Research project about Asynchronous Transfer Mode ( ATM

)
TABLE OF CONTENT
Abstract............................................................................................
!ntroduct"on......................................................................................
O#er#"e$..........................................................................................%
!. A&'NC(RONO)& TRAN&FER MO*E (ATM)......................+
ATM ,"rtua- C"rcu"t........................................................................................................
,"rtua- path/,"rtua- Channe- Character"st"cs.............................................................01
,"rtua- C"rcu"ts Connect"on )ses..............................................................................00
Contro- s"2na-"n2........................................................................................................00
ATM CELL&................................................................................................................0
(eader For3at...........................................................................................................0%
(eader Error Contro-.................................................................................................0+
!!. T(E ATM REFERENCE MO*EL.........................................04
5('&!CAL LA'ER......................................................................................................06
The 5M* sub7-ayer ...................................................................................................06
The TC sub7-ayer ......................................................................................................08
T(E ATM LA'ER.......................................................................................................90
ATM A*A5TAT!ON LA'ER.....................................................................................9
ATM adaptat"on -ayer 0...........................................................................................9+
ATM adaptat"on -ayer 9............................................................................................94
ATM adaptat"on -ayer .............................................................................................9.
ATM adaptat"on -ayer % ..........................................................................................96
ATM adaptat"on -ayer +.............................................................................................98
A &)MMAR' FOR T(E REFERENCE MO*EL.................................................0
!!!. T(E BENEF!T& OF ATM ....................................................%
!,. *!&A*,ANTA:E& OF ATM.............................................+
Conc-us"on......................................................................................
:-ossary..........................................................................................
Abbre#"at"ons.................................................................................%0
References .....................................................................................%9

9
Abstract
Everyday and on the world is changing a lot. Science forging with big pace, new
inventions important for human life, new technological advances occurring constantly
and so on. But if seen from communication point of view, this pace is faster and
technology more exciting in telecommunications. In order to deliver new services such as
video conferencing and video on demand, as well as provide more bandwidth for the
increasing volume of traditional data, the communications industry introduced a
technology that provided a common format for services with different bandwidth
requirements. This technology is Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). s T!
developed, it became a crucial step in how companies deliver, manage and maintain
their goods and services. This means that T! is capable of transferring voice, video,
and data through private networ"s and across public networ"s.
Introduction
Co3puter net$or;s represents the 3ode- $here a -ar2e nu3ber of separated
co3puters are "nterconnected and can co33un"cate bet$een the3. )nder th"s
co33un"cat"on $e shou-d understand that they can e<chan2e "nfor3at"on. Co3puters
can be connected #"a cooper $"re= f"ber opt"cs= 3"cro$a#es= "nfrared= sate--"te etc. As
t"3e 2oes on= co3puter net$or;s are beco3"n2 3ore h"2h7tech and a-so 3ore co3p-e<.
&o= "n order to reduce the"r des"2n co3p-e<"ty they are or2an">ed as stac; of -ayers= each
one bu"-t upon the one be-o$ "t. Th"s $ay e#ery one of th"s -ayers ofers so3e ser#"ce to
the -ayer abo#e. The ser#"ce can be connect"on7or"ented or connect"on-ess. !n
connect"on-ess ser#"ce the 3essa2e to be sent carr"es the fu-- dest"nat"on address and "t "s
"ndependet-y routed fro3 other 3essa2es= fro3 $here $e can see that th"s "s 3ode-ed
after the posta- syste3. On the other hand "n connect"on or"ented ser#"ce= to send any
3essa2e= f"rst $e shou-d estab-"sh a connect"on= than use "t and at the end re-ease "t. Th"s
ser#"ce "s 3ode-ed after the te-ephone syste3. Th"s ser#"ce uses a s"n2-e channe- for
pass"n2 3essa2es= $h"ch 3eans that a-- 3essa2es fo--o$ the sa3e path and the pac;et
that "s send f"rst $"-- be f"rst one rece"#ed at the other end.
!n th"s 2roup of connect"on7or"ented net$or;s $e can f"nd ATM Net$or;
(Asynchronous Transfer Mode). ATM "s a protoco- that trans3"ts data as f"<ed s">ed
pac;ets . A sender and rece"#er on a net$or; set up a f"<ed path bet$een each other
before send"n2 data= and the "nfor3at"on arr"#es to the rece"#er "n the order "t $as sent.

!n the ?uest"on $hy us"n2 ATM "nstead of other ser#"ces= $e@-- 2et the ans$er A
7 !t "s standard based (one "nternat"ona- standard)
7 !t "s &ca-ab-e "n d"stance ("nc-udes both LAN and BAN techno-o2y)
7 !t "s sca-ab-e "n speed
7 Carr"es Mu-t"p-e Traff"c Types (,o"ce= *ata= ,"deo)
!n fact= ATM can be thou2ht of as the Ch"2h$ayD of the "nfor3at"on
superh"2h$ay. A3on2 the cha--en2es faced by the des"2ners of ATM= $e can d"#"de s"<
as 3ore "3portant. As the f"rst one "s the need for a trans3"ss"on syste3 to opt"3">e the
use of the h"2h7data7rate trans3"ss"on 3ed"a= "n part"cu-ar opt"ca- f"ber. &econd "s the
need for a syste3 that can "nterface $"th e<"st"n2 syste3s= such as the #ar"ous pac;et
net$or;s= and to pro#"de $"de area "nterconect"#"ty bet$een the3 $"thout -o$er"n2 the"r
effect"#eness or re?u"r"n2 the"r rep-ace3ent. Th"rd "s the need for a des"2n that can be
"3p-e3ented "ne<pens"#e-y so that cost $ou-d not be a barr"er to adopt"on . Th"s 3eans
that ATM 3ust be a#a"-ab-e at -o$ cost to e#ery user $ho $ants "t. As fourth the ne$
syste3 3ust be ab-e to $or; $"th and support the e<"st"n2 te-eco33un"cat"on h"erarch"es
(-oca- -oops= -oca- pro#"ders= -on27d"stance carr"ers= and so on). F"fth= the ne$ syste3
3ust be connect"on7or"ented to ensure accurate and pred"ctab-e de-"#ery. And the s"<th
one "s one of the object"#es to 3o#e as 3any of the funct"ons to hard$are as poss"b-e and
e-"3"nate as 3any soft$are funct"ons as poss"b-e= and th"s "s done $"th the purpose of
"ncreas"n2 the data rate. &o= see"n2 a-- of these ATM shou-d be one of the 3ost used types
of net$or;s.
Overview
ATM "s a ce-- based protoco- that= "n co3b"nat"on $"th B7!&*N= $"-- a--o$ h"2h7
speed "nterconnect"on of a-- the $or-d@s net$or;s. As an "ntroduct"on "n th"s research
paper are descr"bed the 3a"n d"fferences bet$een fra3e7based and ce--7based protoco-s=
$here "n the -ast one $e f"nd the ATM. &o ATM trans3"ts "ts data or "nfor3at"on "n
s3a-- f"<ed7s">e b-oc;s. These b-oc;s or ce--s are co3posed of + bytes (+ bytes of
header and %6 bytes of pay-oad). Ne<t "3portant po"nt "s connect"on bet$een t$o end
po"nts $h"ch "s acco3p-"shed throu2h trans3"ss"on paths= #"rtua- paths= and #"rtua-
c"rcu"ts. (ence= a co3b"nat"on of a #"rtua- path "dent"f"er and a #"rtua- c"rcu"t "dent"f"er=
"dent"fy a #"rtua- connect"on. :o"n2 on $"-- be d"sco#ered that ATM can use a per3anent
#"rtua- c"rcu"t or a s$"tched #"rtua- c"rcu"t.
As other protoco-s too= ATM "s or2an">ed as stac; of -ayers. And after the ATM
standards three -ayer are 3ost "3portant A
7 5hys"ca- -ayer $h"ch def"nes the trans3"ss"on 3ed"u3= b"t trans3"ss"on=
encod"n2= and e-ectr"ca-7to7opt"ca- transor3at"on
7 ATM -ayer $h"ch pro#"des rout"n2= tra"c 3ana2e3ent= s$"tch"n2 and
3u-t"p-e<"n2 ser#"ces
7 App-"cat"on Adapt"on -ayer (AAL) $h"ch accepts trans3"ss"on fro3 upper
-ayer ser#"ces and 3aps the3 "nto ATM ce--s.
%
Be are 2o"n2 to see 3ore "n deta"- these -ayers= s"3"-ar"t"es= d"fferences and so on. But !
$e ha#e sayed so 3any th"n2s "n fa#our to ATM "t doesn@t 3ean that "t "s perfect and "t "s
the on-y one that shou-d be used. B"th th"s $e $ant to say that a-so "t has so3e
ad#anta2es and d"sad#anta2es that are 3ent"on be-o$= and a-so so3e rea- e<a3p-es
$here "t "s app-"cab-e and had sho$n 2ood resu-ts.
I. ASYNCHRONOUS TRANSFER MODE ATM!
No$ $e@-- -oo; throu2h ATM 3ore c-ose-y. Layers= that $e 3ent"oned ear-"er= on
one 3ach"ne can co33un"cate $"th those "n the other one throu2h the protoco-. &o an
protoco- "s an a2ree3ent bet$een the co33un"cat"n2 part"es on ho$ co33un"cat"on "s to
proceed. Be are 2o"n2 to see t$o types of protoco-s A
7 Fra3e7based protoco-s= and
7 Ce--7based protoco-s
Frame-Based 5rotoco-s encapsu-ate )ser data "n Fra3es= other$"se ;no$n as 5ac;ets.
Fra3es are de-"neated by f-a2s $h"ch are spec"f"c #a-ue octets that s"2n"fy the be2"nn"n2
and end of a fra3e. Fra3es are of #ar"ab-e -en2th= ".e.= d"fferent nu3ber of octets per
fra3e for d"fferent app-"cat"ons. !t a-- -oo;s -";e "n the f"2ure be-o$
Variable length
User information
Flag
Flag
Octet 1 Octet 2 Octet 3
........
Octet N
Fi"ure #.# $ Fra%e&'ased (rotoco)
On the other hand= cell-based 5rotoco-s encapsu-ate user "nfor3at"on "n Ce--s= f"<ed
-en2th pac;ets. Because Ce--s ha#e so3e ad#anta2es -";e A !ncreased s$"tch"n2
perfor3ance $"th reduced s$"tch co3p-e<"ty= the ab"-"ty to support 3"-t"p-e ser#"ces of
d"fferent traff"c character"st"cs -";e #o"ce= data= #"deoE etc= they are #ery used fro3
broadband net$or;s. The f"2ure be-o$ descr"bes Ce-- based protoco-s.
)ser !nfor3at"on (%6 octets)
(eader
+ octets %6 octets
+
Fi"ure #.* $ Ce))&'ased (rotoco)
No$= that $e@#e 2ot an "dea about Fra3e based and Ce-- based protoco-s= $e@-- 2o
further deep $"th ATM and say that "t "s Ce-- based 5rotoco-. But= about the ATM Ce--
for3at $e@-- see -ater on.
Bes"de that "t "s ce--7based protoco-= ATM "s a ce--7s$"tch"n2 and 3u-t"p-e<"n2
techno-o2y that co3b"nes the benef"ts of c"rcu"t s$"tch"n2 (constant trans3"ss"on de-ay
and 2uaranteed capac"ty) $"th those of pac;et s$"tch"n2 (f-e<"b"-"ty and eff"c"ency for
"nter3"ttent traff"c). L";e F.9+ and Fra3e Re-ay= ATM def"nes the "nterface bet$een the
user e?u"p3ent (such $as $or;stat"ons and routers) and the net$or; (referred to as the
)ser7Net$or; !nterface= or )N!). Th"s def"n"t"on supports the use of ATM s$"tches (and
ATM s$"tch"n2 techn"?ues) $"th"n both pub-"c and pr"#ate net$or;s.
Because "t "s an asynchronous 3echan"s3= ATM d"ffers fro3 synchronous transfer
3ode 3ethods= $here t"3e7d"#"s"on 3u-t"p-e<"n2 (T*M) techn"?ues are e3p-oyed to
preass"2n users to t"3e s-ots. ATM t"3e s-ots are 3ade a#a"-ab-e on de3and= $"th
"nfor3at"on "dent"fy"n2 the source of the trans3"ss"on conta"ned "n the header of each
ATM ce--. T*M "s "neff"c"ent re-at"#e to ATM because "f a stat"on has noth"n2 to trans3"t
$hen "ts t"3e s-ot co3es up= that t"3e s-ot "s $asted. The con#erse s"tuat"on= $here one
stat"on has -ots of "nfor3at"on to trans3"t= "s a-so -ess eff"c"ent. !n th"s case= that stat"on
can on-y trans3"t $hen "ts turn co3es up= e#en thou2h a-- the other t"3e s-ots are e3pty.
B"th ATM= a stat"on can send ce--s $hene#er necessary. F"2ure be-o$ contrasts T*M
and ATM 3u-t"p-e<"n2 techn"?ues.
Fi"ure #.+ $ TDM and ATM %u)ti()e,in" tec-ni.ues
4
ATM Virtual Circuit
To start send"n2 "nfor3at"ons or pac;ets fro3 one 3ach"ne to another= ATM f"rst
ha#e to estab-"sh a connect"on= because $e 3ent"oned that "t "s a connect"on7or"ented
net$or;. For th"s reason ATM standards has def"ned t$o types of ATM connect"onsA
virtual channel connection (VCCs) and virtual path connections (VPCs). A virtual channel
connection (or virtual circuit) is the basic unit, which represents the logical connection between
end stations, or we can say that it carries a single stream of cells, in order, from user to user. It has
def"ned end po"nts and routes but does not ha#e band$"dth ded"cated to "t. Band$"dth "s
a--ocated on de3and by the net$or; as users ha#e traff"c to trans3"t. ,CC are a-so used
for user7net$or; e<chan2e (contro- s"2na-"n2) and net$or;7net$or; e<chan2e (net$or;
3ana2e3ent and rout"n2).
Fi"ure #./ $ A virtua) circuit 0CC!
Bhen spea;"n2 about #"rtua- c"rcu"t (,C)= $e can not for2et to 3ent"on that there
are t$o types of the3A
G 1er%anent 0irtua) Circuit 10C! & that "s a ,CC or ,5C that "s
predef"ned and -eft "n p-ace a-- the t"3e. !f "nfor3at"on "s not be"n2
trans3"tted= "t doesn@t use any band$"dth. &o= each per3anent or
te3porary connect"on has a un"?ue connect"on "dent"f"er. A 5,C -oo;s
-";e "n f"2ure 0.+.
G Switc-ed 0irtua) Circuit S0C! $ that "s a ,CC that "s setup at the
"nstant that "nfor3at"on needs to be sent bet$een co33un"cat"on
endpo"nts= and then ta;en do$n after the trans3"ss"on "s f"n"shed.
.
Fi"ure #.2 & ATM 1er%anent 0irtua) Circuit Service
Collection of virtual circuits can be bundled together into a
virtual path connection VPC. It is somewhat lie a second sublayer
of processing. A virtual path connection can be created from end!to!end across an A"#
networ (it is a bundle of VCC$s that have the same end points). In this case, the A"# networ
does not route cells belonging to a particular virtual circuit. All cells belonging to a particular
virtual path are routed the same way through the A"# networ, thus resulting in faster recovery
in case of ma%or failures. A simple virtual path loos lie in the figure below
Transmission path
Virtual path
V
i
r
t
u
a
l

c
i
r
c
u
i
t
s
Fi"ure #.3 $ 0irtua) 1at- connection
The #"rtua- path techn"?ue he-ps conta"n the contro- cost by 2roup"n2
connect"ons shar"n2 co33on paths throu2h the net$or; "nto a s"n2-e un"t. Net$or;
3ana2e3ent act"ons can then be app-"ed to a s3a-- nu3ber of 2roups of connect"ons
"nstead of a -ar2e nu3ber of "nd"#"dua- connect"ons.
The process of sett"n2 up a #"rtua- path connect"on "s decoup-ed fro3 the
process of sett"n2 up an "nd"#"dua- #"rtua- channe- connect"on A
• The #"rtua- path contro- 3echan"s3s "nc-ude ca-cu-at"n2 routes= a--ocat"n2
capac"ty= and stor"n2 connect"on state "nfor3at"on
6
• To set up a #"rtua- channe-= there 3ust f"rst be a #"rtua- path connect"on to
the re?u"red dest"nat"on node $"th suff"c"ent a#a"-ab-e capac"ty to support
the #"rtua- channe-= $"th the appropr"ate ?ua-"ty of ser#"ce. A #"rtua-
channe- "s set up by stor"n2 the re?u"red state "nfor3at"on (#"rtua-
channe-/#"rtua- path 3app"n2).
The 2enera- $ay of ca-- estab-"sh3ent process us"n2 #"rtua- channe-s and #"rtua-
paths= "s sho$n "n the f"2ure
Request for VCC
originates
VC e!ists"
Can qualit# of
ser $i ce be
sat i sf i e%"
&stablish a
ne' VC
(loc) VCC or
request more
capacit#
Request
grante%"
*a)e
connection
Re+ect VCC
request
,es
,es
,es
No
No
No
Fi"ure #.4 $ Ca)) estab)is-%ent (roccess usin" 0C and 01
L";e $e see fro3 the a-2or"th3 f"rst "t "s 2enerated a re?uest for ,CC. The ne<t
step "s to see "f ,5C e<"sts or no. !f doesn@t e<"sts a ne$ one "s estab-"shed and then
the a-2or"th3 chec;s "f the ?ua-"ty of ser#"ce can be sat"sf"ed. !f the ans$er "s Hyes@
then a ne$ connect"on "s created= "f no= and no 3ore capac"ty "s re?uested then the
,CC re?uest "s rejected.
,"rtua- paths ,5Cs are #ery usefu-- because they ha#e so3e ad#anta2es= -";eA
• &"3p-"f"ed net$or; arch"tecture G Transport funct"ons of the net$or; can be
separated "nto those re-ated to an "nd"#"dua- -o2"ca- connect"on (,CC) and those
re-ated to a 2roup of -o2"ca- connect"ons (,5C)
8
• !ncreased net$or; perfor3ance and re-"ab"-"ty7 Net$or; dea-s $"th fe$er=
a2re2ated ent"t"es
• Reduced process"n2 and short connect"on setup t"3e G Bhen the #"rtua- path "s
set up= then 3uch of the $or; "s a-3ost done. By reser#"n2 capac"ty on a #"rtua-
path connect"on "n ant"c"pat"on of -ater ca-- arr"#a-s= ne$ #"rtua- c"rcu"t can be
estab-"shed by e<ecut"n2 s"3p-e contro- funct"ons at the end po"nts of the #"rtua-
path connect"onA no ca-- process"n2 "s re?u"red at trans"t nodes. Thus the
add"t"on of ne$ #"rtua- channe-s to an e<"st"n2 #"rtua- path "n#o-#es 3"n"3a-
process"n2.
• Enhanced net$or; ser#"cesA The #"rtua- path a-thou2h "t has "nterna- use "n the
net$or; = "t "s a-so #"s"b-e to the end user. Thus= the user 3ay def"ne c-osed user
2roups or c-osed net$or;s of #"rtua- channe- bund-es.
0irtua) (at-50irtua) C-anne) C-aracteristics
,"rtua- Channe-s (,"rtua- C"rcu"ts) ,CC ha#e so3e character"st"cs so3e of $h"ch
are -"sted be-o$A
7 6ua)it7 o8 Service & Bhen an ATM end stat"on connects to the ATM
net$or;= "t "s essent"a--y 3a;"n2 a contract $"th the net$or; based on ?ua-"ty
of ser#"ce (IO&) para3eters. Th"s contract spec"f"es an en#e-ope that
descr"bes the "ntended traff"c f-o$. Th"s en#e-ope spec"f"es #a-ues for pea;
band$"dth= a#era2e susta"ned band$"dth= and burst s">e.
7 Switc-ed and se%i(er%anent virtua) c-anne) connections G An on7
de3and connect"on= $h"ch re?u"res ca--7contro- s"2na-"n2 for sett"n2 up and
pu-- "t do$n= "s ca--ed a s$"tched ,CC. But a se3"per3anent ,CC "s one that
"s of -on2 durat"on and "t "s set up by net$or; 3ana2e3ent act"on.
7 Ca)) se.uence inte"rit7 $ The se?uence of trans3"tted ce--s $"th"n a ,CC "s
preser#ed.
7 Tra88ic (ara%eter ne"otiation and usa"e %onitorin" $ Traff"c para3eters
can be ne2ot"ated bet$een a user and the net$or; for each ,CC. The "nput of
ce--s to the ,CC "s 3on"tored by the net$or; for each ,CC. Th"s 3on"tor"n2
"s done "ntent"ona--y to ensure that the ne2ot"ated para3eters are not #"o-ated.
!n the 2roup of traf"c para3eters are "nc-uded a#era2e rate= pea; rate= burst"ness
and pea; durat"on. To dea- $"th con2est"on and to 3ana2e e<"st"n2 and re?uested
,CC@s the net$or; can use 3any strate2"es. One of the3 $h"ch "s the $orst one
"s that the ne$ re?uest for ,CCs can s"3p-y be den"ed by the net$or;= so th"s
$ay "t $ou-d pre#ent con2est"on. Then= ce--s 3ay be d"scarded "f ne2ot"ated
para3eters are #"o-ated. Moreo#er= "n an e<tre3e s"tuat"on= e<"st"n2 connect"on
3ay be ter3"nated.
01
Bes"de the 3ent"oned character"st"cs of ,CC a-so e<"st those of ,5C@s. Be ha#e
to po"nt out that the character"st"cs of ,CC@s are a-so part of ,5C@s. And there are
nu3ber of reason for th"s repeat"n2. F"rst of a-- th"s repeat"n2 pro#"des so3e
f-e<"b"-"ty "n ho$ the net$or; ser#"ce 3ana2es the re?u"re3ents p-aced on "t.
Then the net$or; 3ust be concerned $"th the o#era-- re?u"re3ents for a ,5C=
and $"th"n a ,5C 3ay ne2ot"ate the estab-"sh3ent of #"rtua- channe-s (,CC) $"th
2"#en character"st"cs. And f"na--y= once a ,5C "s set up= "t "s poss"b-e for the end
users to ne2ot"ate the creat"on of ne$ ,CCs. &o= here $e ha#e to "ntoduce a ne$
character"st"c that be-on2 to ,5CA
G 0irtua) c-anne) identi8ier restriction wit-in a 01C $ One or 3ore #"rtua-
channe- "dent"f"ers= or nu3bers= 3ay not be a#a"-ab-e to the user of ,5C= but
3ay be reser#ed for net$or; use. E<a3p-es "nc-ude ,CCs used for net$or;
3ana2e3ent.
0irtua) Circuits Connection Uses
The endpo"nts of ,CC 3ay be end users= net$or; ent"t"es= or an end user and a
net$or; ent"ty. And "n a-- cases ce--s are de-"#ered "n the sa3e order "n $h"ch they are
sent. Be-o$ are descr"bed e<a3p-es of three uses of a ,CCA
7 'etween end users & These ,CCs are used to carry end to end user data= but
a-so they carry contro- s"2na-"n2. The end users are pro#"ded $"th an o#era--
capac"ty= fro3 #"rtua- path connect"on= $h"ch -ays bet$een the3. The ,CC
or2an">at"on of the ,5C "s up to the t$o end users= but the set of ,CC@s
shou-dn@t e<ceed the ,5C capac"ty.
7 'etween an end user and a networ9 entit7 $ These ,CCs are used for user7
to7net$or; contro- s"2na-"n2. A user7to7net$or; ,5C can be used to a2re2ate
traff"c fro3 an end user to a net$or; e<chan2e or net$or; ser#er.
7 'etween two networ9 entities $ These ,CCs are used for traf"c 3ana2e3ent
and rout"n2 funct"ons. A net$or;7to7net$or; ,5C are used to def"ne a
co33on route that e<chan2es net$or; 3ana2e3ent "nfor3at"ons.
Contro) si"na)in"
To e<p-a"n the s"2na-"n2 proccess c-ose-y $e@-- descr"be "t throu2h the f"2ure 0.6.
(ere $hen an ATM de#"ce such as router A "n the fu2ure= $ant@s to estab-"sh a
connect"on $"th another ATM de#"ce such router B= A sends a s"2na-"n2 re?uest pac;et to
"ts d"rect-y connected ATM s$"tch. Th"s re?uest conta"ns the ATM address of the des"red
ATM endpo"nt (Router B= "n th"s case)= a-so Io& para3eters re?u"red for the connect"on.
The s"2na-"n2 pac;et "s reasse3b-ed by the s$"tch and e<a3"ned. !f the s$"tch has
a s$"tch tab-e entry for Router BJs ATM address= and "t can acco33odate the Io&
00
re?uested for the connect"on= "t sets up the #"rtua- connect"on on the "nput -"n; and
for$ards the re?uest out the "nterface spec"f"ed "n the s$"tch"n2 tab-e for Router B.
E#ery s$"tch a-on2 the path to the endpo"nt reasse3b-es and e<a3"nes the
s"2na-"n2 pac;et and for$ards "t to the ne<t s$"tch "f the Io& para3eters can be
supported $h"-e sett"n2 up the #"rtua- connect"on as the s"2na-"n2 pac;et "s for$arded. !f
any s$"tch a-on2 the path cannot acco33odate the re?uested Io& para3eters= the
re?uest "s rejected= and a reject"on 3essa2e "s sent bac; to the or"2"nator of the re?uest.
Bhen the s"2na-"n2 pac;et arr"#es at the endpo"nt (Router B)= "t "s reasse3b-ed and
e#a-uated. !f the endpo"nt can support the des"red Io&= "t responds $"th an accept
3essa2e. As the accept 3essa2e propa2ates bac; to the or"2"nator of the re?uest= the
s$"tches set up a #"rtua- c"rcu"t. The or"2"nator of the re?uest then rece"#es the accept
3essa2e.
Fi"ure #.: $ Contro) si"na)in" (roccess
Be sa"d that the e<chan2e of "nfor3at"on "n#o-#ed "n the proccess of estab-"sh3ents and
re-eases of ,5Cs and ,CCs= "s refered to as contro- s"2na-"n2. &o= for ,CCs four
3ethods are spec"f"ed for pro#"d"n2 an estab-"sh3ent/re-ease fac"-"ty A
0. Se%i(er%anent 0CCs= that are used for user7to7user e<chan2e= and here
no contro- s"2na-"n2 "s re?u"red.
9. Metasi"na)in" c-anne); $h"ch "s a per3anent channe- that "s used for
sett"n2 up s"2na-"n2 channe-s. The per3anent channe-= probab-y of -o$
data rate= "s used to set up ,CCs that can be used for ca-- contro-. Th"s
channe- "s estab-"shed on-y for contro- s"2na-"n2 e<chan2e $h"ch $ou-d
ta;e p-ace bet$een the user and the net$or;.
. User&to&networ9 si"na)in" virtua) c-anne); $h"ch can be used for
sett"n2 up ,CCs to carry user data.
%. User&to&user si"na)in" virtua) c-anne); that 3ust be set up $"th"n a
preestab-"shed ,5C. Than; to th"s= -ater the t$o end users can estab-"sh
end re-ease user7to7user ,CCs $"thout net$or; "nter#ent"on.
09
Bes"de ,CCs= there are three 3ethods def"ned for the ,5CsA
0. Estab-"sh3ent on se%i(er%anent bas"s by pr"or a2ree3ent= $here no
contro- s"2na-"n2 "s re?u"red.
9. Costu%er contro))ed estab-"sh3ent/re-ease= $here the custo3er uses
a s"2na-"n2 ,CC to re?uest the ,5C fro3 the net$or;.
. Networ9 contro))ed estab-"sh3ent/re-ease= $here the net$or;
estab-"shes a ,5C for "ts o$n con#en"ence. The path 3ay be net$or;7
to7net$or;= user7to7net$or;= user7to7user.
ATM CELLS
ATM transfers "nfor3at"on "n f"<ed7s">e un"ts ca--ed cells. Ce-- s">e ne#er
#ar"es= and ce--s $"th the sa3e source= dest"nat"on and c-ass of ser#"ce para3eters
a-$ays fo--o$ the sa3e path= as -on2 as that path 3eets perfor3ance cr"ter"a. Each ce--
cons"sts of + octets= or bytes (6 b"ts per byte). The f"rst + bytes conta"n ce--7header
"nfor3at"on= and the re3a"n"n2 %6 conta"n the pay-oad (user "nfor3at"on). &3a--=
f"<ed7-en2th ce--s are $e-- su"ted to transferr"n2 #o"ce and #"deo traff"c because such
traff"c "s "nto-erant of de-ays that resu-t fro3 ha#"n2 to $a"t for a -ar2e data pac;et to
do$n-oad= a3on2 other th"n2s. The "nfor3at"on f"e-d of ATM ce--s "s carr"ed
transparent-y throu2h the net$or;. No process"n2 -";e error contro- "s perfor3ed on "t
"ns"de the net$or;. These $ere so3e ad#anta2es of s3a-- s">ed ce--s= and to add 3ore
$e can say that= because they are f"<ed7s">e ce--s= they can be s$"tched 3ore
eff"c"ent-y= $h"ch "s "3portant for the #ery h"2h data rates of ATM. (ence "t "s eas"er
to "3p-e3ent the s$"tch"n2 3echan"s3 "n hard$are. An ATM Ce-- -oo;s -";e "n the
f"2ure 0.8
Fi"ure #.< $ ATM Ce)) 8or%at
0
Header For%at
An ATM ce-- header can be one of t$o for3atsA )N! or NN!. The )N!= )ser7Net$or;
!nterface header for3at "s def"ned by the )N! spec"f"cat"on= and the Net$or;7Net$or;
!nterface (NN!) header for3at "s def"ned by the NN! spec"f"cat"on. The )N! header "s
used for co33un"cat"on bet$een ATM endpo"nts and ATM s$"tches "n pr"#ate ATM
net$or;s= $h"-e the NN! header "s used for co33un"cat"on bet$een ATM s$"tches.
Fi"ure #.#= & An ATM Ce)); ATM UNI Ce)); and ATM NNI Ce)) Header
The )N! header cons"sts of the fo--o$"n2 f"e-ds (see f"2ure 0.01) A
• >FC 7 % b"ts of eneric flo! control are used to pro#"de -oca- funct"ons= such as
"dent"fy"n2 3u-t"p-e stat"ons that share a s"n2-e ATM "nterface. The :FC f"e-d "s
typ"ca--y not used and "s set to a defau-t #a-ue.
• 01I 7 6 b"ts of "irtual #ath identifier= are used= "n conjunct"on $"th the ,C!= to
"dent"fy the ne<t dest"nat"on of a ce-- as "t passes throu2h a ser"es of ATM
s$"tches on "ts $ay to "ts dest"nat"on.
• 0CI 7 04 b"ts of "irtual channel identifier= are used= "n conjunct"on $"th the ,5!=
to "dent"fy the ne<t dest"nat"on of a ce-- as "t passes throu2h a ser"es of ATM
s$"tches on "ts $ay to "ts dest"nat"on= or s"3p-y "t "s used for rout"n2 to and fro3
the end user. Thus= "t funct"ons 3uch as a ser#"ce access po"nt.
• 1T 7 b"ts of #ayload ty#e G "nd"cates the type of "nfor3at"on "n the "nfor3at"on
f"e-d. (ere the f"rst b"t "nd"cates $hether the ce-- conta"ns user data or contro-
data. !f the ce-- conta"ns user data= the second b"t "nd"cates con2est"on= and the
0%
th"rd b"t "nd"cates $hether the ce-- "s the -ast "n a ser"es of ce--s that represent a
s"n2-e AAL+ fra3e.
• C?1 7 0 b"t of cell loss #riority= $h"ch "nd"cates $hether the ce-- shou-d be
d"scarded "f "t encounters e<tre3e con2est"on as "t 3o#es throu2h the net$or;.
(ere a #a-ue of 1 "nd"cates a ce-- of re-at"#e-y h"2her pr"or"ty= $h"ch shou-d not be
d"scarded un-ess no other a-ternat"#e "s a#a"-ab-e. A #a-ue of 0 "nd"cates that the
ce-- "s subject to d"scard $"th"n the net$or;
• HEC 7 6 b"ts of header error control= $h"ch "s a chec;su3 ca-cu-ated on-y on the
header "tse-f.
)n-";e the )N!= the NN! header does not "nc-ude the :ener"c F-o$ Contro- (:FC) f"e-d.
Add"t"ona--y= the NN! header has a ,"rtua- 5ath !dent"f"er (,5!) f"e-d that occup"es the
f"rst 09 b"ts= a--o$"n2 for -ar2er trun;s bet$een pub-"c ATM s$"tches. A-so th"s a--o$s
support for an e<panded nu3ber of ,5Cs "nterna- to the net$or;= to "nc-ude those
support"n2 subscr"bers.
Header Error Contro)
L";e $e 3ent"oned ear-"er= header error contro- ((EC) "s an 67b"t f"e-d "n e#ery
ATM ce--= so the po-yno3"a- used to 2enerate the code "s <
#
K <
$
K<K0.
!n 3ost e<"st"n2 protoco-s that "nc-ude an error contro- f"e-d= such as (*LC and LA5B=
the data that ser#e as "nput to the error code ca-cu-at"on= are 3uch -on2er than the s">e of
the resu-t"n2 error code. Th"s a--o$s for error detect"on. End "n the case of ATM= the code
has on-y 6 b"ts co3pared $"th 9 b"ts. Because the "nput "s #ery short= the code can be
used not on-y for error detect"on but a-so for error correct"on.
!n the f"2ure be-o$ $e are 2o"n2 to descr"be the (EC a-2or"th3 at the rece"#er.
Correction
mo%e
-etection
mo%e
No error %etecte%
.no action/
0ingle1bit error %etecte%
.correction/
*ultibit error %etecte%
.cell %iscar%e%/
No error %etecte%
.no action/
&rror %etecte%
.cell %iscar%e%/
Fi"ure #.## $ Header Error Contro) a)"orit-%
At the be2"nn"n2 the rece"#er@s error correct"on a-2or"th3 "s "n the defau-t 3ode
for s"n2-e b"t error correct"on. Then as each ce-- "s rece"#ed= there are done so3e
ca-cu-at"ons and co3par"sons. !f there are no errors detected= the rece"#er $"-- re3a"n "n
0+
the error correct"on 3ode. Other$"se $hen an error $"-- be detected= the rece"#er $"--
correct "t= "f "t "s a s"n2-e b"t= or $ou-d detect that a 3u-t"b"t error has occurred. !n both
cases the rece"#er 3o#es to the detect"on 3ode. !n th"s 3ode= no atte3pt "s 3ade to
correct errors. And the reason "s that a no"se burst or other e#ent 3"2ht cause a se?uence
of errors= for $h"ch cond"t"on a (EC "s "nsuff"c"ent for error correct"on. Th"s $ay the
rece"#er $"-- stay "n the detect"on 3ode as -on2 as errored ce--s are rece"#ed. After the
e<a3"nat"on of the header= "f there are no error found the rece"#er s$"tches bac; to
correct"on 3ode. The conse?uences of errors "n the ce-- header= are sho$n "n the
f-o$chart be-o$= fro3 $here $e see that the error "s corrected or "f not the ce-- "s
destroyed.
&rror in
hea%er "
&rror
%etecte% "
Current
mo%e "
&rror %e1
termine% to be
incorrectable
Correction
attemt
Vali% cell
.inten%e% ser$ice/
2pparentl# $ali% cell
'ith errore% hea%er
.uninten%e% ser$ice/
-iscar%e% cell
3ncoming
cell
No ,es
,es No
Correction
mo%e
-etection
mo%e
No
,es
0uccessful Unsuccessful
Fi"ure #.#* $ Conse.uences o8 error in ce)) -eader
II. THE ATM REFERENCE MODE?
04
The ATM arch"tecture= $h"ch $as descr"bed part-y unt"- no$ uses a -o2"ca- 3ode- for
descr"b"n2 the $ay of $or; that "t supports. ATM "s a -ayered arch"tecture a--o$"n2
3u-t"p-e ser#"ces= such asA #o"ce= data= and #"deo= to be carr"ed o#er the net$or;. The
funct"ona-"ty of ATM corresponds to the phys"ca- -ayer and "n part to the data -"n; -ayer
of the O&! 3ode-.
The ATM reference 3ode- has se#era- -ayers $h"ch $"-- be d"scussedE a-- th"s -ayers
ha#e a co33on p-an and or2an">at"on cons"st"n2 ofA
7 Contro) (respons"b-e for 2enerat"n2 and 3ana2"n2 s"2na-"n2 re?uests=
3ana2es ca--/connect"on contro- funct"ons))
7 $ser ( respons"b-e for 3ana2"n2 user data transfer)
7 Manaement ( 9 co3ponentsA
• layer manaement= $h"ch 3ana2es -ayer spec"f"c funct"ons= as for
e<a3p-e detect"on of errors and protoco- prob-e3s
• #lane manaement= $h"ch 3ana2es the funct"ons that ha#e to do $"th the
$ho-e syste3 and pro#"des coord"nat"on bet$een #ar"ous -ayers
Further3ore= the ATM reference 3ode- has t$o for3sA
7 a for3 for the user7to net$or; "nterface ()N!)
7 a for3 for the net$or;7to7node "nterface (NN!)
Co3"n2 to the 3ost "3portant part of descr"b"n2 th"s reference 3ode- $e $"-- say
that the ATM Reference Mode- cons"sts of three -e#e-s (be-o$ $e $"-- 2"#e a deta"-ed
descr"pt"on of the3)= they areA
• The %hysical Layer (3ana2es the 3ed"u37dependent trans3"ss"onE
def"nes a transport 3ethod for ATM ce--s bet$een t$o ATM ent"t"es)
• The ATM Layer (respons"b-e for the s"3u-taneous shar"n2 of #"rtua-
c"rcu"ts o#er a phys"ca- -"n; and pass"n2 ce--s throu2h the ATM net$or;)
• The ATM Ada#tation Layer (respons"b-e for "so-at"n2 h"2her7-ayer
protoco-s fro3 the deta"-s of the ATM processesE "t prepares user data for
con#ers"on "nto ce--s and se23ents the data "nto %67byte ce-- pay-oads)
Abo#e these 3a"n -e#e-s= the ATM reference 3ode- has a-so so3e h"2her -ayers of
funct"ona-"ty but these three are the 3a"n -ayers that perform the main %ob.
0.
Fi"ure *&#@ ATM Re8erence Mode)
Lets us turn no$ to a deta"-ed descr"pt"on and e<p-anat"on of the three 3a"n -ayers of
the ATM Reference Mode-.


%&'S(CAL LA'E)
The ATM 3ode- $as des"2ned to 3a;e the phys"ca- data transport funct"on as
"ndependent as poss"b-e fro3 the ATM s$"tch"n2 funct"on and other th"n2s that are
perfor3ed abo#e the ATM Layer.
The phys"ca- -ayer dea-s $"th "ssues re-ated to the 3ed"a and the s"2na-s carr"ed to the
3ed"a. !n other $ords= the phys"ca- -ayer 3ana2es the 3ed"u37dependent trans3"ss"on.
Th"s -ayer "s ana-o2ous to the phys"ca- -ayer of the O&! reference 3ode- and perfor3s b"t
-e#e- funct"ons. The ATM reference 3ode- has four 3a"n funct"ons= those areA con#ert"n2
the ce--s "nto a b"tstrea3= contro- of the trans3"ss"on and rece"pt of b"ts on the phys"ca-
3ed"u3= trac;"n2 the ATM ce-- boundar"es and pac;"n2 the ce--s "nto types $h"ch $"-- be
appropr"ate for the phys"ca- 3ed"u3.
!n add"t"on= the phys"ca- -ayer "s d"#"ded "nto t$o sub7-ayersA the 1-7sica) Mediu%&
De(endent sub&)a7er1MD! and t-e Trans%ission conver"ence TC! sub7-ayer.
T-e 1MD sub&)a7er
!t has t$o funct"ons. The bas"c funct"on of "t "s to ta;e a strea3 of b"ts and
transport "t transparent-y across a -"n;. !t 3a;es synchron">at"on of the trans3"ss"on and
recept"on by send"n2 and rece"#"n2 a cont"nuous f-o$ of b"ts ($"th t"3"n2 "nfor3at"on
assoc"ated). Actua--y= the 5M* sub7-ayer $or;s $"th strea3 of ytes and not $"th strea3
of b"ts= because 3ost of the 5M*s do the encod"n2 on a byte or ha-f7byte bas"s. !ts
second funct"on "s to def"ne the phys"ca- 3ed"a "nc-ud"n2 here the types of connectors and
cab-es. Most 5M*s use b-oc; cod"n2 "n any for3. A b-oc; code 2roups data b"ts "nto
Cb-oc;sD and trans-ates each b-oc; "nto another b"t pattern before trans3"ss"on on the -"ne.
B-oc;7coded protoco-s e"ther code %7b"t 2roups "nto +7b"t 2roups or 67b"t 2roups "nto 017
b"t 2roups. &o= $e can say that the 5M* sub7-ayer "s respons"b-e for the correct
trans3"ss"on and recept"on of b"ts on the phys"ca- 3ed"u3.
&o= $e can say that the 5M*s bas"c $or; "n the ATM reference 3ode- "s pro#"d"n2 the
transce"#er ser#"ces to phys"ca--y trans3"t the ATM ce--s and con#er2ence "nfor3at"on
bet$een t$o adjacent ATM stat"ons.
The 5M* "s concerned on-y $"th the phys"ca-= 3ed"u37dependent funct"ons and
spec"f"cat"ons= such asA
7 -"ne cod"n2= b"t a-"2n3ent and e-ectr"ca-7opt"ca- con#ers"on G these funct"ons
re-ate to the processes throu2h $h"ch b"ts are encoded "nto appropr"ate
e-ectr"ca- or opt"ca- s"2na-s and prepared for propa2at"on throu2h the net$or;
06
7 phys"ca- 3ed"a character"st"cs7 the 5M* sub-ayer spec"f"es the character"st"cs
of the phys"ca- transport 3ed"u3= such as the type of opt"ca- f"ber= the
trans3"tter/rece"#er $a#e-en2th= the rece"#ers sens"t"#"ty and po$er
para3eters
T-e TC sub&)a7er
The TC sub7-ayer on the other hand has four funct"ons. Those areA ce-- de-"neat"on= header
error contro- ((EC)Gthe 2enerat"on and #er"f"cat"on of se?uence of ce--s= ce--7rate
decoup-"n2 and trans3"ss"on fra3e adaptat"on.
The ce-- de-"neat"on has to do $"th Cdef"n"n2D the ce-- boundar"es and 3a"nta"n"n2 the3=
"t a--o$s the de#"ces to -ocate ce--s "n a strea3 of b"ts. B"th th"s funct"on "t "s def"ned
$here "n the data strea3 does a ce-- start and f"n"sh. The Cf"nd"n2D or Cdef"n"n2D of the
boundar"es can be done bas"ca--y "n three $aysA
7 the trans3"ss"on -e#e- cod"n2 can "nc-ude a de-"3"ter funct"on that 3ar;s the
be2"nn"n2 and the end of the ce--sE
7 3any trans3"ss"on syste3s 3ay $or; $"th fra3"n2E the fra3"n2 syste3
-ocates the ce-- boundar"es (for e<a3p-e= th"s can be done $"th a po"nter
$"th"n the fra3e o#erhead sect"onE another $ay "s p-ac"n2 the ce--s at f"<ed
-ocat"ons $"th"n a fra3e(th"s cou-d cause -oss of eff"c"ency "f for e<a3p-e the
ce--s do not f"t e<act-y as they shou-d "n a fra3e
7 the ce-- (EC cou-d be used a-so for -ocat"n2 the ce-- boundary= th"s "s actua--y
the 3ost co33on (and the 3ost used) $ay of ce-- de-"neat"onE "f a correct
(EC "s reco2n">ed for a nu3ber of consecut"#e ce--s "t "s assu3ed that the
correct ce-- boundary "s foundE $hen the ce-- de-"neat"on has been found a
3echan"s3 "s used for us"n2 the (EC for correct"on or detect"on of ce--
header errors= after th"s the "so-ated s"n2-e b"t errors are corrected.
(EC se?uence 2enerat"on and #er"f"cat"on 2enerates and chec;s the header error contro-
code $"th the purpose of ensur"n2 $hether the data "s #a-"d or not. The (EC "s capab-e of
s"n2-e7b"t error correct"on or doub-e7b"t error detect"on.. The (EC se?uence 2enerat"on "s
done "n the d"rect"on of trans3"ss"on and "ts #a-ue "s reca-cu-ated and co3pared $"th the
#a-ue that "s rece"#ed. !f the header errors can not be corrected= the ce-- $"-- be d"scarded.
Ce--7rate decoup-"n2 ;eeps the ce--s synchron">ed and pro#"des the "d-e ce--s to adapt the
rate of #a-"d ce--s to the pay-oad capac"ty of the trans3"ss"on syste3. ATM 5M*s send a
constant strea3 of ce--s $"thout any 2aps (or ho-es). Bhen there are no ce--s to send an
e3pty ce-- "s sent. Th"s e3pty ce-- "s "nserted on the trans3"ss"on s"de and then "t "s
re3o#ed on the rece"#er s"de. (o$e#er= today th"s "s done "n another $ay. The ATM
-ayer has to de-"#er a strea3 of ce--s at the correct rate= such that the con#er2ence -ayer
$ou-d not ha#e to "nsert any ce--s.
B"th the -ast funct"on= trans3"ss"on fra3e adaptat"on= th"s sub7-ayer pac;s ATM
ce--s "nto the type of fra3es $h"ch $"-- be con#en"ent for the e<"stent "3p-e3entat"on of
the phys"ca- -ayer. &o= "n one $ord= the trans3"ss"on con#er2ence sub7-ayer "s respons"b-e
for 3app"n2 of the ATM ce--s to the syste3 that "s used for trans3"ss"on.
08
Typ"ca- poss"b-e trans3"ss"on syste3s at the phys"ca- -ayer are the synchronous d"2"ta-
h"erarchy (&*() or the F**! standards. The f"rst tas; of any trans3"ss"on syste3 "s to
2et t"3"n2 at the b"t -e#e- = $h"ch "s ate the -o$est phys"ca- -e#e-= and th"s "s ach"e#ed by
the phys"ca- 3ed"u3 sub7-ayer. Bhen the b"ts are a#a"-ab-e at the ne<t sub7-ayer "t "s then
poss"b-e to f"rst con#ert the b"ts to the fra3es of the trans3"ss"on syste3 that "s used= and
then con#ert the fra3es to the actua- ce--s. Th"s process can be seen on F"2ure 979 be-o$.
Fi"ure *&*@ Ce))s to Fra%e Conversion at t-e 1-7sica) ?a7er
The trans3"ss"on con#er2ence sub7-ayer "s standard">ed for to perfor3 the 2enerat"on
and e<tract"on of the fra3es at the spec"f"ed rates fro3 the &*( and f"nd"n2 the ATM
ce--s by -oo;"n2 fro3 the (EC on the ce-- header and then chec;"n2 the error correct"on
code. After the ce--s are found and chec;ed they are decoup-ed fro3 the trans3"ss"on rate
of the 3ed"u3E th"s process "s done by the "nsert"on and de-et"on of the "d-e ce--s "n the
strea3 (F"2ure 979). After th"s "s done the ce--s are then a#a"-ab-e to the ATM -ayer.
The phys"ca- -ayer can transfer ATM ce--s fro3 one user to another "n t$o $ays. At
the user7net$or; "nterface ()N!)= ATM ce--s 3ay be carr"ed "n an e<terna--y fra3ed
synchronous trans3"ss"on structure or "n a ce--7based asynchronous trans3"ss"on
structure. !n North A3er"ca= for e<a3p-e= &ONET= a synchronous trans3"ss"on structure=
"s often used for fra3"n2 and synchron">at"on at the phys"ca- -ayer. The bas"c t"3e un"t of
a &ONET fra3e "s 09+ 3"croseconds .
Let us no$ e<p-a"n #ery br"ef-y the $ay of $or;"n2 of the t$o sub7-ayers of ATMs
phys"ca- -ayerA
• ce--s are de-"#ered to the trans3"ss"on con#er2ence -ayer by the ATM -ayer
• the TC sub7-ayer ;no$s about the ce--s and about the structure of the
trans3"ss"on 3ed"u3
• the TCsub7-ayer 2enerates the (EC and puts "t "n the ce--E then the ce-- "s put
"nto the output strea3 of the TC sub7-ayer $h"ch than "s be"n2 fed to the
5hys"ca- Med"u3 *ependent (5M*) sub7-ayer
• the 5M* sub7-ayer ;no$s about the strea3= "f "t "s a strea3 of b"ts or a strea3
of bytes
• the 5M* perfor3s cod"n2= t"3"n2 and trans3"ss"on funct"ons
A-- th"s phys"ca- protoco-s and "nterfaces ha#e three th"n2s "n co33on
(character"st"cs)A
91
• They are #oint-to-#oint 7They connect an ATM endpo"nt $"th an ATM s$"tch
or they connect t$o ATM s$"tches to2ether. There "s no 3u-t"po"nt or LAN
type connect"on def"nedE
• They are full-du#le* in o#eration (F+,).Th"s 3eans that data "s transferred
s"3u-taneous-y "n both d"rect"ons
• The #hysical lin- band!idth can be asymmetric. Th"s 3eans that a h"2her data
rate 3ay be poss"b-e "n one of the d"rect"ons.
A-- "n a-- $e can def"ne the ATM phys"ca- -ayer as fo--o$sA "t "s the -ayer that
def"nes the b"t t"3"n2 and other character"st"cs for encod"n2 and decod"n2 the data "nto
su"tab-e (preferab-e) e-ectr"ca-/opt"ca- $a#efor3s for trans3"ss"on and recept"on on the
spec"f"c phys"ca- 3ed"a used "t a-so ;eeps trac; of ATM ce-- boundar"es and pac;a2es
ce--s "nto the appropr"ate type of fra3e for the phys"ca- 3ed"u3 be"n2 used. The ATM
phys"ca- -ayer def"nes e-ectr"ca- character"st"cs and net$or; "nterfaces.
E<a3p-es of fe$ 3ed"a that are used "n the phys"ca- -ayer areA &ONET
(&ynchronous Opt"ca- Net$or;)= *&= 011Mbps -oca- f"ber (F"ber *"str"buted *ata
!nterface (F**!)phys"ca- -ayer)= 0++Mbps -oca- f"ber (F"ber Channe- phys"ca- -ayer)=
t$"sted7pa"r etc. Th"s e<a3p-es ta-; about the fact that one of the stren2ths of the
Asynchronous Transfer Mode standards are the ab"-"ty to conf"2ure net$or;s that operate
o#er a #ar"ety of phys"ca- "nterfaces. *epend"n2 on the type of "nterface= add"t"ona-
channe- 3ana2e3ent ser#"ces are a-so often "nc-udedE strate2"es for fra3"n2 the ATM
ce--s "nc-ude synchronous fra3"n2 t"ed to the -o$er -e#e- channe- synchron">at"on
protoco-s (&ONET= *&= 0++Mbps) or based asynchronous -"ne cod"n2 sche3es ( e<. The
use of F**! fra3"n2 "n the 011Mbps f"ber "nterface).
To su3 up here for the phys"ca- -ayer $e can say that the ATM phys"ca- -ayer
def"nes ho$ ce--s are 3apped onto a phys"ca- 3ed"u3 for trans3"tt"n2 and rece"#"n2
bet$een ATM hard$are de#"ces.
T&E ATM LA'E)
The ATM -ayer= to2ether $"th the ATM adaptat"on -ayer can be sa"d to be
ana-o2ous to the data -"n; -ayer of the O&! reference 3ode-.
The ATM -ayer represents the phys"ca- "nterface bet$een the ATM Adaptat"on -ayer and
the ATM 5hys"ca- -ayer. Thus= the ATM -ayer "s respons"b-e for re-ay"n2 ce--s fro3 the
AAL to the 5hys"ca- -ayer for trans3"ss"on= and "n oppos"te d"rect"on fro3 the 5hys"ca-
-ayer to the AAL for use "n an endpo"nt.
!f $e $ant to def"ne the ATM Layer "n one s"3p-e sentence $e $ou-d say that the
ATM Layer def"nes ho$ t$o nodes trans3"t "nfor3at"on bet$een the3. !t "s a un"?ue
-ayer that carr"es d"fferent classes of services $"th"n a +7byte ce--. Ma"n-y= "t ta;es the
data to be sent and adds the +7byte header "nfor3at"on. Actua--y $hen transport"n2 ce--s
to the 5hys"ca- -ayer= the ATM -ayer "s respons"b-e for 2enerat"n2 the f"#e7b"t ce-- header
for each ce--E $hen rece"#"n2 ce--s fro3 the 5hys"ca- -ayer= the ATM -ayer perfor3s a
re#erse operat"on= "t e<tracts the f"#e7b"t header fro3 the ce--.
90
The actua- 3anner by $h"ch the ATM -ayer perfor3s "ts re-ay"n2 funct"on "s depends
on the -ocat"on of the -ayer= "f "t "s -ocated "n an endpo"nt or at a s$"tch. !f "t "s -ocated at
an endpo"nt "t rece"#es a strea3 of ce--s fro3 the 5hys"ca- -ayer and trans3"ts e"ther ce--s
$"th ne$ data or e3pty ce--s "f there "s no data to send to the AAL. !f "t "s -ocated "n a
s$"tch= the ATM -ayer "s respons"b-e for deter3"n"n2 $here the "nco3"n2 ce--s are routed
and a-so for 3u-t"p-e<"n2 the ce--s by p-ac"n2 the3 fro3 "nd"#"dua- connect"ons "nto a
s"n2-e7ce-- strea3.
The ATM -ayer "s "ndependent of the phys"ca- 3ed"u3 throu2h $h"ch trans3"ss"on "s
perfor3ed. !t "s concerned $"th the for3at and s">e of the ce--s and the contents of the
headers. !n a 3ore spec"f"c $ay of def"n"n2 th"s -ayer $e $ou-d say thatA the ATM -ayer
perfor3s the core funct"ons of the ATM protoco-= $h"ch areA 3u-t"p-e<"n2= ,5!/,C!
trans-at"on= pay-oad e<tract"on= header process"n2 and 2ener"c f-o$ contro-.
The ATM -ayer has the respons"b"-"ty of s"3u-taneous shar"n2 of #"rtua- c"rcu"ts o#er a
phys"ca- -"n; Gth"s "s the process ca--ed cell multiplexing G and pass"n2 ce--s throu2h the
ATM net$or; G ca--ed cell relay. For perfor3"n2 th"s funct"ons that $ere descr"bed = the
-ayer uses the ,5! and ,C! "nfor3at"on "n the header of each ATM ce--.
The funct"ona-"ty of the ATM -ayer "s def"ned by the f"e-ds present "n the ATM ce--
header. The ce-- header conta"ns a 2ener"c f-o$ contro- (:FC) f"e-d= the ,C!/,5! f"e-ds= a
pay-oad type "nd"cator (5T!) f"e-d= a ce-- -oss pr"or"ty (CL5) f"e-d= and a header chec;su3
f"e-d.
Fi"ure *&+@ ATM )a7er data -and)in" (rocesses
!n f"2ure 97 $e can see ho$ ATM -ayer actua--y $or;sA the ATM -ayer accepts the
%67byte &AR75*)s fro3 the se23entat"on and reasse3b-y (&AR) sub-ayer of the AAL=
bu"-ds a +7byte header for each &AR75*)= and produces +7byte ATM ce--s for de-"#ery
to the phys"ca- -ayer for transport to an ATM dest"nat"on endpo"nt.
Let us 3a;e a c-ear d"st"nct"on of the four funct"ons of th"s -ayerA
• :ener"c F-o$ Contro- funct"on (:FC)7L"t can be used for ta;"n2 care of
the o#er-oad cond"t"ons abo#e the ATM -ayer E
• Ce-- header 2enerat"on and e<tract"on7L"t "s used for "nsert"n2 header
"nfor3at"on at the trans3"tter end ("n the rece"#ed ce-- fro3 the upper
-ayer) and re3o#"n2 "t at the rece"#"n2 endE
• Ce-- 3u-t"p-e< and de3u-t"p-e<7L"t "s used for 3u-t"p-e<"n2 the ce--s "nto
one cont"nuous strea3 at the trans3"tter end= and de3u-t"p-e<"n2 the ce--s
99
at the header accord"n2 to ,5! (,"rtua- 5ath !dent"f"er) and ,C! (,"rtua-
Channe- !dent"f"er) #a-uesE
• ,5! and ,C! trans-at"on= $h"ch "s perfor3ed at the ATM s$"tch"n2 and/or
cross7connect nodes.
!t "s $orth to note here that the funct"ons perfor3ed by the ATM -ayer are des"2ned to
be carr"ed out "n hard$are at #ery h"2h data rates. Bhether th"s can be ach"e#ed $"th
todayJs e-ectron"cs at reasonab-e cost and h"2h re-"ab"-"ty "s yet to be deter3"ned.
At -ast= $e can conc-ude that ATM -ayer of the ATM reference 3ode- "s respons"b-e
for estab-"sh"n2 connect"ons and pass"n2 ce--s throu2h the $ho-e ATM net$or;= and for
do"n2 th"s "t uses a-- the "nfor3at"on that "s conta"ned "n the header of each ATM ce--.
The ATM -ayer "s the -ayer that descr"bes ho$ ce--s are transported throu2h the net$or;
and ho$ ?ua-"ty of ser#"ce "s enforced= so that connect"ons operate $"th"n the"r contracted
ser#"ce -e#e-s. The ATM -ayer "s the core -ayer of the standard and th"s "s the -ayer that
routes the ce--s across the net$or; and 3u-t"p-e<es and de3u-t"p-e<es the ce--s to2ether
fro3 3any #"rtua- paths on to one phys"ca- carr"er.
ATM A+A%TAT(./ LA'E)
As $e d"scussed ear-"er the phys"ca- -ayer and ATM -ayer of the ATM reference
3ode- pro#"de se?uent"a- transfer of f"<ed7s">ed data un"ts across a net$or;. The ATM
Adaptat"on Layer (AAL) adapts that transfer process to perfor3 the upper -ayer ser#"ces
re?u"red by d"fferent users.
The ATM adaptat"on -ayer -"es bet$een the ATM -ayer and the h"2her -ayers $h"ch use
the ATM ser#"ce. !ts 3a"n purpose "s to reso-#e any d"spar"ty bet$een a ser#"ce re?u"red
by the user and ser#"ces a#a"-ab-e at the ATM -ayer.
The ATM Adaptat"on Layer (AAL) perfor3s the process of adapt"n2 the traff"c
2enerated by d"fferent app-"cat"ons to the ATM protoco-. !n co3b"nat"on $"th the ATM
-ayer (as sa"d beforeM) "t "s ana-o2ous to the data -"n; -ayer of the O&! reference 3ode-.
The adaptat"on -ayer reso-#es any d"spar"ty bet$een ser#"ces pro#"ded by the ce--7based
techno-o2y of the ATM -ayer to the b"t7strea3 techno-o2y of d"2"ta- ser#"ces (such as
te-ephones and #"deo ca3eras) and the pac;et7strea3 techno-o2y of trad"t"ona- data
net$or;s (such as Fra3e re-ay and F.9+ used "n BANs and LAN protoco-s such as
Ethernet and TC5/!5).
&o= the 3a"n purpose of the ATM adaptat"on -ayer (AAL) "s to pro#"de a -"n; bet$een
ser#"ces that are re?uested by the h"2her net$or; -ayers and the ATM ce--s $h"ch are
used by the ATM -ayer. !t "s respons"b-e for "so-at"n2 h"2her7-ayer protoco-s fro3 the
deta"-s of the ATM processes.
The AAL 3a;es the trans-at"on bet$een the -ar2est ser#"ce data un"ts ( &*)s= e<.
,"deo strea3s= data pac;ets) of processes of the h"2her -ayers and ATM ce--s. !n other
$ords= the AAL rece"#es pac;ets fro3 the h"2her7-e#e-s and brea;s the3 "nto se23ents
of %67bytes that for3 the pay-oad f"e-d (usefu- data) of an ATM ce--.
The ATM adaptat"on -ayer conta"ns t$o sub7-ayers
9
Con"erence sub-layer - th"s part of the adaptat"on -ayer puts a header and a tra"-er
$h"ch conta"n "nfor3at"on about the ser#"ces re?u"red and the ser#"ces to be perfor3ed=
the "nfor3at"on on the header and on the tra"-er depends on the c-ass of "nfor3at"on that
"s 2o"n2 to be transported and usua--y conta"ns error hand-"n2 "nfor3at"on and
"nfor3at"on about preser#"n2 the pr"or"ty of the data
Sementation and reassembly sub-layer - &e23entat"on and reasse3b-y refers to the
process that "s used for fra23ent"n2 and reasse3b-"n2 pac;ets so to a--o$ the3 to be
transported across ATM net$or;s. Because of the reason that the ATM pay-oad "s on-y
%6 bytes= near-y e#ery pac;et fro3 any other protoco- has to be processed "n th"s $ay.
Thus= "t "s an essent"a- process for e#ery ATM node.
Th"s -ayer "s the -o$est of the t$o sub-ayers ( Con#er2ence sub-ayer and &AR ) that
3a;e up the ATM Adaptat"on -ayer as "s sho$n "n the f"2ure be--o$A
5&&&&&& 5A&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&A
5 5 A Co%%on 1art Conver"ence Sub)a7er A
5 CS A&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&A
AA? B AService S(eci8ic Conver"ence Sub)a7erA
B BA&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&A
B SAR A Se"%entation C Reasse%b)7 Sub)a7er A
B&&&&&&&&A&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&A
A ATM )a7er A
A&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&A
Fi"ure *&/@ T-e AA?
7 th"s part of the ATM adaptat"on -ayer rece"#es the data un"t fro3 the con#er2ence
sub7-ayer and d"#"des "t to un"ts $h"ch than "t can p-ace the3 "nto the ATM ce--sE to each
p"ece "t a-so adds a header $h"ch "s used as a he-p"n2 too- for reasse3b-"n2 the p"eces at
the dest"nat"on.
The "nfor3at"on transported by the ATM adaptat"on -ayer "s d"#"ded "nto fe$ c-asses
accord"n2 to the fo--o$"n2 propert"esA
7 the "nfor3at"on that "s transported cou-d be t"3e dependent or t"3e
"ndependent
7 the b"t rate cou-d be #ar"ab-e or constant
7 the "nfor3at"on transfer cou-d ha#e t$o 3odesA connect"on and connect"on-ess
There are % ser#"ce c-asses def"ned= those areA
0. C-ass A 7 a t"3e re-at"on e<"sts bet$een the source and the dest"nat"on= the b"t
rate "s constant= and the ser#"ce "s connect"on7or"ented (e.2.= a #o"ce channe-).
9. C-ass B 7 a t"3e re-at"on e<"sts bet$een the source and the dest"nat"on= the b"t
9%
rate "s #ar"ab-e= and the ser#"ce "s connect"on7or"ented (e.2.= a #"deo or aud"o
channe-).
. C-ass C 7 no t"3e re-at"on e<"sts bet$een the source and the dest"nat"on= the b"t
rate "s #ar"ab-e= and the ser#"ce "s connect"on7or"ented (e.2.= a connect"on7or"ented
f"-e transfer).
%. C-ass * 7 no t"3e re-at"on e<"sts bet$een the source and the dest"nat"on= the b"t
rate "s #ar"ab-e= and the ser#"ce "s connect"on-ess (e.2.= LAN "nterconnect"on and
e-ectron"c 3a"-).
There are fe$ ATM adaptat"on -ayer ser#"ces $h"ch are current-y spec"f"ed. The
!nternat"ona- Te-eco33un"cat"on )n"on (!T)) f"rst deter3"ned the need to pro#"de
se#era- standard AALs (c-asses of ser#"ce) to sat"sfy the re?u"re3ents of encapsu-at"n2
d"fferent "nfor3at"on types "nto ATM -ayer ce--s. The se-ect"on of the proper AAL
depends on the phys"ca- -"n;s be"n2 used and the type of data be"n2 trans3"tted. &o they
areA
0. AAL70
9. AAL79
. AAL7
%. AAL7%
+. AAL7+

ATM ada(tation )a7er #
AAL70 "s used for transferr"n2 a constant b"t data rateE th"s rate "s time dependent. For
th"s reason and because ATM "s asynchronous AAL70 pac;et data un"ts are e?u"pped
$"th add"t"ona- "nfor3at"on such as t"3e sta3ps and se?uence counts to perfor3 the
adaptat"on. AAL70 3ust send t"3"n2 "nfor3at"on a-on2 $"th the data. AAL70 pro#"des
error reco#ery and spec"f"es the errored "nfor3at"on $h"ch can not be reco#ered. The
con#er2ence sub-ayer pro#"ded here "s used d"fferent-y depend"n2 on the ser#"ce that "s
pro#"ded. !t pro#"des b"t error correct"on and can a-so be used to trans3"t t"3"n2
"nfor3at"on. At the se23entat"on and reasse3b-y sub-ayer pro#"ded here the data un"t "s
se23ented and a header "s added to "t.
&o= AAL70 operates by p-ac"n2 a one byte header on %. bytes of user data and then
transferr"n2 the %6 bytes to the ATM -ayer .
The header that "s added here conta"ns three partsA
• a se?uence nu3ber (&N)= $h"ch "s used to detect "nsert"on and -oss of ce--s
• se?uence nu3ber protect"on (&N5)= $h"ch "s used to correct errors that
appear/occur "n the se?uence nu3bers
• con#er2ence sub-ayer "nd"cat"on= $h"ch "s used to spec"fy the presence of
the con#er2ence sub-ayer funct"on

The &AR of the AAL70 $"-- be not"f"ed of the e<"stence of the C& sub-ayer by the C&
"nd"cator (C&!). A se?uence nu3ber (&N) "s passed fro3 the C& sub-ayer to the &AR and
9+
th"s &N then can be used to detect 3"ss"n2 &AR -oad"n2s. As spec"f"ed before= the header
of the &AR "s protected by a se?uence nu3ber protect"on f"e-d $h"ch can "nfor3 the C&
sub-ayer of b"t errors.
The use of AAL70 pro#"des for$ard"n2 error correct"on at the cost of "ncreased
band$"dth and de-"#ery de-ay. !t a-so a--o$s co3pensat"on for CELL *ELA'
,AR!AT!ON (C*,) and the rep-ace3ent of the -ost ce--s. AA70 -ayer "s reco33ended
$hen h"2h #"deo ?ua-"ty "s needed= for e<a3p-e for #o"ce and #"deoconferenc"n2.
Fi"ure *&2@ AA?&# (re(arin" ce))s 8or trans%ission in a wa7 so t-at t-e ce))s
retain t-eir order
&u33"n2 up for th"s adaptat"on -ayer $e cou-d say that the ATM adaptat"on -ayer
perfor3s the funct"ons $h"ch are necessary to adapt constant b"t rate (CBR) ser#"ces to
the ATM -ayer ser#"ces.

ATM ada(tation )a7er *
AAL79 "s used for trasferr"n2 variable b"t rate data = $h"ch "s time dependent
a-so. !t sends t"3"n2 "nfor3at"on a-so a-on2 "th the data so that the t"3"n2 dependency
cou-d be reco#ered at the dest"nat"on. AAL79 a-so pro#"des error reco#ery and "nd"cates
errored "nfor3at"on $h"ch can not be reco#ered. Because of the reason that the source
here 2enerates #ar"ab-e b"t rate data= so3e of the ce--s that are transferred 3ay be not fu--
and for th"s reason add"t"ona- features are re?u"red for the se23entat"on and reco#ery
-ayer. T"s -ayer funct"on=the con#er2ence sub-ayer pro#"des error correct"on and
94
transports the t"3"n2 "nfor3at"on fro3 the source to the dest"nat"on.Th"s "s ach"e#ed "n
the sa3e $ay as "n the AAL70.
At the se23entat"on and reco#ery sub-ayer here a header and a tra"-er are added= too.
• The header conta"ns t$o parts/f"e-dsA
7 a se?uence nu3ber (&N)= $h"ch a-so "s used to detect "nserted or -ost ce--s(as
"n AAL70)
7 the "nfor3at"on type= can beA
BOM 7 the be2"nn"n2 of the 3essa2eE
COM G the cont"nuat"on of the 3essa2eE
EOM G the end of the 3essa2eE
or can "nd"cate that the ce-- conta"ns t"3"n2 "nfor3at"on or other ;"nd of
"nfor3at"on.
• The tra"-er a-so conta"ns t$o f"e-dsA
7 The -en2th "nd"cator= $h"ch "nd"cates the nu3ber of true data bytes "n a ce--
that "s part"a--y fu--E
7 CRC= $h"ch "s a cyc-"c redundancy chec; used by the se23entat"on and
reasse3b-y sub-ayer for correct"n2 the errors.
7
AAL79 pro#"des band$"dth eff"c"ent trans3"ss"on of -o$7rate. &hort and #ar"ab-e
pac;ets "n de-ay sens"t"#e app-"cat"ons. AAL79 a-so pro#"des #ar"ab-e pay-oads (as sa"d
before) $"th"n ce--s and across ce--s.
An enhance3ent to asynchronous transfer 3ode techno-o2y= AAL9 pro#"des the
effect"#e transport of #o"ce $h"-e support"n2 the 2ro$"n2 de3ands for data throu2h
under-y"n2 ATM AAL+7based ser#"ces.
ATM ada(tation )a7er +
AAL7 "s used for transferr"n2 #ar"ab-e rate data $h"ch "s t"3e "ndependent. Th"s ser#"ce
-ayer supports 3essa2e 3ode and strea3"n2 3ode ser#"ces. Messa2e 3ode ser#"ces are
transported "n one s"n2-e ATM adaptat"on -ayer "nterface data un"t= $hereas strea3"n2
3ode ser#"ces re?u"re one or 3ore ATM adaptat"on -ayer "nterface data un"t (!*)s).
AAL7 "s d"#"ded "nto t$o for3s of operat"on= $h"ch areA
• assured operation G $here corrupted or -ost con#er2ence sub-ayer
protoco- data un"ts are retrans3"tted and f-o$ contro- "s a-so supported
• non7assured operat"on 7 $here error reco#ery "s -eft for the h"2her
-ayers and the f-o$ contro- "s on-y opt"ona-
T-e conver"ence sub&)a7er of AAL7 "s #ery s"3"-ar to the con#er2ence -ayer of
AAL79= both of the3 ha#e to do $"th non7rea- t"3e data. The AAL7 con#er2ence -ayer
"s further d"#"ded "nto t$o partsA
9.
0. The common #art con"erence sub-layer as pro#"ded a-so by the AAL79E "t "nserts
header and tra"-er to the co33on part con#er2ence sub7-ayer Gprotoco- data un"t pay-oad.
The header and tra"-er ha#e f"e-d eachA
• the headerA
7 the co33on part "nd"cator= $h"ch "nd"cates that the pay-oad "s a part of
the co33on art
7 the be2"n ta2= $h"ch 3ar;s the start of the co33on part con#er2ence
sub7-ayer protoco- data un"t
7 the buffer a--ocat"on s">e= $h"ch te--s the rece"#er ho$ 3uch buffer
space "s re?u"red to acco33odate the 3essa2e
• the tra"-er A
7 a-"2n3ent= $h"ch "s a byte f"--er used to 3a;e the header and tra"-er the
sa3e -en2th
7 the end ta2= $h"ch 3ar;s the end of the co33on part con#er2ence
sub-ayer7protoco- data un"t
7 the -en2th f"e-d= $h"ch ho-ds the -en2th of the co33on part
con#er2ence sub7-ayer protoco- data un"t pay-oad.
7
9. The ser"ice s#ecific #art. The funct"ons pro#"ded at th"s -ayer depend on the
ser#"ces $h"ch are re?uested. They 2enera-y "nc-ude funct"ons for error detect"on and
reco#ery .
T-e se"%entation and reasse%b)7 sub)a7erA At th"s -ayer the con#er2ence
sub-ayer 7 protoco- data un"t "s se23ented "nto p"eces $h"ch can be p-aced "n the ATM
ce--s. (ere too= each ce-- has "ts o$n header and tra"-er.
• The header conta"ns f"e-dsA
7 a se23ent type= $h"ch spec"f"es $hat part of the 3essa2e "s "ncorporated
"n the pay-oadE "t has a fe$ #a-ues (s"3"-ar-y to the header "n AAL79)
 BOM= $h"ch "nd"cated the be2"nn"n2 of the 3essa2e
 COM= $h"ch s"2n"f"es the cont"nuat"on of the 3essa2e
 EOM= $h"ch "s the end of the 3essa2e
 &&M= $h"ch "nd"cates a s"n2-e se23ent 3essa2e
7 a se?uence nu3ber (&N)= used to "nd"cate "nsert"on and -os "n ATM
ce--sE
7 3u-t"p-e<"n2 "dent"f"er= $h"ch "s used to d"fferent"ate data fro3
d"fferent connect"ons $h"ch ha#e been 3u-t"p-e<ed "nto a s"n2-e ATM
connect"on
• The tra"-er conta"ns t$o f"e-dsA
7 a -en2th nu3ber= $h"ch ho-d the nu3ber of usefu- data bytes "n the ce--
7 the C'C= a cyc-"c redundancy chec; used for detect"n2 errors and
pro#"de reco#ery

ATM ada(tation )a7er /
96
AAL7% "s des"2ned and used for transport"n2 #ar"ab-e b"t rate t"3e "ndependent traff"c "n
a connect"on-ess 3ode. &"3"-ar-y to AAL7 = AAL7% a-so supports t$o 3odes of
ser#"ces A 3essa2e 3ode ser#"ces and strea3"n2 3ode ser#"ces. !f $e $ant to def"ne the3
here too= "n other $ords $e cou-d say thatA in message mode= s"n2-e b-oc;s of data are
rece"#ed fro3 the user at the ser#"ce "nterface and de-"#ered to another ser#"ce "nterface
e-se$here "n the net$or;E $hereas in the streaming mode= a strea3 of data b-oc;s
separated "n t"3e fro3 one another "s transported across the net$or;. !t can a-so operate
"n assured and non7assured 3ode as $e-- (a-so s"3"-ar-y to AAL7).
AAL7% pro#"des the poss"b"-"ty of transferr"n2 data $"thout 3a;"n2 any
connect"on. Th"s type of ser#"ce $ou-d not $or; for e"ther #o"ce or #"deo. ,o"ce and
#"deo depend on d"st"nct connect"ons fro3 end to end.
AAL% pro#"des and support po"nt7to7po"nt and po"nt7to73u-t"po"nt transfer.
Ne#erthe-ess= AAL7% "s not ab-e to pro#"de a fu-- connect"on-ess ser#"ce because
funct"ons such as rout"n2 and address"n2 are perfor3ed at a h"2her -e#e-.
ATM ada(tation )a7er 2
ALL7+ "s the pr"3ary AAL for data and supports both connect"on7or"ented and
connect"on-ess data. AAL7+ "s a-so ;no$n as the s"3p-est and eff"c"ent adaptat"on -ayer
( &EAL ) because of the reason that the &AR sub7-ayer s"3p-y accepts the C&)75*) and
se23ents "t "nto %67octet &AR 5*)s $"thout reser#"n2 any bytes "n each ce--.
ALL7+ $as "n"t"a--y "ntended on-y for connect"on or"ented data transfer= and "t has
been pro#en to be a 3ore eff"c"ent protoco- then AAL70 (-ess o#erhead= a fact that "s #ery
"3portant for e<a3p-e for band$"dth sens"t"#e M5E:79 app-"cat"ons).
AAL7+ pro#"des these operat"onsA F"rst= the con#er2ence sub7-ayer of AAL7+ appends
a #ar"ab-e7-en2th pad and a 67byte tra"-er to a fra3e. The pad "s -on2 enou2h to ensure
that the resu-t"n2 5*) fa--s on the %67byte boundary of the ATM ce--. Then the
se23entat"on and reasse3b-y se23ents the C& 5*) "nto %67byte b-oc;s. Ne<t= the ATM
-ayer p-aces each b-oc; "nto the pay-oad f"e-d of the ATM ce--. For a-- ce--s e<cept the -ast
ce--= a b"t "n the header "s set to >ero to "nd"cate that the ce-- "s not the -ast ce-- "n the
ser"es that present one s"n2-e fra3e ( a b"t "s set to one for the -ast ce--). The rece"#"n2
AAL+ co--ects the "nco3"n2 ce--s unt"- "t f"nds one $"th a b"t that "nd"cate the end of the
fra3e. A-thou2h AAL+ uses a s"n2-e b"t "n the ce-- header for con#er2ence= other ATM
adaptat"on -ayer protoco-s can use other con#er2ence 3echan"s3s a-so.
AAL7+ "n a $ay "s a s"3p-"f"cat"on of AAL7 and AAL7% and "t re3o#es the need for
COM= BOM and EOM= $h"ch "ncreases the eff"c"ency of the protoco- and 3a;es "ts
"3p-e3entat"on 3uch eas"er
98
Fi"ure *&3@ AA?&2 8or%ats
The AAL7+ "s current-y the predo3"nant North A3er"can adaptat"on -ayerE ho$e#er
AAL7+ $as not des"2ned to cope $"th ce-- t"3"n2 re-at"onsh"ps no$ $"th ce--7-oss.
As $e ha#e seen= essent"a--y the ATM adaptat"on -ayer of the ATM reference 3ode-
does not do any error reco#ery. !f a fra3e "s be"n2 rece"#ed $"th so3e errors on "t than "t
"s d"scarded and "t "s not de-"#ered to the rece"#"n2 end. The error reco#ery "s a
respons"b"-"ty of a Ch"2her7-ayerD protoco-. The ALL ta;es fra3es (b-oc;s) of data that
are de-"#ered to "t= brea;s the3 "nto ce--s and adds the necessary header "nfor3at"on $"th
the purpose of a--o$"n2 the rebu"-d"n2 of the or"2"na- b-oc;s at the rece"#"n2 end.
To su3 up for the AAL+= $e $"-- say that a co3puter uses ATM Adaptat"on -ayer +
for send"n2 -ar2e b-oc;s of data o#er ATM #"rtua- c"rcu"ts. On the trans3"tt"n2 end=
AAL+ 2enerates a tra"-er= se23ents the b-oc; of data "nto ce--s and sends each ce-- o#er
the #"rtua- c"rcu"t. On the rece"#"n2 end= AAL+ reasse3b-es the ce--s $"th the purpose of
produc"n2 the or"2"na- b-oc; of data= e<tracts the tra"-er and de-"#ers the b-oc;s of data to
the rece"#"n2 host soft$are.
E#en "f fe$ AALs $ere def"ned based on the app-"cat"on c-asses they st"-- ha#e a
suff"c"ent de2ree of co33ona-"ty to be 3er2ed. F"2ure 97. c-ear-y "--ustrates the
re-at"onsh"p bet$een app-"cat"on c-asses and ATM Adaptat"on -ayers $"th respect to the
d"fferent para3eters used to c-ass"fy the app-"cat"on c-asses.
1
Fi"ure *&4@ A view o8 t-e AA? and t-e services t-e7 su((ort
!n conc-us"on to the e<p-anat"on of the ATM adaptat"on -ayer of the ATM reference
3ode- $e can say that the funct"on of "t "s to pro#"de 2enera-">ed "nter$or;"n2 across the
ATM net$or;. Th"s -ayer been adopted by the ATM Foru3 for a c-ass of ser#"ce ca--ed
("2h &peed *ata Transfer. AAL "s a set of standard protoco-s $h"ch trans-ate user traff"c
"nto a s">e and for3at that can be conta"ned "n the pay-oad of an ATM ce-- (+ bytes).
)ser traff"c "s returned to "ts or"2"na- for3 at the dest"nat"on.
A SUMMARY FOR THE REFERENCE MODEL
Fi"ure *&:@ T-e ATM Re8erence Mode)
!n f"2ure 976 $e can see no$ c-ear-y $h"ch are the co3pr"s"n2 -ayers of the ATM
Reference Mode-. There are a-so so3e upper -ayers of the ATM protoco- reference
3ode-= those "nc-ude opt"ona- protoco- -ayers $h"ch are used to further encapsu-ate ATM
ser#"ce for use $"th TC5/!5 and other protoco-s.
At -ast= $e $"-- su33ar">e th"s part of our research paper by $r"t"n2 the fe$ 3a"n
"deas about th"s reference 3ode-.
ATM ATM
1HY 1HY
AA? AA?
ATM Networ9 ATM Networ9 UNI UNI UNI UNI
ATM ATM
AA? AA?
1HY 1HY
0
• ATM "s "ndependent of any spec"f"c trans3"ss"on 3ed"u3
• The ATM -ayer def"nes the ce-- for3at= the $ay ce--s are transported
and the $ay to treat con2est"on
• The ATM adaptat"on -ayer def"nes the process of con#ert"n2
"nfor3at"on fro3 the upper -ayers "nto ATM ce--s
The ATM $as "n"t"a--y des"2ned and de#e-oped to support the #ar"ous
re?u"re3ents of the #ar"ous traff"c types. There $ere #ar"ous re?u"re3ents of
?ua-"ty7of7ser#"ce (such as -atency= de-ay= 3a<"3u3 and 3"n"3u3 burst= j"tter=
band$"dth and so on) for d"fferent traff"c = "nc-ud"n2 (TT5 f"-e transfer= #"deo
and #o"ce traff"c.
The d"fferent traff"c types= such as AAL70 and AAL7+ spec"fy the ATM ce--
structure throu2h the arch"tecture of the protoco- data un"ts (5*)s) re?u"red "n
the"r cate2or"es. These traff"c types are part of the para3eters $h"ch are needed
dur"n2 the ce-- setup= to spec"fy the traff"c re?u"re3ents that 3ust be present to
support the #ar"ous types of ce--s= based on the app-"cat"on re?u"re3ent. AAL79 "s
2a"n"n2 an "ncreased attent"on because "t addresses part"cu-ar needs that are not
fu-f"--ed by AAL70 nor by AAL7+.
!n f"2ure 978 $e can see the su33ary of the $ho-e ATM 3ode-= "ts -ayers=
sub-ayers and d"fferent funct"ons.
Fi"ure *&<@ ATM )a7ers; sub&)a7ers and t-eir 8unctions
Accord"n2 to !T)7T (!nternat"ona- Te-eco33un"cat"ons )n"on7Te-eco33un"cat"on
&tandard">at"on)= ATM "s Na transfer 3ode "n $h"ch the "nfor3at"on "s or2an">ed "nto
ce--sE "t "s asynchronous "n the sense that the recurrence of ce--s conta"n"n2 "nfor3at"on "s
not per"od"c. Th"s "s 3aybe the best def"n"t"on for ATM. Lets turn no$ to so3e thou2hts
about "ts use.
Asynchronous transfer 3ode (ATM) "s often descr"bed as the future co3puter
net$or;"n2 parad"23 that $"-- br"n2 h"2h7speed co33un"cat"ons t the des;top.
!t "s a-ready ;no$n that 3any or2an">at"ons today and 3any co3pan"es ha#e "nsta--ed
LANs for to 3eet the"r need of "nfor3at"on e<chan2e "n the years to co3e. &o= rep-ac"n2
9
the"r LANs $"th ATM LANs "n order to ;eep up $"th techno-o2y "s pure nonsense.
Ne#erthe-ess= connect"n2 these LANs to2ether $"th an ATM techno-o2y 3a;es sense.
Th"s fact $"-- 3a;e a trans"t"on to ATM $"de area ser#"ce bet$een LANs "n an
or2an">at"on. The ATM standard "s des"2ned to eff"c"ent-y support h"2h7speed d"2"ta-
#o"ce and data co33un"cat"ons. The e<pectat"on "s that by the ne<t decade= 3ost of the
#o"ce and data traff"c 2enerated "n the $or-d $"-- be trans3"tted by ATM techno-o2y "s
thou2ht that ATM $ou-d beco3e as co33on as the te-ephone "n the ne<t fe$ years= for
us "s to re3a"n to see $hat happens.
CA typ"ca- ATM LAN $ou-d use a 3esh or h"erarch"ca- topo-o2y= h"2h7speed ce--
s$"tch"n2= and standard ATM protoco-s. *ep-oy"n2 ATM techno-o2y and standards "n a
-oca- net$or;"n2 en#"ron3ent $"-- ha#e a s"2n"f"cant "3pact on the $ay $e #"e$ LANs.
The band$"dth of trad"t"ona- LANs "s usua--y on the order of tens of 3e2ab"ts per second=
$h"-e ATM LANs $"-- support :bps speeds. TodayJs LANs a-so -ac; sca-ab"-"ty.
To3orro$Js LANs 3ust operate "n an en#"ron3ent "n $h"ch co3put"n2 de#"ces are so
"ne<pens"#e and read"-y a#a"-ab-e that there are hundreds or e#en thousands "n a typ"ca-
off"ce. B"th such a -ar2e nu3ber of de#"ces= any atte3pt to "nterconnect the3 $"th
trad"t"ona- shared73ed"a LANs $ou-d be "3poss"b-e. The -"3"tat"ons of e<"st"n2 bus and
r"n2 LANs= the de3and for h"2her band$"dths= and -ar2er user popu-at"ons are the 3ajor
reasons for the 2ro$"n2 "nterest "n ATM LANs. ATM LANs $"-- a-so ha#e protoco-
support for a 3"<ture of h"2h7-e#e- co33un"cat"on ser#"ces (e.2.= TC5/!5= )*5/!5= B&*
&oc;ets= and R5C) and 3ay be used as Nbac;bone net$or;sN to "nterconnect e<"st"n2
net$or;s.D7 TM conce(ts; arc-itectures; and (rotoco)s.
Fro3 th"s part of the art"c-e $e can eas"-y conc-ude that "n a fe$ years ATM $"-- be "n
fact $"de-y used because they offer 2ood ser#"ces= a -ot of ATM supporters are of the
sa3e thou2ht.
Be $ant to po"nt here to the thou2hts of Arthur Coo#er "n h"s $or; CATMD= he
$r"tes thereA C
ATM $"-- no doubt be the LAN and BAN techno-o2y of the future. !t on-y
3a;es sense to use f"<ed7-en2th data ce--s and to carry these ce--s fro3 one user to
another. After a--= $hat "s the 3a"n purpose of any net$or;O Be ;no$ that the effect"#e
and eff"c"ent transfer of data fro3 one po"nt to another can be acco3p-"shed by us"n2 one
of 3any techno-o2"es. (o$e#er= $e a-so ;no$ that ATM "s $"thout a doubt the 3ost
effect"#e and eff"c"ent $ay to do th"s. Once the costs of ATM "nterface boards for 5Cs=
ATM s$"tches= br"d2es= hubs= and routers ha#e reached an affordab-e -e#e-= net$or;
3ana2ers $"-- ju3p on the ATM band$a2on $"th both feet.D
Asynchronous transfer 3ode has rece"#ed a -ot of attent"on recent-y. B"-- ATM
-"#e up to "ts pro3"se as a un"#ersa- s$"tch"n2 and 3u-t"p-e<"n2 3ethodo-o2yO B"-- "t be
the techno-o2y that f"na--y br"n2s net$or;ed 3u-t"3ed"a capab"-"t"es to our des;topsO
Much effort has a-ready been spent on de#e-op"n2 ATM. ATMJs success depends= "n part=
on "ts ab"-"ty to pro#"de h"2h7speed net$or;"n2 so-ut"ons that surpass ("n ter3s of
pr"ce/perfor3ance) todayJs techno-o2"es. O#er the ne<t fe$ years= $e $"-- undoubted-y
hear 3uch 3ore about the ATM reference 3ode-.

III. THE 'ENEFITS OF ATM
ATM "s a net$or; ser#"ce that pro#"des f-e<"b-e and sca-ab-e so-ut"on for ?ua-"ty
"n net$or;s $here 3u-t"p-e "nfor3at"on types are supported . Each of these
"nfor3at"on types $"th ATM can pass throu2h a s"n2-e net$or; connect"on. The
3u-t"p-e types of "nfor3at"on and the s"n2-e net$or; connect"on are 3a;"n2 the ATM
one of best net$or; syste3 no$ days.
!f our so-ut"on for net$or; prob-e3s $"-- be ATM net$or; syste3 than $e $"--
ha#e these benef"ts fro3 ATM.
0. ("2h7speed co33un"cat"on
9. Connect"on7or"ented ser#"ce= s"3"-ar to trad"t"ona- te-ephony
. Co33on LAN/BAN arch"tecture
%. ("2h perfor3ance #"a hard$are s$"tch"n2
+. A s"n2-e net$or; connect"on that can re-"ab-y 3"< #o"ce= #"deo= and data
4. F-e<"b-e and eff"c"ent a--ocat"on of net$or; band$"dth
#. Hi"-&s(eed co%%unication. The speed of co33un"cat"on "n one net$or;
syste3 "s 3ost $anted. The 3ost "3portant 3odu-e "n h"2h7sped co33un"cat"on "s
the 3e3ory 3ana2er = the 3e3ory 3ana2er 3ana2es -o2"ca- data structures. !n ATM
th"s job "d done by Iueue Mana2er. The Iueue Mana2er "s a spec"a-7purpose
processor that e<ecutes 3e3ory 3ana2e3ent "nstruct"ons and 3a;es the syste3 to
$or; $"th the h"2h speed .
*. Connection&oriented service; si%i)ar to traditiona) te)e(-on7. Be ha#e t$o
;"nd of 3ethods used "n data co33un"cat"on to transfer data= they are the
connect"on7or"ented 3ethod and the connect"on-ess . ATM "s part of the Connect"on7
or"ented ser#"ce. Re?u"res a sess"on connect"on (ana-o2ous to a phone ca--) be
estab-"shed before any data can be sent. Th"s 3ethod "s often ca--ed a Nre-"ab-eN
net$or; ser#"ce. !t can 2uarantee that data $"-- arr"#e "n the sa3e order. Connect"on7
or"ented ser#"ces set up #"rtua- -"n;s bet$een end syste3s throu2h a net$or;.
+. Co%%on ?AN5DAN arc-itecture. ECo33on LAN/BAN arch"tecture a--o$"n2
ATM to be used cons"stent-y fro3 one des;top to anotherE trad"t"ona--y= LAN and
BAN techno-o2"es ha#e been #ery d"fferent= $"th "3p-"cat"ons for perfor3ance and
"nteroperab"-"tyD.
/. Hi"- (er8or%ance via -ardware switc-in" . h"2h perfor3ance #"a hard$are
s$"tch"n2 $"th terab"t s$"tches on the hor">ont .
%
2.A sin")e networ9 connection t-at can re)iab)7 %i, voice; video; and data. ATM
"s a net$or; ser#"ce $here 3u-t"p-e "nfor3at"on types can pass o#er s"n2-e net$or;
connect"on. Be ;no$ that connect"ons "n ATM are ca--ed #"rtua- c"rcu"ts. Bhen
connect"on "s estab-"shed then d"fferent "nfor3at"on types can be for$arded fro3 one
host to another $"th + bytes ca--ed ce--. ATM "s the on-y one net$or; syste3 that
transfers those 3u-t"p-e "nfor3at"on ( #o"ce= #"deo and data) o#er a s"n2-e net$or;
connect"on and th"s "s one 2reat benef"t of ATM.
3. F)e,ib)e and e88icient a))ocation o8 networ9 bandwidt- needs and de-"#er"n2 h"2h
ut"-">at"on of net$or;"n2 resourcesE 3ost app-"cat"ons are or can be #"e$ed as
"nherent-y burst= data app-"cat"ons are LANGbased and are #ery burst= #o"ce "s burst =
as both part"es are ne"ther spea;"n2 at once nor a-- the t"3eE #"deo "s P-an = as the
a3ount of 3ot"on and re?u"red reso-ut"on #ar"es o#er t"3e
I0. DISAD0ANTA>ES OF ATM
ATM net$or; syste3 "s 2reat so-ut"on for net$or; prob-e3s= but "t ha#e so3e
d"sad#anta2es and $e 3ust d"scuss the3.
(ere are so3e of ATM d"sad#anta2esA
0. &oph"st"cated s$"tch"n2 and contro- 3echan"s3
9. (ard state syste3
. ATM a$are
%. R"2"d ce-- structure
4. !s to e<pens"#e
#. So(-isticated switc-in" and contro) %ec-anis% . The 3a"n funct"on of an ATM
s$"tch "s to rece"#e ce--s on a port and s$"tch those ce--s to the proper output port
based on the ,5! and ,C! #a-ues of the ce--. Th"s s$"tch"n2 "s d"ctated by a s$"tch"n2
tab-e that 3aps "nput ports to output ports based on the #a-ues of the ,5! and ,C!
f"e-ds= the contro- 3echan"s3 "s Iueue Mana2er. The Iueue Mana2er "s a spec"a-7
purpose processor that e<ecutes 3e3ory 3ana2e3ent "nstruct"ons and 3a;es the
syste3 to $or; $"th the h"2h speed . Both those s$"tch"n2 and contro- 3echan"s3 are
#ery soph"st"cated and they are a b"2 d"sad#anta2e of ATM.
*. Hard state s7ste%. Be ;no$ that ATM "s (ard state syste3= "n a hard state
syste3 -";e ATM= cons"stency of the state bet$een syste3s across the net$or; "s
cr"t"ca-. There 3ay be thousands= "f not 3"--"ons= of state entr"es "n the net$or; that
ha#e to be cons"stent for the net$or; to operate correct-y.
+
+. ATM aware "s used "n ATM to connect one process to another = th"s process
(funct"on) of ATM "s #ery soph"st"cated and a-so "s one b"2 d"sad#anta2es of ATM.
/. Ri"id ce)) structure. E#en Ce--s "n ATM syste3 are do"n2 #ery 2ood job they
a-so ha#e a r"2"d structure and data ha#e prob-e3s $h"-e they are pass"n2 fro3 one
p-ace to another p-ace at ATM net$or; syste3.
3. Is to e,(ensive. ATM "s a 2reat so-ut"on for our no$ days prob-e3s "n net$or;=
but the prob-e3 "s that ATM parts ( ATM net$or; syste3) "s #ery e<pens"#e.
Because of that ATM syste3s are "3p-e3ented on-y at the b"2 co3pan"es and at the
2o#ern3ent of so3e countr"es.
4
Conc)usion
Co3puter net$or;s no$ days are chan2"n2 our -"fe "n e#ery corner. Than;s to
co3puter net$or;s $e are ab-e to co33un"cate each other= to so-#e our prob-e3s
faster= to see and chan2e our data fro3 e#ery p-ace of the $or-d= co3pan"es are
2ro$"n2 faster a-- of th"s "s done fro3 th"s 3odern techno-o2y ca--ed Cnet$or;D.
The research that $e ha#e done "s ta-;"n2 about ATM(asynchronous transfer
3ode) net$or;s. ATM fa--s "n connect"on or"ented net$or;s and "s one of the best
so-ut"on for net$or; prob-e3s. A-- our project "s one e<p-anat"on of ho$ ATM "s
"ns"de= ho$ 3"< data are shared "n th"s syste3. Fro3 a-- th"s e<p-anat"on $e see that
the 3a"n purpose of the ATM net$or; syste3 "s to so-#e co33un"cat"on prob-e3s
that need a s"n2-e connect"on and d"fferent (3"<ed) data types to tra#e- throu2h th"s
connect"on= th"s funct"on or th"s ;"nd of $or; 3a;es the d"fference bet$een
connect"on or"ented net$or;s ($here ATM fa--s) and connect"on-ess net$or;s . The
data "n the #"rtua- c"rcu"t are tra#e-"n2 -";e ce-- (ho$ ce-- "s $e ha#e d"sco#ered $"th
one spec"a- top"c "n our research)= because "nfor3at"on are for$arded fro3 one host to
another "n the sa3e path ATM has a 2reat secur"ty and there are no data -os"n2 "n th"s
syste3 of co33un"cat"on. A-- pac;ets that are for$arded fro3 the sender host they a--
are rece"#ed at the other host ( 3ach"ne) th"s 3a;es ATM a net$or; $here the sca-e
of secur"ty "s 011Q .
Be can not say anyth"n2 e-se because $e ha#e d"sco#ered e#ery th"n2 up there
"n our research = but for conc-us"on $e $ant to say that ATM "s 2reat net$or; syste3
used for 3"<ed data and th"s techno-o2y !s used no$ days "n 3any co3pan"es for
3a;"n2 the"r co33un"cat"on eas"-y and the"r prob-e3s so-#ab-e. ATM ha#e 2reat
success "n "t "3p-e3entat"on.
>)ossar7
AA? & ATM Ada(tation ?a7er
A set of four standard protoco-s that trans-ate user traff"c fro3 the h"2her -ayers of the
protoco- stac; "nto a s">e and for3at that can be conta"ned "n the pay-oad of an ATM ce--
and return "t to "ts or"2"na- for3 at the dest"nat"on. Each AAL cons"sts of t$o sub-ayersA
the se23entat"on and reasse3b-y (&AR) sub-ayer and the con#er2ence sub-ayer. Each "s
.
2eared to a part"cu-ar c-ass of traff"c= $"th spec"f"c character"st"cs concern"n2 de-ay and
ce-- -oss. A-- AAL funct"ons occur at the ATM end7stat"on rather than at the s$"tch.
ATM & As7nc-ronous Trans8er Mode
A h"2h7speed= connect"on7or"ented s$"tch"n2 and 3u-t"p-e<"n2 techno-o2y that uses +7
byte ce--s (+7byte header= %67byte pay-oad) to trans3"t d"fferent types of traff"c
s"3u-taneous-y= "nc-ud"n2 #o"ce= #"deo= and data. !t "s asynchronous "n that "nfor3at"on
strea3s can be sent "ndependent-y $"thout a co33on c-oc;.ATM can be descr"bed
-o2"ca--y "n three p-anesA The user p-ane coord"nates the "nterface bet$een user protoco-s=
such as !5 or &M*& (&$"tched Mu-t"3e2ab"t *ata &er#"ce) and ATME the 3ana2e3ent
p-ane coord"nates the -ayers of the ATM stac;E the contro- p-ane coord"nates s"2na-"n2
and sett"n2 up and tear"n2 do$n #"rtua- c"rcu"ts.
ATM ?a7er
The -ayer of the ATM protoco- stac; that hand-es 3ost of the process"n2 and rout"n2
act"#"t"es. These "nc-ude bu"-d"n2 the ATM header= ce-- 3u-t"p-e<"n2/de3u-t"p-e<"n2= ce--
recept"on and header #a-"dat"on= ce-- rout"n2 us"n2 ,5!s/,C!s= pay-oad7type
"dent"f"cat"on= ?ua-"ty of ser#"ce spec"f"cat"on= and f-o$ contro- and pr"or"t">at"on
'OM 7 Be2"n"n2 of Messa2e
Ce))
An ATM ce-- cons"sts of + bytes . Of these= + const"tute the header= the re3a"n"n2 %6
carry the data pay-oad.
Ce))&?oss 1riorit7 C?1! Fie)d
A pr"or"ty b"t "n the ce-- headerE $hen set= "t "nd"cates that the ce-- can be d"scarded "f
necess
Ce)) re)a7
The pac;et s$"tch"n2 3echan"s3 used for the f"<ed s">e pac;ets ca--ed ce--s
C7c)ic Redundanc7 C-ec9 CRC)
A 3athe3at"ca- a-2or"th3 used to ensure accurate de-"#ery based on the actua- contents
of the data
Ce)) error ratio CER! The fract"on of ce--s de-"#ered "n error
Ce)) )oss ratio C?R! The fract"on of ce--s -ost dur"n2 trans3"ss"on
Ce)) trans8er de)a7 CTD!
The a#era2e t"3e needed for a ce-- to tra#e- fro3 source to dest"nat"on
Co))ision
A cond"t"on "n $h"ch t$o pac;ets are be"n2 trans3"tted o#er a 3ed"u3 at the sa3e t"3e.
The"r "nterference 3a;es both un"nte--"2"b-e
6
Constant bit rate C'R!
The data rate of an ATM ser#"ce c-ass that "s des"2ned for custo3ers re?u"r"n2 rea-7t"3e
aud"o or #"deo ser#"ces
Conver"ence sub)a7er CS!
The upper AAL sub-ayer that adds a header or a tra"-er to the user data
Data E,c-an"e Inter8ace DFI!
*ef"nes a for3at for pass"n2 data that has 2one throu2h the ATM con#er2ence sub-ayer
(a C&75*)) bet$een a router and a C&)/*&) or other de#"ce $"th ATM &AR
capab"-"ty.

EOM 7 End of Messa2e
E%u)ated ?oca)&Area Networ9 E?AN!
A -o2"ca- net$or; created $"th 3echan"s3s def"ned "n the ATM Foru3@s LAN
E3u-at"on 0.1 (LANE 0.1) spec. An ELAN 3ay enco3pass stat"ons phys"ca--y attached
to ATM and non7ATM se23ents.
Forward Error Correction FEC!
FEC ta;es ad#anta2e of the se?uence nu3ber conta"ned "n an ATM AAL (ATM
adaptat"on -ayer) 0 protoco- data un"t to detect ce-- -oss and pre#ent unnecessary
trans3"ss"on of ce--s be-on2"n2 to fau-ty pac;ets. A recent proposa- to the ATM Foru3
ad#ocates the use of FEC to address prob-e3s of data -oss and pac;et de-ay on shared
constant b"t rate ATM -"n;s. Accord"n2 to stud"es conducted by se#era- ATM Foru3
3e3ber co3pan"es= us"n2 FEC to detect ce-- -oss a--o$s 3u-t"p-e ATM de#"ces to share
the sa3e #"rtua- c"rcu"t for rea-7t"3e aud"o and #"deo trans3"ss"on $"th 3"n"3a- added
o#erhead (appro<"3ate-y percent) and on-y s-"2ht perfor3ance de2radat"on
>uaranteed 8ra%e rate >FR!
A proposed standard fro3 the Traff"c Mana2e3ent sub$or;"n2 2roup of the ATM
Foru3. &o3et"3es ca--ed )BRK (unspec"f"ed b"t7rate p-us)= :FR -ets users spec"fy a
connect"on7dependent 3"n"3u3 ce-- rate for trans3"ss"ons. The f"na- spec "s -";e-y to
arr"#e by 3"dd-e or -ate 0886.
Header
&yste37def"ned contro- "nfor3at"on that precedes user data
Header Error Contro) HEC!
The -ast 07byte f"e-d "n an ATM ce--Js +7byte header= the (EC f"e-d conta"ns "nfor3at"on
that "s used to detect and correct errors "n the ce-- header. These sorts of errors are -";e-y
to corrupt address"n2 f"e-ds= caus"n2 the net$or; to de-"#er the ce-- to the $ron2
dest"nat"on or drop the ce-- and re?uest retrans3"ss"on. On f"ber net$or;s= header errors
typ"ca--y ta;e one of t$o for3sA re-at"#e-y co33on s"n2-e7b"t errors and rarer error
bursts. (EC uses the &EC*EC (s"n2-e error correct"on= doub-e error detect"on) a-2or"th3
to f"< s"n2-e7b"t errors and d"scard ce--s $"th 3u-t"p-e errors.
8
?a7er
A 2roup of ser#"ces= funct"ons= and protoco-s that "s co3p-ete fro3 a conceptua- po"nt of
#"e$= that "s one out of a set of h"erarch"ca--y arran2ed 2roups and that e<tends across a--
syste3s that confor3 to the net$or; arch"tecture
1a7)oad
!nfor3at"on port"on of an ATM ce--= e<c-us"#e of header. ATM ce--s typ"ca--y ha#e %67
byte pay-oads= but s">e can #ary depend"n2 upon type of data and AAL.
1er%anent 0irtua) Circuit 10C!
A #"rtua- -"n; $"th f"<ed end7po"nts that are def"ned by the net$or; 3ana2er. A s"n2-e
#"rtua- path 3ay support 3u-t"p-e 5,Cs.
1-7sica) Mediu%&De(endent 1MD! Sub)a7er
*ef"nes the actua- speed at $h"ch ATM traff"c can be trans3"tted across a 2"#en phys"ca-
3ed"u3.
The ATM Foru3 has appro#ed three &ONET "nterfaces for )N!A &T&70 at +0.6% Mb"t/s=
&T&7c at 0++.+9 Mb"t/s= and &T&709c at 499.16 Mb"t/s= as $e-- as *&70 (T0) at 0.+%%
Mb"t/s= E0 at 9.1%6 Mb"t/s= E at %.46 Mb"t/s= and *&7 (T) at %%.. Mb"t/s. The
foru3 a-so has adopted a nu3ber of spec"f"cat"ons for LAN en#"ron3ents= "nc-ud"n2 a
0117Mb"t/s "nterface us"n2 F**! encod"n2= a 0++7Mb"t/s "nterface us"n2 Cate2ory + )T5
(unsh"e-ded t$"sted7pa"r)= and a +07Mb"t/s "nterface us"n2 Cate2ory )T5.
6ua)it7 o8 Service 6oS! C)asses
F"#e broad cate2or"es out-"ned by the ATM Foru3Js )N! .1E "3p-e3entat"on deta"-s and
prec"se character"st"cs are to be deter3"ned "n the future.C-ass 0 spec"f"es perfor3ance
re?u"re3ents and "nd"cates that ATMJs ?ua-"ty of ser#"ce shou-d be co3parab-e $"th the
ser#"ce offered by standard d"2"ta- connect"ons. C-ass 9 spec"f"es necessary ser#"ce -e#e-s
for pac;et">ed #"deo and #o"ce. C-ass def"nes re?u"re3ents for "nteroperab"-"ty $"th
other connect"on7or"ented protoco-s= part"cu-ar-y fra3e re-ay. C-ass % spec"f"es
"nteroperab"-"ty re?u"re3ents for connect"on-ess protoco-s= "nc-ud"n2 !5= !5F= and &M*&.
C-ass + "s effect"#e-y a Nbest7effortN atte3pt at de-"#eryE "t "s "ntended for app-"cat"ons that
do not re?u"re a part"cu-ar c-ass of ser#"ce.
S7nc-ronous O(tica) Networ9 SONET!
An "nternat"ona- su"te of standards for trans3"tt"n2 d"2"ta- "nfor3at"on o#er opt"ca-
"nterfaces. N&ynchronousN "nd"cates that a-- co3ponent port"ons of the &ONET s"2na- can
be t"ed to a s"n2-e reference c-oc;
0irtua) C-anne) 0C!
A def"ned route bet$een t$o end7po"nts "n an ATM net$or; that 3ay tra#erse se#era-
#"rtua- paths.
%1
0irtua) Circuit 0C!
A port"on of a #"rtua- path or a #"rtua- channe- that "s used to estab-"sh a s"n2-e #"rtua-
connect"on bet$een t$o end7po"nts.
0irtua) 1at- 01!
A 2roup of #"rtua- channe-s= $h"ch can support 3u-t"p-e #"rtua- c"rcu"ts.
0irtua) 1at- Identi8ier 01I!
An 67b"t f"e-d "n the ATM ce-- header that "nd"cates the #"rtua- path o#er $h"ch a ce-- "s to
be routed. A #"rtua- connect"on estab-"shed us"n2 on-y the ,5! "s ;no$n as a #"rtua- path
connect"on (,5C).
Usa"e 1ara%eter Contro) U1C!
A 3echan"s3 for protect"n2 net$or; resources fro3 3a-"c"ous or un"ntent"ona--y
da3a2"n2 beha#"or by 3on"tor"n2 connect"on traff"c for confor3ance to the ser#"ce
contract. A-so ca--ed po-"c"n2= usa2e para3eter contro- "n#o-#es chec;"n2 such
character"st"cs as the traff"cJs burst s">e and rate.)5C pre#ents con2est"on by not
ad3"tt"n2 e<cess traff"c onto the net$or; $hen a-- resources are "n use. )5C chan2es the
CL5 b"t of ce--s that e<ceed traff"c para3eters so they are dropped.
Abbreviations
ATM G Asynchronous transfer 3ode
AAL G App-"cat"on adapt"on -ayer
AB) G A#a"-ab-e b"t rate
CB) 7 Constant b"t rate
C+V G Ce-- de-ay #ar"at"on
%0
CE) G Ce-- error rat"o
CL) G Ce-- -oss rat"o
CT+ G Ce-- transfer de-ay
CB) G Constant b"t rate
CS G Con#er2ence sub-ayer
%M+ & 5hys"ca- Med"u37*ependent sub7-ayer
0oS7 Iua-"ty of ser#"ce
SC) G &usta"ned ce-- rate
S/M% - &"3p-e Net$or; Mana2e3ent 5rotoco-
TC - Trans3"ss"on con#er2ence
T+M $ T"3e d"#"s"on 3u-t"p-e<"n2
T% G Trans3"ss"on path
$/( G )ser to net$or; "nterface
VBR G ,ar"ab-e b"t rate
VC G ,"rtua- c"rcu"t
VC( 7 ,"rtua- c"rcu"t "dent"f"er
V% G ,"rtua- path
V%( G ,"rtua- path "dent"f"er
Re8erences
R0S &ta--"n2s= B. &igh'Speed (etwor"s ) T*+,I+ and T! design principles.
)pper &add-e R"#er=NTA 5rent"ce (a-- 5TR= 0886
R9S Tohn B"-ey U sons -td= n introduction to T! networ"s. Baff"ns Lane=
Ch"chester Best &usse<= 5O08 0)* En2-and
%9
R9S Andre$ &.Tanenbau3 = *omputer (etwor"s'-
th
edition.
)pper &add-e R"#er=NTA 5rent"ce (a-- 5TR=
RS Roberta>>" Tho3as := *omputer (etwor"s and Systems. *epart3ent of
e-ectr"ca- en2"neer"n2= &)N' &tony Broo; N' 00.8%79+1 )&A
R%S Forou>an= Behrou> A. .ata communications and networ"ing $
nd
. 0990 A#enue
of the A3er"cas= N'A Mc:ra$7("--= 9110

httpA//$$$.c"sco.co3/un"#ercd/cc/td/doc/c"s"nt$;/"toVdoc/"p#4.ht3
httpA//$$$.ba7stutt2art.de/Q.Eschu-te/ht3e/++.++.ht3
httpA//$$$."ec.or2/on-"ne/tutor"a-s/OBac;.<W0.UBac;.yW08
httpA//$$$.cs.uc-.ac.u;/staff/&.Bhatt"/*+07notes/node8.ht3-
httpA//$$$.d"t.up3.es/snh/arhe-p/2-ossar"es/dataco33/
httpA//$$$.redboo;s."b3.co3/redboo;s/pdfs/s29%%49+.pdf .
httpA//$$$.ja##"n.co3/protoco-ATM.ht3-
httpA//$$$.2c2co3.co3/ATM.ht3.
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