Topic

:
"The 802.11 Protocol Stack and Physical
Layer”
Table of Contents
1. Abstraction
2. Introduction
2.1 Overview
2.2 Wireless Local Area Network
2.3 The Basic Structure of a Wireless LAN
2.4 Comari!" a Wireless LAN to a Wire# Network
2.$ The %&&& Sta!#ar#
3. 802.11 Protocol Stack
3.1 'rotocol Structure
3.2 'rotocol Stack Architecture
3.2.1 Statio! (STA) Architecture*
3.2.2 Access+'oi!t (A') Architecture*
3.2.3 Basic Service Set (BSS)*
3.2.4 %!#ee!#e!t Basic Service Set (%BSS)*
3.2.$ %!frastructure
3.2., &-te!#e# Service Set (&SS)*
3.2.. Service Set %#e!tifier (SS%/)*
3.2.0 Basic Service Set %#e!tifier (BSS%/)
3.3 'rotocol Stack for 1N%2
3.4 Comare Overall Structure of 032.114 5 032.1$.1 Coe-iste!ce 6echa!ism
3.$.1 6%7 SA' 8efere!ce 6o#el for 032.11
3.$.2 6%7 SA' 8efere!ce 6o#el for 032.1,
3., /ata Li!k La9er
3.,.1 Suort for Time+Bou!#e# /ata
3.. 6AC :u!ctio!al /escritio!
3...1 6AC Architecture
3.0 Securit9
2
3.0.1 'reve!ti!" Access to Network 8esources
3.0.2 &aves#roi!"
4. Physical ayer
4.1 The h9sical la9er 4asics
4.2 'LC' :rame :iel#s
4.3 %!frare# (%8)
4.4 Srea# Sectrum
4.$ :re;ue!c9 7oi!" Srea# Sectrum (:7SS)
4., /irect Se;ue!ce Srea# Sectrum (/SSS)
4.,.1 /SSS 6o#ulatio!
4.,.2 Tra!smit :re;ue!cies
4.. The %&&& 032.11a
4...1 'ractice 032.11a
4.0 The %&&& 032.114
4.0.1 'ractice 032.114
4.<Comariso! of 032.11a a!# 032.114
!. Conclusion
". Abbre#iation
$. %lossary
3
Abstraction
The writi!" of this 8esearch 8eort was romte# to mai!tai! two mai! #evelome!ts of the
%&&& 032.11 Sta!#ar# h9sical rotocol stack a!# 'h9sical La9er e!ha!ce# from the
#evelome!ts i! wireless commu!icatio! i! the ast #eca#e. :irst we ha# to #o hu"e research
activities i! this toic. This has 4ee! a su4=ect stu#9 si!ce the si-ties> so that #uri!" our
e-lori!" work we have selecte# a lot of materials a!# icke# u the most visi4le thi!"s for the
stu#e!t to u!#ersta!# it more easil9 a!# clearl9. So that we were co!ce!trate# to rese!t the
issue i! mo#er! wireless co!cets i! a cohere!t a!# u!ifie# ma!!er a!# to illustrate the co!cets
i! that wa9 the9 are alie#.
The co!cets ca! 4e structure# i!to these levels*
+ Listi!" characteristics a!# mo#eli!"
+ Alicatio! of these co!cets
But of course there is i!terla9 4etwee! these structures.
So this 8esearch reort is writte! 4ase# o! the material for the stu#e!ts i! the si-th semester.
Also i! the e!# to u!#ersta!# 4etter the termi!olo"9 a!# the hu"e !um4er of a44reviatio!s
e-lai!e# a!# some #efi!itio!s.
Introduction
The ast #eca#e has see! ma!9 a#va!ces i! h9sical+la9er commu!icatio! theor9 a!# their
imleme!tatio! i! wireless s9stems. So that i! this 8esearch 8eort we are "oi!" to #efi!e a!#
view fu!#ame!tals of wireless commu!icatio! a!# that eseciall9 the %&&& 032.11 Sta!#ar# a!#
e-lai! the a#va!ta"es at a level that is accessi4le to our au#ie!ce with a 4asic 4ack"rou!#.
Wireless commu!icatio! is o!e of the most vi4ra!t areas i! the commu!icatio! fiel# to#a9. This
is #ue to a co!flue!ce of several factors. :irst> there has 4ee! a! e-losive i!crease i! #ema!#
for the tether less co!!ectivit9> #rive! so far mai!l9 49 cellular teleho!9 4ut e-ecte# to 4e
soo! eclise# 49 wireless #ata alicatio!.
:irst there has 4ee! a! e-losive i!crease i! #ema!# for tether less co!!ectivit9> #rive! so far
mai!l9 49 cellular teleho!9 4ut e-ecte# to 4e soo! eclise# 49 wireless #ata alicatio!s.
Seco!#> the #ramatic rocess i! ?LS% tech!olo"9 has e!a4le# small area a!# low ower
imleme!tatio! of sohisticate# si"!al rocessi!" al"orithms a!# co#i!" tech!i;ues.
Thir#> the success of seco!# "e!eratio! #i"ital wireless sta!#ar#s a!# rovi#e a co!crete
#emo!stratio! that "oo# i#eas from commu!icatio! theor9 ca! have imact i! ractice.
There are two fu!#ame!tal asects of wireless commu!icatio! that make the ro4lem
challe!"i!" a!# i!teresti!". These asects are 49 a!# lar"e !ot as si"!ifica!t i! wire li!e
commu!icatio!.
:irst the he!ome!o! of fa#i!"* the time variatio! of the cha!!el stre!"ths #ue to the small+scale
effect of multiath fa#i!"> as well as lar"e scale effects.
Seco!#> u!like the i! the wire# worl# where each tra!smitter+receiver air ca! ofte! 4e thou"ht
of as a! isolate# oi!t+to oi!t li!k> wireless users commu!icate over the air a!# there is
si"!ifica!t i!terface 4etwee! them.
The ori"i!al 032.11 sta!#ar# secifie# three searate h9sical la9ers. Two are ra#io+
4ase# a!# o!e is i!frare# li"ht+4ase#. The ori"i!al ra#io+4ase# la9ers are srea# sectrum*
fre;ue!c9 hoi!" a!# #irect se;ue!ce. These are all i! the 2.4 @7A 4a!#. A! a##itio!al
4
h9sical la9er i! the $ @7A 4a!# was a##e# with the 032.1a release> which is also ra#io+4ase#*
ortho"o!al fre;ue!c9 #ivisio! multile-i!" (O:/6).
The latest release> 032.11"> a##e# 9et a!other '7B* comlime!tar9 co#e ke9i!"
ortho"o!al fre;ue!c9 #ivisio! multile-i!" (CCC+O:/6). This is secifie# i! 4oth the 2.4 a!#
the $ @7A 4a!#s. Note that for 2 #evices to 4e a4le to i!teract> the9 must co!form to the same
'7B la9er. There are two su4 la9ers i! the 032.11 h9sical la9ers> the h9sical me#ium
#ee!#e!t la9er ('6/) a!# the h9sical la9er co!ver"e!ce roce#ure ('LC'). The '6/ is the
su4 la9er lowest o! the stack. %t tra!smits a!# receives 4its over the air. The '7B la9er has three
4asic fu!ctio!s. These are the carrier se!se fu!ctio!> the tra!smit fu!ctio!> a!# the receive
fu!ctio!.
&#er#ie'
Wireless tech!olo"ies> i! the simlest se!se> e!a4le o!e or more #evices to commu!icate
without h9sical co!!ectio!s D without re;uiri!" !etwork ca4li!". Wireless tech!olo"ies use
ra#io tra!smissio!s as the mea!s for tra!smitti!" #ata> whereas wire# tech!olo"ies use ca4les.
Wireless tech!olo"ies ra!"e from comle- s9stems> such as WLANs a!# cell ho!es> to simle
#evices such as wireless hea#ho!es> microho!es> a!# other #evices that #o !ot rocess or store
i!formatio!. %! Comuter !etwork a su4sta!tial art is the Wireless Local Area Network
(WLAN)> is a closel9 "roue# s9stem of #evices that commu!icate via ra#io waves i!stea# of
wires. Wireless LANEs t9icall9 au"me!t or relace wire# comuter !etworks> rovi#i!" users
with more fle-i4ilit9 a!# free#om of moveme!t withi! the worklace. %! a t9ical WLAN
co!fi"uratio!> a tra!sceiverFor access oi!tFco!!ects to the wire# !etwork from a fi-e#
ilocatio! usi!" a sta!#ar# &ther!et ca4le. The access oi!t receives> 4uffers> a!# tra!smits #ata
4etwee! the como!e!ts of the WLAN. :or over a ce!tur9> the %&&&+SA has offere# a!
esta4lishe# sta!#ar#s #evelome!t ro"ram that features 4ala!ce> oe!!ess> #ue rocess> a!#
co!se!sus. The %!stitute of &lectrical a!# &lectro!ics &!"i!eers Sta!#ar#s Associatio! (%&&&+
SA) is the lea#i!" #eveloer of "lo4al i!#ustr9 sta!#ar#s i! a 4roa#+ra!"e of i!#ustries>
i!clu#i!"* 'ower a!# &!er"9G Biome#ical a!# 7ealthcareG %!formatio! Tech!olo"9G
Telecommu!icatio!sG Tra!sortatio!G Na!otech!olo"9G %!formatio! Assura!ce. We have
#iscusse# a4out them i! this raort.
A rotocol stack is a articular software imleme!tatio! of a comuter !etworki!"
rotocol suite. The terms are ofte! use# i!tercha!"ea4l9. Strictl9 seaki!"> the suite is the
#efi!itio! of the rotocols> a!# the stack is the software imleme!tatio! of them.
Securit9 is o!e of the first co!cer!s of eole #elo9i!" a Wireless LANG the 032.11
committee has a##resse# the issue 49 rovi#i!" what is calle# W&' (Wire# &;uivale!t 'rivac9)
Authe!ticatio!* A fu!ctio! that #etermi!es whether a Statio! is allowe# to articiate i!
!etwork commu!icatio!. The sta!#ar# %&&& 032.11i is #esi"!e# to rovi#e secure#
commu!icatio! of wireless LAN as #efi!e# 49 all the %&&& 032.11 secificatio!s. %&&& 032.11i
e!ha!ces the W&' (Wireli!e &;uivale!t 'rivac9)G a tech!olo"9 use# for ma!9 9ears for the
WLAN securit9> i! the areas of e!cr9tio!> authe!ticatio! a!# ke9 ma!a"eme!t.
The %&&& (#efi!e) 032.11 sta!#ar# i!clu#es a commo! 6e#ium Access Co!trol (6AC)
La9er> which #efi!es rotocols that "over! the oeratio! of the wireless LAN. %! a##itio!>
032.11 comrise several alter!ative h9sical la9ers that secif9 the tra!smissio! a!# recetio! of
032.11 frames.
$
A!# as co!clusio! we will sa9 that wireless !etworki!" has a romisi!" future with
032.11 lea#i!" the wa9 as the sta!#ar# for a#otio! i! local !etworki!" e!viro!me!ts. 032.11
a##resses mo4ilit9> securit9> relia4ilit9> a!# the #9!amic !ature of wireless LANS while keei!"
comati4ilit9 with 032+t9e le"ac9 !etworks. &-ect to see availa4ilit9 of 032.11 ro#ucts
i!crease #ramaticall9 i! the !ear future as 4usi!esses #iscover the i!crease# ro#uctivit9
rovi#e# 49 Hu!tethere#E !etworks.
(ireless ocal Area )et'ork
%! Comuter !etwork a su4sta!tial art is the Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN)> is
a closel9 "roue# s9stem of #evices that commu!icate via ra#io waves i!stea# of wires. Wireless
LANEs t9icall9 au"me!t or relace wire# comuter !etworks> rovi#i!" users with more
fle-i4ilit9 a!# free#om of moveme!t withi! the worklace. 1sers ca! access the coma!9
i!tra!et or eve! the Worl# Wi#e We4 from a!9where o! the coma!9 camus without rel9i!"
o! the availa4ilit9 of wire# ca4les a!# co!!ectio!. %f i!formatio! is the life4loo# of to#a9Is
4usi!ess e!viro!me!t> the! wireless !etworks are its heart. Wireless LANs ca! um
i!formatio! a!# #ata
to e-ecutives i! the
4oar#room a!# to
emlo9ees i! the
warehouse. A
wireless LAN
(WLAN) is a fle-i4le
#ata commu!icatio!
s9stem imleme!te#
as a! e-te!sio! or as
a! alter!ative for> a
wire# LAN withi! a
4uil#i!" or camus.
1si!"
electroma"!etic
waves> WLANEs
tra!smits a!# receive
#ata over the air>
mi!imiAi!" the !ee# for wire# co!!ectio!s. Thus> WLANs com4i!e #ata co!!ectivit9 with user
mo4ilit9> a!#> throu"h simlifie# co!fi"uratio!> e!a4le mova4le LANs. Over the last seve!
9ears> WLANs have "ai!e# stro!" oularit9 i! a !um4er of vertical markets> i!clu#i!" the
health+care> retail> ma!ufacturi!"> warehousi!"> a!# aca#emic are!as. These i!#ustries have
rofite# from the ro#uctivit9 "ai!s of usi!" ha!#+hel# termi!als a!# !ote4ook comuters to
tra!smit real+time i!formatio! to ce!traliAe# hosts for rocessi!". To#a9 WLANs are 4ecomi!"
more wi#el9 reco"!iAe# as a "e!eral+urose co!!ectivit9 alter!ative for a 4roa# ra!"e of
4usi!ess customers. The 1.S. wireless LAN market is rai#l9 aroachi!" J1 4illio! i!
reve!ues. A wi#e variet9 of i!#ustries have #iscovere# the 4e!efits a WLAN ca! 4ri!"F!ot
o!l9 to #ail9 tasks 4ut also to the 4ala!ce sheet.
,
The *asic Structure of a (ireless A)
%! a t9ical WLAN co!fi"uratio!> a tra!sceiverFor access oi!tFco!!ects to the wire#
!etwork from a fi-e# locatio! usi!" a sta!#ar# &ther!et ca4le. The access oi!t receives> 4uffers>
a!# tra!smits #ata 4etwee! the como!e!ts of the WLANFwhether latos> ri!ters> ha!#hel#
#evices> or a!9 other wireless e;uime!tFa!# the wire# !etwork i!frastructure. A si!"le access
oi!t ca! suort a small "rou of users a!# ca! fu!ctio! withi! a ra!"e of a!9where from 33 to
several hu!#re# feet. The access oi!t ca! 4e i!stalle# a!9where i! the facilit9 as lo!" as "oo#
ra#io covera"e is mai!tai!e#. 1sers e;uie# with ha!#hel# #evices or !ote4ook comuters ca!
tra!smit #ata to the access oi!t whe! withi! ra!"e. The wireless #evices commu!icate with the
!etwork oerati!" s9stem via WLAN a#aters> usuall9 i! the form of ra#io !etwork i!terface
car#s (N%Cs)> as i! the case of !ote4ook comuters> %SA or 'C% a#aters for #eskto comuters>
or similar #evices i!te"rate# i!to ha!#hel# u!its.
Co+,arin- a (ireless A) to a (ired )et'ork
The see# at which a WLAN erforms #ee!#s o! the t9e a!# co!fi"uratio! of the
#evices withi! the !etwork. The !um4er of users> the #ista!ce 4etwee! !etwork como!e!ts> the
t9e of WLAN s9stem i! use> a!# the efficie!c9 of the wire# !etwork eleme!ts all i!flue!ce the
overall see# a!# erforma!ce of a wireless !etwork. Such factors also affect wire# !etwork
see#s> 4ut most commercial LANs oerate at see#s from 13 me"a4its er seco!# (13BaseT) to
133 64s (133BaseT). Wireless LAN como!e!ts that use the 032.11a hi"h #ata rate sta!#ar#
erform at see#s u to $4 64s> almost a five+fol# i!crease from the erforma!ce of the
032.114 sta!#ar#. Almost all mo4ile alicatio!s to#a9 le!# themselves to #elo9me!t of a!
032.11 WLAN i!frastructure. Of the three mai! variatio!s of 032.11> a lethora of alicatio!s
a!# #evices suort the 032.114 sta!#ar#> which oerates i! the 2.4 @7A fre;ue!c9 ra!"e.
Althou"h this sta!#ar# is much more wi#el9 imleme!te# tha! its !ewer sister tech!olo"ies>
i!#ustr9 e-erts a!ticiate that it wo!Et 4e lo!" 4efore 032.11" a!# 032.11a e-cee# 032.114 i!
oularit9. Wireless users reco"!iAe the 4e!efits of the tech!olo"9 a!# !ee# to k!ow how to
rotect their 4usi!ess+critical #ata. These usersFas well as those who hesitate to #elo9 wireless
tech!olo"9 4ecause of securit9 co!cer!sF sta!# to 4e!efit from u!#ersta!#i!" the securit9
otio!s curre!tl9 availa4le> eve! as the i!#ustr9 moves a""ressivel9 to rovi#e eve! more secure
rotocols. B9 worki!" with a wireless ve!#or well+verse# i! securit9 issues> coma!ies ca!
#ramaticall9 e!ha!ce the securit9 of its wireless commu!icatio!s s9stem.
.
WLANs t9icall9 use the u!lice!se# %!#ustrial> Scie!tific> a!# 6e#ical (%S6) ra#io
fre;ue!c9 4a!#s. %! the 1!ite# States> the %S6 4a!#s i!clu#e the <33+67A 4a!# (<32D<20
67A)> 2.4+@7A 4a!# (2433D2403.$67A)> a!# the $..+@7A 4a!# ($.2$D$0$367A). The most
wi#el9 a#ote# WLAN sta!#ar# arou!# the worl# is
032.11 K20L to#a9. %&&& 032.11 co!sists of a famil9 of sta!#ar#s that #efi!es the h9sical
la9ers ('7B) a!# the 6e#ium Access Co!trol (6AC) la9er of a WLAN> WLAN !etwork
architectures> how a WLAN i!teracts with a! %' core !etwork> a!# the frameworks a!# mea!s
for suorti!" securit9 a!# ;ualit9 of service over a WLAN. The %&&& 032.11 sta!#ar#s famil9
i!clu#es the followi!" ke9 sta!#ar#s*
The I... Standard
:or over a ce!tur9> the %&&&+SA has offere# a! esta4lishe# sta!#ar#s #evelome!t
ro"ram that features 4ala!ce> oe!!ess> #ue rocess> a!# co!se!sus. The %!stitute of &lectrical
a!# &lectro!ics &!"i!eers Sta!#ar#s Associatio! (%&&&+SA) is the lea#i!" #eveloer of "lo4al
i!#ustr9 sta!#ar#s i! a 4roa#+ra!"e of i!#ustries> i!clu#i!"*
• 'ower a!# &!er"9
• Biome#ical a!# 7ealthcare
• %!formatio! Tech!olo"9
• Telecommu!icatio!s
• Tra!sortatio!
• Na!otech!olo"9
• %!formatio! Assura!ce
0
The followi!" ta4le lists hi"hli"hts of the most oular sectio!s of %&&& 032 a!# has
li!ks for a##itio!al i!formatio!*
032 Overview Basics of h9sical a!# lo"ical !etworki!" co!cets.
032.1 Bri#"i!"
LAN56AN 4ri#"i!" a!# ma!a"eme!t. Covers ma!a"eme!t
a!# the lower su4+la9ers of OS% La9er 2> i!clu#i!" 6AC+4ase#
4ri#"i!" (6e#ia Access Co!trol)> virtual LANs a!# ort+4ase#
access co!trol.
032.2 Lo"ical Li!k
Commo!l9 referre# to as the LLC or Lo"ical Li!k Co!trol
secificatio!. The LLC is the to su4+la9er i! the #ata+li!k
la9er> OS% La9er 2. %!terfaces with the !etwork La9er 3.
032.3 &ther!et
M@ra!##a##9M of the 032 secificatio!s. 'rovi#es
as9!chro!ous !etworki!" usi!" Mcarrier se!se> multile access
with collisio! #etectM (CS6A5C/) over coa-> twiste#+air
coer> a!# fi4er me#ia. Curre!t see#s ra!"e from 13 64s to
13 @4s. Click for a list of the MhotM 032.3 tech!olo"ies.
032.4 Toke! Bus /is4a!#e#
032.$ Toke! 8i!"
The ori"i!al toke!+assi!" sta!#ar# for twiste#+air> shiel#e#
coer ca4les. Suorts coer a!# fi4er ca4li!" from 4 64s
to 133 64s. Ofte! calle# M%B6 Toke!+8i!".M
032.,
/istri4ute#
;ueue #ual 4us
(/N/B)
MSuerse#e# OO8evisio! of 032.1/+1<<3 e#itio! (%SO5%&C
13330). 032.1/ i!cororates '032.1 a!# '032.12e. %t also
i!cororates a!# suerse#es u4lishe# sta!#ar#s 032.1= a!#
032.,k. Suerse#e# 49 032.1/+2334.M (See %&&& status a"e.)
032..
Broa#4a!# LAN
'ractices
With#raw! Sta!#ar#. With#raw! /ate* :e4 3.> 2333. No
lo!"er e!#orse# 49 the %&&&. (See %&&& status a"e.)
032.0
:i4er Otic
'ractices
With#raw! 'A8. Sta!#ar#s ro=ect !o lo!"er e!#orse# 49 the
%&&&. (See %&&& status a"e.)
032.<
%!te"rate#
Services LAN
With#raw! 'A8. Sta!#ar#s ro=ect !o lo!"er e!#orse# 49 the
%&&&. (See %&&& status a"e.)
032.13
%!teroera4le
LAN securit9
Suerse#e# OOCo!tai!s* %&&& St# 032.134+1<<2. (See %&&&
status a"e.)
032.11 Wi+:i
Wireless LAN 6e#ia Access Co!trol a!# 'h9sical La9er
secificatio!. 032.11a> 4> "> etc. are ame!#me!ts to the ori"i!al
032.11 sta!#ar#. 'ro#ucts that imleme!t 032.11 sta!#ar#s
must ass tests a!# are referre# to as MWi+:i certifie#.M
<
032.11a
Secifies a '7B that oerates i! the $ @7A 1+N%% 4a!# i! the
1S + i!itiall9 $.1$+$.3$ AN/ $..2$+$.0$ + si!ce e-a!#e# to
a##itio!al fre;ue!cies
1ses Ortho"o!al :re;ue!c9+/ivisio! 6ultile-i!"
&!ha!ce# #ata see# to $4 64s
8atifie# after 032.114
032.114
&!ha!ceme!t to 032.11 that a##e# hi"her #ata rate mo#es to
the /SSS (/irect Se;ue!ce Srea# Sectrum) alrea#9 #efi!e#
i! the ori"i!al 032.11 sta!#ar#
Booste# #ata see# to 11 64s
22 67A Ba!#wi#th 9iel#s 3 !o!+overlai!" cha!!els i! the
fre;ue!c9 ra!"e of 2.433 @7A to 2.403$ @7A
Beaco!s at 1 64s> falls 4ack to $.$> 2> or 1 64s from 11
64s ma-.
032.11#
&!ha!ceme!t to 032.11a a!# 032.114 that allows for "lo4al
roami!"
'articulars ca! 4e set at 6e#ia Access Co!trol (6AC) la9er
032.11e
&!ha!ceme!t to 032.11 that i!clu#es ;ualit9 of service (NoS)
features
:acilitates rioritiAatio! of #ata> voice> a!# vi#eo tra!smissio!s
032.11"
&-te!#s the ma-imum #ata rate of WLAN #evices that oerate
i! the 2.4 @7A 4a!#> i! a fashio! that ermits i!teroeratio!
with 032.114 #evices
1ses O:/6 6o#ulatio! (Ortho"o!al :/6)
Oerates at u to $4 me"a4its er seco!# (64s)> with fall+
4ack see#s that i!clu#e the M4M see#s
032.11h
&!ha!ceme!t to 032.11a that resolves i!terfere!ce issues
/9!amic fre;ue!c9 selectio! (/:S)
Tra!smit ower co!trol (T'C)
032.11i
&!ha!ceme!t to 032.11 that offers a##itio!al securit9 for
WLAN alicatio!s
/efi!es more ro4ust e!cr9tio!> authe!ticatio!> a!# ke9
e-cha!"e> as well as otio!s for ke9 cachi!" a!# re+
authe!ticatio!
032.11=
Paa!ese re"ulator9 e-te!sio!s to 032.11a secificatio!
:re;ue!c9 ra!"e 4.< @7A to $.3 @7A
032.11k
8a#io resource measureme!ts for !etworks usi!" 032.11
famil9 secificatio!s
032.11m
6ai!te!a!ce of 032.11 famil9 secificatio!s
Correctio!s a!# ame!#me!ts to e-isti!" #ocume!tatio!
13
032.11!
7i"her+see# sta!#ar#s ++ u!#er #evelome!t
Several cometi!" a!# !o!+comati4le tech!olo"iesG ofte!
calle# Mre+!M
To see#s claime# of 130> 243> a!# 3$3Q 67A
Cometi!" roosals come from the "rous> &WC> T@! S9!c>
a!# WWiS& a!# are all variatio!s 4ase# o! 6%6O (multile
i!ut> multile outut)
032.11- 6iss+use# M"e!ericM term for 032.11 famil9 secificatio!s
032.12 /ema!# 'riorit9
%!creases &ther!et #ata rate to 133 64s 49 co!trolli!" me#ia
utiliAatio!.
032.13 Not use# Not use#
032.14 Ca4le mo#ems
With#raw! 'A8. Sta!#ar#s ro=ect !o lo!"er e!#orse# 49 the
%&&&.
032.1$
Wireless
'erso!al Area
Networks
Commu!icatio!s secificatio! that was arove# i! earl9 2332
49 the %&&& for wireless erso!al area !etworks (W'ANs).
032.1$.1 Bluetooth
Short ra!"e (13m) wireless tech!olo"9 for cor#less mouse>
ke94oar#> a!# ha!#s+free hea#set at 2.4 @7A.
032.1$.3a 1WB Short ra!"e> hi"h+4a!#wi#th Multra wi#e4a!#M li!k
032.1$.4 Ri"Bee Short ra!"e wireless se!sor !etworks
032.1$.$ 6esh !etwork
&-te!sio! of !etwork covera"e without i!creasi!" the tra!smit
ower or the receiver se!sitivit9
&!ha!ce# relia4ilit9 via route re#u!#a!c9
&asier !etwork co!fi"uratio! + Better #evice 4atter9 life
032.1,
Wireless
6etroolita!
Area Networks
This famil9 of sta!#ar#s covers :i-e# a!# 6o4ile Broa#4a!#
Wireless Access metho#s use# to create Wireless 6etroolita!
Area Networks (W6ANs.) Co!!ects Base Statio!s to the
%!ter!et usi!" O:/6 i! u!lice!se# (<33 67A> 2.4> $.0 @7A)
or lice!se# (.33 67A> 2.$ D 3., @7A) fre;ue!c9 4a!#s.
'ro#ucts that imleme!t 032.1, sta!#ar#s ca! u!#er"o
Wi6A2 certificatio! testi!".
032.1.
8esilie!t 'acket
8i!"
%&&& worki!" "rou #escritio!
032.10
8a#io
8e"ulator9 TA@
%&&& 032.10 sta!#ar#s committee
032.1< Coe-iste!ce %&&& 032.1< Coe-iste!ce Tech!ical A#visor9 @rou
11
032.23
6o4ile
Broa#4a!#
Wireless Access
%&&& 032.23 missio! a!# ro=ect scoe
032.21
6e#ia
%!#ee!#e!t
7a!#off
%&&& 032.21 missio! a!# ro=ect scoe
032.22
Wireless
8e"io!al Area
%&&& 032.22 missio! a!# ro=ect scoe
802.11 Protocol Stack
A rotocol stack is a articular software imleme!tatio! of a comuter !etworki!"
rotocol suite. The terms are ofte! use# i!tercha!"ea4l9. Strictl9 seaki!"> the suite is the
#efi!itio! of the rotocols> a!# the stack is the software imleme!tatio! of them. %!#ivi#ual
rotocols withi! a suite are ofte! #esi"!e# with a si!"le urose i! mi!#. This mo#ulariAatio!
makes #esi"! a!# evaluatio! easier. Because each rotocol mo#ule usuall9 commu!icates with
two others> the9 are commo!l9 ima"i!e# as layers i! a stack of rotocols. The lowest rotocol
alwa9s #eals with Mlow+levelM> h9sical i!teractio! of the har#ware. &ver9 hi"her la9er a##s
more features. 1ser alicatio!s ha4ituall9 #eal o!l9 with the tomost la9ers (See also OS%
mo#el).
The rotocols use# 49 all the 032 varia!ts> i!clu#i!" &ther!et> have a certai!
commo!alit9 of structure. %! the fi"ure 4elow we see a artial view of the 032.11 rotocol stack.
The h9sical la9er correso!#s to the OS% h9sical la9er fairl9 well> 4ut the #ata li!k la9er i! all
12
the 032 rotocols is slit i!to two or more su4la9ers. %! 032.11> the 6AC (6e#ium Access
Co!trol) su4la9er #etermi!es how the cha!!el is allocate#> that is> a!# who "ets to tra!smit !e-t.
A4ove it is the LLC (Lo"ical Li!k Co!trol) su4la9er> whose =o4 it is to hi#e the #iffere!ces
4etwee! the #iffere!t 032 varia!ts a!# make them i!#isti!"uisha4le as far as the !etwork la9er is
co!cer!e#. We stu#ie# the LLC whe! e-ami!i!" &ther!et earlier i! this chater a!# will !ot
reeat that material here. The 1<<. 032.11 sta!#ar# secifies three tra!smissio! tech!i;ues
allowe# i! the h9sical la9er. The i!frare# metho# uses much the same tech!olo"9 as televisio!
remote co!trols #o. The other two use short+ra!"e ra#io> usi!" tech!i;ues calle# :7SS a!#
/SSS. Both of these use a art of the sectrum that #oes !ot re;uire lice!si!" (the 2.4+@7A %S6
4a!#). 8a#io+co!trolle# "ara"e #oor oe!ers also use this iece of the sectrum> so 9our
!ote4ook comuter
ma9 fi!# itself i!
cometitio! with 9our
"ara"e #oor. Cor#less
teleho!es a!#
microwave ove!s also
use this 4a!#. All of
these tech!i;ues
oerate at 1 or 2
64s a!# at low
e!ou"h ower that
the9 #o !ot co!flict
too much. %! 1<<<>
two !ew tech!i;ues
were i!tro#uce# to
achieve hi"her
4a!#wi#th. These are
calle# O:/6 a!#
78/SSS. The9
oerate at u to $4
64s a!# 11 64s>
resectivel9. %! 2331>
a seco!# O:/6
mo#ulatio! was
i!tro#uce#> 4ut i! a
#iffere!t fre;ue!c9 4a!# from the first o!e. Now we will e-ami!e each of them 4riefl9.
13
Protocol Structure
%! the fi"ure 4elow we ca! see the Wireless LAN 49 %&&& 032.11> 032.11a>
032.114>032.11"> 032.11!031.11 rotocol famil9 6AC frame structure*
2 2 , , , 2 ,
3+
2312
4
:rame
Co!trol
/uratio!
A##ress
1
A##ress
2
A##ress
3
Se
;
A##ress
4
/ata
Check
sum
:rame Co!trol Structure*
2 2 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
?ersio! T9e Su4t9e To /S :rom /S 6: 8etr9 'wr 6ore W O
• 'rotocol ?ersio! + i!#icates the versio! of %&&& 032.11 sta!#ar#.
• T9e + :rame t9e* 6a!a"eme!t> Co!trol a!# /ata.
• Su4t9e + :rame su4t9e* Authe!ticatio! frame> /eauthe!ticatio! frameG Associatio!
re;uest frameG Associatio! reso!se frameG 8eassociatio! re;uest frameG 8eassociatio!
reso!se frameG /isassociatio! frameG Beaco! frameG 'ro4e frameG 'ro4e re;uest frame
a!# 'ro4e reso!se frame.
• To /S + is set to 1 whe! the frame is se!t to /istri4utio! S9stem (/S)
• :rom /S + is set to 1 whe! the frame is receive# from the /istri4utio! S9stem (/S)
• 6:+ 6ore :ra"me!t is set to 1 whe! there are more fra"me!ts 4elo!"i!" to the same
frame followi!" the curre!t fra"me!t
• 8etr9 i!#icates that this fra"me!t is a retra!smissio! of a reviousl9 tra!smitte#
fra"me!t. (:or receiver to reco"!iAe #ulicate tra!smissio!s of frames)
• 'wr + 'ower 6a!a"eme!t i!#icates the ower ma!a"eme!t mo#e that the statio! will 4e
i! after the tra!smissio! of the frame.
• 6ore + 6ore /ata i!#icates that there are more frames 4uffere# to this statio!.
• W + W&' i!#icates that the frame 4o#9 is e!cr9te# accor#i!" to the W&' (wire#
e;uivale!t rivac9) al"orithm.
• + Or#er i!#icates that the frame is 4ei!" se!t usi!" the Strictl9+Or#ere# service class.
• /uratio!5%/ (%/) +
• Statio! %/ is use# for 'ower+Save oll messa"e frame t9e.
• The #uratio! value is use# for the Network Allocatio! ?ector (NA?) calculatio!.
• A##ress fiel#s (1+4) + co!tai! u to 4 a##resses (source> #esti!atio!> tra!smittio! a!#
receiver a##resses) #ee!#i!" o! the frame co!trol fiel# (the To/S a!# :rom/S 4its).
14
• Se;ue!ce Co!trol + co!sists of fra"me!t !um4er a!# se;ue!ce !um4er. %t is use# to
rerese!t the or#er of #iffere!t fra"me!ts 4elo!"i!" to the same frame a!# to reco"!iAe
acket #ulicatio!s.
• /ata + is i!formatio! that is tra!smitte# or receive#.
• C8C + co!tai!s a 32+4it C9clic 8e#u!#a!c9 Check (C8C).
Protocol Stack Architecture
&ach comuter> mo4ile> orta4le or fi-e#> is
referre# to as a statio! i! 032.11 (Wireless Local Area
Networks).
The #iffere!ce 4etwee! a orta4le a!# mo4ile
statio! is that a orta4le statio! moves from oi!t to oi!t
4ut is o!l9 use# at a fi-e# oi!t. 6o4ile statio!s access the
LAN #uri!" moveme!t
.
Station /STA0 Architecture1
The Statio! Architecture is a #evice that co!tai!s
the %&&& co!forma!t 6AC a!# '7B i!terface i! the
wireless me#ium> 4ut o! the other si#e it #oes !ot rovi#e
access to a #istri4utio! s9stem. The Statio! Architecture is
most ofte! availa4le i! termi!als like latos> work+statio!s
a!# it is imleme!te# i! the Ava9a Wireless %&&& 032.11
'C+Car#.
• The most imorta!t features a!# co!#itio!s of the
Statio! Architecture are
• %t has a #river i!terface like the &ther!et
• All rotocol Stacks are virtuall9 suorte# 49 the STA
• The :rame tra!slatio! is #o!e accor#i!" to the %&&& ST/ 032.17
• The %&&& 032.3 frames with this architecture are tra!slate# to 032.11
• ?ia the Bri#"e Tu!!el e!casulatio! scheme are e!casulate# the &ther!et T9es 013.
(Novell %'2) a!# 03:3 (AA8')
• All other &ther!et T9es* e!casulate# via the 8:C 1342 (Sta!#ar# for the Tra!smissio!
of %' /ata"ramEs over %&&& 032 Networks) e!casulatio! scheme
• 6a-imum /ata limite# to 1$33 octets
• Bri#"i!" to &ther!et is #o!e tra!sare!tl9
1$
Access2Point /AP0 Architecture1
A! Access 'oi!t is a #evice fou!# withi! a! %&&& 032.11 !etwork which rovi#es the
oi!t of i!terco!!ectio! 4etwee! the wireless Statio! (lato comuter> '/A ('erso!!el /i"ital
Assista!t) etc.) a!# the wire# !etwork.
The Access 'oi!t Architecture is a #evice that co!tai!s
%&&& 032.11 co!forma!t 6AC a!# '7B i!terface to the
wireless me#ium> a!# rovi#es access to a #istri4utio!
s9stem for associate# statio!s. 6ost ofte! it co!tai!s
i!fra+structure ro#ucts that co!!ect to wire# 4ack4o!es
%t is imleme!te# i! Ava9a Wireless %&&& 032.11 'C+
Car# whe! it is i!serte# i! a! A'+$33 or A'+1333
The +ost i+,ortant features and conditions of
Access2Point /AP0 Architecture1
• The Statio!s select a! Access+'oi!t a!# the9
associate with that. The Access oi!t is a art that
suorts roami!" a!# also the9 rovi#e time
s9!chro!iAatio! fu!ctio!s like 4eaco!i!". The
Access+'oi!t Architecture offers a 'ower
6a!a"eme!t suort. %! a rotocol stack architecture
the traffic t9icall9 flows throu"h the Access+'oi!t.
So that i! the %BSS architecture takes lace the #irect
Statio!+to+Statio! commu!icatio! s9stem.
1,
*asic Ser#ice Set /*SS01
The Basic Service Set is a term use# to #escri4e the collectio! of Statio!s which ma9
commu!icate to"ether withi! a! 032.11 WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network). The BSS ma9
or ma9 !ot i!clu#e A' (Access 'oi!t) which rovi#es a co!!ectio! o!to a fi-e# #istri4utio!
s9stem such as a! &ther!et !etwork. Two t9es of BSS e-istG %BSS (%!#ee!#e!t Basic Service
Set) a!# %!frastructure Basic Service Set. Whe! two or more statio!s come to"ether to
commu!icate with each other> the9 form a Basic Service Set (BSS). The mi!imum BSS co!sists
of two statio!s. 032.11 LANs use the BSS as the sta!#ar# 4uil#i!" 4lock.
%! the BSS architecture a set of statio!s is co!trolle# 49 a si!"le SCoor#i!atio! :u!ctio!T> that is
the lo"ical fu!ctio! that #etermi!es whe! a statio! ca! tra!smit or receive.
%! this case we have similarit9 to a ScellT i! the re %&&& termi!olo"9 also a BSS ca! have a!
Access+'oi!t a!# that 4oth i! sta!#alo!e !etworks a!# i! 4uil#i!"+wi#e co!fi"uratio!s> or it =ust
ca! ru! without a!# Access+'oi!t 4ut o!l9 i! sta!#alo!e !etworks. The #iameter of the cells is
twice the covera"e+#ista!ce 4etwee! two wireless statio!s.
Inde,endent *asic Ser#ice Set /I*SS01
A! %!#ee!#e!t Basic Service Set also calle# a# hoc !etwork is the simlest of all %&&& 032.11
!etworks i! that !o !etwork i!frastructure is re;uire#. As such> a! %BSS is siml9 comrise# of
o!e or more Statio!s which commu!icate #irectl9 with each other. The co!tractio! shoul# !ot 4e
co!fuse# with a! %!frastructure BSS (Basic Service Set).A BSS that sta!#s alo!e a!# is !ot
co!!ecte# to a 4ase is calle# a! %!#ee!#e!t Basic Service Set (%BSS) or is referre# to as a! A#+
7oc Network. A! a#+hoc !etwork is a !etwork where statio!s commu!icate o!l9 eer to eer.
1.
There is !o 4ase a!# !o o!e "ives ermissio! to talk. 6ostl9 these !etworks are so!ta!eous a!#
ca! 4e set u rai#l9. A#+7oc or %BSS !etworks are characteristicall9 limite# 4oth temorall9
a!# satiall9. So that the Basic Service Set (BSS) forms a self+co!tai!e# !etwork i! which !o
access to a /istri4utio! S9stem is availa4le> or it is also similar to a BSS without a! Access+
'oi!t. O!e of the statio!s i! the %BSS ca! 4e co!fi"ure# to Si!itiateT the !etwork a!# assume the
Coor#i!atio! :u!ctio!. The #iameter of the cell is #etermi!e# 49 covera"e #ista!ce 4etwee! two
wireless statio!s.
Infrastructure
Whe! BSSIs are i!terco!!ecte# the !etwork 4ecomes o!e with i!frastructure. %!frastructure is
esta4lishe# i! the !etwork whe! BSS are i!terco!!ecte#> so that the 032.11 i!frastructures have
several eleme!ts. Two or more BSSIs are i!terco!!ecte# usi!" a /istri4utio! S9stem or /S. This
co!cet of /S i!creases !etwork covera"e. &ach BSS 4ecomes a como!e!t of a! e-te!#e#>
lar"er !etwork. &!tr9 to the /S is accomlishe# with the use of Access 'oi!ts (A'). A! access
oi!t is a statio!> thus a##ressa4le. With hel of the Access+'oi!ts #ata moves the! 4etwee! the
BSS a!# the /S.
.3tended Ser#ice Set /.SS01
A! &-te!#e# Service Set is comrise# of a !um4er of %&&& 802.11 BSS (Basic Service Set) a!#
e!a4les limite# mo4ilit9 withi! the (A) (Wireless Local Area Network). Statio!s are a4le to
move 4etwee! *SS withi! a si!"le &SS 9et still remai! Sco!!ecte#T to the fi-e# !etwork a!# so
co!ti!ue to receive emails etc. As a Station moves i!to a !ew BSS> it will carr9 out a
reassociatio! roce#ure with the !ew AP (Access 'oi!t). Creati!" lar"e a!# comle- !etworks
usi!" BSSIs a!# /SIs lea#s us to the !e-t level of hierarch9> the &-te!#e# Service Set or &SS.
The 4eaut9 of the &SS is the e!tire !etwork looks like a! i!#ee!#e!t 4asic service set to the
Lo"ical Li!k Co!trol la9er (LLC). This mea!s that statio!s withi! the &SS ca! commu!icate or
eve! move 4etwee! BSSEs tra!sare!tl9 to the LLC.
10
%t is the same here that the traffic alwa9s flows via Access+'oi!t> a!# the #iameter of the cell is
#ou4le the covera"e #ista!ce 4etwee! two wireless statio!s /istri4utio! S9stem (/S).There is
availa4le a s9stem to i!terco!!ect a set of Basic Service Sets a!# there is i!te"rate# a si!"le
Access+'oi!t i! a sta!#alo!e !etwork. %! the wire# !etwork there are use# ca4les to i!terco!!ect
the Access+'oi!ts. %! the wireless !etwork are use# wirelesses to i!terco!!ect the Access+'oi!ts.
&-amle* of &-te!#e# Service Set (&SS) with si!"le BSS a!# i!te"rate# /S
1<
Example: &-te!#e# Service Set (&SS) BSSEs with wire# /istri4utio! S9stem (/S)
Example: &-te!#e# Service Set (&SS) BSSEs a!# wireless /istri4utio! S9stem (/S)
Ser#ice Set Identifier /SSI401
The Service Set %#e!tifier or Network Name is secifie# withi! %&&& 802.11 !etworks to
i#e!tif9 a articular !etwork. %t is usuall9 set 49 the a#mi!istrator setti!" u the (A) a!# will
4e u!i;ue withi! a *SS (Basic Service Set) or .SS (&-te!#e# Service Set). The SS%/ ma9 4e
4roa#cast from a! AP withi! the wireless !etwork to e!a4le Stations to #etermi!e which
!etwork to SAssociateT with. 7owever> this feature shoul# 4e #isa4le# as it ma9 assist hackers or
'ardri#ers i! "ai!i!" access to a rivate !etwork. The most imorta!t thi!"s a4out the SS%/
are that it is 32 octets lo!" a!# it is similar to S/omai!+%/T i! the re+%&&& Wave LAN s9stems.
So we ca! co!clu#e that o!e !etwork i!#ee!#e!t from that if it is &SS or %BSS it has alwa9s
o!e SS%/.
23
*asic Ser#ice Set Identifier /*SSI40
The BSS%/ is a 404it i#e!tit9 use# to i#e!tif9 a articular BSS (Basic Service Set) withi! o!e
area. %! the i!frastructure BSS !etworks> the BSS%/ is the 6AC (6e#ium Access Co!trol)
a##ress of the A' a!# i! %!#ee!#e!t BSS or a# hoc !etworks> the BSS%/ is "e!erate#
ra!#oml9. The BSS%/ i#e!tifies the cells a!# it is , octets lo!"> that mea!s that it is i! the 6AC
a##ress format. There is also visi4le a similarit9 to the NW%/ i! the re+ %&&& Wave LAN
s9stems. The value of the BSS%/ is the same as the 6AC a##ress of the ra#io i! the Access+
'oi!t.
Protocol Stack for 5)I6
Also there are k!ow! #evelome!ts for architectural e!ha!ceme!ts for 1!i-+4ase# servers to
rovi#e a rotocol stack for 1N%2. To "ive a 4etter i#ea how it looks like the fi"ure 4elow
shows the 4asic como!e!ts of the e!ha!ce# rotocol stack architecture> with the !ew
caa4ilities utiliAe# either 49 user+sace a"e!ts or alicatio!s themselves. This architecture
ermits co!trol over a! alicatio!Is i!4ou!# !etwork traffic via olic9+4ase# traffic
ma!a"eme!tG a! a#atatio!5olic9 a"e!t i!stalls olicies i!to the ker!el via a secial A'%. The
olic9 a"e!t i!teracts with the ker!el via a! e!ha!ce# socket i!terface 49 se!#i!" (receivi!")
messa"es to (from) secial co!trol sockets. The olicies secif9 filters to select the traffic to 4e
co!trolle#> a!# actio!s to erform o! the selecte# traffic. The fi"ure shows the flow of a!
i!comi!" re;uest throu"h the various co!trol mecha!isms.
21
Co+,are &#erall Structure of 802.11b 7 802.1!.1 Coe3istence 8echanis+
A! AW6A tra!smissio! co!trol e!tit9 is i!te"rate# with the WLAN 6AC la9er a!# rovi#es a
6e#ium :ree si"!al to the Bluetooth Base4a!# la9er. This is a 4i!ar9 si"!al that "ates whe! the
WLAN a!# W'AN ca! each tra!smit ackets.
The 032.114 6AC a!# 032.1$.1 L6 Q LC e!tities rovi#e status i!formatio! to the 6&7TA
co!trol e!tities. The 6&7TA co!trol e!tit9 receives a er+tra!smissio! tra!smit re;uest (T2
8e;uest) a!# issues a er+tra!smissio! tra!smit co!firm (T2 Co!firm) to each stack to i!#icate
whether the tra!smissio! ca! rocee#. The T2 Co!firm carries a status value that is o!e of*
allowe# or #e!ie#. The T2 8e;uest a!# T2 Co!firm are #iscreet si"!als e-cha!"e# for ever9
acket tra!smissio! attemt.
802.11
MAC
802.15.1 LM
+ LC
802.11 PLCP
+ PHY
802.15.1
Baseband
TDMA
Control
MEHTA
Control
Status Status
T Enable T Enable
T Con!"r#
$status%
T Con!"r#
$status%
T &e'uest T &e'uest
Collaborative
Coexistence
Mechanism
802.11 Stack 802.15.1 Stack
8I9 SAP :eference 8odel for 802.11
The lo"ical laceme!t of the 6%7 :u!ctio! i! the 032.11 rotocol stack for statio!s a!# access
oi!ts is show! i! the fi"ure. %t is similar to the 032.3> where the LLC SA' (LSA') #efi!es the
i!terface of the 6%7 :u!ctio! with the 032.11 #ata la!e a!# ca! e!casulate 6%7 messa"es i!
#ata frames. 7owever> si!ce 032.11 #oes !ot curre!tl9 suort Class 1 #ata frames> 6%7
messa"es ca! 4e tra!sorte# over the 032.11 #ata la!e o!l9 after the 6o4ile No#e has
associate# with the 032.11 access oi!t. Before the associatio! 4etwee! 6o4ile No#e a!# access
22
oi!t takes lace> the L2 tra!sort of 6%7 messa"es ca! rel9 o! 032.11 ma!a"eme!t frames
from the 032.11 ma!a"eme!t la!e (6L6&). The 6%7 6L6& SA' #efi!es the i!terface
4etwee! the 6%7 :u!ctio! a!# the 6L6&.


Layer 3 Mobility Protocol (L3MP! "i#her$Layer Mobility
Protocol! "an%over Policy! &rans'ort! (''lications

Me%ia )n%e'en%ent
"an%over (M)" *+nction
M)" ,vent Service
M)" Comman% Service
M)" )n-ormation Service
M)".S(P
802.21
Sco'e



MLM,


PLM,


Lo#ical Link Control
(LLC

LS(P

M(C


P"/

M(C.S(P
P"/.S(P MLM,.PLM,.S(P













SM,

M)".SM,.S(P
PLM,.S(P
MLM,.S(P
MLM,.S(P
8I9 SAP :eference 8odel for 802.1"
The lo"ical laceme!t of the 6%7 :u!ctio! i! the 032.1, rotocol stack is show! i! the fi"ure>
so that we ca! comare 4etter what is the #iffere!ce 4etwee! the 032.11 a!# 032.1,.
The 6%7 :u!ctio! a!# the Network Co!trol a!# 6a!a"eme!t S9stem (NC6S) share the CUSA'
a!# 6USA' for access to the mo4ilit9+ma!a"eme!t services of the 6o4ilit9 Co!trol &!tit9 a!#
6a!a"eme!t &!tit9 i! the 032.1, 6a!a"eme!t 'la!e.
The mecha!isms for the #irect e!casulatio! of 6%7 frames i!to 032.1, #ata frames ma9 take
multile forms. The Service+Secific Co!ver"e!ce Su4la9er i!sta!ces curre!tl9 availa4le i! the
032.1, sta!#ar#s a!# Wi6A2 o!l9 e!a4le the e!casulatio! of %' ackets a!# &ther!et frames.
The o!l9 otio! availa4le for L2 tra!sort woul# 4e to first e!casulate the 6%7 messa"es i!to
&ther!et frames with a! 6%7 &thert9e value> a!# the! ma!#ate the a#otio! of &ther!et CS for
032.1, co!!ectio!s that carr9 the 6%7 messa"es. This aroach limits 4oth the efficie!c9 of the
L2 tra!sort of 6%7 messa"es> a!# that si!ce it imoses the a##itio! of full &ther!et overhea# D
at least 10 49tes D to the 6%7 frame a!# the availa4ilit9 of L2 tra!sort caa4ilities for 6%7>
si!ce &ther!et CS is !ot u4i;uitous.
Alter!ativel9> a solutio! that e!a4les 4etter efficie!c9 a!# easier accessi4ilit9 of L2 tra!sort
caa4ilities coul# 4ecome availa4le with the ossi4le sta!#ar#iAatio! of the @e!eric 'acket
Co!ver"e!ce Su4la9er (@'CS) rece!tl9 roose# withi! 032.1,". With @'CS a more efficie!t
23
LLC5SNA' e!casulatio! (0 49tes overhea#) coul# create the !ee#e# room for the 6%7
&thert9e i! 032.1, frame.

Sec+rity S+blayer


Layer 3 Mobility Protocol (L3MP! "i#her$Layer Mobility
Protocol! "an%over Policy! &rans'ort! (''lications

Me%ia )n%e'en%ent
"an%over (M)" *+nction
M)" ,vent Service
M)" Comman% Service
M)" )n-ormation Service
M)".S(P
802.21
Sco'e





Mana#ement Plane


Service$S'eci-ic Conver#ence S+blayer (CS

CS.S(P

M(C Common Part S+blayer (M(C CPS


Physical Layer (P"/

M(C.S(P
P"/.S(P















0CMS
C.S(P
M.S(P
4ata ink ayer
As a! imorta!t art of the rotocol stack> the #ata li!k la9er withi! 032.11 co!sists of two
su4la9ers* Lo"ical Li!k Co!trol (LLC) a!# 6e#ia Access Co!trol (6AC). The 032.11 uses the
same 032.2 LLC a!# 40+4it a##ressi!" as other 032 LANs> allowi!" for ver9 simle 4ri#"i!"
from wireless to %&&& wire# !etworks> 4ut the 6AC is u!i;ue to WLANs. The 032.11 6AC is
ver9 similar i! co!cet comare# to the 032.3> which is #esi"!e# to suort multile users o! a
share# me#ium 49 havi!" the se!#er se!se the me#ium 4efore accessi!" it.
:or 032.3 &ther!et LANs> the Carrier Se!se 6ultile Access with Collisio! /etectio!
(CS6A5C/) it is re"ulate# from the rotocol how &ther!et statio!s are "oi!" to esta4lish access
to the wire a!# how the9 #etect a!# ha!#le collisio!s that occur whe! two or more #evices tr9 to
simulta!eousl9 commu!icate over the LAN. %! a! 032.11 WLAN> collisio! #etectio! is !ot
ossi4le #ue to what is k!ow! as the S!ear5farT ro4lem* to #etect a collisio!> a statio! must 4e
a4le to tra!smit a!# liste! at the same time> 4ut i! ra#io s9stems the tra!smissio! #row!s out the
a4ilit9 of the statio! to ShearT a collisio!. To accou!t for this #iffere!ce> 032.11 use a sli"htl9
mo#ifie# rotocol k!ow! as Carrier Se!se 6ultile Access with Collisio! Avoi#a!ce
(CS6A5CA) or the /istri4ute# Coor#i!atio! :u!ctio! (/C:). CS6A5CA attemts to avoi#
collisio!s 49 usi!" e-licit acket ack!owle#"me!t (ACC)> which mea!s a! ACC acket is se!t
49 the receivi!" statio! to co!firm that the #ata acket arrive# i!tact.
CS6A5CA works as follows. A statio! wishi!" to tra!smit se!ses the air> a!#> if !o activit9 is
#etecte#> the statio! waits a! a##itio!al> ra!#oml9 selecte# erio# of time a!# the! tra!smits if
24
the me#ium is still free. %f the acket is receive# i!tact> the receivi!" statio! issues a! ACC
frame that> o!ce successfull9 receive# 49 the se!#er> comletes the rocess. %f the ACC frame is
!ot #etecte# 49 the se!#i!" statio!> either 4ecause the ori"i!al #ata acket was !ot receive#
i!tact or the ACC was !ot receive# i!tact> a collisio! is assume# to have occurre# a!# the #ata
acket is tra!smitte# a"ai! after waiti!" a!other ra!#om amou!t of time.
CS6A5CA thus rovi#es a wa9 of shari!" access over the air. This e-licit ACC mecha!ism
also ha!#les i!terfere!ce a!# other ra#io relate# ro4lems ver9 effectivel9. 7owever> it #oes a##
some overhea# to 032.11 that 032.3 #oes !ot have> so that a! 032.11 LAN will alwa9s have
slower erforma!ce tha! a! e;uivale!t &ther!et LAN.
A!other 6AC+la9er ro4lem secific to wireless is the Shi##e! !o#eT issue> i! which two
statio!s o! oosite si#es of a! access oi!t ca! 4oth ShearT activit9 from a! access oi!t> 4ut
!ot from each other> usuall9 #ue to #ista!ce or a! o4structio!.
8TS5CTS 'roce#ure elimi!ates the S7i##e! No#eT 'ro4lem
To solve this ro4lem> 032.11 secif9 a! otio!al 8e;uest to Se!#5Clear to Se!# (8TS5CTS)
rotocol at the 6AC la9er. Whe! this feature is i! use> a se!#i!" statio! tra!smits a! 8TS a!#
waits for the access oi!t to rel9 with CTS. Si!ce all statio!s i! the !etwork ca! hear the access
oi!t> the CTS causes them to #ela9 a!9 i!te!#e# tra!smissio!s> allowi!" the se!#i!" statio! to
tra!smit a!# receive a acket ack!owle#"me!t without a!9 cha!ce of collisio!. Si!ce 8TS5CTS
a##s a##itio!al overhea# to the !etwork 49 temoraril9 reservi!" the me#ium> it is t9icall9 use#
o!l9 o! the lar"est+siAe# ackets> for which retra!smissio! woul# 4e e-e!sive from a
4a!#wi#th sta!#oi!t. :i!all9> the 032.11 6AC la9er rovi#es for two other ro4ust!ess features*
C8C checksum a!# acket fra"me!tatio!. &ach acket has a C8C checksum calculate# a!#
attache# to e!sure that the #ata was !ot corrute# i! tra!sit. This is #iffere!t from &ther!et>
where hi"her+level rotocols such as TC' ha!#le error checki!". 'acket fra"me!tatio! allows
lar"e ackets to 4e 4roke! i!to smaller u!its whe! se!t over the air> which is useful i! ver9
co!"este# e!viro!me!ts or whe! i!terfere!ce is a factor> si!ce lar"er ackets have a 4etter
cha!ce of 4ei!" corrute#. This tech!i;ue re#uces the !ee# for retra!smissio! i! ma!9 cases a!#
thus imroves overall wireless !etwork erforma!ce. The 6AC la9er is reso!si4le for
reassem4li!" fra"me!ts receive#> re!#eri!" the rocess tra!sare!t to hi"her level rotocols.
2$
Su,,ort for Ti+e2*ounded 4ata
Time+4ou!#e# #ata such as voice a!# vi#eo is suorte# i! the 032.11 6AC secificatio!s
throu"h the 'oi!t Coor#i!atio! :u!ctio! ('C:). As oose# to the /C:> where co!trol is
#istri4ute# to all statio!s> i! 'C: mo#e a si!"le access oi!t co!trols access to the me#ia. %f a
BSS is set u with 'C: e!a4le#> time is slice# 4etwee! the s9stem 4ei!" i! 'C: mo#e a!# i!
/C: (CS6A5CA) mo#e. /uri!" the erio#s whe! the s9stem is i! 'C: mo#e> the access oi!t
will oll each statio! for #ata> a!# after a "ive! time move o! to the !e-t statio!. No statio! is
allowe# to tra!smit u!less it is olle#> a!# statio!s receive #ata from the access oi!t o!l9 whe!
the9 are olle#. Si!ce 'C: "ives ever9 statio! a tur! to tra!smit i! a re#etermi!e# fashio!> a
ma-imum late!c9 is "uara!tee#. A #ow!si#e to 'C: is that it is !ot articularl9 scala4le> i! that
a si!"le oi!t !ee#s to have co!trol of me#ia access a!# must oll all statio!s> which ca! 4e
i!effective i! lar"e !etworks.
8AC ;unctional 4escri,tion
The 032.11 sta!#ar# secifies a commo! me#ium access co!trol (6AC) La9er> which rovi#es a
variet9 of fu!ctio!s that suort the oeratio! of 032.11+4ase# wireless LANs. %! "e!eral> the
6AC La9er ma!a"es a!# mai!tai!s commu!icatio!s 4etwee! 032.11 statio!s (ra#io !etwork
car#s a!# access oi!ts) 49 coor#i!ati!" access to a share# ra#io cha!!el a!# utiliAi!" rotocols
that e!ha!ce commu!icatio!s over a wireless me#ium. Ofte! viewe# as the M4rai!sM of the
!etwork> the 032.11 6AC La9er uses a! 032.11 'h9sical ('7B) La9er> such as 032.114 or
032.11a> to erform the tasks of carrier se!si!"> tra!smissio!> a!# receivi!" of 032.11 frames.
1
Before tra!smitti!" frames> a statio! must first "ai! access to the me#ium> which is a ra#io
cha!!el that statio!s share. The 032.11 sta!#ar# #efi!es two forms of me#ium access> #istri4ute#
coor#i!atio! fu!ctio! (/C:) a!# oi!t coor#i!atio! fu!ctio! ('C:). /C: is ma!#ator9 a!#
4ase# o! the CS6A5CA (carrier se!se multile access with collisio! avoi#a!ce) rotocol. With
/C:> 032.11 statio!s co!te!# for access a!# attemt to se!# frames whe! there is !o other
statio! tra!smitti!". %f a!other statio! is se!#i!" a frame> statio!s are olite a!# wait u!til the
cha!!el is free.
As a co!#itio! to accessi!" the me#ium> the 6AC La9er checks the value of its !etwork
allocatio! vector (NA?)> which is a cou!ter resi#e!t at each statio! that rerese!ts the amou!t of
time that the revious frame !ee#s to se!# its frame. The NA? must 4e Aero 4efore a statio! ca!
attemt to se!# a frame. 'rior to tra!smitti!" a frame> a statio! calculates the amou!t of time
!ecessar9 to se!# the frame 4ase# o! the frameIs le!"th a!# #ata rate. The statio! laces a value
rerese!ti!" this time i! the #uratio! fiel# i! the hea#er of the frame. Whe! statio!s receive the
frame> the9 e-ami!e this #uratio! fiel# value a!# use it as the 4asis for setti!" their
correso!#i!" NA?s. This rocess reserves the me#ium for the se!#i!" statio!.
A! imorta!t asect of the /C: is a ra!#om 4ack off timer that a statio! uses if it #etects a 4us9
me#ium. %f the cha!!el is i! use> the statio! must wait a random erio# of time 4efore attemti!"
to access the me#ium a"ai!. This e!sures that multile statio!s wa!ti!" to se!# #ata #o!It
1
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2,
tra!smit at the same time. The ra!#om #ela9 causes statio!s to wait #iffere!t erio#s of time a!#
avoi#s all of them se!si!" the me#ium at e-actl9 the same time> fi!#i!" the cha!!el i#le>
tra!smitti!"> a!# colli#i!" with each other. The 4ack off timer si"!ifica!tl9 re#uces the !um4er
of collisio!s a!# correso!#i!" retra!smissio!s> eseciall9 whe! the !um4er of active users
i!creases.
With ra#io+4ase# LANs> a tra!smitti!" statio! ca!It liste! for collisio!s while se!#i!" #ata>
mai!l9 4ecause the statio! ca!It have itIs receiver o! while tra!smitti!" the frame. As a result>
the receivi!" statio! !ee#s to se!# a! ack!owle#"eme!t (ACC) if it #etects !o errors i! the
receive# frame. %f the se!#i!" statio! #oes!It receive a! ACC after a secifie# erio# of time> the
se!#i!" statio! will assume that there was a collisio! (or 8: i!terfere!ce) a!# retra!smit the
frame.
:or suorti!" time+4ou!#e# #eliver9 of #ata frames> the 032.11 sta!#ar# #efi!es the otio!al
oi!t coor#i!atio! fu!ctio! ('C:) where the access oi!t "ra!ts access to a! i!#ivi#ual statio! to
the me#ium 49 olli!" the statio! #uri!" the co!te!tio! free erio#. Statio!s ca!It tra!smit
frames u!less the access oi!t olls them first. The erio# of time for 'C:+4ase# #ata traffic (if
e!a4le#) occurs alter!atel9 4etwee! co!te!tio! (/C:) erio#s.
The access oi!t olls statio!s accor#i!" to a olli!" list> the! switches to a co!te!tio! erio#
whe! statio!s use /C:. This rocess e!a4les suort for 4oth s9!chro!ous (i.e.> vi#eo
alicatio!s) a!# as9!chro!ous (i.e.> e+mail a!# We4 4rowsi!" alicatio!s) mo#es of oeratio!.
8AC Architecture
The !ew 6AC access scheme #escri4e# hereafter e!ha!ces the curre!t 032.11 6AC. The 6AC
SA' is ket i#e!tical while the '7B SA' ma9 4e mo#ifie# accor#i!" to the caa4ilities of the
'7B la9er. As show! i! &rror* 8efere!ce source !ot fou!#> the e!ha!ce# 6AC la9er is
co!stitute# of two Co!ver"e!ce su4+la9ers> LLC Co!ver"e!ce Su4+La9er (LLCCS) a!#
Se"me!tatio! a!# 8e+assem4l9 (SA8)> a!# two tra!sfer su4+la9ers> 6AC %!terme#iate Su4+
La9er (6%S) a!# 6AC Lower Su4+la9er (6LS).
The 6AC SA' co!siste!c9 is mai!tai!e# 49 the LLCCS su4+la9er. The 6%S em4e#s the core
tra!sfer fu!ctio! of the 6AC la9er a!# is 4ase# o! short fi-e#+siAe tra!sfer u!its. The 6%S also
i!te"rates the &rror a!# :low Co!trol fu!ctio!s. The SA8 su4+la9er erforms the a#atatio!
4etwee! the varia4le siAe acket rovi#e# 49 the LLCCS a!# the tra!sfer u!its ma!a"e# 49 the
6%S. The 6LS su4+la9er is i! char"e of 4uil#i!" 032.11 comati4le 6'/1s from 6%S tra!sfer
u!it a!# si"!ali!" i!formatio!> a!# #elivers them to the '7B la9er. %! a##itio!> it ca! imleme!t
the
2.
LLC
M(S
LLCCS
SA&
MLS
MAC
PHY
LLC
MAC
PHY
Fragmentation
Segmentation
Sequence Number Assignment
Encryption
Error and Flow Control
Packet Sequence Number Assignment
Segment Sequence Number Assignment
Encryption
MP! "eader # C$C
MP! "eader
Le"ac9 032.11 &-te!#e# 6AC
Signalling %nsertion
MAC Protocol Stack Comparison
Security
Securit9 is o!e of the first co!cer!s of eole #elo9i!" a Wireless LANG the 032.11 committee
has a##resse# the issue 49 rovi#i!" what is calle# W&' (Wire# &;uivale!t 'rivac9)
Authe!ticatio!* A fu!ctio! that #etermi!es whether a Statio! is allowe# to articiate i!
!etwork commu!icatio!. The sta!#ar# %&&& 032.11i is #esi"!e# to rovi#e secure#
commu!icatio! of wireless LAN as #efi!e# 49 all the %&&& 032.11 secificatio!s. %&&& 032.11i
e!ha!ces the W&' (Wireli!e &;uivale!t 'rivac9)G a tech!olo"9 use# for ma!9 9ears for the
WLAN securit9> i! the areas of e!cr9tio!> authe!ticatio! a!# ke9 ma!a"eme!t. %&&& 032.11i is
4ase# o! the Wi+:i 'rotecte# Access (W'A)> which is a ;uick fi- of the W&B weak!esses.
The %&&& 032.11i has the followi!" ke9 como!e!ts*
1. Temoral Ce9 %!te"rit9 'rotocol (TC%')* it is #ata+co!fi#e!tialit9 rotocol a!# it was
#esi"!e# to imrove the securit9 of ro#ucts that were imleme!te# throu"h W&'. TC%' uses a
messa"e i!te"rit9 co#e to e!a4le #evices to authe!ticate that the ackets are comi!" from the
claime# source> this co#e is calle# 6ichael. Also TC%' uses a mi-i!" fu!ctio! to #efeat weak+
ke9 attacks> which e!a4le# attackers to #ecr9t traffic.
2. Cou!ter+6o#e5CBC+6AC 'rotocol (CC6')* a #ata+co!fi#e!tialit9 rotocol that is
reso!si4le for acket authe!ticatio! as well as e!cr9tio!. :or co!fi#e!tialit9> CC6' uses A&S
i! cou!ter mo#e. :or authe!ticatio! a!# i!te"rit9> CC6' uses Ciher Block Chai!i!" 6essa"e
Authe!ticatio! Co#e (CBC+6AC). %! %&&& 032.11i> CC6' uses a 120+4it ke9. CC6' rotects
some fiel#s that are!It e!cr9te#. The a##itio!al arts of the %&&& 032.11 frame that "et
rotecte# are k!ow! as a##itio!al authe!ticatio! #ata (AA/). AA/ i!clu#es the ackets source
a!# #esti!atio! a!# rotects a"ai!st attackers rela9i!" ackets to #iffere!t #esti!atio!s.
20
3.%&&& 032.1-* offers a! effective framework for authe!ticati!" a!# co!trolli!" user traffic to a
rotecte# !etwork> as well as #9!amicall9 var9i!" e!cr9tio! ke9s. 032.12 ties a rotocol calle#
&A' (&-te!si4le Authe!ticatio! 'rotocol) to 4oth the wire# a!# wireless LAN me#ia a!#
suort multile authe!ticatio! metho#s.
4. &A' e!casulatio! over LANs (&A'OL)D it is the ke9 rotocol i! %&&& 032.1- for ke9
e-cha!"e. Two mai! &A'OL+ke9 e-cha!"es are #efi!e# i! %&&& 032.11i. The first is referre# to
as the 4+wa9 ha!#shake a!# the seco!# is the "rou ke9 ha!#shake.
Because %&&& 032.11i has more tha! o!e #ata+co!fi#e!tialit9 rotocol> %&&& 032.11i rovi#es
a! al"orithm for the %&&& 032.11i clie!t car# a!# access oi!t to !e"otiate which rotocol to use
#uri!" secific traffic circumsta!ces a!# to #iscover a!9 u!k!ow! securit9 arameters.
Protocol Structure & %EEE '()*++i: ,-AN Security Standards
Pre#entin- Access to )et'ork :esources
This is #o!e 49 the use of a! Authe!ticatio! mecha!ism where a statio! !ee#s to rove
k!owle#"e of the curre!t ke9G this is ver9 similar to the Wire# LAN rivac9> o! the se!se that a!
i!tru#er !ee#s to e!ter the remises (49 usi!" a h9sical ke9) i! or#er to co!!ect his workstatio!
to the wire# LAN.
.a#esdro,,in-
&aves#roi!" is reve!te# 49 the use of the W&' al"orithm> which is a 'seu#o 8a!#om
Num4er @e!erator ('8N@)> i!itialiAe# 49 a share# secret ke9. This '8N@ oututs a ke9
se;ue!ce of seu#o+ra!#om 4its e;ual i! le!"th to the lar"est ossi4le acket> which is com4i!e#
with the out"oi!"5i!comi!" acket ro#uci!" the acket tra!smitte# i! the air.
The W&' al"orithm is a simle al"orithm 4ase# o! 8SAVs 8C4 al"orithm> which has the
followi!" roerties*
8easo!a4le stro!"* Brute+force attack to this al"orithm is #ifficult 4ecause of the fact that ever9
frame is se!t with a! %!itialiAatio! ?ector> which restarts the '8N@ for each frame.
Self S9!chro!iAi!"* The al"orithm s9!chro!iAe# a"ai! for each messa"e> this is !ee#e# i! or#er
to work o! a co!!ectio!less e!viro!me!t> where ackets ma9 "et lost (as a!9 LAN).
2<
Physical ayer
The %&&& (#efi!e) 032.11 sta!#ar# i!clu#es a commo! 6e#ium Access Co!trol (6AC) La9er>
which #efi!es rotocols that "over! the oeratio! of the wireless LAN. %! a##itio!> 032.11
comrise several alter!ative h9sical la9ers that secif9 the tra!smissio! a!# recetio! of 032.11
frames.
The ,hysical layer basics
To k!ow the h9sical la9er termi!olo"9 we !ee# to u!#ersta!# the esse!tial i!tricacies of
032.11.
@:SC is a mo#ulatio! scheme i! which the #ata are first filtere# 49 a @aussia! filter i! the
Base4a!#> a!# the! mo#ulate# with a simle fre;ue!c9 mo#ulatio!. 2 a!# 4 4it rerese!t the
!um4er of fre;ue!c9 offsets use# to rerese!t #ata s9m4ols of o!e a!# two 4its> resectivel9.
/B'SC is hase mo#ulatio! usi!" two #isti!ct carrier hases for #ata si"!ali!" rovi#i!" o!e 4it
er s9m4ol.
/N'SC is a t9e of hase mo#ulatio! usi!" two airs of #isti!ct carrier hases> i! ;ua#rature> to
si"!al two 4its er s9m4ol. The #iffere!tial characteristic of the mo#ulatio! schemes i!#icates
the use of the #iffere!ce i! hase from the last cha!"e or s9m4ol to #etermi!e the curre!t
s9m4olIs value> rather tha! a!9 a4solute measureme!ts of the hase cha!"e.
Both the :7SS a!# /SSS mo#es are secifie# for oeratio! i! the 2.4 @7A i!#ustrial> scie!tific
a!# me#ical (%S6) 4a!#> which has sometimes 4ee! =oki!"l9 referre# to as the i!terfere!ce
suressio! is ma!#ator9 4a!# 4ecause it is heavil9 use# 49 various electro!ic ro#ucts. The
thir# h9sical la9er alter!ative is a! i!frare# s9stem usi!" !ear+visi4le li"ht i! the 0$3 !m to <$3
!m ra!"e as the tra!smissio! me#ium.
At the forefro!t of the !ew WLAN otio!s that will e!a4le much hi"her #ata rates are two
suleme!ts to the %&&& 032.11 sta!#ar#* 032.114 a!# 032.11a> as well as a &uroea!
Telecommu!icatio!s Sta!#ar#s %!stitute (&TS%) sta!#ar#> 7i"h 'erforma!ce LAN
(7%'&8LAN5%%). Both 032.11 a!# 7%'&8LAN5%% have similar h9sical la9er characteristics
oerati!" i! the $ @7A 4a!# a!# use the mo#ulatio! scheme ortho"o!al fre;ue!c9 #ivisio!
multile-i!" (O:/6)> 4ut the 6AC la9ers are co!si#era4l9 #iffere!t. The focus here> however>
will 4e to comare the h9sical la9er characteristics of 032.11a a!# 032.114. With
7%'&8LAN5%% shari!" several of the same h9sical roerties as 032.11a> ma!9 of the same
issues will al9.
A!other sta!#ar# that warra!ts me!tio! i! this co!te-t is %&&& 032.11". With a ruli!" from the
:e#eral Commu!icatio!s Commissio! that will !ow allow O:/6 #i"ital tra!smissio!
tech!olo"9 to oerate i! the %S6 4a!# a!# the romise of i!teroera4ilit9 with a lar"e i!stalle#
4ase of 032.114 ro#ucts> the 032.11" e-te!sio! to the sta!#ar# 4e"i!s to "ar!er the atte!tio! of
WLAN e;uime!t rovi#ers. Althou"h !ot #etaile# here> it will offer #ata rates e;ual to or
e-cee#i!" 22 645s with ro#ucts availa4le late i! 2332.
&ach of the five ermitte# tra!smissio! tech!i;ues makes it ossi4le to se!# a 6AC frame from
o!e statio! to a!other. The9 #iffer> however> i! the tech!olo"9 use# a!# see# achieva4le. The
i!frare# otio! uses #iffuse# (i.e.> !ot li!e of si"ht) tra!smissio! at 3.0$ or 3.<$ micro!s. Two
see#s are ermitte#* 1 64s a!# 2 64s. At 1 64s> a! e!co#i!" scheme is use# i! which a
33
"rou of 4 4its is e!co#e# as a 1,+4it co#ewor# co!tai!i!" fiftee! 3s a!# a si!"le 1> usi!" what is
calle# @ra9 co#e. This co#e has the roert9 that a small error i! time s9!chro!iAatio! lea#s to
o!l9 a si!"le 4it error i! the outut. At 2 64s> the e!co#i!" takes 2 4its a!# ro#uces a 4+4it
co#ewor#> also with o!l9 a si!"le 1> that is o!e of 3331> 3313> 3133> or 1333. %!frare# si"!als
ca!!ot e!etrate walls> so cells i! #iffere!t rooms are well isolate# from each other.
Nevertheless> #ue to the low 4a!#wi#th (a!# the fact that su!li"ht swams i!frare# si"!als)> this
is !ot a oular otio!.
As with other 032.11 'h9sical la9ers> 032.114 i!clu#es 'h9sical La9er Co!ver"e!ce 'roce#ure
('LC') a!# 'h9sical 6e#ium /ee!#e!t ('6/) su4+la9ers. These are somewhat sohisticate#
terms that the sta!#ar# uses to #ivi#e the ma=or fu!ctio!s that occur withi! the 'h9sical La9er.
The 'LC' reares 032.11 frames for tra!smissio! a!# #irects the '6/ to actuall9 tra!smit
si"!als> cha!"e ra#io cha!!els> receive si"!als> a!# so o!.
PCP ;ra+e ;ields
The 'LC' takes each 032.11 frame that a statio! wishes to tra!smit a!# forms what the 032.11
sta!#ar# refers to as a 'LC' rotocol #ata u!it (''/1). The resulti!" ''/1 i!clu#es the
followi!" fiel#s i! a##itio! to the frame fiel#s imose# 49 the 6AC La9er*
S9!c. This fiel# co!sists of alter!ati!" 3s a!# 1s> alerti!" the receiver that a receiva4le si"!al is
rese!t. The receiver 4e"i!s s9!chro!iAi!" with the i!comi!" si"!al after #etecti!" the S9!c.
Start :rame /elimiter. This fiel# is alwa9s 1111331113133333 a!# #efi!es the 4e"i!!i!" of a
frame.
Si"!al. This fiel# i#e!tifies the #ata rate of the 032.11 frame> with its 4i!ar9 value e;ual to the
#ata rate #ivi#e# 49 133C4s. :or e-amle> the fiel# co!tai!s the value of 33331313 for 164s>
33313133 for 264s> a!# so o!. The 'LC' fiel#s> however> are alwa9s se!t at the lowest rate>
which is 164s. This e!sures that the receiver is i!itiall9 uses the correct #emo#ulatio!
mecha!ism> which cha!"es with #iffere!t #ata rates.
Service. This fiel# is alwa9s set to 33333333 a!# the 032.11 sta!#ar# reserves it for future use.
Le!"th. This fiel# rerese!ts the !um4er of microseco!#s that it takes to tra!smit the co!te!ts of
the ''/1> a!# the receiver uses this i!formatio! to #etermi!e the e!# of the frame.
:rame Check Se;ue!ce. %! or#er to #etect ossi4le errors i! the 'h9sical La9er hea#er> the
sta!#ar# #efi!es this fiel# for co!tai!i!" 1,+4it c9clic re#u!#a!c9 check (C8C) result. The 6AC
La9er also erforms error #etectio! fu!ctio!s o! the ''/1 co!te!ts as well.
'S/1. The 'S/1> which sta!#s for 'h9sical La9er Service /ata 1!it> is a fa!c9 !ame that
rerese!ts the co!te!ts of the ''/1 (i.e.> the actual 032.11 frame 4ei!" se!t).
/o!It e-ect to see the h9sical la9er fiel#s with 032.11 a!al9Aers from Air6a"!et a!#
Wil#ackets> however. The 032.11 ra#io car# removes these fiel#s 4efore the resulti!" #ata is
rocesse# 49 the 6AC La9er a!# offere# to the a!al9Aer for viewi!".
Ne-t> we come to 78+/SSS (7i"h 8ate /irect Se;ue!ce Srea# Sectrum)> a!other srea#
sectrum tech!i;ue> which uses 11 millio! chis5sec to achieve 11 64s i! the 2.4+@7A 4a!#. %t
is calle# 032.114 4ut is !ot a follow+u to 032.11a. %! fact> its sta!#ar# was arove# first a!# it
"ot to market first. /ata rates suorte# 49 032.114 are 1> 2> $.$> a!# 11 64s. The two slow
rates ru! at 1 64au#> with 1 a!# 2 4its er 4au#> resectivel9> usi!" hase shift mo#ulatio! (for
comati4ilit9 with /SSS). The two faster rates ru! at 1.3.$ 64au#> with 4 a!# 0 4its er 4au#>
resectivel9> usi!" Walsh57a#amar# co#es. The #ata rate ma9 4e #9!amicall9 a#ate# #uri!"
31
oeratio! to achieve the otimum see# S&C. 4.4 W%8&L&SS LANS 2<$ ossi4le u!#er curre!t
co!#itio!s of loa# a!# !oise. %! ractice> the oerati!" see# of 032.114 is !earl9 alwa9s 11
64s. Althou"h 032.114 is slower tha! 032.11a> its ra!"e is a4out . times "reater> which is more
imorta!t i! ma!9 situatio!s. A! e!ha!ce# versio! of 032.114> 032.11"> was arove# 49 %&&&
i! Novem4er 2331 after much oliticki!" a4out whose ate!te# tech!olo"9 it woul# use. %t uses
the O:/6 mo#ulatio! metho# of 032.11a 4ut oerates i! the !arrow 2.4+ @7A %S6 4a!# alo!"
with 032.114. %! theor9 it ca! oerate at u to $4 6Bs. %t is !ot 9et clear whether this see# will
4e realiAe# i! ractice. What it #oes mea! is that the 032.11 committee has ro#uce# three
#iffere!t hi"h+see# wireless LANs* 032.11a> 032.114> a!# 032.11" (!ot to me!tio! three low+
see# wireless LANs). O!e ca! le"itimatel9 ask if this is a "oo# thi!" for a sta!#ar#s committee
The 032.11 h9sical la9er ('7B) is the i!terface 4etwee! the 6AC a!# the wireless me#ia
where frames are tra!smitte# a!# receive#. The '7B rovi#es three fu!ctio!s. :irst> the '7B
rovi#es a! i!terface to e-cha!"e frames with the uer 6AC la9er for tra!smissio! a!#
recetio! of #ata. Seco!#l9> the '7B uses si"!al carrier a!# srea# sectrum mo#ulatio! to
tra!smit #ata frames over the me#ia. Thir#l9> the '7B rovi#es a carrier se!se i!#icatio! 4ack to
the 6AC to verif9 activit9 o! the me#ia.
032.11 rovi#es three #iffere!t '7B #efi!itio!s* Both Frequency "opping Spread Spectrum
(:7SS) a!# irect Sequence Spread Spectrum (/SSS) suort 1 a!# 2 64s #ata rates. A!
e-te!sio! to the 032.11 architecture (032.11a) #efi!es #iffere!t multile-i!" tech!i;ues that ca!
achieve #ata rates u to $4 64s. A!other e-te!sio! to the sta!#ar# (032.114) #efi!es 11 64s
a!# $.$ 64s #ata rates (i! a##itio! to the 1 a!# 264s rates) utiliAi!" a! e-te!sio! to /SSS
calle# 7i"h 8ate /SSS (785/SSS). 032.114 also #efi!es a rate shifti!" tech!i;ue where 11
64s !etworks ma9 fall 4ack to $.$ 64s> 2 64s> or 1 6s u!#er !ois9 co!#itio!s or to i!ter+
oerate with le"ac9 032.11 '7B la9ers.
Infrared /I:0
The %!frare# '7B utiliAes i!frare# li"ht to tra!smit 4i!ar9 #ata either at 1 64s (4asic access
rate) or 2 64s (e!ha!ce# access rate) usi!" a secific mo#ulatio! tech!i;ue for each. :or 1
64s> the i!frare# '7B uses a 1,+ulse ositio! mo#ulatio! (''6). The co!cet of ''6 is to
var9 the ositio! of a ulse to rerese!t #iffere!t 4i!ar9 s9m4ols. %!frare# tra!smissio! at 2
64s utiliAes a 4 ''6 mo#ulatio! tech!i;ue.
S,read S,ectru+
Srea# sectrum is a tech!i;ue tra#i!" 4a!#wi#th for relia4ilit9. The "oal is to use more
4a!#wi#th tha! the s9stem reall9 !ee#s for tra!smissio! to re#uce the imact of localiAe#
i!terfere!ce o! the me#ia. Srea# sectrum srea#s the tra!smitte# 4a!#wi#th of the resulti!"
si"!al> re#uci!" the eak ower 4ut keei!" total ower the same.
32
;re<uency 9o,,in- S,read S,ectru+ /;9SS0
%! :7SS the total fre;ue!c9 4a!# is slit i!to a !um4er of cha!!els. The 4roa#cast #ata is srea#
across the e!tire fre;ue!c9 4a!# 49 hoi!" 4etwee! the cha!!els i! a seu#o ra!#om fashio!.
:re;ue!c9+hoi!" srea# sectrum (:7SS) is a srea#+sectrum metho# of tra!smitti!" ra#io
si"!als 49 rai#l9 switchi!" a carrier amo!" ma!9 fre;ue!c9 cha!!els> usi!" a seu#ora!#om
se;ue!ce k!ow! to 4oth tra!smitter a!# receiver.
A srea#+sectrum tra!smissio! offers three mai! a#va!ta"es over a fi-e#+fre;ue!c9
tra!smissio!*
Srea#+sectrum si"!als are hi"hl9 resista!t to !oise a!# i!terfere!ce. The rocess of re+
collecti!" a srea# si"!al srea#s out !oise a!# i!terfere!ce> causi!" them to rece#e i!to the
4ack"rou!#.
Srea#+sectrum si"!als are #ifficult to i!tercet. A :re;ue!c9+7o srea#+sectrum si"!al
sou!#s like a mome!tar9 !oise 4urst or siml9 a! i!crease i! the 4ack"rou!# !oise for short
:re;ue!c9+7o co#es o! a!9 !arrow4a!# receiver e-cet a :re;ue!c9+7o srea#+sectrum
receiver usi!" the e-act same cha!!el se;ue!ce as was use# 49 the tra!smitter.
Srea#+sectrum tra!smissio!s ca! share a fre;ue!c9 4a!# with ma!9 t9es of co!ve!tio!al
tra!smissio!s with mi!imal i!terfere!ce. The srea#+sectrum si"!als a## mi!imal !oise to the
!arrow+fre;ue!c9 commu!icatio!s> a!# vice versa. As a result> 4a!#wi#th ca! 4e utiliAe# more
efficie!tl9.
:re;ue!c9 7oi!" utiliAes a set of !arrow cha!!els a!# MhosM throu"h all of them i! a
re#etermi!e# se;ue!ce. :or e-amle> the 2.4 @7A fre;ue!c9 4a!# is #ivi#e# i!to .3 cha!!els
of 1 67A each. &ver9 23 to 433 msec the s9stem MhosM to a !ew cha!!el followi!" a
re#etermi!e# c9clic atter!.
The 032.11 :re;ue!c9 7oi!" Srea# Sectrum (:7SS) '7B uses the 2.4 @7A ra#io
fre;ue!c9 4a!#> oerati!" with at 1 or 2 64s #ata rate.
:7SS (:re;ue!c9 7oi!" Srea# Sectrum) uses .< cha!!els> each 1+ 67A wi#e> starti!" at
the low e!# of the 2.4+@7A %S6 4a!#. A seu#ora!#om !um4er "e!erator is use# to ro#uce the
se;ue!ce of fre;ue!cies hoe# to. As lo!" as all statio!s use the same see# to the
seu#ora!#om !um4er "e!erator a!# sta9 s9!chro!iAe# i! time> the9 will ho to the same
fre;ue!cies simulta!eousl9. The amou!t of time se!t at each fre;ue!c9> the #well time> is a!
a#=usta4le arameter> 4ut must 4e less tha! 433 msec. :7SSE ra!#omiAatio! rovi#es a fair wa9
to allocate sectrum i! the u!re"ulate# %S6 4a!#. %t also rovi#es a mo#icum of securit9 si!ce
a! i!tru#er who #oes !ot k!ow the hoi!" se;ue!ce or #well time ca!!ot eaves#ro o!
tra!smissio!s. Over lo!"er #ista!ces> multiath fa#i!" ca! 4e a! issue> a!# :7SS offers "oo#
resista!ce to it. %t is also relativel9 i!se!sitive to ra#io i!terfere!ce> which makes it oular for
4uil#i!"+to+4uil#i!" li!ks. %ts mai! #isa#va!ta"e is its low 4a!#wi#th. The thir# mo#ulatio!
metho#.
:re;ue!c9 hoi!" relies o! fre;ue!c9 #iversit9 to com4at i!terfere!ce. This is accomlishe#
49 multile fre;ue!c9> co#e selecte#> :SC. Basicall9> the i!comi!" #i"ital stream is shifte# i!
fre;ue!c9 49 a! amou!t #etermi!e# 49 a co#e that srea#s the si"!al ower over a wi#e
4a!#wi#th. %! comariso! to 4i!ar9 :SC> which has o!l9 two ossi4le fre;ue!cies> :7SS ma9
have 2O13W23 or more.
33
The :7SS tra!smitter is a seu#o+!oise 'N co#e co!trolle# fre;ue!c9 s9!thesiAer. The
i!sta!ta!eous fre;ue!c9 outut of the tra!smitter =ums from o!e value to a!other 4ase# o! the
seu#o+ra!#om i!ut from the co#e "e!erator. ?ar9i!" the i!sta!ta!eous fre;ue!c9 results i! a!
outut sectrum that is effectivel9 srea# over the ra!"e of fre;ue!cies "e!erate#.
:i".1 :7SS Sectrum
%! this s9stem> the !um4er of #iscrete fre;ue!cies #etermi!es the 4a!#wi#th of the
s9stem. 7e!ce> the rocess "ai! is #irectl9 #ee!#e!t o! the !um4er of availa4le fre;ue!c9
choices for a "ive! i!formatio! rate.
A!other imorta!t factor i! :7SS s9stems is the rate at which the hos occur. The mi!imum
time re;uire# to cha!"e fre;ue!cies is #ee!#e!t o! the i!formatio! 4it rate> the amou!t of
re#u!#a!c9 use#> a!# the #ista!ce to the !earest i!terfere!ce source.
4irect Se<uence S,read S,ectru+ /4SSS0
/irect Se;ue!ce Srea# Sectrum is 4ase# o! the multil9i!" of the 4ase4a!# si"!al #ata with a
4roa#4a!# srea#i!" co#e. The result is terme# the chi rate. The characteristics of the
4roa#4a!# srea#i!" co#e are that of seu#ora!#om !oise. Co!se;ue!tl9 the receiver
s9!chro!iAe# to the co#e will o4tai! the !arrow4a!# si"!al. All other receivers will see the
srea# si"!al as white or colore# !oise.
%! co!trast> fre;ue!c9+hoi!" srea# sectrum seu#o+ra!#oml9 retu!es the carrier> i!stea# of
a##i!" seu#o+ra!#om !oise to the #ata> which results i! a u!iform fre;ue!c9 #istri4utio! whose
wi#th is #etermi!e# 49 the outut ra!"e of the seu#o+ra!#om !um4er "e!erator.
%! telecommu!icatio!s> #irect+se;ue!ce srea# sectrum is a mo#ulatio! tech!i;ue where the
tra!smitte# si"!al takes u more 4a!#wi#th tha! the i!formatio! si"!al that is 4ei!" mo#ulate#>
which is the reaso! that it is calle# srea# sectrum. /SSS has the followi!" features*
for "e!erati!" srea#+sectrum tra!smissio!s 49 hase+mo#ulati!" a si!e wave seu#o ra!#oml9
with a co!ti!uous stri!" of seu#o !oise co#e s9m4ols> each of #uratio! much smaller tha! a 4it.
A si"!al structuri!" tech!i;ue utiliAi!" a #i"ital co#e se;ue!ce ('N Se;ue!ces) havi!" a chi
rate much hi"her tha! the i!formatio! si"!al 4it rate. &ach i!formatio! 4it of a #i"ital si"!al is
tra!smitte# as a seu#ora!#om se;ue!ce of chis.
34
The ri!cile of irect Sequence is to srea# a si"!al o! a lar"er fre;ue!c9 4a!# 49 multile-i!"
it with a si"!ature or co#e to mi!imiAe localiAe# i!terfere!ce a!# 4ack"rou!# !oise. To srea#
the si"!al> each 4it is mo#ulate# 49 a co#e. %! the receiver> the ori"i!al si"!al is recovere# 49
receivi!" the whole srea# cha!!el a!# #emo#ulati!" with the same co#e use# 49 the
tra!smitter. The 032.11 irect Sequence Spread Spectrum (/SSS) '7B also uses the 2.4 @7A
ra#io fre;ue!c9 4a!#.
%t is also a art of the 032.11 4 a!# " sta!#ar#s. Note that i! the ori"i!al 032.11 sta!#ar#> either
:7SS or /SSS ma9 4e use#.
/SSS (/irect Se;ue!ce Srea# Sectrum) is also restricte# to 1 or 2 64s. The scheme use# has
some similarities to the C/6A s9stem> 4ut #iffers i! other wa9s. &ach 4it is tra!smitte# as 11
chis> usi!" what is calle# a Barker se;ue!ce. %t uses hase shift mo#ulatio! at 1 64au#>
tra!smitti!" 1 4it er 4au# whe! oerati!" at 1 64s a!# 2 4its er 4au# whe! oerati!" at 2
64s. 032.114 uses /SSS to #iserse the #ata frame si"!al over a relativel9 wi#e
(aro-imatel9 3367A) ortio! of the 2.4@7A fre;ue!c9 4a!#. This results i! "reater immu!it9
to ra#io fre;ue!c9 (8:) i!terfere!ce as comare# to !arrow4a!# si"!ali!"> which is wh9 the
:e#eral Commu!icatio!s Commissio! (:CC) (#efi!e) #eems the oeratio! of srea# sectrum
s9stems as lice!se free. :or 9ears> the :CC re;uire# all wireless commu!icatio!s e;uime!t
oerati!" i! the %S6 4a!#s i! the 1.S. to use srea# sectrum> 4ut i! 6a9 2332> that rule was
#roe# as !ew tech!olo"ies emer"e#. The first of the hi"h+see# wireless LANs> 032.11a> uses
O:/6 (Ortho"o!al :re;ue!c9 /ivisio! 6ultile-i!") to #eliver u to $4 64s i! the wi#er $+
@7A %S6 4a!#. As the term :/6 su""ests> #iffere!t fre;ue!cies are use#F$2 of them> 40 for
#ata a!# 4 for s9!chro!iAatio!F!ot u!like A/SL. Si!ce tra!smissio!s are rese!t o! multile
fre;ue!cies at the same time> this tech!i;ue is co!si#ere# a form of srea# sectrum> 4ut
#iffere!t from 4oth C/6A a!# :7SS. Slitti!" the si"!al i!to ma!9 !arrow 4a!#s has some ke9
a#va!ta"es over usi!" a si!"le wi#e 4a!#> i!clu#i!" 4etter immu!it9 to !arrow4a!# i!terfere!ce
a!# the ossi4ilit9 of usi!" !o!co!ti"uous 4a!#s. A comle- e!co#i!" s9stem is use#> 4ase# o!
hase+shift mo#ulatio! for see#s u to 10 64s a!# o! NA6 a4ove that. At $4 64s> 21, #ata
4its are e!co#e# i!to 200+4it s9m4ols. 'art of the motivatio! for O:/6 is comati4ilit9 with the
&uroea! 7ierLAN52 s9stem (/oufe-i et al.> 2332). The tech!i;ue has a "oo# sectrum
efficie!c9 i! terms of 4its57A a!# "oo# immu!it9 to multiath fa#i!". This is ro4a4l9 the most
wi#el9 reco"!iAe# form of srea# sectrum. The /SSS rocess is erforme# 49 effectivel9
multil9i!" a! 8: carrier a!# a seu#o+!oise ('N) #i"ital si"!al. :irst the 'N co#e is mo#ulate#
o!to the i!formatio! si"!al usi!" o!e of several mo#ulatio! tech!i;ues (e". B'SC> N'SC>
etc). The!> a #ou4l9 4ala!ce# mi-er is use# to multil9 the 8: carrier a!# 'N mo#ulate#
i!formatio! si"!al. This rocess causes the 8: si"!al to 4e relace# with a ver9 wi#e 4a!#wi#th
si"!al with the sectral e;uivale!t of a !oise si"!al. The #emo#ulatio! rocess (for the B'SC
case) is the! siml9 the mi-i!"5multil9i!" of the same 'N mo#ulate# carrier with the i!comi!"
8: si"!al. The outut is a si"!al that is a ma-imum whe! the two si"!als e-actl9 e;ual o!e
a!other or are Mcorrelate#M. The correlate# si"!al is the! filtere# a!# se!t to a B'SC
#emo#ulator.
The si"!als "e!erate# with this tech!i;ue aear as !oise i! the fre;ue!c9 #omai!. The wi#e
4a!#wi#th rovi#e# 49 the 'N co#e allows the si"!al ower to #ro 4elow the !oise threshol#
without loss of i!formatio!. The sectral co!te!t of a! SS si"!al is show! i! :i". 1. Note that
this is =ust the sectrum of a B'SC si"!al with a (si! - 5 -) 2 form.
3$
:i". 1 B'SC /SSS Sectrum
The 4a!#wi#th i! /SSS s9stems is ofte! take! as the !ull+to+!ull 4a!#wi#th of the mai! lo4e of
the ower sectral #e!sit9 lot (i!#icate# as 28c i! :i". 1). The half ower 4a!#wi#th of this
lo4e is 1.2 8c> where 8c is the chi rate. Therefore> the 4a!#wi#th of a /SSS s9stem is a #irect
fu!ctio! of the chi rateG secificall9 28c58%N:O. This is =ust a! e-te!sio! of the revious
e;uatio! for rocess "ai!. %t shoul# 4e !ote# that the ower co!tai!e# i! the mai! lo4e
comrises <3 erce!t of the total ower. This allows a !arrower 8: 4a!#wi#th to accommo#ate
the receive# si"!al with the effect of rou!#i!" the receive# ulses i! the time #omai!.
O!e feature of /SSS is that N'SC ma9 4e use# to i!crease the #ata rate. This i!crease of a
factor of two 4its er s9m4ol of tra!smitte# i!formatio! over B'SC causes a! e;uivale!t
re#uctio! i! the availa4le rocess "ai!. The rocess "ai! is re#uce# 4ecause for a "ive! chi
rate> the 4a!#wi#th (which sets the rocess "ai!) is halve# #ue to the two+fol# i!crease i!
i!formatio! tra!sfer. The result is that s9stems i! a sectrall9 ;uiet e!viro!me!t 4e!efit from the
ossi4le i!crease i! #ata tra!sfer rate.
4SSS 8odulation
The mo#ulator co!verts the srea# 4i!ar9 si"!al i!to a! a!alo" waveform throu"h the use of
#iffere!t mo#ulatio! t9es> #ee!#i!" o! which #ata rate is chose!. :or e-amle with 164s
oeratio!> the '6/ uses #iffere!tial 4i!ar9 hase shift ke9i!" (/B'SC). This is!It reall9 as
comle- as it sou!#s. The mo#ulator merel9 shifts the hase of the ce!ter tra!smit fre;ue!c9 to
#isti!"uish a 4i!ar9 1 from a 4i!ar9 3 withi! the #ata stream.
:or 264s tra!smissio!> the '6/ uses #iffere!tial ;ua#rature hase shift ke9i!" (/N'SC)>
which is similar to /B'SC e-cet that there are four ossi4le hase shifts that rerese!ts ever9
two #ata 4its. This is a clever rocess that e!a4les the #ata stream to 4e se!t at 264s while
usi!" the same amou!t of 4a!#wi#th as the o!e se!t at 164s. The mo#ulator uses similar
metho#s for the hi"her> $.$64s a!# 1164s #ata rates.
3,
Trans+it ;re<uencies
The tra!smitterIs mo#ulator tra!slates the srea# si"!al i!to a! a!alo" form with a ce!ter
fre;ue!c9 correso!#i!" to the ra#io cha!!el chose! 49 the user. The followi!" i#e!tifies the
ce!ter fre;ue!c9 of each cha!!el*
Cha!!el :re;ue!c9 (@7A)
1 2.412
2 2.41.
3 2.422
4 2.42.
$ 2.432
, 2.43.
. 2.442
0 2.44.
< 2.4$2
13 2.4$.
11 2.4,2
12 2.4,.
13 2.4.2
14 2.404
?arious cou!tries limit the use of these cha!!els. :or e-amle> the 1.S. o!l9 allows the use of
cha!!els 1 throu"h 11> a!# the 1.C. ca! use cha!!els 1 throu"h 13. Paa!> however> authoriAes
the use all 14 cha!!els. This comlicates matters whe! #esi"!i!" i!ter!atio!al u4lic wireless
LANs. %! that case> 9ou !ee# to choose cha!!els with the least commo! #e!omi!ator.
After 8: amlificatio! takes lace 4ase# o! the tra!smit ower 9ouIve chose! (133mW
ma-imum for the 1.S.)> the tra!smitter oututs the mo#ulate# /SSS si"!al to the a!te!!a i!
or#er to roa"ate the si"!al to the #esti!atio!. The tri i! route to the #esti!atio! will
si"!ifica!tl9 atte!uate (#efi!e) the si"!al> 4ut the receiver at the #esti!atio! will #etect the
i!comi!" 'h9sical La9er hea#er a!# reverse (#emo#ulate a!# #isrea#) the rocess imleme!te#
49 the tra!smitter
The I... 802.11a
While 032.11a was arove# i! Setem4er 1<<<> !ew ro#uct #evelome!t has rocee#e# much
more slowl9 tha! 032.114. This is #ue to the cost a!# comle-it9 of imleme!tatio!. This
sta!#ar# uses 333 67A of 4a!#wi#th i! the $ @7A u!lice!se# !atio!al i!formatio! i!frastructure
(1N%%) 4a!#. The sectrum is #ivi#e# i!to three #omai!s> each havi!" restrictio!s imose# o!
the ma-imum allowe# outut ower (see :i"ure 1). The first 133 67A i! the lower fre;ue!c9
ortio! is restricte# to a ma-imum ower outut of $3 mW. The seco!# 133 67A has a hi"her
2$3 mW ma-imum> while the thir# 133 67A> which is mai!l9 i!te!#e# for out#oor alicatio!s>
has a ma-imum of 1.3 W ower outut.
O:/6 oerates 49 #ivi#i!" the tra!smitte# #ata i!to multile arallel 4it streams> each with
lower relative 4it rates a!# mo#ulati!" searate !arrow4a!# carriers> referre# to as su4+carriers.
3.
The su4+carriers are ortho"o!al> so each ca! 4e receive# without i!terfere!ce from a!other.
032.11a secifies ei"ht !o!+overlai!" 23 67A cha!!els i! the lower two 4a!#sG each of these
are #ivi#e# i!to $2 su4+carriers (four of which carr9 ilot #ata) of 333+k7A 4a!#wi#th each. :our
!o!+overlai!" 23 67A cha!!els are secifie# i! the uer 4a!#. The receiver rocesses the $2
i!#ivi#ual 4it streams> reco!structi!" the ori"i!al hi"h+rate #ata stream. :our comle-
mo#ulatio! metho#s are emlo9e#> #ee!#i!" o! the #ata rate that ca! 4e suorte# 49 cha!!el
co!#itio!s 4etwee! the tra!smitter a!# receiver. These i!clu#e B'SC> N'SC> 1,+NA6> a!# ,4+
NA6.
Nua#rature amlitu#e mo#ulatio! is a comle- mo#ulatio! metho# where #ata are carrie# i!
s9m4ols rerese!te# 49 the hase a!# amlitu#e of the mo#ulate# carrier. 1,+NA6 has 1,
s9m4ols. &ach rerese!ts four #ata 4its. ,4+NA6 has 1, s9m4ols with each rerese!ti!" four
#ata 4its.
B'SC mo#ulatio! is alwa9s use# o! the four ilot su4+carriers. Althou"h it a##s a #e"ree of
comlicatio! to the Base4a!# rocessi!"> 032.11a i!clu#es forwar# error correctio! (:&C) as
art of the secificatio!. :&C> which #oes !ot e-ist withi! 032.114> e!a4les the receiver to
i#e!tif9 a!# correct errors ma#e #uri!" tra!smissio! 49 se!#i!" a##itio!al #ata alo!" with the
rimar9 tra!smissio!. This !earl9 elimi!ates the !ee# for retra!smissio!s whe! acket errors are
#etecte#. The #ata rates availa4le i! 032.11a are !ote# i! Ta4le 2> to"ether with the t9e of
mo#ulatio! a!# the co#i!" rate.
032.11a ro#ucts are e-ecte# to 4e"i! arrivi!" i! the first half of 2332. Some of the coma!ies
#eveloi!" chiset solutio!s for 032.11a are touti!" the availa4ilit9 of oeratio!al mo#es that
e-cee# the $4 645s state# i! the secificatio!. Of course> 4ecause faster #ata rates are out of the
secificatio!Is scoe> the9 re;uire the use of e;uime!t from a si!"le source throu"hout the
e!tire !etwork.
Co!si#eri!" the comosite waveform resulti!" from the com4i!atio! of $2 su4+carriers> the
format re;uires more li!earit9 i! the amlifiers 4ecause of the hi"her eak+to+avera"e ower
ratio of the tra!smitte# O:/6 si"!al. %! a##itio!> 4etter hase !oise erforma!ce is re;uire#
4ecause of the closel9 sace#> overlai!" carriers. These issues a## to the imleme!tatio! cost
of 032.11a ro#ucts. Alicatio!+secific measureme!t tools ai# i! the #esi"! a!#
trou4leshooti!" of O:/6 si"!als a!# s9stems.
Practice 802.11a
/esi"! of #evices usi!" 032.11a with O:/6 si"!als a!# oerati!" at $ @7A will 4ri!" !ew
challe!"es i! testi!"> articularl9 4ecause the #ata rate will 4e i!creasi!" 49 a factor of five a!#
usi!" the same 4a!#wi#th (23 67A) to #o it. The hi"h eak+to+avera"e ower ratio
rerese!tative of multicarrier O:/6 si"!als #ictates the !ee# for hi"hl9 li!ear a!# efficie!t
amlifiers> as well as a metho# to characteriAe them.
Tra!smitte# si"!als such as O:/6> which #o !ot have a co!sta!t ower e!veloe> are !ot well+
characteriAe# 49 eak+to+avera"e ower ratio. This metric is !ot useful> as the true eak ower
ma9 !ot occur ofte!. %t is usuall9 more mea!i!"ful for O:/6 si"!als to associate a erce!ta"e
ro4a4ilit9 with a ower level.
30
A more mea!i!"ful metho# for viewi!" O:/6 si"!al ower characteristics uses the
comleme!tar9 cumulative #istri4utio! fu!ctio! (CC/:). This metric li!ks a erce!ta"e
ro4a4ilit9 to a ower level. %! this measureme!t> a! i!strume!t with time+"ati!" caa4ilit9 is
use# to select o!l9 the active ortio! of the 4urst (see :i"ure 2 lower trace).
%f time "ati!" were !ot use#> the erio#s whe! the 4urst is off woul# re#uce the avera"e ower
calculatio!. The CC/:> which is siml9 the more commo! cumulative #istri4utio! fu!ctio!
(C/:) su4tracte# from 1.3> shows the !um4er of #eci4els a4ove the avera"e ower o! the
horiAo!tal a-is> a!# erce!t ro4a4ilit9 o! vertical a-is (see :i"ure 2 uer trace). A CC/:
measureme!t woul# 4e ma#e over several 4ursts to imrove the accurac9 of the measureme!t.
The I... 8102.11b
032.114> which was arove# 49 the %&&& i! 1<<<> is a! e-te!sio! of the 032.11 /SSS s9stem
reviousl9 me!tio!e# a!# suorts hi"her $.$ a!# 11 645s a9loa# #ata rates i! a##itio! to the
ori"i!al 1 a!# 2 645s rates. 'ro#ucts are !ow wi#el9 availa4le> a!# the i!stalle# 4ase of s9stems
is "rowi!" rai#l9. 032.114 also oerates i! the hi"hl9 oulate# 2.4 @7A %S6 4a!# (2.43 to
2.403$ @7A)> which rovi#es o!l9 03 67A of sectrum to accommo#ate a variet9 of other
ra#iati!" ro#ucts> i!clu#i!" cor#less ho!es> microwave ove!s> other WLANs> a!# erso!al
area !etworks ('ANS). This makes susceti4ilit9 to i!terfere!ce a rimar9 co!cer!. The
occuie# 4a!#wi#th of the srea#+sectrum cha!!el is 22 67A> so the %S6 4a!# accommo#ates
o!l9 three !o!+overlai!" cha!!els sace# 2$ 67A aart. To hel miti"ate i!terfere!ce effects>
032.114 #esi"!ates a! otio!al fre;ue!c9 a"ile or hoi!" mo#e usi!" the three !o!+overlai!"
cha!!els or si- overlai!" cha!!els sace# at 13 67A.
032.114 uses ei"ht+chi comleme!tar9 co#e ke9i!" (CCC) as the mo#ulatio! scheme to
achieve the hi"her #ata rates. %!stea# of the Barker co#es use# to e!co#e a!# srea# the #ata for
the lower rates> CCC uses a !earl9 ortho"o!al comle- co#e set calle# comleme!tar9
se;ue!ces. The chi rate remai!s co!siste!t with the ori"i!al /SSS s9stem at 11 6chi5s> while
the #ata rate varies to match cha!!el co!#itio!s 49 cha!"i!" the srea#i!" factor a!#5or the
mo#ulatio! scheme.
To achieve #ata rates of $.$ a!# 11 645s> the srea#i!" le!"th is first re#uce# from 11 to ei"ht
chis. This i!creases the s9m4ol rate from 1 6s9m5s to 1.3.$ 6s9m5s. :or the $.$+645s 4it rate
with a 1.3.$ 67A s9m4ol rate> it is !ecessar9 to tra!smit 4 4its5s9m4ol ($.$ 645s51.3.$
6s9m5s) a!# for 11 645s> a! 0 4its5s9m4ol. The CCC aroach take! i! 032.114> which kees
the N'SC srea#+sectrum si"!al a!# still rovi#es the re;uire# !um4er of 4its5s9m4ol> uses all
4ut two of the 4its to select from a set of srea#i!" se;ue!ces a!# the remai!i!" two 4its to
rotate the se;ue!ce. The selectio! of the se;ue!ce> coule# with the rotatio!> rerese!ts the
s9m4ol co!ve9i!" the four or ei"ht 4its of #ata. :or all 032.114 a9loa# #ata rates> the ream4le
a!# hea#er are se!t at the 1 645s rate.
3<
Practice 802.11b
The 23 67A+wi#e 4a!#wi#th of WLAN si"!als makes ower e!veloe measureme!ts #ifficult
4ecause most sectrum a!al9Aers have resolutio! 4a!#wi#th filters that are limite# to 13 67A or
less. Therefore> the si"!al is co!si#era4l9 atte!uate# 49 the time the ower is measure# withi!
the i!strume!t. ?ector si"!al a!al9Aers are availa4le with i!formatio! 4a!#wi#ths that are
co!si#era4l9 "reater tha! 23 67A> maki!" WLAN si"!al a!al9sis more accurate.
The 032.114 sta!#ar# uses error vector ma"!itu#e (&?6) as a measure of mo#ulatio! ;ualit9.
This measureme!t has 4ecome commo! for most wireless alicatio!s. The u!#erl9i!"
hilosoh9 of &?6 is that a!9 si"!al #eteriorate# 49 a !ois9 cha!!el ca! 4e rerese!te# as the
sum of a! i#eal si"!al a!# a! error si"!al. The test i!strume!t #etermi!es the error si"!al 49
reco!structi!" the i#eal si"!al 4ase# o! #etecte# si"!al i!formatio! a!# su4tracti!" it from the
actual si"!al at each samle oi!t.
Co+,arison of 802.11a and 802.11b
A #raw4ack of the $ @7A 4a!#> which has receive# co!si#era4le atte!tio!> is its shorter
wavele!"th. 7i"her+fre;ue!c9 si"!als will have more trou4le roa"ati!" throu"h h9sical
o4structio!s e!cou!tere# i! a! office (walls> floors> a!# fur!iture) tha! those at 2.4 @7A. A!
a#va!ta"e of 032.11a is its i!tri!sic a4ilit9 to ha!#le #ela9 srea# or multiath reflectio! effects.
The slower s9m4ol rate a!# laceme!t of si"!ifica!t "uar# time arou!# each s9m4ol> usi!" a
tech!i;ue calle# c9clical e-te!sio!> re#uces the i!ter+s9m4ol i!terfere!ce (%S%) cause# 49
multiath i!terfere!ce. (The last o!e+;uarter of the s9m4ol ulse is coie# a!# attache# to the
4e"i!!i!" of the 4urst. /ue to the erio#ic !ature of the si"!al> the =u!ctio! at the start of the
ori"i!al 4urst will alwa9s 4e co!ti!uous.) To co!trast> 032.114 !etworks are "e!erall9 ra!"e+
limite# 49 multiath i!terfere!ce rather tha! the loss of si"!al stre!"th over #ista!ce.
Whe! it comes to #elo9me!t of a wireless LAN> oeratio!al characteristics have 4ee!
comare# to those of cellular s9stems> where fre;ue!c9 la!!i!" of overlai!" cells mi!imiAes
mutual i!terfere!ce suort mo4ilit9 a!# seamless cha!!el ha!#off. The three !o!+overlai!"
fre;ue!c9 cha!!els availa4le for %&&& 032.114 are at a #isa#va!ta"e comare# to the "reater
!um4er of cha!!els availa4le to 032.11a. The a##itio!al cha!!els allow more overlai!" access
oi!ts withi! a "ive! area while avoi#i!" a##itio!al mutual i!terfere!ce.
Both 032.114 a!# 032.11a use #9!amic rate shifti!" where the s9stem will automaticall9 a#=ust
the #ata rate 4ase# o! the co!#itio! of the ra#io cha!!el. %f the cha!!el is clear> the! the mo#es
with the hi"hest #ata rates are use#. But as i!terfere!ce is i!tro#uce# i!to the cha!!el> the ra#io
will fall 4ack to a slower> al4eit more ro4ust> tra!smissio! scheme.
Network la!!i!" is critical to the #evelome!t of a! otimiAe# s9stem. &ach !etwork must 4e
customiAe# to satisf9 the la!!e# alicatio!s a!# the h9sical e!viro!me!t. 8e;uireme!ts must
4e researche# a!# well+#ocume!te#> i!clu#i!" a!ticiate# roami!" a!# #ata rates !ee#e# for
alicatio!s to 4e use# at secific locatio!s. A site surve9 must 4e thorou"h a!# realistic to
43
a#e;uatel9 characteriAe the 8: e!viro!me!t of the roose# wireless !etwork i! terms of ra!"e>
cha!!el i!terfere!ce a!# #ela9 srea#.
%t woul# 4e u!realistic to e-ect to realiAe the full #ata rate caa4ilit9 ($4 645s) of 032.11a if the
access oi!ts of a! e-isti!" 032.114 !etwork otimiAe# to oerate at full see# (11 645s) XYT
were siml9 relace#. But as has 4ee! show!> 032.11a is faster tha! 032.114 at a!9 ra!"e. Cost
vs. erforma!ce re;uireme!ts !ee# thorou"h a!al9sis #uri!" the !etwork la!!i!" sta"e to arrive
at the aroriate imleme!tatio! #ecisio!.
Testi!" is critical to a!9 ro#uct #evelome!t rocess. WLAN ro#ucts re;uire that secial
atte!tio! 4e "ive! to #esi"! verificatio! a!# characteriAatio! 4ecause sta!#ar#iAe# oeratio!
across multive!#or ro#ucts ma9 4e re;uire#. To rovi#e a! efficie!t #evelome!t e!viro!me!t>
test tools are availa4le to ;uickl9 #ia"!ose ro4lems a!# isolate them throu"hout all #esi"!
se"me!ts. These tools ca! 4e use# withi! the ma!ufacturi!" rocess to "e!erate a!# a!al9Ae
ro#uctio! metrics for rocess a!# ro#uct imroveme!t.
&ve! #uri!" these lea! eco!omic times> whe! there is a re#uce# #ema!# for tech!olo"9
ro#ucts> the !ew> 4ut alrea#9 ro4ust WLAN market is ro=ecte# to "row 49 a! or#er of
ma"!itu#e over the !e-t five 9ears. These wireless !etworks will re;uire i!creasi!" #ata rates to
rovi#e the simulta!eous #istri4utio! of %!ter!et #ata> hi"h+;ualit9 vi#eo a!# au#io i! the office
or at home. %! a##itio! to hi"her #ata rates> it is almost a fore"o!e co!clusio! that e!#+users will
4e #ema!#i!" co!ti!uous imroveme!ts i! fu!ctio!alit9> ease+of+use a!# relia4ilit9.
Conclusion
Wireless !etworki!" has a romisi!" future with 032.11 lea#i!" the wa9 as the sta!#ar# for
a#otio! i! local !etworki!" e!viro!me!ts. 032.11 a##resses mo4ilit9> securit9> relia4ilit9> a!#
the #9!amic !ature of wireless LANS while keei!" comati4ilit9 with 032+t9e le"ac9
!etworks. &-ect to see availa4ilit9 of 032.11 ro#ucts i!crease #ramaticall9 i! the !ear future as
4usi!esses #iscover the i!crease# ro#uctivit9 rovi#e# 49 Hu!tethere#E !etworks.
032.11+4ase# !etworks have see! wi#esrea# #elo9me!t across ma!9 fiel#s> mai!l9 #ue to the
h9sical co!ve!ie!ces of ra#io+4ase# commu!icatio!. This #elo9me!t> however> was
re#icate# i! art o! the user e-ectatio! of co!fi#e!tialit9 a!# availa4ilit9. This aer
a##resse# the availa4ilit9 asect of that e;uatio!. We e-ami!e# the 032.11 6AC la9er a!#
#escri4e# the architecture a!# the mai! fu!ctio!s of the 6AC as art of the rotocol stack also
we ma#e a few comariso!s. W& thi!k that with the comariso!s we have offere# a! i!teresti!"
issue a!# that the #escritio! has more efficie!c9. Securit9 as a art of the rotocol stack has
also 4ee! me!tio! 4ecause the rotocol stack as a art of the software is the first art i! what
eole are i!tereste# i!. The wi#esrea# acceta!ce of WLANs #ee!#s o! i!#ustr9
sta!#ar#iAatio! to e!sure ro#uct comati4ilit9 a!# relia4ilit9 amo!" the various ma!ufacturers.
The %!stitute of &lectrical a!# &lectro!ics &!"i!eers (%&&&) ratifie# the ori"i!al 032.11
secificatio! i! 1<<. as the sta!#ar# for wireless LANs. That versio! of 032.11 rovi#es for 1
64s a!# 2 64s #ata rates a!# a set of fu!#ame!tal si"!ali!" metho#s a!# other services.
The most critical issue affecti!" WLAN #ema!# has 4ee! limite# throu"hut. The #ata rates
suorte# 49 the ori"i!al 032.11 sta!#ar# are too slow to suort most "e!eral 4usi!ess
re;uireme!ts a!# have slowe# a#otio! of WLANs. 8eco"!iAi!" the critical !ee# to suort
41
hi"her #ata+tra!smissio! rates> the %&&& rece!tl9 ratifie# the 032.114 sta!#ar# (also k!ow! as
032.11 7i"h 8ate) for tra!smissio!s of u to 11 64s. @lo4al re"ulator9 4o#ies a!# ve!#or
allia!ces have e!#orse# this !ew hi"h+rate sta!#ar#> which romises to oe! !ew markets for
WLANs i! lar"e e!terrise> small office> a!# home e!viro!me!ts. With 032.114> WLANs will
4e a4le to achieve wireless erforma!ce a!# throu"hut comara4le to wire# &ther!et.
To#a9Es 4usi!ess e!viro!me!t is characteriAe# 49 a! i!creasi!"l9 mo4ile workforce a!# flatter
or"a!iAatio!s. &mlo9ees are e;uie# with !ote4ook comuters a!# se!# more of their time
worki!" i! teams that cross fu!ctio!al> or"a!iAatio!al> a!# "eo"rahic 4ou!#aries. 6uch of
these workersE ro#uctivit9 occurs i! meeti!"s a!# awa9 from their #esks. 1sers !ee# access to
the !etwork far 4e9o!# their erso!al #esktos. WLANs fit well i! this work e!viro!me!t>
"ivi!" mo4ile workers much+!ee#e# free#om i! their !etwork access. With a wireless !etwork>
workers ca! access i!formatio! from a!9where i! the cororatio!Fa co!fere!ce room> the
cafeteria> or a remote 4ra!ch office. Wireless LANs rovi#e a 4e!efit for %T ma!a"ers as well>
allowi!" them to #esi"!> #elo9> a!# e!ha!ce !etworks without re"ar# to the availa4ilit9 of
wiri!"> savi!" 4oth effort a!# #ollars.
Busi!esses of all siAes ca! 4e!efit from #elo9i!" a WLAN s9stem> which rovi#es a owerful
com4i!atio! of wire# !etwork throu"hut> mo4ile access> a!# co!fi"uratio! fle-i4ilit9. The
eco!omic 4e!efits ca! a## u to as much as J1,>333 er userFmeasure# i! worker ro#uctivit9>
or"a!iAatio!al efficie!c9> reve!ue "ai!> a!# cost savi!"sFover wire# alter!atives.
So at the e!# we hoe that we have offere# a "e!eral overview of the %&&& 032.11> eseciall9
rotocol stack a!# h9sical la9ers> arts that are #efi!e# i! the %&&& Sta!#ar#. The %&&& 032.11
is a hu"e toic a!# the Sta!#ar#s we ca! #ow!loa# free from the i!ter!et.
42
Abbre#iation
WLAN D Wireless Local Area Network
LAN + Local Area Network
6AC + 6e#ium Access Co!trol
'7B D 'h9sical La9er
%S6 + %!#ustrial> Scie!tific> a!# 6e#ical
CS6A5C/ + Carrier Se!se> 6ultile Access with Collisio! /etect
%SO + %!ter!atio!al Sta!#ar#s Or"a!iAatio!
/SSS + /irect Se;ue!ce Srea# Sectrum
NoS + Nualit9 Of Service
TC' + Tra!smit ower co!trol
/:S + /9!amic fre;ue!c9 selectio!
6%6O + 6ultile %!ut> 6ultile Outut
LLC + Lo"ical Li!k Co!trol
/S + /istri4utio! S9stem
W&' + Wire# &;uivale!t 'rivac9
NA? + Network Allocatio! ?ector
C8C + C9clic 8e#u!#a!c9 Check
%&&&+SA + %!stitute of &lectrical a!# &lectro!ics &!"i!eers Sta!#ar#s Associatio!
&?6 + &rror ?ector 6a"!itu#e
CCC + comleme!tar9 co#e ke9i!"
C/: + Cumulative /istri4utio! :u!ctio!
CC/: + Comleme!tar9 Cumulative /istri4utio! :u!ctio!
:&C + :orwar# &rror Correctio!
NA6
/N'SC + /iffere!tial Nua#rature 'hase Shift Ce9i!"
/B'SC + /iffere!tial Bi!ar9 'hase Shift Ce9i!"
'N D 'seu#o Noise
8: D 8a#io :re;ue!c9
O:/6 + Ortho"o!al :re;ue!c9 /ivisio! 6ultile-i!"
::C + :e#eral Commu!icatio!s Commissio!
/SSS + /irect Se;ue!ce Srea# Sectrum
:7SS + :re;ue!c9 7oi!" Srea# Sectrum
''6 + 'ulse 'ositio! 6o#ulatio!
78+/SSS + 7i"h 8ate /irect Se;ue!ce Srea# Sectrum
''/1 + 'LC' 'rotocol /ata 1!it
'6/ + 'h9sical 6e#ium /ee!#e!t
'LC' + 'h9sical La9er Co!ver"e!ce 'roce#ure
43
%lossary
IS& 2 International Standards &r-ani=ation
The %!ter!atio!al Sta!#ar#s Or"a!iAatio! is reso!si4le for a wi#e ra!"e of sta!#ar#s> i!clu#i!"
those releva!t to !etworki!". The %SO #eveloe# the OS% (Oe! S9stem %!terco!!ectio!)
refere!ce mo#el which is a oular !etworki!" refere!ce tool.
(A) 2 (ireless ocal Area )et'ork
This is a "e!eric term coveri!" a multitu#e of tech!olo"ies rovi#i!" local area !etworki!" via a
ra#io li!k. &-amles of WLAN tech!olo"ies i!clu#e (i2;i (Wireless :i#elit9)> 802.11b a!#
802.11a> 7ierLAN> *luetooth> Ir4A (%!frare# /ata Associatio!) a!# 4.CT (/i"ital
&!ha!ce# Cor#less Telecommu!icatio!s) etc.
(i8A6 2 (orld'ide Intero,erability for 8icro'a#e Access
The term Wi6A2 has 4ecome s9!o!9mous with the %&&& 032.1, suite of sta!#ar#s. These
#efi!e the ra#io or air i!terface withi! two 4roa# ra#io 4a!#s 2@7A to 11@7A (%&&& 032.1,a)
a!# 13@7A + ,,@7A (%&&& 032.1,c) althou"h i!itial i!terest is co!fi!e# to the li!e of si"ht
4a!#s + 2.$@7A> 3.$@7A a!# $.0@7A. %t is a!ticiate# that Wi6A2 will 4e use# i!itiall9 as a
4ackhaul co!!ectio! with other tech!olo"ies such as Wi+:i 4ei!" use# to cover the Sfi!al mileT.
(i2;i 2 (ireless ;idelity
Wi+:i is a! i!teroera4ilit9 sta!#ar# #eveloe# 49 W&CA (Wireless &ther!et Comati4ilit9
Allia!ce) a!# issue# to those ma!ufacturers whose %&&& 802.11a a!# 802>11b e;uime!t has
asse# a suite of 4asic i!teroera4ilit9 tests. &;uime!t assi!" these tests carries the Wi+:i
lo"o.
Note* Wi+:i !ot Wi:i.
8AC 2 8ediu+ Access Control
6e#ia Access Co!trol is the lower of the two su4la9ers of the /ata Li!k La9er. %! "e!eral terms>
6AC ha!#les access to a share# me#ium> a!# ca! 4e fou!# withi! ma!9 #iffere!t tech!olo"ies.
:or e-amle> 6AC metho#olo"ies are emlo9e# withi! .thernet> %P:S> a!# 58TS etc.

Physical ink
A 'h9sical Li!k is the co!!ectio! 4etwee! #evices.
4SSS 2 4irect Se<uence S,read S,ectru+
/irect Se;ue!ce Srea# Sectrum is 4ase# o! the multil9i!" of the Base4a!# si"!al #ata with a
4roa#4a!# srea#i!" co#e. The result is terme# the chi rate. The characteristics of the
4roa#4a!# srea#i!" co#e are that of seu#ora!#om !oise. Co!se;ue!tl9 the receiver
s9!chro!iAe# to the co#e will o4tai! the !arrow4a!# si"!al. All other receivers will see the
srea# si"!al as white or colore# !oise.
44
?oS 2 ?uality of Ser#ice
The erforma!ce of a commu!icatio!s cha!!el or s9stem is usuall9 e-resse# i! terms of NoS
(Nualit9 of Service). /ee!#i!" uo! the commu!icatio! s9stem> NoS ma9 relate to service
erforma!ce> S): (Si"!al to Noise 8atio)> *.: (Bit &rror 8atio)> ma-imum a!# mea!
throu"hut rate> relia4l9> riorit9 a!# other factors secific to each service.
TCP 2 Trans+ission Control Protocol
Tra!smissio! Co!trol 'rotocol is a relia4le octet streami!" rotocol use# 49 the ma=orit9 of
alicatio!s o! the Internet. %t rovi#es a co!!ectio!+orie!te#> full+#ule-> oi!t to oi!t service
4etwee! hosts.
C 2 o-ical ink Control
%! the %P:S s9stem the LLC rotocol rovi#es a hi"hl9 relia4le cihere# lo"ical li!k 4etwee!
the 8S (6o4ile Statio!) a!# S%S) (Servi!" @'8S Suort No#e). %t is i!#ee!#e!t of the
u!#erl9i!" ra#io i!terface rotocols e!a4li!" the i!tro#uctio! of alter!ative @'8S ra#io
solutio!s with mi!imal cha!"es to the Network Switchi!" S9stem.
C:C 2 Cyclic :edundancy Code
A li!ear error co#e that is "e!erate# usi!" a ol9!omial fu!ctio! o! the #ata to 4e se!t> the
remai!#er from the rocess 4ei!" the C8C. This is se!t alo!" with #ata so that a arit9 check of
the receive# #ata ca! 4e co!#ucte#.
I... 2 Institute of .lectrical and .lectronics .n-ineers
The %!stitute of &lectrical a!# &lectro!ics &!"i!eers is a rofessio!al or"a!iAatio! whose
activities i!clu#e the #evelome!t of commu!icatio!s a!# !etwork sta!#ar#s.

I... 802.11a
'art of the I... 802.11 famil9 of secificatio!s> this wireless local area !etwork tech!olo"9 is
comrise# of a hi"h see# h9sical la9er oerati!" i! the $@7A u!lice!se# 4a!# a!# suorts
#ata rates u to $464s. &;uime!t oerati!" i! accor#a!ce with the %&&& secificatio!s a!#
assi!" the Allia!ces i!teroera4ilit9 tests is a4le to #isla9 the Wi+:i lo"o.
Several ma!ufacturers have #eveloe# e;uime!t which is caa4le of oerati!" i! accor#a!ce
with 4oth %&&& 032.11a a!# I... 802.11bsecificatio!s.
4$
I... 802.11b
'art of the I... 802.11 famil9 of secificatio!s> %&&& 032.114 is curre!tl9 the most oular
wireless !etworki!" tech!olo"9. The e;uime!t oerates i! the 2.4@7A u!lice!se# 4a!# a!#
utiliAes 9:74SSS (7i"h 8ate + /irect Se;ue!ce Srea# Sectrum) e!a4li!" #ata rates of u to
1164s to 4e achieve#. &;uime!t oerati!" i! accor#a!ce with the %&&& secificatio!s a!#
assi!" the (i2;i Alliances i!teroera4ilit9 tests is a4le to #isla9 the Wi+:i lo"o.
Several manufacturers have developed equipment which is capable of
operating in accordance with both I... 802.11a and IEEE 802.11b
specifications.
I... 802.11 2 (ireless
This is a! I... (%!stitute of &lectrical a!# &lectro!ic &!"i!eers) tech!ical sta!#ar# coveri!"
(A) (Wireless Local Area Network) tech!olo"9. The sta!#ar#s have 4ee! #ivi#e# i!to su4
"rous with 032.114 curre!tl9 the most commo!. This rovi#es a wireless commu!icatio! at u
to 1164s a!# oerates withi! the 2.4@7A IS8 (%!#ustrial Scie!tific a!# 6e#ical) 4a!#. The
032.11a 4ase# e;uime!t is !ow commerciall9 availa4le a!# rovi#es #ata rates u to $464s
a!# oerates i! the $@7A %S6 4a!#. %&&& 032.11 !etworks are comrise# of Stations> Wireless
6e#ium> AP (Access 'oi!ts) a!# a /S (/istri4utio! S9stem).
AP 2 Access Point
A! Access 'oi!t is a #evice fou!# withi! a! %&&& 802.11 !etwork which rovi#es the oi!t of
i!terco!!ectio! 4etwee! the wireless Station (lato comuter> P4A ('erso!!el /i"ital
Assista!t) etc.) a!# the wire# !etwork.
.SS 2 .3tended Ser#ice Set
A! &-te!#e# Service Set is comrise# of a !um4er of %&&& 802.11 BSS (Basic Service Set) a!#
e!a4les limite# mo4ilit9 withi! the (A) (Wireless Local Area Network). Statio!s are a4le to
move 4etwee! *SS withi! a si!"le &SS 9et still remai! Sco!!ecte#T to the fi-e# !etwork a!# so
co!ti!ue to receive emails etc. As a Station moves i!to a !ew BSS> it will carr9 out a
resuscitatio! roce#ure with the !ew AP (Access 'oi!t).
SSI4 2 Ser#ice Set Identifier
The Service Set %#e!tifier or Network Name is use# withi! %&&& 802.11 !etworks to i#e!tif9 a
articular !etwork. %t is usuall9 set 49 the a#mi!istrator setti!" u the (A) (Wireless Local
Area Network) a!# will 4e u!i;ue withi! a *SS (Basic Service Set) or .SS (&-te!#e# Service
Set). The SS%/ ma9 4e 4roa#cast from a! AP (Access 'oi!t) withi! the wireless !etwork to
e!a4le Stations to #etermi!e which !etwork to SAssociateT with. 7owever> this feature shoul#
4e #isa4le# as it ma9 assist Shackers> or war#riversT i! "ai!i!" access to a rivate !etwork.
SAP 2 Ser#ice Access Point
A co!cetual oi!t where a rotocol la9er offers access to its services to the la9er a4ove or
4elow.
4,

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