ISO .11a and 802.16a) and 10GHz . The characteristics of the broadband spreading code are that of pseudorandom noise. 44 . Equipment passing these tests carries the Wi-Fi logo. MAC .2.11b equipment has passed a suite of basic interoperability tests.16 suite of standards.Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum is based on the multiplying of the Baseband signal data with a broadband spreading code. In general terms. WLAN . 3. including those relevant to networking. and UMTS etc.8GHz.66GHz (IEEE 802. WiMAX .Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access The term WiMAX has become synonymous with the IEEE 802.Medium Access Control Media Access Control is the lower of the two sublayers of the Data Link Layer. Examples of WLAN technologies include Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity). Consequently the receiver synchronized to the code will obtain the narrowband signal. HiperLAN. 802. Wi-Fi .5GHz and 5. GPRS. These define the radio or air interface within two broad radio bands 2GHz to 11GHz (IEEE 802.11b and 802. DSSS . It is anticipated that WiMAX will be used initially as a backhaul connection with other technologies such as Wi-Fi being used to cover the “final mile”.
Depending upon the communication system. IEEE 802.11a Part of the IEEE 802.Transmission Control Protocol Transmission Control Protocol is a reliable octet streaming protocol used by the majority of applications on the Internet. this wireless local area network technology is comprised of a high speed physical layer operating in the 5GHz unlicensed band and supports data rates up to 54Mbps. point to point service between hosts. IEEE .11 family of specifications. It is independent of the underlying radio interface protocols enabling the introduction of alternative GPRS radio solutions with minimal changes to the Network Switching System.QoS . This is sent along with data so that a parity check of the received data can be conducted. reliably.11a and IEEE 802. CRC . LLC .11bspecifications. It provides a connection-oriented.Logical Link Control In the GPRS system the LLC protocol provides a highly reliable ciphered logical link between the MS (Mobile Station) and SGSN (Serving GPRS Support Node). 45 . full-duplex.Cyclic Redundancy Code A linear error code that is generated using a polynomial function on the data to be sent. SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio).Quality of Service The performance of a communications channel or system is usually expressed in terms of QoS (Quality of Service).Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers is a professional organization whose activities include the development of communications and network standards. Several manufacturers have developed equipment which is capable of operating in accordance with both IEEE 802. TCP . the remainder from the process being the CRC. maximum and mean throughput rate. BER (Bit Error Ratio). QoS may relate to service performance. priority and other factors specific to each service. Equipment operating in accordance with the IEEE specifications and passing the Alliances interoperability tests is able to display the Wi-Fi logo.
PDA (Personnel Digital Assistant) etc. Stations are able to move between BSS within a single ESS yet still remain “connected” to the fixed network and so continue to receive emails etc.Extended Service Set An Extended Service Set is comprised of a number of IEEE 802.11 network which provides the point of interconnection between the wireless Station (laptop computer.11 BSS (Basic Service Set) and enables limited mobility within the WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network). The 802.IEEE 802. It is usually set by the administrator setting up the WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) and will be unique within a BSS (Basic Service Set) or ESS (Extended Service Set).Service Access Point A conceptual point where a protocol layer offers access to its services to the layer above or below.11 .11b is currently the most popular wireless networking technology. The standards have been divided into sub groups with 802.) and the wired network. 46 .11b specifications.11b Part of the IEEE 802.11 family of specifications. IEEE 802.11a based equipment is now commercially available and provides data rates up to 54Mbps and operates in the 5GHz ISM band. it will carry out a resuscitation procedure with the new AP (Access Point).Access Point An Access Point is a device found within an IEEE 802.Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum) enabling data rates of up to 11Mbps to be achieved. or wardrivers” in gaining access to a private network. AP (Access Points) and a DS (Distribution System). AP .11b currently the most common. The equipment operates in the 2. Wireless Medium.Wireless This is an IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers) technical standard covering WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) technology. However.4GHz ISM (Industrial Scientific and Medical) band.4GHz unlicensed band and utilizes HR/DSSS (High Rate .11 networks are comprised of Stations. IEEE 802. The SSID may be broadcast from an AP (Access Point) within the wireless network to enable Stations to determine which network to “Associate” with.Service Set Identifier The Service Set Identifier or Network Name is used within IEEE 802. SSID . this feature should be disabled as it may assist “hackers. As a Station moves into a new BSS. Equipment operating in accordance with the IEEE specifications and passing the Wi-Fi Alliances interoperability tests is able to display the Wi-Fi logo. This provides a wireless communication at up to 11Mbps and operates within the 2. SAP . IEEE 802.11a and IEEE 802.11 networks to identify a particular network. Several manufacturers have developed equipment which is capable of operating in accordance with both IEEE 802. ESS .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.