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TABLE OF CONTENT
!. A&'NC(RONO)& TRAN&FER MO*E (ATM)......................+
ATM ,"rtua- C"rcu"t........................................................................................................
,"rtua- path/,"rtua- Channe- Character"st"cs.............................................................01
,"rtua- C"rcu"ts Connect"on )ses..............................................................................00
(eader Error Contro-.................................................................................................0+
!!. T(E ATM REFERENCE MO*EL.........................................04
The 5M* sub7-ayer ...................................................................................................06
The TC sub7-ayer ......................................................................................................08
T(E ATM LA'ER.......................................................................................................90
ATM A*A5TAT!ON LA'ER.....................................................................................9
ATM adaptat"on -ayer 0...........................................................................................9+
ATM adaptat"on -ayer 9............................................................................................94
ATM adaptat"on -ayer .............................................................................................9.
ATM adaptat"on -ayer % ..........................................................................................96
ATM adaptat"on -ayer +.............................................................................................98
A &)MMAR' FOR T(E REFERENCE MO*EL.................................................0
!!!. T(E BENEF!T& OF ATM ....................................................%
!,. *!&A*,ANTA:E& OF ATM.............................................+
Everyday and on the world is changing a lot. Science forging with big pace, new
inventions important for human life, new technological advances occurring constantly
and so on. But if seen from communication point of view, this pace is faster and
technology more exciting in telecommunications. In order to deliver new services such as
video conferencing and video on demand, as well as provide more bandwidth for the
increasing volume of traditional data, the communications industry introduced a
technology that provided a common format for services with different bandwidth
requirements. This technology is Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). s T!
developed, it became a crucial step in how companies deliver, manage and maintain
their goods and services. This means that T! is capable of transferring voice, video,
and data through private networ"s and across public networ"s.
Co3puter net$or;s represents the 3ode- $here a -ar2e nu3ber of separated
co3puters are "nterconnected and can co33un"cate bet$een the3. )nder th"s
co33un"cat"on $e shou-d understand that they can e<chan2e "nfor3at"on. Co3puters
can be connected #"a cooper $"re= f"ber opt"cs= 3"cro$a#es= "nfrared= sate--"te etc. As
t"3e 2oes on= co3puter net$or;s are beco3"n2 3ore h"2h7tech and a-so 3ore co3p-e<.
&o= "n order to reduce the"r des"2n co3p-e<"ty they are or2an">ed as stac; of -ayers= each
one bu"-t upon the one be-o$ "t. Th"s $ay e#ery one of th"s -ayers ofers so3e ser#"ce to
the -ayer abo#e. The ser#"ce can be connect"on7or"ented or connect"on-ess. !n
connect"on-ess ser#"ce the 3essa2e to be sent carr"es the fu-- dest"nat"on address and "t "s
"ndependet-y routed fro3 other 3essa2es= fro3 $here $e can see that th"s "s 3ode-ed
after the posta- syste3. On the other hand "n connect"on or"ented ser#"ce= to send any
3essa2e= f"rst $e shou-d estab-"sh a connect"on= than use "t and at the end re-ease "t. Th"s
ser#"ce "s 3ode-ed after the te-ephone syste3. Th"s ser#"ce uses a s"n2-e channe- for
pass"n2 3essa2es= $h"ch 3eans that a-- 3essa2es fo--o$ the sa3e path and the pac;et
that "s send f"rst $"-- be f"rst one rece"#ed at the other end.
!n th"s 2roup of connect"on7or"ented net$or;s $e can f"nd ATM Net$or;
(Asynchronous Transfer Mode). ATM "s a protoco- that trans3"ts data as f"<ed s">ed
pac;ets . A sender and rece"#er on a net$or; set up a f"<ed path bet$een each other
before send"n2 data= and the "nfor3at"on arr"#es to the rece"#er "n the order "t $as sent.
!n the ?uest"on $hy us"n2 ATM "nstead of other ser#"ces= $e@-- 2et the ans$er A
7 !t "s standard based (one "nternat"ona- standard)
7 !t "s &ca-ab-e "n d"stance ("nc-udes both LAN and BAN techno-o2y)
7 !t "s sca-ab-e "n speed
7 Carr"es Mu-t"p-e Traff"c Types (,o"ce= *ata= ,"deo)
!n fact= ATM can be thou2ht of as the Ch"2h$ayD of the "nfor3at"on
superh"2h$ay. A3on2 the cha--en2es faced by the des"2ners of ATM= $e can d"#"de s"<
as 3ore "3portant. As the f"rst one "s the need for a trans3"ss"on syste3 to opt"3">e the
use of the h"2h7data7rate trans3"ss"on 3ed"a= "n part"cu-ar opt"ca- f"ber. &econd "s the
need for a syste3 that can "nterface $"th e<"st"n2 syste3s= such as the #ar"ous pac;et
net$or;s= and to pro#"de $"de area "nterconect"#"ty bet$een the3 $"thout -o$er"n2 the"r
effect"#eness or re?u"r"n2 the"r rep-ace3ent. Th"rd "s the need for a des"2n that can be
"3p-e3ented "ne<pens"#e-y so that cost $ou-d not be a barr"er to adopt"on . Th"s 3eans
that ATM 3ust be a#a"-ab-e at -o$ cost to e#ery user $ho $ants "t. As fourth the ne$
syste3 3ust be ab-e to $or; $"th and support the e<"st"n2 te-eco33un"cat"on h"erarch"es
(-oca- -oops= -oca- pro#"ders= -on27d"stance carr"ers= and so on). F"fth= the ne$ syste3
3ust be connect"on7or"ented to ensure accurate and pred"ctab-e de-"#ery. And the s"<th
one "s one of the object"#es to 3o#e as 3any of the funct"ons to hard$are as poss"b-e and
e-"3"nate as 3any soft$are funct"ons as poss"b-e= and th"s "s done $"th the purpose of
"ncreas"n2 the data rate. &o= see"n2 a-- of these ATM shou-d be one of the 3ost used types
ATM "s a ce-- based protoco- that= "n co3b"nat"on $"th B7!&*N= $"-- a--o$ h"2h7
speed "nterconnect"on of a-- the $or-d@s net$or;s. As an "ntroduct"on "n th"s research
paper are descr"bed the 3a"n d"fferences bet$een fra3e7based and ce--7based protoco-s=
$here "n the -ast one $e f"nd the ATM. &o ATM trans3"ts "ts data or "nfor3at"on "n
s3a-- f"<ed7s">e b-oc;s. These b-oc;s or ce--s are co3posed of + bytes (+ bytes of
header and %6 bytes of pay-oad). Ne<t "3portant po"nt "s connect"on bet$een t$o end
po"nts $h"ch "s acco3p-"shed throu2h trans3"ss"on paths= #"rtua- paths= and #"rtua-
c"rcu"ts. (ence= a co3b"nat"on of a #"rtua- path "dent"f"er and a #"rtua- c"rcu"t "dent"f"er=
"dent"fy a #"rtua- connect"on. :o"n2 on $"-- be d"sco#ered that ATM can use a per3anent
#"rtua- c"rcu"t or a s$"tched #"rtua- c"rcu"t.
As other protoco-s too= ATM "s or2an">ed as stac; of -ayers. And after the ATM
standards three -ayer are 3ost "3portant A
7 5hys"ca- -ayer $h"ch def"nes the trans3"ss"on 3ed"u3= b"t trans3"ss"on=
encod"n2= and e-ectr"ca-7to7opt"ca- transor3at"on
7 ATM -ayer $h"ch pro#"des rout"n2= tra"c 3ana2e3ent= s$"tch"n2 and
7 App-"cat"on Adapt"on -ayer (AAL) $h"ch accepts trans3"ss"on fro3 upper
-ayer ser#"ces and 3aps the3 "nto ATM ce--s.
Be are 2o"n2 to see 3ore "n deta"- these -ayers= s"3"-ar"t"es= d"fferences and so on. But !
$e ha#e sayed so 3any th"n2s "n fa#our to ATM "t doesn@t 3ean that "t "s perfect and "t "s
the on-y one that shou-d be used. B"th th"s $e $ant to say that a-so "t has so3e
ad#anta2es and d"sad#anta2es that are 3ent"on be-o$= and a-so so3e rea- e<a3p-es
$here "t "s app-"cab-e and had sho$n 2ood resu-ts.
I. ASYNCHRONOUS TRANSFER MODE ATM!
No$ $e@-- -oo; throu2h ATM 3ore c-ose-y. Layers= that $e 3ent"oned ear-"er= on
one 3ach"ne can co33un"cate $"th those "n the other one throu2h the protoco-. &o an
protoco- "s an a2ree3ent bet$een the co33un"cat"n2 part"es on ho$ co33un"cat"on "s to
proceed. Be are 2o"n2 to see t$o types of protoco-s A
7 Fra3e7based protoco-s= and
7 Ce--7based protoco-s
Frame-Based 5rotoco-s encapsu-ate )ser data "n Fra3es= other$"se ;no$n as 5ac;ets.
Fra3es are de-"neated by f-a2s $h"ch are spec"f"c #a-ue octets that s"2n"fy the be2"nn"n2
and end of a fra3e. Fra3es are of #ar"ab-e -en2th= ".e.= d"fferent nu3ber of octets per
fra3e for d"fferent app-"cat"ons. !t a-- -oo;s -";e "n the f"2ure be-o$
Octet 1 Octet 2 Octet 3
Fi"ure #.# $ Fra%e&'ased (rotoco)
On the other hand= cell-based 5rotoco-s encapsu-ate user "nfor3at"on "n Ce--s= f"<ed
-en2th pac;ets. Because Ce--s ha#e so3e ad#anta2es -";e A !ncreased s$"tch"n2
perfor3ance $"th reduced s$"tch co3p-e<"ty= the ab"-"ty to support 3"-t"p-e ser#"ces of
d"fferent traff"c character"st"cs -";e #o"ce= data= #"deoE etc= they are #ery used fro3
broadband net$or;s. The f"2ure be-o$ descr"bes Ce-- based protoco-s.
)ser !nfor3at"on (%6 octets)
+ octets %6 octets
Fi"ure #.* $ Ce))&'ased (rotoco)
No$= that $e@#e 2ot an "dea about Fra3e based and Ce-- based protoco-s= $e@-- 2o
further deep $"th ATM and say that "t "s Ce-- based 5rotoco-. But= about the ATM Ce--
for3at $e@-- see -ater on.
Bes"de that "t "s ce--7based protoco-= ATM "s a ce--7s$"tch"n2 and 3u-t"p-e<"n2
techno-o2y that co3b"nes the benef"ts of c"rcu"t s$"tch"n2 (constant trans3"ss"on de-ay
and 2uaranteed capac"ty) $"th those of pac;et s$"tch"n2 (f-e<"b"-"ty and eff"c"ency for
"nter3"ttent traff"c). L";e F.9+ and Fra3e Re-ay= ATM def"nes the "nterface bet$een the
user e?u"p3ent (such $as $or;stat"ons and routers) and the net$or; (referred to as the
)ser7Net$or; !nterface= or )N!). Th"s def"n"t"on supports the use of ATM s$"tches (and
ATM s$"tch"n2 techn"?ues) $"th"n both pub-"c and pr"#ate net$or;s.
Because "t "s an asynchronous 3echan"s3= ATM d"ffers fro3 synchronous transfer
3ode 3ethods= $here t"3e7d"#"s"on 3u-t"p-e<"n2 (T*M) techn"?ues are e3p-oyed to
preass"2n users to t"3e s-ots. ATM t"3e s-ots are 3ade a#a"-ab-e on de3and= $"th
"nfor3at"on "dent"fy"n2 the source of the trans3"ss"on conta"ned "n the header of each
ATM ce--. T*M "s "neff"c"ent re-at"#e to ATM because "f a stat"on has noth"n2 to trans3"t
$hen "ts t"3e s-ot co3es up= that t"3e s-ot "s $asted. The con#erse s"tuat"on= $here one
stat"on has -ots of "nfor3at"on to trans3"t= "s a-so -ess eff"c"ent. !n th"s case= that stat"on
can on-y trans3"t $hen "ts turn co3es up= e#en thou2h a-- the other t"3e s-ots are e3pty.
B"th ATM= a stat"on can send ce--s $hene#er necessary. F"2ure be-o$ contrasts T*M
and ATM 3u-t"p-e<"n2 techn"?ues.
Fi"ure #.+ $ TDM and ATM %u)ti()e,in" tec-ni.ues
ATM Virtual Circuit
To start send"n2 "nfor3at"ons or pac;ets fro3 one 3ach"ne to another= ATM f"rst
ha#e to estab-"sh a connect"on= because $e 3ent"oned that "t "s a connect"on7or"ented
net$or;. For th"s reason ATM standards has def"ned t$o types of ATM connect"onsA
virtual channel connection (VCCs) and virtual path connections (VPCs). A virtual channel
connection (or virtual circuit) is the basic unit, which represents the logical connection between
end stations, or we can say that it carries a single stream of cells, in order, from user to user. It has
def"ned end po"nts and routes but does not ha#e band$"dth ded"cated to "t. Band$"dth "s
a--ocated on de3and by the net$or; as users ha#e traff"c to trans3"t. ,CC are a-so used
for user7net$or; e<chan2e (contro- s"2na-"n2) and net$or;7net$or; e<chan2e (net$or;
3ana2e3ent and rout"n2).
Fi"ure #./ $ A virtua) circuit 0CC!
Bhen spea;"n2 about #"rtua- c"rcu"t (,C)= $e can not for2et to 3ent"on that there
are t$o types of the3A
G 1er%anent 0irtua) Circuit 10C! & that "s a ,CC or ,5C that "s
predef"ned and -eft "n p-ace a-- the t"3e. !f "nfor3at"on "s not be"n2
trans3"tted= "t doesn@t use any band$"dth. &o= each per3anent or
te3porary connect"on has a un"?ue connect"on "dent"f"er. A 5,C -oo;s
-";e "n f"2ure 0.+.
G Switc-ed 0irtua) Circuit S0C! $ that "s a ,CC that "s setup at the
"nstant that "nfor3at"on needs to be sent bet$een co33un"cat"on
endpo"nts= and then ta;en do$n after the trans3"ss"on "s f"n"shed.
Fi"ure #.2 & ATM 1er%anent 0irtua) Circuit Service
Collection of virtual circuits can be bundled together into a
virtual path connection VPC. It is somewhat lie a second sublayer
of processing. A virtual path connection can be created from end!to!end across an A"#
networ (it is a bundle of VCC$s that have the same end points). In this case, the A"# networ
does not route cells belonging to a particular virtual circuit. All cells belonging to a particular
virtual path are routed the same way through the A"# networ, thus resulting in faster recovery
in case of ma%or failures. A simple virtual path loos lie in the figure below
Fi"ure #.3 $ 0irtua) 1at- connection
The #"rtua- path techn"?ue he-ps conta"n the contro- cost by 2roup"n2
connect"ons shar"n2 co33on paths throu2h the net$or; "nto a s"n2-e un"t. Net$or;
3ana2e3ent act"ons can then be app-"ed to a s3a-- nu3ber of 2roups of connect"ons
"nstead of a -ar2e nu3ber of "nd"#"dua- connect"ons.
The process of sett"n2 up a #"rtua- path connect"on "s decoup-ed fro3 the
process of sett"n2 up an "nd"#"dua- #"rtua- channe- connect"on A
• The #"rtua- path contro- 3echan"s3s "nc-ude ca-cu-at"n2 routes= a--ocat"n2
capac"ty= and stor"n2 connect"on state "nfor3at"on
• To set up a #"rtua- channe-= there 3ust f"rst be a #"rtua- path connect"on to
the re?u"red dest"nat"on node $"th suff"c"ent a#a"-ab-e capac"ty to support
the #"rtua- channe-= $"th the appropr"ate ?ua-"ty of ser#"ce. A #"rtua-
channe- "s set up by stor"n2 the re?u"red state "nfor3at"on (#"rtua-
channe-/#"rtua- path 3app"n2).
The 2enera- $ay of ca-- estab-"sh3ent process us"n2 #"rtua- channe-s and #"rtua-
paths= "s sho$n "n the f"2ure
Request for VCC
Can qualit# of
ser $i ce be
sat i sf i e%"
(loc) VCC or
Fi"ure #.4 $ Ca)) estab)is-%ent (roccess usin" 0C and 01
L";e $e see fro3 the a-2or"th3 f"rst "t "s 2enerated a re?uest for ,CC. The ne<t
step "s to see "f ,5C e<"sts or no. !f doesn@t e<"sts a ne$ one "s estab-"shed and then
the a-2or"th3 chec;s "f the ?ua-"ty of ser#"ce can be sat"sf"ed. !f the ans$er "s Hyes@
then a ne$ connect"on "s created= "f no= and no 3ore capac"ty "s re?uested then the
,CC re?uest "s rejected.
,"rtua- paths ,5Cs are #ery usefu-- because they ha#e so3e ad#anta2es= -";eA
• &"3p-"f"ed net$or; arch"tecture G Transport funct"ons of the net$or; can be
separated "nto those re-ated to an "nd"#"dua- -o2"ca- connect"on (,CC) and those
re-ated to a 2roup of -o2"ca- connect"ons (,5C)
• !ncreased net$or; perfor3ance and re-"ab"-"ty7 Net$or; dea-s $"th fe$er=
• Reduced process"n2 and short connect"on setup t"3e G Bhen the #"rtua- path "s
set up= then 3uch of the $or; "s a-3ost done. By reser#"n2 capac"ty on a #"rtua-
path connect"on "n ant"c"pat"on of -ater ca-- arr"#a-s= ne$ #"rtua- c"rcu"t can be
estab-"shed by e<ecut"n2 s"3p-e contro- funct"ons at the end po"nts of the #"rtua-
path connect"onA no ca-- process"n2 "s re?u"red at trans"t nodes. Thus the
add"t"on of ne$ #"rtua- channe-s to an e<"st"n2 #"rtua- path "n#o-#es 3"n"3a-
• Enhanced net$or; ser#"cesA The #"rtua- path a-thou2h "t has "nterna- use "n the
net$or; = "t "s a-so #"s"b-e to the end user. Thus= the user 3ay def"ne c-osed user
2roups or c-osed net$or;s of #"rtua- channe- bund-es.
0irtua) (at-50irtua) C-anne) C-aracteristics
,"rtua- Channe-s (,"rtua- C"rcu"ts) ,CC ha#e so3e character"st"cs so3e of $h"ch
are -"sted be-o$A
7 6ua)it7 o8 Service & Bhen an ATM end stat"on connects to the ATM
net$or;= "t "s essent"a--y 3a;"n2 a contract $"th the net$or; based on ?ua-"ty
of ser#"ce (IO&) para3eters. Th"s contract spec"f"es an en#e-ope that
descr"bes the "ntended traff"c f-o$. Th"s en#e-ope spec"f"es #a-ues for pea;
band$"dth= a#era2e susta"ned band$"dth= and burst s">e.
7 Switc-ed and se%i(er%anent virtua) c-anne) connections G An on7
de3and connect"on= $h"ch re?u"res ca--7contro- s"2na-"n2 for sett"n2 up and
pu-- "t do$n= "s ca--ed a s$"tched ,CC. But a se3"per3anent ,CC "s one that
"s of -on2 durat"on and "t "s set up by net$or; 3ana2e3ent act"on.
7 Ca)) se.uence inte"rit7 $ The se?uence of trans3"tted ce--s $"th"n a ,CC "s
7 Tra88ic (ara%eter ne"otiation and usa"e %onitorin" $ Traff"c para3eters
can be ne2ot"ated bet$een a user and the net$or; for each ,CC. The "nput of
ce--s to the ,CC "s 3on"tored by the net$or; for each ,CC. Th"s 3on"tor"n2
"s done "ntent"ona--y to ensure that the ne2ot"ated para3eters are not #"o-ated.
!n the 2roup of traf"c para3eters are "nc-uded a#era2e rate= pea; rate= burst"ness
and pea; durat"on. To dea- $"th con2est"on and to 3ana2e e<"st"n2 and re?uested
,CC@s the net$or; can use 3any strate2"es. One of the3 $h"ch "s the $orst one
"s that the ne$ re?uest for ,CCs can s"3p-y be den"ed by the net$or;= so th"s
$ay "t $ou-d pre#ent con2est"on. Then= ce--s 3ay be d"scarded "f ne2ot"ated
para3eters are #"o-ated. Moreo#er= "n an e<tre3e s"tuat"on= e<"st"n2 connect"on
3ay be ter3"nated.
Bes"de the 3ent"oned character"st"cs of ,CC a-so e<"st those of ,5C@s. Be ha#e
to po"nt out that the character"st"cs of ,CC@s are a-so part of ,5C@s. And there are
nu3ber of reason for th"s repeat"n2. F"rst of a-- th"s repeat"n2 pro#"des so3e
f-e<"b"-"ty "n ho$ the net$or; ser#"ce 3ana2es the re?u"re3ents p-aced on "t.
Then the net$or; 3ust be concerned $"th the o#era-- re?u"re3ents for a ,5C=
and $"th"n a ,5C 3ay ne2ot"ate the estab-"sh3ent of #"rtua- channe-s (,CC) $"th
2"#en character"st"cs. And f"na--y= once a ,5C "s set up= "t "s poss"b-e for the end
users to ne2ot"ate the creat"on of ne$ ,CCs. &o= here $e ha#e to "ntoduce a ne$
character"st"c that be-on2 to ,5CA
G 0irtua) c-anne) identi8ier restriction wit-in a 01C $ One or 3ore #"rtua-
channe- "dent"f"ers= or nu3bers= 3ay not be a#a"-ab-e to the user of ,5C= but
3ay be reser#ed for net$or; use. E<a3p-es "nc-ude ,CCs used for net$or;
0irtua) Circuits Connection Uses
The endpo"nts of ,CC 3ay be end users= net$or; ent"t"es= or an end user and a
net$or; ent"ty. And "n a-- cases ce--s are de-"#ered "n the sa3e order "n $h"ch they are
sent. Be-o$ are descr"bed e<a3p-es of three uses of a ,CCA
7 'etween end users & These ,CCs are used to carry end to end user data= but
a-so they carry contro- s"2na-"n2. The end users are pro#"ded $"th an o#era--
capac"ty= fro3 #"rtua- path connect"on= $h"ch -ays bet$een the3. The ,CC
or2an">at"on of the ,5C "s up to the t$o end users= but the set of ,CC@s
shou-dn@t e<ceed the ,5C capac"ty.
7 'etween an end user and a networ9 entit7 $ These ,CCs are used for user7
to7net$or; contro- s"2na-"n2. A user7to7net$or; ,5C can be used to a2re2ate
traff"c fro3 an end user to a net$or; e<chan2e or net$or; ser#er.
7 'etween two networ9 entities $ These ,CCs are used for traf"c 3ana2e3ent
and rout"n2 funct"ons. A net$or;7to7net$or; ,5C are used to def"ne a
co33on route that e<chan2es net$or; 3ana2e3ent "nfor3at"ons.
To e<p-a"n the s"2na-"n2 proccess c-ose-y $e@-- descr"be "t throu2h the f"2ure 0.6.
(ere $hen an ATM de#"ce such as router A "n the fu2ure= $ant@s to estab-"sh a
connect"on $"th another ATM de#"ce such router B= A sends a s"2na-"n2 re?uest pac;et to
"ts d"rect-y connected ATM s$"tch. Th"s re?uest conta"ns the ATM address of the des"red
ATM endpo"nt (Router B= "n th"s case)= a-so Io& para3eters re?u"red for the connect"on.
The s"2na-"n2 pac;et "s reasse3b-ed by the s$"tch and e<a3"ned. !f the s$"tch has
a s$"tch tab-e entry for Router BJs ATM address= and "t can acco33odate the Io&
re?uested for the connect"on= "t sets up the #"rtua- connect"on on the "nput -"n; and
for$ards the re?uest out the "nterface spec"f"ed "n the s$"tch"n2 tab-e for Router B.
E#ery s$"tch a-on2 the path to the endpo"nt reasse3b-es and e<a3"nes the
s"2na-"n2 pac;et and for$ards "t to the ne<t s$"tch "f the Io& para3eters can be
supported $h"-e sett"n2 up the #"rtua- connect"on as the s"2na-"n2 pac;et "s for$arded. !f
any s$"tch a-on2 the path cannot acco33odate the re?uested Io& para3eters= the
re?uest "s rejected= and a reject"on 3essa2e "s sent bac; to the or"2"nator of the re?uest.
Bhen the s"2na-"n2 pac;et arr"#es at the endpo"nt (Router B)= "t "s reasse3b-ed and
e#a-uated. !f the endpo"nt can support the des"red Io&= "t responds $"th an accept
3essa2e. As the accept 3essa2e propa2ates bac; to the or"2"nator of the re?uest= the
s$"tches set up a #"rtua- c"rcu"t. The or"2"nator of the re?uest then rece"#es the accept
Fi"ure #.: $ Contro) si"na)in" (roccess
Be sa"d that the e<chan2e of "nfor3at"on "n#o-#ed "n the proccess of estab-"sh3ents and
re-eases of ,5Cs and ,CCs= "s refered to as contro- s"2na-"n2. &o= for ,CCs four
3ethods are spec"f"ed for pro#"d"n2 an estab-"sh3ent/re-ease fac"-"ty A
0. Se%i(er%anent 0CCs= that are used for user7to7user e<chan2e= and here
no contro- s"2na-"n2 "s re?u"red.
9. Metasi"na)in" c-anne); $h"ch "s a per3anent channe- that "s used for
sett"n2 up s"2na-"n2 channe-s. The per3anent channe-= probab-y of -o$
data rate= "s used to set up ,CCs that can be used for ca-- contro-. Th"s
channe- "s estab-"shed on-y for contro- s"2na-"n2 e<chan2e $h"ch $ou-d
ta;e p-ace bet$een the user and the net$or;.
. User&to&networ9 si"na)in" virtua) c-anne); $h"ch can be used for
sett"n2 up ,CCs to carry user data.
%. User&to&user si"na)in" virtua) c-anne); that 3ust be set up $"th"n a
preestab-"shed ,5C. Than; to th"s= -ater the t$o end users can estab-"sh
end re-ease user7to7user ,CCs $"thout net$or; "nter#ent"on.
Bes"de ,CCs= there are three 3ethods def"ned for the ,5CsA
0. Estab-"sh3ent on se%i(er%anent bas"s by pr"or a2ree3ent= $here no
contro- s"2na-"n2 "s re?u"red.
9. Costu%er contro))ed estab-"sh3ent/re-ease= $here the custo3er uses
a s"2na-"n2 ,CC to re?uest the ,5C fro3 the net$or;.
. Networ9 contro))ed estab-"sh3ent/re-ease= $here the net$or;
estab-"shes a ,5C for "ts o$n con#en"ence. The path 3ay be net$or;7
to7net$or;= user7to7net$or;= user7to7user.
ATM transfers "nfor3at"on "n f"<ed7s">e un"ts ca--ed cells. Ce-- s">e ne#er
#ar"es= and ce--s $"th the sa3e source= dest"nat"on and c-ass of ser#"ce para3eters
a-$ays fo--o$ the sa3e path= as -on2 as that path 3eets perfor3ance cr"ter"a. Each ce--
cons"sts of + octets= or bytes (6 b"ts per byte). The f"rst + bytes conta"n ce--7header
"nfor3at"on= and the re3a"n"n2 %6 conta"n the pay-oad (user "nfor3at"on). &3a--=
f"<ed7-en2th ce--s are $e-- su"ted to transferr"n2 #o"ce and #"deo traff"c because such
traff"c "s "nto-erant of de-ays that resu-t fro3 ha#"n2 to $a"t for a -ar2e data pac;et to
do$n-oad= a3on2 other th"n2s. The "nfor3at"on f"e-d of ATM ce--s "s carr"ed
transparent-y throu2h the net$or;. No process"n2 -";e error contro- "s perfor3ed on "t
"ns"de the net$or;. These $ere so3e ad#anta2es of s3a-- s">ed ce--s= and to add 3ore
$e can say that= because they are f"<ed7s">e ce--s= they can be s$"tched 3ore
eff"c"ent-y= $h"ch "s "3portant for the #ery h"2h data rates of ATM. (ence "t "s eas"er
to "3p-e3ent the s$"tch"n2 3echan"s3 "n hard$are. An ATM Ce-- -oo;s -";e "n the
Fi"ure #.< $ ATM Ce)) 8or%at
An ATM ce-- header can be one of t$o for3atsA )N! or NN!. The )N!= )ser7Net$or;
!nterface header for3at "s def"ned by the )N! spec"f"cat"on= and the Net$or;7Net$or;
!nterface (NN!) header for3at "s def"ned by the NN! spec"f"cat"on. The )N! header "s
used for co33un"cat"on bet$een ATM endpo"nts and ATM s$"tches "n pr"#ate ATM
net$or;s= $h"-e the NN! header "s used for co33un"cat"on bet$een ATM s$"tches.
Fi"ure #.#= & An ATM Ce)); ATM UNI Ce)); and ATM NNI Ce)) Header
The )N! header cons"sts of the fo--o$"n2 f"e-ds (see f"2ure 0.01) A
• >FC 7 % b"ts of eneric flo! control are used to pro#"de -oca- funct"ons= such as
"dent"fy"n2 3u-t"p-e stat"ons that share a s"n2-e ATM "nterface. The :FC f"e-d "s
typ"ca--y not used and "s set to a defau-t #a-ue.
• 01I 7 6 b"ts of "irtual #ath identifier= are used= "n conjunct"on $"th the ,C!= to
"dent"fy the ne<t dest"nat"on of a ce-- as "t passes throu2h a ser"es of ATM
s$"tches on "ts $ay to "ts dest"nat"on.
• 0CI 7 04 b"ts of "irtual channel identifier= are used= "n conjunct"on $"th the ,5!=
to "dent"fy the ne<t dest"nat"on of a ce-- as "t passes throu2h a ser"es of ATM
s$"tches on "ts $ay to "ts dest"nat"on= or s"3p-y "t "s used for rout"n2 to and fro3
the end user. Thus= "t funct"ons 3uch as a ser#"ce access po"nt.
• 1T 7 b"ts of #ayload ty#e G "nd"cates the type of "nfor3at"on "n the "nfor3at"on
f"e-d. (ere the f"rst b"t "nd"cates $hether the ce-- conta"ns user data or contro-
data. !f the ce-- conta"ns user data= the second b"t "nd"cates con2est"on= and the
th"rd b"t "nd"cates $hether the ce-- "s the -ast "n a ser"es of ce--s that represent a
s"n2-e AAL+ fra3e.
• C?1 7 0 b"t of cell loss #riority= $h"ch "nd"cates $hether the ce-- shou-d be
d"scarded "f "t encounters e<tre3e con2est"on as "t 3o#es throu2h the net$or;.
(ere a #a-ue of 1 "nd"cates a ce-- of re-at"#e-y h"2her pr"or"ty= $h"ch shou-d not be
d"scarded un-ess no other a-ternat"#e "s a#a"-ab-e. A #a-ue of 0 "nd"cates that the
ce-- "s subject to d"scard $"th"n the net$or;
• HEC 7 6 b"ts of header error control= $h"ch "s a chec;su3 ca-cu-ated on-y on the
)n-";e the )N!= the NN! header does not "nc-ude the :ener"c F-o$ Contro- (:FC) f"e-d.
Add"t"ona--y= the NN! header has a ,"rtua- 5ath !dent"f"er (,5!) f"e-d that occup"es the
f"rst 09 b"ts= a--o$"n2 for -ar2er trun;s bet$een pub-"c ATM s$"tches. A-so th"s a--o$s
support for an e<panded nu3ber of ,5Cs "nterna- to the net$or;= to "nc-ude those
Header Error Contro)
L";e $e 3ent"oned ear-"er= header error contro- ((EC) "s an 67b"t f"e-d "n e#ery
ATM ce--= so the po-yno3"a- used to 2enerate the code "s <
!n 3ost e<"st"n2 protoco-s that "nc-ude an error contro- f"e-d= such as (*LC and LA5B=
the data that ser#e as "nput to the error code ca-cu-at"on= are 3uch -on2er than the s">e of
the resu-t"n2 error code. Th"s a--o$s for error detect"on. End "n the case of ATM= the code
has on-y 6 b"ts co3pared $"th 9 b"ts. Because the "nput "s #ery short= the code can be
used not on-y for error detect"on but a-so for error correct"on.
!n the f"2ure be-o$ $e are 2o"n2 to descr"be the (EC a-2or"th3 at the rece"#er.
No error %etecte%
0ingle1bit error %etecte%
*ultibit error %etecte%
No error %etecte%
Fi"ure #.## $ Header Error Contro) a)"orit-%
At the be2"nn"n2 the rece"#er@s error correct"on a-2or"th3 "s "n the defau-t 3ode
for s"n2-e b"t error correct"on. Then as each ce-- "s rece"#ed= there are done so3e
ca-cu-at"ons and co3par"sons. !f there are no errors detected= the rece"#er $"-- re3a"n "n
the error correct"on 3ode. Other$"se $hen an error $"-- be detected= the rece"#er $"--
correct "t= "f "t "s a s"n2-e b"t= or $ou-d detect that a 3u-t"b"t error has occurred. !n both
cases the rece"#er 3o#es to the detect"on 3ode. !n th"s 3ode= no atte3pt "s 3ade to
correct errors. And the reason "s that a no"se burst or other e#ent 3"2ht cause a se?uence
of errors= for $h"ch cond"t"on a (EC "s "nsuff"c"ent for error correct"on. Th"s $ay the
rece"#er $"-- stay "n the detect"on 3ode as -on2 as errored ce--s are rece"#ed. After the
e<a3"nat"on of the header= "f there are no error found the rece"#er s$"tches bac; to
correct"on 3ode. The conse?uences of errors "n the ce-- header= are sho$n "n the
f-o$chart be-o$= fro3 $here $e see that the error "s corrected or "f not the ce-- "s
termine% to be
2pparentl# $ali% cell
'ith errore% hea%er
Fi"ure #.#* $ Conse.uences o8 error in ce)) -eader
II. THE ATM REFERENCE MODE?
The ATM arch"tecture= $h"ch $as descr"bed part-y unt"- no$ uses a -o2"ca- 3ode- for
descr"b"n2 the $ay of $or; that "t supports. ATM "s a -ayered arch"tecture a--o$"n2
3u-t"p-e ser#"ces= such asA #o"ce= data= and #"deo= to be carr"ed o#er the net$or;. The
funct"ona-"ty of ATM corresponds to the phys"ca- -ayer and "n part to the data -"n; -ayer
of the O&! 3ode-.
The ATM reference 3ode- has se#era- -ayers $h"ch $"-- be d"scussedE a-- th"s -ayers
ha#e a co33on p-an and or2an">at"on cons"st"n2 ofA
7 Contro) (respons"b-e for 2enerat"n2 and 3ana2"n2 s"2na-"n2 re?uests=
3ana2es ca--/connect"on contro- funct"ons))
7 $ser ( respons"b-e for 3ana2"n2 user data transfer)
7 Manaement ( 9 co3ponentsA
• layer manaement= $h"ch 3ana2es -ayer spec"f"c funct"ons= as for
e<a3p-e detect"on of errors and protoco- prob-e3s
• #lane manaement= $h"ch 3ana2es the funct"ons that ha#e to do $"th the
$ho-e syste3 and pro#"des coord"nat"on bet$een #ar"ous -ayers
Further3ore= the ATM reference 3ode- has t$o for3sA
7 a for3 for the user7to net$or; "nterface ()N!)
7 a for3 for the net$or;7to7node "nterface (NN!)
Co3"n2 to the 3ost "3portant part of descr"b"n2 th"s reference 3ode- $e $"-- say
that the ATM Reference Mode- cons"sts of three -e#e-s (be-o$ $e $"-- 2"#e a deta"-ed
descr"pt"on of the3)= they areA
• The %hysical Layer (3ana2es the 3ed"u37dependent trans3"ss"onE
def"nes a transport 3ethod for ATM ce--s bet$een t$o ATM ent"t"es)
• The ATM Layer (respons"b-e for the s"3u-taneous shar"n2 of #"rtua-
c"rcu"ts o#er a phys"ca- -"n; and pass"n2 ce--s throu2h the ATM net$or;)
• The ATM Ada#tation Layer (respons"b-e for "so-at"n2 h"2her7-ayer
protoco-s fro3 the deta"-s of the ATM processesE "t prepares user data for
con#ers"on "nto ce--s and se23ents the data "nto %67byte ce-- pay-oads)
Abo#e these 3a"n -e#e-s= the ATM reference 3ode- has a-so so3e h"2her -ayers of
funct"ona-"ty but these three are the 3a"n -ayers that perform the main %ob.
Fi"ure *&#@ ATM Re8erence Mode)
Lets us turn no$ to a deta"-ed descr"pt"on and e<p-anat"on of the three 3a"n -ayers of
the ATM Reference Mode-.
The ATM 3ode- $as des"2ned to 3a;e the phys"ca- data transport funct"on as
"ndependent as poss"b-e fro3 the ATM s$"tch"n2 funct"on and other th"n2s that are
perfor3ed abo#e the ATM Layer.
The phys"ca- -ayer dea-s $"th "ssues re-ated to the 3ed"a and the s"2na-s carr"ed to the
3ed"a. !n other $ords= the phys"ca- -ayer 3ana2es the 3ed"u37dependent trans3"ss"on.
Th"s -ayer "s ana-o2ous to the phys"ca- -ayer of the O&! reference 3ode- and perfor3s b"t
-e#e- funct"ons. The ATM reference 3ode- has four 3a"n funct"ons= those areA con#ert"n2
the ce--s "nto a b"tstrea3= contro- of the trans3"ss"on and rece"pt of b"ts on the phys"ca-
3ed"u3= trac;"n2 the ATM ce-- boundar"es and pac;"n2 the ce--s "nto types $h"ch $"-- be
appropr"ate for the phys"ca- 3ed"u3.
!n add"t"on= the phys"ca- -ayer "s d"#"ded "nto t$o sub7-ayersA the 1-7sica) Mediu%&
De(endent sub&)a7er1MD! and t-e Trans%ission conver"ence TC! sub7-ayer.
T-e 1MD sub&)a7er
!t has t$o funct"ons. The bas"c funct"on of "t "s to ta;e a strea3 of b"ts and
transport "t transparent-y across a -"n;. !t 3a;es synchron">at"on of the trans3"ss"on and
recept"on by send"n2 and rece"#"n2 a cont"nuous f-o$ of b"ts ($"th t"3"n2 "nfor3at"on
assoc"ated). Actua--y= the 5M* sub7-ayer $or;s $"th strea3 of ytes and not $"th strea3
of b"ts= because 3ost of the 5M*s do the encod"n2 on a byte or ha-f7byte bas"s. !ts
second funct"on "s to def"ne the phys"ca- 3ed"a "nc-ud"n2 here the types of connectors and
cab-es. Most 5M*s use b-oc; cod"n2 "n any for3. A b-oc; code 2roups data b"ts "nto
Cb-oc;sD and trans-ates each b-oc; "nto another b"t pattern before trans3"ss"on on the -"ne.
B-oc;7coded protoco-s e"ther code %7b"t 2roups "nto +7b"t 2roups or 67b"t 2roups "nto 017
b"t 2roups. &o= $e can say that the 5M* sub7-ayer "s respons"b-e for the correct
trans3"ss"on and recept"on of b"ts on the phys"ca- 3ed"u3.
&o= $e can say that the 5M*s bas"c $or; "n the ATM reference 3ode- "s pro#"d"n2 the
transce"#er ser#"ces to phys"ca--y trans3"t the ATM ce--s and con#er2ence "nfor3at"on
bet$een t$o adjacent ATM stat"ons.
The 5M* "s concerned on-y $"th the phys"ca-= 3ed"u37dependent funct"ons and
spec"f"cat"ons= such asA
7 -"ne cod"n2= b"t a-"2n3ent and e-ectr"ca-7opt"ca- con#ers"on G these funct"ons
re-ate to the processes throu2h $h"ch b"ts are encoded "nto appropr"ate
e-ectr"ca- or opt"ca- s"2na-s and prepared for propa2at"on throu2h the net$or;
7 phys"ca- 3ed"a character"st"cs7 the 5M* sub-ayer spec"f"es the character"st"cs
of the phys"ca- transport 3ed"u3= such as the type of opt"ca- f"ber= the
trans3"tter/rece"#er $a#e-en2th= the rece"#ers sens"t"#"ty and po$er
T-e TC sub&)a7er
The TC sub7-ayer on the other hand has four funct"ons. Those areA ce-- de-"neat"on= header
error contro- ((EC)Gthe 2enerat"on and #er"f"cat"on of se?uence of ce--s= ce--7rate
decoup-"n2 and trans3"ss"on fra3e adaptat"on.
The ce-- de-"neat"on has to do $"th Cdef"n"n2D the ce-- boundar"es and 3a"nta"n"n2 the3=
"t a--o$s the de#"ces to -ocate ce--s "n a strea3 of b"ts. B"th th"s funct"on "t "s def"ned
$here "n the data strea3 does a ce-- start and f"n"sh. The Cf"nd"n2D or Cdef"n"n2D of the
boundar"es can be done bas"ca--y "n three $aysA
7 the trans3"ss"on -e#e- cod"n2 can "nc-ude a de-"3"ter funct"on that 3ar;s the
be2"nn"n2 and the end of the ce--sE
7 3any trans3"ss"on syste3s 3ay $or; $"th fra3"n2E the fra3"n2 syste3
-ocates the ce-- boundar"es (for e<a3p-e= th"s can be done $"th a po"nter
$"th"n the fra3e o#erhead sect"onE another $ay "s p-ac"n2 the ce--s at f"<ed
-ocat"ons $"th"n a fra3e(th"s cou-d cause -oss of eff"c"ency "f for e<a3p-e the
ce--s do not f"t e<act-y as they shou-d "n a fra3e
7 the ce-- (EC cou-d be used a-so for -ocat"n2 the ce-- boundary= th"s "s actua--y
the 3ost co33on (and the 3ost used) $ay of ce-- de-"neat"onE "f a correct
(EC "s reco2n">ed for a nu3ber of consecut"#e ce--s "t "s assu3ed that the
correct ce-- boundary "s foundE $hen the ce-- de-"neat"on has been found a
3echan"s3 "s used for us"n2 the (EC for correct"on or detect"on of ce--
header errors= after th"s the "so-ated s"n2-e b"t errors are corrected.
(EC se?uence 2enerat"on and #er"f"cat"on 2enerates and chec;s the header error contro-
code $"th the purpose of ensur"n2 $hether the data "s #a-"d or not. The (EC "s capab-e of
s"n2-e7b"t error correct"on or doub-e7b"t error detect"on.. The (EC se?uence 2enerat"on "s
done "n the d"rect"on of trans3"ss"on and "ts #a-ue "s reca-cu-ated and co3pared $"th the
#a-ue that "s rece"#ed. !f the header errors can not be corrected= the ce-- $"-- be d"scarded.
Ce--7rate decoup-"n2 ;eeps the ce--s synchron">ed and pro#"des the "d-e ce--s to adapt the
rate of #a-"d ce--s to the pay-oad capac"ty of the trans3"ss"on syste3. ATM 5M*s send a
constant strea3 of ce--s $"thout any 2aps (or ho-es). Bhen there are no ce--s to send an
e3pty ce-- "s sent. Th"s e3pty ce-- "s "nserted on the trans3"ss"on s"de and then "t "s
re3o#ed on the rece"#er s"de. (o$e#er= today th"s "s done "n another $ay. The ATM
-ayer has to de-"#er a strea3 of ce--s at the correct rate= such that the con#er2ence -ayer
$ou-d not ha#e to "nsert any ce--s.
B"th the -ast funct"on= trans3"ss"on fra3e adaptat"on= th"s sub7-ayer pac;s ATM
ce--s "nto the type of fra3es $h"ch $"-- be con#en"ent for the e<"stent "3p-e3entat"on of
the phys"ca- -ayer. &o= "n one $ord= the trans3"ss"on con#er2ence sub7-ayer "s respons"b-e
for 3app"n2 of the ATM ce--s to the syste3 that "s used for trans3"ss"on.
Typ"ca- poss"b-e trans3"ss"on syste3s at the phys"ca- -ayer are the synchronous d"2"ta-
h"erarchy (&*() or the F**! standards. The f"rst tas; of any trans3"ss"on syste3 "s to
2et t"3"n2 at the b"t -e#e- = $h"ch "s ate the -o$est phys"ca- -e#e-= and th"s "s ach"e#ed by
the phys"ca- 3ed"u3 sub7-ayer. Bhen the b"ts are a#a"-ab-e at the ne<t sub7-ayer "t "s then
poss"b-e to f"rst con#ert the b"ts to the fra3es of the trans3"ss"on syste3 that "s used= and
then con#ert the fra3es to the actua- ce--s. Th"s process can be seen on F"2ure 979 be-o$.
Fi"ure *&*@ Ce))s to Fra%e Conversion at t-e 1-7sica) ?a7er
The trans3"ss"on con#er2ence sub7-ayer "s standard">ed for to perfor3 the 2enerat"on
and e<tract"on of the fra3es at the spec"f"ed rates fro3 the &*( and f"nd"n2 the ATM
ce--s by -oo;"n2 fro3 the (EC on the ce-- header and then chec;"n2 the error correct"on
code. After the ce--s are found and chec;ed they are decoup-ed fro3 the trans3"ss"on rate
of the 3ed"u3E th"s process "s done by the "nsert"on and de-et"on of the "d-e ce--s "n the
strea3 (F"2ure 979). After th"s "s done the ce--s are then a#a"-ab-e to the ATM -ayer.
The phys"ca- -ayer can transfer ATM ce--s fro3 one user to another "n t$o $ays. At
the user7net$or; "nterface ()N!)= ATM ce--s 3ay be carr"ed "n an e<terna--y fra3ed
synchronous trans3"ss"on structure or "n a ce--7based asynchronous trans3"ss"on
structure. !n North A3er"ca= for e<a3p-e= &ONET= a synchronous trans3"ss"on structure=
"s often used for fra3"n2 and synchron">at"on at the phys"ca- -ayer. The bas"c t"3e un"t of
a &ONET fra3e "s 09+ 3"croseconds .
Let us no$ e<p-a"n #ery br"ef-y the $ay of $or;"n2 of the t$o sub7-ayers of ATMs
• ce--s are de-"#ered to the trans3"ss"on con#er2ence -ayer by the ATM -ayer
• the TC sub7-ayer ;no$s about the ce--s and about the structure of the
• the TCsub7-ayer 2enerates the (EC and puts "t "n the ce--E then the ce-- "s put
"nto the output strea3 of the TC sub7-ayer $h"ch than "s be"n2 fed to the
5hys"ca- Med"u3 *ependent (5M*) sub7-ayer
• the 5M* sub7-ayer ;no$s about the strea3= "f "t "s a strea3 of b"ts or a strea3
• the 5M* perfor3s cod"n2= t"3"n2 and trans3"ss"on funct"ons
A-- th"s phys"ca- protoco-s and "nterfaces ha#e three th"n2s "n co33on
• They are #oint-to-#oint 7They connect an ATM endpo"nt $"th an ATM s$"tch
or they connect t$o ATM s$"tches to2ether. There "s no 3u-t"po"nt or LAN
type connect"on def"nedE
• They are full-du#le* in o#eration (F+,).Th"s 3eans that data "s transferred
s"3u-taneous-y "n both d"rect"ons
• The #hysical lin- band!idth can be asymmetric. Th"s 3eans that a h"2her data
rate 3ay be poss"b-e "n one of the d"rect"ons.
A-- "n a-- $e can def"ne the ATM phys"ca- -ayer as fo--o$sA "t "s the -ayer that
def"nes the b"t t"3"n2 and other character"st"cs for encod"n2 and decod"n2 the data "nto
su"tab-e (preferab-e) e-ectr"ca-/opt"ca- $a#efor3s for trans3"ss"on and recept"on on the
spec"f"c phys"ca- 3ed"a used "t a-so ;eeps trac; of ATM ce-- boundar"es and pac;a2es
ce--s "nto the appropr"ate type of fra3e for the phys"ca- 3ed"u3 be"n2 used. The ATM
phys"ca- -ayer def"nes e-ectr"ca- character"st"cs and net$or; "nterfaces.
E<a3p-es of fe$ 3ed"a that are used "n the phys"ca- -ayer areA &ONET
(&ynchronous Opt"ca- Net$or;)= *&= 011Mbps -oca- f"ber (F"ber *"str"buted *ata
!nterface (F**!)phys"ca- -ayer)= 0++Mbps -oca- f"ber (F"ber Channe- phys"ca- -ayer)=
t$"sted7pa"r etc. Th"s e<a3p-es ta-; about the fact that one of the stren2ths of the
Asynchronous Transfer Mode standards are the ab"-"ty to conf"2ure net$or;s that operate
o#er a #ar"ety of phys"ca- "nterfaces. *epend"n2 on the type of "nterface= add"t"ona-
channe- 3ana2e3ent ser#"ces are a-so often "nc-udedE strate2"es for fra3"n2 the ATM
ce--s "nc-ude synchronous fra3"n2 t"ed to the -o$er -e#e- channe- synchron">at"on
protoco-s (&ONET= *&= 0++Mbps) or based asynchronous -"ne cod"n2 sche3es ( e<. The
use of F**! fra3"n2 "n the 011Mbps f"ber "nterface).
To su3 up here for the phys"ca- -ayer $e can say that the ATM phys"ca- -ayer
def"nes ho$ ce--s are 3apped onto a phys"ca- 3ed"u3 for trans3"tt"n2 and rece"#"n2
bet$een ATM hard$are de#"ces.
T&E ATM LA'E)
The ATM -ayer= to2ether $"th the ATM adaptat"on -ayer can be sa"d to be
ana-o2ous to the data -"n; -ayer of the O&! reference 3ode-.
The ATM -ayer represents the phys"ca- "nterface bet$een the ATM Adaptat"on -ayer and
the ATM 5hys"ca- -ayer. Thus= the ATM -ayer "s respons"b-e for re-ay"n2 ce--s fro3 the
AAL to the 5hys"ca- -ayer for trans3"ss"on= and "n oppos"te d"rect"on fro3 the 5hys"ca-
-ayer to the AAL for use "n an endpo"nt.
!f $e $ant to def"ne the ATM Layer "n one s"3p-e sentence $e $ou-d say that the
ATM Layer def"nes ho$ t$o nodes trans3"t "nfor3at"on bet$een the3. !t "s a un"?ue
-ayer that carr"es d"fferent classes of services $"th"n a +7byte ce--. Ma"n-y= "t ta;es the
data to be sent and adds the +7byte header "nfor3at"on. Actua--y $hen transport"n2 ce--s
to the 5hys"ca- -ayer= the ATM -ayer "s respons"b-e for 2enerat"n2 the f"#e7b"t ce-- header
for each ce--E $hen rece"#"n2 ce--s fro3 the 5hys"ca- -ayer= the ATM -ayer perfor3s a
re#erse operat"on= "t e<tracts the f"#e7b"t header fro3 the ce--.
The actua- 3anner by $h"ch the ATM -ayer perfor3s "ts re-ay"n2 funct"on "s depends
on the -ocat"on of the -ayer= "f "t "s -ocated "n an endpo"nt or at a s$"tch. !f "t "s -ocated at
an endpo"nt "t rece"#es a strea3 of ce--s fro3 the 5hys"ca- -ayer and trans3"ts e"ther ce--s
$"th ne$ data or e3pty ce--s "f there "s no data to send to the AAL. !f "t "s -ocated "n a
s$"tch= the ATM -ayer "s respons"b-e for deter3"n"n2 $here the "nco3"n2 ce--s are routed
and a-so for 3u-t"p-e<"n2 the ce--s by p-ac"n2 the3 fro3 "nd"#"dua- connect"ons "nto a
The ATM -ayer "s "ndependent of the phys"ca- 3ed"u3 throu2h $h"ch trans3"ss"on "s
perfor3ed. !t "s concerned $"th the for3at and s">e of the ce--s and the contents of the
headers. !n a 3ore spec"f"c $ay of def"n"n2 th"s -ayer $e $ou-d say thatA the ATM -ayer
perfor3s the core funct"ons of the ATM protoco-= $h"ch areA 3u-t"p-e<"n2= ,5!/,C!
trans-at"on= pay-oad e<tract"on= header process"n2 and 2ener"c f-o$ contro-.
The ATM -ayer has the respons"b"-"ty of s"3u-taneous shar"n2 of #"rtua- c"rcu"ts o#er a
phys"ca- -"n; Gth"s "s the process ca--ed cell multiplexing G and pass"n2 ce--s throu2h the
ATM net$or; G ca--ed cell relay. For perfor3"n2 th"s funct"ons that $ere descr"bed = the
-ayer uses the ,5! and ,C! "nfor3at"on "n the header of each ATM ce--.
The funct"ona-"ty of the ATM -ayer "s def"ned by the f"e-ds present "n the ATM ce--
header. The ce-- header conta"ns a 2ener"c f-o$ contro- (:FC) f"e-d= the ,C!/,5! f"e-ds= a
pay-oad type "nd"cator (5T!) f"e-d= a ce-- -oss pr"or"ty (CL5) f"e-d= and a header chec;su3
Fi"ure *&+@ ATM )a7er data -and)in" (rocesses
!n f"2ure 97 $e can see ho$ ATM -ayer actua--y $or;sA the ATM -ayer accepts the
%67byte &AR75*)s fro3 the se23entat"on and reasse3b-y (&AR) sub-ayer of the AAL=
bu"-ds a +7byte header for each &AR75*)= and produces +7byte ATM ce--s for de-"#ery
to the phys"ca- -ayer for transport to an ATM dest"nat"on endpo"nt.
Let us 3a;e a c-ear d"st"nct"on of the four funct"ons of th"s -ayerA
• :ener"c F-o$ Contro- funct"on (:FC)7L"t can be used for ta;"n2 care of
the o#er-oad cond"t"ons abo#e the ATM -ayer E
• Ce-- header 2enerat"on and e<tract"on7L"t "s used for "nsert"n2 header
"nfor3at"on at the trans3"tter end ("n the rece"#ed ce-- fro3 the upper
-ayer) and re3o#"n2 "t at the rece"#"n2 endE
• Ce-- 3u-t"p-e< and de3u-t"p-e<7L"t "s used for 3u-t"p-e<"n2 the ce--s "nto
one cont"nuous strea3 at the trans3"tter end= and de3u-t"p-e<"n2 the ce--s
at the header accord"n2 to ,5! (,"rtua- 5ath !dent"f"er) and ,C! (,"rtua-
Channe- !dent"f"er) #a-uesE
• ,5! and ,C! trans-at"on= $h"ch "s perfor3ed at the ATM s$"tch"n2 and/or
!t "s $orth to note here that the funct"ons perfor3ed by the ATM -ayer are des"2ned to
be carr"ed out "n hard$are at #ery h"2h data rates. Bhether th"s can be ach"e#ed $"th
todayJs e-ectron"cs at reasonab-e cost and h"2h re-"ab"-"ty "s yet to be deter3"ned.
At -ast= $e can conc-ude that ATM -ayer of the ATM reference 3ode- "s respons"b-e
for estab-"sh"n2 connect"ons and pass"n2 ce--s throu2h the $ho-e ATM net$or;= and for
do"n2 th"s "t uses a-- the "nfor3at"on that "s conta"ned "n the header of each ATM ce--.
The ATM -ayer "s the -ayer that descr"bes ho$ ce--s are transported throu2h the net$or;
and ho$ ?ua-"ty of ser#"ce "s enforced= so that connect"ons operate $"th"n the"r contracted
ser#"ce -e#e-s. The ATM -ayer "s the core -ayer of the standard and th"s "s the -ayer that
routes the ce--s across the net$or; and 3u-t"p-e<es and de3u-t"p-e<es the ce--s to2ether
fro3 3any #"rtua- paths on to one phys"ca- carr"er.
ATM A+A%TAT(./ LA'E)
As $e d"scussed ear-"er the phys"ca- -ayer and ATM -ayer of the ATM reference
3ode- pro#"de se?uent"a- transfer of f"<ed7s">ed data un"ts across a net$or;. The ATM
Adaptat"on Layer (AAL) adapts that transfer process to perfor3 the upper -ayer ser#"ces
re?u"red by d"fferent users.
The ATM adaptat"on -ayer -"es bet$een the ATM -ayer and the h"2her -ayers $h"ch use
the ATM ser#"ce. !ts 3a"n purpose "s to reso-#e any d"spar"ty bet$een a ser#"ce re?u"red
by the user and ser#"ces a#a"-ab-e at the ATM -ayer.
The ATM Adaptat"on Layer (AAL) perfor3s the process of adapt"n2 the traff"c
2enerated by d"fferent app-"cat"ons to the ATM protoco-. !n co3b"nat"on $"th the ATM
-ayer (as sa"d beforeM) "t "s ana-o2ous to the data -"n; -ayer of the O&! reference 3ode-.
The adaptat"on -ayer reso-#es any d"spar"ty bet$een ser#"ces pro#"ded by the ce--7based
techno-o2y of the ATM -ayer to the b"t7strea3 techno-o2y of d"2"ta- ser#"ces (such as
te-ephones and #"deo ca3eras) and the pac;et7strea3 techno-o2y of trad"t"ona- data
net$or;s (such as Fra3e re-ay and F.9+ used "n BANs and LAN protoco-s such as
Ethernet and TC5/!5).
&o= the 3a"n purpose of the ATM adaptat"on -ayer (AAL) "s to pro#"de a -"n; bet$een
ser#"ces that are re?uested by the h"2her net$or; -ayers and the ATM ce--s $h"ch are
used by the ATM -ayer. !t "s respons"b-e for "so-at"n2 h"2her7-ayer protoco-s fro3 the
deta"-s of the ATM processes.
The AAL 3a;es the trans-at"on bet$een the -ar2est ser#"ce data un"ts ( &*)s= e<.
,"deo strea3s= data pac;ets) of processes of the h"2her -ayers and ATM ce--s. !n other
$ords= the AAL rece"#es pac;ets fro3 the h"2her7-e#e-s and brea;s the3 "nto se23ents
of %67bytes that for3 the pay-oad f"e-d (usefu- data) of an ATM ce--.
The ATM adaptat"on -ayer conta"ns t$o sub7-ayers
Con"erence sub-layer - th"s part of the adaptat"on -ayer puts a header and a tra"-er
$h"ch conta"n "nfor3at"on about the ser#"ces re?u"red and the ser#"ces to be perfor3ed=
the "nfor3at"on on the header and on the tra"-er depends on the c-ass of "nfor3at"on that
"s 2o"n2 to be transported and usua--y conta"ns error hand-"n2 "nfor3at"on and
"nfor3at"on about preser#"n2 the pr"or"ty of the data
Sementation and reassembly sub-layer - &e23entat"on and reasse3b-y refers to the
process that "s used for fra23ent"n2 and reasse3b-"n2 pac;ets so to a--o$ the3 to be
transported across ATM net$or;s. Because of the reason that the ATM pay-oad "s on-y
%6 bytes= near-y e#ery pac;et fro3 any other protoco- has to be processed "n th"s $ay.
Thus= "t "s an essent"a- process for e#ery ATM node.
Th"s -ayer "s the -o$est of the t$o sub-ayers ( Con#er2ence sub-ayer and &AR ) that
3a;e up the ATM Adaptat"on -ayer as "s sho$n "n the f"2ure be--o$A
5 5 A Co%%on 1art Conver"ence Sub)a7er A
5 CS A&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&A
AA? B AService S(eci8ic Conver"ence Sub)a7erA
B SAR A Se"%entation C Reasse%b)7 Sub)a7er A
A ATM )a7er A
Fi"ure *&/@ T-e AA?
7 th"s part of the ATM adaptat"on -ayer rece"#es the data un"t fro3 the con#er2ence
sub7-ayer and d"#"des "t to un"ts $h"ch than "t can p-ace the3 "nto the ATM ce--sE to each
p"ece "t a-so adds a header $h"ch "s used as a he-p"n2 too- for reasse3b-"n2 the p"eces at
The "nfor3at"on transported by the ATM adaptat"on -ayer "s d"#"ded "nto fe$ c-asses
accord"n2 to the fo--o$"n2 propert"esA
7 the "nfor3at"on that "s transported cou-d be t"3e dependent or t"3e
7 the b"t rate cou-d be #ar"ab-e or constant
7 the "nfor3at"on transfer cou-d ha#e t$o 3odesA connect"on and connect"on-ess
There are % ser#"ce c-asses def"ned= those areA
0. C-ass A 7 a t"3e re-at"on e<"sts bet$een the source and the dest"nat"on= the b"t
rate "s constant= and the ser#"ce "s connect"on7or"ented (e.2.= a #o"ce channe-).
9. C-ass B 7 a t"3e re-at"on e<"sts bet$een the source and the dest"nat"on= the b"t
rate "s #ar"ab-e= and the ser#"ce "s connect"on7or"ented (e.2.= a #"deo or aud"o
. C-ass C 7 no t"3e re-at"on e<"sts bet$een the source and the dest"nat"on= the b"t
rate "s #ar"ab-e= and the ser#"ce "s connect"on7or"ented (e.2.= a connect"on7or"ented
%. C-ass * 7 no t"3e re-at"on e<"sts bet$een the source and the dest"nat"on= the b"t
rate "s #ar"ab-e= and the ser#"ce "s connect"on-ess (e.2.= LAN "nterconnect"on and
There are fe$ ATM adaptat"on -ayer ser#"ces $h"ch are current-y spec"f"ed. The
!nternat"ona- Te-eco33un"cat"on )n"on (!T)) f"rst deter3"ned the need to pro#"de
se#era- standard AALs (c-asses of ser#"ce) to sat"sfy the re?u"re3ents of encapsu-at"n2
d"fferent "nfor3at"on types "nto ATM -ayer ce--s. The se-ect"on of the proper AAL
depends on the phys"ca- -"n;s be"n2 used and the type of data be"n2 trans3"tted. &o they
ATM ada(tation )a7er #
AAL70 "s used for transferr"n2 a constant b"t data rateE th"s rate "s time dependent. For
th"s reason and because ATM "s asynchronous AAL70 pac;et data un"ts are e?u"pped
$"th add"t"ona- "nfor3at"on such as t"3e sta3ps and se?uence counts to perfor3 the
adaptat"on. AAL70 3ust send t"3"n2 "nfor3at"on a-on2 $"th the data. AAL70 pro#"des
error reco#ery and spec"f"es the errored "nfor3at"on $h"ch can not be reco#ered. The
con#er2ence sub-ayer pro#"ded here "s used d"fferent-y depend"n2 on the ser#"ce that "s
pro#"ded. !t pro#"des b"t error correct"on and can a-so be used to trans3"t t"3"n2
"nfor3at"on. At the se23entat"on and reasse3b-y sub-ayer pro#"ded here the data un"t "s
se23ented and a header "s added to "t.
&o= AAL70 operates by p-ac"n2 a one byte header on %. bytes of user data and then
transferr"n2 the %6 bytes to the ATM -ayer .
The header that "s added here conta"ns three partsA
• a se?uence nu3ber (&N)= $h"ch "s used to detect "nsert"on and -oss of ce--s
• se?uence nu3ber protect"on (&N5)= $h"ch "s used to correct errors that
appear/occur "n the se?uence nu3bers
• con#er2ence sub-ayer "nd"cat"on= $h"ch "s used to spec"fy the presence of
the con#er2ence sub-ayer funct"on
The &AR of the AAL70 $"-- be not"f"ed of the e<"stence of the C& sub-ayer by the C&
"nd"cator (C&!). A se?uence nu3ber (&N) "s passed fro3 the C& sub-ayer to the &AR and
th"s &N then can be used to detect 3"ss"n2 &AR -oad"n2s. As spec"f"ed before= the header
of the &AR "s protected by a se?uence nu3ber protect"on f"e-d $h"ch can "nfor3 the C&
sub-ayer of b"t errors.
The use of AAL70 pro#"des for$ard"n2 error correct"on at the cost of "ncreased
band$"dth and de-"#ery de-ay. !t a-so a--o$s co3pensat"on for CELL *ELA'
,AR!AT!ON (C*,) and the rep-ace3ent of the -ost ce--s. AA70 -ayer "s reco33ended
$hen h"2h #"deo ?ua-"ty "s needed= for e<a3p-e for #o"ce and #"deoconferenc"n2.
Fi"ure *&2@ AA?&# (re(arin" ce))s 8or trans%ission in a wa7 so t-at t-e ce))s
retain t-eir order
&u33"n2 up for th"s adaptat"on -ayer $e cou-d say that the ATM adaptat"on -ayer
perfor3s the funct"ons $h"ch are necessary to adapt constant b"t rate (CBR) ser#"ces to
the ATM -ayer ser#"ces.
ATM ada(tation )a7er *
AAL79 "s used for trasferr"n2 variable b"t rate data = $h"ch "s time dependent
a-so. !t sends t"3"n2 "nfor3at"on a-so a-on2 "th the data so that the t"3"n2 dependency
cou-d be reco#ered at the dest"nat"on. AAL79 a-so pro#"des error reco#ery and "nd"cates
errored "nfor3at"on $h"ch can not be reco#ered. Because of the reason that the source
here 2enerates #ar"ab-e b"t rate data= so3e of the ce--s that are transferred 3ay be not fu--
and for th"s reason add"t"ona- features are re?u"red for the se23entat"on and reco#ery
-ayer. T"s -ayer funct"on=the con#er2ence sub-ayer pro#"des error correct"on and
transports the t"3"n2 "nfor3at"on fro3 the source to the dest"nat"on.Th"s "s ach"e#ed "n
the sa3e $ay as "n the AAL70.
At the se23entat"on and reco#ery sub-ayer here a header and a tra"-er are added= too.
• The header conta"ns t$o parts/f"e-dsA
7 a se?uence nu3ber (&N)= $h"ch a-so "s used to detect "nserted or -ost ce--s(as
7 the "nfor3at"on type= can beA
BOM 7 the be2"nn"n2 of the 3essa2eE
COM G the cont"nuat"on of the 3essa2eE
EOM G the end of the 3essa2eE
or can "nd"cate that the ce-- conta"ns t"3"n2 "nfor3at"on or other ;"nd of
• The tra"-er a-so conta"ns t$o f"e-dsA
7 The -en2th "nd"cator= $h"ch "nd"cates the nu3ber of true data bytes "n a ce--
that "s part"a--y fu--E
7 CRC= $h"ch "s a cyc-"c redundancy chec; used by the se23entat"on and
reasse3b-y sub-ayer for correct"n2 the errors.
AAL79 pro#"des band$"dth eff"c"ent trans3"ss"on of -o$7rate. &hort and #ar"ab-e
pac;ets "n de-ay sens"t"#e app-"cat"ons. AAL79 a-so pro#"des #ar"ab-e pay-oads (as sa"d
before) $"th"n ce--s and across ce--s.
An enhance3ent to asynchronous transfer 3ode techno-o2y= AAL9 pro#"des the
effect"#e transport of #o"ce $h"-e support"n2 the 2ro$"n2 de3ands for data throu2h
under-y"n2 ATM AAL+7based ser#"ces.
ATM ada(tation )a7er +
AAL7 "s used for transferr"n2 #ar"ab-e rate data $h"ch "s t"3e "ndependent. Th"s ser#"ce
-ayer supports 3essa2e 3ode and strea3"n2 3ode ser#"ces. Messa2e 3ode ser#"ces are
transported "n one s"n2-e ATM adaptat"on -ayer "nterface data un"t= $hereas strea3"n2
3ode ser#"ces re?u"re one or 3ore ATM adaptat"on -ayer "nterface data un"t (!*)s).
AAL7 "s d"#"ded "nto t$o for3s of operat"on= $h"ch areA
• assured operation G $here corrupted or -ost con#er2ence sub-ayer
protoco- data un"ts are retrans3"tted and f-o$ contro- "s a-so supported
• non7assured operat"on 7 $here error reco#ery "s -eft for the h"2her
-ayers and the f-o$ contro- "s on-y opt"ona-
T-e conver"ence sub&)a7er of AAL7 "s #ery s"3"-ar to the con#er2ence -ayer of
AAL79= both of the3 ha#e to do $"th non7rea- t"3e data. The AAL7 con#er2ence -ayer
"s further d"#"ded "nto t$o partsA
0. The common #art con"erence sub-layer as pro#"ded a-so by the AAL79E "t "nserts
header and tra"-er to the co33on part con#er2ence sub7-ayer Gprotoco- data un"t pay-oad.
The header and tra"-er ha#e f"e-d eachA
• the headerA
7 the co33on part "nd"cator= $h"ch "nd"cates that the pay-oad "s a part of
the co33on art
7 the be2"n ta2= $h"ch 3ar;s the start of the co33on part con#er2ence
sub7-ayer protoco- data un"t
7 the buffer a--ocat"on s">e= $h"ch te--s the rece"#er ho$ 3uch buffer
space "s re?u"red to acco33odate the 3essa2e
• the tra"-er A
7 a-"2n3ent= $h"ch "s a byte f"--er used to 3a;e the header and tra"-er the
7 the end ta2= $h"ch 3ar;s the end of the co33on part con#er2ence
sub-ayer7protoco- data un"t
7 the -en2th f"e-d= $h"ch ho-ds the -en2th of the co33on part
con#er2ence sub7-ayer protoco- data un"t pay-oad.
9. The ser"ice s#ecific #art. The funct"ons pro#"ded at th"s -ayer depend on the
ser#"ces $h"ch are re?uested. They 2enera-y "nc-ude funct"ons for error detect"on and
T-e se"%entation and reasse%b)7 sub)a7erA At th"s -ayer the con#er2ence
sub-ayer 7 protoco- data un"t "s se23ented "nto p"eces $h"ch can be p-aced "n the ATM
ce--s. (ere too= each ce-- has "ts o$n header and tra"-er.
• The header conta"ns f"e-dsA
7 a se23ent type= $h"ch spec"f"es $hat part of the 3essa2e "s "ncorporated
"n the pay-oadE "t has a fe$ #a-ues (s"3"-ar-y to the header "n AAL79)
BOM= $h"ch "nd"cated the be2"nn"n2 of the 3essa2e
COM= $h"ch s"2n"f"es the cont"nuat"on of the 3essa2e
EOM= $h"ch "s the end of the 3essa2e
&&M= $h"ch "nd"cates a s"n2-e se23ent 3essa2e
7 a se?uence nu3ber (&N)= used to "nd"cate "nsert"on and -os "n ATM
7 3u-t"p-e<"n2 "dent"f"er= $h"ch "s used to d"fferent"ate data fro3
d"fferent connect"ons $h"ch ha#e been 3u-t"p-e<ed "nto a s"n2-e ATM
• The tra"-er conta"ns t$o f"e-dsA
7 a -en2th nu3ber= $h"ch ho-d the nu3ber of usefu- data bytes "n the ce--
7 the C'C= a cyc-"c redundancy chec; used for detect"n2 errors and
ATM ada(tation )a7er /
AAL7% "s des"2ned and used for transport"n2 #ar"ab-e b"t rate t"3e "ndependent traff"c "n
a connect"on-ess 3ode. &"3"-ar-y to AAL7 = AAL7% a-so supports t$o 3odes of
ser#"ces A 3essa2e 3ode ser#"ces and strea3"n2 3ode ser#"ces. !f $e $ant to def"ne the3
here too= "n other $ords $e cou-d say thatA in message mode= s"n2-e b-oc;s of data are
rece"#ed fro3 the user at the ser#"ce "nterface and de-"#ered to another ser#"ce "nterface
e-se$here "n the net$or;E $hereas in the streaming mode= a strea3 of data b-oc;s
separated "n t"3e fro3 one another "s transported across the net$or;. !t can a-so operate
"n assured and non7assured 3ode as $e-- (a-so s"3"-ar-y to AAL7).
AAL7% pro#"des the poss"b"-"ty of transferr"n2 data $"thout 3a;"n2 any
connect"on. Th"s type of ser#"ce $ou-d not $or; for e"ther #o"ce or #"deo. ,o"ce and
#"deo depend on d"st"nct connect"ons fro3 end to end.
AAL% pro#"des and support po"nt7to7po"nt and po"nt7to73u-t"po"nt transfer.
Ne#erthe-ess= AAL7% "s not ab-e to pro#"de a fu-- connect"on-ess ser#"ce because
funct"ons such as rout"n2 and address"n2 are perfor3ed at a h"2her -e#e-.
ATM ada(tation )a7er 2
ALL7+ "s the pr"3ary AAL for data and supports both connect"on7or"ented and
connect"on-ess data. AAL7+ "s a-so ;no$n as the s"3p-est and eff"c"ent adaptat"on -ayer
( &EAL ) because of the reason that the &AR sub7-ayer s"3p-y accepts the C&)75*) and
se23ents "t "nto %67octet &AR 5*)s $"thout reser#"n2 any bytes "n each ce--.
ALL7+ $as "n"t"a--y "ntended on-y for connect"on or"ented data transfer= and "t has
been pro#en to be a 3ore eff"c"ent protoco- then AAL70 (-ess o#erhead= a fact that "s #ery
"3portant for e<a3p-e for band$"dth sens"t"#e M5E:79 app-"cat"ons).
AAL7+ pro#"des these operat"onsA F"rst= the con#er2ence sub7-ayer of AAL7+ appends
a #ar"ab-e7-en2th pad and a 67byte tra"-er to a fra3e. The pad "s -on2 enou2h to ensure
that the resu-t"n2 5*) fa--s on the %67byte boundary of the ATM ce--. Then the
se23entat"on and reasse3b-y se23ents the C& 5*) "nto %67byte b-oc;s. Ne<t= the ATM
-ayer p-aces each b-oc; "nto the pay-oad f"e-d of the ATM ce--. For a-- ce--s e<cept the -ast
ce--= a b"t "n the header "s set to >ero to "nd"cate that the ce-- "s not the -ast ce-- "n the
ser"es that present one s"n2-e fra3e ( a b"t "s set to one for the -ast ce--). The rece"#"n2
AAL+ co--ects the "nco3"n2 ce--s unt"- "t f"nds one $"th a b"t that "nd"cate the end of the
fra3e. A-thou2h AAL+ uses a s"n2-e b"t "n the ce-- header for con#er2ence= other ATM
adaptat"on -ayer protoco-s can use other con#er2ence 3echan"s3s a-so.
AAL7+ "n a $ay "s a s"3p-"f"cat"on of AAL7 and AAL7% and "t re3o#es the need for
COM= BOM and EOM= $h"ch "ncreases the eff"c"ency of the protoco- and 3a;es "ts
"3p-e3entat"on 3uch eas"er
Fi"ure *&3@ AA?&2 8or%ats
The AAL7+ "s current-y the predo3"nant North A3er"can adaptat"on -ayerE ho$e#er
AAL7+ $as not des"2ned to cope $"th ce-- t"3"n2 re-at"onsh"ps no$ $"th ce--7-oss.
As $e ha#e seen= essent"a--y the ATM adaptat"on -ayer of the ATM reference 3ode-
does not do any error reco#ery. !f a fra3e "s be"n2 rece"#ed $"th so3e errors on "t than "t
"s d"scarded and "t "s not de-"#ered to the rece"#"n2 end. The error reco#ery "s a
respons"b"-"ty of a Ch"2her7-ayerD protoco-. The ALL ta;es fra3es (b-oc;s) of data that
are de-"#ered to "t= brea;s the3 "nto ce--s and adds the necessary header "nfor3at"on $"th
the purpose of a--o$"n2 the rebu"-d"n2 of the or"2"na- b-oc;s at the rece"#"n2 end.
To su3 up for the AAL+= $e $"-- say that a co3puter uses ATM Adaptat"on -ayer +
for send"n2 -ar2e b-oc;s of data o#er ATM #"rtua- c"rcu"ts. On the trans3"tt"n2 end=
AAL+ 2enerates a tra"-er= se23ents the b-oc; of data "nto ce--s and sends each ce-- o#er
the #"rtua- c"rcu"t. On the rece"#"n2 end= AAL+ reasse3b-es the ce--s $"th the purpose of
produc"n2 the or"2"na- b-oc; of data= e<tracts the tra"-er and de-"#ers the b-oc;s of data to
the rece"#"n2 host soft$are.
E#en "f fe$ AALs $ere def"ned based on the app-"cat"on c-asses they st"-- ha#e a
suff"c"ent de2ree of co33ona-"ty to be 3er2ed. F"2ure 97. c-ear-y "--ustrates the
re-at"onsh"p bet$een app-"cat"on c-asses and ATM Adaptat"on -ayers $"th respect to the
d"fferent para3eters used to c-ass"fy the app-"cat"on c-asses.
Fi"ure *&4@ A view o8 t-e AA? and t-e services t-e7 su((ort
!n conc-us"on to the e<p-anat"on of the ATM adaptat"on -ayer of the ATM reference
3ode- $e can say that the funct"on of "t "s to pro#"de 2enera-">ed "nter$or;"n2 across the
ATM net$or;. Th"s -ayer been adopted by the ATM Foru3 for a c-ass of ser#"ce ca--ed
("2h &peed *ata Transfer. AAL "s a set of standard protoco-s $h"ch trans-ate user traff"c
"nto a s">e and for3at that can be conta"ned "n the pay-oad of an ATM ce-- (+ bytes).
)ser traff"c "s returned to "ts or"2"na- for3 at the dest"nat"on.
A SUMMARY FOR THE REFERENCE MODEL
Fi"ure *&:@ T-e ATM Re8erence Mode)
!n f"2ure 976 $e can see no$ c-ear-y $h"ch are the co3pr"s"n2 -ayers of the ATM
Reference Mode-. There are a-so so3e upper -ayers of the ATM protoco- reference
3ode-= those "nc-ude opt"ona- protoco- -ayers $h"ch are used to further encapsu-ate ATM
ser#"ce for use $"th TC5/!5 and other protoco-s.
At -ast= $e $"-- su33ar">e th"s part of our research paper by $r"t"n2 the fe$ 3a"n
"deas about th"s reference 3ode-.
ATM Networ9 ATM Networ9 UNI UNI UNI UNI
• ATM "s "ndependent of any spec"f"c trans3"ss"on 3ed"u3
• The ATM -ayer def"nes the ce-- for3at= the $ay ce--s are transported
and the $ay to treat con2est"on
• The ATM adaptat"on -ayer def"nes the process of con#ert"n2
"nfor3at"on fro3 the upper -ayers "nto ATM ce--s
The ATM $as "n"t"a--y des"2ned and de#e-oped to support the #ar"ous
re?u"re3ents of the #ar"ous traff"c types. There $ere #ar"ous re?u"re3ents of
?ua-"ty7of7ser#"ce (such as -atency= de-ay= 3a<"3u3 and 3"n"3u3 burst= j"tter=
band$"dth and so on) for d"fferent traff"c = "nc-ud"n2 (TT5 f"-e transfer= #"deo
and #o"ce traff"c.
The d"fferent traff"c types= such as AAL70 and AAL7+ spec"fy the ATM ce--
structure throu2h the arch"tecture of the protoco- data un"ts (5*)s) re?u"red "n
the"r cate2or"es. These traff"c types are part of the para3eters $h"ch are needed
dur"n2 the ce-- setup= to spec"fy the traff"c re?u"re3ents that 3ust be present to
support the #ar"ous types of ce--s= based on the app-"cat"on re?u"re3ent. AAL79 "s
2a"n"n2 an "ncreased attent"on because "t addresses part"cu-ar needs that are not
fu-f"--ed by AAL70 nor by AAL7+.
!n f"2ure 978 $e can see the su33ary of the $ho-e ATM 3ode-= "ts -ayers=
sub-ayers and d"fferent funct"ons.
Fi"ure *&<@ ATM )a7ers; sub&)a7ers and t-eir 8unctions
Accord"n2 to !T)7T (!nternat"ona- Te-eco33un"cat"ons )n"on7Te-eco33un"cat"on
&tandard">at"on)= ATM "s Na transfer 3ode "n $h"ch the "nfor3at"on "s or2an">ed "nto
ce--sE "t "s asynchronous "n the sense that the recurrence of ce--s conta"n"n2 "nfor3at"on "s
not per"od"c. Th"s "s 3aybe the best def"n"t"on for ATM. Lets turn no$ to so3e thou2hts
about "ts use.
Asynchronous transfer 3ode (ATM) "s often descr"bed as the future co3puter
net$or;"n2 parad"23 that $"-- br"n2 h"2h7speed co33un"cat"ons t the des;top.
!t "s a-ready ;no$n that 3any or2an">at"ons today and 3any co3pan"es ha#e "nsta--ed
LANs for to 3eet the"r need of "nfor3at"on e<chan2e "n the years to co3e. &o= rep-ac"n2
the"r LANs $"th ATM LANs "n order to ;eep up $"th techno-o2y "s pure nonsense.
Ne#erthe-ess= connect"n2 these LANs to2ether $"th an ATM techno-o2y 3a;es sense.
Th"s fact $"-- 3a;e a trans"t"on to ATM $"de area ser#"ce bet$een LANs "n an
or2an">at"on. The ATM standard "s des"2ned to eff"c"ent-y support h"2h7speed d"2"ta-
#o"ce and data co33un"cat"ons. The e<pectat"on "s that by the ne<t decade= 3ost of the
#o"ce and data traff"c 2enerated "n the $or-d $"-- be trans3"tted by ATM techno-o2y "s
thou2ht that ATM $ou-d beco3e as co33on as the te-ephone "n the ne<t fe$ years= for
us "s to re3a"n to see $hat happens.
CA typ"ca- ATM LAN $ou-d use a 3esh or h"erarch"ca- topo-o2y= h"2h7speed ce--
s$"tch"n2= and standard ATM protoco-s. *ep-oy"n2 ATM techno-o2y and standards "n a
-oca- net$or;"n2 en#"ron3ent $"-- ha#e a s"2n"f"cant "3pact on the $ay $e #"e$ LANs.
The band$"dth of trad"t"ona- LANs "s usua--y on the order of tens of 3e2ab"ts per second=
$h"-e ATM LANs $"-- support :bps speeds. TodayJs LANs a-so -ac; sca-ab"-"ty.
To3orro$Js LANs 3ust operate "n an en#"ron3ent "n $h"ch co3put"n2 de#"ces are so
"ne<pens"#e and read"-y a#a"-ab-e that there are hundreds or e#en thousands "n a typ"ca-
off"ce. B"th such a -ar2e nu3ber of de#"ces= any atte3pt to "nterconnect the3 $"th
trad"t"ona- shared73ed"a LANs $ou-d be "3poss"b-e. The -"3"tat"ons of e<"st"n2 bus and
r"n2 LANs= the de3and for h"2her band$"dths= and -ar2er user popu-at"ons are the 3ajor
reasons for the 2ro$"n2 "nterest "n ATM LANs. ATM LANs $"-- a-so ha#e protoco-
support for a 3"<ture of h"2h7-e#e- co33un"cat"on ser#"ces (e.2.= TC5/!5= )*5/!5= B&*
&oc;ets= and R5C) and 3ay be used as Nbac;bone net$or;sN to "nterconnect e<"st"n2
net$or;s.D7 TM conce(ts; arc-itectures; and (rotoco)s.
Fro3 th"s part of the art"c-e $e can eas"-y conc-ude that "n a fe$ years ATM $"-- be "n
fact $"de-y used because they offer 2ood ser#"ces= a -ot of ATM supporters are of the
Be $ant to po"nt here to the thou2hts of Arthur Coo#er "n h"s $or; CATMD= he
$r"tes thereA C
ATM $"-- no doubt be the LAN and BAN techno-o2y of the future. !t on-y
3a;es sense to use f"<ed7-en2th data ce--s and to carry these ce--s fro3 one user to
another. After a--= $hat "s the 3a"n purpose of any net$or;O Be ;no$ that the effect"#e
and eff"c"ent transfer of data fro3 one po"nt to another can be acco3p-"shed by us"n2 one
of 3any techno-o2"es. (o$e#er= $e a-so ;no$ that ATM "s $"thout a doubt the 3ost
effect"#e and eff"c"ent $ay to do th"s. Once the costs of ATM "nterface boards for 5Cs=
ATM s$"tches= br"d2es= hubs= and routers ha#e reached an affordab-e -e#e-= net$or;
3ana2ers $"-- ju3p on the ATM band$a2on $"th both feet.D
Asynchronous transfer 3ode has rece"#ed a -ot of attent"on recent-y. B"-- ATM
-"#e up to "ts pro3"se as a un"#ersa- s$"tch"n2 and 3u-t"p-e<"n2 3ethodo-o2yO B"-- "t be
the techno-o2y that f"na--y br"n2s net$or;ed 3u-t"3ed"a capab"-"t"es to our des;topsO
Much effort has a-ready been spent on de#e-op"n2 ATM. ATMJs success depends= "n part=
on "ts ab"-"ty to pro#"de h"2h7speed net$or;"n2 so-ut"ons that surpass ("n ter3s of
pr"ce/perfor3ance) todayJs techno-o2"es. O#er the ne<t fe$ years= $e $"-- undoubted-y
hear 3uch 3ore about the ATM reference 3ode-.
III. THE 'ENEFITS OF ATM
ATM "s a net$or; ser#"ce that pro#"des f-e<"b-e and sca-ab-e so-ut"on for ?ua-"ty
"n net$or;s $here 3u-t"p-e "nfor3at"on types are supported . Each of these
"nfor3at"on types $"th ATM can pass throu2h a s"n2-e net$or; connect"on. The
3u-t"p-e types of "nfor3at"on and the s"n2-e net$or; connect"on are 3a;"n2 the ATM
one of best net$or; syste3 no$ days.
!f our so-ut"on for net$or; prob-e3s $"-- be ATM net$or; syste3 than $e $"--
ha#e these benef"ts fro3 ATM.
0. ("2h7speed co33un"cat"on
9. Connect"on7or"ented ser#"ce= s"3"-ar to trad"t"ona- te-ephony
. Co33on LAN/BAN arch"tecture
%. ("2h perfor3ance #"a hard$are s$"tch"n2
+. A s"n2-e net$or; connect"on that can re-"ab-y 3"< #o"ce= #"deo= and data
4. F-e<"b-e and eff"c"ent a--ocat"on of net$or; band$"dth
#. Hi"-&s(eed co%%unication. The speed of co33un"cat"on "n one net$or;
syste3 "s 3ost $anted. The 3ost "3portant 3odu-e "n h"2h7sped co33un"cat"on "s
the 3e3ory 3ana2er = the 3e3ory 3ana2er 3ana2es -o2"ca- data structures. !n ATM
th"s job "d done by Iueue Mana2er. The Iueue Mana2er "s a spec"a-7purpose
processor that e<ecutes 3e3ory 3ana2e3ent "nstruct"ons and 3a;es the syste3 to
$or; $"th the h"2h speed .
*. Connection&oriented service; si%i)ar to traditiona) te)e(-on7. Be ha#e t$o
;"nd of 3ethods used "n data co33un"cat"on to transfer data= they are the
connect"on7or"ented 3ethod and the connect"on-ess . ATM "s part of the Connect"on7
or"ented ser#"ce. Re?u"res a sess"on connect"on (ana-o2ous to a phone ca--) be
estab-"shed before any data can be sent. Th"s 3ethod "s often ca--ed a Nre-"ab-eN
net$or; ser#"ce. !t can 2uarantee that data $"-- arr"#e "n the sa3e order. Connect"on7
or"ented ser#"ces set up #"rtua- -"n;s bet$een end syste3s throu2h a net$or;.
+. Co%%on ?AN5DAN arc-itecture. ECo33on LAN/BAN arch"tecture a--o$"n2
ATM to be used cons"stent-y fro3 one des;top to anotherE trad"t"ona--y= LAN and
BAN techno-o2"es ha#e been #ery d"fferent= $"th "3p-"cat"ons for perfor3ance and
/. Hi"- (er8or%ance via -ardware switc-in" . h"2h perfor3ance #"a hard$are
s$"tch"n2 $"th terab"t s$"tches on the hor">ont .
2.A sin")e networ9 connection t-at can re)iab)7 %i, voice; video; and data. ATM
"s a net$or; ser#"ce $here 3u-t"p-e "nfor3at"on types can pass o#er s"n2-e net$or;
connect"on. Be ;no$ that connect"ons "n ATM are ca--ed #"rtua- c"rcu"ts. Bhen
connect"on "s estab-"shed then d"fferent "nfor3at"on types can be for$arded fro3 one
host to another $"th + bytes ca--ed ce--. ATM "s the on-y one net$or; syste3 that
transfers those 3u-t"p-e "nfor3at"on ( #o"ce= #"deo and data) o#er a s"n2-e net$or;
connect"on and th"s "s one 2reat benef"t of ATM.
3. F)e,ib)e and e88icient a))ocation o8 networ9 bandwidt- needs and de-"#er"n2 h"2h
ut"-">at"on of net$or;"n2 resourcesE 3ost app-"cat"ons are or can be #"e$ed as
"nherent-y burst= data app-"cat"ons are LANGbased and are #ery burst= #o"ce "s burst =
as both part"es are ne"ther spea;"n2 at once nor a-- the t"3eE #"deo "s P-an = as the
a3ount of 3ot"on and re?u"red reso-ut"on #ar"es o#er t"3e
I0. DISAD0ANTA>ES OF ATM
ATM net$or; syste3 "s 2reat so-ut"on for net$or; prob-e3s= but "t ha#e so3e
d"sad#anta2es and $e 3ust d"scuss the3.
(ere are so3e of ATM d"sad#anta2esA
0. &oph"st"cated s$"tch"n2 and contro- 3echan"s3
9. (ard state syste3
. ATM a$are
%. R"2"d ce-- structure
4. !s to e<pens"#e
#. So(-isticated switc-in" and contro) %ec-anis% . The 3a"n funct"on of an ATM
s$"tch "s to rece"#e ce--s on a port and s$"tch those ce--s to the proper output port
based on the ,5! and ,C! #a-ues of the ce--. Th"s s$"tch"n2 "s d"ctated by a s$"tch"n2
tab-e that 3aps "nput ports to output ports based on the #a-ues of the ,5! and ,C!
f"e-ds= the contro- 3echan"s3 "s Iueue Mana2er. The Iueue Mana2er "s a spec"a-7
purpose processor that e<ecutes 3e3ory 3ana2e3ent "nstruct"ons and 3a;es the
syste3 to $or; $"th the h"2h speed . Both those s$"tch"n2 and contro- 3echan"s3 are
#ery soph"st"cated and they are a b"2 d"sad#anta2e of ATM.
*. Hard state s7ste%. Be ;no$ that ATM "s (ard state syste3= "n a hard state
syste3 -";e ATM= cons"stency of the state bet$een syste3s across the net$or; "s
cr"t"ca-. There 3ay be thousands= "f not 3"--"ons= of state entr"es "n the net$or; that
ha#e to be cons"stent for the net$or; to operate correct-y.
+. ATM aware "s used "n ATM to connect one process to another = th"s process
(funct"on) of ATM "s #ery soph"st"cated and a-so "s one b"2 d"sad#anta2es of ATM.
/. Ri"id ce)) structure. E#en Ce--s "n ATM syste3 are do"n2 #ery 2ood job they
a-so ha#e a r"2"d structure and data ha#e prob-e3s $h"-e they are pass"n2 fro3 one
p-ace to another p-ace at ATM net$or; syste3.
3. Is to e,(ensive. ATM "s a 2reat so-ut"on for our no$ days prob-e3s "n net$or;=
but the prob-e3 "s that ATM parts ( ATM net$or; syste3) "s #ery e<pens"#e.
Because of that ATM syste3s are "3p-e3ented on-y at the b"2 co3pan"es and at the
2o#ern3ent of so3e countr"es.
Co3puter net$or;s no$ days are chan2"n2 our -"fe "n e#ery corner. Than;s to
co3puter net$or;s $e are ab-e to co33un"cate each other= to so-#e our prob-e3s
faster= to see and chan2e our data fro3 e#ery p-ace of the $or-d= co3pan"es are
2ro$"n2 faster a-- of th"s "s done fro3 th"s 3odern techno-o2y ca--ed Cnet$or;D.
The research that $e ha#e done "s ta-;"n2 about ATM(asynchronous transfer
3ode) net$or;s. ATM fa--s "n connect"on or"ented net$or;s and "s one of the best
so-ut"on for net$or; prob-e3s. A-- our project "s one e<p-anat"on of ho$ ATM "s
"ns"de= ho$ 3"< data are shared "n th"s syste3. Fro3 a-- th"s e<p-anat"on $e see that
the 3a"n purpose of the ATM net$or; syste3 "s to so-#e co33un"cat"on prob-e3s
that need a s"n2-e connect"on and d"fferent (3"<ed) data types to tra#e- throu2h th"s
connect"on= th"s funct"on or th"s ;"nd of $or; 3a;es the d"fference bet$een
connect"on or"ented net$or;s ($here ATM fa--s) and connect"on-ess net$or;s . The
data "n the #"rtua- c"rcu"t are tra#e-"n2 -";e ce-- (ho$ ce-- "s $e ha#e d"sco#ered $"th
one spec"a- top"c "n our research)= because "nfor3at"on are for$arded fro3 one host to
another "n the sa3e path ATM has a 2reat secur"ty and there are no data -os"n2 "n th"s
syste3 of co33un"cat"on. A-- pac;ets that are for$arded fro3 the sender host they a--
are rece"#ed at the other host ( 3ach"ne) th"s 3a;es ATM a net$or; $here the sca-e
of secur"ty "s 011Q .
Be can not say anyth"n2 e-se because $e ha#e d"sco#ered e#ery th"n2 up there
"n our research = but for conc-us"on $e $ant to say that ATM "s 2reat net$or; syste3
used for 3"<ed data and th"s techno-o2y !s used no$ days "n 3any co3pan"es for
3a;"n2 the"r co33un"cat"on eas"-y and the"r prob-e3s so-#ab-e. ATM ha#e 2reat
success "n "t "3p-e3entat"on.
AA? & ATM Ada(tation ?a7er
A set of four standard protoco-s that trans-ate user traff"c fro3 the h"2her -ayers of the
protoco- stac; "nto a s">e and for3at that can be conta"ned "n the pay-oad of an ATM ce--
and return "t to "ts or"2"na- for3 at the dest"nat"on. Each AAL cons"sts of t$o sub-ayersA
the se23entat"on and reasse3b-y (&AR) sub-ayer and the con#er2ence sub-ayer. Each "s
2eared to a part"cu-ar c-ass of traff"c= $"th spec"f"c character"st"cs concern"n2 de-ay and
ce-- -oss. A-- AAL funct"ons occur at the ATM end7stat"on rather than at the s$"tch.
ATM & As7nc-ronous Trans8er Mode
A h"2h7speed= connect"on7or"ented s$"tch"n2 and 3u-t"p-e<"n2 techno-o2y that uses +7
byte ce--s (+7byte header= %67byte pay-oad) to trans3"t d"fferent types of traff"c
s"3u-taneous-y= "nc-ud"n2 #o"ce= #"deo= and data. !t "s asynchronous "n that "nfor3at"on
strea3s can be sent "ndependent-y $"thout a co33on c-oc;.ATM can be descr"bed
-o2"ca--y "n three p-anesA The user p-ane coord"nates the "nterface bet$een user protoco-s=
such as !5 or &M*& (&$"tched Mu-t"3e2ab"t *ata &er#"ce) and ATME the 3ana2e3ent
p-ane coord"nates the -ayers of the ATM stac;E the contro- p-ane coord"nates s"2na-"n2
and sett"n2 up and tear"n2 do$n #"rtua- c"rcu"ts.
The -ayer of the ATM protoco- stac; that hand-es 3ost of the process"n2 and rout"n2
act"#"t"es. These "nc-ude bu"-d"n2 the ATM header= ce-- 3u-t"p-e<"n2/de3u-t"p-e<"n2= ce--
recept"on and header #a-"dat"on= ce-- rout"n2 us"n2 ,5!s/,C!s= pay-oad7type
"dent"f"cat"on= ?ua-"ty of ser#"ce spec"f"cat"on= and f-o$ contro- and pr"or"t">at"on
'OM 7 Be2"n"n2 of Messa2e
An ATM ce-- cons"sts of + bytes . Of these= + const"tute the header= the re3a"n"n2 %6
carry the data pay-oad.
Ce))&?oss 1riorit7 C?1! Fie)d
A pr"or"ty b"t "n the ce-- headerE $hen set= "t "nd"cates that the ce-- can be d"scarded "f
The pac;et s$"tch"n2 3echan"s3 used for the f"<ed s">e pac;ets ca--ed ce--s
C7c)ic Redundanc7 C-ec9 CRC)
A 3athe3at"ca- a-2or"th3 used to ensure accurate de-"#ery based on the actua- contents
of the data
Ce)) error ratio CER! The fract"on of ce--s de-"#ered "n error
Ce)) )oss ratio C?R! The fract"on of ce--s -ost dur"n2 trans3"ss"on
Ce)) trans8er de)a7 CTD!
The a#era2e t"3e needed for a ce-- to tra#e- fro3 source to dest"nat"on
A cond"t"on "n $h"ch t$o pac;ets are be"n2 trans3"tted o#er a 3ed"u3 at the sa3e t"3e.
The"r "nterference 3a;es both un"nte--"2"b-e
Constant bit rate C'R!
The data rate of an ATM ser#"ce c-ass that "s des"2ned for custo3ers re?u"r"n2 rea-7t"3e
aud"o or #"deo ser#"ces
Conver"ence sub)a7er CS!
The upper AAL sub-ayer that adds a header or a tra"-er to the user data
Data E,c-an"e Inter8ace DFI!
*ef"nes a for3at for pass"n2 data that has 2one throu2h the ATM con#er2ence sub-ayer
(a C&75*)) bet$een a router and a C&)/*&) or other de#"ce $"th ATM &AR
EOM 7 End of Messa2e
E%u)ated ?oca)&Area Networ9 E?AN!
A -o2"ca- net$or; created $"th 3echan"s3s def"ned "n the ATM Foru3@s LAN
E3u-at"on 0.1 (LANE 0.1) spec. An ELAN 3ay enco3pass stat"ons phys"ca--y attached
to ATM and non7ATM se23ents.
Forward Error Correction FEC!
FEC ta;es ad#anta2e of the se?uence nu3ber conta"ned "n an ATM AAL (ATM
adaptat"on -ayer) 0 protoco- data un"t to detect ce-- -oss and pre#ent unnecessary
trans3"ss"on of ce--s be-on2"n2 to fau-ty pac;ets. A recent proposa- to the ATM Foru3
ad#ocates the use of FEC to address prob-e3s of data -oss and pac;et de-ay on shared
constant b"t rate ATM -"n;s. Accord"n2 to stud"es conducted by se#era- ATM Foru3
3e3ber co3pan"es= us"n2 FEC to detect ce-- -oss a--o$s 3u-t"p-e ATM de#"ces to share
the sa3e #"rtua- c"rcu"t for rea-7t"3e aud"o and #"deo trans3"ss"on $"th 3"n"3a- added
o#erhead (appro<"3ate-y percent) and on-y s-"2ht perfor3ance de2radat"on
>uaranteed 8ra%e rate >FR!
A proposed standard fro3 the Traff"c Mana2e3ent sub$or;"n2 2roup of the ATM
Foru3. &o3et"3es ca--ed )BRK (unspec"f"ed b"t7rate p-us)= :FR -ets users spec"fy a
connect"on7dependent 3"n"3u3 ce-- rate for trans3"ss"ons. The f"na- spec "s -";e-y to
arr"#e by 3"dd-e or -ate 0886.
&yste37def"ned contro- "nfor3at"on that precedes user data
Header Error Contro) HEC!
The -ast 07byte f"e-d "n an ATM ce--Js +7byte header= the (EC f"e-d conta"ns "nfor3at"on
that "s used to detect and correct errors "n the ce-- header. These sorts of errors are -";e-y
to corrupt address"n2 f"e-ds= caus"n2 the net$or; to de-"#er the ce-- to the $ron2
dest"nat"on or drop the ce-- and re?uest retrans3"ss"on. On f"ber net$or;s= header errors
typ"ca--y ta;e one of t$o for3sA re-at"#e-y co33on s"n2-e7b"t errors and rarer error
bursts. (EC uses the &EC*EC (s"n2-e error correct"on= doub-e error detect"on) a-2or"th3
to f"< s"n2-e7b"t errors and d"scard ce--s $"th 3u-t"p-e errors.
A 2roup of ser#"ces= funct"ons= and protoco-s that "s co3p-ete fro3 a conceptua- po"nt of
#"e$= that "s one out of a set of h"erarch"ca--y arran2ed 2roups and that e<tends across a--
syste3s that confor3 to the net$or; arch"tecture
!nfor3at"on port"on of an ATM ce--= e<c-us"#e of header. ATM ce--s typ"ca--y ha#e %67
byte pay-oads= but s">e can #ary depend"n2 upon type of data and AAL.
1er%anent 0irtua) Circuit 10C!
A #"rtua- -"n; $"th f"<ed end7po"nts that are def"ned by the net$or; 3ana2er. A s"n2-e
#"rtua- path 3ay support 3u-t"p-e 5,Cs.
1-7sica) Mediu%&De(endent 1MD! Sub)a7er
*ef"nes the actua- speed at $h"ch ATM traff"c can be trans3"tted across a 2"#en phys"ca-
The ATM Foru3 has appro#ed three &ONET "nterfaces for )N!A &T&70 at +0.6% Mb"t/s=
&T&7c at 0++.+9 Mb"t/s= and &T&709c at 499.16 Mb"t/s= as $e-- as *&70 (T0) at 0.+%%
Mb"t/s= E0 at 9.1%6 Mb"t/s= E at %.46 Mb"t/s= and *&7 (T) at %%.. Mb"t/s. The
foru3 a-so has adopted a nu3ber of spec"f"cat"ons for LAN en#"ron3ents= "nc-ud"n2 a
0117Mb"t/s "nterface us"n2 F**! encod"n2= a 0++7Mb"t/s "nterface us"n2 Cate2ory + )T5
(unsh"e-ded t$"sted7pa"r)= and a +07Mb"t/s "nterface us"n2 Cate2ory )T5.
6ua)it7 o8 Service 6oS! C)asses
F"#e broad cate2or"es out-"ned by the ATM Foru3Js )N! .1E "3p-e3entat"on deta"-s and
prec"se character"st"cs are to be deter3"ned "n the future.C-ass 0 spec"f"es perfor3ance
re?u"re3ents and "nd"cates that ATMJs ?ua-"ty of ser#"ce shou-d be co3parab-e $"th the
ser#"ce offered by standard d"2"ta- connect"ons. C-ass 9 spec"f"es necessary ser#"ce -e#e-s
for pac;et">ed #"deo and #o"ce. C-ass def"nes re?u"re3ents for "nteroperab"-"ty $"th
other connect"on7or"ented protoco-s= part"cu-ar-y fra3e re-ay. C-ass % spec"f"es
"nteroperab"-"ty re?u"re3ents for connect"on-ess protoco-s= "nc-ud"n2 !5= !5F= and &M*&.
C-ass + "s effect"#e-y a Nbest7effortN atte3pt at de-"#eryE "t "s "ntended for app-"cat"ons that
do not re?u"re a part"cu-ar c-ass of ser#"ce.
S7nc-ronous O(tica) Networ9 SONET!
An "nternat"ona- su"te of standards for trans3"tt"n2 d"2"ta- "nfor3at"on o#er opt"ca-
"nterfaces. N&ynchronousN "nd"cates that a-- co3ponent port"ons of the &ONET s"2na- can
be t"ed to a s"n2-e reference c-oc;
0irtua) C-anne) 0C!
A def"ned route bet$een t$o end7po"nts "n an ATM net$or; that 3ay tra#erse se#era-
0irtua) Circuit 0C!
A port"on of a #"rtua- path or a #"rtua- channe- that "s used to estab-"sh a s"n2-e #"rtua-
connect"on bet$een t$o end7po"nts.
0irtua) 1at- 01!
A 2roup of #"rtua- channe-s= $h"ch can support 3u-t"p-e #"rtua- c"rcu"ts.
0irtua) 1at- Identi8ier 01I!
An 67b"t f"e-d "n the ATM ce-- header that "nd"cates the #"rtua- path o#er $h"ch a ce-- "s to
be routed. A #"rtua- connect"on estab-"shed us"n2 on-y the ,5! "s ;no$n as a #"rtua- path
Usa"e 1ara%eter Contro) U1C!
A 3echan"s3 for protect"n2 net$or; resources fro3 3a-"c"ous or un"ntent"ona--y
da3a2"n2 beha#"or by 3on"tor"n2 connect"on traff"c for confor3ance to the ser#"ce
contract. A-so ca--ed po-"c"n2= usa2e para3eter contro- "n#o-#es chec;"n2 such
character"st"cs as the traff"cJs burst s">e and rate.)5C pre#ents con2est"on by not
ad3"tt"n2 e<cess traff"c onto the net$or; $hen a-- resources are "n use. )5C chan2es the
CL5 b"t of ce--s that e<ceed traff"c para3eters so they are dropped.
ATM G Asynchronous transfer 3ode
AAL G App-"cat"on adapt"on -ayer
AB) G A#a"-ab-e b"t rate
CB) 7 Constant b"t rate
C+V G Ce-- de-ay #ar"at"on
CE) G Ce-- error rat"o
CL) G Ce-- -oss rat"o
CT+ G Ce-- transfer de-ay
CB) G Constant b"t rate
CS G Con#er2ence sub-ayer
%M+ & 5hys"ca- Med"u37*ependent sub7-ayer
0oS7 Iua-"ty of ser#"ce
SC) G &usta"ned ce-- rate
S/M% - &"3p-e Net$or; Mana2e3ent 5rotoco-
TC - Trans3"ss"on con#er2ence
T+M $ T"3e d"#"s"on 3u-t"p-e<"n2
T% G Trans3"ss"on path
$/( G )ser to net$or; "nterface
VBR G ,ar"ab-e b"t rate
VC G ,"rtua- c"rcu"t
VC( 7 ,"rtua- c"rcu"t "dent"f"er
V% G ,"rtua- path
V%( G ,"rtua- path "dent"f"er
R0S &ta--"n2s= B. &igh'Speed (etwor"s ) T*+,I+ and T! design principles.
)pper &add-e R"#er=NTA 5rent"ce (a-- 5TR= 0886
R9S Tohn B"-ey U sons -td= n introduction to T! networ"s. Baff"ns Lane=
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Research project about Asynchronous Transfer Mode ( ATM)
TABLE OF CONTENT
Abstract............................................................................................3 Introduction......................................................................................3 Overview..........................................................................................4 I. ASYNCHRONOUS TRANSFER MODE (ATM).......................5
ATM Virtual Circuit........................................................................................................7 Virtual path/Virtual Channel Characteristics.............................................................10 Virtual Circuits Connection Uses...............................................................................11 Control signaling........................................................................................................11 ATM CELLS.................................................................................................................13 Header Format...........................................................................................................14 Header Error Control.................................................................................................15
II. THE ATM REFERENCE MODEL..........................................17
PHYSICAL LAYER......................................................................................................18 The PMD sub-layer ...................................................................................................18 The TC sub-layer ......................................................................................................19 THE ATM LAYER........................................................................................................22 ATM ADAPTATION LAYER.......................................................................................23 ATM adaptation layer 1............................................................................................25 ATM adaptation layer 2.............................................................................................27 ATM adaptation layer 3.............................................................................................28 ATM adaptation layer 4 ...........................................................................................29 ATM adaptation layer 5.............................................................................................29 A SUMMARY FOR THE REFERENCE MODEL..................................................31
III. THE BENEFITS OF ATM .....................................................34 IV. DISADVANTAGES OF ATM...............................................35 Conclusion.....................................................................................37 Glossary.........................................................................................37 Abbreviations.................................................................................41 References .....................................................................................42
Everyday and on the world is changing a lot. Science forging with big pace, new inventions important for human life, new technological advances occurring constantly and so on. But if seen from communication point of view, this pace is faster and technology more exciting in telecommunications. In order to deliver new services such as video conferencing and video on demand, as well as provide more bandwidth for the increasing volume of traditional data, the communications industry introduced a technology that provided a common format for services with different bandwidth requirements. This technology is Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). As ATM developed, it became a crucial step in how companies deliver, manage and maintain their goods and services. This means that ATM is capable of transferring voice, video, and data through private networks and across public networks.
Computer networks represents the model where a large number of separated computers are interconnected and can communicate between them. Under this communication we should understand that they can exchange information. Computers can be connected via cooper wire, fiber optics, microwaves, infrared, satellite etc. As time goes on, computer networks are becoming more high-tech and also more complex. So, in order to reduce their design complexity they are organized as stack of layers, each one built upon the one below it. This way every one of this layers ofers some service to the layer above. The service can be connection-oriented or connectionless. In connectionless service the message to be sent carries the full destination address and it is independetly routed from other messages, from where we can see that this is modeled after the postal system. On the other hand in connection oriented service, to send any message, first we should establish a connection, than use it and at the end release it. This service is modeled after the telephone system. This service uses a single channel for passing messages, which means that all messages follow the same path and the packet that is send first will be first one received at the other end. In this group of connection-oriented networks we can find ATM Network (Asynchronous Transfer Mode). ATM is a protocol that transmits data as fixed sized packets . A sender and receiver on a network set up a fixed path between each other before sending data, and the information arrives to the receiver in the order it was sent. 3
In the question why using ATM instead of other services, we’ll get the answer : It is standard based (one international standard) It is Scalable in distance (includes both LAN and WAN technology) It is scalable in speed Carries Multiple Traffic Types (Voice, Data, Video) In fact, ATM can be thought of as the “highway” of the information superhighway. Among the challenges faced by the designers of ATM, we can divide six as more important. As the first one is the need for a transmission system to optimize the use of the high-data-rate transmission media, in particular optical fiber. Second is the need for a system that can interface with existing systems, such as the various packet networks, and to provide wide area interconectivity between them without lowering their effectiveness or requiring their replacement. Third is the need for a design that can be implemented inexpensively so that cost would not be a barrier to adoption . This means that ATM must be available at low cost to every user who wants it. As fourth the new system must be able to work with and support the existing telecommunication hierarchies (local loops, local providers, long-distance carriers, and so on). Fifth, the new system must be connection-oriented to ensure accurate and predictable delivery. And the sixth one is one of the objectives to move as many of the functions to hardware as possible and eliminate as many software functions as possible, and this is done with the purpose of increasing the data rate. So, seeing all of these ATM should be one of the most used types of networks. -
ATM is a cell based protocol that, in combination with B-ISDN, will allow highspeed interconnection of all the world’s networks. As an introduction in this research paper are described the main differences between frame-based and cell-based protocols, where in the last one we find the ATM. So ATM transmits its data or information in small fixed-size blocks. These blocks or cells are composed of 53 bytes (5 bytes of header and 48 bytes of payload). Next important point is connection between two end points which is accomplished through transmission paths, virtual paths, and virtual circuits. Hence, a combination of a virtual path identifier and a virtual circuit identifier, identify a virtual connection. Going on will be discovered that ATM can use a permanent virtual circuit or a switched virtual circuit. As other protocols too, ATM is organized as stack of layers. And after the ATM standards three layer are most important : Physical layer which defines the transmission medium, bit transmission, encoding, and electrical-to-optical transormation ATM layer which provides routing, traic management, switching and multiplexing services Application Adaption layer (AAL) which accepts transmission from upper layer services and maps them into ATM cells.
different number of octets per frame for different applications. Layers. ASYNCHRONOUS TRANSFER MODE (ATM) Now we’ll look through ATM more closely. similarities. So an protocol is an agreement between the communicating parties on how communication is to proceed... and Cell-based protocols Frame-Based Protocols encapsulate User data in Frames.. etc. and also some real examples where it is applicable and had shown good results. Because Cells have some advantages like : Increased switching performance with reduced switch complexity. It all looks like in the figure below Variable length User information Flag Octet 1 Octet 2 Octet 3 . I. that we mentioned earlier. With this we want to say that also it has some advantages and disadvantages that are mention below. data.We are going to see more in detail these layers. otherwise known as Packets.e. But I we have sayed so many things in favour to ATM it doesn’t mean that it is perfect and it is the only one that should be used. Frames are delineated by flags which are specific value octets that signify the beginning and end of a frame. Octet N Flag Figure 1. video. cell-based Protocols encapsulate user information in Cells. the ability to support miltiple services of different traffic characteristics like voice.. The figure below describes Cell based protocols. fixed length packets. Frames are of variable length. on one machine can communicate with those in the other one through the protocol. i.. 48 octets 5 octets Header User Information (48 octets) 5 . differences and so on. they are very used from broadband networks.... We are going to see two types of protocols : Frame-based protocols.1 – Frame-Based protocol On the other hand.
with information identifying the source of the transmission contained in the header of each ATM cell. This definition supports the use of ATM switches (and ATM switching techniques) within both public and private networks. where one station has lots of information to transmit. ATM differs from synchronous transfer mode methods. about the ATM Cell format we’ll see later on. a station can send cells whenever necessary. ATM is a cell-switching and multiplexing technology that combines the benefits of circuit switching (constant transmission delay and guaranteed capacity) with those of packet switching (flexibility and efficiency for intermittent traffic). that time slot is wasted. TDM is inefficient relative to ATM because if a station has nothing to transmit when its time slot comes up.3 – TDM and ATM multiplexing techniques 6 . that station can only transmit when its turn comes up. or UNI). Because it is an asynchronous mechanism. ATM time slots are made available on demand.Figure 1.25 and Frame Relay. With ATM. Like X. Beside that it is cell-based protocol. where time-division multiplexing (TDM) techniques are employed to preassign users to time slots. ATM defines the interface between the user equipment (such was workstations and routers) and the network (referred to as the User-Network Interface.2 – Cell-Based protocol Now. In this case. is also less efficient. Figure 1. The converse situation. Figure below contrasts TDM and ATM multiplexing techniques. But. even though all the other time slots are empty. we’ll go further deep with ATM and say that it is Cell based Protocol. that we’ve got an idea about Frame based and Cell based protocols.
For this reason ATM standards has defined two types of ATM connections: virtual channel connection (VCCs) and virtual path connections (VPCs). Figure 1. because we mentioned that it is a connection-oriented network. which represents the logical connection between end stations. in order.that is a VCC or VPC that is predefined and left in place all the time. So. we can not forget to mention that there are two types of them: – Permanent Virtual Circuit (PVC) .4 – A virtual circuit (VCC) When speaking about virtual circuit (VC). or we can say that it carries a single stream of cells. A virtual channel connection (or virtual circuit) is the basic unit. from user to user.ATM Virtual Circuit To start sending informations or packets from one machine to another. It has defined end points and routes but does not have bandwidth dedicated to it. – 7 . Switched Virtual Circuit (SVC) – that is a VCC that is setup at the instant that information needs to be sent between communication endpoints. each permanent or temporary connection has a unique connection identifier. it doesn’t use any bandwidth.5. VCC are also used for user-network exchange (control signaling) and networknetwork exchange (network management and routing). and then taken down after the transmission is finished. If information is not being transmitted. Bandwidth is allocated on demand by the network as users have traffic to transmit. ATM first have to establish a connection. A PVC looks like in figure 1.
6 – Virtual Path connection The virtual path technique helps contain the control cost by grouping connections sharing common paths through the network into a single unit. A virtual path connection can be created from end-to-end across an ATM network (it is a bundle of VCC’s that have the same end points).5 . The process of setting up a virtual path connection is decoupled from the process of setting up an individual virtual channel connection : • The virtual path control mechanisms include calculating routes. In this case. A simple virtual path looks like in the figure below Collection Virtual circuits Virtual path Transmission path Figure 1. Network management actions can then be applied to a small number of groups of connections instead of a large number of individual connections. and storing connection state information 8 . It is somewhat like a second sublayer of processing. the ATM network does not route cells belonging to a particular virtual circuit. thus resulting in faster recovery in case of major failures.ATM Permanent Virtual Circuit Service of virtual circuits can be bundled together into a virtual path connection VPC. allocating capacity. All cells belonging to a particular virtual path are routed the same way through the ATM network.Figure 1.
like: • Simplified network architecture – Transport functions of the network can be separated into those related to an individual logical connection (VCC) and those related to a group of logical connections (VPC) 9 . If doesn’t exists a new one is established and then the algorithm checks if the quality of service can be satisfied. Virtual paths VPCs are very usefull because they have some advantages. The general way of call establishment process using virtual channels and virtual paths. with the appropriate quality of service.To set up a virtual channel.7 – Call establishment proccess using VC and VP Like we see from the algorithm first it is generated a request for VCC. If the answer is ‘yes’ then a new connection is created. if no. The next step is to see if VPC exists or no. A virtual channel is set up by storing the required state information (virtual channel/virtual path mapping). and no more capacity is requested then the VCC request is rejected. there must first be a virtual path connection to the required destination node with sufficient available capacity to support the virtual channel. is shown in the figure Request for VCC originates • VPC exists? Yes Can quality of s er vi ce be sat isf ied ? Yes No No Block VCC or request more capacity Establish a new VPC Request granted? Yes Make connection No Reject VCC request Figure 1.
in an extreme situation. Call sequence integrity – The sequence of transmitted cells within a VCC is preserved. - - In the group of trafic parameters are included average rate. 10 . peak rate. existing connection may be terminated. Switched and semipermanent virtual channel connections – An on-demand connection. This envelope specifies values for peak bandwidth. This contract specifies an envelope that describes the intended traffic flow. Enhanced network services: The virtual path although it has internal use in the network . the user may define closed user groups or closed networks of virtual channel bundles. then much of the work is almost done. Then. it is also visible to the end user. Thus the addition of new virtual channels to an existing virtual path involves minimal processing. Thus. which requires call-control signaling for setting up and pull it down.• • Increased network performance and reliability. new virtual circuit can be established by executing simple control functions at the end points of the virtual path connection: no call processing is required at transit nodes. • Virtual path/Virtual Channel Characteristics Virtual Channels (Virtual Circuits) VCC have some characteristics some of which are listed below: Quality of Service . it is essentially making a contract with the network based on quality of service (QOS) parameters. agregated entities Reduced processing and short connection setup time – When the virtual path is set up. so this way it would prevent congestion. The input of cells to the VCC is monitored by the network for each VCC. and burst size. Moreover. burstiness and peak duration. Traffic parameter negotiation and usage monitoring – Traffic parameters can be negotiated between a user and the network for each VCC. This monitoring is done intentionally to ensure that the negotiated parameters are not violated. To deal with congestion and to manage existing and requested VCC’s the network can use many strategies. By reserving capacity on a virtual path connection in anticipation of later call arrivals.When an ATM end station connects to the ATM network. cells may be discarded if negotiated parameters are violated. average sustained bandwidth. One of them which is the worst one is that the new request for VCCs can simply be denied by the network.Network deals with fewer. is called a switched VCC. But a semipermanent VCC is one that is of long duration and it is set up by network management action.
Beside the mentioned characteristics of VCC also exist those of VPC’s.These VCCs are used to carry end to end user data. First of all this repeating provides some flexibility in how the network service manages the requirements placed on it. Below are described examples of three uses of a VCC: Between end users . Here when an ATM device such as router A in the fugure. or numbers. it is possible for the end users to negotiate the creation of new VCCs. but the set of VCC’s shouldn’t exceed the VPC capacity. network entities.8. Between two network entities – These VCCs are used for trafic management and routing functions. And finally. So. Then the network must be concerned with the overall requirements for a VPC. We have to point out that the characteristics of VCC’s are also part of VPC’s. here we have to intoduce a new characteristic that belong to VPC: – Virtual channel identifier restriction within a VPC – One or more virtual channel identifiers. and within a VPC may negotiate the establishment of virtual channels (VCC) with given characteristics. The signaling packet is reassembled by the switch and examined. once a VPC is set up. also QoS parameters required for the connection. Examples include VCCs used for network management. may not be available to the user of VPC. A user-to-network VPC can be used to agregate traffic from an end user to a network exchange or network server. - - Control signaling To explain the signaling proccess closely we’ll describe it through the figure 1. but may be reserved for network use. The VCC organization of the VPC is up to the two end users. If the switch has a switch table entry for Router B's ATM address. Virtual Circuits Connection Uses The endpoints of VCC may be end users. and it can accommodate the QoS 11 . or an end user and a network entity. A network-to-network VPC are used to define a common route that exchanges network management informations. And there are number of reason for this repeating. want’s to establish a connection with another ATM device such router B. which lays between them. And in all cases cells are delivered in the same order in which they are sent. but also they carry control signaling. Between an end user and a network entity – These VCCs are used for userto-network control signaling. in this case). The end users are provided with an overall capacity. This request contains the ATM address of the desired ATM endpoint (Router B. A sends a signaling request packet to its directly connected ATM switch. from virtual path connection.
is refered to as control signaling. When the signaling packet arrives at the endpoint (Router B).requested for the connection. which can be used for setting up VCCs to carry user data. probably of low data rate. Every switch along the path to the endpoint reassembles and examines the signaling packet and forwards it to the next switch if the QoS parameters can be supported while setting up the virtual connection as the signaling packet is forwarded. The permanent channel. 4. This channel is established only for control signaling exchange which would take place between the user and the network. for VCCs four methods are specified for providing an establishment/release facility : 1. that must be set up within a preestablished VPC. which is a permanent channel that is used for setting up signaling channels. later the two end users can establish end release user-to-user VCCs without network intervention. is used to set up VCCs that can be used for call control. The originator of the request then receives the accept message. and a rejection message is sent back to the originator of the request. it responds with an accept message. Figure 1. User-to-network signaling virtual channel. Thank to this. If any switch along the path cannot accommodate the requested QoS parameters. Semipermanent VCCs. So. it is reassembled and evaluated. the request is rejected. 12 . As the accept message propagates back to the originator of the request. the switches set up a virtual circuit. Metasignaling channel. that are used for user-to-user exchange. it sets up the virtual connection on the input link and forwards the request out the interface specified in the switching table for Router B.8 – Control signaling proccess We said that the exchange of information involved in the proccess of establishments and releases of VPCs and VCCs. User-to-user signaling virtual channel. If the endpoint can support the desired QoS. 3. and here no control signaling is required. 2.
Beside VCCs.9 Figure 1. Hence it is easier to implement the switching mechanism in hardware. No processing like error control is performed on it inside the network. and the remaining 48 contain the payload (user information). destination and class of service parameters always follow the same path. which is important for the very high data rates of ATM. and cells with the same source. Cell size never varies. where no control signaling is required. Each cell consists of 53 octets.9 – ATM Cell format 13 . The path may be networkto-network. among other things. Establishment on semipermanent basis by prior agreement. Small. The information field of ATM cells is carried transparently through the network. An ATM Cell looks like in the figure 1. there are three methods defined for the VPCs: 1. The first 5 bytes contain cell-header information. as long as that path meets performance criteria. where the customer uses a signaling VCC to request the VPC from the network. and to add more we can say that. they can be switched more efficiently. where the network establishes a VPC for its own convenience. These were some advantages of small sized cells. user-to-network. because they are fixed-size cells. ATM CELLS ATM transfers information in fixed-size units called cells. or bytes (8 bits per byte). fixed-length cells are well suited to transferring voice and video traffic because such traffic is intolerant of delays that result from having to wait for a large data packet to download. user-to-user. 2. Costumer controlled establishment/release. 3. Network controlled establishment/release.
in conjunction with the VCI. Here the first bit indicates whether the cell contains user data or control 14 . Thus. in conjunction with the VPI. it functions much as a service access point.3 bits of payload type – indicates the type of information in the information field.10 . while the NNI header is used for communication between ATM switches. are used.8 bits of virtual path identifier.10) : • • • • GFC .An ATM Cell. ATM UNI Cell. PT . are used. such as identifying multiple stations that share a single ATM interface. VCI . Figure 1. The UNI header is used for communication between ATM endpoints and ATM switches in private ATM networks.16 bits of virtual channel identifier. to identify the next destination of a cell as it passes through a series of ATM switches on its way to its destination.Header Format An ATM cell header can be one of two formats: UNI or NNI. User-Network Interface header format is defined by the UNI specification. or simply it is used for routing to and from the end user. and ATM NNI Cell Header The UNI header consists of the following fields (see figure 1. The GFC field is typically not used and is set to a default value. to identify the next destination of a cell as it passes through a series of ATM switches on its way to its destination.4 bits of generic flow control are used to provide local functions. The UNI. and the Network-Network Interface (NNI) header format is defined by the NNI specification. VPI .
This allows for error detection.• • data.1 bit of cell loss priority. the code has only 8 bits compared with 32 bits. the NNI header has a Virtual Path Identifier (VPI) field that occupies the first 12 bits.11 – Header Error Control algorithm At the beginning the receiver’s error correction algorithm is in the default mode for single bit error correction. which indicates whether the cell should be discarded if it encounters extreme congestion as it moves through the network. the NNI header does not include the Generic Flow Control (GFC) field. the second bit indicates congestion. so the polynomial used to generate the code is x8 + x2 +x+1.8 bits of header error control. which should not be discarded unless no other alternative is available. there are done some 15 . the code can be used not only for error detection but also for error correction. Here a value of 0 indicates a cell of relatively higher priority. A value of 1 indicates that the cell is subject to discard within the network HEC . allowing for larger trunks between public ATM switches. End in the case of ATM. such as HDLC and LAPB. the data that serve as input to the error code calculation. are much longer than the size of the resulting error code. Multibit error detected (cell discarded) No error detected (no action) No error detected (no action) Correction mode Detection mode Error detected (cell discarded) Single-bit error detected (correction) Figure 1. If the cell contains user data. Then as each cell is received. In the figure below we are going to describe the HEC algorithm at the receiver. header error control (HEC) is an 8-bit field in every ATM cell. and the third bit indicates whether the cell is the last in a series of cells that represent a single AAL5 frame. Also this allows support for an expanded number of VPCs internal to the network. In most existing protocols that include an error control field. Additionally. which is a checksum calculated only on the header itself. CLP . to include those supporting subscribers. Because the input is very short. Header Error Control Like we mentioned earlier. Unlike the UNI.
for which condition a HEC is insufficient for error correction.calculations and comparisons. If there are no errors detected. no attempt is made to correct errors. the receiver will correct it. In both cases the receiver moves to the detection mode. from where we see that the error is corrected or if not the cell is destroyed. After the examination of the header. the receiver will remain in the error correction mode. are shown in the flowchart below. if there are no error found the receiver switches back to correction mode.12 – Consequences of error in cell header 16 . Incoming cell No Error in header ? Yes Yes Error detected ? No Correction mode Current mode ? Detection mode No Error determined to be incorrectable Yes Successful Correction Unsuccessful attemt Valid cell (intended service) Apparently valid cell with errored header (unintended service) Discarded cell Figure 1. This way the receiver will stay in the detection mode as long as errored cells are received. In this mode. if it is a single bit. And the reason is that a noise burst or other event might cause a sequence of errors. The consequences of errors in the cell header. Otherwise when an error will be detected. or would detect that a multibit error has occurred.
such as: voice. THE ATM REFERENCE MODEL The ATM architecture. which was described partly until now uses a logical model for describing the way of work that it supports. they are: • The Physical Layer (manages the medium-dependent transmission. it prepares user data for conversion into cells and segments the data into 48-byte cell payloads) Above these main levels. which manages the functions that have to do with the whole system and provides coordination between various layers Furthermore. to be carried over the network. defines a transport method for ATM cells between two ATM entities) • The ATM Layer (responsible for the simultaneous sharing of virtual circuits over a physical link and passing cells through the ATM network) • The ATM Adaptation Layer (responsible for isolating higher-layer protocols from the details of the ATM processes. ATM is a layered architecture allowing multiple services.a form for the network-to-node interface (NNI) Coming to the most important part of describing this reference model we will say that the ATM Reference Model consists of three levels (below we will give a detailed description of them). which manages layer specific functions.Control (responsible for generating and managing signaling requests. and video. all this layers have a common plan and organization consisting of: .User ( responsible for managing user data transfer) . as for example detection of errors and protocol problems • plane management.a form for the user-to network interface (UNI) . 17 . the ATM reference model has two forms: . the ATM reference model has also some higher layers of functionality but these three are the main layers that perform the main job.II. The ATM reference model has several layers which will be discussed. manages call/connection control functions)) .Management ( 2 components: • layer management. data. The functionality of ATM corresponds to the physical layer and in part to the data link layer of the OSI model.
This layer is analogous to the physical layer of the OSI reference model and performs bit level functions. In addition.Figure 2-1: ATM Reference Model Lets us turn now to a detailed description and explanation of the three main layers of the ATM Reference Model. tracking the ATM cell boundaries and packing the cells into types which will be appropriate for the physical medium. those are: converting the cells into a bitstream. control of the transmission and receipt of bits on the physical medium. The physical layer deals with issues related to the media and the signals carried to the media. In other words. the physical layer manages the medium-dependent transmission. The ATM reference model has four main functions. PHYSICAL LAYER The ATM model was designed to make the physical data transport function as independent as possible from the ATM switching function and other things that are performed above the ATM Layer. the PMD sub-layer works with stream of ytes and not with stream of bits. The basic function of it is to take a stream of bits and transport it transparently across a link. Actually. The PMD sub-layer It has two functions. the physical layer is divided into two sub-layers: the Physical MediumDependent sub-layer(PMD) and the Transmission convergence (TC) sub-layer. It makes synchronization of the transmission and reception by sending and receiving a continuous flow of bits (with timing information associated). because most of the PMDs do the encoding on a byte or half-byte basis. Its second function is to define the physical media including here the types of connectors and 18 .
this can be done with a pointer within the frame overhead section. The HEC is capable of single-bit error correction or double-bit error detection.. The HEC sequence generation is 19 . - HEC sequence generation and verification generates and checks the header error control code with the purpose of ensuring whether the data is valid or not. this is actually the most common (and the most used) way of cell delineation. another way is placing the cells at fixed locations within a frame(this could cause loss of efficiency if for example the cells do not fit exactly as they should in a frame the cell HEC could be used also for locating the cell boundary. cell-rate decoupling and transmission frame adaptation. bit alignment and electrical-optical conversion – these functions relate to the processes through which bits are encoded into appropriate electrical or optical signals and prepared for propagation through the network physical media characteristics. such as: line coding. The “finding” or “defining” of the boundaries can be done basically in three ways: the transmission level coding can include a delimiter function that marks the beginning and the end of the cells. The PMD is concerned only with the physical. the framing system locates the cell boundaries (for example. medium-dependent functions and specifications. Those are: cell delineation.cables. if a correct HEC is recognized for a number of consecutive cells it is assumed that the correct cell boundary is found. we can say that the PMDs basic work in the ATM reference model is providing the transceiver services to physically transmit the ATM cells and convergence information between two adjacent ATM stations. such as the type of optical fiber. we can say that the PMD sub-layer is responsible for the correct transmission and reception of bits on the physical medium. A block code groups data bits into “blocks” and translates each block into another bit pattern before transmission on the line. So. when the cell delineation has been found a mechanism is used for using the HEC for correction or detection of cell header errors. With this function it is defined where in the data stream does a cell start and finish. header error control (HEC)–the generation and verification of sequence of cells. Block-coded protocols either code 4-bit groups into 5-bit groups or 8-bit groups into 10bit groups. it allows the devices to locate cells in a stream of bits. The cell delineation has to do with “defining” the cell boundaries and maintaining them. the transmitter/receiver wavelength. after this the isolated single bit errors are corrected. many transmission systems may work with framing. the receivers sensitivity and power parameters - The TC sub-layer The TC sub-layer on the other hand has four functions. Most PMDs use block coding in any form. So.the PMD sublayer specifies the characteristics of the physical transport medium.
Typical possible transmission systems at the physical layer are the synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) or the FDDI standards. the transmission convergence sub-layer is responsible for mapping of the ATM cells to the system that is used for transmission. After this is done the cells are then available to the ATM layer. The ATM layer has to deliver a stream of cells at the correct rate. 20 . and then convert the frames to the actual cells. This empty cell is inserted on the transmission side and then it is removed on the receiver side. this sub-layer packs ATM cells into the type of frames which will be convenient for the existent implementation of the physical layer. today this is done in another way. The first task of any transmission system is to get timing at the bit level . This process can be seen on Figure 2-2 below. After the cells are found and checked they are decoupled from the transmission rate of the medium. SONET. The basic time unit of a SONET frame is 125 microseconds .done in the direction of transmission and its value is recalculated and compared with the value that is received. Cell-rate decoupling keeps the cells synchronized and provides the idle cells to adapt the rate of valid cells to the payload capacity of the transmission system. a synchronous transmission structure. in one word. ATM PMDs send a constant stream of cells without any gaps (or holes). The physical layer can transfer ATM cells from one user to another in two ways. such that the convergence layer would not have to insert any cells. At the user-network interface (UNI). In North America. If the header errors can not be corrected. the cell will be discarded. Figure 2-2: Cells to Frame Conversion at the Physical Layer The transmission convergence sub-layer is standardized for to perform the generation and extraction of the frames at the specified rates from the SDH and finding the ATM cells by looking from the HEC on the cell header and then checking the error correction code. which is ate the lowest physical level. When the bits are available at the next sub-layer it is then possible to first convert the bits to the frames of the transmission system that is used. However. So. for example. is often used for framing and synchronization at the physical layer. transmission frame adaptation. With the last function. ATM cells may be carried in an externally framed synchronous transmission structure or in a cell-based asynchronous transmission structure. this process is done by the insertion and deletion of the idle cells in the stream (Figure 2-2). and this is achieved by the physical medium sub-layer. When there are no cells to send an empty cell is sent.
The use of FDDI framing in the 100Mbps fiber interface). The ATM physical layer defines electrical characteristics and network interfaces. This examples talk about the fact that one of the strengths of the Asynchronous Transfer Mode standards are the ability to configure networks that operate over a variety of physical interfaces. • They are full-duplex in operation (FDX). This means that a higher data rate may be possible in one of the directions. strategies for framing the ATM cells include synchronous framing tied to the lower level channel synchronization protocols (SONET. if it is a stream of bits or a stream of bytes • the PMD performs coding. additional channel management services are also often included.This means that data is transferred simultaneously in both directions • The physical link bandwidth can be asymmetric. DS3. Examples of few media that are used in the physical layer are: SONET (Synchronous Optical Network). There is no multipoint or LAN type connection defined. 21 . 100Mbps local fiber (Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)physical layer). Depending on the type of interface. DS3. twisted-pair etc. timing and transmission functions All this physical protocols and interfaces have three things in common (characteristics): • They are point-to-point -They connect an ATM endpoint with an ATM switch or they connect two ATM switches together. 155Mbps local fiber (Fiber Channel physical layer). To sum up here for the physical layer we can say that the ATM physical layer defines how cells are mapped onto a physical medium for transmitting and receiving between ATM hardware devices. All in all we can define the ATM physical layer as follows: it is the layer that defines the bit timing and other characteristics for encoding and decoding the data into suitable (preferable) electrical/optical waveforms for transmission and reception on the specific physical media used it also keeps track of ATM cell boundaries and packages cells into the appropriate type of frame for the physical medium being used. then the cell is put into the output stream of the TC sub-layer which than is being fed to the Physical Medium Dependent (PMD) sub-layer • the PMD sub-layer knows about the stream.Let us now explain very briefly the way of working of the two sub-layers of ATMs physical layer: • cells are delivered to the transmission convergence layer by the ATM layer • the TC sub-layer knows about the cells and about the structure of the transmission medium • the TCsub-layer generates the HEC and puts it in the cell. 155Mbps) or based asynchronous line coding schemes ( ex.
For performing this functions that were described . the ATM layer is responsible for generating the five-bit cell header for each cell. Figure 2-3: ATM layer data handling processes 22 . It is concerned with the format and size of the cells and the contents of the headers. The functionality of the ATM layer is defined by the fields present in the ATM cell header. the ATM layer performs a reverse operation. Mainly. a payload type indicator (PTI) field. which are: multiplexing. The ATM layer represents the physical interface between the ATM Adaptation layer and the ATM Physical layer. It is a unique layer that carries different classes of services within a 53-byte cell. header processing and generic flow control.THE ATM LAYER The ATM layer. Actually when transporting cells to the Physical layer. the VCI/VPI fields. The cell header contains a generic flow control (GFC) field. If we want to define the ATM Layer in one simple sentence we would say that the ATM Layer defines how two nodes transmit information between them. The actual manner by which the ATM layer performs its relaying function is depends on the location of the layer. it takes the data to be sent and adds the 5-byte header information. payload extraction. the ATM layer is responsible for determining where the incoming cells are routed and also for multiplexing the cells by placing them from individual connections into a single-cell stream. the layer uses the VPI and VCI information in the header of each ATM cell. and a header checksum field. If it is located at an endpoint it receives a stream of cells from the Physical layer and transmits either cells with new data or empty cells if there is no data to send to the AAL. a cell loss priority (CLP) field. Thus. it extracts the five-bit header from the cell. The ATM layer is independent of the physical medium through which transmission is performed. the ATM layer is responsible for relaying cells from the AAL to the Physical layer for transmission. and in opposite direction from the Physical layer to the AAL for use in an endpoint. together with the ATM adaptation layer can be said to be analogous to the data link layer of the OSI reference model. If it is located in a switch. VPI/VCI translation. In a more specific way of defining this layer we would say that: the ATM layer performs the core functions of the ATM protocol. The ATM layer has the responsibility of simultaneous sharing of virtual circuits over a physical link –this is the process called cell multiplexing – and passing cells through the ATM network – called cell relay. if it is located in an endpoint or at a switch. when receiving cells from the Physical layer.
so that connections operate within their contracted service levels. The ATM layer is the layer that describes how cells are transported through the network and how quality of service is enforced. The ATM layer is the core layer of the standard and this is the layer that routes the cells across the network and multiplexes and demultiplexes the cells together from many virtual paths on to one physical carrier. Let us make a clear distinction of the four functions of this layer: • • • Generic Flow Control function (GFC)->it can be used for taking care of the overload conditions above the ATM layer . At last. The ATM adaptation layer lies between the ATM layer and the higher layers which use the ATM service. and demultiplexing the cells at the header according to VPI (Virtual Path Identifier) and VCI (Virtual Channel Identifier) values. • It is worth to note here that the functions performed by the ATM layer are designed to be carried out in hardware at very high data rates. and produces 53-byte ATM cells for delivery to the physical layer for transport to an ATM destination endpoint. In combination with the ATM layer (as said before!) it is analogous to the data link layer of the OSI reference model. which is performed at the ATM switching and/or cross-connect nodes. Its main purpose is to resolve any disparity between a service required by the user and services available at the ATM layer. builds a 5-byte header for each SAR-PDU. 23 . Whether this can be achieved with today's electronics at reasonable cost and high reliability is yet to be determined. ATM ADAPTATION LAYER As we discussed earlier the physical layer and ATM layer of the ATM reference model provide sequential transfer of fixed-sized data units across a network. VPI and VCI translation. The ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL) performs the process of adapting the traffic generated by different applications to the ATM protocol. The ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL) adapts that transfer process to perform the upper layer services required by different users. we can conclude that ATM layer of the ATM reference model is responsible for establishing connections and passing cells through the whole ATM network. Cell header generation and extraction->it is used for inserting header information at the transmitter end (in the received cell from the upper layer) and removing it at the receiving end. Cell multiplex and demultiplex->it is used for multiplexing the cells into one continuous stream at the transmitter end.In figure 2-3 we can see how ATM layer actually works: the ATM layer accepts the 48-byte SAR-PDUs from the segmentation and reassembly (SAR) sublayer of the AAL. and for doing this it uses all the information that is contained in the header of each ATM cell.
to each 24 . Because of the reason that the ATM payload is only 48 bytes. ex. Thus.this part of the ATM adaptation layer receives the data unit from the convergence sub-layer and divides it to units which than it can place them into the ATM cells.25 used in WANs and LAN protocols such as Ethernet and TCP/IP). data packets) of processes of the higher layers and ATM cells. nearly every packet from any other protocol has to be processed in this way. it is an essential process for every ATM node. It is responsible for isolating higher-layer protocols from the details of the ATM processes. This layer is the lowest of the two sublayers ( Convergence sublayer and SAR ) that make up the ATM Adaptation layer as is shown in the figure bellow: /-----. the AAL receives packets from the higher-levels and breaks them into segments of 48-bytes that form the payload field (useful data) of an ATM cell. In other words./|-------------------------------------| / / | Common Part Convergence Sublayer | / CS |-------------------------------------| AAL \ |Service Specific Convergence Sublayer| \ \|-------------------------------------| \ SAR | Segmentation & Reassembly Sublayer | \--------|-------------------------------------| | ATM layer | |-------------------------------------| Figure 2-4: The AAL . The AAL makes the translation between the largest service data units ( SDUs. Video streams.Segmentation and reassembly refers to the process that is used for fragmenting and reassembling packets so to allow them to be transported across ATM networks. the main purpose of the ATM adaptation layer (AAL) is to provide a link between services that are requested by the higher network layers and the ATM cells which are used by the ATM layer.The adaptation layer resolves any disparity between services provided by the cell-based technology of the ATM layer to the bit-stream technology of digital services (such as telephones and video cameras) and the packet-stream technology of traditional data networks (such as Frame relay and X. the information on the header and on the trailer depends on the class of information that is going to be transported and usually contains error handling information and information about preserving the priority of the data Segmentation and reassembly sub-layer . So. The ATM adaptation layer contains two sub-layers Convergence sub-layer .this part of the adaptation layer puts a header and a trailer which contain information about the services required and the services to be performed.
. 3.piece it also adds a header which is used as a helping tool for reassembling the pieces at the destination. The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) first determined the need to provide several standard AALs (classes of service) to satisfy the requirements of encapsulating different information types into ATM layer cells.g.g.. the bit rate is constant. Class A . So they are: 1. Class C .the information that is transported could be time dependent or time independent . and the service is connection-oriented (e.g.the bit rate could be variable or constant . AAL-1 provides error recovery and specifies the errored information which can not be recovered. AAL-1 must send timing information along with the data. For this reason and because ATM is asynchronous AAL-1 packet data units are equipped with additional information such as time stamps and sequence counts to perform the adaptation. AAL-5 ATM adaptation layer 1 AAL-1 is used for transferring a constant bit data rate. this rate is time dependent.the information transfer could have two modes: connection and connectionless There are 4 service classes defined. Class D . 2. the bit rate is variable. The selection of the proper AAL depends on the physical links being used and the type of data being transmitted. LAN interconnection and electronic mail). AAL-2 3.a time relation exists between the source and the destination.no time relation exists between the source and the destination. AAL-3 4. AAL-1 2. The information transported by the ATM adaptation layer is divided into few classes according to the following properties: . a video or audio channel). and the service is connectionless (e. the bit rate is variable. It provides bit error correction and can also be used to transmit timing 25 ..g.. 4. and the service is connection-oriented (e. AAL-4 5. There are few ATM adaptation layer services which are currently specified. and the service is connection-oriented (e.a time relation exists between the source and the destination. those are: 1. the bit rate is variable. Class B . a voice channel). a connection-oriented file transfer).no time relation exists between the source and the destination. The convergence sublayer provided here is used differently depending on the service that is provided.
Figure 2-5: AAL-1 preparing cells for transmission in a way so that the cells retain their order 26 . for example for voice and videoconferencing. AA-1 layer is recommended when high video quality is needed. It also allows compensation for CELL DELAY VARIATION (CDV) and the replacement of the lost cells. AAL-1 operates by placing a one byte header on 47 bytes of user data and then transferring the 48 bytes to the ATM layer . which is used to correct errors that appear/occur in the sequence numbers • convergence sublayer indication.information. the header of the SAR is protected by a sequence number protection field which can inform the CS sublayer of bit errors. The header that is added here contains three parts: • a sequence number (SN). which is used to specify the presence of the convergence sublayer function • The SAR of the AAL-1 will be notified of the existence of the CS sublayer by the CS indicator (CSI). A sequence number (SN) is passed from the CS sublayer to the SAR and this SN then can be used to detect missing SAR loadings. The use of AAL-1 provides forwarding error correction at the cost of increased bandwidth and delivery delay. As specified before. So. At the segmentation and reassembly sublayer provided here the data unit is segmented and a header is added to it. which is used to detect insertion and loss of cells • sequence number protection (SNP).
• 27 .a sequence number (SN). Tis layer function. can be: BOM . or can indicate that the cell contains timing information or other kind of information.CRC. AAL-2 also provides variable payloads (as said before) within cells and across cells.Summing up for this adaptation layer we could say that the ATM adaptation layer performs the functions which are necessary to adapt constant bit rate (CBR) services to the ATM layer services. which indicates the number of true data bytes in a cell that is partially full. An enhancement to asynchronous transfer mode technology. some of the cells that are transferred may be not full and for this reason additional features are required for the segmentation and recovery layer.This is achieved in the same way as in the AAL-1.the convergence sublayer provides error correction and transports the timing information from the source to the destination. AAL-2 provides bandwidth efficient transmission of low-rate.the information type. which is time dependent also. which also is used to detect inserted or lost cells(as in AAL-1) . . ATM adaptation layer 2 AAL-2 is used for trasferring variable bit rate data . EOM – the end of the message.the beginning of the message. AAL2 provides the effective transport of voice while supporting the growing demands for data through underlying ATM AAL5-based services. AAL-2 also provides error recovery and indicates errored information which can not be recovered. COM – the continuation of the message. The header contains two parts/fields: .The length indicator. Short and variable packets in delay sensitive applications. At the segmentation and recovery sublayer here a header and a trailer are added. which is a cyclic redundancy check used by the segmentation and reassembly sublayer for correcting the errors. Because of the reason that the source here generates variable bit rate data. • The trailer also contains two fields: . It sends timing information also along ith the data so that the timing dependency could be recovered at the destination. too.
which holds the length of the common part convergence sub-layer protocol data unit payload. 2. This service layer supports message mode and streaming mode services. The functions provided at this layer depend on the services which are requested. which specifies what part of the message is incorporated in the payload.alignment.the common part indicator. which indicates that the payload is a part of the common art . each cell has its own header and trailer. Here too. AAL-3 is divided into two forms of operation.ATM adaptation layer 3 AAL-3 is used for transferring variable rate data which is time independent.protocol data unit is segmented into pieces which can be placed in the ATM cells. which marks the end of the common part convergence sublayer-protocol data unit . which signifies the continuation of the message 28 . it inserts header and trailer to the common part convergence sub-layer –protocol data unit payload. whereas streaming mode services require one or more ATM adaptation layer interface data unit (IDUs). They generaly include functions for error detection and recovery .the end tag. both of them have to do with non-real time data.where error recovery is left for the higher layers and the flow control is only optional The convergence sub-layer of AAL-3 is very similar to the convergence layer of AAL-2. which are: • assured operation – where corrupted or lost convergence sublayer protocol data units are retransmitted and flow control is also supported • non-assured operation .the length field. it has a few values (similarly to the header in AAL-2) BOM. which is a byte filler used to make the header and trailer the same length . which marks the start of the common part convergence sub-layer protocol data unit .the begin tag. which tells the receiver how much buffer space is required to accommodate the message • the trailer : . The AAL-3 convergence layer is further divided into two parts: 1. The segmentation and reassembly sublayer: At this layer the convergence sublayer . which indicated the beginning of the message COM. The common part convergence sub-layer as provided also by the AAL-2.the buffer allocation size. • The header contains 3 fields: . The service specific part. Message mode services are transported in one single ATM adaptation layer interface data unit.a segment type. The header and trailer have 3 field each: • the header: .
AAL-4 also supports two modes of services : message mode services and streaming mode services. It can also operate in assured and non-assured mode as well (also similarly to AAL-3).a length number. AAL4 provides and support point-to-point and point-to-multipoint transfer. .a sequence number (SN). For all cells except the last cell. in other words we could say that: in message mode. AAL-4 is not able to provide a full connectionless service because functions such as routing and addressing are performed at a higher level. which indicates a single segment message . a bit in the header is set to zero to indicate that the cell is not the last cell in the 29 . which is used to differentiate data from different connections which have been multiplexed into a single ATM connection The trailer contains two fields: .multiplexing identifier.the CYC.• EOM. Voice and video depend on distinct connections from end to end. ALL-5 was initially intended only for connection oriented data transfer. This type of service would not work for either voice or video. a cyclic redundancy check used for detecting errors and provide recovery ATM adaptation layer 4 AAL-4 is designed and used for transporting variable bit rate time independent traffic in a connectionless mode. Similarly to AAL-3 . the convergence sub-layer of AAL-5 appends a variable-length pad and a 8-byte trailer to a frame. If we want to define them here too. Then the segmentation and reassembly segments the CS PDU into 48-byte blocks. which hold the number of useful data bytes in the cell . a stream of data blocks separated in time from one another is transported across the network. the ATM layer places each block into the payload field of the ATM cell. whereas in the streaming mode. used to indicate insertion and los in ATM cells. AAL-5 is also known as the simplest and efficient adaptation layer ( SEAL ) because of the reason that the SAR sub-layer simply accepts the CSU-PDU and segments it into 48-octet SAR PDUs without reserving any bytes in each cell. and it has been proven to be a more efficient protocol then AAL-1 (less overhead. AAL-5 provides these operations: First. which is the end of the message SSM. Nevertheless. a fact that is very important for example for bandwidth sensitive MPEG-2 applications). ATM adaptation layer 5 ALL-5 is the primary AAL for data and supports both connection-oriented and connectionless data. AAL-4 provides the possibility of transferring data without making any connection. single blocks of data are received from the user at the service interface and delivered to another service interface elsewhere in the network. Next. The pad is long enough to ensure that the resulting PDU falls on the 48-byte boundary of the ATM cell.
If a frame is being received with some errors on it than it is discarded and it is not delivered to the receiving end. essentially the ATM adaptation layer of the ATM reference model does not do any error recovery. The receiving AAL5 collects the incoming cells until it finds one with a bit that indicate the end of the frame. As we have seen. On the receiving end. breaks them into cells and adds the necessary header information with the purpose of allowing the rebuilding of the original blocks at the receiving end. AAL5 reassembles the cells with the purpose of producing the original block of data. AAL5 generates a trailer. On the transmitting end. segments the block of data into cells and sends each cell over the virtual circuit. Although AAL5 uses a single bit in the cell header for convergence. BOM and EOM. To sum up for the AAL5. The ALL takes frames (blocks) of data that are delivered to it. The error recovery is a responsibility of a “higher-layer” protocol. however AAL-5 was not designed to cope with cell timing relationships now with cell-loss. 30 . which increases the efficiency of the protocol and makes its implementation much easier Figure 2-6: AAL-5 formats The AAL-5 is currently the predominant North American adaptation layer. we will say that a computer uses ATM Adaptation layer 5 for sending large blocks of data over ATM virtual circuits. extracts the trailer and delivers the blocks of data to the receiving host software. Even if few AALs were defined based on the application classes they still have a sufficient degree of commonality to be merged. other ATM adaptation layer protocols can use other convergence mechanisms also. Figure 2-7 clearly illustrates the relationship between application classes and ATM Adaptation layers with respect to the different parameters used to classify the application classes.series that present one single frame ( a bit is set to one for the last cell). AAL-5 in a way is a simplification of AAL-3 and AAL-4 and it removes the need for COM.
31 .Figure 2-7: A view of the AAL and the services they support In conclusion to the explanation of the ATM adaptation layer of the ATM reference model we can say that the function of it is to provide generalized interworking across the ATM network. User traffic is returned to its original form at the destination. A SUMMARY FOR THE REFERENCE MODEL AAL ATM PHY UNI ATM Network UNI AAL ATM PHY Figure 2-8: The ATM Reference Model In figure 2-8 we can see now clearly which are the comprising layers of the ATM Reference Model. those include optional protocol layers which are used to further encapsulate ATM service for use with TCP/IP and other protocols. This layer been adopted by the ATM Forum for a class of service called High Speed Data Transfer. There are also some upper layers of the ATM protocol reference model. AAL is a set of standard protocols which translate user traffic into a size and format that can be contained in the payload of an ATM cell (53 bytes).
video and voice traffic. based on the application requirement. ATM is "a transfer mode in which the information is organized into cells. sublayers and different functions. sub-layers and their functions According to ITU-T (International Telecommunications Union-Telecommunication Standardization). These traffic types are part of the parameters which are needed during the cell setup. Lets turn now to some thoughts about its use. jitter. 32 . it is asynchronous in the sense that the recurrence of cells containing information is not periodic. delay. In figure 2-9 we can see the summary of the whole ATM model. There were various requirements of quality-of-service (such as latency.At last. the way cells are transported and the way to treat congestion • The ATM adaptation layer defines the process of converting information from the upper layers into ATM cells The ATM was initially designed and developed to support the various requirements of the various traffic types. to specify the traffic requirements that must be present to support the various types of cells. This is maybe the best definition for ATM. its layers. we will summarize this part of our research paper by writing the few main ideas about this reference model. AAL-2 is gaining an increased attention because it addresses particular needs that are not fulfilled by AAL-1 nor by AAL-5. bandwidth and so on) for different traffic . maximum and minimum burst. The different traffic types. such as AAL-1 and AAL-5 specify the ATM cell structure through the architecture of the protocol data units (PDUs) required in their categories. including HTTP file transfer. Figure 2-9: ATM layers. • ATM is independent of any specific transmission medium • The ATM layer defines the cell format.
most of the voice and data traffic generated in the world will be transmitted by ATM technology is thought that ATM would become as common as the telephone in the next few years. and protocols. and standard ATM protocols. BSD Sockets. Tomorrow's LANs must operate in an environment in which computing devices are so inexpensive and readily available that there are hundreds or even thousands in a typical office. architectures. “A typical ATM LAN would use a mesh or hierarchical topology. However. So. Nevertheless. connecting these LANs together with an ATM technology makes sense. replacing their LANs with ATM LANs in order to keep up with technology is pure nonsense. for us is to remain to see what happens. ATM switches. network managers will jump on the ATM bandwagon with both feet. Deploying ATM technology and standards in a local networking environment will have a significant impact on the way we view LANs. ATM LANs will also have protocol support for a mixture of high-level communication services (e. any attempt to interconnect them with traditional shared-media LANs would be impossible. hubs. and larger user populations are the major reasons for the growing interest in ATM LANs. The bandwidth of traditional LANs is usually on the order of tens of megabits per second.. what is the main purpose of any network? We know that the effective and efficient transfer of data from one point to another can be accomplished by using one of many technologies.” Asynchronous transfer mode has received a lot of attention recently. high-speed cell switching. With such a large number of devices. Today's LANs also lack scalability. we also know that ATM is without a doubt the most effective and efficient way to do this.TM concepts. After all. It only makes sense to use fixed-length data cells and to carry these cells from one user to another. in part. TCP/IP. The expectation is that by the next decade. The ATM standard is designed to efficiently support high-speed digital voice and data communications. This fact will make a transition to ATM wide area service between LANs in an organization. ATM's success depends. UDP/IP. The limitations of existing bus and ring LANs. while ATM LANs will support Gbps speeds. and RPC) and may be used as "backbone networks" to interconnect existing networks. Once the costs of ATM interface boards for PCs.Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is often described as the future computer networking paradigm that will bring high-speed communications t the desktop. From this part of the article we can easily conclude that in a few years ATM will be in fact widely used because they offer good services. Will ATM live up to its promise as a universal switching and multiplexing methodology? Will it be the technology that finally brings networked multimedia capabilities to our desktops? Much effort has already been spent on developing ATM. he writes there: “ ATM will no doubt be the LAN and WAN technology of the future. bridges.”.g. the demand for higher bandwidths. We want to point here to the thoughts of Arthur Cooper in his work “ATM”. a lot of ATM supporters are of the same thought. on its ability to provide high-speed networking solutions that surpass (in terms of 33 . It is already known that many organizations today and many companies have installed LANs for to meet their need of information exchange in the years to come. and routers have reached an affordable level.
Flexible and efficient allocation of network bandwidth 1. The most important module in high-sped communication is the memory manager . Common LAN/WAN architecture. III. Each of these information types with ATM can pass through a single network connection. Connectionoriented services set up virtual links between end systems through a network. 34 . If our solution for network problems will be ATM network system than we will have these benefits from ATM. The multiple types of information and the single network connection are making the ATM one of best network system now days. the memory manager manages logical data structures. This method is often called a "reliable" network service. High-speed communication.price/performance) today's technologies. traditionally. 2. A single network connection that can reliably mix voice. It can guarantee that data will arrive in the same order. High-speed communication 2. Connection-oriented service. with implications for performance and interoperability”. Common LAN/WAN architecture 4. Over the next few years. 3. Connection-oriented service. they are the connection-oriented method and the connectionless . similar to traditional telephony 3. we will undoubtedly hear much more about the ATM reference model. and data 6. Requires a session connection (analogous to a phone call) be established before any data can be sent. similar to traditional telephony. High performance via hardware switching 5. The speed of communication in one network system is most wanted. “Common LAN/WAN architecture allowing ATM to be used consistently from one desktop to another. The Queue Manager is a special-purpose processor that executes memory management instructions and makes the system to work with the high speed . In ATM this job id done by Queue Manager. LAN and WAN technologies have been very different. We have two kind of methods used in data communication to transfer data. 1. ATM is part of the Connectionoriented service. THE BENEFITS OF ATM ATM is a network service that provides flexible and scalable solution for quality in networks where multiple information types are supported . video.
video. and data. video is élan . high performance via hardware switching with terabit switches on the horizont .A single network connection that can reliably mix voice. Sophisticated switching and control mechanism 2. data applications are LAN–based and are very burst. Both those switching and control mechanism are very sophisticated and they are a big disadvantage of ATM. We know that connections in ATM are called virtual circuits. 6. ATM is a network service where multiple information types can pass over single network connection. the control mechanism is Queue Manager. DISADVANTAGES OF ATM ATM network system is great solution for network problems. Is to expensive 1. 35 . Sophisticated switching and control mechanism . ATM is the only one network system that transfers those multiple information ( voice. The Queue Manager is a specialpurpose processor that executes memory management instructions and makes the system to work with the high speed .4. Rigid cell structure 6. most applications are or can be viewed as inherently burst. Here are some of ATM disadvantages: 1. but it have some disadvantages and we must discuss them. This switching is dictated by a switching table that maps input ports to output ports based on the values of the VPI and VCI fields. video and data) over a single network connection and this is one great benefit of ATM. Hard state system 3. High performance via hardware switching . Flexible and efficient allocation of network bandwidth needs and delivering high utilization of networking resources. as both parties are neither speaking at once nor all the time. ATM aware 4. voice is burst . as the amount of motion and required resolution varies over time IV. When connection is established then different information types can be forwarded from one host to another with 53 bytes called cell. The main function of an ATM switch is to receive cells on a port and switch those cells to the proper output port based on the VPI and VCI values of the cell. 5.
We know that ATM is Hard state system. Because of that ATM systems are implemented only at the big companies and at the government of some countries. 36 . consistency of the state between systems across the network is critical. but the problem is that ATM parts ( ATM network system) is very expensive. in a hard state system like ATM.2. 4. ATM is a great solution for our now days problems in network. Is to expensive. ATM aware is used in ATM to connect one process to another . this process (function) of ATM is very sophisticated and also is one big disadvantages of ATM. Even Cells in ATM system are doing very good job they also have a rigid structure and data have problems while they are passing from one place to another place at ATM network system. 3. of state entries in the network that have to be consistent for the network to operate correctly. if not millions. 6. Hard state system. There may be thousands. Rigid cell structure.
Glossary AAL . All our project is one explanation of how ATM is inside. ATM have great success in it implementation. The data in the virtual circuit are traveling like cell (how cell is we have discovered with one special topic in our research).ATM Adaptation Layer 37 .Conclusion Computer networks now days are changing our life in every corner. but for conclusion we want to say that ATM is great network system used for mixed data and this technology Is used now days in many companies for making their communication easily and their problems solvable. From all this explanation we see that the main purpose of the ATM network system is to solve communication problems that need a single connection and different (mixed) data types to travel through this connection. The research that we have done is talking about ATM(asynchronous transfer mode) networks. because information are forwarded from one host to another in the same path ATM has a great security and there are no data losing in this system of communication. how mix data are shared in this system. to see and change our data from every place of the world. We can not say anything else because we have discovered every thing up there in our research . to solve our problems faster. this function or this kind of work makes the difference between connection oriented networks (where ATM falls) and connectionless networks . companies are growing faster all of this is done from this modern technology called “network”. ATM falls in connection oriented networks and is one of the best solution for network problems. Thanks to computer networks we are able to communicate each other. All packets that are forwarded from the sender host they all are received at the other host ( machine) this makes ATM a network where the scale of security is 100% .
48-byte payload) to transmit different types of traffic simultaneously. the control plane coordinates signaling and setting up and tearing down virtual circuits.ATM can be described logically in three planes: The user plane coordinates the interface between user protocols. Each is geared to a particular class of traffic. It is asynchronous in that information streams can be sent independently without a common clock. and data.A set of four standard protocols that translate user traffic from the higher layers of the protocol stack into a size and format that can be contained in the payload of an ATM cell and return it to its original form at the destination. Cell-Loss Priority (CLP) Field A priority bit in the cell header.Begining of Message Cell An ATM cell consists of 53 bytes . ATM . such as IP or SMDS (Switched Multimegabit Data Service) and ATM. video.Asynchronous Transfer Mode A high-speed. quality of service specification. cell routing using VPIs/VCIs. connection-oriented switching and multiplexing technology that uses 53byte cells (5-byte header. Of these. when set. Each AAL consists of two sublayers: the segmentation and reassembly (SAR) sublayer and the convergence sublayer. cell reception and header validation. 5 constitute the header. ATM Layer The layer of the ATM protocol stack that handles most of the processing and routing activities. the remaining 48 carry the data payload. All AAL functions occur at the ATM end-station rather than at the switch. with specific characteristics concerning delay and cell loss. cell multiplexing/demultiplexing. payload-type identification. including voice. and flow control and prioritization BOM . it indicates that the cell can be discarded if necess Cell relay The packet switching mechanism used for the fixed size packets called cells Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) A mathematical algorithm used to ensure accurate delivery based on the actual contents of the data Cell error ratio (CER) The fraction of cells delivered in error Cell loss ratio (CLR) The fraction of cells lost during transmission Cell transfer delay (CTD) The average time needed for a cell to travel from source to destination 38 . These include building the ATM header. the management plane coordinates the layers of the ATM stack.
These sorts of errors are likely to corrupt addressing fields. the HEC field contains information that is used to detect and correct errors in the cell header. causing the network to deliver the cell to the wrong destination or drop the cell and request retransmission. GFR lets users specify a connectiondependent minimum cell rate for transmissions. EOM . An ELAN may encompass stations physically attached to ATM and non-ATM segments.End of Message Emulated Local-Area Network (ELAN) A logical network created with mechanisms defined in the ATM Forum’s LAN Emulation 1. Their interference makes both unintelligible Constant bit rate (CBR) The data rate of an ATM service class that is designed for customers requiring real-time audio or video services Convergence sublayer (CS) The upper AAL sublayer that adds a header or a trailer to the user data Data Exchange Interface (DXI) Defines a format for passing data that has gone through the ATM convergence sublayer (a CS-PDU) between a router and a CSU/DSU or other device with ATM SAR capability. The final spec is likely to arrive by middle or late 1998. header errors 39 . Header System-defined control information that precedes user data Header Error Control (HEC) The last 1-byte field in an ATM cell's 5-byte header.0) spec. using FEC to detect cell loss allows multiple ATM devices to share the same virtual circuit for real-time audio and video transmission with minimal added overhead (approximately 3 percent) and only slight performance degradation Guaranteed frame rate (GFR) A proposed standard from the Traffic Management subworking group of the ATM Forum.Collision A condition in which two packets are being transmitted over a medium at the same time. A recent proposal to the ATM Forum advocates the use of FEC to address problems of data loss and packet delay on shared constant bit rate ATM links. Forward Error Correction (FEC) FEC takes advantage of the sequence number contained in an ATM AAL (ATM adaptation layer) 1 protocol data unit to detect cell loss and prevent unnecessary transmission of cells belonging to faulty packets. Sometimes called UBR+ (unspecified bit-rate plus). On fiber networks. According to studies conducted by several ATM Forum member companies.0 (LANE 1.
"Synchronous" indicates that all component portions of the SONET signal can be tied to a single reference clock 40 . a 155-Mbit/s interface using Category 5 UTP (unshielded twisted-pair). Class 3 defines requirements for interoperability with other connection-oriented protocols.73 Mbit/s. Permanent Virtual Circuit (PVC) A virtual link with fixed end-points that are defined by the network manager. double error detection) algorithm to fix single-bit errors and discard cells with multiple errors.544 Mbit/s. The forum also has adopted a number of specifications for LAN environments.368 Mbit/s. E1 at 2.52 Mbit/s. Class 2 specifies necessary service levels for packetized video and voice. including a 100-Mbit/s interface using FDDI encoding. Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) An international suite of standards for transmitting digital information over optical interfaces. Quality of Service (QoS) Classes Five broad categories outlined by the ATM Forum's UNI 3. A single virtual path may support multiple PVCs. but size can vary depending upon type of data and AAL. that is one out of a set of hierarchically arranged groups and that extends across all systems that conform to the network architecture Payload Information portion of an ATM cell. ATM cells typically have 48byte payloads.0. HEC uses the SECDEC (single error correction. functions. Class 4 specifies interoperability requirements for connectionless protocols. and SMDS. and a 51-Mbit/s interface using Category 3 UTP.Class 1 specifies performance requirements and indicates that ATM's quality of service should be comparable with the service offered by standard digital connections. implementation details and precise characteristics are to be determined in the future. particularly frame relay. E3 at 34. STS-3c at 155. Layer A group of services. it is intended for applications that do not require a particular class of service. including IP. as well as DS-1 (T1) at 1.048 Mbit/s. The ATM Forum has approved three SONET interfaces for UNI: STS-1 at 51.84 Mbit/s. and STS-12c at 622. Physical Medium-Dependent (PMD) Sublayer Defines the actual speed at which ATM traffic can be transmitted across a given physical medium.08 Mbit/s. IPX. and DS-3 (T3) at 44. exclusive of header.typically take one of two forms: relatively common single-bit errors and rarer error bursts. and protocols that is complete from a conceptual point of view. Class 5 is effectively a "best-effort" attempt at delivery.
Also called policing. usage parameter control involves checking such characteristics as the traffic's burst size and rate. Virtual Path Identifier (VPI) An 8-bit field in the ATM cell header that indicates the virtual path over which a cell is to be routed. which can support multiple virtual circuits.UPC prevents congestion by not admitting excess traffic onto the network when all resources are in use. Virtual Path (VP) A group of virtual channels. Abbreviations ATM – Asynchronous transfer mode AAL – Application adaption layer ABR – Available bit rate 41 .Virtual Channel (VC) A defined route between two end-points in an ATM network that may traverse several virtual paths. UPC changes the CLP bit of cells that exceed traffic parameters so they are dropped. Usage Parameter Control (UPC) A mechanism for protecting network resources from malicious or unintentionally damaging behavior by monitoring connection traffic for conformance to the service contract. A virtual connection established using only the VPI is known as a virtual path connection (VPC). Virtual Circuit (VC) A portion of a virtual path or a virtual channel that is used to establish a single virtual connection between two end-points.
Quality of service SCR – Sustained cell rate SNMP .Simple Network Management Protocol TC .CBR .Physical Medium-Dependent sub-layer QoS.Transmission convergence TDM – Time division multiplexing TP – Transmission path UNI – User to network interface VBR – Variable bit rate VC – Virtual circuit VCI .Virtual circuit identifier VP – Virtual path VPI – Virtual path identifier References  Stallings. W. 1998 42 .Constant bit rate CDV – Cell delay variation CER – Cell error ratio CLR – Cell loss ratio CTD – Cell transfer delay CBR – Constant bit rate CS – Convergence sublayer PMD .NJ: Prentice Hall PTR. Upper Saddle River. High-Speed Networks : TCP/IP and ATM design principles.
Bhatti/D51-notes/node39.gcgcom.htm http://www.y=19 http://www. Upper Saddle River.  Robertazzi Thomas G.ba-stuttgart.NJ: Prentice Hall PTR. NY: McGraw-Hill.com/redbooks/pdfs/sg244625.cs.pdf . Chichester West Sussex. PO19 1UD England  Andrew S.html http://www.htm. Computer Networks and Systems.dit. http://www.ucl. Computer Networks-4th edition.com/ATM.ac. Baffins Lane.cisco.uk/staff/S. 1221 Avenue of the Americas.redbooks. 2001 http://www.Tanenbaum . Department of electrical engineering. An introduction to ATM networks. John Wiley & sons ltd.ibm. Behrouz A.iec.com/protocolATM.de/%7Eschulte/htme/55755.x=17&Back.org/online/tutorials/?Back. SUNY Stony Brook NY 11794-2350 USA  Forouzan.html http://www. Data communications and networking 2nd.javvin.htm http://www. 43 .es/snh/arhelp/glossaries/datacomm/ http://www.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/cisintwk/ito_doc/ipv6.upm.
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