MIDRASH RABBAH
GENESIS
I

MIDRASH KABBAH
TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH WITH NOTES, GLOSSARY AND INDICES UNDER THE EDITORSHIP OF

RABBI DR. H. FREEDMAN, B.A., PH.D. AND MAURICE SIMON, M.A.

WITH
RABBI
DR.
I.

FOREWORD BY EPSTEIN, B.A., PH.D.,
A

D.LIT.

IN TEN VOLUMES

THE SONCINO PRESS LONDON

First Edition 1939 Second Impression 195* Third Impression 1961

PRINTED IN ENGLAND BY STEPHEN AUSTIN AND SONS, LTD., HERTFORD

GENESIS
IN

TWO VOLUMES
I

TRANSLATED BY
RABBI DR. H. FREEDMAN,
B.A.,

PH.D.

.

CO NTENT S Foreword by Rabbi Dr. Editorial Preface /. Epstein page ix xxv Introduction to Genesis Rabbah xxvii i Bereshith Noach Lech Lecha Vayera 2^33 313 406 .

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What He had said and commanded was gathered up in books.D. The changes in the people's circumstances could not be neglected. by which their individual and national life was to be guided. the nation. but was restored after Babylon fell to the Medes. which became The Book. heroic struggle for the inviolability of the Book. Thus arose and developed the religion of Israel. This only God and Supreme King had spoken to their ancestors at Sinai through the Law. Grounded in the Book and centred in God. But surrounding nations surged against them. we find leaders who proclaimed that God is and must remain the sole ruler of the tribes. earliest periods of the history of Israel and Judah.LIT. Conquering Empires rose and fell.. Israel was taken captive and disappeared from history as a separate entity. and its acceptance the chief foundation upon which the Jewish State was to rear itself.A. PH. religion itself was to be an independent and positive source of inspiration. it was not like the Roman religion. Then began within Judah a centurieslong. Its laws and precepts and ordinances had to be interpreted both literally and spiritually. Judah too fell a prey to Babylonia. when when yet the twelve tribes were warring with each other. D. and that through the government of the Lord who is One and Everlasting. and continued to speak to them through priest and prophet. B. EPSTEIN.. and humanity must be found. For the Jews. the Torah. Besides the written . the unity of the individual. the creature of the State.FOREWORD by RABBI IN the DR. the ideas of king and priest were yet elementary and vague. I. nor was it ever to derive its inspiration from political feeling.

he summoned a large gathering of the people and secured in their presence by means of a covenant signed by their leaders the accep- tance of the Torah as the constitution of the new com- inaugurated this memorable conwhich vocation. 8. Strack.MIDRASH KABBAH Law there had been from the first. would have not understood a reading which evidently was completely out of touch with the currents of thought of their time or in conflict with their collective aspirations traditions.E. the written the abiding fundamental factor. Introduction to the Talmud and Midrash (English Ed. 8 Neh. The written and unwritten must co-operate in the guidance of the Jewish people struggling against the inrolling civilisations of Greece and Rome. the unwritten being the dynamic factor of change. 201. . and they gave the understand the reading. proved to be the turning-point in the of the Jewish people. in this struggle on behalf of the Book It was in the year 444 B. THE BEGINNINGS OF THE MIDRASH A to decisive move was made by Ezra. Student ") l 2 of the Law of Moses which the Lord had given '. distinctly . Fired by the zeal make the reign of the Torah supreme in the newly re-created lives of the returned Exiles.'* sense. p. an unwritten Law handed down from generation to generation an unwritten Law which lawgiver and prophet strove to engrave in the heart of the people.. In their endeavour to cause the people to understand the reading. twelve years after his return from Babylonia. Bookman ". . 6. Himself a ready Sofer (lit. he took the lead in the reading. by a public reading of the history " " Law. in the Torah of munity in Judea. while others who stood by 'gave the sense : And they read in the book.). and caused them the Midrash The people orally at first. He ' ' ' to God. vni. H. onwards. Ezra and~ his associates (the Thus began and Soferim) had to build bridges between the past and the 1 V. L. from the divine communications to Moses.C. 2 Ezra vu.

With the emergence of Mishnah about the second century.. and vi. 23-95. In this sense the Midrashform is older/ xi . There were as yet no reasons for the rift between Halachah and Haggadah . 'm 2 ftivnK. ITS EARLIEST some anew INFLUENCE The Midrash thus created and brought into shape by the Soferim for the purpose of expounding the Torah and later also other parts of the Hebrew Scriptures fulfilled a vital necessity. life. 1 These 'aspects' were latent. I. pp. On the problem as to the priority of the Midrash-form of study over the Mishnah-form.C. and the spirit. 37-61. so far as they dealt with the laws and the more precise understanding and application of what the Scripture enjoined or forbade.S. R. L.which is the older method of study. I. pp. it represented the most important medium for the expression of Jewish thought and teaching.FOREWORD For these spiritual guides of Israel it was inconceivable that the sense of the Torah of God might be in conflict with the fundamental conditions of Jewish present.E. Has not after all 'Every word of the Scripture "seventy aspects'"? minV nns n^lti?. pp. Talmud and Apocrypha. Ch. p.. T.. 33~3^3 Herford. Midrash or Mishnah. and Tchernowitz. pp. For centuries after Ezra. Toledoth Ha-Halakah (History of the Halakah). There is a strong presumption that the biblical studies of the ancient Soferim and of the learned in the priesthood were primarily directed to the interpretation of the Scriptures. Midrash was in fact during the whole of the Soferic period (which came to an end about 270 B. 46 ff. Z. Lauterbach. (N. Midrash was obliged to share in the realms of the Halachah its kingdom with its new rival 2 but despite its disputed rule Midrash did not cease to exercise sway over the heart and mind of the people. The letters of the Holy Writ were not meant to kill They were intended as containers ever to be filled with the wine of good.. 503527.). is one of those simplified alternatives to which a simple answer cannot be given. v. In this connection the illuminating statement of Moore (Judaism. they revealed again and the Torah which Moses received on Sinai. 150) may be quoted as apposite: 'The question. yQR. as generation after generation found expression for or other of these aspects. v. new vintage.) the Queen of Jewish spiritual life.

as we shall see. feelings. thoughts. are Midrashic Hebrew which We find in Chronicles passages in There is also a Midrash to the Book of Kings mentioned ia ii Chronicles xxiv. In one of its of Israel. R. The Harvard Review. L. T. whilst reference to the Midrash of Iddo the Prophet is made in n Chronicles xni. Cambridge Bible. Herford. and knowledge. Midrash. A. which according to one 2 authority was compiled between the second half of the third century and the first half of the second century B. left its deep impress on the Bible itself. p.E. as one of the literary forms in which the Jewish creative genius in the realms in Haggadah expressed itself. glosses.C. Among the oldest Haggadic recited Midrashim is undoubtedly The Haggadah on Passover evening. pp. 1938. 2 Finkelstein. MIDRASH AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF HALACHAH specimen of an early Halachic Midrashic exposition of the Torah emanating according to competent authorities^ 1 On the Midrashic character of Chronicles v Elmslie. xii . Introduction to Chronicles. functions as a collection of contributions to the history Midrashic elements were assimilated to the Scriptures. After the completion of the Hebrew Scriptures. 291 ff.. supplementing details the narratives in the Book of Kings. 1 many We may first elements thus suppose that we have in Chronicles the of Haggadic Midrash handed down in writing in their original form. A W. Theological 8 V.MIDRASH KABBAH that developed. 22. 48. Midrashic creation in Haggadah Jewry. and during the whole of the post-scriptural and pretalmudic period the teaching both of Halachah and Haggadah was conducted in Midrash-form. L . obtained a dominating position in the spiritual life of For a long period it was the vehicle for Jewish ideas. Talmud and Apocrypha. 27. The Oldest Midrash. in the course of the Talmudic period and which eventually led Midrash to become an independent branch of Rabbinic literature..

There is no distinction in the original text of the Torah between 'enemy' and 'enemy'. Here we have one of the earliest typical examples of a Midrashic exposition of the Torah. and anointed them. 'The . and shod them. priest anointed . Particularly the prohibition of conscription implied in Deut. The interpretation seems to adapt the law of the Torah to a new situation which had not been provided for in the text. so that if you fall into their hand they shall have mercy upon you. not Judah against Simeon nor Simeon against Benjamin. shall say unto them against your but not enemies. and gave them to eat and to drink. rose up.' against your brethren.FOREWORD from the Soferic school Sotah. the scope of which. for example. however. . owing to the fact Red Cross service * for the sick and wounded ' seems to have been created. and carried all the feeble of them upon asses. Should 'frightfulness'. as it is said. the city of palm-trees. 3 : Mishnah expounds Deut. 15). Strictly speaking. and took the captives. 1 What man xiii . the word 'enemy' denotes any foe with whom one goes to battle. THe Midrash gives apparently the whole process of reasoning which led to such a modification. . 8: is there that is fearful and fainthearted? let him go and return unto his house. And the men which have been expressed by name battle . was restricted to wars among Jews themselves. any fundamental change in the methods of warfare being bound to react on the laws concerned. is preserved in the xx. and brought them to Jericho. and with their spoil clothed all that were naked among them. be given up by other peoples too. then the Law would be generally modified and the introduction of a certain measure of 'conscript' service would be permissible. xx. This new situation involved a modification of the law at least in certain of its regulations * in respect of such civil wars. In the that a sort of exposition cited a distinction is made. unto their brethren. It . then they returned to Samaria (n Chron. should they also exercise mercy on their prisoners and wounded enemies. and arrayed them. 2. for vii. and thereby holds open the way for further development. xxvur.

The emergence of two distinct terms need not necessarily have 1 meant a rift or p. This method. The need for methodical regrouping could. from the Sadduceans down to the Karaites. however. Mishnah and Gemara were meant to be a fortress able to offer resistance to any enemy possessing even the most dangerous weapons. rivalry between the respective V. xiv . op cit.MIDRASH KABBAH MIDRASH AND MISHNAH This Halachic Midrash exemplifies more clearly than any Haggadic Midrash could do the formal and material differences of Midrash and Mishnah. We may assume that there were other reasons apart from pedagogical. the Halachic Gemara. 50. which would have been a kind of re-editing of Midrashic expositions. for introducing Mishnah as a rival of Midrash. There was now no question any longer of a bridge between past and present. the to able through the Mishnah-form to put on the order of the day such subjects as they desired. Evidently the Mishnah represented a progress in the method of teaching. The Scriptural text could still have remained the basis of the 'expositions' in a Midrash whose contents needed only to be regrouped according to subjects.. the Mishnah teaches the Halachah without reference any Scriptural text. Herford. have been satisfied without abandoning the Midrashform and all its implications. was not resorted to. their latter-day spiritual descendants* HALACHAH AND HAGGADAH We do not know when the words Halachah and Haggadah were first introduced. While Midrash was tied to the texts of the respective Scriptures. at will Tannaim were bore witness to the determination of the learned of Israel to build up an unalterable system of directives. As to the form. 1 But we would probably not be that the time of their first mistaken if we suppose divorce coincides with the introduction of the Mishnah-form. The final victory of the Mishnahform with its logical sequence.

they had to necessity arose of parts. embodying the philosophy of the generation. But even if different persons happened to expound separately verses of Halachic and Haggadic if ever such a character. in view of the fact that they all started from the same point. There were teachers of the Haggadah (rabbanan di-Aggadeta). and life. These adaptations were adopted only after prolonged arguments between conflicting schools representing in many cases xv . exposition in the Soferic and The fact that Midrashic no pre-Talmudic period found Scriptures verse by verse of whether their character was Halachic or Haggadic proves that in all respects harmony and equality between Halachic and Haggadic exposition reigned. existed side by side in complete unity. and the discussion and application of its details. but only in order to close it again as categorically as the Mishnah did. The characteristic Mishnaic form was the formulation of a decision which closed a debate. Under these conditions Halachah. representing religious the rules of practical FREEDOM OF SPIRIT IN THE MIDRASH The sharp distinction which we find later significance of the two terms Halachah was a result of Talmudic development. from the Law of Moses. In many cases the Gemara reopens the debate. and the form of teaching was the same. embodying adaptations which the process of time had rendered necessary. between the and Haggadah The personal unity came to an end. while Mishnah supplemented by Gemara took more and more the form of categorical pronouncements on the religious law. activity to who presumably restricted their Midrashic exposition of exclusively Haggadic character. Haggadah. The teachers were the same. from Scriptural texts.FOREWORD disciplines these terms represented. though often on a different plane. the full co-ordinate their expositions. When the same person was building up a system regardless difficulty in following the which Halachah and Haggadah were the component harmony of the system was obviously safeguarded.

and collective thoughts of the people of Israel in successive generations.. especially in the Midrashim. and other. Haggadah enjoyed the greater latitude allowed by the seven rules which even 90-130 C. It. in so far as it did not serve only to justify an a posteriori Talmudic decision already fixed. 'A covenant whoever learns Haggadah from a xvi Ber. Jose ha-Gelili (the Galilean). children of their verses. retained. aspirations. and these were often ahead of their times. the became (c. Pazzi in the first half of the third century was known as an editor of Haggadah (Mesadder Aggadeta) 1 and R. Simeon b.E. souls of their soul. however. fears. PERIOD OF MIDRASHIC CREATIVE ACTIVITY The abandonment by the Halachah of the Midrash-form gave rise to the production of Haggadic writings which henceforth became synonymous with Midrashim. ioa. op.) thirty-two rules for Haggadic interpretation formulated by his contemporary R. was governed in its certain norms of exposition interpretation of the Bible by which served as a check against the riot of untrammelled imagination. Strack. and as such unalterable. a>. being barred by definitive change lagged Mishnaic law and precedent. the Haggadic Midrash continued to express the ideas.. p. But whereas the Halachah was restricted to when expanded by Rabbi Ishmael no more than thirteen. As ever before. Johanan is more explicit still in regard to the existence . The Haggadah. however. of Haggadic compilations has been 1 effected : when he declares. its old freedom and its full potentialities.MIDRASH RABBAH the forces of cautious conservatism on the one hand. 14. hopes. too. Many of the thoughts in the Haggadic Midrash were due to poetic inspiration. More often the decision impatient progress on the the behind times. V. . In this sense they were prophetic. and in respect of function they continued the prophetic tradition. though formally and chronologically they were the direct descendants of the Scriptures.

M. saw. Tosefta. 'Let us go and listen to this or that preacher who 2 possesses a wonderful talent/ LATER MIDRASHIC COMPILATIONS of the Talmudic Talmud. The teacher and a probably untook the same floor and often preacher intentional competition developed between them which often worked out to the disadvantage of the teacher. Midrashim. This was often the case. This happened mostly when Haggadic motives of one kind or another entered into the course of some Halachic discussion.FOREWORD book will not easily forget it/ 1 The opinions recorded against the writing down of Haggadic creation are only further proofs of the fact that there were others who did i. V. The Karaite insurrection in the J. reports as an eye witness (about 420) that Jews would call one to another. The most Academies were on the decline and spiritual life in Palestine found its only refuge in the Synagogue in which the Torah was taught and sermons delivered. WeltgescMchte xvil des judischen Volkes. and maxim. delivered usually who lived in Palestine. and therefore the Mishnah. Hieronymus. i. p. flourishing period of Haggadic activity was in Palestine in the third and fourth centuries. was ever growing.. parable. 381. Dubnow. S. The masses of the people were drawn to the sermons which were full of such expositions and on Sabbath and holy days. story. when the put these Haggadoth. vol. Talmudic period creative Haggadic (and therefore Midrashic) activity came to an end. v. The popularity of the exposition of the Holy Writ. into writing. with the help of legend.e. and both the Babylonian and Jerusalem Talmuds With the close of the are rich in Haggadic material. In the post-Amoraic and Geonic period the Midrashic activity was restricted to the field of collecting and revising the transmitted Some of the Midrashic creations epoch found their way into the Midrashic 1 material. . * Ber. m.

In the later part of this period the only kind of Midrash produced was the Haggadic. religion. may be made to throw new light on the life. The Midrashim compiled concurrently with or just after the were Midrashim process of the creation of the Talmud in every sense of the word. terse. if 'decoded' by the research and investigation of savants. as is sometimes done. style being laconic. Midrashic creation and compilation extend. and as a spiritual factor owing to their Haggadistic contents became more and more separated from the Halachah which dwelt exclusively in the Talmud. and Midrashirn were compiled down to the eleventh century. They merely record the central ideas from which flowed the whole process of thought of the preachers and round which they wove their orations and picturesque homilies. confusing mass of words. STYLE AND CHARACTERISTICS In all creation the Midrashic compilations either of contemporary or as the result of purely 'editorial' work. It is well to remember this before criticising the Midrash for its This accounts for their apparent unintelligibility in places. to the historical facts Thus more material may be added embedded in the traditional lore in xviii . This meaning might have consisted in political allusions. as we have seen. in an unbroken line from the days of Ezra to the eleventh century. no attempt was made to reproduce in full dress the contents of the sermons of the great masters of the Haggadah.MIDRASH KABBAH neither to Halachic nor eighth century was favourable to Haggadic activity yet as a medium of literary expression the Midrash did not fall into disuse even after the Talmud : had long been completed. and contemporaries certainly possessed the key to many of the passages which to us appear a And these same Midrashim. pithy. and history of a past age. and at times to the point of obscurity. It should also be borne in mind that some Midrashic paragraphs owe their preservation to the very obscurity of their meaning.

Another criticism levelled against the Midrash is the simplicity exhibited in its construction and modes of In truth. 1 Sifre to Deut. xi. which age cannot wither nor custom stale. which have already proved to be invaluable data for the knowledge of the history of Israel. forms are on the contrary signs of decline. And to the present day. 22. sustain and strengthen the Jew athirst for the word of the Living God. the Midrash has ever proved an unfailing spring with the power to refreshen and renew. expression. formal truths with organic truth. it never failed to yield the right message of moral sustenance and help. infinite in variety. the learned Jewish layman will turn to the Midrash for solace and comfort from the turmoil and strife of work-a-day life. Whether in joy or sorrow. moreover. but it has also enriched the literature and liturgy of the Jew and his very life. simple forms are proofs of inner based upon the harmony of ideas and facts. Not only has it ever served as an inexhaustible source of inspiration to teacher and preacher. Complicated as they betray difficulties in the endeavour to reconcile ideas with facts. xix . As ever in the past the Midrash retains to-day for the religious Jew the significance attached to If thou wishest to know Him in the classical sentence at whose command the world came into existence. blessed be He. learn Haggadah. aspirations with possibilities of attainment. Charged with messages. been all-pervasive. and cling to His ways/ 1 Its sweet and ' it : potent influences have. strength. for thereby shalt thou know the Holy One. POPULARITY OF THE MIDRASH The purely Haggadic character of the Midrash has been the cause of its immense popularity a popularity which the passage of years has only served to confirm and strengthen. and the assiduous student of the law finds in it a welcome and refreshing retreat from the rigorous discipline of the battlefield of the Halachah. storm or sunshine.FOREWORD the Midrash.

. op. Chrysostom the 'golden mouthed'. Ephraem Syrus. the ' Sophot') y as 'men armed with to penetrate into extraordinary reasoning powers the deepest meaning of the Holy Writ*. and resolved to resort to the same spiritual weapon in order to place the dogmatic system of the Church on a firm basis. E.. v. Was hat Mohammed aus dem Judenthume aufgenommen ? 3 Midrash also played its part in leading the thought of the Middle Ages into new channels and preparing the way for what was of permanent value in the Renaissance. temporary Jewish preachers in the service of the Jewish spirit. Hieronymus especially drew extensively upon Midrashic sources. cit. and much of the religious. and thanks to his association with Palestinian Amoraim has been able to hand down to us a number of most darmg Midrashic expositions. p. Dubnow. Histoire du Peuple d' Israel (1893). Published first at Bonn 1833. Guillaume D'Auvergne 1 2 3 (first half of the thirteenth century). which so abounds with Midrashic elements that it has been not 1 unjustly termed 'a masterpiece of the Haggadah'. V. Eusebius (d. M. Augustine introduced Midrash in their apologetic works. the 'Deuterotai' (as distinguished from the Halachic teachers.MIDRASH KABBAH ITS UNIVERSAL INFLUENCE Midrashic activity was not sway extended far and wide. 350) already praises Midrashic preachers. 331. the Church Fathers fully understood the importance of the Midrashic method employed with telling effect by con- they adopted either in own ends. the Renan. moral. or after reshaping them for Apart from the New Testament. 2 The considerable indebtedness of Mahommed to the able Midrash for the legendary and other material which he incorporated in the Koran has already been proved over a century ago by Abraham Geiger in his work. by the their ideas to which the Midrash gave birth and which toto. XX . p. S.. 2586. and ethical thought and teaching alike of Christianity and Islam was fashioned influence of Jewish Its The restricted to Jews.

while Pascal in France was pressing Luther theological Midrashic ideas into the service of Jansenism in his 4 Milton in Puritan England was writings. 345 ff. and in the Midrash Rabbah we have before us a monumental collection of the written testimony to this activity. 177 fT. Neumann. J. pp. Pascal und das Alte Testament. last perhaps by an anonymous ever a work was created 1.J. Seidmann. 1 Nicholas de Lyra. J. If Lyra had not played the lyre (the tune). its constructing his great epic Paradise Lost and Paradise Regained out of material supplied to sequel him from Midrashic sources.. xvm. Guttmann. is also a most valuable proof It is a of the progressive spirit of the Jewish people.. If ever the spirit of a people could claim to If which created the Midrash would possess the highest degree of consistency. Fletcher. then the spirit entitle the Jews to the Midrash. E. Milton's Semitic Studies. R. F. such a work is the Midrash. the most learned Christian Hebraist of the fourteenth century.. H.. pp. fundamental characteristic of Midrash that it keeps its gates 1 a make that claim. 3 4 B Readings.y. whose influence on first representative in his shows De is expressed in the well-known tag: Si Lyra non Lutherus non saltasset? made much use of Midrashic lyrasset material in his Postillae Perpetuae? And during the postReformation period. Universe marked traces of Midrashic influence. JR.FOREWORD of the new spirit in scholasticism. It exhibits an unbroken row of pearls all of the same high quality. At the same time open. xxi . It never t closes a debate that would be V. and Milton's Rabbinical danced.. V. Luther would not have V. V. 5 ITS UNBROKEN CONTINUITY We have seen the evidence of the centuries-long Midrashic activity. 19-20. pp. in virtue of the amazing consistency of its creation. xxvi.E.500 years a the collective of by spirit people. the first of which was strung by the scribe early Soferim and the later.

The Temple was rebuilt. was never tamed in the course of the next fifteen centuries of Midrashic history. which has been designed on a scale hitherto unattempted in any language. a hierarchy of royal priests was installed. The hammer which awakens the slumbering sparks in the rocks (Sanhedrin 346) was never used in nailing down the lid on the coffin of spiritual 1 freedom. to fill the written law where the necessity arose with the contents of tradition and aspiration. and providing footnotes wherever necessary to remove surface xxn . simple.MIDRASH KABBAH inconsistent either with its form or spirit. the urge for Quest (Dera$h)> for the search into the depth of truth was going on with a force which we do not expect to meet in times of political ' tranquillity. out of which the Midrash came into being. The 'Quest has gone on and on unabated in its spirit of freedom. literary style whilst conforming as much as possible to the original in matter and sequence.500 years categorical nor exclusive. and the social order was stabilised. lucid. To and ethics is the chief aim of this translation. This people was spiritually on the move even at a time when politically an extreme conservative attitude was to be expected. There built up no epoch was Midrash the which being during in the history of Israel a history. All this militated against changes in ideological changes. alas. The Editors and Translators alike have executed their work judiciously and conscientiously. And yet during this epoch when ' the nation was settling down. making every possible effort to present the work in a social life. This urge to bring the formal truth into line with the organic truth. so that Israel's philosophical activity should be ready to agree to be muzzled. THE SONCINO TRANSLATION OF THE MIDRASH render more accessible this heritage from which humanity has drawn much that is best in its religion. so rich in fateful which Midrashic debate would have been closed. It is neither was in the 1.

Publishers. EPSTEIN. The era over which the work of the Midrash extends seems registering and the methods of expressing thoughts. too. LONDON. I. and aspirations have greatly changed. have contributed much in a form which makes the reading is to the general reader not only to the student but also cares for some of these things'.FOREWORD difficulties. The by presenting the work pleasant and easy. but this translation comes at a time when the achievements of that era can provide a great sustaining and stimulating force to this generation and the generations that are to come. and is unacquainted with Jewish and Rabbinic thought. the ideals. 5%. Eastern other peoples. JEWS' COLLEGE. far distant fears. hopes. The first will have a new guide to the original which will appeal The made 'who help him over many difficulties and enable him more easily to discover the greatness lying concealed in apparent littleness. December 3<>> I93^ t xxm . Tebeth 8. The latter (the general reader) will have thrown open to him a vast treasure-house into which have been gathered the faith. and the unity of outlook underlying differences imagery as well as Western fact. the hopes and aspirations of the people of Israel which enabled them to overcome persecutions and temptations greater than any that have confronted as well as agreement.

W. Cambridge Bible.C. 48. whilst reference of Iddo the Prophet is made in n Chronicles xni. it was the vehicle for Jewish and knowledge. which are Midrashic many We Jewry. Midrashic creation in Haggadah obtained a dominating position in the spiritual life of glosses. After the completion the Hebrew Scriptures. zz. In the course of the Talmudic period and which eventually led Midrash to become an independent branch of Rabbinic literature.. 2 Finkelstein. A. R. Hebrew We find in Chronicles passages in There Is in mentioned also a Midrash to the Book of Kings Midrash the to n Chronicles xxiv. feelings. and during the whole of the post-scriptural and prethe teaching both of Halachah and talmudic period in Midrash-form. The Oldest Midrash^ The Harvard Review. Herford. MIDRASH AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF HALACHAH specimen of an early Halachic Midrashic exposition 3 of the Torah emanating according to competent authorities 1 A On the Midrashic character of Chronicles v Elmslie. 1938. Among the Haggadic Midrashim is undoubtedly The Haggadah recited on Passover evening. functions as a collection of contributions to the history Midrashic elements were assimilated to the Scriptures. supplementing 1 details the narratives in the Book of Kings. may thus suppose that we have in Chronicles the first elements of Haggadic Midrash handed down in of writing in their original form. In one of itself. as we shall see.E. the Midrash.. 27. . 291 ff. pp. L Theological Introduction to Chronicles. ideas. as one of the literary forms in which in realms the in Haggadah expressed Jewish creative genius the Bible itself.MIDRASH KABBAH that developed. For a long period thoughts. L. Talmud and Apocrypha^ p. T. 8 V. which according to one 2 authority was compiled between the second half of the third century and the first half of the second century oldest B. left its deep impress on Haggadah was conducted its of Israel.

rose up. should they also exercise mercy on their prisoners and wounded enemies. and gave them to eat and to drink. the word 'enemy denotes any foe with whom one goes to battle.FOREWORD from the Soferlc school Sotah. It . THe Midrash gives apparently the whole process of reasoning which led to such a modification. the of which. and with their spoil clothed were naked among them. Should 'frightfulness'. for example. not Judah against Simeon nor Simeon against Benjamin. and brought the city of palm-trees. . and carried all them to Jericho. and arrayed them. and shod them. exposition cited a distinction is made. vn. and thereby holds open the way for further development. 8 : is there that is fearful and fainthearted? let him go and return unto his house. be given up by other peoples too. 3 'The shall say unto them : . and anointed them. xx. This new situation involved a modification of the law at least in certain of its regulations * in respect of such civil wars. owing to the fact ' ' that a sort of Red Cross service for the sick and wounded seems to have been created. 1 What man xm . as it is said. preserved in the Mishnah priest anointed . so that if you fall into their hand they shall have mercy upon you. for battle enemies. Here we have one XXVIII. expounds Deut. then they returned to Samaria (n Chron. however. In the 1 1 . scope wars among Jews themselves. all that and took the captives. 15). is against your but not against your brethren. of the earliest typical examples of a Midrashic exposition of the Torah. unto their brethren. The interpretation seems to adapt the law of the Torah to a new situation which had not been provided for in the text. There is no distinction in the original text of the Torah between 'enemy' and 'enemy Strictly speaking. any fundamental change in the methods of warfare being bound was restricted to to react on the laws concerned.' 2. . xx. the feeble of them upon asses. And the men which have been expressed by name . Particularly the prohibition of conscription implied in Deut. then the Law would be generally modified and the introduction of a certain measure of 'conscript' service would be permissible.

Mishnah and Gemara were meant to be a fortress able to offer resistance to any enemy possessing even the most dangerous weapons. have been satisfied without abandoning the Midrashform and all its implications. the Halachic Gemara. 50. terms need not necessarily rivalry between the respective V. t XIV . While Midrash was tied to the texts of the respective Scriptures. As to the form. however. The Scriptural text could still have remained the basis of the 'expositions' in a Midrash whose contents needed only to be regrouped according to subjects. We may assume that there were other reasons apart from pedagogical. The need for methodical regrouping could. the able through the Mishnah-form to put on the order of the day such subjects as they desired. op cit. HALACHAH AND HAGGADAH We do not know when the words Halachah and Haggadah were first introduced. 1 But we would probably not be that the time of their first divorce distinct mistaken if we suppose coincides with the introduction of the Mishnah-form. from the Sadduceans down to the Karaites. This method. Herford. There was now no question any longer of a bridge between past and present. Evidently the Mishnah represented a progress in the method of teaching. The final victory of the Mishnahform with its logical sequence. the Mishnah teaches the Halachah without reference to any Scriptural text. their latter-day spiritual descendants. The emergence of two have 1 meant a rift or p. for introducing Mishnah as a rival of Midrash.MIDRASH AND MISHNAH This Halachic Midrash exemplifies more clearly than any Haggadic Midrash could do the formal and material differences of Midrash and Mishnah. which would have been a kind of re-editing of Midrashic expositions. Tannaim were at will bore witness to the determination of the learned of Israel to build up an unalterable system of directives. was not resorted to.

The teachers were the same. There were teachers of the Haggadah The (rabbanan di-Aggadeta). from the Law of Moses. embodying adaptations which the process of time had rendered necessary. they had necessity arose to co-ordinate their expositions. activity to who presumably restricted their Midrashic exposition of exclusively Haggadic character. though often on a different plane. The characteristic Mishnaic form was the formulation of a decision which closed a debate. representing the religious rules of practical life. When the same person was building up a system of which Halachah and Haggadah were the component parts. from Scriptural texts. but only in order to close it again as categorically as the Mishnah did. and the form of teaching was the same. embodying the philosophy of the generation. exposition in the Soferic and The fact that Midrashic pre-Talmudic period found no difficulty in following the regardless Scriptures verse by verse of whether their character was Halachic or Haggadic proves that in all respects harmony and equality between Halachic and Haggadic exposition reigned. and Haggadah. existed side by side in complete unity. in view of the fact that they all started from the same point. FREEDOM OF SPIRIT IN THE MI0RASH sharp distinction which we find later between the significance of the two terms Halachah and Haggadah was a result of Talmudic development. But even if different persons happened to expound separately verses of Halachic and Haggadic if ever such a character. In many cases the Gemara reopens the debate. These adaptations were adopted only after prolonged arguments between conflicting schools representing in many cases xv b . Under these conditions Halachah.FOREWORD disciplines these terms represented. The personal unity came to an end. while Mishnah supplemented by Gemara took more and more the form of categorical pronouncements on the religious law. the full harmony of the system was obviously safeguarded. and the discussion and application of its details.

children of their verses. and in respect of function they continued the prophetic tradition. *A covenant has been effected whoever learns Haggadah from a b. and these were often ahead of their times. loa. it did not serve only to justify an a posteriori decision Talmudic already fixed. Many of the thoughts in the Haggadic Midrash were due to poetic inspiration. V. was governed in its in so far as of exposition interpretation of the Bible by certain norms which served as a check against the riot of untrammelled imagination. 9 p. PERIOD OF MIDRASHIC CREATIVE ACTIVITY The abandonment by the Halachah of the Midrash-form gave rise to the production of Haggadic writings which henceforth became synonymous with Midrashim. and collective seven rules which even (c.. too. But whereas the Halachah was restricted to when expanded by Rabbi Ishmael became no more than thirteen. though formally and chronologically they were the direct descendants of the Scriptures. Johanan is more explicit still in regard to the existence of Haggadic compilations when he declares. fears. its old freedom and its full potentialities. hopes. In this sense they were prophetic. and often the decision impatient progress on the other. souls of their soul.) thoughts of the people of Israel in successive generations. Pazzi in the first half of the third as . As ever before. the Haggadah enjoyed the greater latitude allowed by the thirty-two rules for Haggadic interpretation formulated by his contemporary R. Jose ha-Gelili (the Galilean). The Haggadah. especially in the Midrashim.MIDRASH KABBAH the forces of cautious conservatism on the one hand. op. More barred the behind times. Strack. cit.E. 90-130 C. the Haggadic Midrash continued to express the ideas. retained. 14. : 1 Ber. by definitive being change lagged Mishnaic law and precedent. Simeon century was known an editor of Haggadah (Mesadder Aggadeta) 1 and R. xvi . It. however. aspirations. and as such unalterable. however.

The masses of the people were drawn to which were full of such expositions and usually delivered on Sabbath and holy days. The most Academies were on the decline and spiritual life in Palestine found its only refuge in the Synagogue in which the Torah was taught and sermons delivered. Dubnow. who lived in Palestine. flourishing period of Haggadic activity was in Palestine in the third and fourth centuries.. S. was ever growing. . This was often the case. The teacher and often took the same floor a probably unand preacher intentional competition developed between them which often worked out to the disadvantage of the teacher. with the help of legend. Ber. With the close of the Talmudic period creative Haggadic (and therefore Midrashic) activity came to an end. story. and therefore the Mishnah.' 1 The opinions recorded against the writing down of Haggadic creation are only further proofs of the fact that there were others who did will i. Midrashim. vol. v. This happened epoch when mostly Haggadic motives of one kind or another Some the course of some Halachic discussion. when the book put these Haggadoth. i. The Karaite insurrection in the entered into 1 a J. Tosefta. Hieronymus. reports as an eye witness (about 420) that Jews would call one to another.FOREWORD not easily forget it. In the post-Amoraic and Geonic period the Midrashic activity was restricted to the field of collecting and revising the transmitted Midrashic material. parable. The popularity of the exposition of the Holy Writ. M. saw. V. and maxim. Let us go and listen 2 to this or that preacher who possesses a wonderful talent/ ' the sermons LATER MIDRASHIC COMPILATIONS of the Midrashic creations of the Talmudic found their way into the Talmud. in. and both the Babylonian and Jerusalem Talmuds are rich in Haggadic material. into writing. Weltgeschichte des judhchen Volkes.e.

Midrashic creation and compilation extend. ' ' may be made to throw new light on the life. and It is well to times to the point of obscurity. to the historical facts Thus more material may be added embedded in the traditional lore in XVlll . and Midrashim were compiled down to the eleventh century. and as a spiritual factor owing to their Haggadistic contents became more and more separated from the Halachah which dwelt exclusively in the Talmud. if decoded by the research and investigation of savants. and contemporaries certainly possessed the key to many of the passages which to us appear a And these same Midrashim. religion. pithy. period the only part the was Midrash of kind Haggadic. as we have of Ezra to the seen. at should also be borne in mind that some Midrashic paragraphs owe their preservation to the very obscurity of their meaning. They merely record the central ideas from which flowed In all creation the whole process of thought of the preachers and round which they wove their orations and picturesque homilies. as is sometimes done. style being laconic. The produced Midrashim compiled concurrently with or just after the Talmud were Midrashim process of the creation of the in every sense of the word. This meaning might have consisted It in political allusions. confusing mass of words. STYLE AND CHARACTERISTICS the Midrashic compilations either of contemporary or as the result of purely 'editorial* work.MIDRASH KABBAH to neither to Halachic nor eighth century was favourable of literary expression medium a as Haggadic activity yet the Midrash did not fall into disuse even after the Talmud : had long been completed. no was made to reproduce in full dress the contents attempt of the sermons of the great masters of the Haggadah. This accounts for their terse. remember this before criticising the Midrash for its apparent unintelligibility in places. in an unbroken line from the days this of later the In eleventh century. and history of a past age.

Whether in joy or sorrow. but the literature and liturgy of the Jew has also enriched and word of the Living God. POPULARITY OF THE MIDRASH The purely Haggadic character of the Midrash has been the cause of its immense popularity a popularity which the passage of years has only served to confirm and strengthen. storm or sunshine. which have already proved to be invaluable data for the knowledge of the history of Israel. the Midrash has ever proved an unfailing spring with the power to refreshen and renew. 1 Sifre to Deut. moreover. blessed be He. formal truths with organic truth. infinite in with which age variety. messages. simple forms are proofs of inner based strength. are on the contrary signs of decline.FOREWORD the Midrash. xix . and cling to His ways/ 1 Its sweet and potent influences have. sustain and strengthen the Jew athirst for inspiration to teacher and preacher. Another criticism levelled against the Midrash is the simplicity exhibited in its construction and modes of In truth. xi. upon the harmony of iideas and facts. learn ' it : Haggadah y for thereby shalt thou know the Holy One. Not only has it ever served as an inexhaustible source of it his very life. As ever in the past the Midrash retains to-day for the religious Jew the significance attached to If thou wishest to know Him in the classical sentence at whose command the world came into existence. 22. the learned Jewish layman will turn to the Midrash for solace and comfort from the turmoil and strife of work-a-day life. it never failed to yield the right message of moral sustenance and help. forms Complicated as they betray difficulties in the endeavour to reconcile ideas with facts. been all-pervasive. aspirations with possibilities of attainment. and the assiduous student of the law finds in it a welcome and refreshing retreat from the rigorous discipline the of the battlefield of the Halachah. expression. Charged cannot wither nor custom stale. And to the present day.

350) already praises Midrashic preachers. XX . the ' Deuterotai' ' (as distinguished Halachic teachers. the to penetrate into extraordinary reasoning the deepest meaning of the Holy Writ Ephraem Syrus. op. aj86. Sophoi'). S. moral. Was hat Mohammed aus dem Judenthume aufgenommen ? a Midrash also played its part in leading the thought of the Middle Ages into new channels and preparing the way for what was of permanent value in the Renaissance. v. the 1 2 Renan.. as powers able from the 'men armed with especially drew extensively upon Midrashic sources. Dubnow. cit. Augustine introduced Midrash in their apologetic works. Guillaume D'Auvergne (first half of the thirteenth century). Hieronymus 1 . and thanks to his association with Palestinian Amoraim has been able to hand down to us a number of most daring Midrashic expositions. V..MIDRASH KABBAH ITS UNIVERSAL INFLUENCE Midrashic activity was not sway extended far and wide. Published first at 8 Bonn 1833. or after reshaping them for their own ends. Histoire du Peuple d' Israel (1893). and much of the religious. Eusebius (d. p. p. which so abounds with Midrashic elements that it has been not 1 unjustly termed 'a masterpiece of the Haggadah'. and ethical thought and teaching alike of Christianity and Islam was fashioned influence of Jewish Its The restricted to Jews. the Church Fathers fully understood the importance of the Midrashic method employed with telling effect by contemporary Jewish preachers in the service of the Jewish spirit.. 2 The Midrash considerable indebtedness of Mahommed to the for the legendary and other material which he incorporated in the Koran has already been proved over a century ago by Abraham Geiger in his work. Apart from the New Testament. Chrysostom the 'golden mouthed'. E. by the ideas to which the Midrash gave birth and which they adopted either in toto. M. and resolved to resort to the same spiritual weapon in order to place the dogmatic system of the Church on a firm basis. 321.

19-20..500 years later. Milton's Semitic Studies. in virtue of the amazing consistency of its creation. is also a most valuable proof It is a of the progressive spirit of the Jewish people.J. whose influence on De is expressed in the well-known tag: Si Lyra non non Lutherus of much use made Midrashic saltasset? lyrasset material in his Postillae Perpetuae? And during the postReformation period. shows Universo marked traces of Midrashic influence. pp. and Milton's Rabbinical Readings. Guttmann. J. xvm. such a work is the by Midrash. If ever a work was created the collective spirit of a people. the most learned Christian Hebraist of the fourteenth century. its constructing his great epic Paradise Lost and Paradise Regained out of material supplied to sequel him from Midrashic sources. while Pascal in France was pressing Luther theological Midrashic ideas into the service of Jansenism in his 4 Milton in Puritan England was writings. H. then the spirit which created the Midrash would entitle the Jews to the Midrash.E.. the first of by the scribe early Soferim and the which was strung perhaps by an anonymous 1. and in the Midrash Rabbah we have before us a all monumental collection of the written testimony to this activity. 4 8 R. xxi ..J. 3 V. 177 ff. V. Pascal und das Alte Testament. E.E. V. If ever the spirit of a people could claim to possess the highest degree of consistency.. pp.. fundamental characteristic of Midrash that it keeps its gates 1 3 make that claim. Seidmann. At the same time open. 5 ITS UNBROKEN CONTINUITY We have seen the evidence of the centuries-long Midrashic activity. If Lyra had not played the lyre (the tune). Fletcher. R. It exhibits an unbroken row of pearls last of the same high quality.. It never closes a debate that would be V. Luther would not have J. 245 ff. F. xxvi. danced. pp.FOREWORD first representative in his of the new spirit in scholasticism. Neumann. 1 Nicholas de Lyra.

literary style whilst conforming as as possible to the original in matter and much xxu . and the social order was stabilised. This urge to bring the formal truth into line with the organic truth. out of which the Midrash came into being. It is neither was in the 1. sequence. making every possible effort to present the work in a social life. so that Israel's philosophical activity should be ready to agree to be muzzled. The hammer which awakens the spirit in the rocks (Sanhedrin 34$) was never slumbering sparks history. The Temple was rebuilt. and providing footnotes wherever necessary to remove surface simple. This people was spiritually on the move even at a time when politically an extreme conservative attitude was to be expected. ' ' tranquillity. a hierarchy of royal priests was installed.500 years categorical nor exclusive. The used in nailing freedom. the urge for Quest (Derask). which has been designed on a scale hitherto unattempted in any language. for the search into the depth of truth was going on with a force which we do not expect to meet in times of political ideological changes.MIDRASH KABBAH inconsistent either with its form or spirit. down the lid on the coffin of spiritual THE SONCINO TRANSLATION OF THE MIDRASH render more accessible this heritage from which humanity has drawn much that is best in its religion. To and ethics is the chief aim of this translation. lucid. There built up no epoch during which the Midrash was being in the history of Israel a history. so rich in fateful which Midrashic debate would have been closed. to fill the written law where the necessity with the contents of tradition and aspiration. was never tamed in the course of the next fifteen centuries of Midrashic arose its 'Quest' has gone on and on unabated in of freedom. alas. All this militated against changes in And yet during this epoch when the nation was settling down. The Editors and Translators alike have executed their work judiciously and conscientiously.

EPSTEIN. Eastern fact. unity as well as agreement. XX 111 . imagery as well as Western to The latter (the general reader) will have thrown open him a vast treasure-house into which have been gathered the faith. the ideals. the hopes and aspirations of the them to overcome persecupeople of Israel which enabled tions and temptations greater than any that have confronted other peoples. registering and aspirations have greatly fears.FOREWORD difficulties. too. The appeal made is not only to the student but also to the general reader 'who cares for some of these things*. when the changed. LONDON. 5%. have contributed much work in a form which makes the reading pleasant and easy. Tebeth 8. The by presenting the Publishers. 1938. and is The help unacquainted with Jewish and Rabbinic thought. first will have a new guide to the original which will him over many difficulties and enable him more concealed in apparent easily to discover the greatness lying differences of outlook and the underlying littleness. come. hopes. but this translation comes at a time a achievements of that era can provide great sustaining and stimulating force that are to to this generation and the generations I. The era over which the work of the Midrash extends seems far distant and the methods of expressing thoughts. JEWS' COLLEGE. December 30.

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of which so many occur in the Midrash Rabbah. the glosses of Luzzatto and Where these differ. They have been kept as brief as possible. Full use has naturally been made of the standard commentaries on the Midrash the Matnoth Kehunah. The magnitude of the be undertaking may judged from the fact that the Midrash Rabbah is a collection of ten separate works. Davidson. etc. The Talmudical dictionaries of Levy and Jastrow have of course been of great help. however. and on the other hand as agreeable to read as the original itself. the works of Einhorn and Strashun. especially in the elucidation of the foreign mostly Greek words. the Governing first of the Soncino Press. and all elaborate discussion of scholastic points has been avoided. one opinion has usually been selected. and pointing out its distinguishing features its and characteristics. being meant for the general public. In spite. Notes have been added chiefly for the purpose of explainat the ing difficulties and allusions in the text. and in spite of the fact that the Midrashic exposition of the Rabbis. owes its origin to the enterprise and idealism of Mr. and this is the first time that a complete rendering has been made of Director of the all them into any foreign language. but alternative renderings are mentioned in the notes where they seem to offer points of special interest. We hope that it will be found literary enough to satisfy the aesthetic taste. had by its XXV . has been the aim of the Editors and Translators to produce a translation which shall on the one hand be of It absolutely faithful and accurate.EDITORIAL PREFACE THIS complete and unabridged English translation Midrash Rabbah. of the labours of all these scholars. and who same time literal enough to be of service to those require help in unravelling the original. Jaffe. J. Each component work of the Midrash Rabbah is prefaced with an Introduction giving date and place of origin as far as these can be ascertained. one of the monumental productions of Rabbinic literature.

of the has given most valuable and devoted help in checking references and assuring the accuracy of the work in many other ways. In such cases the Editors have usually given the translation which appeared to them most probable. to associate with them the name Soncino Press. without entering into lengthy explanations. This loan is word especially the case with passages containing some or words from a foreign language which a copyist. who BL FREEDMAN. and the meaning of which is more or less a matter of conjecture. XXV1 . In conclusion we wish to express our warmest thanks to our colleagues who have co-operated so loyally with us. has transformed almost out of recognition. SIMON. A. Rueff. M. ignorant of that language. and of Mr.EDITORIAL PREFACE very nature to be easily intelligible. there remain in the Midrash Rabbah a number of passages which for one reason or another have become involved in obscurity. M.

28 (beginning of Vayechi). and prefaced by a number of comments on a different verse of the Bible. to give the present work its Hebrew title. and open but not on the ' ' ' . as will be seen further on. The author of Halachoth Gedoloth ranged it not with the other Rabbah literature but with the Tannaitic Midrashim. such as the Sifra. Bereshith derabbi Hosha'yah rabba. chiefly in that the parashiyyoth (sections. it was natural that they omitted Genesis. and Baraitha derabbi Oshaya. and all edd. XLVII. It is one of the oldest Midrashim. and thus the present work might be considered as supplementary to them. Bereshith Rabbah derabbi Oshaya ^Hoshayiah). Nearly all exposition principle of division was based on the MSS. The ' closed parashiyyoth of the Biblical text xxvii itself. in that it is a running commentary on Genesis. chapters) of Genesis Rabbah begin with proems. Sifre and Mekilta.INTRODUCTION BERESHITH Rabbah. The parashiyyoth are numbered in the printed edd. the last of which always leads back directly to the verse of Genesis under discussion. verse by verse. was also known under the names of Bereshith derabbi Osha'yah (Hosha'yah). such as always characterise the beginnings of homilies collected in the homiletic Midrashim. Each chapter of the work is headed by the verse which is to be explained. of these introductory passages are anonymous. and be may partly ascribed to the author of Genesis Rabbah. count 96 chapters up to the on Gen. Thus it is a combination of the running commentary with Most the homily complete in itself. which contains very little Halachic matter. In form it differs from the other Rabbah Midrashim. Its redaction dating not much later than the close of the Jerusalem Talmud. Nevertheless it differs from the Tannaitic Midrashim which are fragmentary in character. and often even word by word. MSS. and the The total number varies from 97 to 101. These latter Tannaitic Midrashim being concerned mainly with Halachah. on the other books of the Pentateuch. whereas the others are homiletic Midrashim and do not comment on each verse separately.

. but un- doubtedly much of the present work was added later and swelled its size. has been compiled 1 on a far more . its twenty-nine chapters constitute more than a quarter of the whole. The material consists of homiletic and ethical interpreta- in one tions of the text. was utilised as a means of combating heretical views on the dual nature of the Godhead. Hoshaya. the pericopes editio the in nor princeps. Ancient tradition ascribed the authorship of the work to R. became a reflex of the the struggle between Judea and Rome. This has led to the theory that may have formed part of a larger Haggadic work on Genesis which was either lost or remained incomplete. as also in the edd. Bereshith. lavish scale than that on the other eleven pericopes indeed. This tradition may mean that he was responsible for the work in its original form. with all its drama and moving episodes. Though public reading may be completed the work is in the present translation. whereby its year. of contemporary thought. and it is possible indeed that it was then given the name 'Bereshith Rabbah (the great Bereshith) to distinguish it from the original work. Esau symbolising military might of the Roman Empire and its ruthless conquest of the peoples. The through the spectacles Creation story. for example. It has been observed that the material on the first pericope.. but rather to find in it teachings and messages needed by the problems which Thus the text was seen they encountered in their own days. while in particular the story of Jacob and Esau. of convensake the for divided according to the pericopes not marked are the of one-year cycle ience.INTRODUCTION the Pentateuch into pericopes or weekly present division of whole Pentateuch is divided so that the portions. which was naturally of much smaller compass. a Palestinian scholar belonging to the first generation of Amoraim who flourished in the third century of the current era. The Rabbis were not concerned to elucidate the strictly meaning of the Biblical text according to the scientific canons of scholarship. This larger work may have been called Bereshith Rabbah to distinguish it from the present smaller work preserved it xxvin . at all in the best MSS.

is R. its editing took place some time after the redaction of the Jerusalem Talmud. which in turn is based on the Codex Add.. Genesis Rabbah is a Palestinian work. edd. Ecclesiastes. Hoshayah Kabbah. Hoshayah. Hoshayah Rabbah. first scholar mentioned in this work in the edd. either in the notes or in the text. was subsequently applied to the other Midrashic works on the books of the Pentateuch. . H. and thus ten distinct works were eventually included under the single title Midrash Rabbah. and this has given rise to yet another theory that the name Bereshith Rabbah is a contraction of Bereshith derabbi Hoshayah Rabbah (the Bereshith of Rabbi Hoshayah the Great). attention has been drawn to the fact. not R... as it often does. many passages are also found which are absent from the critical edition these have been added ('Scrolls/ viz. In the cur. however. The present translation is based on Theodor's critical edition. But even then the text was still subject to accretions. But whatever its origin. but subsequently the name was applied not only to the first pericope but to the whole. he is simply called R. Zunz holds that it was collected and edited in the sixth century C. Where this differs considerably from the edd. Ruth and Lamentations). In Vayyigash the commentary is no longer verse by verse.INTRODUCTION in the other eleven pericopes. XXIX . This theory. as in the present edition. FREEDMAN. the designation 'Rabbah' which originally belonged to Genesis alone. while much of Vayechi was probably drawn from the Tanhuma homilies.E. and from Vayyishlach we find extensive passages bearing marks of the later Haggadah. within brackets. and as has been stated above. 27169 of the British Museum. Esther. Attention to such passages has been drawn in the notes. is The negatived by the fact that in the best MSS. as well as to the five Megilloih ' r Song of Songs.

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their reasons are not known. This may mean that the laws of the Torah were unknown until the Revelation at Sinai. sc. referring to the preCreation era.[I. 7). but employs plans and diagrams to know how to arrange the chambers and the wicket doors. The as the beginning of His way (Prov.V. vin. 'Amon' 'Amon' means covered. the Torah. Thus the verse is translated By means of the 'beginning'. he concealed (omen) 2 means great. (nursing-father) carrieth the sucking child (Num. thus]: Then an d J was daily all delight (Prov. when a mortal king builds a palace. 'amon' covered. And Hadassah (Est. 3 that is situate among the rivers? Another interpretation: 'amon' is a workman (uman). means hidden. iv. Midrash understands it to mean that Mordecai concealed her from the 3 Translation of the second half of the verse.I GENESIS CHAPTER I BERESHITH i. verse. it was also covered up and hidden. covered) in scarlet (Lam. 8)? which is rendered. etc. 'brought up'.e. 'Amon' means tutor. as in the IN THE BEGINNING GOD CREATED (i.V. 'amon' means hidden means great.). II. as you read. Ha'emunim (they that were clad i. ill. 'Amon' is a tutor. BEGINNING Lord made me 1 referring to the Torah. 30). R. as a nursling (amon) . Thus God consulted the Torah and created the world. As an omen I was by Him. blessed be He/ In human practice. Oshaya commenced [his exposition . while the Torah declares. 'amon' means 1 and some say. 12). 'Amon' Art thou better than No-amon (Nah. as in the verse. as it were.e. i. xi. as in the verse. The Torah was with God as with a tutor. God created. The architect moreover does not build it out of his head. he builds it not with his own skill but with the skill of an architect. The Torah declares: 'I was the working tool of the Holy One. 5). by the Almighty (this is similar to E. vin. 22).* The speaker is the Torah (Wisdom) personified. : . 4 Here too the speaker is the Torah. public gaze. reared. while some of them remained 'hidden' * E. as in the verse. The even then. Art thou better than Alexandria the Great. i).

however. The passages that follow are sections 5 and 6 in cur. 'This palace is built on a site of sewers. and garbage/ does he not discredit it? Thus. loc. Huna quoted in Bar Kappara's name: Let the lying te'alamnah (Ps. . 7). viz. xxxi. and silenced. who is the Life of all y worlds.) meaning. 'arrogantly') against the righteous (Ps. Huna said in Bar Kappara's name If the matter were not written. abundant is Thy goodness".. CREATED laid ! : GOD The Midrash here is In some disorder. and garbage. 19): this means. is done at is written Oh how abundant is Thy goodness which Thou hast 3 up for them that fear Thee (ib. The object of. [which speak] against [the will of] the Righteous One. does he not indeed impair [God's glory] R. his fellow : R. irreverently disseminates esoteric teaching. 26). when an earthly monarch builds a palace on a site of sewers. dunghills. edd. 4 'nought in (in "Oh how 2) 5 E. cit. which were regarded as a subject of esoteric teaching fit for the very select few only.) in order to boast and say.I. whoever comes to say that this world was created out of tohu and bohu* and darkness. on matters which He has withheld (he'etik) from ! ' His creatures. Jose b. How much the the expense of] the glory of after it ? more then [when it God! And what '. Said Rab: Let him 4 have nought of Thine abundant goodness. dunghills. i.' as you read. if one says. Gen. they are regarded. IV. behold. n). Which speak 'athak (E. 'Let them be lips be dumb made dumb. Let them be bound. For.V. Or who made a man dumb illem (Ex.' 'unformed and void'.' as in the verse. it would be impossible to say it. xxxvir..) to think that he contemns My Glory! For R. Here. * 1 Who Lit. and so is not of "them that fear Thee". 'Let them be bound. 5. together with darkness. 2 With pride (ib. IJanina said: Whoever elevates himself at the cost of man's degradation has no share in the World to Come. 8 Sc. we were binding sheaves me'allemim allumim (Gen. but are placed here in Th/s ed.V. while 'Let them be silenced' is its literal meaning. 5] 1 MIDRASH KABBAH R. the mysteries of Creation. the Midrash here is to refute that view. made dumb. 'I discourse on the Creation narrative! And contempt (ib. In human practice. as forms of matter which according to some who deny creatio ex nihilo was God's raw material in the creation of the world.

etc. . (Job xxxvii. is not explained. in view of his interpretation. Light is sown for the their 3 righteous (Ps. cit. But he knoweth not that the shades are there. as it is written. etc. The deep things' are the Gehenna. 3).). Woe unto them ' that seek deep to hide their counsel from the Lord (ib. With a small h. cit. IN THE CREATED THE HEAVEN. that in the depths of the nether world are her guests (Prov.) refers to the deeds of the righteous. works are in the darkness (Isa. Where AND THE is : that explained ? Elsewhere For He saith on the earth. Judah b. xcvii. but it BEGINNING GOD . Another interpretation : 'And He revealeth the deep things refers to the deeds of the wicked. and the manner of too. 18). and out of these He created the world. LET THERE BE LIGHT (i.. he. as it is written. Covert is understood to mean the Garden of Eden. He reveals to the prophets matters in connection with the Creation this is which were hidden and unknown heretofore. 5-6 HEAVEN AND EARTH. which is likewise not explained. 15). as it is written. Abba of Serungayya said: 'And the light dwelleth with him'* alludes to the royal Messiah. Simon quoted: And secret things mesatratha (Dan. R. 1 6.): this too refers to the And deeds of the wicked. He knoweth what is in the darkness (Dan. n). *EJ. Judah b. 22) EARTH. not to be taught publicly (Y. He 11. XL. 1 Elsewhere: a garment God first But * 3 A 4 8 created tohu and bohu. R. R. 6). the deep things ' . as it is written. And for a 2 refuge and for a covert (le-mistor). 2). Ollt of what? Out EARTH WAS TOHU AND BOHU (l. Simon said: From the commence- ment of the world's etc. civ. place near Tiberias.). xxix. and Th. Elsewhere: That stretcheth explained? out the heavens as a curtain (Isa. loc. cit. as it is written. of NOW ' THE deep and R. 'And secret things' refers to the garden of Eden. And the light dwelleth with Him (Dan. (Isa.T. 6). iv.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [I. Where is it explained? Who coverest Thyself with light as with (Ps. Where then is it is not explained how. : to the snow Fall thou AND GOD SAID: this. loc. creation ' He revealeth 5 for it is written. revealeth the 22). ix. 2).

pp. MIDRASH RABBAH and all is commenced with. p. v. This passage is directed against the Gnostics. xx. 2 8 Rashi and 'E.' is Thus. reveal to Israel what was created on the first day and on the second day. Levi's name. R. i) In the beginning the Gods created is not written here. He took BEGINNING ELOHIM CREATED.).: The opening statement of the Bible thus proclaims the truth that the Lord is God. II. Therefore 'And all Thy righteous ordinance endureth for ever (Ps. He though Elohim (God) is plural in form. This is the verse which introduces Revelation. they affirm the righteousness of it ment and accept with faith. in giving them the heritage of the nations (Ps. blessed be He. And God spake all these words 2 (Ex. but IN THE BEGINNING GOD CREATED. ? So that the nations of the world might not taunt Israel and say to them: 'Surely ye are a nation of robbers: think of that!* But Israel can retort: 'And do ye not hold yours as spoil. Mah. 4 wished. cxix.] Thy creatures. and the IN opening verse of the Bible. History of the Jews (Eng. truth. that came forth out of Caphtor. etc. He wished. loc. ment of the world's creation. Joshua of Siknin 6 quoted in R. And no Thy judgperson can dispute 9 and maintain that two powers gave the Torah or two powers created the world. CXI. 'The beginning of Thy word R. THE is an assertion that created the world on the basis of justice and truth. Isaac truth .). 6). Elohim (God) is His attribute as a God of justice. When He I 2. lo). trans. n. 1 He gave it to you and when . i. n. destroyed them. IN THE BEGINNING GOD CREATED But the Lord God is the true 1 God(]tr. Graetz. the accomalways in the singular. for it is He alone who created the world. fie hath declared to His people the power of His works. cit. The beginning of Thy word Thy righteous ordinance endureth for ever R. and dwelt in their stead (Deut. * * Cf. 377 seq. but. a. Why did the Holy One. For in regard to every single decree which Thou dost promulgate concerning [corroborates the statement.I. . and there is none beside Him. For 'And the Gods spake is not written here.J. 23) The world and the fullness thereof belong to God. vol. North of Jotapata in Galilee. x. 7-2] 7. for surely The Caphtorim. 160). point is The that panying verb is . Isaac: From the very commenceSaid (Ps.

by the latter verse. the Lord. 20). 2-3 from you and gave it is written. all agree that none were created on the first day. . Isaac's name: Whether we accept the view of R. R. Julianus b. 1 The former verse is interpreted as a poetic description of the dividing of the upper from the nether waters. vi. escapes. lest you should say. followed by. 3 Thus angels too fall within the category of beings that fly. all its air formed with many cavities and orifices. 3). and on the same day He created the angels. Tiberius. 4). Luliani b. R.e. Wherefore ? Because they bear the burden [of state] with him. viz. I. a mortal king is honoured in his realm and the great men of the realm are honoured with him. doest wondrous things etc. Tanhuma commenced with: For Thou art great. i. . as is shown 2 This was on the fifth day. R. etc. 24) mi itti (who was with Me) is written who was associated with Me in the creation of the world ? : Ordinarily. and R. giving to His people the power of His works': it [I. as it is written. 'In He hath declared He declared the beginning to them. fifth day. 3. that maketh : all things. 6-8).). and were created on the same day as all flying creatures.GENESIS (BERESHITH) it to us/ Hence the them heritage of the nations. 2 Thine on the And let fowl fly above the earth with twain he did fly R. Who layest the beams of Thine upper chambers in the waters Civ. blessed be He. Who achieved alone (tb. 2). yet though man is his breath does this? Thou God When were the angels created? R. 3 and it is written.. 10). not escape through them. Tabri 4 said in R. for it is written. Michael stretched [the world] in the south and Gabriel in the north. Johanan. that stretched forth the heavens alone. Tanhum b. while the Holy One. the eye of a needle. Johanan said: They were created on the second day. LXXXVI. which took place on the second day (Gen. Hanina said: They were created (Ps. Who makest the spirits 1 angels (ib. IN THE BEGINNING GOD CREATED. XLIV. (Ps. I^anina or that of R. measured it in the middle but I am (Gen. Irliyya said: If a gourd has a hole even as small as . And (Isa. * I. that spread abroad the earth by Myself me-itti (ib.

it is written. Remember Thy congregation. The name of Messiah was contemplated. is not so. I decided to create them. xcni. Ahabah b. 12). CREATED. as it is written. 3-4] MIDRASH KABBAH The Holy One. [The creation of] the Temple was contemplated.I. LXXIV. R. i. Abba b. 2). 22).e. ix. 3). for it is written.' which means. (ib. [The is it is written. and : for from that very moment. preceded the others was already of creation the while actually created. Ze'ira said Repentance too. His name existeth ere the sun (Ps. etc. Six things some of them were of the creation the world. ere that whereof it is written. xc. of] (Hos. whether the Torah preceded the Throne of Glory or the Throne of Glory preceded the Torah. The Torah. for it is written. Thou turnest man to contrition.e. R. The speaker is the Torah personified. LXXII. 2 of Glory were Throne the and Torah The contemplated. generally speaking. of His way. and 'works of old' means the Creation. 6 . The creation of the Patriarchs was contemplated. * ' I saw' is ' probably interpreted 1 I approve . for it says.' IN THE BEGINNING 4. 3 The Throne of Glory. blessed be He. Kahana: The Torah preceded the Throne of The Lord made me as the beginning Glory. contemplation and decision are identical and 3 simultaneous with God. the place of our sanctuary xvn. Tanhuma quoted: 'For Thou art great and He doest wondrous Wherefore? 1 Because 'Thou God art alone': Thou alone didst create the world. which Thou hast gotten aforetime (Ps. of glory. He alone is glorified in His universe. ye children of men (ib. however. Hence. 'Thy throne is established of old/ ' 1 * I. and sayest : Repent. prior to His works of old (Prov. on high from the beginning. The Lord made me as the beginning of His way. 2). io). as it is written. I still do not know which was first. / saw your at her first season fathers as the first-ripe in the fig-tree 4 Israel was creation contemplated. for it is written. Before the mountains were brought forth. ere His works of old. wherein does His greatness lie? And. GOD CREATED. Thy throne established of old. Said R. 17). IN THE BEGINNING created. R. Thou throne GOD as (Jer. etc. but alone created His world. vm. (Ps. things. 2).

and The 5 choicest (reshith) first-fruits of thy land.g. Isaac. R. to Noah. Menahem and : R. God created the world for the sake of Moses who was to be born * Hence the verse is translated : For the sake of (the prepoin it.e. Moses] was reserved (Deut. Levi. for it is written. foreseen 1 ' ! that after twenty-six generations1 Israel would receive the Torah. making S a E. Jacob. and has actually foreseen that he is destined to beget a son Thus. * I. reporting R. said: The intention to create Israel preceded everything else. and pen for my son/ at which people remarked: 'He has no son: what does he want with ink and pen? Strange indeed! Subsequently they concluded: 'The king is an astrologer.' 10 from Noah to Abraham (Aboth v. as it is said. reshith alludes to tithes. earth. and then Isaac. Banayah said: ' R. Now reshith alludes to hallah.e. R. Samuel b. On one occasion the king was found going through the marketplace and giving orders: 'Take this ink. Jeremiah in the name of R. the first (reshith) of your dough (Num. He would not have written therein. xvm. and first-fruits. Joshua of Siknin in the name of R. Berekiah said: For the sake of Moses: And He saw the beginning [i.. xv. (Ex. for it is written. Huna said in R. written. 10 from Adam ' . Levi 6 1 A builder requires six things: water. etc. 2l). I9). 19).2. tithes.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [I.xxvm. the Torah] founded the earth (Prov. the Creation] 8 for Himself. Viz.e. Mattenah's name The world was created for the sake of three things: hallah. blessed be He. 4 : children of Israel!'2 R. Levi said in the name of R. XXXIII. 2). And he chose a first part. and Moses. This may be illustrated thus A king was : married to a certain lady. 20). inkwell. Levi. R. xxm. twenty-six in all. in. again. * Bacher is inclined to read: R. sition a can have that meaning) reshith God created heaven and earth. and had no son by her.V.Num. reshith alludes to first-fruits. 4) finally. 4-8 R.' E. IN THE BEGINNING (BE- RESHITH) for it is GOD CREATED. Amram. Huna. first-fruits (reshith) The . for there a portion of a ruler [sc. 8. Command the The world and the fullness thereof were created only for the sake of the Torah: The Lord for the sake of wisdom [i. Of of thy corn (Deut. Joshua b. had not the Holy One. Kohath.

me-rosh (' from the beginning '). 2 creation of the world] ('the first'). the depths: When e there were no depths. 3 him: 'Your God was inde. yet he surely requires a rod. vni. Husik. that which is defective. lo.. me-'olam ('from everlasting'). and 'E.' Tohu and bohu : I make peace and create evil (Isa. 13). i. 22 f The Lord made me (sc. canes. 8-9] MIDRASH KABBAH timber.T.J. and the deep/ replied he. what contains both matter and form) and evil. and they were CXLVIII. and mi-lekadmin ( or ever '). and ye waters that are above the heavens (Ps. . And a measuring reed in his measuring hand (Ezek. XXIX f* Perhaps too this is an allusion to the view that matter is a source of created. Thus that too was V. 'Woe to that man/ exclaimed. I was set tip from everlasting (me-'olam). : . and createth the wind (Amos iv. which counts as two. i. He is 1 wealthy and does not need canes.) water Praise Him. pp. without form. bohu. A History of Mediaeval Jewish Philosophy. eternal. And even if you say. and create darkness (ib. . consisting of matter only without form.ed a great artist. saying to . stones. kedem me-az ('of old'). but maintained (in the form of a question) that He had used primeval matter. 3 This is an allusion to Prov.e.e.I. but surely He found good materials which assisted Him?' 4 'What are they/ said he to him? Tohu. 2 The idea is that six expressions of precedence are employed in reference to the Torah (Y. Gamaliel quoted: I make shalom (that which is whole. 24). 4 He believed that God had created the world.. I was brought forth (Prov. y) 5 darkness: I form the light. A certain philosopher asked R. 3). the Torah) the first (kedem) of His works of old (me-'az). XL. as it is written. Since at one time there were no depths. or ever (mi-ka$me = mi-likadmjn in Aramaic) the earth was. water. . darkness. God must have created them. from the beginning (me-rosh). wind he (ruah). wherefore ? For He commanded. 6 evil. XLV.). 5 By tohu and bohu the philosopher meant primeval matter. Thus the Torah preceded [the six things. which was : . vm. ye heavens of heavens. Kadme is plural in form. : 1 The word probably means bamboos or reeds which were only used in poor houses. Thereupon R. 4) created (ib. 8 . and iron. . He thatformeth the mountains. 5) wind For. by these viz. 'The term "creation" is used by Scripture in connection with all of them. Gamaliel. ' 9.

Levi's name: Why was the world created with a beth? 1 Just as the beth is closed at the sides but open in front. IN THE BEGINNING (BE-RESHITH) GOD CREATED. cursed. 6 The first letter of the Hebrew alphabet. whereby it differs from the kaf. in accordance with this interpretation of Bar Kappara. And from one end of heaven unto the other (ib. read: and one below. 10 JO. which were before thee. so you are not permitted is above and what is below.e. or to both space and time. what is behind. lib) on the Creation itself. 32) you may speculate from the day that days were created.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [I. Judah Pazzi lectured on the Creation story. 3 Why was it created with a beth? To teach you that there are two worlds.v. 5 Beth is the first letter of the word berakah (fi^o). 9 5. this would refer to the backward projection of the beth. thus one points upwards and the other backwards. one pointing : . 8 Cf. may not investigate what was before this. so when we ask * it. The edd.) you may investigate. 4 Another interpretation: why with a beth? Because it connotes blessing (berakah). R. 3 I. in I^ag. 9 upward and the other backward. said. i. thus beth a. blessed be He. Who 1 3 is the first letter: mwna. 2 Bar Kappara quoted: For ask now of the days past. na s. to explains that this may refer either to space or to time. iv. Thus one may actually study or lecture (v. This refers to the two taggin ('daggers') on the top of the beth. Jonah said in R. and would that it may stand!' Another interpretation: why with a beth? Just as a beth has two projecting points. 'Lo. : 9 . kqf 3. 7 Alef () is the first letter of arur ("mx). 'How can the world endure. 7 Another interpretation Why not with an alef? In order not to provide a justification for heretics to plead. seeing that it was created with the language of 8 cursing?' Hence the Holy One. Hag. R. 5 And why not with an alef? Q Because it connotes cursing. but you may not speculate on what was before that. since the beginning of the Creation. But they would have been able to plead that it could not endure in any 2 case. at the back. since the day that God created man upon the earth (Deut. to investigate what is before and what : but you b. Tosaf. Aboth v. where it is stated that the wicked destroy the world. * Beth ($) has the numerical value of two. I will create it with the language of blessing.

6 viz. But Yalkut reads: 'the Lord is One (inx) is His name.I. adon (]m) is His name. R. in Sonc. i. 'why is it written mem mem. 13^ bottom seq. *J. said. Abinah said in R. when called alef? Because 6 denotes the sum of a thousand. V. IJanina. ad Thus 1 . v. at Sinai. interprets He (God) agreed (i.e. IJag. it points back to K. 4. 7. The word which He commanded for a thousand (elef) generations (Ps. following the order of the Hebrew letters.' etc. These have different forms when they come at the end of a word. xx. i. Simon said in the name of R. u. nun nun. and I^ag. 9 It once happened on a Seers] instituted. Why are there two forms for mem.e. Hiyya b. 2).' ' And if we ask further. stormy that the Sages did not attend the House of Assembly [i. ed. zade> 10 peh 9 and kaf? It teaches [that the Torah was transmitted] the Academy]. instead Hence the mnemonical form manzapak. Abba: They are what the zofim day [i. itin&. n. Levi: 7 Manzapak is a Mosaic halachah from Sinai. * More familiarly known as 'Eleazar but these Palestinian forms are retained in the translation. blessed be He. Heb. 8). standing for JITK. Some 'Come and let loc.e.e. Edd. 9 Mah. which is numerically one. contemplated) to give the Torah for a thousand (elef) generations. yet ' ! Thou ' : world and its Thy world with me God answered The fullness were created for the sake of the Torah alone. also S..? IO . ' He who is above created me. connected with of kamanpaz. Eleazar b. p. n.S. 7 This is a mnemonic: i. 8 R. yofim. r^x. 243. 1040 and notes ad loc. Bar Hutah said: Why it To-morrow. viz. 3. Jeremiah said in the name of R. R. R. -OJK. the backward projection points back to the alef. 'What : His name ? is it intimates to us with its back point The Lord b. Joshua b. cv. Aha's name: For twenty-six generations 3 the alef complained before the Holy One. children were there and they us study [the letters instituted by] the Seers. infra. Leazar2 : of the Universe! I didst not create am the first of the letters. the letters sb^ae. I will am is it the I come to reveal My Torah commence with none but thee: / (anoki) 4 Lord your God" (Ex. reads: 1*1 is His name. 8 4 5 V. XXVHI. 10 Lit. pleading before Him Sovereign ' His name/ 1 R. lO-Il] ' MIDRASH KABBAH it created thee ? is intimates with ' its upward point. v Shab. nun. : - 8 9 The double forms were then instituted.e. p.

and began his studies at an advanced age (v Ned. * The famous proselyte who translated the Bible into Greek. 11). apparently with reason. 500:). 1 From mouth to mouth. blessed be He. who is designated faithful. Judah name of Aldlas 4 Him it is fitting to designate God. Even a child is known by his doings. (Simeon b. 7). xxxm. which testifies to his achievements. which mentions the ruler) is understood to refer a The bracketed passage is added from various MSS. first half. 17). From Righteous to righteous from God. as it is written. to the utterance of Moses. 36). and from hand to hand. said in the IN THE BEGINNING GOD CREATED. "God. R. who is designated righteous. He [sc. The Lord is righteous in all His ways (P s CXLV. Joshua. Soit A human may be. to 3 The II . some say that they were R. 6 Thus his name comes first and then his claim to greatness in the form of the title he bears. 2I). as it is written. v. Moses. XX. xn. Moses] is faithful (E. from Righteous to righteous. to Moses who is designated righteous.E. etc. He executed the righteousness of the Lord (Deut. I R. Eliezer and R. and R. blessed be He.v. Meg. : realm even before he has built them public baths or 6 provided them with private baths. faithful King/' to Moses. as it is written. and then his title.from the mouth of the Holy One. In the corresponding passage in ]. Aquila.V. 11-12 from utterance to utterance. blessed be He. 8 They applied to them the verse. Radal. (Prov.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [I. since he was a pupil of R. to the hand of Moses/ The scholars noted them. from Faithful to faithful. J. who is designated. Eliezer. condescension [modesty] hath made me xxii. B Or perhaps: or bestowed gifts upon them. and they grew to be great sages . justifies the inclusion of his name. to the mouth of Moses. and who was said to be a relation by rnarriage to Hadrian. 'Azzai quoted: great (n first And Thy Sam. In human practice an earthly king is honoured in his 12. s. From hand to hand:) 2 from the hand of the Holy One. 6) But the Holy One. and-so of whatever title 1 being states his name thus: So-and-so the Prefect. Joshua. From Faithful to faithful from the Almighty. "trusted") in all My house (Num. in Israel. however. verse (v. Akiba. (From utterance to utterance from the utterance of the Holy One. Akiba is omitted. from mouth to mouth. R.

since days of Creation. viz. blaspheme. and if he succeeds according 3 to his intentions. behold. but if not. is not so. . 'the'. Jose the Galilean: Even those 4 I create new have been created long ago. he must broaden it below and narrow it at the top.: it intimates therefore that the new heavens are already but created. however. God's name must be men* tioned only after the sacrifice. i. for He recorded His name only after creating the requirements of His universe I N T H E BEGINNING CREATED. he can widen it as the building rises. R.e. loa. 2). only potentially. Yohai taught: How do we know that one must not declare [I vow this] to the Lord as a burnt- offering/ 'to the Lord ' . since these were new creations. as it is written. : heavens written 3 For the actual reason v. 4 He had no need 12 . He built the heaven.L 12-13] MIDRASH KABBAH : blessed be He. Let him cause the Divine Name to be related to nought but the sacrifice 2 then they who revile. Only if it turns out as strong as he it can the planned upper portions be broader than the lower. the heaven which he originally contemplated. explains it differently. and the earth. The Rabbis said: Mortal man builds an edifice. art. LXVI. in God's thought. blessed be He. Now you can surely argue from this If when one is going to dedicate [a sacrifice] the Torah directs. Simeon b. R.J. Eliezer. ' and then GOD. 'God created heaven and earth/ 5 def. to modify His original designs.e. but 'the new'. I. is not so. viz. Mali. Scripture should have written. i. those created The^ aforetime. it whereof is written. Ned. i. 17). LXV. For as the new remain before Me (ib. the earth which He : . heavens the six (Isa. The Holy One. R.e. 22) not new is 5 here. This explains the use of the definite art. will surely be blotted out from the world! THE HEAVEN AND THE EARTH. implies the specific new heavens. For. the son of R. Huna said in the name of originally contemplated. 'E. ' ' . as a meal-offering/ 'to the ' : Lord as a peace-offering but must declare [This be] a burntto the 'a Lord/ offering meal-offering to the Lord/ 'a peace-offering to the Lord'? Because it is stated: When 1 any man of you bringeth an offering unto the Lord (Lev. for otherwise. 13. and engage in idolatry. .

Akiba: 'Since you have studied twentytwo years under Nahum of Gimzo. and the Garden of Eden. 8 Which extend and add to the verse. And the earth was (Gen. * Eth is A name is ' through your own fault (Mah.e. is to include the sun and EARTH is 15. in V. In the day that the Lord God made earth and heaven (Gen. 26). Ta'an. R. xxxii. Judah b. The heaven is Throne. maintain: The heaven was first created. 47). the stars and planets to include trees. 8 text. 5 it is so on your account. and the earth is My footstool (Isa. viz. THE moon. For it is no empty thing from you (Deut. meaning which a the sign of the ace. after building the nether portion he builds the upper. 2 [who formulated the principle that] ak (save that) and rak (except) are limita3 tions. Hag. 1 Ishmael asked R. 14-15 EXH THE HEAVENS AND ETH THE EARTH. 6 Beth Shammai WE-ETH THE HEAVEN AND THE EARTH. i). old Thou didst lay the foundations of the earth> viz. while eth and gam (also) are extensions. 'this too. 7 Viz.' because whatever happened Nahum would say. 4). for it is written. our with some variations. * I. 2). I. and if it is empty. iza where this is repeated which heaven comes first. On the view of Beth Hillel this is to be My compared to a king who builds a palace. II.). because you are unable to interpret ' ' : it [rightly]. en. No : ETH THE HEAVENS . R. [tell me]. town in Judea. it is to God'. LXVI. IJanin said: From the very text which [apparently] supports Beth Shammai. "In the beginning God created heaven and earth/' we might have maintained that heaven and earth too are divine powers/ 4 Thereupon he cited to him. GENESIS (BERESHITH) [I.14. By a play on words this frequently connected with gam zu. R. 210). Ilai said: This supports Beth Hillel. for it is written. without the sign of the accusative they might be regarded as ' nominatives and additional subjectsof created'. while Beth Hillel hold: The earth was first created. 'This too shall be for good' (v. And the heavens are the work of Thy hands (Ps. In the view of Beth Shammai this is parallel to the case of a king who first made his throne and then his footstool. 7 Beth Hillel refute them. what of the eth written here ? Said he to him If it stated. 13 . herbage. Of is followed by. or CE.) as in apposition 5 The o of EDO may be causative: if you find it empty.J. R.

heaven and earth]. earth that grounds [of this opinion]: as I N it is written. 15] It MIDRASH KABBAH : 1 had already existed [before heaven]. mother's honour. on a par. The Sages. with Isaac. 13). mentioned before Caleb. 1 a Translating hayyethah as a pluperfect: had been. why the earth sometimes given precedence over the heaven. was first. xxvi. 12): this teaches that they are on a par. and Joshua the son of Nun (Num. so called because by virtue of their teachings they were as spiritual fathers to all. as regards creation heaven whereas THE CREATED GOD HEAVEN. and the verse teaches that they are of equal importance precisely because neither took precedence of the other. it is right that they are not always mentioned in the same order. Everywhere Abraham is mentioned before Isaac. R. heaven was reporting the Sages. save Caleb the son of Jephunneh the Kenizzite. xxxil. Ye shall fear every man his mother. and sometimes heaven over earth ? In fact it teaches that b. and also three are on a par. Then will I covenant remember covenant with Jacob. R. Everywhere a father's honour is mentioned before the Aaron and Moses (Ex. and Isaac before Jacob. 8 But has no bearing on precedence. R. When I call [sc. yet VI. Said R. Johanan. the teaches that this 42): before Aaron. for it is written. and also My My covenant with Abraham (Lev. is 3 they are equal to each other. however. they stand up together (Isa. yet in one place it says. Others. Simeon observed: I am amazed that the fathers of the world 2 engage in controversy over this matter. [as it is written]. as regards completion. but in one place it says. THE BEGINNING Tanhuma: I will state the in respect of completion earth took precedence. 14 . yet in is mentioned Moses Everywhere My it says. first.I. XLVin. for a pot and surely both were created [simultaneously] like them unto its lid. and his father (Lev. said As regards creation. was first. Eleazar Simeon observed: If my father's view is right. R. These are that this teaches that they are 26): one place in Everywhere Joshua is one place it says. In the day that the Lord God made earth and heaven. 3) : this teaches that both are on a par. regard this as a confirmation : if it is as my father states. XIX.

/ beheld the earth. R. One he ordered to be 2. Simon [gave the following illustrations]. 'yet not stir from the palace while against me he has decreed x The words to formulate a reason his mind not being able are connected with tohu and bohu and void of all understanding for the grounds of y his treatment. Said R. 'Both of us were bought on the same bill of she does sale. she produced thorns and so the prophet was one day destined to prophesy of her. whereas the terrestial beings. both on the same bill of sale and at the same price. .[II. Berekiah: While she [the was as yet immature [in her infancy]. Strange indeed!' R. R. Simon said: Compare this case to a king who bought two bondmaids. Abbahu said: This may be compared to the case of a king who bought two slaves on the same bill of sale and at the same price. xx. etc. 2). NOW THE EARTH AND DARKNESS WAS UPON THE FACE OF THE DEEP. and. do not eat. NOW R. I. The latter sat bewildered and astonished1 'Both of us were bought at the same price. the angels] and the terrestial ones [sc. whether his work be pure. and at the same price/ she exclaimed. iv. saying. Abbahu and R. while the other he ordered his bread. One he commanded not to stir out from the palace. 'yet he is supported from the treasury whilst I have to gain my bread by my toil!' Thus the supported to toil at for : 1 earth sat bewildered and astonished. Judah b. THE EARTH WAS TOHU E. lo. and whether be right (Prov. if it is they do not toil. AND THE SPIRIT OF GOD HOVERED OVER THE FACE OF THE WATERS (i. 23). 'The celestial beings [sc. Judah b. 'UNFORMED*. the public expense. while for the other he decreed banishment. (Jer. it was waste and void earth] . exclaimed he. man] were created at the same time: yet the celestial beings are fed by the radiance of the Shechinah. n). The latter sat bewildered and astonished. R. 1-2 (BERESHITH) WAS UNFORMED AND VOID. R. Berekiah quoted: Even a child II is CHAPTER known by it his doings.V.

AND Holy go on as it in darkness 5 : Let the light come I'So. (Isa. ! How * AND THE EARTH WAS TOHU AND BOHU (BEWILDERED AND ASTONISHED). n). NOW THE EARTH WAS UNFORMED. blessed be He ' : same day were all the fountains of the great THE up (Gen. vn. VOID desired to turn the world back to formlessness and emptiness. etc. in. Tanhuma said: This may be 1 compared to a royal infant sleeping in his cot while his nurse sat by anxious and troubled. i. 5) AND symbolises Jacob. 354). banishment. Therefore THE EARTH WAS TOHU AND BOHU (DESOLATE AND ANXIOUS). 1 6 . * Chaos being the inevitable result of lawlessness. tions. which refers to this generation.II. saying. Why? Because she knew that she was fated to receive punishment at his hand. Sc. whom calleth in righteousness to GOD CALLED THE LIGHT DAY 1 His foot (i. Said the How long shall the Universe One. infra. p. Who He hath raised up one from the east. xxix. Judah this refers b. V. R. who was reduced account of his sin]. infra Ch. Cf. further. 3. 2 Thus the earth foresaw that she was destined to meet her doom at the hand of man. Cursed is the ground for thy sake (Gen. R. 3 (p. vin. Simon Now interpreted the text as referring to the genera- THE EARTH WAS UNFORMED: to Adam.* AND to complete nothingness [on refers to Cain. * On his account. moral and religious darkness. 2-3] MIDRASH RABBAH amazing Thus the earth sat bewildered and astonished. xxrv. XLIII. 'The celestial and the terrestial beings were created at the same time: why do the former live [eternally]. 2)? 6 LET THERE BE LIGHT is this alludes to written. n. 15. who UPON THE Flood : FACE OF THE DEEP. 3 AND DARKNESS symbolises the generation of Enosh: And their works are in the dark (Isa. : ANDGODSAID: Abraham. XLI. i). R. 17). 15). 6 9 Cf. whereas the latter are mortal?' Therefore. the generations of the On the deep broken SPIRIT (RUAH) OF GOD HOVERED OVER THE FACE OF THE WATERS corresponds to And God made a wind (ruah) to pass over the earth (ib. as it is written. 6 i.

it was tohu E. ONE DAY [teaches] that the Holy One. and they brought desolation to him. it is the eternal nature of water* State of Edom i. infra. vi.: to the wicked implies a public disavowal of Judaism. has no power. 7 : 1 I. 23) R. Haggai said in the name of R. cf. R. 'Write on the horn of an ox that ye have no portion in the God of Israel/ 4 UPON THE FACE just as the great OF THE DEEP this wicked State 5 : deep cannot be plumbed. Tobu and bohu are applied to Babylonia and Media (Persia) respectively in the sense that they caused chaos and destruction. so one cannot plumb [the depths of iniquity of] this wicked State. in the merit of repentance which is likened to water. * The reference is to Antiochus who endeavoured to annihilate Judaism * and implant Hellenism in its stead write on the horn of an ox probably B Pesilf.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [II. 2). Or possibly wa-yabhillu is read: wayabo bohu lo. which darkened AND DARK- the eyes of with its decrees. AND BOHU Israel (E. as you read. iv. that? the 4. 2 Jeremiah refers to the desolation wrought by the conquering might of Babylonia. caused by God. Pedath A covenant was made with water 6 that even in the hot season a breeze stirs over it. and also stresses the present tense of merahefeth) lit.e. /o. gave him one [unique] day: and which Day of Atonement. Mah. blessed be He. Pour out thy heart like water (Lam. Jacob.e.V. symbolising the wickedness of Esau. EARTH WAS TOHU (E. . and wa-yabhillu is linked up with 'bohu'. Esau AND THERE WAS EVENING Esau AND THERE WAS MORNING. hovers '. ' ' ' breeze. 'VOID') symbolises Media: They hastened 3 (wa-yabhillu) to bring Haman (Est. And the spirit of the Lord upon him (Isa. wind. it is the one day over which Satan. V. 8. i4). . Rome. 3-4 AND THE DARKNESS HE CALLED NIGHT. NOWTHE . stirs over the waters. 1 is Simeon b. 17 c . In the merit of what will [this spirit] eventually come ? [For the sake of that which] HOVERED OVER THE FACE OF THE WATERS. xi. in. Lakish applied the passage to the Powers. 6 I. 'waste' (Jer. 2 and. 19). R. II. [foreign] 'UNFORMED') symbolises Babylonia: / beheld the earth. i. NESS symbolises Greece.V.e. ordering Israel.e. as it is written. thus the verse means that at all times a ' . AND THE SPIRIT OF GOD HOVERED: spirit of shall rest this alludes to the Messiah. 7 He translates ruah literally. 8 This happened in Media.

4~"5] MIDRASH RABBAH b. In Pesifc. Ben Zoma!' exclaimed he: 'whence when R. rejected offer several explanations. R. who thinks that or mystical question on the Creation. must be meant here. Thus. 'The son of Zoma has gone/ 3 But a few days elapsed and the son of Zoma was in his is is ANDTHESPIRITOF GOD [eternal] home. this was an esoteric Or possibly '*) is an abbreviation for a^ii (feet) Theodor. in which case it refers to R. LET THERE BE LIGHT. 8 Passed away he has immersed himself too deeply in supra-mundane thought the Creation and is no longer for this world. Rabbi/ are the feet/ he urged. I still might not know in which of these He delights. R. Abbahu said: From the very beginning 5. greeted him.AND GOD SAID: to the actions of the righteous. At the third time he answered him in confusion. 'I call earth to witness that I will not stir hence until 'From nowhere. R. this passage is introduced by 'R. as R. blessed be He. Joshua turned to his disciples and remarked to them. 'For it not written here. 'What means this. In either case his reply seems to have been a refusal to answer. Abba. NOW alludes to the deeds of the wicked THE EARTH WAS FORMLESS AND VOID . Hiyya Rabbah taught (tarn*)'. blew. in Abbahu and R.II. Hiyya b. like a bird flying and flapping with its wings. 4 Since he is coupled with R. IJiyya Rabbah 4 were engaged discussion. foresaw the deeds of the righteous and the deeds of the wicked. a Tanna. but HOVERED. Hiyya the Elder. xxi. and designated Rabbah (the Great or Elder) to distinguish him from the Amora of the same name* 18 . an Amora. Joshua's rejoinder shows. its wings barely touching [the nest over which it hovers]/ Thereupon R. the former or the latter. 'I was Creation the [and have come to the conclucontemplating the between that upper and the nether waters there sion] me whence but two or three fingerbreadths/ he answered. are the feet?' 1 heaven and you inform 2 replied he. But from what is written. The commentaries which are * by Theodor. however. of the world's creation the Holy One. Abbahu. It once happened that Simeon in Zoma was standing Joshua passed and speculation. wrapped his answering without a second and once him time. 1 AND The passage all is difficult.

That I may plant the heavens. as you read. 'UNFORMED') alludes to [the rebuilt. etc. iv. I6).e. I. foresaw the Temple built.V. risen for thy light is come. etc. rebuilt and firmly it AND GOD is established in the Messianic era. lo. will come the foundations are laid when God will say Thou art'. ' upon 1 thee. Btiyya Kabbah said From : He the very beginning of the world's creation the Holy One. 5 GOD SAW THE follows that LIGHT. was tohu E. SAID: LET THERE BE LIGHT. shine. THAT IT WAS GOOD 4). (Isa. LI. / beheld the earth. 23). i. and IN THE BEGINNING GOD CREATED [symbolises the Temple] built. EARTH WAS TOHU (E. as you read.V.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [II.e. and say unto 1 Zion: Thou art people (Isa. Mah. which to pass with the rebuilding of Zion and the Temple. as you read. My Now THE Temple] destroyed. .. and the glory of the Lord i). R. it desires the deeds of the righteous. and not the deeds of the wicked. LX. (l. Arise. and. 'waste' (Jer. destroyed. blessed be He. and lay the foundations of the earth.

R. wrapped Himself therein as in 20 . Samuel b. SAID: GOD thus. blessed be He. SAID: LET THERE BE LIGHT. Simeon b. Thus far did R. 23) 'A Man hath joy alludes to the Holy One. tell AND GOD b. it giveth understanding unto the simple (Ps. III (BERESHITH) (i. Phinehas and R. 130). cxix. AND GOD SAID: LET THERE BE LIGHT 3). Judah maintains: The light was created first. R. AND GOD in season. Nehemiah disagree. XXXHI. 3) 3. Jehozadak asked R.' viz. 6): not by labour or toil but only by LET THERE BE LIGHT. Simon interpret. and all the host of them by the breath of His mouth a word. SAID: LET THERE BE LIGHT. etc. R. commenced in the name of R. Yohai commenced: and a word in season. . 'In the answer of his mouth. who wished to build a palace. Isaac. ' ' : : : b. ! ' : .III. how good it is (Prov. But R. R. 1- CHAPTER i. Judah and R. xv. (Ps. R. and R. Judah Simon: By the word of the Lord were the heavens made. Samuel b. AND 2. blessed be He The Lord is a Man of war (Ex. Nehemiah said: this being similar to the The world was created king who built a palace and then adorned it with lights. R. XV. Isaac opened with: The opening of Thy words giveth light. in like manner was the light created R. IT WAS GOOD. R. Judah came. R. how good THAT 4. it is': 'And a word thus it is written. IJanin in the name of R. Nahrnan: 'As I have heard that you are a master of haggadah. A the answer of his mouth. Berekiah man hath joy in R. The opening of Thy words giveth light and preached The opening of Thy mouth was light to us A N D GOD SAID: LET THERE BE LIGHT. this being comparable to a king one. Judan b. to know to lay the foundations first. Simeon me whence the light was created?' He replied: *The Holy One. R. where first. but the site was a dark What did he do? He lit lamps and lanterns. AND GOD SAW THE LIGHT.

yet you it in a whisper!' 'Just as I heard it in a whisper. what did they say [on the matter]? R. But. and His voice was like the sound of many waters . Berekiah remarked: Had not R. on high from the beginning. in . Isaac's name The light was created from the place of the Temple. AND GOD DIVIDED to THE LIGHT. AND GOD CALLED THE LIGHT which is filled ' [DAY]. a AND GOD CALLED identical 5 ! THE LIGHT DAY: now 1 surely light and day are Thu: publicly. 'now these are the names' 4 the names of the Books which follow. as you read: Thou throne of glory. light. viz. too. similarly Lit. Now His glory is nought else but the Temple. Berekiah said in R. as it is said. Thou place of our sanctuary (Jer. Now GOD paragraph]. with numerous laws. R. 2 21 . to Exodus. out of darkness into Genesis. This passage. 2). Why have two similar allusions ? 5 Hence it is fitting that this verse should correspond to Deuteronomy. engaged in the creation of His world AND THERE WAS LIGHT. has.GENESIS (BERESHITH) a robe [III. and the earth did shine with His glory (Ezek. 3 in which it is told how the Israelites went forth from Egypt. 1 could we have say Before this. Isaac taught it. R. to Numbers. ' objected. There is a verse which states it explicitly: Who coverest * Thyself with light as with a garment (Ps.' he rejoined. whereupon he observed. AND GOD SAW THE LIGHT. blessed be He. civ. 12). Simon SAID: LET THERE BE LIGHT corresponds to which is recorded that the Holy One. as we would have regarded it as esoteric lore. which with numerous laws. is filled etc. 2). which also contains much repetition of the previous Books (M. to Leviticus. said it! : 2 the glory of the God of Israel came from the east . XLIII. which divides between those who departed from Egypt and those who entered the [holy] land.. said: 'Light* is written five times [in this corresponding to the Books of His Torah. they [his hearers] 4 Is not Leviticus filled with numerous laws ? repetition.). 3 the first words of Exodus. and so explicitly in edd. And. behold. xvn.K. so have I told it to you in a whisper. 4-5 and irradiated with the lustre of His majesty the whole world from one end to the other/ Now he had answered him in a whisper. Deuteronomy. Certainly not. ' ' 5.

2 xxxn. I am pro3 viding so much for the seven days of my [wedding] feast/ R. enjoyed. called habdalah (division). originally called 'Strato's Tower'. and some 75 miles from Jerusalem. seeing that the luminaries were created on the fourth day 2 It is like a man who says.III. Ze'ira. Several cities : which 6 it was the A ceremony. and Sanh. i. by by day. because would it was is it created only to illumine by day. enjoy R. and light the light of the moon shall be as the light the light of the sun shall be sevenfold.. Part of the ceremony consists of pronouncing a blessing over light (v. 6 R. Judah b. because night. blessed be He. Then where is it? It stored up for the righteous in the Messianic future. the son of R. 7 This first light which He created. since the sun was created on the fourth day. of Sabbaths and festivals.e. 22 . 'divided') is thus connected with the ceremony of habdalah. and (iii) Csesarea in Cappadocia. Our Rabbis said: He set it a king 1 who had apart for the righteous for the future. which rendered the first light superfluous. bore that name (i) Caesarea by the Sea. in which the distinction between these and non-holy days is mentioned. infra. identical with Paneas. not that shed by the sun. '. Simon 7 said: He [God] set it apart for Himself.V. AND GOD SAW THE LIGHT. 3 Though he does not intend it to suffice for the whole period. though it did not serve for so long. R. the light which came into existence at God's command. and we learn that it can be done only when the that one light is seen. Moreover of the sun. io8&. Nehemiah said It refers to the seven days of mourning for Methuselah. Wayyabdel (E. : lavished light 4 upon them. lectured in Caesarea : Whence do we know that you must not recite a blessing over a lamp unless you can its light? From this: ANDHESAW. as says. Ze'ira states must actually benefit from the light before he may pronounce the blessing. just like a goodly portion [served to him at table]. (ii) Caesarea Philippi. is performed at the termination capital. 6] : MIDRASH KABBAH was taught The light 6. 7. of 4 8 V. not seven.AND HE PRONOUNCED A DIVISION. It which was created in the six it 1 days of Creation cannot illumine nor eclipse the light of the sun. and R. 54#). when the Holy One. 26). Pes. 5 Abbahu. I. Seven! surely ' ! were but three. as the there of the seven days (Isa. The light of the seven days is the special light created by God's fiat 'Let there be light' But this served for three days only. Similarly we speak of the light of the seven days. xxx..e.

said to Job NIGHT. blessed be He. and the THE DARKdarkness God called Night. known which is its place [i. went on creating AND THERE WAS EVENING. is NESS CALLED 7. when it should function. saying to it. hast thou appointed a place for day. 6-7 two men b. not written here. Y. * vince/ by] AND THE DARKNESS CALLED HE ' Thus GOD CALLED THELIGHT [for service DAY. night shall be your pro- expound it: notes a literal division.e. 12) dayspring really to know it its strange 'twere indeed! And caused the 'twere amazing! hast thou place (ib. between them. who used to quarrel with one another.e. R. 'I must have command by day/ Thereupon the king summoned the first and said to him. AND GOD CALLED THE Eleazar said: link LIGHT. Berekiah said: Thus did of world renown. Abbahu said: This proves that the Holy One. xxxviii. and create darkness. Judah b. one in command by day and the other in command at night. Simeon 'And he divided' (wayyabdel) conImagine a king who had two chiefs of the guards. blessed be He. Lakish. R. but only with good. R. 7). Yada'ta (%taZ) it probable that 23 . peace (Isa. but AND THERE WAS EVENING: hence we know that a time-order existed before this. 'So-and-so. 'Night shall be thy province/ R. That is what the Holy One. Johanan and R. does not His name with evil. thinks it is understood as yaadeta. having created them.) made tion in]!' 1 R. DAY 5). The Holy One. He makes (i.GENESIS (BERESHITH) but set It [III. 2 R. XLV. And God called the light Day. : (Job. each claiming. Thus it is not written here. * By rendering: And evening (already) was ere now. blessed observed: Johanan Hast thou commanded the morning? be He. So-and-so. I make peace R. as here.T. summoning the second he addressed him. time to funcTanhuma said: I can cite the grounds [for : this statement] I form the light. but AND etc. i. [for service at] saying to it. aside for his son. Simon said: 'Let there be evening* 1 can hardly be treated as a causative. 'The day shall be thy province'. R. the day shall be your province'. HE NIGHT.

I. to the deeds of the WAS MORNING. 3.e. * Hence it was not on the first day only that God was unique and alone in the universe. the light. IJanina said: The angels were created on the fifth day. 'And the darkness called night. 'And God called the light day' alludes 'And God saw . cf. behold. IJanina. 4 as it is written. 20). Luliani b. Jannai said : From the very beginning of the world's Holy One. those did not please Me/ R. R. cf. Who said: It EVENING. Phinehas said This is R. blessed be He. This agrees with R. that ' it : to the deeds of the righteous. 7-8] MIDRASH KABBAH worlds and destroying them until He created this one and declared.' to those of the righteous . i. R. n. I. Tabri The deduction is from behold (hinneh). R. 31) this pleases Me. was good. 8 Of each of these there is only one . and. earth. the Holy One. 2 R.III. foresaw the deeds of the righteous and the deeds of the wicked.' to the deeds of the righteous 'And God made a division between the light and the darkness between the deeds of the righteous and those of the wicked. For R. which implies that now saw was very good 2 only what He in His eyes. supra. was One in His universe. x. gave them one day. vi. Tanhum was on the day on which unique things were 3 heaven. AND THERE ONE created. and which is that? It is the Day of Judgment. Johanan said: The angels were created on the second day. earth. and light were created. Others translate the day when a new heaven. xi. the Day of Atonement. 2). R. He DAY: righteous. Who layest the beams of Thine upper chambers in the waters. supra. makest the spirits Thine angels (Ps. 9. 5. Johanan but not with R. Abbahu's reason And God saw it was very good everything that He had made. and light. 3f). 'This one pleases Me. blessed be He. : : : 8. And with twain he did fly (Isa. infra. 'And the creation the earth was desolate' alludes to the deeds of the wicked: 'And God said: Let there be light. And let fowl fly above the earth (Gen. as it is said. civ. Cf. and it is written.' to those of the wicked . to those of the AND THERE WAS wicked. Judan said: The day in which the Holy One. blessed be He. but those did not please Me. 1 (Gen. and it is written. viz. : 24 . 13.

H. 8 the priesthood. first in respect of kings. Ammi said: From the beginning of the world's creation the Holy One. for previously the firstborn had performed these duties. supra. I. 3. repay them ? At the erection of the Tabernacle. one. the first of the world's creation. The world thus requires the harmonious co-operation of God and man. blessed be He. blessed be He. who was associated with Me in the creation of the world P 1 measured . three days. it was the first day of the week. here symbolised by the erection of the When ' Temple. 2).' That 6 it was the first of the creation. 9 and the 'It is as 5 day took ten crowns : 1 V. 8-9 the view of R. XLIV. second. two days. Samuel b. art. XL. third! 3 2 second. lest you should say. 5 It was pre-eminent in ten respects. GENESIS (BERESHITH) Isaac's name: Whether we accept [III. R. : two. three. one day. Hanina or of R. z creation narrative should either state. third. 24) mi itti (who was with Me?) is written. etc. Johanan. the third day\ etc. as it says.). And he that presented his offering the first day (Num.e. and on that day the Tabernacle was erected (Ex. while the Holy One. Thus the world is not really created until man does God's will.. and continues with the second day '. : 9. ' Instead of which it states one day '. or first. for God said. 12). that spread abroad the earth by Myself me-itti (ib. ' did He restore the designation 'first day which is lacking from the Creation narrative (M. 4 though on that day I created My world. za). all agree that none were created on the first day. 4 This is deduced from the def. For what will you if it is a matter of time reckoning. vn. 9 This was the first day that the priesthood functioned in the sacrificial services. blessed be He. but surely not. or the first day. etc. and thereby His original design to be at one with man is fulfilled. that stretched forth the heavens alone . 25 . 8 On that day they began bringing their dedication gifts. the'. 7 Kings date their reigns from the first day of Nisan (v. it in the middle but / am the Lord that maketh all things . I. His handiwork. R.K. it should say either one. the' second day.said in R. Hence 'yom ehad' (one day) really means: the day when He designed to be at one with man. and its harmony and unity are broken * The when man 3 sins. 7 the princes. meaning. Michael stretched [the world] in the south of the firmament and Gabriel in the north. longed to enter into partnership with the mortals. When did the Holy One.

sacrificial service. 8)) it was first in 2 respect of blessing. Shechinah. 2 The Shechinah dwelt there for the first time. and the public sacrificial services were then inaugurated. 24). and the descending of fire 1 4 fire. Shab. 9] MIDRASH KABBAH . 4 Fire descended on that day from heaven for the first time. And 5 there came forth from before the Lord (Lev.III. the prohibition of 3 high places. 22-27) was pronounced for the first time. where there are several variations. And let them make Me a sanctuary^ I may dwell among them (Ex. 3 Before the erection of the Tabernacle private sacrifices could be offered at any high place. ix. vi. Num. 876. killing at the north [side of the Altar]. 6 V. that 1 (as it says. xxv. . The priestly blessing (v. as it is said.

1 affairs. Simon said: The fire came forth from above and burnished the face of the firmament. you read. Bun said it in the name of R. ' 2J . Who roofs Thine upper chambers with water SAID: LET thus. while R. Ex. Who roofs In human Thine upper chambers with water (Ps. Abina in R. Who layest the beams of Thine upper chambers in the waters. R. and on the second day it congealed. Simon said: Let a lining be made for the firmament.V.V. the middle layer of water solidified. R. etc. 2 THERE BE A FIRMAMENT. Nahman: When the Holy One. 3). 1-2 CHAPTER IV (BERESHITH) i. R. * ' . Johanan came to the verse. as it is said. And R. roofed over His world with nought but water. ordered. 22. Judan b. fire] the heavens are smoothed E. LET THERE BE A FIRMAMENT IN THE MIDST OF THE WATERS. an earthly monarch builds a palace and roofs it over with stones. Judah b. but was itself explained thereby. here connected with ra&'a. Berekiah and R. he would say. xv. Phinehas and R. xxxix. 2. blessed be He. timber. 3). AND GOD etc. By His breath [sc. When R.[IV. Jacob b. AND GOD SAID: LET THERE BE A FIRMAMENT. IJanina taught me well/ R. 'R. Our Rabbis said the following in the name of R. said: The fire came forth from IJanina (Ex. 6). R. and earth. R. as 3 they did beat the gold into thin plates R. above and dried up the face of the firmament. AND GOD SAID: LET THERE BE A IN THE MIDST OF THE WATERS (l. R. 13). rjanina. Rab said: [God's] handiwork [the heavens] was in fluid form. Kahana's name said: The creation story was used [by the prophet] to throw light upon Revelation. 1 2 E. blessed be He. Abba b. and the nether heavens and the uppermost heavens were formed. FIRMAMENT It IS Written. civ.' a V. Samuel b. 'serene' (Job xxvi. but the Holy One. Jacob b. Wayyerake'u. thus LET THERE BE A FIRMAMENT means 'Let the firmament be made strong*.

LET THERE BE A THE MIDST OF THE WATERS. R. 2 The meaning . When he 4. Oshaya's name: As there is a 3. which is not the same as upon (*al) . so is there a void between the firmament and the upper waters. R. it was even as when fire burned through and divided the upper from the nether waters. is this The O rend the heavens. i). Now when did the fire divide between the upper and the nether: surely at the Revelation! So 2 it was. 'And between the waters which are above the firmament. 8 He stresses the word above ' (me-'al'). LXIV. And God made . it follows that the upper 3 waters are suspended by the word [of God]. and interprets the verses as meaning that when God rent the heavens to give the Torah. Similarly. at the creation of the world. R. between the waters I would say that the water said: I will state the proof. as it IN is written.. etc. the fire at Revelation divided the terrestial beings (men) from the upper (celestial spheres). Tanhuma it said. It would appear to mean a clepsydra. lies directly 3 upon the firmament itself. 5 Samaritan asked R. Since. and He divided which are upon the firmament. a contrivance for measuring time by the flow of water. Meir: 'Is it possible that the is suspended by [God's] word?' 'Yes/ he water upper answered. the dripping being the rain we enjoy. whose primary purpose is to teach us about Revelation by likening it to the Creation. . 2-4] MIDRASH KABBAH into parts (Isa. and their fruits are the rain. Aha said: 4 It is like [the flame of] a lamp. fire burneth through 1 Thus As when : which intimates that they divided [between the upper and the nether waters].V. 1 A E. tells us something new about the Creation itself. The meaning of the word is doubtful. said in R. If the firmament. however. : that Thou wouldst previous verse states. which r ' ' 28 . and so this verse. 'As when fire kindleth brushwood'. The bottom was perforated with such small holes that if the upper aperture was completely closed the water would not flow out from the bottom* Levi : a syringe or squirt. 'Bring me a water-clock/ 6 he added. . The upper waters drip through the heat of the firmament. is followed by 'As when fire burneth into parts' The Midrash applies the former verse to Revelation. midway be- FIRMAMENT tween them.IV. it is stated. Phinehas void between the earth and the firmament. too. But it is not actually stated elsewhere that fire did act thus at the Creation. 4 5 Which seems to be suspended in the air. meaning.

'whirlwind' (Job. "Do / not fill heaven 'If you. then a silver plate. blessed be He Hence the upper waters are suspended by [God's] word/ Said he to him: 'Is it possible that He of whom it is written. so He at whose word the world came into when He so wishes. . Then the Lord answered Job out of the sa'arah E. 1 'But you have put your ringer there/ he objected. Do / not fill heaven and earth? (Jer. but the water did not stand still.GENESIS (BERESHITH) brought [IV. and weigh yourself before you enter and after you have gone in/ replied he. which means.V. When he brought it he said to him. Said Is it possible that The river of God is full of he to him water (Ps. Ania b. the water stood still. and earth? '\ while when He wishes. he placed a gold plate upon it. small. and his weight had not diminished at all. 8 Whence then comes the rain ? 29 . xxxvin. But as soon as he placed his finger [upon the aperture]. though you are but a mere mortal. did it not ooze from you?' 'Yes/ answered he. but the water did not stand still. Susay said At times the world and its fullness cannot contain His glory. 'If my finger stays the water. 'Bring saw it. from between the hairs (sa'aroth) of his head. as it is written. xxm. 'diminishing the reference being to a convex and a concave mirror respectively. how much more so the finger of the Holy One. LXV. 4 it. He went and weighed himself. yet at times He speaks to man from between the hairs of his head. 'See your flesh and blood/ said how much more existence! Thus are but 'can change yourself at will. Said he to him 'Now all that perspiration. He who he. reflection in it/ me He brought it. 10) since the six days of Creation and has not been diminished at all it is incredible 3 Go in and bathe. ! ' a small 2 mirror/ large. He speaks to Moses from between the staves of the Ark/ R. though I am but flesh and blood. i). translate 'magnifying' and holes beneath 1 it. 'Then if your fountain [of perspiration] did not in any way diminish. 24) spoke to Moses from between the two staves of the Ark ? 'Bring me a large mirror/ said he. 'Look at your reflection/ and he saw it. and 'EJ. how much the more is this true of the fountain : ' : ' ' : ! : 1 2 Thus remaining suspended in spite of the Mah.

IJanina's ' : name: [It is but as] thick as a metal plate. and through the heat of the lake the vault exudes moisture . [Thus it is written. infra. 3 R. i8). Simon said: The reason is that He causes them to descend in measure. peleg (the river). And He walketh in the circuit (hug) of the heaven (Job xxn. blessed be He. it exudes heavy drops of water. 27). which is a distance of many years' journey above the earth. V.] AND LET IT DIVIDE THE WATERS FROM THE In the verse just quoted. Judah b. meaning palga The firmament is like a lake. R. Jonah observed: Do not wonder thereat. R. which descend R. before they have dropped a distance of two or three fingerbreadths they intermingle. It is He that sitteth above the circle (hug) of the earth (Isa. ! into the salt water yet do not combine with 2 valuation (Lev.] For He draweth away (yigra') the drops of water (Job xxxvi. *The Rabbis held that the rain descended from heaven. blessed be He! Hence "The God full of water'' since the six days of Creation. took half in the firmament all and half 1 the primeval water and poured into the ocean. The son of Pazzi said: The upper waters exceed the lower ones by about thirty xestes. 4 5 1 2 A dry and liquid measure.* [for it is written.IV. equalling nearly a pint. 14) the use of hug' in both verses teaches that they are alike. 22) with. Joshua b. XL. R. The second verse obviously means a calculated deduction. Aha said in R. The thing is indeed miraculous For when a man is sifting wheat or stubble in a sieve. yet these [raindrops] have been travelling so many years without intermingling. 4 The thickness of the firmament equals that of the earth: compare. R. and it has not diminished at all/ R. for lo! the Jordan passes through the lake of Tiberias yet does not mingle with it. 10. and he understands the first in a similar sense : He calculatingly draweth away t etc. Johanan said: The Holy One. [where yigra' is used] in the sense of And an abatement shall be made (we-nigra') from thy it. 30 . and above the lake a vault. and yet no drop has ever touched another. Nehemiah said: It is about two fingers in thickness. is word 5. 4~5] of the is MIDRASH KABBAH river of Holy One. xm. hence the (half). xxvn.

and it was also thus taught in the name of R. but not a day before yester* Whereas 'for it was good' is applicable only to a completed work. 1 have numerical values. 6). replied he. day. 'for it was good' is not written in connection with that day. [as it is written. And God saw was very good* ln n^n ?. 4 Tofteh being the Gehenna. Jose: 'Why is "for it was good" not written in connection with the second day?' 'Even so. This is one of the verses over which the son of Zoma raised a commotion: He made how remarkable! surely it [came into existence] at [God's] word. 5-6 2 WATERS (LA-MAYIM): said: lamed 1 is thirty.V.* which signifies a day to which there was a yesterday but not a 5 before R. 6 There was a yesterday to the second day. Tabyomi IT written. 'it [the text] subsequently included ! b. Hebrew letters and let there ' ' 31 . [as it is written. The thirty (measures of) water. it everything that a 2 He had made. He interprets the verse thus: be a difference between the upper and nether waters of s Whereas 'made' implies work. 'For a hearth is ordered of old'.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [IV. xxxin. 6. [Roman] lady asked R. and. R. xxx. [as it is DIVIDE THE WATERS.] By the word of the Lord were the heavens made. 7). Why is 'that it was good' not written in connection with the second day? R. for it is said. schism was created.] said: If because of AND LET a division made for the greater stability and orderliness of the world. then how much the more should this apply to a division which leads to its confusion R. Samuel Nahman said: Because the making of the waters was not finished 6 consequently 'for it was good' is written twice in connection with the third day. difficulty remains unanswered (Theodor). Jose b. and all the host 3 of them by the breath of His mouth (Ps. Johanan explained. 33).e. once in respect of the making of the waters and a second time on account of the work done on that day. Our Rabbis They are half and half [i. lianina said: Because in it day yesterday. equal]. behold. R. : A 1 them all [in this description]. IJalafta: Because on it the Gehenna was created.] For Tofteh is ordered from yesterday (Isa. E. AND GOD MADE THE FIRMAMENT (i.

R. V. 7. Rab said: [Shamayim is a compound and mayim (water).IV. 12 f). 2 In Sot. to i. blessed be He.t>. xi. Declaring the end from the beginning (Isa. let it not bear my name/ Thus the Holy One. for they [the heavens] weigh Hence the subsequent inclusion still leaves the second day worse off than the others. Said she to him: 'Supposing six men came and you you gave a maneh to all but one. 8). Kahana said name: The Holy One. R. of] esh (fire) in Rab's SHAMAYIM 1 is written. through his sin at the waters of Meribah * (Num. while the one would (Gen. : Then he explained it a second time only have one sixth in the same way as R. said. 'Since the generation of Enosh. V. And when she saw that he was good (Ex. who had a very stern Levi: This legion. i. infra. 1-9. Gen. the waters. Tanhum b. Meir explained the verse. 6-7] MIDRASH KABBAH 31).e. and then you a maneh to all of them [jointly] would not second gave each now have a maneh and a sixth. Samuel b. AND GOD CALLED THE FIRMAMENT HEAVEN SHAMAYIM (i. the generation of the Flood. Hence 'for it was good' is written twice in connection with the third day. took fire and water and beat them up together. viz. 8 Sc. 120 R. xxni. Simon said in the is similar to the king name of R. Ilanilai: It is written. and from them the heaven was made. 10): from the very beginning of the world's creation God foresaw [the existence of] Moses who was called. and said. Levi said in the name of R. let "for written in connection therewith/ it was good" not be 7. nection therewith. xx. XLVI. once on account of the making of the waters and a second time on account of the work done on that day. Joshua b.) as meaning that his name was ' Tob' (good). 'for it ' 1 ! was good' 2 and that he was destined to be punished through them3 therefore 'for it was good' is not written in con. the generation of the separation of races 4 were punished 5 through them [the waters]. n. 2 g. and 'Since this legion is so stern. R. 32 . because the making of the water was not finished. blessed be He. Nahman. Abba b.

n). 1 That agrees with Rab's dictum: [God's] handiwork was liquid and on the second day it congealed. it immediately curdles and stands still. saying: 'Of what (shelmdK) is it composed ? Of fire ? Of water ? "Tis a mystery R. 33 . xcvn. but as soon as a drop of rennet falls into it. [IV. sometimes sometimes black and sometimes white.up (shamim) GENESIS (BERESHITH) the deeds of men if one is worthy. Levi's name: It [Scripture] comes and explains (mishtommemim) ' ! Who layest the beams of Thine upper chambers in the waters' (Ps. The heavens shall reveal his iniquity (Job xx. be laden with water. Isaac said: [SHAMAYIM means] sa-mayim. I. Similarly. civ. Phinehas said in R. a second day' (Gen.e. means are like] blue. whereupon. then the solidifying substance was infused into them. 7 heavens declare his righteousness (Ps. The : . [It is so called] because men wonder SHAMAYIM: at it. 3): this shows that it is of water. 'And there was evening and there was morning. it quivers. Compare this to milk in a bowl: before a drop of rennet falls into it. 6) but if not. : sammim (chemicals): just as others red. R. some black and is heaven sometimes it is blue.e. so red. i. 1 I. * it : [SHAMAYIM some chemicals others white. their solidifying was the work of the second day. The pillars of heaven quiver (Job xxvi. 27). 8).

line. and translated: waters then fled to their appointed place. Or. how much more would they do so if they possessed all their faculties!' Thereupon the king tenanted it with men gifted with speech. etc. as you read. i6). It is written. PLACE. I. who are dumb. Abba b.CHAPTER V (BERESHITH) i. 1 LET THE WATERS BE GATHERED TOGETHER (YIKKAWU) UNTO ONE PLACE. Compare this to a king who built a palace and tenanted it with dumb people who used to rise early and pay their respects to the king with gestures. spears. AND GOD SAID: LET THE WATERS . blessed be He: 'If these which have neither mouth nor speech praise Me. I. *If these. 4) 1 2 whole world. R. with their fingers and with their kerchiefs. explains. XCIH. } The 34 . at the very beginning of the world's creation. 'This is not the king's palace: it is our palace!' 'Then let the as to palace return to its original state/ the king ordered. rise early and pay their respects with gestures.. BE GATHERED TOGETHER. [so perform] what I will one day do by means of them. who arose and seized the palace. AND GOD SAID: LET THE WATERS UNDER THE HEAVEN BE GATHERED TOGETHER UNTO ONE 9). the praise of the Almighty ascended from nought but the water. Civ. Abba b. From the voices of many waters and what did they proclaim ? The Lord on high is mighty (ib. R. 7). 3 Said the king. which in the name of R. Yoma: Let there be a measure set for the water. written. how much more [will I be praised] when man is (Ps. AND LET THE DRY LAND APPEAR (Gen. with their fingers and with their handkerchiefs. Levi's name thus: Let the waters be gathered together for My purpose. as it is .). And a line 2 (kaw) shall be stretched forth over Jerusalem (Zech. Said the Holy One. Berekiah explained it At Thy rebuke they fled (Ps. Similarly. instead of covering the ' Yifckawu* is thus derived from $aw a measuring let the waters be confined to a definite measure 3 or quantity. Kahana explained it in R.. asserting. etc.

and they dry up. (Ps. and He deflated 4 E. IX. Berekiah observed: The whole world was one mass of water. 'their roaring' them. 1-3 created!' But the generation of Enosh arose and rebelled 1 against Him . 2. blessed be He'. tread down all the 3 primeval waters and remove them into the Ocean. of the waters said to each other. infra. what does he do to them? He unties them. R.e. 8). xcin. 3). 35 . into the To springs 1 & It was for this purpose that the waters were V. 2 vii. yet you actually say. 8 The waters having been hitherto inflated. blessed be He. as you read. R.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [V. also He sendeth them out.V. to . and removes them into a corner. etc. R. Behold\ He [consumeth] the waters. R. be gathered together at the Creation. 'But whither shall we go/ asked they? 'Let the floods take up (dokyam)/ 4 replied He. as it written. And the rain was upon the earth forty days and forty nights arose ' : (Gen. And He treadeth upon the waves is of the sea 3. INTO ONE PLACE This may be compared to ten inflated wine! skins lying in a chamber. 15). 16)? Which means. the generation of the Separation [of tongues] and rebelled against Him. 7. Hast thou entered into the of the sea (Job xxxvin. Abba b. (ib. Even so did the Holy One. Joshua b. R. derekyam (to the way of the sea). as it were. R. blessed be He. to the place specially prepared to receive the waters. Huna explained: To this sea (ha-dak yama). R. it also says. Levi said: [' Dokyam '] means. and they overturn the earth (Job xii. I2). permits their air to escape. said Let these be removed and the former arise and come [in their place]/ Hence it is written. xxm. Eliezer said: The sea absorbed them. Judan and R. When the king needs their place. 'Let us Holy One. lifted The floods have up their voice. the generation of the Flood arose and rebelled against Him . Levi said: it is The fiat go and obey the thus written. IJananiah said: 5 the receptacle (diksa) of the sea. Thereupon the Holy One. 6 I. Kahana interpreted it: To such and such a place (dok\ to such and such a corner.

iitea^. 27): i. we are broken: (dakkim): receive us. Levi said: Some interpreters. and all their host have I commanded (Isa. 'that they trickle not'. as you read. have stretched out the heavens. Joshua b. 15). 4. 8): which place hast Thou founded for them? The Ocean. I commanded and the moon to stand still before Joshua. Now 'voice' refers A voice is heard in (ib. n). Johanan said: The Holy One. made a stipulation with the sea that it should divide before Israel. xiv. R. Eleazar said: a stipulation. bitter weeping xxxi. as it is written. 3). as it is written. lamentation and 5. but with everything which was created in the six days of creation. 2 R. civ. the waters (Ps.e. Jast. . I to commanded before the sea to divide. 12). in accordance with its agreement (li-tenao). R. blessed be He. commanded the ravens to feed Elijah 1 * . Not with the sea alone did God make XLV.v. The R. ye and I will speak (Deut. 12 f). thus it is written. until they came to the Ocean [Mediterranean].V. s. as The it is written. even My hands. I commanded the fire etc. . R. Nehemiah said: The waters waters absorbed by the are crushed ascended mountains and descended into the depths. Jeremiah b. He bindeth the streams from weeping (Job xxvni.e. waters in the heavens (Jer. i). V. and the heavens be silent heavens. x.g. Berekiah said: The upper waters parted from the nether waters with weeping. R. the son of voice of the 'Azzai and the son of voice of the Zoma. . R. He assigned their courses. e. Tanhuma adduced it from the following: He hath made the earth at the voice of His giving a multitude of by His power . xxix. Give ear. xxxn. And the sea returned (le-ethano) E. Ramah. they descended into valleys unto the place which Thou hast founded for them (Ps. to nought but weeping. We Our Rabbis interpreted it: receive us. the sun as it says. I Moses. as it is written.V. 'to its strength' (Ex.V. E. Lord became a guide 1 Lord is over interpret: to the waters. /. i. They ascended the mountains. 3~5] MIDRASH RABBAH sea.

from this we learn that the little held the Similarly. so that the inhabitants might see it and fear him. why Gathereth He the waters of the sea together as a heap.). Thus He reversed His previous decree that the waters should be confined to one place. Now R. whereupon the king sent a strong legion against and marched them round it. IJana. does he ever empty a full vessel into a full vessel? Now the world was full of water everywhere. And Moses and Aaron gathered the assembly together before the rock (Num. 6. com- manded the lions not to harm Daniel the heavens to open before Ezekiei. Even so. Mishael. issued a decree. from this you say.GENESIS (BERESHITH) to [V. and a second time in the generation of the Separation [of races]. 8): ! much. And God hath so made it (Eccl. fcomez is the bending of the three middle fingers over the hollow of the hand (Jast. R. yet In Amos v. xx. 7) ? In order that All the inhabitants of the world may stand in awe of Him (ib. 14): all that He has done is in order That men should fear y before Him its (ib. xxxm. and ix. the fish to vomit forth Jonah. Eleazar said: From the very beginning of the world's creation the Holy One. a man empties a full vessel into an empty one. Compare this to a country that rebelled king. That calleth for the waters of the sea and poureth them out 1 upon the face of the earthy twice? Once was in the generation of Enosh. to you handfuls of the soot of the said R. we learn that the little held the much. jon and funp). a Hofen is the hollow of the hand formed by bending the fingers so as to'touch the wrist.v. yet ONE PLACE! In truth. 7. of Moses contain eight handfuls 2 For a fistful is not the IX.' Wherefore then [is it written]. yet all Israel stood In truth. one fistful equalling two handfuls. and Azariah. 5-7 I do no hurt to Hananiah. ill. In human practice. 6. Could then one fistful furnace (Ex. and layeth up the deeps in storehouses (Ps. 10). 8. Take same 1 as a handful. 8). 'Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place. hofen is normally A 37 . Similarly. . s. saying. Hanina said: It was but the UNTO size of the there ! opening of a small sieve. blessed be He.

of Said he to him Can : it then hold [them all] ! It is amazing ! blessed be He. Jose b. 9). Aha's name. Nathan commented in R. (Ex. Cf. Hanina. this. And Joshua said unto the children of Israel: Come hither. Aboth V. Halafta court shall be a hundred cubits. 2 1 v. our Rabbis said: He squeezed them between is the two staves of the Ark. (i.V. enlarge [thy space]. xvu.). (Josh. it shall time they shall call Jerusalem The Throne of the Lord\ and all the nations shall be gathered unto it (Jer. too. = all. xr. viz. R. Said Joshua to them: Hereby ye shall know that the living God among you (ib. It was I who said and Moses and Aaron both took a hofen and then Moses took it in one handful . Iama said: He crowded them between the staves of the*Ark. 5. R. The Holy One. Similarly. too. Why ERETZ? Because she conformed (razethah) : to His will (razori). 18).)? so that one written. vm. 17). from this we learn that the Israel stood there! is little held the much. etc. will order it: 'Lengthen [thy boundaries]. At that prayer. Jonah said: Each had four cubits. And in Jerusalem.e. so that none should hear his neighbour's be thus. we learn observed: The length of the Similarly R. 10). Samuel b. in. 8. 'he made them lean' perhaps it means that he made them stand * so that one had to press against his neighbour (Th. yet 4 when they prostrated themselves they had ample room. Moses alone. and R. etc. ' R. yet all 2 In fact. 7~8] it MIDRASH KABBAH fistful it (ib. 2). 38 . i). Lev. Isaac's name I am El Shaddai E. AND GOD CALLED THE DRY LAND ERETZ EARTH 10). 5* two fyemaisim (pi. 3 R. And in the future.V. they stood pressed together. * Lit. Berekiah in R. a cubit on each side. And let Moses throw of Moses actually contained eight handfuls! From that the little held the much. 'God Almighty' (Gen. R. I. and receive thy hosts/ as it is said. and he found him sitting and lecturing on this (t The throne verse: 'At that time they shall call Jerusalem shall be gathered unto it. Ex. Huna said: He made them stand between the staves of the Ark. R. 8. xxvir.' nations the all and the Lord". Enlarge the place of thy tent (Isa. Johanan went up to inquire after the wellbeing of R. LIV. in. R. however. of %omez)> 8 kemagim in in each hand.

is from because the taste of a fish caught at Acco is disthat of one caught at Sidon and Aspamia. they would have continued to extend even until now.). s. conjectures that . insects. as it is written. did not do thus. Isaac of Magdala 7 there would be benefit too. and fleas. HERB YIELDING SEED AFTER ITS KIND. Though could be killed and put to use.v. such as gnats. AND FRUIT-TREE BEARING FRUIT: just as the fruit is eaten. 39 . however. Phinehas said She exceeded His command. Yet surely there is but one sea? Why then is it stated AND THE GATHERING TOGETHER OF THE WATERS CALLED HE SEAS? 3 The reason similar 9. Judah b. n). : 1 2 Interpreting Shaddai(y) as sha-day. a pest. in. so should the tree be THE edible. ' ' 1 ' AND THE GATHERING TOGETHER OF THE WATERS CALLED HE SEAS (ib. She. Nathan's name: (i. Aspamia 8 * 7 refers to Apamea in the north of Palestine. Adam and Eve and the serpent entered for judgment. whereas the earth was punished with them. HERB YIELDING SEED. For day to the earth. which means that it would produce accursed things for him [Adam]. 17). AND TREE BEARING FRUIT 12) : the fruit could be eaten but not the tree. Now why was [the earth] punished? R. thinking to do the will (i. Then let it produce [pests as 5 6 In that large as] a camel? Said R. Shalom said: Because she disobeyed [God's] command. B. and to the had I not said day to the heaven and ' [V. yet four came out guilty. 'who (said) enough. Or possibly they are thinking here simply of the 'Great Sea* (the Mediterranean) 4 Acco and Sidon are on the Phoenician coast.GENESIS (BERESHITH) to the earth. 8-9 world2 'day*. The bracketed addition gives Theodor's explanation of this passage. For the Holy One. 'day' (enough). Th. blessed be He. SAID: It LETTHEEARTH PUT FORTH was taught in R.E. but : GRASS AND EARTH BROUGHT FORTH GRASS. R. Three entered for judgment. 8 The Rabbis held that all seas are connected and therefore one. v. 4 AND GOD etc.' 'World' will now connote heaven and earth. 74^: the sea of Aspamia. it A town near Tiberias. R. J.B. cf. Cursed is the ground (Gen. said thus: LET THE EARTH PUT FORTH GRASS.

strong and lofty trees. captains. 9] of MIDRASH KABBAH Creator: her thus AND TREE BEARING FRUIT Now implies that even non-fruit-bearing trees yielded fruit.V. the trees began to tremble. 13). the day in which strong ones were created. transf. A THIRD DAY SHELISHI (ib. why was she cursed? It is in fact as one might say: 'Cursed be the breast that suckled such a one as this/ AND THERE WAS EVENING AND THERE WAS MORNING. all of them riding 2 upon horses (Ezek. XXIH. Captains (shalishim) and councillors. tree unless the tree first furnishes a handle for the . Judah's view.e. i. shalishim Thus means men of 8 Iron cannot harm the strength. no difficulty arises on R. Said He to them. Phinehas's view.e. 1 as you read. 'Why do you tremble? Let none of your wood enter one of you shall be harmed/ 3 1 2 it. 23). and not I. But on R. But when iron was created.

why was the moon created? moons and its years thereby. 19). 'For seasons': in order to sanctify new 1 R. Justa Habra said in R. 14). on the fifteenth day of the first month. 3 Justa is an abbreviation of Justus or Justinus. then by the Thursday on which they left. and the actual fixing of the months and the years depends on the moon. Hence if we counted time solely from when the New Moon is visible. Johanan began thus: Who appointest the moon for seasons (Ps. R. then so far there were only thirteen sunsets? 4 Hence it follows that we count not from the moon but from sunset. Habra (K"Dn) may either be part of the name or mean a haber. IIul.[VI. Johanan's : ' : sun alone was created to give light yet if so. blessed be He. however. civ. Said the Lord: 'If they are two.): from the sun one knows its coming [sc. the evening of Friday. (Num. R. i. i CHAPTER VI (BERESHITH) i. The Jewish year is lunar. why was the moon created? Because the Holy One. AND GOD SAID: LET THERE BE LIGHTS (i. though a month is intercalated in leap years in order to harmonise the lunar with the solar years. Johanan commented: The orb of the sun alone was created to give light. a fortnight after. 2 The townlet of Temarta in Judea. Shila of Kefar Temarta 2 name: Yet even so. This is based on the tradition that the Nisan (the first month of the Jewish year) in which the Exodus took place fell on a Thursday. for we count the beginning of the month 3 only from sunset. foresaw that the peoples of the world would treat them as divinities. If so. 6za. XXXHI. opposed to each other. one of a body who were particularly scrupulous in their observance of the laws of 1 and purity. Hanina's name The orb of the said in R. it is called the fifteenth of the month.e. 3) but if you count by the moon. we see that the month was calculated from the first sunset tithes * . Azariah said in R. Since. an associate. 41 . 6 and yet the peoples of the world treat them . Berekiah/s name: And they journeyed from Rameses in the first month. The sun knoweth coming (ib. while the actual New Moon occurred after midday on the preceding Wednesday it is further assumed that when this happens the moon is not visible until the second evening following. of the month]. R. there would only have been thirteen sunsets. etc. moon 5 The reference is possibly to the eclipse of the sun and the (commentaries). after the New Moon.

Ex. Thou didst perform miracles for us by day. and thus encroaches. to Thee the night so is gives praise. 1 6): to. When Thou performest and when Thou miracles for us by day. 8 The moon were. R. 2.). we utter song to Thee by night. hast made THE TWO GREAT LIGHTS. MIDRASH KABBAH how much more would they do so if there were but one!' R. Thee the day gives praise. i). AND LET THEM BE FOR LIGHTS. . wherefore? because song to : the son of : Thou hast established luminary and sun (Ps. the proclamation of the New Year by the proper authorities. He casts one by writing] THE GREAT LIGHT AND (i. thus Then sang Deborah and Barak Abinoam on that day (Judg. xxx. It is the night under Thy control. ' utter song to Thee by day. we performest night: ' ' . I. Thine is the day also is the Thine for us miracles night. Berekiah said in R. Thou didst for us by night. as it says. and when Thou performest miracles for us by night. and we uttered Thee by day. Simon's actually . Phinehas said : THE SMALL LIGHT 1 2 Cf. Thine is the day. AND FOR DAYS: to the beginnings of the sanctification the means YEARS AND months. Simon's name: Both were created in order to give light. To Thee it is becoming to utter song by day and by night. R. said : After slur [on them GREAT. LXXIV. 29). is sometimes seen by day upon the domain of the sun. Thine also the night (Ps. Phinehas in R. (i. . Tanhum and calling name a . 16). 2 years. and Thou 3. 17. by performest us for miracles When Thou by day. and we uttered song miracles perform to Thee by night Ye shall have a song as in the night when a feast is hallowed (Isa. where the Sabbath is called a sign. R. 16)! The reason is because it 8 into its penetrated neighbour's territory. 1-3] as divinities. xxxi. too. v. loc* cit.VI. AND LET THEM BE FOR SIGNS: this refers to the Sabbaths1 AND FOR SEASONS: to the three pilgrimage of the festivals.e. Just as the day is under Thy control. etc. as it 42 . AND GOD MADE THE TWO GREAT LIGHTS written.

e. even so. Arise. which ! : is small just as the moon rules by day and by night. Levi said in the name of R.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [VI. one two ruling in the city and governors. And one he-goat for a sin-offering for the Lord (Num. I decree whenever he goes out. xxix. 16). Nahrnan made another observation. which is small. 3-4 In respect of all other sacrifices it is written. Jose b. the light of Jacob cannot be distinguished. but when the light of the greater one sets. king who had the other in a province. Said R. and His glory . Rome. Esau counts by the sun. 5. AND THE STARS that has humbled himself to rule in the city only. Esau 3 counts [time] by the sun. Nahman said As long as the light of the greater luminary functions. ii. 22. the light of the smaller one is not noticeable. 15): The Holy One. which is large. thus: R. distinguished. and gross darkness the peoples. and the small by the small. For. passim. but when the light of Esau sets. the city 1 * Num. so does Esau enjoy this world. 43 . And one hegoat for a sin-offering* whereas in respect of New Moon it is written. cf.' 2 Then if that [sc. think how much more one is deserving of this who enters without permission R. as long as the light of Esau prevails. Aha said: Imagine a (i. xxvin. the moon] which entered with permission was thus disparaged by Holy Writ. Therefore I need a sin-offering. said: 'It was I who caused it to enter its neighbour's domain. Nahman: That is a happy augury. R. which is large just as the sun rules by day but not by night. shine. but upon thee the Lord will arise. but has nought in the World to Come. and whenever he enters. xxvin. that of Jacob shall be : : . . R. the light of the smaller one becomes noticeable. Jacob counts by the moon. Lai: It is but natural that the great should count by the great. Said the king: 'Since the former 4. as it is written. so has Jacob a portion in this world and in the World to Come. i f). LX. the city council and the people shall go out with him. 6o&. behold. darkness shall cover the earth. and Jacob by the moon. shall be seen upon thee (Isa. IJul. blessed be He. 3 I.

x. 'Azariah said in the name of R. it says. . 4). gave unto Moses GAVE (E. Judah b. thirteen children. cvi. Aha said: Why was he called Joktan? Because he humbled himself. Similarly. who each produced a family Joktan was Peleg's younger brother. R. 2 He was Now if this is privileged to beget thirteen so with the younger. R.V. And I (Ezek. who was the younger R. the luminaries. 'SET') 18). AND GOD SET THEM IN THE FIRMAMENT OF THE R. HEAVEN AND GOD will give you rains (Lev. etc* Our Rabbis say: Compassion too: He gave say.. What did he earn thereby? He attained the birthright. 46)* R. and laid it upon Ephraim's head. 'he shall be small' (Gen. I decree that when she forth. R. THEM. . the Torah. 6). Zakah denotes He had (ib. 25). Jonathan said: Three things were (i. xxxi. the was the younger But younger (za'ir) means that he reduced (meza'ir) himself. 14). And Israel stretched out his right hand. And his brother's name was Joktan lit. vengeance too. blessed be He. say humbled itself to rule by night. . to the as a world. 4~SJ MIDRASH KABBAH : council and the people shall enter with him/ Thus did 'Since the moon the Holy One. Isaac b. viz. 17). [is he rewarded]. 14). XLVIII. T^unia: (ib.VI. how much the more so. if a great man the how much more 5. as My vengeance upon Edom. What comes did he earn thereby P 1 families. Marion said: 8 8 *to attain a privilege through merit'. 44). Rain? Then I R. cv. Tanhuma said Eretz Israel too And He gave them the lands etc. as it says. the stars shall come forth with her. xxv. too. will give Some them 1 also to be pitied (Ps. 36). 3 then when a great man is content with a humble position. Nehemiah said Salvation too Thou hast also given me the shield of Thy salvation (n Sam. the stars shall go in with her/ Similarly we read. The luminaries? . 26-9). And I will give peace (ib. R. gift given and rain. Then contents himself with a humble position. and when she goes in [disappears]. xxir. Whence do we know it of the Torah? And He the two tables of testimony (Ex. Joshua b. XXVI. : : : : of the nations (Ps. R. Said birth records that he Do we ! not know from. Simon: Peace.

the earth to the 'raki'a' v. 6) thus where are all their hosts set? In the second 'raki'a'. as rain naturally increases the dangers of sea The Feast of Lights. R. 2 I. Abba. 3 I can pray for your safety. Thou art the Lord.e. the brother of R. R. as it AND GOD SET THEM IN THE RAKl'A OF THE HEAVEN. v. and the men of the Great Assembly 6 further explained. from about the middle of October end of December. ' : ! 6. as the sea is dangerous then. Where are the spheres of the sun 5 and the moon says. IJiyya of Kefar Hagin was in Asia Minor 4 and wished to make a sea journey. Cohen. believed that there were seven heavens. R. set? In the second heaven (raki'a). vi. the heaven of heavens. do not rely upon my prayers/ R. ix.GENESIS (BERESHITH) The [VI. And a path in the 1 mighty waters from the Festival until Hanukkah. 5-6 crossing of the Great Sea too: Thus saith the Lord. XLIII. Hiyya b. even Thou alone. when the seas show their 'might'. 'Why should we pray for you/ replied he: 'where you bind up your palm branch. but my prayers are submerged by those of the whole congregation. 7 From . Thou hast made the heaven. Shab. bind your foot. 8 An institution consisting of 80 or 120 men (the sources vary) said to have been founded by Ezra. 2 If you enter the synagogue and hear [the congregation] praying for 3 rain. Tabernacles]. 16) from Pentecost until the Festival [sc. and that [fate] did befall him. Abbahu's name This verse is explicit. Joshua b. 45 . was setting out on a sea voyage. 6 * Or The Rabbis perhaps. do not travel after Tabernacles. : which 1 is above the heaven. the name of the second being ra&'a (firmament). [thus fulfilling the verse] And moreover he have no burial' (Eccl.e. heaven itself meaning the first one. Essa. Said a [Roman] matron to him: 'I am astonished that one should set out at this time of the year/ His father appeared to him in a dream [and admonished him] My son [would you die] without burial. 22b i. That one is able to travel at all then by sea is a gift of God. tlag. being stormswept. with all their host (Neh. who giveth a way in the sea (Isa. 3)? But he paid no heed to the words of either. : Phinehas said in R. 7 This is the meaning attached to The heaven of heavens. 126. Tanhum b. east of the lake of Tiberias. 'Pray for me/ he asked his brother. to the travel.

for it is said. for had He set them in the first 'raki'a'. 7). years' 'rate' a' is is a five hundred years' a' next the to 'raft' first 'ra&'a' how high it is! Again. cf. tempers its strength in the future But world. a tent [protective covering] for 4 the Holy of water stands before it. Our behold. bodies of the wicked themselves and burn them up. And The sun globe of the (Ps.e. Lakish ablaze in. What is the proof? Ye conceive chaff.J. u). xix. 19). R. edd.' nothing hid from His hath He set them In the is What proof? sun has a sheath. for it is written. supra .). iv. the world of the wicked. 6): in the future the heavens will the declare righteousness [kindness] which the Lord did for His world in not setting them in the first 'raki'a'. lest it go forth and burn up the burn it up. 5. 1 3 8 2 The sun being directly overhead. 946.: and burn the wicked with it. the sun (Mah. I. Simeon (Mai. 46 . 5 and sheath its the Lord will bare it from What is the proof? And the day that cometh shall set them b. supra. on account of the burning heat of the day. ye shall bring forth stubble. Sc. What is the proof? For.. the rain. xxxm. no creature could righteousness (Ps. 2 .V. One. 7. 'from the heat thereof. your breath is a fire that shall devour you (ib. R.. R.). it was taught: journey: see then of the cycle of Tammuz [i. and when it goes forth.e. There is no other Gehenna [in the future] save a day which will burn up the wicked. thickness of the a five hundred years' journey. E. and the 1 and from the hundred five a journey. R. the sun]. There will be neither xxxi. Whose fire is in Zion. 5. R. 'E. and the soul when . 4 Cf. blessed be He. the day [i. Judah b. 9). viz. and a lake sun the 5) (ib. a furnace (ib. iv. 6-7] is MIDRASH KABBAH there is no creature has a shadow. have endured.VI. a day cometh. Pes. R. Cur. Levi said: The voice of three things travels from one end of the world to the othei yet no creature hears it. Jannai and R. and his furnace in Jerusalem (Isa. summer] On the first day in the water. Bun quoted: The heavens declare His said: : 6 L.e. it burneth as Rabbis maintain There will be a Gehenna. Ila'i said: come forth from the shall a fire but a nor a day Gehenna. Joshua b.

yet you sit here and do not know!' 8. AND TO RULE OVER THE DAY AND THE NIGHT ' 18). 7 8 With an effort (Th. Yohai said: We do not know whether they fly through the air. when something [ludicrous] happened and they began to laugh.). Said [R. R. it breaks down 5 oaks. 7 8 glide in the heaven. Simeon b. And whence do we know it of the soul ? From the story of R. this being a common form of speech. Cf. when the whole world is hot while the wells are cold.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [VI. In Upper Galilee. The Rabbis maintained: Behind the vault and below it. By 'that man' he meant himself. The vault "or arch of heaven. R. conceived as solid. Levi: It is written. when the whole world is cold and the wells are tepid. La'i that it is behind the vault and above it is preferable in respect of summer. or travel in their usual manner. the brother of R. 1 z it does so. XLII. Phinehas] to them: 'How unhappy is the soul of that man's brother! 4 it breaks down cedars. The the luminaries.). R. Judah b. 9. Phinehas b. La'i and the Rabbis disagree. 3 Now his colleagues were sitting with him [R. Yoma 206. and makes a sound as * 4 47 . being rather like a saw which saws through wood. R. Samuel. La'i: You may think that it glides in heaven. How do the orbs of the sun and the moon set? R. Judah said: Behind the vault 6 and above it.V. 2 Whence do we know it of the rain? Said R. He [R. 7-9 1 it departs [from the body]. and the opinion of the Rabbis that it is behind the vault and below appears correct in respect of winter. Without a sphere (Th. R. Phinehas]. and no person can fathom it. R. llama. Jonathan said: The view of R. It is an exceedingly difficult matter. Samuel] was a poor man and died in Sepphoris. Whence do we know it of the day? Said R. It must force its way through heaven. Deep calleth unto deep at the voice of Thy cataracts (Ps. Judah b. 8 The cry of the departing soul is so strong that it overthrows strong 6 trees. Judah b. Ililpa said: If that is [written] in respect of (i. 9. R. but it is not so. Ex. R. 8). it has surely already been stated.

R. I. . Irjilpa referred What Is not this written in the book of Jashar? 1 is this allusion to the book of Jashar? it to this: AND DAY AND THE NIGHT. XLVIII. And the sun stood still. which rule from one end of the world to the other. Samuel referred it to the end of the Isaac referred his Book. Thereupon he took it and showed it to the orb of the sun which he apostrophised thus : Even ' 1 There are two views as to what is meant by the term: R. Hanin (in the first version) hold that it is the Book of Genesis. revealed Himself to him. 'A. TO RULE OVER THE Hanin in the name of R. 13). Hilpa and R. Howbeit Deuteronomy] : His firstling bullock. 'Be strong. R. and his seed shall become the fulness of nations (Gen. Is that actually possible? Hence it refers Joshua who would spring from him [Joseph]. to enforce obedience. it to the latter portion of the younger brother [Ephraim] shall be greater than he [Manasseh]. as it is written. is and (Deut. and the moon stayed . while R. . JJanin in the name of R.Z. and stay the sun and the moon. even the ends of the earth [i. 48 . 19).e. (Josh. JHanin (in the second version) holds that it means Deuteronomy. * v. which rule from one end of the world to the other.' etc. Joshua. Now is that actually possible? Hence this must refer to Joshua who would spring from him and stay the sun and the moon.VI. created to give light by day and what was created to give light by night. Yohai said: The Book of Deuteronomy was an ensign for Joshua. This book of the law shall not depart out of thy mouth' (Josh. 17). who stayed the sun which 'rules' (i. serves) the fulness of nations the whole world. could not possibly become the fulness of nations (lit. 2 R. Samuel b. z$a. with them he shall gore the peoples all of them. taught by AND TO RULE OVER THE DAY AND THE NIGHT? who have power over what was It refers to the righteous. be of good courage. 9] MIDRASH KABBAH Then what is greater luminary to rule by day. Torah his . and therefore the verse is interpreted as alluding to Joshua. majesty his horns are the horns of the wild ox. x. blessed be He. He found him sitting with the Book of Deuteronomy in his hand. translation).e. 3 When the to Holy One. 8 The descendants of one man He used it as a commander uses his ensign. R. Simeon b. Joshua. 8). viz. XXXHI. Said He to him.

GENESIS (BERESHITH) as I ' [VI. behold. translation. his descendant. Moreover. xiv. 9) Straightway. as it says. R. and making who refer to Abraham) heaven and earth (Gen. explains it by reference to Cannot a young man command his aged And did not Abraham acquire you (Abraham was of difficult. 19). ' ' ! ' I 1 This passage ' is ' extremely said to Tanhuma: Joshua slave. Isaac said: [He exclaimed to it]. 'Thou evil servant.M. "And the sun stood still. did not my ancestor see thee thus in a dream: And. so do thou stand still before me Straightway. 9 have not stood still from [studying] this. who possesses (lit.' etc. And the sun stood still. 49 . it: course 'young' in comparison with the sun). etc. Blessed be Abraham of God most High. the sun and the moon and eleven stars bowed down to me (Gen. you ratified this purchase by bowing down to Joseph. 1 xxxvn. Be silent ! Y. wert thou not indeed the chattel of my ancestor.

1-2] CHAPTER VII (BERESHITH) AND GOD SAID: LET THE WATERS SWARM WITH SWARMS OF LIVING CREATURES (l. Before they are fit for food. There is none like unto Thee among the gods. Tyre : It is permitted ' to circumcise the infant son of a Gentile Sabbath. and there are no works like Thine (Ps. AND LET FOWL must be ritually 'You have not ruled well/ said he to him. Haggai heard thereof he ordered. LXXXVI. 18). flagellated/ ' 'Because it is written. blessed be He. 2O).' exclaimed 'for thine exposition is good. LET THE WATERS SWARM WITH SWARMS OF LIVING CREATURES. Nimrin. 3 'Come and be man How 'What!' exclaimed he. xi. "shall be slain" is not written here but "be gathered together". 'Lie down [to be lashed] and I will prove it to you/ Said he to him: 'It is written. near Tiberias (Jast. will they suffice 4 them? (Num. Haggai heard this woman 5 on the he said to him. It IS written. draws figures in water. will they suffice them? or if all etc. 'when he is to be flagellated!' a ruling Scriptural gives do you know that this is Scriptural ? inquired he.' 'Lay on me. 'And whence can you prove this to me?' he asked.' Jacob of Kefar Nibburaya ruled in he. 8). the fish of the sea be gathered together for them. etc. In human a figure on dry land. be punished 'Because it he who states a Scriptural ruling exclaimed he. If flocks and herds be slain for them. Born from a Jew.). i. so must fish be ritually killed. 'And how is this Scriptural ? And 1 3 a Prob. is . 22). When ' ! R. they declared their pedigrees their their after families by fathers' houses' (Num.VII. I. but practice a mortal king draws the Holy One. 4 & For this ruling. O Lord. AND GOD SAID: LET THE WATERS SWARM. as it is said. . 1 Jacob of Kefar Nibburaya gave a ruling in 2 Tyre that fish must be ritually slaughtered. LET THE WATERS SWARM. Jacob of Kefar Nibburaya. 2.' FLY./ replied he: 'just as a bird killed. a ' When R. Come ' and be flagellated.' 'Shall written.

placed denizens in the space between. for In a mortal builds a and tenants ordinary practice king palace the upper and the lower stories. is Huna said in the name of R. The sinews of his thighs are knit together (Job XL. the leopard. : pave thy paving. 4. . AND GOD CREATED THE GREAT SEA-MONSTERS TANINIM (i. ' ' . Now therefore let us make a covenant with our God to put away all the wives. blessed AND LET FOWL FLY ABOVE THE EARTH. singular. Jeremiah said: (R. 4 let it be done according well taught/ to the Said he: it is 'Hammer away thy hammering 3.). ' AND LET FOWL FLY ABOVE THE EARTH. referring to Behemoth and Leviathan.) Kahana asked R.e.e. R. strike me]. quoted 5 And he. lie down (spoken by R. as it is said. 686. [i. 1 'You have not ruled well/ said he 'And whence can you prove this to me?' 'Lie down and I will prove it to you/ he retorted. There may be a reference here to Deut. Coloured (animal) . and was therefore like any other Jewish child. i. Mattenah The Zabua 9 contains three hundred 1 Thus he argued that the child follows his father. be He. I. as the days of the sun.e. Bran. R. 4 6 6 7 The Prophets and Or (Rashi) i. Phinehas said in R. but can he tenant the space between? Surely not! But the Holy One. : R. to 2-4 him. Idi's name: Taninam* is written. for it is said.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [VII. 8 9 Perhaps he translates are torn out he lacks the organs of generation. Resh Lakish said: Behemoth has a mate. who is circumcised on the Sabbath if it is the eighth day from birth. 8 Thus the children of a mixed marriages follow their mothers. fathers. he answered. ($. For he will turn away thy son from fallotting Me. 17). this law is affirmed to be Pentateuchal. q.e.v. as interpreted in Kid. or perhaps the striped hyaena. formed from a white drop it and sixty-five different colours. 3). not their the Hagiographa are thus termed. 21). and such as are born of them' (Ezra x. 'It is written. but it has no desire. vn. 4. Simeon b. Haggai). 2 'And will you actually punish me on the strength of tradi' tion 3 ! Torah' he protested. 7 which have no mates. Legendary sea-animals reserved for the righteous in the Messianic : future.

25. Showed him deficient in knowledge. Hoshaya the Elder said: This means the serpent. 'after their kind'] to the prohibition of driving: he brings two fish. not of Lev. 8 . . too. AND EVERY LIVING CREATURE THAT CREEPETH AND EVERY WINGED FOWL: This is the peacock. created. 25). AFTER THEIR KIND is written/ he answered. AFTER THEIR KIND is written/ 4 With this Kahana spread is it his net over the son of Lakish. Whereas 1. cattle. 24). but in speaking of bodies only three! 9 Rabbi said: This [extra soul] refers to the demons whose soul the Holy One.e.VII. too. two different kinds of fish together. Does that come under the prohibition own kind only: hence he has transgressed. 10 Hence they remained souls (spirits) without bodies. being a multicoloured i. R. etc. 4 Though it is impossible to make fish copulate. (i. . : .) Kahana.)? Each must breed with its fish. pull. and the cattle (' bodies ') states . says : bird.v. however. and beast of the earth are enumerated four in all. but when He came to create their bodies the sanctity of the Sabbath commenced and He could not create them. and everything that creepeth only three being enumerated. R. 10 This gives 1 2 3 Mammals are meant. 9 24. all I. Kil. and creeping thing. Hence 'after their kind' cannot bear this meaning at all. . 7 5. Hoshaya said: In speaking of souls it enumerates four. Infra. for we learned: Now how You may not plough with. xix. contains the hues of every winged 8 birds. Leazar said: LIVING CREATURE means the soul of Adam. i. 8 AND GOD MADE THE BEAST OF THE EARTH (i. 19 (q. 4"~5] if MIDRASH KABBAH one crosses different sea species?' 1 'In 2 their case. With this the son of Lakish spread his net over 3 refuted him: 'Yet in the (R. blessed be He. R. 2. Judah: I can apply it [sc. tlama b. one white and the other black. 8 Sc. 7 Which. vm. Kahana. owing to their inaccessibility. 5 According to Resh Lakish. cattle. . fowl. creeping thing. or drive them. . 52 . referring to the actual animals And God made the beast of the earth . AND GOD SAID: LET THE EARTH BRING FORTH THE LIVING CREATURE. and the beast of the earth: thus living creature (hayyah). Lakish: 'What case of fish. R. Let the earth bring forth the soul (sic) of a living creature after its kind. ties them with a reed rope and pulls them. 5 to be explained? Said R. vm.

we say to him. a phrase which is now liturgical. that if a man is holding in his hand a costly article or a precious stone on the eve of the Sabbath about sunset. 5 from Scripture.GENESIS (BERESHITH) you a lesson in behaviour [VII.. etc. viz. 'Throw it away/ for He at whose behest the world came into existence1 was engaged in the creation of the world and had [already] created their souls. .. 'who ordained and the world'. but when He came to create their bodies the holiness of the Sabbath commenced and He did not create them. 1 Lit.

cxxxix. Banayah and R. 4 This certainly implies that woman was a separate creation. R. which is obviously the opposite. 5). hence ahor. then He split him and made him of : this side and one back on the other side. Leazar said: When the Holy One. 5 Now %edem can mean east. 'hemmed me in. R. cxxxix. 16). Said R. R. (Ex. Leazar's name said: He created him the whole world. 54 . To this it is objected: But it is written. a figure: 'Thou hast made me into a figure/ 2 Normally androgynos means one whose genitals are male and female but here it means two bodies. 24 q. filling Simon in R. . thus it is written. Thine eyes did see mine unformed substance (Ps. R. 2). (tb. Male and female created He them and called their name Adam (Gen. as in Gen. from Because he stretched] 'Thou hast formed [that 6 me behind (ahor) and it before (kedem)/ From north to south? Because man 1 says. And He took one of his ribs. etc. he enjoys both worlds. Samuel b. as it is said. i] CHAPTER VIII (BERESHITH) i. Joshua b. m. And laid Thy hand upon rue [of If a b. n. 26). xxvi. Leazar said : He created him as a lifeless mass extending from one end of the world to the other. 8 Thus Adam himself was originally male and female. v. (i.VIII. joined together. male and female.V. (Ps.v. Since the day that God created upon the earth. etc. Johanan: is worthy enough. created Adam. Tanhuma in the name of R. for it is said. for it hast formed me for a later [world] and an earlier Thou says. if not.). And for two backs. one back on > the second side (zela') of the tabernacle. as you read.' Here xartani is derived from surah. AND GOD man * SAID: LET us MAKE MAN. Nahman said When the Lord created Adam He created him double-faced. etc. Johanan commenced [his discourse]: Thou hast formed me1 behind and before. 21) ? 4 [Mi-zalothaw means] one of his sides replied he. . 3 R. and from the one end of heaven unto E. Nehemiah and R. Jeremiah blessed be He. Judah b. 20). he will have to render a full account But [world]/ his misdeeds]. Berekiah in the name of R. R. etc. He created him an herma2 phrodite [bi-sexual]. means west. east to west? How do we know it is said. R. (Gen.

R. R. That is consistent with the view of R. brackets this quotation. the from made Praise ye the Lord as it is written. as it is followed by.. Hallelujah. And the spirit of the Lord shall rest upon him (Isa. and this was the earliest work of that etc. Or. and fowl. as in Ber. xi.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [VIII. Hama b. i-n). The proof lies in the first verse alone. 2. R. beasts. That is R.hich was made on the sixth day. the spirit of God hovered (ib. Withdraw Thy hand from me (Job xin. 1-2 the other (Deut. From the ground to the sky. Leazar interpreted it: He was the latest (ahor) in the work of the last day. His body was the latest. since 1 a man was placed upon earth (Job xx. Adam being pictured as lying upon the ground while God lays His hand. And God made the beast of the earth. Simeon b. the first to receive an injunction whose violation was punished. Praise ye the all that. for he said : And to the soul of Adam. Simlai said Just as his praise comes beasts. Lakish maintained: He was the latest in the work of : the last day and the earliest in the work of the first day. Simeon b. First we have 'And God said: Let the waters swarm'. R. and after them all. 32). 6i<2. 2) refers as you read. 'And laid Thy hand upon me' (as you read. 2 R. This is followed by. come after that of cattle. 4 The verse refers to the sixth day. I. after that of cattle. and fowls. the passage continuing until. but he received his soul before anything else 55 . 5 Either. Tanhum said: His praise [of God]. Lakish. Another explanation is that kappeka (E. : Lord from the earth. I. day. And how do we know that he filled the empty spaces of the world P 1 From the verse. the first who was destroyed in the Flood (before the beasts). and only after Kings of the earth and all peoples R. 2). of old time. iv. LETUSMAKEMAN. the arch of heaven. etc. CXLVIII. Hanina commenced: Knowest thou this 4). which is in heaven. upon him. Th. 2i)). Nahman said: Last in creation and first in punishment. and the earliest 3 (kedem) in the work of the last day. so does his creation (Ps.V. for he said Let the earth bring forth a soul of a living creature (Gen. Thy hand'} * is 8 now derived from kippah. Samuel b. 4 R. 5 R. too. 24) refers to the soul of Adam. as its relevance is doubtful and it is absent in some versions. Leazar's view. comes only at last. w. the heavens. He hath a decree which shall not be transgressed.

Then I [sc. who used to ask each other. R. the fourth of the third. the third of the second. 4).VIII. Samuel b. That is the meaning of Knowest thou of old time? The Torah knows what was before the creation of the world. R. but of whom was the first day supplier to ask ? Surely of the citizens who were engaged in the public affairs of the country! Thus the works of each day asked one another. Efama b. study what was permitted thee thou hast no business with hidden things. etc. 2-3] MIDRASH KABBAH Said R. the fourth of the third. what is too hard for thee investigate not. 30) . With did He take counsel? 1 R. Nahman said: He took counsel with the works of each day. For a thousand years in Thy sight are but as yesterday when it is past (Ps. US MAKE . 1 8 whom This question arises because of the phrase LET The Hebrew implies knowledge and consent. the fifth of the fourth. and I was His delight day after day (Prov. but you have no business to inquire about aught save 'Since man was placed upon earth R. blessed be He. 'What was the market price to-day ? Thus those who supplied on the sixth day would ' ask of those who supplied on the fifth day. now the day of the Lord is a thousand years. Of what was the first to ask? Surely of the Torah. about what is too wonderful for thee know not. as it is said. create among you to-day ? The sixth asked ' ' fifth. J^anina: This may be compared to a country which received its supplies from ass-drivers. 56 . Leazar said in Bar Sira's name: About what is too great for thee inquire not. as it is written. Levi said: He took counsel with the works of heaven and earth. Which creatures did the Holy One. vm. of what is hidden from thee ask not. the third of the second. like a king who had an associate without whose knowledge he did nothing. the fifth of the fourth. ' ' this 9 . as a nursling. which of the preceded the creation of the world by two thousand years. xc. and the second of the first. the second of the first. Joshua b. the Torah] was by Him. like a king who had two advisers without whose knowledge 2 he did nothing whatsoever. : 3. AND GOD SAID: LET us MAKE MAN.

And it grieved Him at His heart (Gen. This is often hypostatised. but He did not reveal to them that the wicked would spring from him. Jlanina did not say thus. vi. for had He revealed to them that the wicked would spring from him. shall his character be?' asked they. 'But the way of the righteous way of the wicked shall perish': He destroyed [hid] it from them. He revealed to them that the righteous would arise from him. but when he saw it it did not please him: with whom is he to be indignant? surely with the architect! Similarly. For the Lord regardeth the way of the righteous. saying to them. It may be compared to a king who had a palace built by an architect.V. blessed be He. the quality of Justice would not have permitted 1 him to be created. Ammi said: He took counsel with His own heart. 57 . I. R.' is 4. * He deliberately disregarded it. if I do not create him. as it is written. Berekiah said: When the Holy One. "And it grieved Him at His heart. 3-4 R. but the way of the wicked tobed E. 'For the Lordknoweth (yodea') the way of the righteous.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [VIII. wicked men will spring from him. Said He: 'If I create him. Jassi said: This may be compared to a king who did some business through an agent and whom suffered loss: with he to be indignant? Surely with the agent! Similarly. came to create Adam. but [he said that] when He to create Adam He took counsel with the ministering us 'What angels.' which means that the XET MAKE MAN/ Lord made known (hodia') the to the ministering angels. He saw righteous and wicked arising from him. how are the righteous to spring from him?' What then did the Lord 1 do ? He removed the way of the wicked out of His sight and associated the quality of mercy2 with Himself and created him. 6): what does 'toled* mean? He destroyed it (ibbedah) from before His sight and associated the quality of mercy with Himself and created him. came R. 'shall perish" (Ps. 6). R. as it is written. 'Righteous men shall spring from him/ He answered.

the Holy One. Simon: . and only then did He create him. 'Let him be created. Love and Truth fought together. and. IJanina. 'Let him not be created. Huna the Elder of Sepphoris. 1 Love said. blessed be He. 3 In the Hebrew the letters are the same. blessed be He. R. and behold Adam : 6. righteous deeds because he is full of strife/ What did the Lord do? He took Truth and cast it to the ground. because he will perform Peace said.VIII. 1 . Said He to them: 'What can ye avail? Man has already been made! 14 had made. R. 'Mercy and truth are met together.V. 'Let him not be created/ Thus it is written. Righteousness and Peace combated each other (Ps. 'Let him be created/ whilst others urged. 58 . Let truth the earth up spring from (ib. Me'od (E. ministering angels formed themselves into groups and parties. Truth is the seal of God. Phinehas and R. And God 'very') is identical with saw everything that He it was good me'od (Gen. that Thou art mindful of him. because he LXXXV. 12). -IKD. 'Let him not be created. while R. ! earth!' Hence it is written. blessed be He. some of them saying. i. Truth said. Aibu's name: He created him with due deliberation: He first created his food ments. though differently E. righteousness and peace have The Midrash interprets met in the sense of fought. All our Rabbis say the following in the name of R. arms. the : . Hilkiah say it in the arise Truth from the name of R. 5~6] 5. 31).V. rendering: have taken kissed each other: * D-IK. created him. and derives nashaku (kissed) from neshefc. On ox na aseh (we this interpretation ne'esah (is made) is arranged: read instead will make). Adam3 as it is written. n) will dispense acts of love'. Huna said in R. Said the ministering angels before the Holy One. behold. 'Let him be created. said While the ministering angels were arguing with each other and disputing with each other. because he is compounded of falsehood' Righteousness said. Simon When the Holy One. 'Sovereign of the Universe Why dost Thou despise Thy seal ? 2 Let to came create Adam.e. X require- 2 arms against each other. MIDRASH KABBAH said: R. I. and the son of man. was good. Said the ministering angels to the Lord: 'Sovereign of the Universe! What is man.

he said: 'Sovereign of the Universe! Why dost Thou furnish an excuse to heretics?' 1 'Write. and those.' replied He. This trouble. ' ' : sat the souls of the righteous with whom He took counsel before creating the world. supreme King Holy One. These were the makers': they are so termed on account of the verse. kings. 'Sheep and oxen. Do what pleaseth Thee!' . for what has it been created?' 'If so/ said He to them. n. Joshua of Siknin said in R. 10). 'potters']. 8. ' ! 7.. 5). " Why should I ask permission from 1 my inferior!" Then they will answer him. 9) created ? A tower full of good things and no guests what pleasure has its owner in having filled it?' Said they to Him: Sovereign of the Universe O Lord. ( .GENESIS (BERESHITH) [VIII. 'And hedges' corresponds to I have placed the sand for the bound of the sea (Jer. These were the makers [E. Nahman said in R. vni. Jonathan's name: engaged in writing the Torah. all of them (ib. 8). 7) And those that dwelt among plantations corresponds to And the Lord God planted a garden eastward (ib. Then the Lord ' formed [made] man. R. AND GOD SAID: LET us MAKE MAN. "Learn For maintaining a plurality of gods. he may say. as it is written. Levi's name He took counsel with the souls of the righteous. etc. 22) There they dwelt with the king in his work with the of the blessed be He. ' . R. our Lord. When he came to the verse. (Gen. etc. there they dwelt with the king in his work (i Chron. that dwelt : among plantations and hedges . 'this man do I not cause men both great and small to spring from him? Now if a great man comes to to err When Moses was may that I have created is less obtain permission [for a proposed action] from one that than he. Samuel b. 23). 8). 59 . he had to write the work of each day.V. 6-8 that Thou thinkest of him? (Ps. v. 'whoever wishes err/ 'Moses/ said the Lord to him. iv. why were they created why were The fowl of the air and the fish of the sea (ib. how glorious is Thy name in all the earth (ib.

ad fin. but how will you answer us?' Said he to them: 'In the past Adam was created from dust and Eve was created from Adam but henceforth it shall be In our image. For ask now of the first days (Deut. 'but Bara Elohim the heaven and the earth.VIII. 5 passage.' declared the king. Thus he answered that the verb is in the singular. iv. . Hila1 said: There is no taking counsel here. and his seed shall henceforth be in our image. and neither : . but bara is singular. Who can hinder him? 9. Elohim is plural inform. as it is written.. who created all that is above and below.' R. so that the plural form of Elohim is merely the plural of majesty. after our likeness (ib. but MAKE MAN?' 'Read what ' follows. supra. Not. 27). 32). 60 . Similarly in the whole 3 He interprets the verse: man has already been made (cf.' replied "And gods created (wa-yibre'u) man" is written "And God created wa-yibra" (Gen. He took counsel with yet when He came to create man the ministering angels/" R. 2 Then is written here. here. I. bare'u being plural. 26) neither man without woman nor woman without man. Said he.). When ' Them you have they went out his disciples said to him dismissed with a mere makeshift. others answered: 'private baths/ then 'I will make a statue of it. Simlai: 'How many deities created the world?' 'I and you must inquire of the first day/ replied he. as explained in the 2 text. Simlai said: Wherever you find a point [apparently] supporting the heretics. In the asked him second 'Why they created?' 'In the Elohim beginning [plural] beginning baru Elohim is not written here. of 1 them without the Divine Spirit/ 3 So Theodor. 8-9] MIDRASH KABBAH from thy Creator. but it be compared to a king who was strolling at the door may of his palace 'What shall when he saw a clod lying about.). Since the day gods created (baru) ' bara (ib. man' AND GOD SAID: LET us he: 'not. you find the refutation at its side. we do with it?' Some answered: '[Use it in 1 building] public baths . They asked him again: 'What is meant by. but God created time: is a it written.' answered he. The heretics asked R. etc.

Joshua b. like an animal. blessed be He.GENESIS (BERESHITH) 10. R. like the ministering angels and he sees. did the Holy One. thus it is written.e. [The four attributes of] the higher are he stands beings upright. THEM for MALE AND FEMALE (NEKEBAH) CREATED HE (i. is probably meant here. 5 He is mentioned only here and infra xiv. 4 He has four attributes of the lower : . n. This change is to explain the plural 'them' (v. procreates. without turning his head. beings: he eats and drinks. do? He caused sleep to 11. Tifdai 5 said in R. Hoshaya : Adam. angels] and four attributes of the lower 3 beings [i. What does this resemble? king and a governor who sat in a chariot. in whose nostrils is a breath. A was. This 1 : is created King Ptolemy He them/ 2 one of the things which they altered 'Male with his apertures (nekubaw) Hanina R. Cease ye from man. when the Lord created Adam. for how little is he to be accounted (Isa. R. blessed fall upon him. 3 which an animal cannot do 1 King Ptolemy said to have 2 t ' . and dies. or (since he was created in God's image). at whose command the Septuagint is been produced. Similarly. . [VIII. and so they knew who was the king. and his subjects wished to say to the king. . supra i). Nehemiah said in the name of R. R. and the Rabbis in the name of R. like the ministering angels.e. Leazar said: He created him with four attributes of the higher beings [i. 8 Lit. like an animal. 61 . he understands. Aha's name: The celestial II Philadelphia. to avoid the implication that God is male and female. like the ministering angels. the ministering angels mistook him [for a divine being] and wished to exclaim 'Holy' before him. He created in him four creations from above and four from below/ 4 He can direct his gaze at an object sideways. like an animal. like the ministering angels he speaks. 'Domine! (Sovereign)!' but they did not know which it What did the king do? He pushed the governor out of the chariot. like an animal. Isaac. excretes. beasts]. Yet does not a dumb animal see! But this one [man] can see from the side. and so all knew that he was [but mortal] man. 27). 22)! him What be He. . b. R. 10-11 created said When the Holy One. the angels mistook [for a divine being].

and of the terrestial elements. Hence the marriages of the fourth and the fifth are consummated on the fifth and the sixth respectively. 5 Why is that? Because a blessing is written in connection with these days. let others (the beasts) rule over him. 2a. Hanina said: If he merits it. Keth. is sixth.' he die. [I say] 'yerdu' (let descend). Jacob of Kefar Hanan said: Of him who is in our image and likeness [I say] uredu (and have dominion) but of him ' ' OF THE SEA . while if he does not sin.VIII. [after the nature] of terrestial beings/ R. blessed be He. 28). who them is not in our image and likeness 4 (i. Aha's name: The Holy One. Leazar said in the name of R. R. : AND GOD BLESSED THEM 28). 1 while the terrestial creatures [dumb animals] procreate but were not created in [His] image and likeness. 11-12] MIDRASH RABBAH beings were created in the image and likeness [of God] and do not procreate. blessed be He: 'Behold. Therefore I will create him of 2 if he sins he will the upper and of the lower elements will live. [God says. and the fifth is the eve of the b.e. ITP instead of vr\\ . Said the Holy One.] 3 merit. entitled to like qualities. celestial if I said: 'If I create him of the elements he will live [for ever] and not die. I. But surely a blessing is written only in connection with the fifth and the sixth days? Said Bar Kappara: The fourth day is the eve of the fifth. and a widow on the fifth day. while if he does not [God says. 4 Man is when he 62 . while he will procreate. 3 pre-eminence only as long as he cultivates his Godvoluntarily abandons them he is even lower 5 6 than the brute creation. ITTI is the word in v. His body of the earth and his soul of heaven. AND HAVE DOMINION (REDU) OVER THE FISH R. We learned else- where A virgin is married on the fourth day of the week. 26.] 'yerdu' (let them descend). create him : 12. I will create him [man] in [My] image and likeness. Jose We-kibshuhah [plural: and do ye subdue it] 1 Zimra: actually 2 Like God Himself. [so that he will partake] of the [character of the] celestial the beings. Tifdai said in R. (i. 'uredu* (have dominion). Or. he will die and not live [in a future life]. 6 R.

R. 8 This immediately follows the death of Deborah. recited the blessing for mourners) Isaac his son (Gen.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [VIII. that she go not out into the market place. AND GOD BLESSED . e. as it is written. blessed be He. the Since the order to subdue the earth is to man alone. when God 63 . took a cup of blessing 3 and blessed them. the command of first half of the verse (Be fruitful. visits the sick. Whence do we know . infra. xvm. 12-13 : written we-kibshah [singular: and do thou subdue it] man is commanded concerning procreation. 6 He buries the dead. 4 He blesses bridegrooms. 8 How did blessing of mourners. written. Judah b. on certain occasions. as xxxiv. 6) 7 R. : b. Isaac said in R. i) buried him in the valley. that God blessed (i. 8>. i). n.g. THEM.) is likewise to man alone. R. i When Abraham was indisposed through circumcision. as again. and He 1 bless him? With the him (Gen. Keth. He God built sick. . (Gen.e. adorns brides. it? From Dinah. Nahman said: He also visits And God appeared unto Jacob blessed mourners. at a marriage. etc. as it is written. Simon said: Michael and Gabriel were Adam's 'best men'. as it is adorns brides. but is found in TiKttn mua he comforts mourners. xxxv. . i). (Deut. etc. We blesses bridegrooms. And the Lord the rib into a woman (ib. xvin. xxv. And and it came to it is understood that Jacob was in mourning for her appeared to him. written. 2 We-kibshah' (and subdue her) is written: the man must master his wife. And the Lord appeared unto him. as it is written. R. 3 In normal usage a cup of wine over which a benediction is pronounced * V. z Hence both are subject to that command. it is written. AND GOD BLESSED THEM. R. Samuel . when he came from Paddan-aram. Simlai said: find that the Holy One. . as stated by R. Abbahu said: The Holy One. 8). 22) 5 He visits the . Rebekah's nurse (v. Johanan b. and recites the blessing for mourners. etc. but not woman. Berokah. as it is written. And He (ib. 13. 1 R. And Dinah R. xxxiv. . Hanina's name: The law is . : pass after the death of Abraham. blessed be He. went out. etc. for every woman who goes out into the market place will eventually come it is to grief. 6 5 V. 7 The proof that He recites the blessing for mourners is missing here. Johanan b. Berokah said: Concerning both man and woman ' it says. etc. g). buries the dead.

BEHOLD. it is the The glory of kings is to search out a matter are likened to which of the words the of Torah. so that he destroyed them. Abbahu said: Hence R.). 31). 'It is the glory name of R.T. Hanina commenced: the glory of of God to conceal a thing. AND. VIII. Hama b. R. but of ' God to conceal a thing'. 2). all the worlds B UT BEHOLD. R. beginning of the Book [of Genesis] up to this point. : Tanhuma commenced He its Holy One. only what had now been made ('behold' has that significance: see GOOD. is statement of R. those did not please Me.e. Beautiful in its time. 15). as it is said. the From Hanina: b. WAS VERY GOOD.IX. Levi kings is to search out a matter (Prov. AND GOD SAW EVERY THING THAT HE HAD IT MADE. eta 3 we learn that the . glory ' : kings. kings reign hence. man IT WAS VERY GOOD z He probably deduces this from the phrase. Phinehas said: please Me. and then He said: 'These 2 R. but from this point onward. 'to THING THAT HE HAD MADE. AND GOD SAW EVERY IT (ib. which intimates that He made other worlds when the time was not yet ripe. It is for this reason that Scripture writes at this point. blessed be He. to indicate here one may 'search out a matter'.e. and the world was not fit to be created earlier. i-v] CHAPTER IX (BERESHITH) i. Hama in the name of R. Levi in the It WAS VERY GOOD (l. i. Said R. from (Y. and these were not beautiful. n). hath made every thing time (Eccl. search out a matter' By me . Tanhuma: beautiful in The world was created when it was due. HI. xxv. BEHOLD. 8 Rendering: AND GOD SAW ALL THAT HE HAD MADE He had made i. heaven and earth]. is the glory Said R. went on and worlds destroying them until He created creating these [sc. Abbahu's The proof SAW EVERY THING WHICH HE HAD MADE. AND. 64 now!) WAS VERY . 1 2. : AND GOD 1 The meaning of the passage is that everything until the creation of man must be left in mystic obscurity and one must study the Torah only from the creation of that AND. BEHOLD.

3-4 AND GODSAWEVERY THING THAT HE HAD R. xxvm. O palace. Haggai quoted : in R. R. R. Johanan Simeon b. R. Isaac's the name: And thou. Johanan said: When a mortal king builds a palace. for the Lord searcheth all hearts. Jonathan explained it as follows. : before even my tongue gives expression to speech. O Lord. 4): lo.GENESIS (BERESHITH) 3. R. already knowest 4. BEHOLD. 17) since that moment [when Thou didst create the world] there is nothing too hard for Thee (ib. Lakish said: portions simultaneously. O palace. 9) even before a thought is born (nozerah) in a man's heart. and AND BEHOLD 2 The Holy One. 'mayest thou find favour in my eyes at all times just as thou hast found favour in my eyes at this moment Similarly. R. IJanina said: Compare this to a king ' who built a palace. EVER HE AND 3 . it altogether. Judah said on his own behalf: For there is not a word in my tongue. but the Holy One. AND. are all interlinked and have one purpose (Y. IT WAS VERY GOOD implies this world. AND GOD SAW 2 in a single look.T. MADE. cxxxix. it is already revealed to Thee. 3 : Resh Lakish said in Leazar's name: Ah Lord God! behold. Solomon my son. being interpreted as an extending particle. BEHOLD. He saw it and it pleased him. blessed ' ! 1 HAD MADE Y THING THAT Interpreting. and understandeth all the imaginations (yezer) of the thoughts (i Chron. R. Simeon b. Lakish each commented thereon. R. IJanina and R. [IX. and serve Him with a whole heart and with a willing mind. The idea underlying these two teachings is that heaven and earth. R. Ijtama b. xxxn. his thought is already revealed to Thee. casts but a single look at the upper and the lower 1 R. implies the next world blessed be He. R.). the Holy One. cast but one look at this world and at the future world [together]. IT WAS VERY GOOD.' ' Thou. Isaac's name: Before even a creature is created.' exclaimed he. this world and the next. Judan said in R. Lord. blessed be He. but y Thou knowest it altogether (Ps. Thou hast made the heaven and the earth (Jer.). know thou God of thy father . he can only take in the upper stories with one look and the lower stories with another. llama b.

14): it was thou who didst cause that youth of -ma. 64. read nia instead as a marginal comment. panelled. R. IT WAS VERY GOOD: and. Meir's name: AND. R.IX. Jonathan said the following. Thou wast in Eden the garden of God (Ezek. my daughter he cried ' ' ! to her. or This may mean that this 2 was inserted either that the MS. Simeon b. Eleazar as he sat and lectured say in R. Berekiah's daughter. O ' favour before favour before My Me at all Me at this My ! times just as thou hast found moment/ 5. Adam] to die/ R. JJama b. Jonathan said: Imagine a king who gave his daughter in marriage and arranged a bridal chamber and a home for her. O My world! mayest thou find favour in My eyes at all times before Me at this moment. to world mayest thou find His world. xxvm. R. death was good. Fie saw it and it pleased him. 66 . 3 R. and I heard R. blessed be He. Thus it is written. Hama b.' just as thou hast found favour R. Samuel b. v. 1 R. foresaw that Nebuchadnezzar and Hiram would declare themselves gods therefore was death : : . Hiyya. Berekiah's name Thou wast the cherub ' ! : : far-covering kerub 1 ({b.). (Sonc. ed. BEHOLD. blessed be He.Z. n. p. at all 'may this bridal chamber find favour before me times just as it has found favour before me at this moment/ Even so said the Holy One. it is a potent force for repentance. In the copy of R. which he plastered. IJanina and R. BEHOLD. in Galilee. Nahman said I was seated on my grandfather's shoulder going up from my own town to Kefar liana via Beth2 Shean. Meir's Torah [Pentateuch] was found written: AND. apostrophised His world: 'O My world. quoted in R. and painted. 4~S] MIDRASH KABBAH be He. behold. the son of R. IT WAS VERY (ME'OD) GOOD: and behold. decreed against him. Jrlanina said Adam deserved to be spared the experience of death. Why then was the penalty of death decreed against him? Because the Holy One. 7. R. 'A. 13): was then Hiram in Eden ? Surely not But He said thus to him It is thou who causedst him who was in Eden [sc. 9 Because Scythopolis. My daughter. death (maweth) was good. O world.

: in our fight against evil. Said R. Simeon b. in their land they shall possess double (Isa. Ye have wearied the Lord with your words (Mai.T. Lakish discussed this. that is the meaning of And there the weary are at rest (ib. therefore. 8 Y. 1 R. blessed be He. 17) . Jonathan to him: If should have decreed death for the wicked but not ! for the righteous But the reason a fraudulent repentance. behold. since the righteous had not deserved death yet accepted it on their account. 18). yet did accept the experience of death: Therefore and to . 5-6 He Adam) to die.GENESIS (BERESHITH) (robeh so. IT WAS VERY GOOD means. Johanan said: Why was death decreed against the wicked ? Because as long as the wicked live they anger the Lord. as it is written. xvn. [IX. Why was death decreed against the righteous? Because as long as the but righteous live they must fight against their evil desires. good deeds/ and as a result their performance of such would be with ulterior motives. Simeon b. n. 7) death. Is there any sleep which is very good! Did we not learn thus: Wine and sleep when enjoyed by the wicked are beneficial to them and beneficial to the world! 2 But [R. There the wicked cease : We Lakish said: [Death was decreed] in order to reward the righteous in double measure and to punish the wicked in double measure. and. there the wicked cease from enraging the Holy One. sc.) [they say] have : Him. who had not deserved to experience laboured sufficiently. R. sleep was good. punish the wicked. 1 M. saying : is lest ' the wicked perform Surely the righteous live only because they treasure up religious acts and good deeds so shall we too lay up a store of religious acts and . Simeon b.K. when they die they enjoy rest. R. 67 . And destroy them with double destruction (Jer. Eleazar said : AND. but when they die they cease to anger from raging (Job in.: we have laboured to attain a When asleep they do no harm. BEHOLD. which means. 6. To reward the righteous. 17). Johanan and R. LXI. as it is written. sufficient reward. R.

One may triumph over his human failings by turn3 ing even them to noble purposes. Desire which in the first place inspires this rivalry which leads to great efforts. may be compared to a king who had an orchard. WAS VERY GOOD. no man would build a house. R. behold there is Paradise. 23). IT WAS VERY GOOD refers to the dispensation of happiness. Suffering chastens and purifies. refers to Paradise. Is then the AND BEHOLD. 1 7. 4). WAS VERY GOOD WAS VERY GOOD. Say now. however. V. take a wife and beget children . and thus said Solomon Again. instruction '] are the way of life (Prov. Huna BEHOLD. Gehenna very good ? How remarkIT able! This. it is a man's rivalry with said: his neighbour (Eccl. Samuel's name: IT WAS VERY GOOD ! refers to the Good Desire BEHOLD. BEHOLD. that 8. 1 2 Such sleep is very good. while for him who does not lay up religious acts and good deeds. Nahman IT said in R. BEHOLD. IV. Ze'ira said: BEHOLD. VERY GOOD. AND . behold there is Gehenna. It is the Evil 68 . Can then the Evil Desire be very good? That would be extraordinary But for the Evil Desire. ' to the life of the future world ? Surely IT it is suffering. 9. 6-9] MIDRASH KABBAH arises Simeon meant this:] a man sometimes sleeps a little and and toils much in the study of the Torah. but he who will not show himself worthy in the work of the orchard may not enter the treasure house/ Thus for him who treasures up religious acts and good deeds. 2 R. however. IT Can then suffering actually be very good ? It is in fact so AND WAS because through its instrumentality men attain to the life of the future world 3 and so said Solomon: And reproofs of chastisement [E. to the dispensation of suffering. go forth and see which road leads man . I : considered all labour and all excelling in work. vi. to the Evil Desire.IX. into which he brought workers* He built a treasure house by its entrance and said: 'Whoever will labour conscientiously in the work of the orchard may enter the treasure house. to Gehenna.

Sanh. Is then the angel of death very good ? Imagine a king who made a feast. R. 38*2. 3 I. IT WAS VERY GOOD alludes to the dispensation of good. BEHOLD. 10-11 VERY GOOD R. would be led to repentance. for had He waited longer. foresaw that man will receive measure for : WAS VERY GOOD. Jose the Tanna). Samuel b. there is a fitting God took good care that the Temple should be destroyed and the Jews be deported to Babylon in summer and not in winter. R. Jose's name 4 From the very beginning of the world's creation the Holy One. Simon said in R. and good deeds. but he who would eat and not bless the king. Isaac said: alludes to the angel of IT WAS VERY GOOD. 14 ( : 2 The phrase is somewhat obscure. 'let him eat and enjoy it. the teacher known in the Babylonian Talmud as R. V. Israel's sins would have condemned them to 42). Others: He caused the Temple to be destroyed two years before its time (translating: He hastened to bring the punishment). there is the angel of 11. measure. Huna said in R. v. Abba said: BEHOLD.GENESIS (BERESHITH) 10. and set a dish filled with all good things before them: 'Whoever will eat and bless the king/ said he. blessed be He. R. complete destruction.e. AND. Lam. He was anxious how to make the punishment fit the wrongs committed so that the victims. him who lays life . dispensation. In Sot. Joseph (not R. punishment befitting the crime. %b a very similar phrase is explained as referring to the four modes of execution. Simeon b. R. IT WAS life. 4 I. [IX. therefore Scripture said. there is the angel of up precepts and good deeds. Is then the dispensation of punishment very good? It means that He considered well how to 1 bring it. AND BEHOLD. Mah. to the angel of death. IT meaning. on i. recognising this. Abba's name: All measures have ceased. let him be decapitated with a sword/ Similarly. R. invited the guests. for lo ! BEHOLD. while for him who does not lo ! lay up precepts death. 2 yet the rule of measure for measure 3 has not ceased. ad loc. IT WAS VERY GOOD. Sot. behold.e. 69 . Simeon b. to the dispensation of punishment. for they would never have survived the rigours and hardships of that long journey in winter. AND BEHOLD.

HA-SHISHI: R. supra. WAS VERY GOOD BEHOLD. to the earthly kingdom. AND GOD SAW EVERY THING THAT HE HAD MADE. this 8 interprets the additional def. of the world's creation.e.. Thus it is written. 5 but hence41 forth 1 2 we count it by a different reckoning. for the letters of both are identical. second.K. AND. and behold. [It earns that title] because it exacts justice the made have even earth. Judan said: This intimates the extra hour which we add from the profane to the sacred. Hilkiah said it in R. to weaken. p. a synonym in Talmudic and Midrashic literature for Rome. * Presumably HA-SHISHI is connected here with tashash. created man (adam) upon it. [hence it is written.T. IJanina's R. IT . THE SIXTH DAY HA-SHISHI (l. adam (man) was good. without this def. alludes to the kingdom of heaven AND IT WAS VERY GOOD. (Isa. 1 Is then the earthly kingdom very good? How strange! for men. heh (n) of iwtm (in the case of other days we have a second. while name. : 5. day. i2). Phinehas and R. being also the reading in the Vilna ed. 6 I. R. 6 I. 2 14. 3. Theodor instead of Adam he reads Edom. 13. n. third day of the week (Y.).. etc. vm. the second day. 3 and in it the work of creating the world was finished. M. to which 'the earthly kingdom' alludes. AND THERE WAS MORNING.. BEHOLD. All MIDRASH KABBAH our Rabbis said the following in R. 1 Simon's name: Me'od is identical with adam (man). Simeon b.) as intimating that the Sabbath must be commenced before actual nightfall.IX. BEHOLD.. 58. 6 V. IT WAS VERY (ME'OD) GOOD. etc. first.e. 31).. third day. R. art.] /. art.e. Simon said: There came a weakening (metash) of the Creation: hitherto world time was counted. and /.. Lakish said: i. AND THERE WAS EVENING. third. XLV. 12-14] 12. He . thus adding to the sacred period.

96) everything has a measure. except one thing which has no measure and what is it ? The Torah. were measured off. but Thy commandment is exceeding broad (Ps. but when the plug was removed and the water emptied. i-3 CHAPTER I. cf. (Prov. Eliezer said: be compared to a bath full of water. Johanan: The Lord took two balls. 4). xxv. 3 Deriving wayyekullu from keli 71 . R. Isa. IJanina dross from (kelim): hence. And there cometh forth a vessel (keli) for the refiner (ib. as long as it was full of water the work of the bas-relief could not be seen. as long as formlessness and void were in the world.] The measure thereof is longer than the earth. XL. in which 3. etc. AND THE HEAVEN AND THE EARTH WERE MADE INTO COMPLETED UTENSILS. 2 2. g).e. they [heaven and earth] became finished articles the silver. Even so. the work of heaven could be seen.[X. AND THE HEAVEN AND THE EARTH WERE WAYYEKULLU : FINISHED to every / have seen an end purpose (tiklah). etc. tjama b. R. [of which it is written. blessed be He. cxix. the basrelief could be seen. but as soon as formlessness and void were eradicated from the world. R. create His world? Said R. FINISHED. How did the Holy One. as it is : ' said. to measure. . 3 This may were two beautiful bas-reliefs. X (BERESHITH) (n. one of fire and the other of snow.). The verses will then be translated: and the heavens . . i). 1 (Job xi. i. heaven and earth have a measure. the work of heaven and earth could not be seen. 2 On this interpretation 'finished' and 'end' mean in point of time. 12: And comprehended (we-kol) the dust of the earth in a measure. for every thing I have seen a measure. AND THE HEAVEN AND THE EARTH WERE etc. and worked them 1 Possibly wayyekullu and tiklah are both derived here from kul. Another interpretation: '/ have seen an end to every purpose refers to the work of the heaven. AND THE HEAVEN AND THE EARTH WERE commenced: Take away the FINISHED.

R. Hama said: Six: four for the four corners and one for above and one for below. 6 Subsequently they angered him. whereupon he reduced the race meetings . which was its centre. tlama agrees with R. led to a deep hatred of him. situated on the Orontes (Jast. the sun 7 another com- pletes circuit in twelve years. R. for the four corners [of the universe]. 2 The tragedy of the revolt against Hadrian which ended in defeat at Bethar in 135 ex.: ward from ! 7 mail stations. viz. there is a planet which completes its circuit in twelve months. viz. Jupiter. IJanina said: [He took] four [balls]. This of course universe. This may be compared to a king who 4. 1 Hadrian may his bones rot! 2 asked R. north. r^anina holds that it spread inwards. the moon. R. and its inhabitants praised him.g. which pleased him. Jast. yet another completes its circuit in thirty days. R. while R. Saturn. from four balls which were set on its outer limits. Even so was the work [of Creation] before the Lord/ he added.J. Holy One. 3~4] MIDRASH KABBAH into each other. 5 The capital of Syria founded by Seleucus Nicator. and the charioteers. number of is based on the ancient geo-centric conception of the 72 . Johanan holds that the world was created by spreading outthis ball. Hanina. 3 Thereupon he led him into a small chamber and said to him: 'Stretch out your hand to east. west. with the massacre of countless Jews. e. Efes preached in Antioch 5 The connotes nought but blows and destruction (kelayah). thereupon he entertained them with many races and charioteers. 6 These were very popular in ancient Roman times. : word WAYYEKULLU entered a province. create the answered him in accordance with R.X. Similarly. and south. 3 Could God really place balls at such widely separated points 4 He can encompass the four corners of the earth just as easily as you can touch these walls.). Joshua b. Hoshaya said: R. R. llama. to the limits assigned to it. translates: he increased for them the speed of the mail-bearers and the 'E. still its another completes 1 its circuit in thirty years. viz. which marked its upper and lower boundaries. but adds another two. 4 Ilanina : ' How did the world?' He R. blessed be He. and his name is generally followed by this imprecation. and from these the world was created. 'Is that actually possible!' exclaimed he.

no matter when they actually ripen. 8 The passage is rather difficult. 2 But on that day 3 the fruits were produced in one day. and commentators differ in their explanations. 4-5 except Mercury. such as a soldier's. R. xxx. consequently the laws of the Sabbatical year apply only to those which ripen in the second year of the septennate (seven2 When they were first created. 6 Each on its own day. e.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [X.e. etc.cut formation. and Mars. moon. I. By the fruits of the Sabbatical year are meant those which take shape (termed nto:n hanatah} in the seventh year. and planets the earth was completed with trees. v. He will heal the wound of the world. Phinehas said in the name of R. 5. xxv. Joshua b.g. 7 said: 1 AND ALL THE HOST There are three (ZEBA) OF THEM. dry land on the third. 4 Thus the fruits were smitten for the future. i. i. and there a fixed time zeba' probably beyond which a man's trials cease. because they produce in three years. The greater length of time taken by some planets is similarly regarded as a punishment (destruction) for Adam's sin. heaven and earth] were completed and went . 14). aries were finally determined. one must not trade in them. Kama of Sepphoris We learned: White figs have their Sabbatical year in the second year.g. 5 R.K. He too translates 'wayyekullu' literally. 4 And in the Messianic future the Holy One. Simon said in the name of R. blessed be He. period ' is set for disciples is when they shall attain the rank of teachers. that is the meaning of wayyekullu* * ' ' ' . Lev. (adorned) with the sun. while their owner may retain only sufficient for his own wants.. the heaven on the first day. which complete their circuit in 480 years. to require such a long time. Levi: The works [of 6 creation. Levi said: The heaven was completed with the sun. and the garden of Eden.T. 26). supra. 2-8) are subject to special laws. for it is said. will heal : that injury. 73 . stitutes ' ' Sheb. were finished (cf. Now these figs take three years to ripen from the time of hanatah . Venus. renders: The heaven was crowned : . The translation adopted is that of Theodor and Y. 7 Until the sixth day. Thus heaven and earth were created for a definitely fixed time a definite translates wayyekullu' literally. and must declare the rest free to all. And He will heal the stroke of their wound (Isa. when their boundwithout a clear.. The word means here 'a period of service'. Joshua b. a wreath or crown. i. e. M. herbs. R. etc. year cycle). 1 R. on expanding. translates: the works were created in a general shape. thus deriving 'wayyekullu' from kelil. they 5 He ' Mah. The fruits of the Sabbatical year (v. who sub480 days for 480 years. Eleazar : fixed periods 8 a fixed period for These periods are discussed at length by Theodor ad loc.e.

lions.)? 4 Nahman. period for disciples. moreover. 4. 14).e.e. till my relief should come (Job xiv. . Nahman. 5~6] MIDRASH KABBAH heaven and earth. If he erects a building and his work is successful. as it is written. until one's own disciple can take his place. So man. a host [of divine powers] is for him. period for suffering. ed. v. 7 Cf. 629. Others: all 4 ' ' applied even to plant life. 6 Who at the end of the day must render an account of his work. 6 He translates zaba in the last verse quoted host a host for a man may either mean for his benefit or one fighting against him. which he translates 'their desires'. Sanh.e. and fiery serpents. 7. alive]. man The son of Sira said: God caused drugs to spring forth from the earth. AND THE HEAVEN AND THE EARTH WERE FINISHED. too. blessed be He. I. the son of Samuel b. seeing that His days are like the days of a hireling ($. said: If a man merits it. 3 though what pleasure has he. This. And there is a fixed period for suffering. is a comment on zeba'am. n6a. until my substitute 2 arises. Eccl. full of labour and trials. I. 7 R. the host is for him if he falls from it and dies. too. which means. if not.] Is there not a fixed period (zoba) to man upon earth the whole desire of man is to be upon the (ib. [as it is written. 10. scorpions. 'His days are like the days of a hireling' !* to exact 6.). Simon said There is not a single herb but has a constellation in heaven which strikes it and says.V. All the days of 1 my appointed time (zeba'i) would I wait. 'Grow. A fixed His penalties. B. with them the physician heals the wound and the apothecary compounds his preparations. 74 .. i)? Yet earth [i. appointed against .e. if it lodges in his throat and chokes him. p. A fixed period as it is written. AND ALL THEIR FIXED PERIODS.' 8 : 1 2 3 E. it is here (Mah. n. there is a host for him. man's desires are in respect of earthly matters. 'service'.). snakes. everything in creation serves a purpose * On mazsal cf. Many hosts has the Holy One.X. i.B. (Sonc. 8. there is a host against him if he eats his bread and it benefits him. there is a host against him. a host [of hostile 5 powers] is against him. a fixed period for disciples. xxxvm. must render an account in the next world for his actions in this. many bears. vn. and a fixed for heaven and earth.

even through a snake. He then saw the grass wreath on his head. 1 75 . R. Can you approach the snake with your ' ' ' He appears to derive mishtaro from shoter. giving it the necessary fulness. Then a snake came up. Simon said: ['Mazaroth' connotes] the constellation which ripens (memazzer) the fruits. Hanina b. or loose the bands of Orion (ib. Have you of a truth really killed it ? Can you remove that herb from your head ? he continued. and flies. Which was to kill someone.e. Hanan's name: It once happened that a man was about to reap the harvest of a field when he saw a certain grass which he plucked and plaited into a wreath for his head. but it is still in a shrivelled-up form until summer. Simon said Pleiades binds the fruit and Orion draws it out between knot and knot. When he had removed it he said to him. etc. carries out His purpose through everything. 6-7 the ordinances of the heavens? Canst thou establish the dominion thereof (mishtaro) in the written. Aha it related this story: river bank of a carrying its man was standing by the a frog bearing a scorpion and across the river. story in Ned. Papa and R. as soon as it had carried out when he saw A 3 4 commission. and said to him. gives shape and substance to the fruit in winter. when Orion draws it out. thus: canst thou place the one which strikes it. Tanhuni b. who killed that snake? 'I killed it/ said the man. a gnat. Canst : thou lead forth the constellations (mazaroth) in their season (ib. blessed be He. Phinehas related in R. but he struck and killed it. Knowest thou earth (Job xxxvin. Our Rabbis said: Even those things which you may regard as completely superfluous to the creation of the world. R. the court officer who inflicts the corporal punishment ordered by the court. it carried it back to its place. 33)? 1 Canst thou bind the chains of the Pleiades. i. 410. 2 Pleiades binds. R. 'Yes/ replied he. or a frog. Hiyya and R. 2 as it is written. 7. A man then came along and stood and looked at the snake wondering. 4 3 Cf. gnats.GENESIS (BERESHITH) as it is [X. 32)? R. a scorpion. such as fleas. and the Holy One. 31)? R. even they too are included in the creation of the world.

he remarked. R. and R. Jose introduced me to a certain innkeeper. 'So-and-so has been bitten by a snake and died/ R. Jannai was sitting and lecturing at the gate of his when he saw a snake coming on in great haste. 6. And when he died they split open his brain and found that it was like a bird weighing two pounds. Then a runner passed by. tlanina said R. As soon as he approached it. Immediately a snake emerged and struck and killed him. and again it rolled out. loc.X. R. 7-8] staff?' MIDRASH RABBAH 'Yes/ replied he. supra. R. 4). 76 . it went to another. 5 AND ON THE SEVENTH DAY GoD FINISHED. At that he applied to himself the verse. in. Ammi. 'This [snake] is he. On his return a mosquito entered his nose and began piercing his skull. 2 slithering to and fro from side to side. ' XLIII. 4 but it rolled out. he hid it. Johanan raised a difficulty : 1 The snake had been commissioned to kill him. . blasphemed and reviled [God]. town. 5 According to other sources the mosquito had grown to that size. 3 V. Eleazar was sitting to ease himself in a privy. Ishmael b. 'This is intended to perform His [God's] commission. fell and died. R. 8. when a Roman came and drove him away and sat down. Immediately observed a out mission/ going to carry a report spread in the town. 1 his limbs fell to pieces. Eleazar]. 2).: driven from one place. 4. 3 when he saw a thigh-bone. cit. but the wreath had saved him. R. Cf Lev. stumbled over it. Isaac b. R. saying to me: 'Here father my recited the Sabbath prayer on the eve of the Sabbath/ R. Therefore will I give a man for thee (Isa. Jeremiah. he hid it again. (n. xxn. he dragged down the veil. When the wicked Titus entered the Holy of Holies. R. This has a purpose/ remarked he [R. R. 2 In Lev. : etc. Then they went and searched him and found that he was bearing evil decrees against the Jews of Csesarea. * So that none might fall over it. Eleazar was strolling on the cliffs of the sea of Cassarea. Now that he removed it the strength of its poison probably ft had bitten him before it was killed had its effect and killed him. and so on.

and His hours. Genibah said This may be compared to a king who made ' : .GENESIS (BERESHITH) What for ' [X. 77 . for by the time they finished it would be night. : 1 2 that possible? in Upper Galilee. his [exact] times or his hours. R.?' 6 Said he to him: It is like a man striking the hammer on the anvil. 3 But if you do wish to raise a difficulty. Jose: 'Have you heard from your father the actual meaning of AND ON THE SEVENTH DAY GOD FINISHED. God finished His work right at the end of the sixth day. Ba was sitting and lecturing. not on the seventh day. 7 In the second between his raising it and his bringing it down night has commenced. can enter it by a hair's breadth. Yohai said Mortal man. Geogr. For R. R. p. 204. raise it on the following. when he said to Abdan his interpreter. Simeon b. His times. Ishmael b. 5 Sc. R. Dosa has already commenced the ass-drivers some Sabbath [by reciting the Sabbath prayers] in his town. must add from the profane to the sacred but the Holy One. Near Sepphoris 4 In lengthy popular discourses the lecturer whispered his statements to an interpreter. so that in that very moment the Sabbath commenced. etc. said to his interpreter. According on the eve (of the Sabbath) to 3 Though they had left it while it was yet day. who knows His moments. ! Here father recited the Sabbath prayer ! came from Arab 2 to Sepphoris and reported: R. 8-9 on the my eve of the Sabbath n Yet they need have had no difficulty. 6 For surely God finished His work on the sixth. v. for Rabbi was sitting and lecturing. 4 'Announce to the congregation : that they should recite the week-day prayer while it is still 5 day/ Furthermore. who does not know his minutes. Ishmael b. Jose introduced me to a certain innkeeper and said: 'Here my father recited the post-Sabbath prayer on the Sabbath/ Said R. raising 7 it by day and bringing it down after nightfall/ R.. Rabbi asked R. R. had meant the same thing. Similarly. Genibah and the Rabbis discussed this. tlanina b. the Sabbath. who then spoke them aloud to the people. 'Announce to the conthat gregation they should recite the week-day prayer while it is still when he day/ 9. Hiyyab. blessed be He. Assi: This too need have presented no difficulty to them. Ishmael Sepphoris. fjanina said R. to a slightly different reading: came is How Neub.

6 On the Sabbath. rest was afforded to them. and to give a goodly reward to the righteous who uphold the world which was created with toil. for the verse.e. based philosopher.T.V. what did the Sabbath. so 8 God completed His work. 5 Cf. Jose b. Because that in it He rested from all His work which God created to make (lit. translation) implies that this resting itself was in order to make (i. 'And since then Gehenna has been burning for the wicked/ exclaimed he. ed. painted. 'and he rested').: he interprets wa-yi$hboth (E. and note ad loc.. . 7 . Levi said in the name of R. This is probably a copyist's error (Radal and Theodor). 5 And what was created therein? 6 Tranquillity. Simon: Neither with labour nor with toil did the Holy One. 1 ring: The Rabbis it said: Imagine a king who made a what did world lack ? The finished signet. Similarly. ease. and the translation adopted. blessed be He. 1 Thus by means of the Sabbath itself He actually finished it on the seventh day. Without the higher longings inspired by the sanctity of a day consecrated by God mankind is 2 He could not be expected to understand these exincomplete. 'he created a resting. 9] MIDRASH RABBAH chamber.' 78 . create the world?' 'In six days/ they replied. and thus He gave rest to His world on the seventh day (Ex. 'woe to the world for the judgments it must render!' 4 ' : His WORK! Did not R. n). what did the world still lack? The A Sabbath. xx. create) something.] FROM ALL His order to punish the wicked who destroy the world which was created with labour. and bride did the bridal chamber lack ? Similarly. And this is one of the texts they lack? A changed for king Ptolemy. a bridal adorned to enter now what it. blessed be He. Read: certain 4 The text is corrupt. after He rested. [making it read:] 'And He on the sixth day 2 and rested on the seventh/ 3 King Ptolemy asked the elders in Rome In how many days did the Holy One. Aboth v. R. R. is an attempt to reconstruct it. and quiet. which he plastered. in Sonc. Nehorai As long as the hands of their Master were working on them they went on [so stated] in : WORK! But expanding but when the hands of their Master rested.X. yet you say. i. peace. . [AND HE RESTED it is . A 7 Y. . and planations of the 'seventh'. Berekiah say thus in the name of R. create the world. Judah b. on the edd.

. blessed be He. but also made him the 79 .GENESIS (BERESHITH) R. . 9 a mortal king takes his army into quarters. are to go into battle or start a 2 Not only did He afford of a sacred day. man a day of rest. he does not distribute largesse. AND HE on gift BLESSED. 1 That he does only before the troops march. . [X.] 2 AND HE RESTED largesse. ordered a halt and distributed : Abba said When [as it is written. but the Holy One. 1 whilst when he distributes largesse he does not order a halt .

AND GOD BLESSED. And He hallowed it through manna. xv. but on the eve of the Sabbath two 'omers. This shows that R.XL 1-2] CHAPTER XI (BERESHITH) i. and this happened in my case. rich (Prov. when he works in the fields. which did not descend on the Sabbath at all. whereupon one must let his cloak hang down. down. 32. Johanan's name: A man must mingle He blessed 4 Abin b. xix. He blessed it with the light of a man's face the light of : 1 2 3 Which V. up. [his garments]. Liezer said: He blessed it in the matter of a lamp. R.} : 1 this refers to mourning. Ishmael said: He blessed it with it with manna. I once lit a lamp for the Sabbath night. he must have something different is Num. (11 And Sam. and when I came at the termination of the Sabbath I found it still burning and not at all diminished. A 4 absent on the Sabbath. Instead of tucking up as on the week-days. special cloak should be worn on the Sabbath. IJiyya said in R. He blessed it with manna. AND HALLOWED IT. to 6 mingle with his week-day it attire. AND GOD BLESSED THE SEVENTH DAY. Jeremiah and R. as The (n. 3). R. Huna said: A man must change [his garments on the Sabbath]. Isaac said: He blessed it with manna and hallowed it manna and hallowed through the man who it gathered 2 [sticks]. Nathan said: He blessed it with manna and hallowed it with a blessing. it refers to the Sabbath. 2. for his son grief addeth nothing thereto (ib. Jeremiah's cloak being tucked together [on Ze'ira pulled it down. 3). AND GOD BLESSED THE SEVENTH DAY maketh it blessing of the Lord. R. x. R. R. 22) this : is written. The sanctity of the Sabbath was thereby emphasised. If he cannot afford a complete change. as you read. with [the distinction of] robing. 80 . R. IJasde said: He must let [his cloak] 5 R. for every day of the week there descended one 'omer [per person]. Ze'ira were walking hang the Sabbath]. 3 R. The king grieveth etc.

Levi said in the name of the son of Nezirah: That light functioned thirty-six hours. When the sun set on the night of the Sabbath. xxxvir. the Holy One. lee. before the Sabbath. Simeon the luminaries were spoilt1 on the eve of the Sabbath. in. G .e. who was created on Under cover of 8l darkness. wherefore? Because His light [reaches] unto the ends s of the earth (ib. 7 This derives yishrehu from shir. Adam was terrified. as it is written. Jose. 3 What is the proof? 4 But Adam passeth not the night in glory (Ps. AND GOD BLESSED THE SEVENTH DAY: wherewith did He bless it? With light. Assi. Friday]. Others He deprived Adam's countenance e At night this primeval light is meant.e. 3) . I3). but at the termination of the Sabbath He deprived him of his and expelled him from the Garden of Eden.GENESIS (BERESHITH) a man's face during the [XL it is 2 week is not the same as on the b. and sendest him away (Job xiv.e. 9 twelve on the eve of the Sabbath [i. 'He sendeth it forth : under. to function. This agrees with the Rabbis but not with R. 15). u): shall he of whom it bruise thy head (Gen. As soon as the sun set on the night of the Sabbath. which was smitten immediately he sinned. wished to hide the light. 'But man abideth not in honour'. twelve during the night of the Sabbath. Var. and twelve on the Sabbath [day]. 'envelop'] me (Ps. 4 E.V. 8 I. hence it is written. Thou changest his countenance. * On this 10 8 night. 6 whereupon all began praising.V. 7 darkness began to set in. 1 now come was written. 2 who maintained: Adam's glory Judah said: Though did not abide the night with him. but He showed honour to the Sabbath. the primeval light. Sabbath. to sing. I.: cursed. for Adam. He shall to attack me! 10 Through Adam's sin it was decreed that the primeval light should be z More correctly: R. cxxxix. XLIX. hidden. R. [thinking. etc! the sixth day. yet they were not smitten until the termination of the Sabbath. E. R. He blessed it in respect of the luminaries.] Surely indeed the darkness shall bruise [E. The Rabbis splendour as it is 5 maintain: His glory abode with him. When the sun sank at the termination of the Sabbath.). Under the whole heaven they sing praises to Him (ib. 20).V. the light continued written. 5 By hiding the primeval light. blessed be He. of its lustre.

name Abbahu said: At the name. R. R. 82 . He blessed it by providing R. light came forth and he uttered a blessing over it. n. Cold dishes were set 4. R. yet is written in connection with it. The blessing enables them to enjoy the additional fare provided. Leazar said in R.XL 2-4] MIDRASH KABBAH What flints did the Lord do for him? He made him find two which he struck against each other.e. Hanina: A blessing is written in connection with every day in which there is a decrease. : 3. i6a. the night was light about me the night was light in my Eden (be'edni). [On another occasion] he made a meal for him during the week. Judah the Nasi.). Huna in Rab's and in R. was blessing given] on account of people with delicate 6 digestions. Our Teacher 7 made a meal for Antoninus 8 on the Sabbath. But ba'adeni (Ps. we recite a 3 blessing over it. because the fire rested the whole day. with tasty dishes. Said he to him: 'Those others 1 I enjoyed more/ 'These lack a certain conis The meaning of the original 3 not clear. Levi said in the name for additional expenditure.g. 7. 540.)> i. When on that day. ed. 610. he ate them and found them delicious. Pes. V. of R.] on the fifth day birds and fish were created. Bez. Then what can you say of the seventh day? 4 R. and catch fish and eat them. 536. He blessed it before him. called Rabbi (teacher) par excellence. artificial light. R. Hanina: [It is written] on account of the [additional] 5 R. 4 5 I. loc. and so it suffers no loss at all. Incurred. without one's wealth being thereby diminished cf. hence it is written. Levi said in the name of R. no fire was lit 6 7 8 nothing was created. for Samuel said Why do we recite a blessing over a lamp [fire] at the termination of the Sabbath? Because 2 it was then created for the first time. 1 This agrees with Samuel. Johanan's termination of the Day of Atonement. Kama b. and the translation is a conjecture. Sanh. cit. now people kill since a blessing birds and eat them. [E. Jose b. p. (Sonc. On the identity of Antoninus v. * Sc. R. when hot dishes were set before him. too. the stock does not in any way decrease. .e. Jose's name: [The expenditure.

Sabbath. iiga. 656. I set it aside for the Sabbath/ 3 R. 1 4 Shab.' When he produced proof of his words. 'A certain Jew did thus to me did you really want me to bring you a single fish for twelve dinars!' 'Who was it?' inquired he. and we honour it greatly. wealth] in Eretz Israel? the people of the Diaspora? And and on it was of everything created in the first six days a child sat in the middle and recited. whence did you merit all this wealth?' 'I was a butcher/ replied he. 'and whenever I saw a well-favoured animal. sir/ he replied. the Jew/ he answered. y of a certain Joseph. . Akiba: 'Why does this day [the Sabbath] differ from other days?' 'Why does one man differ from other men?' he retorted. He had him summoned and said to him. Syria. Lord's. Cf. A Roman governor of Judea V. 'They lack the Sabbath/ he retorted. Shab. at which price the tailor bought it. 'A Jewish tailor can eat a fish at twelve dinars!' Sir/ replied he. . 'Does then the royal pantry lack anything?' he exclaimed. The earth is the and . who . 'So-and-so. eve of the great fast certain tailor the Day of went to buy a fish. Abba said: I was once invited by a man in Laodicea 2 they brought before us a table borne on sixteen staves. 'My son. Said I to him. R. i). tliyya b. Ishmael b. Each overbid the other until it reached twelve dinars. and it fell : ' 5 5. In virtue of the tithes. dt. 4-5 replied. the fulness thereof'(Ps.. e a A town of loc. The wicked Tinneus Rufus asked R. Why? So that the owner should not grow conceited. Tanhuma said: It once happened in Rome on the Atonement] that a out that he and the governor's servant began bargaining for it. he dismissed him. Jose asked Rabbi On account of what virtue do the Babylonians live ? In virtue [a life of : of the Torah [which they study]. And Because they honour the Sabbaths and festivals. R. 119*2. At dinner the governor demanded of the servant.GENESIS (BERESHITH) diment/ he [XI. story in Shab. 3 honoured the v. 'Why have you not served fish?' 'I will tell you the truth. xxiv. 'do you indeed possess the Sabbath?' 1 R. 'we have one day when all our sins of the year are forgiven. Sanh. 4 [sc.

1 2 That The strong force of its current carries along stones and rubble. genital prove it/ he replied. the Holy One wished to honour/ 'How can you prove 1 'Let the river Sambatyon prove it. 'Why does Rufus differ from other men/ 'Because the emperor desired to honour him/ said he. ' ' Akiba and said to him If it is as you say that the Holy One. too. and when He moves the winds and rain it is to Him like carrying in private ground. let fainting come upon that man' 8 The whole universe is God's private domain. this is philosopher asked R. Hoshaya: 'If circumcision why was it not given to Adam?' 7 'If so/ indeed the seventh day.e. is 6 A so precious. have you become a Jew after death Why did you ascend during the whole week but not on the Sabbath ? He who does not keep the Sabbath among you of his own free will must keep it here in spite of himself/ 'But what toil have you there?' he demanded. but on After the Sabbath he up. rendering . you are you quote as proof a distant river I have never seen. 'for every day he [the dead] comes up but not on the Sabbath/ 4 He went and made a test with his own father: every day he the Sabbath he did not come came up. It Geogr. honours the Sabbath. to a distant place drawing me away ' ' . 8 Lit. 33 it . p. but on the Sabbath we rest/ Then he went back to R. 'Then this day. 84 . as it were. then He should not stir up winds or cause the rain to fall on that day/ Woe to that man 5 he exclaimed it is like one who carries : f ' ' ! ' . why was he not born circumcised ? t unnavigable. which it to me?' 2 carries stones the whole week but allows them to rest on 3 the Sabbath/ 'You are evading the question/ he exclaimed.' and I answered you. 'The whole week we undergo judgment. is 3 Lit. 'Then let him who brings up [the dead by] his male 'What did inquired he. a mythical river. 4 This refers to a kind of necromancer (ba'al-ob) who brought up the dead by means of the membrum virile. 'why does the Sabbath differ from all other days.XL 5-6] I MIDRASH RABBAH ask you and what did you answer me?' 'You asked me/ he replied. blessed be He. v. and Neub. 7 I. brought him up [again] ! ' . ' Father/ said he. ' Theodor ad loc. which is permitted even on the Sabbath. [objects] four cubits/ 6.

'encamped'} (ib. In childhood and youth.: it is not stated specifically that he kept the Sabbath. of Sinai. 4 Your arguments are mere sophistries. mustard needs sweetening. Hence 2 of less value and I cut it. 3 'I cannot send you away empty-handed/ said he [the real reason is this :] whatever was created in the first six days requires further preparation. the third has the fourth. and to the east. These. And thou shalt spread abroad to the west. Johanan said in R. thus if New Moon is declared a day later these too fall later. Arise. is mentioned. of whom the keeping of the 7. 7 These are dependent on the day which the Court declares to be New Moon. 4. LXIV. Jose's name: Abraham. 18). Nahman said: Because it cannot be postponed a festival can be postponed. who not reported to have kept the Sabbath. Yohai taught: The Sabbath pleaded to the Holy One. but the Sabbath has no partner. and man too needs to be finished off/ off ' ! 2 ! ' . 14). (ib. If so. Simeon b. But Jacob.g.' 1 was the answer. Samuel b. R.GENESIS (BERESHITH) he replied. 6 inherited the world without measure. etc. while I have 8. infra. Sabbath is before the city Now why did He bless it? R. as it is written. e. [as it is written]. the Day of Atonement can be postponed. vetches need sweetening. 5 inherited the world in [limited] measure. R. but only in general terms that he kept God's law. R. 6 ad fin. xin. the fifth has the sixth. The first day of the week has the second. which means that he entered at twilight and set boundaries before sunset. you should blind your eye and cut 'To such an argument have we come your hands observed he. xxxni.V. And he rested [E. 7 but the Sabbath cannot be postponed. By circumcision.. Berekiah said: Because has no mate. viz. before it is 8 85 . He they stood before the mountain said to them. walk through the land in the length of it and in the breadth of it (Gen. you have from birth. LXXIX. 6 V. it : ' : no partner!' 'The Community of Israel is your partner/ God 1 answered. blessed be He All have a partner. Remember what I said to the ' And when I reached the years of discretion. xxvni. v. 17). 5 Mah. too. ' [XL 6-8 why do you ' ' shave the corners of your head and leave your beard?' 'Because it grew with me in folly. wheat needs 4 grinding. infra.

cattle. on the third. on the sixth. that the [hence. which in his view includes animals and wild beasts. 20) 1 2 * ! 8 Lit. for it is a work that the Lord God hath to do (Jer. herbs.V. and the Garden of Eden on the fourth. and hath brought forth the weapons of His indignation. Banayah things. heaven.XL 8-IOJ MIDRASH KABBAH Community of Israel to is it Sabbath. created three objects on each day: on the first. blessed be He. blessed be He. Phinehas said In the sixth : He created six things: is Adam. Gehenna. and light. on the second. Oh how abundant is Thy goodness. but not you read: R. and the constellations. which Thou hast laid up for them that fear Thee. WHICH GOD BECAUSE THAT IN IT HE RESTED FROM ALL HlS WORK WHICH GOD CREATED TO MAKE. the sun. the moon. R. but MAKE: whatever the Holy One. The Lord hath opened His armoury. Rendering: God created what He was to make (on the seventh day). And how do we know that the punishment of the wicked is called work ? Because it is said. 25). Hence he made six things instead of three on the sixth day. Phinehas said in R. . . L. E. Eve. 8). He rested from the work of [creating] His world. which Thou hast wrought for them that take refuge in Thee. was to have made on the seventh. 2 R. BECAUSE THAT IN HlS WORK WHICH GOD CREATED TO MAKE (ll. for He works with the former and with the latter. holy (Ex. beasts. trees. and . translation. And how do we know that the bestowing of reward upon the righteous is called work? Because it is said. Which God in creating had made* Remes. 3). and the latter their essential character. . and the angels. Levi said in the name of R. 86 . Adam. Eve. birds. in the sight of the sons of men (Ps.] Remember the Sabbath day. xxxi. ' IT HE RESTED FROM ALL 9. the firmament. Hanina: The Holy One. xx. keep your partner. earth. He shows the former their essential character. fish. moving creatures. creeping said : and demons. Which God created and made CREATED TO not written here. and the Leviathan. Oshaya's name: Although from the work of the wicked and the work of the righteous. R. Hama b.* R. on the fifth. He created beforehand on the sixth. 3 10.

R. Cf. these are but parts of His ways. then all began to enter through his clearing. Imagine a large palace with many . then cut down more and penetrated further thus he entered through the clearing and went out . R. Huna: If you cannot comprehend the thoughts. What did a certain wise man do ? He took a ball of cord and tied it near the door. essential ! ' I comprehend the can comprehend the essential character of the universe. 4). Huna said: Whatever things you see are but parts of the ways of the Holy One. the 3 Holy One. : What did a certain clever man do? He cut down [some reeds] and entered. for whoever entered therein lost his way. i. 87 . so that whoever entered therein lost his way. the supreme King of kings. Nahman gave another illustration. and what blemish of aught is heard of Him' : what defect is heard of Him? 'But the thunder of His mighty deeds who can understand ? R. ' 3 ' nature of thunder. Lo. these are but parts of His ways. i. i CHAPTER XII (BERESHITH) i. blessed be He. And I turned myself to behold wisdom i. none understands.S. as it says. blessed be He! R. 8. THESE ARE THE GENERATIONS OF THE HEAVEN AND OF THE EARTH WHEN THEY WERE CREATED (il. viz. and what blemish of aught is heard of Him! But the thunder of His mighty deeds who can understand (Job xxvi. It is not written. 12)? i. S. Nahrnan said This may be compared to a thicket of reeds which no man could enter.' say to him. can you essence of the world If a man tells you.e. after the King of the Universe.: implies that this is a some may understand. Lo. doors. it Y. I (sc. Solomon) endeavoured to find a method to understand the wisdom of the Torah.: they understand comment on the as a hint to introspection and repentance. 'For what is the man that cometh after the king' (EccL ir.[XII. Then all commenced to enter and go out 1 2 8 Which Mah.e. 14)? R. Huna said: When thunder goes forth in its full force. but 'who can understand? l The intelligent know His hints and His 2 Said R. no creature can understand it.T. first half of the verse just quoted.

supra. LXVI. Yet the supreme King of kings. 9. People entered it and criticised: 'If the columns were taller it would be beautiful. He hath made thee. and His court took a vote on every limb of thine and set thee up in proper trim: thus it is written. Berekiah objected in the name of R. 'For all these hand made'! 5 R. Merion said: It is written. 4 This is deduced from the phrase THESE ARE. 6). the supreme King of kings. xxxn. Haytha3 said: If a mortal king builds a palace and sets its waterspout at its entrance. Isaac b. Hul. Judan said: [It means that things hath God created the world] for the sake of the Torah [which is My referred to as 'these' in the verse. Simon: Not with labour or wearying toil did the Holy One. Levi b. who may find fault with it them? But they written. blessed be He. yet you actually say. HEAVEN. cf. create His world. etc. 2). and that constitutes his beauty and his pride. Cf.XII. in. ' ' * when their Creator lauds them.-R. R. It is not stated. THESE ARE THE GENERATIONS OF THE HEAVEN. but not the work of 2 s God. 2. are comely and praiseworthy. it is unbecoming. Other MSS. worker who draws attention to the fine quality of his This implies physical labour. the nose] over his entrance [mouth]. For all these things hath My hand made (Isa. I~2] MIDRASH RABBAH by means of the clue. 88 . Yohai said: This may be compared to a mortal king who built a palace. x. 2. God pointing to them like a 5 with pride. their Creator praises them. created man and set his spout [sc. R.^ama . R. blessed be He. work.] These are the statutes 1 Human achievements may fall short of perfection.Nahman. 566 on this verse. the Holy One. hence is THESE ARE THE GENERATIONS OF THE etc. the Holy One.: when 4 who may disparage them. R. if the walls were higher it would be beautiful. Simeon b. blessed be He. . and established thee (Deut. Judah b. if the ceiling were loftier it would be beautiful/ But will any man come and say. z R. 'That which He hath already made him/ but That which they have already made him : if it were possible to say so. Oh that I had three eyes 1 or three feet!' Surely not. whereas God's fiat was sufficient.

they are [now] as when they on the very day they were created were [first] created. What does 3 disqualify? Formlessness and void. earlier etc. 3. and all their host in their : own time. 3. saith the Lord (Isa. but destroyed them. disqualifies [rejects] the preceding. Ex. R. but not what went before. V. . This is intimated in the present verse. simultaneously implying that the . R. heaven and earth were first created. the Torah) hath My hand made. He renders: And for the sake of all these things (sc. 1 PL of Torah. THESE it 4.. loc. where A R E is written. If a passage commences with 'and these are'. in addition to what went before. toroth (Lev. 2-4 Nehemiah 2 said: written. Judah said And the heaven and the earth were finished : in their own time. R.T. instead the verse from Ezekiel. of 28). Ex. at. THESE ARE THE GENERATIONS OF THE HEAVEN AND OF THE EARTH BE-HIBBARAM (WHEN THEY WERE CREATED). i). Abbahu said : Wherever these ' are ' (eleh) is written. According to the Rabbis.e. l). THESE ARE THE GENERATIONS OF THE HEAVEN. R. Judah countered: they brought Yet surely it is written. And there was evening and there was a a second day . 2. Here. Judah and R.e. worlds could not be called 'these*. .K. . 2 Other sources quote All these are the twelve tribes of Israel (Gen. it indicates that these too are worthy. R.: If a passage commences with 'these are it implies that only the things that follow are worthy to be so counted. Now these are the names of the sons of Israel (Ex. it THESE ARE THE GENERATIONS OF THE HEAVEN. God created other worlds before the present one. xxvi. it disqualifies the preceding. * [XII. Nehemiah discussed this passage.GENESIS (BERESHITH) and ordinances and laws b. . R.. [as it is are the names of the tribes (Ezek. which means: i. since they reverted to their original chaos. etc* R. their with generations. cf. 4 Said R. Joshua For the sake of the tribes. 'and these are* (we-eUK) adds to the preceding. I. . 5 their forth generations. 46).). Nehemiah to him But it is written. XLIX. a third day morning. and these seem preferable. reducing them to formlessness and void.] XLVIII. 4 I.e. xxx. Now these And so all hence. and then the hosts of heaven 5 I. one day . 3 Y. XLVIII. 1 . these things came to be. R.): THESE ARE THE GENERATIONS OF THE HEAVEN.. or. the heaven and the earth were created and earth (M. etc.

viz. the tions: birds. and its work was completed on the fourth.. the third. 3 of Siknin said For in six days the Lord earth.186 we find: Netiunia. a sixth day? Said R. 2 In a crop of figs all take shape about the same time. herbs.. 4-Sl fourth day MIDRASH KABBAH . i. Berekiah observed in conappears in its own time. Near Sepphoris. then it waited three days.. and produced three generaviz. Similarly the hosts ('generations'} were created together with heaven and earth. (Gen. 5. third. : n): these three things constitute the fundamental . second. and they waited three days and their work was completed on the fourth day. and brought forth three generations: the sun. and brought forth three Garden of Eden. and fifth. viz. whereas heaven and earth were themselves created on the first day. And what was the completion of its work ? The luminaries. The earth was created on the first day. according to Beth Hillel. elements of the creation they each waited three days and then produced three things. Nehemiah: And the earth brought forth.. But in Sot. but they do not all ripen at the same time. and third. which were what the world lacked. etc. and fourth. fish. maintained: It is not so. R. second. Nehemiah They were like those who gather figs. The seas were created on the third day. The essential creation of the earth On each of these days a generation of heaven or earth was created. 90 . firmation of this view of R. Nehemiah made heaven and xx. and the first. And God set them in the firmament of the heaven (Gen. Heaven was created on the first day. but IN THE DAY THAT THE teaches that LORD GOD MADE EARTH AND HEAVEN two things constitute the fundamental elements of creation. Leviathan.. as maintained by the School of Shammai. waited three days.. viz. R. when each 2 R. the second. firmament [heaven] was created on the second day. and third. was already stored within I. as it is said. and all that in them is (Ex. 17). 'Azariah. : 1 a fifth day . waited three days. tarried three days. the first. fourth. the digger of wells. The the and generations: trees. 12). however. implies something which it. and constellations.. the sea. but only completed each on the day 1 3 assigned to it. moon.XII..

13). 2 except two. fourth.. XLV. ill. as it is said. /. the third. Simeon b. It its 6. who maintained: Adam did not retain his glory for What is the proof? But Adampasseth not the night in glory (Ps. These are the toledoth (generations) of Perez (Ruth iv. Judah said: Though the luminaries were cursed on the eve of the Sabbath. The Rabbis maintain: He passed the a night.e. 'Thou changest his countenance. His countenance. 8). Aibu said: His height was cut down and reduced to one hundred cubits. 'life']. Whence do we know Assi. His height? For it says. small was now he and enough to hide among the trees (v. 17).GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XII. And what was the completion of its work ? Man. 19). the earth and trees having originally produced fruit in one day. night in his glory. As soon Both quotations relate to the third day. Lacking a waw. and the present instance. viz. * These were reduced. but at the termination of the Sabbath He deprived him of his splendour and expelled him from the Garden of Eden. 20). And let the dry land appear (ib.. 18). viz. even I. the fruit of trees. And the earth brought 1 forth (ib. g). and the light of the luminaries being much greater than 8 He originally filled the whole world now. 5 R. 1 and sendest him away' (Job xiv. The fruit of the earth and the fruit of the tree ? Cursed is the ground for thy sake. immortality ? For dust thou art. i. Abun's And why are they defective? R. 12). Judan name The six [which they lack] 3 corre: six things which were taken away from Adam. they were not smitten until the termination of the Sabbath. supra. GENERATIONS (TOLEDOTH) . his lustre. and fifth. his height. Luminaries? R. said in R. and created man upon it (Isa. vni. as explained in the text. i). nn^n instead of rrnViru 3 The waw as a numeral is six. And the man and his wife hid themselves (ib. 5-6 was on the third day. (ib. XLIX. and the luminaries. waited three days. 20). have made the earth. 2 1 9* . 12). 4 sponds to the this of his lustre? Thou changest his and sendest him away (Job xiv. This agrees with the Rabbis but not with R.Alltoledoth found * in Scripture are defective. and unto dust shalt thou return (Gen. also. the fruit of the earth. viz. and work was completed on the sixth day. his immortality [lit. as it is written. etc. as it is written.

xi. and R. with a waw.V. wished to hide the light. day. He to attack ! shall bruise thy head(Gtn. And God blessed the seventh day. blessed be He. Samuel b. When the sun sank at the termination of the Sabbath. 3). These are they 3 his lustre. too. toledoth is spelled with a waw. n. whereupon all continued Sabbath. Berekiah said in the name of R. cxxxix. etc. R. twelve on the eve of the Sabbath [i. supra. 3): wherewith did He as the When the sun set on the night of the to function. Abbahu in R. Messiah] comes These [for in the verse] ' . (Gen. his fully. But the night was light about me loc. n): shall he of whom it bless it ? with light. 2 1 For notes on The fact TOLEDOTH 92 . but He showed honour to the Sabbath. in. [thinking. R. wherefore? Because sing praises to Him (Job xxxvir. cit. darkness began to set in. intimates that they were created with their full power. Johanan's name said At the termination of the Day of Atonement. 'envelop'] me (Ps. the night was light in my Eden (be-'edni). Friday]. Under the whole heaven they began praising.] Surely indeed the darkness shall bruise [E. hence it is written. and they will not again return to their perfection until the son of Perez [viz. : we recite a blessing over it. are the toledoth (generations) of Perez'. that is spelled here fully.). Adam was terrified. twelve during the night of the Sabbath. 2. Huna in Rab's name. His light [reaches] unto the ends of the earth (ib. hence it is ba'adeni (Ps.e.\ i. the Holy One. This agrees with Samuel.XII. written.e. Levi said in the name of the son of Nezirah That light functioned thirty-six hours. : was written. 15) now come for me What flints did the Lord do him ? He made him which he struck against each other. : this whole passage v. Nahman: Though these things were created in their ful2 ness. the light as it is written. 6] MIDRASH KABBAH sun set on the night of the Sabbath. yet when Adam sinned they were spoiled. for Samuel said: Why do we find two recite a blessing over a lamp [fire] at the termination of the Sabbath? Because it was then created for the first time. light came forth and he uttered a blessing over it. because the fire rested the whole 1 R. 8 The six things whose restoration is symbolised by the inclusion of the waw. and twelve on the Sabbath [day].

3 The passage is difficult. 'For as the days of a tree. hundreds. and holds that the point of similarity is not only the length of life. etc.P. ' Y. as it is said. while miuth implies [another] two hundred cubits. 1 8). 3 Whence do we know it of the fruit of the earth and the fruit of the tree ? For as the seed of peace. R. viz. R. B. and the luminaries. Whence do we know it? From the word komemiuth : komah implies one hundred cubits. His immortality? For as the days of a tree shall be the days of My people (Isa. xxx. She is a tree of life to them that lay hold upon her (Prov. Abbahu refers to the verse. 6-7 and the fruit It of trees. Hiyya taught: That means. looa. Whence do we know his lustre ? But they that love him shall be as the sun of when hegoethforthin his might (Judg. 93 . : i. Yohai said: Tree' refers to no jght but the Torah. Simeon b.' Rain M. 26). fearing no creature. a half per annum. : ' ' length]: go and calculate. but also the manner of growth. 31). the fruit of the earth [XII.T. while an infant comes out from his mother's womb a cubit and a half [in : : komemiuth (Lev. 7sa. R. with an erect bearing. he assumes it to mean the longest-lived one. explains R. R. Berekiah stated R. Eleazar b. and the light of the sun shall be sevenfold.e. 22). Heaven and earth have offspring: 'These are the offspring of the heaven and of the earth. the light of the moon shall i2). his height. etc. Sanh.S. Judan said It indicates a height of one hundred cubits.B.GENESIS (BERESHITH) immortality. v. V. 7. the sycamore. z Miuth is read as me'oth. 4 Moreover. Hence man will be immortal like the Torah itself. His height? xxvi. All have offspring. adds R. 2 R. As no tree is specified. the vine shall give her fruit. as the light of the seven days (Isa. vui. a cubit and. the text having 'a lopped-off cubit'. which is the * The vine shall give her fruit average size of a new-born babe. as when it was first created. the verse teaching that the height of men shall be as much as if they were to grow uniformly for six hundred years at one and a half cubits per annum. R. Dosa's name: A sycamore tree continues growing in the earth six hundred years. 'A cubit and a half is based on a different 1 : ' reading. l And I will make you go upright LXV. Abbahu said: Nine hundred cubits. The luminaries ? be as the light of the sun. Simeon said Three hundred. 13). (Zech. rather less than a cubit. ill. R. which gives nine hundred cubits. Simeon said Two hundred. Abbahu's reason in R. and measure in the same speed implies.

they were of the terrestial: And God said: Let the earth put forth grass (ib. 8. BEHIBBARAM : R. Simeon b. i. 20). ! the celestial and the terrestial worlds. see are the offspring of heaven and God created the heaven His creations were of there be a firmament. II. WHEN THEY WERE CREATED BEHIBBARAM. creates but is not created. and there will be no peace in the universe while if he is of the terrestial world it will be likewise. R. Said He ' : If I create him belonging to the celestial world. (ib. is created. In the beginning and the earth? On the second day. those of dew are the fruit of the earth. but what has no offspring neither dies nor decays. And so Resh Lakish cited: Dominion and fear are with Him. 14) the fifth. for the sake of Abraham. which is of the upper world. 2). 1 : 'Azariah said in the name of Rabbi: This was said in reference to the One above. 3 Lit. on the And God said: Let . 6) on the third. Now all that you earth. of the celestial Let there be light (ib. On the : . as it is said. But lo I will create him as partaking of both . though in different order: a*r&rO. Lakish said That refers to the pearls of dew. (Gen. both words contain the same letters. He came to create man. for the sake of peace/ Hence it is written. amaKii. 'for Abraham'. Karhah said: in lettering with beabraham 3 1 is identical i. those of the earth are plant life and human life. this will outnumber the terrestial by one creation. which imply that dew is in the category of things that beget (Y. Joshua b. 28)? Dew has offspring: Who hath begotten the drops of dew (ib. z And everything that followed was derived from these. the celestial world: etc. Drops of water lying in the dew which look like pearls. but cannot create. and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life (ib. The offsprings of heaven are the luminaries .T.e. Then the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground. In Heb.). decays. n). It was taught: Whatever has offspring dies. 94 .XII. 9. 7~9l MID RASH KABBAH has offspring: Hath the rain a father (Job xxxvm. fourth.) ? R. y sixth day. The deduction in respect of dew is from the words father and begotten. 7). of the terrestial: Let the waters swarm etc. He maketh peace in His high places (Job xxv.

create His world. the wild beast hears it and flees. Nahman: 'As I have heard that you are a master of haggadah. verse: Thou art the Lord. even Thou alone . : ! 10. 18): thus for whose sake were the high mountains created ? For the sake of the wild goats. The rocks are a refuge for the conies (ib. compiler of the Mishnah. There is not a place which has not an officer appointed : over its highways. 95 . etc.}. effort2 R. throws her into a state of panic and she beats with her horns [on the rocks]. whereas the heh demands no similarly. Extol Him that rideth upon the skies. and The heavens were already made (ib. blessed be He. Jewish thought knows nothing of recalcitrant matter fighting against God and refusing to be shaped 4 into a world. would not be the famous R. Jast. tell me the meaning of.) the coney takes shelter under the crag from the flying bird. R.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XII. 5 Theodor. Johanan's name: He created them letter heh. how much the more for the sake of Abraham afraid of wild beasts . 9-10 whom He was quoted on this statement of R. Lit. Judah the Nasi. 6). Samuel b. 1 All letters demand an effort to . blessed be He. created His world thus for the sake of unclean things. 7). but By the word of the Lord (Ps. The high mountains are for the wild goats (Ps. Thou art the Lord God. who etc. lest it devour it. ix. Thou hast made heaven (continuing the whole passage) (Neh. A mere word. xxxni. Judan said: It is not the high mountains are the wild goats/ but. WHEN THEY WERE CREATED BEHIBBARAM. LXVIII. Karhah the didst choose Abram. 5) ? There is not Said he to him a single place which has not someone appointed to rule over it 5 thus a commissioner in a province is appointed ' ' : : 1 2 3 Reading ajoarD as two words: Being a mere aspirate. z R. R. This. Then if the Holy One. Judah II. 'Azariah Joshua b. pronounce them. Now the hind is weak and one day to raise up. but his grandson. blessed be He. of course. the Holy One. and the work was finished. 'all letters take hold of the tongue'. Abbahu with the said in R. R. Judah the Nasi 4 asked R. 6). civ. not with labour or wearying toil did the Holy One. be-Jah is His name (Ps. (ib. written 'On when therefore she wishes to drink. and what was all this toil for? Because.

so are the wicked: their erectness shall be bent and their faces blackened [with shame] in the Messianic future. and he did not explain a magistrate in a province Similarly. R. even so. who is : ' it thus. Translating: for the Lord. The pillars of heaven tremble and are astonished at His rebuke (Job xxvi. Johanan's with a h& created He name. but By the word of the Lord. 96 . 8). It was like a king who rebuked his servant. : follows that this world created an indication that all the dead upper hook is an indication that thence the opening at the side ascend to destined are they 4 The next world was created with is a hint to penitents. I. by means of rp (yod h) is the Rock (i. Trust ye in the Lord for ever. n.XII. 10] to its governorship MIDRASH KABBAH .e. BE-HIBBARAM. its . 18). Eleazar. blessed be He "Be-Jah is His name" means biyah (governorship) is His name/ 1 'Alas for those who are gone and will not return!' 2 he exclaimed.. 4 That the way is open for a return to God. blessed be He. shall utterly pass away (ib. viz. it 'BE-HIBBARAM means. create His world. l Judah b. viz.e. xxvi. BE-HIBBARAM: with a he created He them. What will he [the wicked] say? that is by means of a and open underneath Now the he closed on all sides descend into she'ol. 17). to its governorship. n). a yod: as the yod has a bent [curved] back. supra. and the heavens were already made'. this world and the future world. 4) means: 3 By these two letters did the Lord create His world/ Now we do not know whether this world was created with a he or the next world with a yod. so that he stood still in bewilderment. Abbahu said in R. Berekiah said in the name of R. 6 1 2 Reading bijah instead of be-J(Y)ah. And the loftiness of man shall be bowed down And the idols (ib. but from what R. But the verse. as it is written. Simon: Not with labour or wearying toil did the Holy One. like the letter he. the dead. vm. I asked R. for the Lord be-Jah is an everlasting Rock (Isa. was is them/ he. 5 The universe went on expanding until rebuked by God (v. This rebuke was wordless and consisted of a single sound. Creator) of worlds. R. is appointed appointed to the governorship of His world ? The Holy One.

e. y). But the Holy One. . R. Johanan said: When a mortal king builds a palace. R. R. after having built the lower stories he builds the upper ones. after this he procures the anchors. Just as the snow is created out of heaven. . in. . 15. : : : unto one place . born out of the earth! proof is The text is necessary : 97 H . (Ps. all are of the dust. and it riseth not (Job ix. He proves this from the following Praise ye the Lord [ye that were created] hosts from the heavens . all His angels moon sun etc. 10) just as the rain's creation is from the earth. Simeon b. R. . earth was created from nought but heaven. Eliezer said: was created out of heaven. CXLVIII. He proves it from the following For He saith to the snow : Be thou on the earth. Johanan and Resh Lakish discussed this. . created the upper stories and the lower stories in a single act. . . 1 R. though its existence is on the earth. Who commandeth the sun (heres). i. . LV. . . 20). ye sea-monsters mountains hills beasts cattle fire and hail R. 6). . . Judan proved it from the following: All go . .GENESIS (BERESHITH) 11. . R. and ix. 11-12 All that is in heaven and R. blessed be He. 7 f). so all that is in heaven and on earth was created from the earth alone. The proof follows from a play on words. 2 12. assumes that some emendation of the both here and in Eccl. as it is written. . . Nahman said: Even the sun's orb. . Eliezer [XII. and all that : is on earth was created out of the earth. Joseph's name Whatever is in heaven and on earth was created from the earth alone. . first he brings the beams. supra. Huna said in R. For as the rain cometh down and the snow from heaven (Isa. 20. though it falls from heaven. as it is said. etc. and then erects the masts. (Job xxxvn. I. . 3. but the Holy One. 3 R. . blessed be He. maintained: All that is in heaven on and Joshua (ib. . Praise ye Him. . D*in (sun) being identified with ann. R. created them [heaven and earth] and their 1 4 not clear and Th. then the ropes. . Lakish said: When a human being builds a ship. HI. . so everything that is in heaven and on earth was created from nought but heaven. earth (Eccl. . Joshua differed. i) Praise the Lord [ye that were created] from the earth. a potsherd which is made from clay thus even the sun was 8 Cf. R. . .

XII. Resh Lakish holds that heaven and earth are equal units in the universe. whereas Beth Hillel say: Both intention and fulfilment were by day. who carry on the world. Thus saith God the Lord. 12-14] 1 MIDRASH RABBAH crew. R. Lakish R. 3 in the course of time it is bound to acquire rust. Beth Shammai and Beth Hillel : differ. 5). (Isa. but here in truth. and both were created to carry out the design of the Divine Architect. Simeon b. while fulfilment [came] by day. He that we-notehem created the heavens and stretched them forth this is written we-nawtehem (and their XLII. after a while it is bound to slacken slightly. Y. month ends and another commences. Lakish: It is written. Simeon b. as it is written. a year ends and another commences. R. * How strange that these two verses follow each other: what is the connection between them ? 2 : ' ' 1 6 Thus this proves the statement of Resh Lakish. 98 . R. 'Azariah observed in regard to this statement of R. Beth Shammai maintain The intention [to create was conceived] at night. Canst thou with Him spread out the sky (Job xxxvn. Isaac and R. Therefore he compares it to a ship. and yet they remain as WHEN THEY WERE CREATED. He thus compares the universe to a building . 8 Lit. R. a week ends and another commences.in which the lower stories serve as a support to the upper ones. 5 14. 'Because that in it He rested from all His work which God in creating had made. casts a lump of material whether of metal (as is obviously meant here) or glass. Isaac said: up a tent.). IN THE DAY THAT THE LORD GOD MADE EARTH AND HEAVEN. These are the offspring of the heaven!'* But a day ends and a a day commences. Johanan.T. Simeon The people. therefore it is stated. mariners). 2 13. 18)? And should you say that they are slack. earth being subsidiary to it. holds that heaven plays the major role in God's scheme. Resh Lakish said: When a mere When a mortal sets mortal makes a casting. however. Which is strong as a molten mirror (tb. all whose parts co-operate in the one purpose of making it go. but in truth here they are 'Strong as a molten mirror' : they [the heavens] look like a [glittering] breastplate.

4 Cf. 1 ! . that it should not be (Ps. : ! [XII. empty .. they will burst. 1 I will confer an never be deprived/ didst establish the earth upon its desire. said the Holy One. Rome under the Emperors. * expression. This may be compared to a king who had some 15. civ. Hence I will create it it on the ' ! basis of judgment and of mercy.. while Elohim describes Him as a God of : 3 Before the other legions. Who foundations. B This is to explain why earth is mentioned here before heaven. Beth Shammai and Beth Hillel. 2 The Rabbis hold tho. immediately after the intention. glasses. its sins will be great on the basis of judgment alone. blessed be He Because the a legion which was the : ' : earth was the first to fulfil honour upon her of which she Hence it is written. the world cannot exist. differ over the creation of heaven and earth In truth. 8. THE LORD GOD [MADE EARTH AND HEAVEN]. 9. while the fulfilment was at the standstill of the sun. 3 Said the this was Since the first to proclaim me king. intention [was conceived] both by day and by night. vui.t Adonai (the Tetragrammaton) refers to God under His Attribute of Mercy. if cold. legion king I will give it a preferment which shall never be taken from it/ Even so said the Holy One. THE to EARTH AND HEAVEN. This frequently happened in judgment. 14-16 Yohai observed I am astonished How could the fathers of the world. they will contract [and snap]. first This may be compared to proclaim the king. 99 . and may then stand Hence the LORD Goo. the time in the morning and the evening when the sun appears to stand still or be silent dawn and sunset. My 4 will moved for ever and ever 5 Jast. and so they remained [unbroken]. Said the king: 'If I pour hot water into them. supra. blessed be He: 'If I create the world on the basis of mercy alone. Even so. 2 16. s).GENESIS (BERESHITH) b.' What then did the king do ? He mixed hot and cold water and poured it into them.

9) P 1 Said R. 6ob. 2 whereas this refers to the inhabited world. they no longer afforded protection. etc. All the trees. conversed (masihim) with each other. Here you say. 5). it etc. all the trees. 12. all the 5 A man trees were created for man's companionship. Cf. This passage was possible only in a community essentially agricultural.. or has the earth not produced?' 8 And all mankind's prayers concern the earth: 'Lord! All 1 verse implies that there was no plant-life yet on the sixth regarded as a continuation of Ch. M. as it were. he must take steps to protect himself from them. yet they some8 times harm him. 4 2. I~2] CHAPTER XIII (BERESHITH) 'SHRUB'] OF THE FIELD WAS (n. were. The sighing of the wind in the trees is poetically conceived as their speech. such as was Palestine Jewry. i). 5 Others were created for man's hurt i..XIII. the conversation of mankind concerns the earth: 'Has the earth produced. This reading is more in accordance with the story that follows. Hul. 3 As distinct from the Garden of Eden. interprets: though the trees are primarily for man's benefit.K.e. as in the story quoted. IOO . converse. which implies that plant life had already appeared on the third day). 7 Man. 2 As appears from the rest of this verse and the following one. (ib. And the Lord God had made to grow out of the ground.V. in accordance with I. 6 Others: then a spirit came the spirits that dwell in trees. No TREE [E.: the fruit on the trees protects man from the wind that : blows through them. : Eden.J. but the trees and herbs only reached the surface of the ground. No TREE yet further on you read. etc. fliyya taught: In both places nothing grew until rain descended upon them. until rain descended (in answer to Adam's prayer) and made first The day (this being states that : them grow. 4 He reconciles the verses thus The earth was endowed with plant-life on the third day. (the Midrash treats the verb as pluperfect. hence the Midrash connects it with the verb siah to speak. then the wind blew and caused him hurt. conversed with mankind. leaving the vines bare. and 'E. and of his in the fruits once gathered vineyard spent the 6 7 night in it. while the second God had already made to grow. hence when this man had gathered the grapes. etc. Irlanina The verse below refers to the Garden of i.The passage is based on the use of siah for tree instead of the more usual 'ez. YET IN THE EARTH OF THE FIELD. No as SIAH (TREE) OF THE FIELD. 3 R.

etc. may the Temple be rebuilt and When Temple ' ' ' : ! will the Temple be rebuilt?' 1 3. or 'Lord. Lord God/ appears the first time in II. (Jer. infra. What is Who doeth great things and unsearchable (Job v. as you read: Deep calleth unto deep at the sound of Thy 5. being also the object of sacrifices (Th. Thus these constitute 'great things and unsearchable'. however. 12). Lord. 13). ' 2 God's full name. za. Rain is withheld until God this has allowed Himself to be propitiated for Israel's sins and forgiven them. 6 Thou hast been favourable means with rain. v. 3 to teach that without earth there would be no rain and without rain earth could not endure. are for the successful Lord. And poureth out his petition (siho) before the Lord (Ps. and rain. Thou hast land (Ps. cf. while without either 4. z). LXXXV. the proof? ? wherewith By Giving rain upon the earth and sending 9) waters upon the fields (ib* io). 2-5 may the earth yield [fruit]'. 3 4 In Hebrew: atw. Temple. XLII. en. 8). xxn. man. x. which is dependent on it. At the sound of His giving a multitude of waters in the heavens (ib.GENESIS (BERESHITH) ' ! [XIII. also applied to the creation. DK. : man could not exist. been favour able unto 1 Thy evidence of propitiation. Others translate and explain differently. may the earth be All the prayers of Israel. i). IOI . Yohai said: Three things are equal in importance. similarly it is mentioned here. while field is made to refer to the 7. after the world has been completed . The full Name [of God] is employed in connection with a full world. R.. Isaac said: It [rain] is even as are sacrifices. written. Levi b. R. FOR THE LORD GOD HAD NOT CAUSED IT TO RAIN UPON THE EARTH. 4 R. : rain. cf. Hoshaya said Wonderful is the might of rain. for reckoned as equivalent to the whole of creation. viz. Ta'an. 5 Now 'sound' signifies nought but it is . R. because rainfall is as important as the whole of creation. 4. which term is 5 Thus the two are equated. R. tns. on the basis of Ta'an. Simeon b. tliyyatha said: And these three each consist of three letters. Aha proved it from the following He that hath made the earth by His power. Simon said as it is : Here siah is connected with prayer. cataracts (Ps. 76). earth. 6 R. it is similarly 2 employed in connection with the fall of rain.

XIII.

5~"6]

MIDRASH KABBAH
:

1 Thou hast turned It will gather in the dispersed exiles the captivity of Jacob (ib.). R. Johanan said: It dissipates

[God's] wrath: Thou hast withdrawn all Thy wrath (ib. 4). 2 R. Tanhum b. IJanilai said It makes atonement for sins, for
:

it is

said,

Thou hast forgiven

the iniquity of

Thy people

3

(ib. 3).

said It is as important as resurR. Hiyya, said: The Sages too son of Abba, inserted it [the prayer for rain] in the blessing of the resurrection of the dead, 4 for 'hand* and 'opening' are used in connection with both. Hand in connection with the one [resurrection] The hand of the Lord was upon me 5 (Ezek. xxxvn, i) and 'hand' in connection with the other
6.

R. Hiyya b.

Abba

:

rection. R.

'

*

:

;

[rain]: Thou openest Thy hand, and satisfiest every living thing with favour (Ps. CXLV, 16). 'Opening' in connection with the one [rain] The Lord will open unto thee His good
:

treasure the heaven to give the rain of thy land (Deut. xxvm, 12); 'opening* in connection with the other [re-

surrection]: Behold, I will open your graves (Ezek. ib. 12). R. Judan said in R. Eleazar's name: 'Song' is mentioned
in connection with both. 'Song' in connection with the one: Let those who dwell in the rock sing (Isa. XLII, n) 6 ' Thou hast song in connection with the other [rain]
; '
:

remembered the earth and watered her
y

.

.

.

The valleys
p

also

are covered over with corn; they shout for joy yea, they sing (Ps. LXV, 10, 14). R. Hiyya b. Ba said: It is greater than resurrection, for whereas resurrection is for man alone,
,

this is for

man and

whereas
1

this is for Israel

beast; again, resurrection and the nations. 7

is

for Israel,

2

Probably

'E.J.: it is as beneficial as the gathering of the exiles. this is similar in meaning to R. Isaac's teaching.
'

3

All these follow Thou hast been favourable', as indicating the influence or value of rain.
'

and are therefore regarded

4 The second blessing of the Eighteen benedictions ', known as the 'Amidah, which form the principal part of the daily service. 5 This commences the narrative which relates the resurrection of the 6 Those who dwell in the rock are the buried dead: they dry bones. are to sing when they are resurrected. 7 Y.T. These symbolise the righteous and the wicked respectively, in accordance with the actual $ext in Ta'an. 7<z, for the righteous of the
:

Gentiles, too, will share in resurrection.

IO2

GENESIS (BERESHITH)

[XIII. 6-9

him: and we have festivals; we do not 1 rejoice when you do, and you do not rejoice when we do. When then do we both rejoice together?' 'When the rain descends/ What is the proof? The meadows are clothed with flocks (ib.)\ what follows? Shout unto God, all the earth
certain Gentile asked R. Joshua, observing to
festivals

A

'You have

(Ps. LXVI, i): not priests, Levites, or Israelites is written here but, 'All the earth.' R. Joshua b. Levi said When rain falls [i.e. in spring], cattle long to rut. What is the proof? The rams clothe the flocks, etc., i.e. the males go up on the ewes, this being
:

a

more
7.

refined expression.

AND THERE WAS NOT
(n, 5):
i.e.

A

MAN TO TILL
is

THE GROUND

there

no

man

to

(LA'ABOD) make men

serve (le'abbed) the Holy One, blessed be He, as Elijah 3 did. 2 What, there is no man to inspire service to the Lord ?

Man was
he
is

toils in

the Torah;

created for nought but toil if he is deserving, if not, he labours in the soil. Happy
:

the
8.

man whose

toil is in

the Torah

4
!

THE LORD GOD CAUSED IT TO RAIN UPON THE EARTH, though THERE WAS NOT A MAN: a covenant
has been made with the earth, as it says, To cause it to rain on a land where no man is, on the wilderness, wherein is no

man

(Job xxxvni, 26).

5

9. etc. (n, 6).
1 2

BUT THERE WENT UP A MIST FROM THE EARTH,
All the
rivers

run into the

sea,

yet the sea

is

not

Since our festivals do not coincide, verse implies that rain falls for the sake of man. Hence when there is a drought, we must assume that the reason is because no man inspires service to God; this follows from reading le'abbed (to cause to serve) instead of la'abod, to serve (E.V. 'till'}. 3 Surely that is not the meaning of the verse * The verse is rendered thus : And when there is no man to make (men) serve (God), then they serve the ground (Th.). 6 Theodor: Scripture writes, For the Lord God had not caused it to rain and there was not a man, etc., yet continues (v. 6) but there went up a mist from the earth, and watered the whole face of the ground. Thus even before man's creation there was rain, because a covenant, etc., i.e. rain, is a part of the scheme of Nature as created by God and is independent

The

1

:'

of

man.

103

XIII. 9]
full (EccL
I,

MIDRASH KABBAH
7).

travelling on the great

R. Eliezer and R, Joshua were once 1 sea, when their ship entered a non-

2 flowing stretch of water. Said R. Eliezer to R. Joshua: 'We have come here simply for a test/ 3 Thereupon they filled a barrel of water from there. When they arrived in Rome, Hadrian asked them, 'What is the nature of the water of the Ocean [i.e. the Mediterranean] ? 'It is water
'

poured absorbed
(ib.) [is

that absorbs other water/ replied they. 'Show [i.e. prove] it to me/ he demanded. [They filled] a flaskful of that and more [ordinary] water therein, and the former
it.

4

In the opinion of R. Eliezer, thither they return
;

meaning of the verse] in the opinion 5 of R. Joshua, it is, 'thither they return to go on' (/&.). 6 R. R. drink? earth the How did Nehemiah, and Judah, the Rabbis gave different answers. R. Judah said: Like
the essential
:

7 the Nile which repeatedly waters [the land of Egypt]. R. Nehemiah said Like a flood, like the Kebaria that grows and inundates. 8 The Rabbis said: Like an overflowing river 9 (tuway); there is a river in Babylonia named Tuway.

Even

so did the earth drink

:

at first,

THERE WENT

UP A MIST FROM THE EARTH, AND WATERED THE
1
2

I.e.

the Mediterranean.

water was quite stationary, and the vessel could not make its normal progress. It is the work of Providence that we have come to this place, so that we can carry out a test with this water, to prove that it possesses peculiar properties which corroborate the Scriptural assertion. * For that reason it never becomes full, though all the rivers flow into it. 8 This is difficult. 'Rashi' R. Eliezer, who suggested this test, knew the property of this water, though he had never been there before. The reason was that he interpreted the phrase thither they return as meaning that all waters discharge into the Ocean and remain there; hence the Ocean does not overflow only because it absorbs what it receives. R. Joshua, however, did not suggest this trial because he interpreted the verse, thither they return in order to go on,' i.e. they enter at one point and flow out at another, eventually continuing their course in other rivers; hence he was not bound to R. Eliezer' s assumption. A different text in cur. edd. gives rise to an entirely different explanation by commentaries. 6 M.K. : before the advent of rain. 7 By its annual overflow. Similarly, the mist went up and watered the 8 The river !ebaria has not been identified. ground. 9 Theodor thinks that the text is corrupt and suggests that it should be emended: R. Nehemiah said: Like the Kebaria; the Rabbis say: Like an overflowing river.
Lit. translation; i.e. the
3
: '

104

WHOLE

GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XIII. 9-11 FACE OF THE GROUND; but the Holy One,

blessed be He, reconsidered the matter and decided that it should drink from above only. R. IJanan of Sepphoris said in the name of R. Samuel b. Nahman: On account of

four things did the Holy One, blessed be He, subsequently decide that the earth should drink only from above first, because of lawless men1 secondly, in order to wash away obnoxious vapours thirdly, that the highlands might drink equally with the lowlands and fourthly, that all might lift their eyes heavenwards; thus it is written, That the lowly
: ;

;

;

may

lift

[their eyes]

heavenwards (Job

v,

n).

2

10. And whence does the earth drink? R. EHezer and R. Joshua disagree. R. Eliezer said From the waters of the
:

Ocean, for
:

it is

written,

BUT THERE WENT UP
etc.

A MIST
I

FROM THE EARTH AND WATERED,

Said R. Joshua

to him But surely the waters of the Ocean are salty They are sweetened in the clouds, replied he, for it is written, Which the skies distil (ib. xxxvi, 28) where are they dis:

tilled [Le.

sweetened]? In the skies [clouds]. R. Joshua
drinks] from the upper waters, for it is drinketh water as the rain of heaven cometh

said:

[The earth

written,

And

down (Deut. xi, n); the clouds, however, mount up to heaven and receive them [the waters] as from the mouth of a bottle, for it is written, They gather up (yazokku) water into its cloud (ib.)? They distil it as from a sieve, not one drop
touches another, for
the thick clouds (n called shehakim?
it is written, Distilling waters from Sam. XXH, i2). 4 Why are they [the clouds] Resh Lakish said: Because they break

up (shohakim) the [mass of] water [into rain drops]. Said R. Abba b. Kahana They do this like the entrails of an animal. 6
:

R. Johanan and Resh Lakish discussed this. R. Johanan said: Clouds come from above, as it is written,
1

n.

Who would steal other people's water if it were gathered on the ground.
'

2

3

E.V. So that He setteth up on high those that are low' E.V. Which distil rain from his vapour.' Here, however, yazo kttu is connected with zifca, a water gourd, and the verse is translated; they * E.V. Gathering of waters, thick clouds.' gather water like a gourd. * Which break in the process of digestion. the food up
c
'

105

XIII. 11-12]

MIDRASH KABBAH

Andy behold, with the clouds of heaven (Dan. vn, 13). Resh Lavish maintained: Clouds come from below, for it says, Who causeth the vapours [clouds] to ascend from the ends of the earth (Ps. cxxxv, 7). In the view of R. Johanan it is
like a

man who

presented his neighbour with a cask of
'

wine together with the vessel. 1 In the view of Resh Lakish it is like a man who asked his neighbour, Lend me a se'ah of wheat/ to which he replied, 'Bring your basket and come and measure it out/ Similarly, the Holy One, blessed be He, says to the earth: 'Bring your clouds and
receive rain/
12. It [the cloud] has five

names:
it

'ab, ed,

'anan, nasi,

haziz.
skies

'Ab (thick): because
it is

thickens

[i.e.
r

darkens]
abe) of the

the face of the sky, as

said,

The

thick clouds

(

(n

UP

A

Sam. xxn, 12). Ed: BUT THERE WENT CLOUD (ED) FROM THE EARTH: [it is so
because
it

called]

because

And
Nasi:
7)
:

it

'Anan: makes men meek ('anawim) towards each other. 3 is written, With the clouds of ('anane) heaven.'
it

discomfits

the

2

speculators.

(

41

causeth the clouds (nesi'im) to ascend (Ps. cxxxv, so called] because it makes men princes (nesi'im) towards each other. 5 Haziz : And a way for the cloud
[it is
'

Who

storm') of thunders (Job xxvm, 26): so (haziz E.V. called because it achieves [awe-inspiring] sights 6 in the
1

Similarly,

2

Ed

(IK) is

xxxn, 35 : increasing the crops, frustrates the speculators
prices.
3

supplies both the clouds from above and their rain. identified with ed (-PK), calamity, destruction, in Deut. For the day of their destruction (edam) is at hand. Rain, by

God

who wish

to force

up

The realisation that all are dependent on it naturally tends to reduce their arrogance. Or as Mah.: One man may have a successful barley crop, another a successful wheat harvest, so that each needs the other,
4

relevance of this verse is not apparent; perhaps he translates: (sc. the angels) of the heaven. Possibly, however, it is misplaced, and should be quoted at the beginning 'anan, as it is written, 'With the clouds of ('anane) heaven.' The edd. omit it altogether. 5 Either in the sense of independent of each other, because produce is very cheap when the rain has caused an abundant harvest; or arrogant, when one man's crops are successful while the other man's are a failure, and so he must become a suppliant of the other.

The

With the meek ones

;

6

IJesyonoth

fr.

ftizzayon.
1 06

GENESIS (BERESHITH)
1

[XIII. 12-13

sky and causes the Holy Spirit to rest upon men, as you read, The vision (hazon) of Isaiah (Isa. I, i). R. Simeon b. Gamaliel said: It [the earth] has four names: erez, tebel, adamah, arka. The name erez corresponds to the vernal equinox which forces up (me-'alzah) the crops 2 tebel, to the summer solstice which lends savour to (me-tdbbeleth) the crops; adamah, to the autumn, when the ground consists of clods of earth (adamaKf\ arka corresponds to the winter 4 which causes the crops to
;

wither (moreketh).
13.

How much
?

rain

for fructification 5

must descend As much as would

that
fill

it

may

suffice

a vessel of three

handbreadths. 6 This is R. Meir's opinion. R. Judah said: In hard [soil], one handbreadth; in average [soil], two; in humid [soil], three. 7 R. Simeon b. Eleazar said: Not one handbreadth [of rain] descends from above without the earth bringing up two handbreadths [of moisture] to meet it. What is the proof? Deep calleth unto deep at the voice of 8 Thy cataracts (Ps. XLII, 8). R. Levi said: The upper waters are male while the lower are female, 9 and they say one to the other Receive us you have been created by the Holy One, blessed be He, whilst we are His messengers/ Immediately they receive them; thus it is written, Let the
'
:

;

sky pour down righteousness ;
like a
1
2

let the

earth open (Isa. XLV, 8)

female

who

receives the male; That they

may

bring
.

The clouds causing the sky to assume various colours (v. supra, iv, 7) 3 The summer heat breaks up This connects ere$ with alez, to force. the ground and then the autumn rain kneads it into moist clods. * Lit. the solstice of Tebeth. Tebeth is the tenth month, generally falling from about the middle of December to the middle of January. 6 J. Ber. ix states that one must recite a blessing for rain when it descends in sufficient measure for fructification (reb'iati). 8 Var. lee.: As would fill the ploughing implement of three handbreadths. The plough dug three handbreadths into the soil, and this
means that the rain too must penetrate this distance. 7 There must be enough rain to penetrate three handbreadths into humid (lit. sated with moisture) soil, two into average soil, and one
'
'

into hard
8

soil.

calleth unto deep implies two parts from below as against the one part implied in at the voice of Thy cataracts t which refers to the rain from

Deep

above.

*

V. supra, n, 4;

v, 4.

107

XIII. 13-153

MIDRASH RABBAH

that they are fruitful forth (we-yifru) salvation (ib.)m 1 let her cause righteousness to And and ; multiply (parim) I the Lord have created it (tb.) : this spring up together; refers to the fall of rain. '/ the Lord have created it' : I have created it for the benefit and stability of the world.

14.

R. Berekiah said:
earth,

When

there ascended contrition

from the

then

straightway

IT
2

WATERED THE
is

WHOLE FACE OFTHEGROUND.

That

consistent

with R. Berekiah's view, for R. Berekiah said:

My doctrine
:

as rain (Deut. xxxii, 2) means: (likhi) shall drop (ya'arof) let men break their stubbornness, and the rain shall
3 immediately descend. R. Menahma said in Rabin's name In the Diaspora they are called 'the broken-necked people", for they break their necks [i.e. repent] and straightway

rain descends.

15.

How much rain must fall for one to recite a blessing? 4

R. Jose said in Rab Judah's name, and R. Jonah and Rab Judah said in Samuel's name: At the beginning, as much as will fructify [the earth]; at the end, even just a little. 5 R. IJiyya said in R. Johanan's name: At the beginning, sufficient to fructify; at the end, enough to wash the surface of the roof tiles. R. Jannai b. Ishmael said in the name of Resh Lakish: At the beginning, sufficient to
1
2

derived from parah, to be fruitful. too, connects ed, cloud, with ed, destruction, and he translates thus: Let there ascend from the earth the breaking of one's evil desires (or, the breaking of one's stubbornness against repentance),
Yifru
is

R. Berekiah,

it shall water, etc. derives ya-'arof from 'araf, to break the neck (cf . Deut. xxr, 7 : we-'arpu, and they shall break the heifer's neck) while 'neck' is a synonym for stubbornness in sin, cf Ex. xxxn, 9, referring to the making of the golden calf; It is a stiffnecked (keshe 'oref) people. Thus he translates: doctrine (or, teaching) shall break down their stubbornness, When 4 V. p. 107, n. 5. there shall be rain.

and then
*

He

;

.

My

Theodor: 'At the beginning' and 'at the end mean when the rain commences, and when it has already fallen respectively. Mah.: In the latter case the rain is more necessary, and so a blessing must be said even for a small quantity. 'E.J.: Because at the end the earth is already sated (therefore even a small rainfall is effective). 'Rashi': 'At the end" means
at the

5

1

second

rainfall (reb'iah); v.

Ta'an. 6b.
1

08

GENESIS (BERESHITH)
fructify; at the end,

[XIII. 15-16
1

enough bung [stopper]. But no matter how much rain descends the bung is not dissolved! 2 But it must look as though it were dissolved. How must one say the blessing? 3 Even as we learned: For rain and for good tidings one recites the blessing, 4 '[Blessed is He] who is good and doeth good/ R. Berekiah in the name of R. Levi derived this from the following:
cold water to a faint soul, so is good news from a far country (Prov. xxv, 25): just as for good news [one says], 'Blessed is He who is good and doeth good/ so for cold
rain] one recites the blessing, 'Blessed is He 5 good and doeth good/ Rab Judah said: Thus did father Ezekiel give praise: 'Thy Name be blessed, my exalted, and magnified, for every single drop which Thou 6 bringest down to us and keepest apart one from the other/ R. Judan b. R. Simeon said: [He can keep them apart]
[i.e.

to dissolve the

As

water

who

is

because

causes them to fall in measure, [as it is written], draweth away (yigra') the drops of water (Job xxxvi, 27) [' yigra' being used] in the sense of And an abatement shall be made (we-nigra') from thy valuation

He

For

He

'

(Lev. xxyn, i8). R. Jose b. Jacob went
[in

7

up

to visit R.

8 Judan of Magdala

sickness],

when he heard

his voice blessing

[God]:

9 Thy name countless times for every single drop which Thou causest to descend for us, wherewith Thou requitest good to the unworthy/ Said he

'We must

give thanks to

to

him: 'Thus did R. Simon recite the blessing/ R. Ze'ira said: Elsewhere we learnt: When cheapness rules in the world or a river [overflows and] supplies a country [with water], one recites: 'Blessed is He who is

good and doeth good/
l6.

AND WATERED THE WHOLE
R. Eleazar said in the
*

GROUND].
1

[FACE OF THE name of R. Jose b.

8

2 It is much too strong and firm. Ber. 540; infra, LVII, 2. 5 R. Berekiah quotes the verse to explain why good tidings and rain are generally coupled in the sources. 8 7 6 Near Tiberias. V. supra, rv, 5. V. B.B. i6a. 9 Lit. 'a thousand thousand and ten thousand ten thousand/

The clay bung of a cask. What is the formula?

109

XIII. 16-17]

MIDRASH KABBAH

Zimra: Everything is blessed [by rain]: Commerce is blessed and merchants 1 profit. 2 R. Johanan b. Levi said: The feeble too are relieved. R. Hiyya b. Abba said: The
sick too are relieved, for their limbs become more supple. member of [a sick visiting] society, used to visit the sick. When rain fell R. Hiyya b. Ba would ask him:

Abimi, a
'

to which he would answer Even a precious stone Rabbi said: 'They feels [the rain]. 3 The Rabbis said: Fish too feel it. R. Phinehas related: It once happened at Acco that a fish was caught and judged to weigh three hundred litras, yet when they weighed it it was only two hundred. An old fisherman who was present said to them, 'That is
?
:

How are they [the sick] faring
feel relieved/

'

because rain has not fallen/ After rain fell they caught a fish and estimated it at two hundred litras, yet on weighing it they found it to be three hundred litras!
17.

FACE OF THE GROUND.
The

R. Bleazar b.

Simeon

earth drinks only as far as its upper layer. 4 If so, what are the roots of the sycamore tree and the roots of the carob tree to do? 5 [Moreover], R.IJanina b. Ikah and
said:

R. Berekiah in the

name

of R. Judah said:
;

The

roots of

wheat

fifty cubits into the earth the soft roots of the fig-tree break through the rock? Said R. Levi: Once in thirty days the deep ascends and waters it. What is

strike

down

the proof? I the Lord do guard

it,

I water

it

at certain

moments

R. a face for the ground. 7
1

(Isa. xxvn, 3). Joshua b. Levi said

:

When the rain

descends

it

makes

2

M.K. and 'Rashi'. Theodor prefers a different reading, the feeble-footed, those suffering with gout (podagra). Or, according to Th.: are relieved.
Its lustre increases.

8
*

This follows from the phrase FACE OF THE GROUND. B They go deeper than the crust. 6 Viz. once in thirty days. E.V. 'every moment'. 7 By covering it with plant life, whereas formerly it was bare. This too is deduced from FACE.

IIO

[XIV. 1-2

i.

XIV (BERESHITH) THEN THE LORD GOD FORMED MAN,
CHAPTER
The king by
justice established the land, but
'

etc.

(n,

7).

gifts

(terumoth) overthroweth it (Prov. xxix, 4). refers to the supreme King of kings, the Holy One, blessed

a man of The king'

be He;

By justice establisheth the land' means that He created the world on the basis of justice, as it is written, In the beginning Elohim (E.V. 'God') created (Gen. I, i) 1 ;
'But the man of gifts overthroweth it' refers to Adam, who 2 hallah, the completion of the world, while hallah is designated terumah, as it is written, the Of first of your dough ye shall set apart hallah (E.V. 'a cake') for a gift terumah (Num. xv, 20). R. Jose b. Kezarta3 said: Like a woman who mixes her dough with water and separates hallah from the very centre, even so, at first, There went up a mist from the earth and watered the whole face of the ground, and then THE LORD GOD FORMED MAN OF

'

was the

THE DUST OF THE GROUND.
2.

WAYYIYZER (REFORMED).
Adam

formations, viz. that of

This connotes two and that of Eve. 4 [Another

interpretation] : There is a viable birth at nine [months] and a viable birth at seven [months]. R. Huna said: When

the foetus
if

and it is born at eight months, it cannot live. When it is formed so as to be born at nine but yet it is born at seven months, it cannot live, and all the more so if it is born at eight months. 6 R. Abbahu was asked: 'How do we know that when the foetus is fully developed at seven months it is
Elohim being His name as a God of justice; v. supra, xn, 15, Shab. II explains: When a woman has poured water on the flour she separates hallah. Similarly, when God poured water on to the dust of the ground He separated hallah, which was man; v. also infra, xvn, 8.
1

so formed as to be born at seven months, 5 born either at seven or at nine months, it is viable ;
is

2

J.

The underlying idea is that man is the most sacred part of creation. Possibly: R. Jose the son of a laundress. 4 This section gives various explanations why Scripture writes w*) with two yods, instead of nic" ! with one yody as it is written in v. 19, 5 I.e. it is decreed at its formation that it in reference to animals. should require nine months for its full development.
3
1

*

So Th., M.K.,

'Rashi,'

and Mah. Y.T. and Y.M. translate

differently.

Ill

XIV. 2-43
viable?
1

MIDRASH KABBAH
[language] I will prove
it

'From your own

to you,

1 replied he: 'Live, seven; go, eight/

There were two formations, [one of the nature] of the celestial beings, [the other] partaking of earthly creatures. R. Joshua said in the name of R. lijananiah, and the Rabbis in the name of R. Eleazar: He created him with four attributes of the higher beings
3.
[i.e.

WAYYIYZER:

the angels]

and four of the lower creatures

[i.e.

beasts]. [His attributes of the lower creatures are]: he eats and drinks, like animals; procreates, like animals; excretes, like animals ; and dies, like animals. [His celestial

ministering sees, like the understands, ministering angels. But does not a dumb animal see? This one [man] can see from the side. R. Tifdai said in R. Aha's name: The celestial beings were created in the
upright,

attributes are]: he stands

like the

angels;

and

speaks,

and

image and likeness [of God] and do not procreate, while the terrestial creatures procreate but were not created in [His] image and likeness. Said the Holy One, blessed be

He: Behold,

*

I will create

him [man]

in

[My] image and

likeness; [thus he

will partake] of the [character of the] celestial beings, while he will procreate [as is the nature] of the terrestial beings/ R. Tifdai [also] said in R. Aha's
'

name The Lord reasoned
:

:

If I create

him

of the celestial

elements he will live
create

him

[for ever] and of the terrestial elements,

live [in a future life].

Therefore
;

I

not die; while if I he will die and not will create him of the
will die,

upper and the lower elements if he sins he he dies he will live [in the future life]/ 2
4.
evil.
3

and

if

WAYYIYZER:
For
if

two formations, the good and the an animal possessed two [such] formations, it

??Ta, the Greek letter Zeta, whose numerical value is seven, is let it live! while Tfra (the letter 17), whose phonetically like 77- w, numerical value is eight, sounds like trco, let it go (i.e. die). * For the whole passage v. supra, vm, n.
!

1

Here, however, the context shows that

This generally means the good and the evil side of man's nature. it means: discernment of what is good and what is evil in a physical and material sense.

8

112

hast knit . For thus says Job Wilt Thou not pour me out as milk and curdle me like cheese? Thou wilt : me with skin and fleshy and knit me together with bones sinews (Job x. one in this world and one in the future world. for thus it says in connection with the dead of Ezekiel : And I beheld an d.' a bowl full of me not written. A man who The School of Hillel said: Just as he is formed in this world. not the past. cannot learn xxxvii. derived here from zarar. translation. Said R. it is Imagine 1 2 8 together. 5 * Lit. : under similar circumstances. E. It is not written here.V. 'formed' . In this world the skin and flesh come first. and skin covered them above (Ezek. but in the future he will The School of Shammai and disagree.* but Thou wilt pour pour rne out me out . so in the future will he begin with the skin and flesh and end with the sinews and bones. whenever a trouble came upon him he would remove and cast it from him. has the past. ' me'. 10 f. Jonathan: dead of Ezekiel. but the At the resurrection. 'And with bones and sinews Thou but 'Thou wilt knit me together milk before rennet is put into it 1 . Yet he does not die of fright is E. But surely a man does possess these two faculties! Said R. to tie up. 5 He does not say. 'Thou didst and didst curdle me. In this world skin and flesh are formed first. for what did they resemble ? enters a bath what he takes off first he puts on : We from the last. so will he be formed in the next world. Thou hast clothed me with skin and flesh. and flesh came up. there were sinews upon them. .GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XIV. 8).). 4-5 would die of fright on seeing a man holding a knife to kill 1 it. 3 5. etc. the sinews and bones last. 4 the School of Hillel maintain: His formation in the next world will not be like that of this world. The School of Shammai commence with sinews and bones and and '. . the spirit or soul within him which sustains life. Idi: He bound up* the spirit of man within him (Zech. lo. yozer . finish with the skin flesh. WAYYIYZER: two formations. .V. Midrash here points out that the future tense is used. ' . xu. i).' but Thou wilt clothe clothe and ' . for if that were not so. Hanina (Irlinena) b. Sc. the sinews and bones last. and wilt curdle me'.

skin and flesh ' . R. 15) 'man' means Abraham. greatest R. 5 but you do not bring a corrupt woman into the house of a virtuous one. the Lord God formed man of the ground. the milk the milk curdles and sets. 8. why did the Lord create Abraham in the middle of generations? In order that he might bear the generations before and after him. He viz. reasoned: 'He may sin and there will be none to set first. Hence I will create Adam so that if he b. xxvni. 4. . 9. 12). pour me out as milk me life and favour 6. R. and why is he called the greatest man ? Because he was worthy of being created before Adam. when beams [so that they meet] at a slope. iv. R. m. on Ch. Simon young man) he was created as a fulness. i. By a play on words it is therefore connected with 'ofer CiBiy). R. Johanan said: Adam and Eve were created as at the age of twenty. 4 where does he place them? Surely in the middle of the chamber. xn. a virtuous into the 7. xv. R. 6 R. cf. Ex. blessed be He. Levi said: It is : written.XIV. Wilt Thou not Thou hast granted ' (ib. . e Cf.. xiv. Eccl. as Scripture could have stated. u. . Judah b. it right. supra. a Abba Abraham may come and set things Kahana said: In general practice. Levi said You bring man joints a pair of : house of a corrupt one. interprets the def. but .. Lev. art: For the latter to learn is from her. R. Abraham.e. the outstanding man. while adamah (ground) is feminine: a potter takes male dust [coarse 1 R. supra. xiv. when rennet Thus Job said : is put into it. R. sins.* [THEN THE LORD GOD FORMED] THE MAN: 2 for the sake of Abraham. The man among the Anakim (Josh. 3 V. 'Created 6> AFAR (DUST) Then in his fulness* means. right/ R. superfluous. 3 but the Holy One. with all his vigour and strength. so that they may support the beams in front and behind. . infra. 4 Thus giving them greater strength than if they were laid flat. woman 'AFAR (OF THE DUST). a youth. i et passim. : said [Read this] 'ofer (a young man in his Eve too was created fully developed. Simeon said: : 2 THE MAN. R. Eleazar b. Even so. 114 . 5-7] is MIDRASH KABBAH loose [liquid]. 9. strong man. Huna said: 'ApAR (DUST) is masculine.

R. as he 6 Thus from the very verse he quoted he could have proceeds to show. xx. seeing him sitting and laughing. Isaac said It is not written. the possibility proved "5 . He [the heretic]. Holy One. as you read.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XIV. n. 4 Would you really maintain that broken man (i. R. R. those which have not yet been baked. while a glass vessel is made from fire and finished with fire the one [sc. GROUND (ADAMAH). etc. OF THE. 'Have I not enough trouble/ he exclaimed. Thou shall dash them in pieces like a potter's vessel is vessel' (Ps. R. inquired. interprets the combination of 'AFAR and adamah in this 3 Or: has he not. Clay and rnortar. Some say that he [the father] was a heretic. An altar of earth (adamah) thou shalt make unto me (Ex. the dead) cannot be In respect of an repaired. glass] when broken can be repaired. 9)? He answered: made from water** and finished off with heat. 1 verse. how much the more what blessed be is ! made with ' the breath of the : He R. of resurrection. but man is rather like a glass vessel. ' blowing/ said the other.' dash them in pieces like earthen vessels. 'If what is made with the breath of a mere mortal can be repaired.' but. when you admit that a glass vessel can be. 'Why are you laughing?' trust in the God of heaven that you will see his [the i We dead son's] face in the future world/ he replied. I^elbo in the name of Samuel the Elder said: He was 6 created from the place of his atonement. 'Like a potter's which means. A son of one of the notables of Sepphoris happened to die. whereas the other [man] when broken cannot be repaired!' 4 [The glass vessel can be repaired] because it is made by 'An earthen . 'Let your ears hear what your mouth speaks!' he retorted. 'that you have come to trouble me more! 2 Can broken potsherds be joined together ? For is it not thus written. Thou shalt ' vessels. while others say that a heretic lodged with him. Halafta went up to visit him. 7-8 earth] and female earth [soft clay] in order that his vessels 1 may be sound. 6 The future site of the Temple. Berekiah and R. Jose b. 5 8. because the first step and the last in its manufacture are through mutually opposed elements.e. Huna 2 earthen vessel he argued that it naturally could not be repaired when broken. so that they can be reformed [when broken].

ayyah (E.g.T. xxxv.XIV. and the ruah of the beast whether it goeth downward to the earth 5 (Eccl.V. and may he create The Holy One. or possibly some of these are conceived of as different things. Th. OF (NISHMATH) LIFE. 8 37. not an adjective H as in E. I will place of his atonement. Ruah: this is so called because it ascends and thus it is written. 2i)? Neshamah is the breath. as it is written. Therefore he will be immortal. yerjtidathi (== yehidah -\.V. *EJ.: nefesh and ruah are thus applied to both man and beast. i 2 . This mass reaching from earth to heaven and then infused a soul into him. as people say. 6 Hayyah (lit. ii. The five names may denote the different characteristics of the soul as the Rabbis understood it.V. Cf. and Y. is the blood: For the blood : : : 1 Cf .possessive suffix. E. R. Others: Because all the limbs are lifeless in themselves and this endows them with life. etc. vm. is the nefesh xii. ruah. 'mine only one') from the power of the dog. 5 : 4 people say. And I will Because in this . Just as the wind (ruah) which travels about ('E. neshamah.V. With respect to ruah. ill. The function of every limb is matched (or complemented) by that of another. as it says.). feet. Who knoweth the ruah descends 4 (E. hands. v. yehidah. 10 whereas this is unique in the body. MIDRASH KABBAH blessed be He. 'His character is good. 9. and ye shall live (Ezek.J. xxii. Nefesh E. ears. 'living') 7 because all the limbs are mortal. 21 Deliver my soul from the sword. Th.: neshamah denotes the character (disposiknovueth. It has five names3 hayyah. THE BREATH : 2 i4). 'E. 'spirit') of man whether it goeth upwards. said: 'Behold. whereas this is immortal in the 8 Yehidah (unique) 9 because all the limbs are body. as 7 : : 116 . Who 6 Th. supra. 10 E. duplicated.' In the present verse: And man became nefesh h. also Ps. ad loc. xxxvn. 'life' (Deut. nefesh. put My spirit into you. tion). the passage probably means ruah is that which ascends in the case of man and descends in the case of beast. whereas the function of this is unique and wholly distinct from the rest. eyes.V. l set as a lifeless He him up world [he was endowed with life] by breathing [therefore he is mortal] but in the time to come he shall receive it as a gift. 17. His breathing is good. 23). Deut.J. him from the * ! endure AND HE BREATHED INTO teaches that HIS NOSTRILS. 'a living soul'\ hayyah possibly being treated as a substantive.. 8-9] 21). 8 In Ps.

). 7 Or possibly: every time that man recaptures his ncshaniah. blessed be He.V. if He spirit) gather unto Himself ruho (his all flesh shall perish together. // upon man.V. preceding note. lit. AND MAN BECAME b. but that when man sleeps the soul (neshamah) warms man that he should not grow cold and die. *EJ. CL. and when man ascends and draws life for him from above. 9-10 1 He set His heart written.e. The Rabbis interpret: 'If God set His heart upon him. 'the breath of life').. and R. said: The neshamah it sleeps 6). A NEFBSH HAYYAH Rabbi said": 'LIVING SOUL'). gather into his body.Thus soul). 'beast. R.' i. Sc. For every breath which a man takes 7 he must give praise to the Holy One. which he 8 9 does at each breath. then all men had already perished. Joshua b. 4 I. 'And if He . 10. Jianina's name: It repeatedly ascends. 3 From the evening: When man goes to sleep he delivers his spirit (ruafy) to God. but repeatedly ascends and re-enters man as he sleeps. Bisni. Levi said in R. unto Him to God. What is the reason? Let every neshamah (breath)* praise the Lord (Ps. if He concentrated man's soul in one part of his body instead of permitting 5 it to pervade all his limbs.V. 6 Not once only. his spirit (ruho) is already in His hand. v. E. 14 f). upon any man. and nishmatho (his and man shall return unto the dust (Job xxxiv. Joshua b. Others: It returns to him (at each breath). 6 R. Judah 1 This teaches 9 This is not connected with the preceding.' 'animal/ 117 . 'Let everything that hath breath'.e. R.. had already perished 4 but when sleeping the soul (neshamah) soul (nishmatho) unto Himself above. then all men warms the body so that it should not waste and die. R. it is GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XIV. and the Rabbis discussed this. R. Johanan in R. 'And if He gather his is man man].T. interpreted it: 'If God set His heart upon any spirit (ruho) is already in his soul (nishmatho) unto Nehemiah Nehemiah man/ 2 his His hand 3 him' [sc. for every breath [let one praise Him]. R. which means. (E. . the word # A y Y A H . To judge him. Aha. but a separate comment on mshmath hayyim (E. Meir's name 5 (soul) fills the body. They translate. to show that life is dependent 2 on the neshamah (Y. R. which means.

3 4 living. Reading bi-yaddai. 6 1 Presumably: set free. the colleague of the Rabbis. I. 2 That is R.e. but subsequently removed it from him for the sake of his dignity. Huna's opinion. i. the son-in-law of R. Gen. so that he is now responsible for himself. 5 text is How do we know that the statement of the one applicable to that of the other and vice versa ? Because 'life' (hayyim) is written in both texts. thus nefesh is parallel to and the equivalent of neshamah. Huna said He made him like a slave set free for himself. Hanina. Huna interpreted The Lord hath delivered me into their hands (bi-yede). yet do not : : He attain a sufficiency. that 10] MIDRASH KABBAH provided him with a tail. . 14) when my hands are at my own disposal 3 I am not able to stand: they toil day and night. 6 Hence the neshamah (soul) is both nefesh and ruafy. for R. All in whose nostrils was the breath of the spirit (nishmath : ruah) of life. R. Samuel. said Here the neshamah (soul) is identified with nefesh^ whereas in another text the neshamah is equated : with rua h. like an animal. : Var. I. 1 who if he does not toil does not eat.2. against whom I am not able to stand (Lam. xvii.e. interprets the verse thus And man hayyah meaning became obliged to keep his nefesh. lee. when I must bear my own responsibilities. ii. R. (as 2 interpreted by commentaries) : as a being eternally enslaved to himself He man is a slave to his wants. soul. 7: He breathed into his nostrils nishmath hayyim (the neshamah soulof life) and man became nefesh hayyah (a living soul) . proving that they are analogous. alive. 2. 5 Gen.XIV.

in.e. The verse quoted from the Psalms is also referred by him to the trees of the garden of Eden. The trees of the Lord have their fill.e. R. 6 * 1 119 . Samuel b. and God replanted them in the garden of Eden. : ' : R. they have their 6 fill in water. R. R. 4 This has no connection with the preceding statement. 7 Lebanon* as a synonym for the Temple. Ilanma said: At first they were like locusts* horns small and puny]. I. . 25). 8). 2. Lev. 3. Nahman said in R. I will plant in the wilderness the cedar. as it is written. the acacia-tree^ 1 3 womb' the seed out of which the tree grows. cf. which He hath planted (Ps. AND THE LORD GOD PLANTED A GARDEN EASTWARD. xm. 16). 3 Thus it is written. IN EDEN (n. The School of Jannai said Why is the full Name 1 mentioned in connection with : planting? Because from the very beginning of its creation it required careful selection before a tree develops this : out of its seed2 one must determine 4 its extent. for which that they reason they are called the trees of the Lord. and Lebanon (Deut. Great care must be taken before a tree is planted to determine the best soil and position for it. and therefore God's full name is used here to imply that He too. as it were. as it is written. Why then were cedars created ? For the sake of the Temple.' etc. blessed be He. hence it is ' written. 2 5 V. to allow for the spreading of its branches and roots. supra. civ. i CHAPTER XV (BERESHITH) i. 'its mother's He holds that 'And God planted' instead of 'And God created' implies were already in existence and growing elsewhere. Said R. Lit. and then the Holy One. He interprets 8 * Cedar is used here generically for trees. the cedars of Lebanon* the same connotation as in the verse. The trees of the Lord 'Lebanon' bears have their fill. Jonathan's name: There are twenty-four kinds of cedar. whatever was planted from them would be like themselves. the cedars of Lebanon.[XV. they have their fill in planting. bent all His thought to determine where to plant this garden. uprooted and replanted them in the garden of Eden 5 [i. 8 the best are seven. That goodly hill7 country. Hanina They have their fill in life. The trees of the Lord have their fill. Johanan said: The world was not worthy to enjoy the use of cedars. Hence it requires all man's forethought. I.

armontn. it is like a spring in the garden which waters the whole garden. blessed be He. Those enumerated in the second half of the verse. Alonim are oak. that is in the garden of God. to Eden is larger than the written. To another three: alonim. 1 berosh is the beratha 19). 6 Thus from the smaller area of Eden there flowed enough water to 7 Midbar is larger than 'arabah. 3. So that all the trees 3 of Eden. Judah said: The Garden larger than Eden. Jast. xxxi. Jose's eyes and he found a verse supporting his view. io)? 4 On R. referring to the trees. 120 . But R. and the oil-tree. the drippings from a beth kor will water a tarkab^ . LI. Judah has two verses [to support his contention]. which contradicts R. Eden of the garden 9) . Rabbi said: They are but three : . I will set in the desert the cypress. THEN THE LORD GOD PLANTED But surely it is A a GARDEN river water the garden (Gen. 4 Implying that the garden was outside Eden. (E. say: Because it is these they added armonin are plane-trees. probably Spanish juniper. viz. garden. He translates: And a stream of water drained off from Eden sufficient to water the garden which was in it. and the larch together (Isa. Why trees 2. almugin.V. means before (kodem) the creation of the world. 5 Beth kor is a field requiring a kor of seed tarfrab.XV. bobs of seed. XLI. and it is also said. E. went out of Eden And wilderness like the (midbar) like Eden. R. te'ashur is the box-tree. MIKKEDEM said: 'EASTWARD'). illumined R. II. 3). Judah's view. is is it called te'ashur? The Rabbis the most valuable (me'ushar) of all. Jose. the plane-tree. and almugin are aloe-trees. Jose has but one verse ? Said R. 6 But R.V. 'that were'. And He hath made her : IN EDEN. Samuel b. but that 1 z is not so rather . one requiring three 3 . for says. Jose said: etc. and 1-3] MIDRASH KABBAH the myrtle. : a species of cedar. water the whole garden. Thou wast in the of God (ib. Irlanan of Sepphoris The Holy One. A GARDEN IN EDEN. Judah relates 'that* to Eden. it 13). whereas R. envied it (Ezek. hence the garden was only one-sixtieth of Eden. for it is written. the latter is one-sixtieth of the former. while on R. think that it Nahmani You may R. (cypress) tidhar is the adara-tree*. R. Jose's view. xxvin. and her desert ('arabah) 7 garden of the Lord (Isa.

without sin]. 4). the man of My counsel from afar country (Isa. like a king who prepared a banquet and then invited guests. 3-5 before Adam. who may find fault with them ? But they are ' . Abraham].GENESIS (BERESHITH) it is. g). created even before him. Nehemiah said: He persuaded him [to enter and eat thereof]. read. Merion said: It is written. LXXIV. their Creator lauds who may disparage them when their Creator them. 3). XLVI. Rashi on Isa. was created on the third. Judah and R. ' . These are the generations of heaven. 4 5.e. R. Zachariah said: Providing he stayed in this state of creation [i. 6. who is likened to a bird of prey in point of swiftness. For the sake of Abraham. vm. Judah said: He exalted him. for Adam was whereas the garden of Eden it is written. n. 2). THE MAN. comely and praiseworthy hence it is written. xrv. AND THERE HE PUT THE MAN WHOM HE HAD as FORMED. that He prepared my reward for me before ever I arose to labour. n). 121 . cxxxix. and they were 2 8 V. 1 4. These are 1 The fruits of the garden are man's reward for his toil. v. praises them. supra. R. it was a gracious act on the part of the Holy One. 'My uprising' Thou understandest my thought afar rny expulsion thence 3 off' : for whose sake didst Thou determine to create me ? For the sake of him who came from afar [viz. as it is written. working salvation before- created on the sixth day. Isaac b. R. Calling a bird of prey from the east. Thou understandest my thought afar off (Ps. ad loc. 3 f. R. Hence man was created to be permanently in the Garden of Eden. (Gen. 'My downsitting' means in the garden of Eden. (n Chron. [XV. Thou shalt in any wise set him (tasim) king over thee (Deut. When . AND THERE HE SET (WAYYASEM) THE MAN. blessed be He. Cf. etc. Thou knowest my downsitting and mine uprising. 15). Hence hand in the midst of the earth (Ps. [WAYYASEM having the same meaning] as in the verse. 4 From the east is referred to Abraham (cf. And there they are unto this day R. n. Levi b. Yet God is my King. supra. 6 Thus there implies for all time. 2 as it is written. you 5 v. XVH. supra. 12). Jeremiah each commented.

306.K translates Not only the main Radal 4 Without the def. There shall be an handful of bread ' is : : : . xn. It grew lofty like the cedars of the Lebanon/ replied he. is .XV.e. 306: this implies corn as wide as a handbreadth. said: . R. Nehemiah and the Rabbis AND EVIL Eve What was said: It the tree whereof ate? R.'* 6. Ila'i Not only its 3 boughs but even its trunk was a five hundred years' journey. 1 V. Samuel b. 5 as it is written. as God brought forth bread itself before Adam's sin. LXXII. not mere wheat which must be made into bread. 9). R. 6 They differ on the bringing forth of bread itself. art. AND THE TREE (ib.' R. It AND OUT GOD was taught: It was a tree which spread over all 2 living things. i.'* because He will bring it forth in the future. 6 Rashi on Shab. T R E E is written ? he argued. : 7. 8 3 I . 122 . : loaves of that width. 1 when they were OF THE GROUND MADE THE LORD TO GROW EVERY TREE THAT IS PLEASANT TO THE SIGHT. branches. i6). while the Rabbis say that mozi must be said. but even the side (minor) branches. The Rabbis maintain [The benediction is . Judah b. too. Nehemiah -. Ze'ira: 'Is But surely it possible that it was wheat ? 'Yes/ replied he. OF THE KNOWLEDGE OF GOOD Adam and was wheat.). supra. the phrase . R. Isaac asked R. AND GOOD FOR FOOD. Nehemiah holds that ha-mozi refers to the past. WHOM HE . Judan said in the name of R. Aha said: R. for when a person lacks knowledge people say. .] because He brought it forth from the bread earth/ mozi) in the past. M . His handiwork. for it is then that God will cause bread to grow. Jacob b. [The benediction for who bringest forth (haBlessed art Thou . 6 quoted here to show that in man. 'That man has never eaten bread of wheat. R. R. which refers to the future. Ila'i said: The tree of life covered a five hundred years' journey. 5~?] MIDRASH RABBAH and of the earth the generation of the heaven created. . THE TREE OF LIFE ALSO IN THE MIDST OF THE GARDEN (ll.] 'bringest forth (mo%i). God took HAD FORMED being understood as though God pointed with pride at man. i It pride. R. Judah b. corn (pisath bar) in the land (Ps. R. and all the primeval waters branched out in streams under it. Shab. cf. Meir ' ' ' ' are in conflict.e over the whole world .

since one ends and the next begins with a mem (). . He learns the obscure from the explicit. as bread fully seasoned grew out of the ground then. etc. go forth and see. it differ as to its lo means.e.) 3 Seeing that the Rabbis. (Jast. 1 Something which goes with bread. who are in a majority. sorrow] into the world. 2 Not bread. So when Adam ate of that tree. Samuel maintains: Lefeth while the other maintains: In the meaning. 'ez.e. He went from door to door of the slaves.GENESIS (BERESHITH) Lefeth b. as it is written. 1 : [XV. Efanina b. Isaac Ammi. R. Consider: what tree is it whose wood 6 can be eaten just like its fruit? and you find none but the ethrog. One path. unanswered. and [the meaning of] a statement from its context. it was not food for man before he sinned. xxxn. 123 . R. 5 I. in. 32): those clusters brought bitterness [i. and the king on learning of it expelled from court. 6). but they would not receive him but she who had sinned with him opened her door and received him. Nehemiah? surely not! 3 But the reason was so as not to run the letters together. and if ha is not interposed. Ila'i said It was grapes. Their : grapes are grapes of gall. R. Judah b. And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food (Gen. He expelled him and cast him out of the garden of Eden and he appealed to all the trees but they : with a slave . the wood. thus This may be compared to a royal prince who sinned him girl. R. Here we have an Haggadic dispute as to what the name connotes. which is understood therefore as meaning that the tree itself. 7 two was scholars. 4 If so. Jose said: They were figs. for otherwise lehem and min will be similarly run together. The difficulty remains it thus. Do we then rule as R. they have clusters of bitterness (Deut. i. future path lo 2 . was good for food. 'Who bringeth forth bread (lehem) that is (ha-min) '. Yet we do not recite and the same should apply here. ha-'olam and mozi will sound like one word. for it says.). * Ha-mo%i is immediately preceded by ha-'olam (the universe). 6 Heb..e. the same word as 'tree' in the verse quoted. and R. differ from him. [are we to say] ha-min ha-arez ('that is from the earth')? 5 R. vegetables (Jast. Jeremiah recited the blessing [for bread] before R. R. Abba of Acco said It was the : ethrog (citron). Zera: 'Who bringest forth (ha-mozt) bread from the it will be earth/ whereupon he praised him.

it. as it is written. was anxious to safeguard the honour of his [Adam's] 6 descendants. which means.V. 7] MIDRASH KABBAH ' would not receive him. to shake. R. And let not the hand of the wicked shake1 me (ib. and the beast (Lev. xx.XV. 'Through this tree Adam brought death into the world. 'Azariah and R. Judah b. E. how much more his own honour! 1 Deriving tenideni from nadned. blessed be He. 6 different species. lamentation brought R. 'drive me away'. Joshua of Siknin name: It was the berath alt. all is connected here with eli. ' 1 A 124 . Of that fig-tree? R. how did said in R. God did not reveal the nature of the tree that it might not be said. 5 because it and weeping into the world. Berekiah Behold. 3 lit. blessed be He. and for the death of a close relation one goes into full mourning for seven days. Simon in the name of R. Joshua b. 12). And what species was they sewed fig-leaves together. did not and will not reveal to man what that tree was. a deceiver who deceived his Creator. and lie down thereto. Levi's ! : the animal sin ? But [it is killed] lest when it stands in the market place people should say. What did they say : ' ! to him? Said R. 16). who deceived his Master as it is written. a daughter of seven '. 4 Death was decreed on its account. the figtree opened its doors and received him. For see what is written And if a woman approach unto any beast. let it not take a leaf from me. lamentation. Abin said: It was the berath sheva'* so called because it brought seven (shiv'a) 4 days of mourning into the world. something is taken from. in. 'Through this animal So-and-so was stoned/ Then if the Holy One. thou shalt kill the woman. 2 But because he had eaten of its fruit.) : i. Now if man has sinned.e. Levi said: Heaven forfend [that we should conjecture what the tree was] The Holy One. xxxvi. 7). etc. the foot that presumed against its Creator. (Gen.' 2 A tree is shaken when A species of white fig. R. 8 Similarly. Let not the foot of presumption come unto me (Ps.

its WHERE THERE is GOLD: gold in AND THE GOLD OF THAT LAND is literal sense. . endowed Adam was intended 'for ever*. THAT is IT WHICH COMPASSETH THE WHOLE LAND OF HAVILAH! But. Thou prevailest for ever against him by transposing its letters. Lakish said The world did not deserve to have the use of gold. he opened up the four riverheads with one thrust of the spade.e. and these are the four river-heads: AND A RIVER WENT OUT OF EDEN. etc. That goodly hill-country : Lebanon (Deut. Why then was gold created? For the sake of the Said R. as it is written. Simon commenced: Thou makest him 1 strong for ever (Job xiv. Simon quoted: With Him and might (ib. 25). R. symbolically employed here for the Torah. blessed be He. 125 . XLVI. Not. to possess 8 Understood as a synonym for the Temple. and is sendest counsel 2. R. 12). 3 4 6 PiSHON. for all time. Isaac's comment on the word tob (good) it is good for a man c . 10). a I . in. conferred a great boon upon the world. which bears the same connotation as in the verse. Simeon b. cf. AND A RIVER WENT OUT OF EDEN. reduced his strength. xii. Abbahu said: The Holy One.[XVI. Havilah was not yet in existence. it. AND THE GOLD OF THAT L A*N D is GOOD. 2O) : the strength with which the Holy One. i. Thou changest his countenance* him away (ib. can be connected with Shufi. 13): when he [Adam] was at harmony with his Creator. But he goeth : because he ignored God's wishes and followed the counsel of the serpent. blessed be He. he who possesses it at home. THE NAME OF THE FIRST WAS PlSHON it (ll. supra. and flows with tranquillity (be-shufi)? THAT is IT WHICH COMPASSETH THE WHOLE LAND OF HAVILAH. yet you say. He declareth the end from the beginning (Isa. it II): so called because makes flax (pishtori) grow. 4 IS GOOD (ll.). This is R. xv. 6 1 E . for a man changes one gold piece and can utilise it for many purposes. Isaac: Fortunate : : Temple. 1-2 CHAPTER XVI (BERESHITH) i. R. as is stated infra.V. and fortunate is he who possesses it on a journey 5 R.

AND THE NAME in existence. yet you say. said: is : The Euphrates As I was by the side of the great river. 4 The word ptoyta'nK may also imply that it is the mother and source of all 6 rivers. 4)? That is because Daniel had two dreams. Hanina b. why then is it 6 designated great elsewhere? Because it flows on its way and encompasses Eretz Israel. Deut.XVI. xv. Josh. and as the Tigris appeared larger than Ubal. E. 2 3 This derives from rea'.e. is 'BDELLIUM') AND ONYX . THESAMEIS ITTHATCOMPASSETH THE WHOLE LAND OF CUSH! But. 2-3] MIDRASH KABBAH is THERE STONE. i.' AND THE NAME DEKEL OF THE THIRD RIVER IS HlD- E. 'sharp in sound'.V. THE FOURTH the mightiest of all rivers. of which it is written.K. on the identity of Ubal v. 4 R. Joshua of Siknin in the name of R. THE WHOLE LAND OF CUSH (n. 13). For what great nation is there. BEDOLAH (E. Th. OF THE SECOND RIVER IS IT THAT COMPASSETH IS SAME THE GlHON. 'He declareth the end from the beginning. So Th. yet you say. 126 . Levi said The Ubal is the most mighty of all rivers.' RIVER IS THE EUPHRATES. and the text is probably corrupt. one by Ubal and the other by the Tigris. 'TIGRIS' (n. R. fellow [i. 4. Igud and R. Its 2 concerneth it (Job xxxvi. 7. The passage contains a number of difficulties. Aibu said: You might meant 1 used by perfume-makers : think that the bedolah therefore it says. 'He declareth the end from the beginning.V.). 6 In Gen. that hath God so nigh unto them But it is written.V. Others translate differently. Asshur was not yet in existence. Lit. parallel passage] telleth is the former a 33) J ust as tne l a tter is a precious stone. x. ad loc. 1 The sap of some re'o tree (Th. and M. 5 But at the creation of -the world this [river Euphrates] is not designated great. which is Hiddekel Tigris (Dan. companion. 14): so called because it is a roaring stream (had be-kolo)^ THAT is IT WHICH GOETH TOWARD THE EAST OF ASSHUR. a friend. 'noise'. he calls it the large one. Cush was not yet 3. r. so precious stone. 18. THAT is IT WHICH GOETH TOWARD THE EAST OF ASSHUR! AND Rab But.

R. 9 'The The and orchards whither they are diverted. the crops growing in abundance. R. ICid. because its fruit 9 is large and cannot fall through a kebara (sieve). Perath denotes that its waters grow 6 (parin) and increase . in Sonc. 7 It is called Chebar because its waters come to an end.: I. i. 7)? Hence the popular saying: 'The king's servant is a king. it is full-grown in three days/ Said [the rivers] to the Tigris: 'Why is thy sound audible?' 'May 1 Or (with a somewhat different text) associate with the governor and people will bow down to you. Huna disputed. fruit or produce which grows on the land this river irrigates. The present views of Rab and 6 V. 'Rashi': a single spadeful of earth suffices to close up. 8 Chebar. Judan said: Perath 5 Perath denotes (the Euphrates) is identical with Chebar : that it grows (parati) and increases until it has to be traversed in ships. when he sows a : * ' . Perath is so called because it goes on branching off into channels (mafrid) until it ends under the spade. Similarly. Which is east of the Tigris. the Euphrates is called great because it compasses Eretz Israel. 4 R. they are considered as part of the Jewish Diaspora (golak) in Babylonia. R. I.K. iv. ed. &id.e. 716 and notes ad loc. 4 On the upper reaches of the Euphrates northward. Joshua of Siknin said in R.: its waters cause fertility. 2 Th. cleave to heat and it will warm you/ 1 Rab said to his son IJiyya: 'The Lybians are in Bretz Israel/ 2 'Where do they dwell?' inquired he. iv. Levi's name [The rivers] said to the Euphrates: 'Why is thy sound not audible?' 10 My deeds make me known/ it replied11 when a man plants a plant by me it matures in thirty days. 7 Th. 3 (Deut. 53 b: its waters increase even when there is : no rain. which had a higher status than the Diaspora elsewhere. and M. Judan and R.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XVI. In the say. And what point is that? It is Tirbaknah. But Samuel maintained: As far as the river [Euphrates] flows is Eretz Israel. For the general identification of these names v. Samuel respectively are transposed there. fields 10 It is a quietly flowing river. 8 V. n I need not shout my merits. Bani is probably identical with Vanay. 127 . comes : to an end because of the channels dug with the spade along its its 8 course to divert it waters. and so people river has already (kebar) ceased' (commentaries). vegetable by me. Rashi in Bek. 6 Th. the home of a great nation. Huna maintained: The Euphrates and the Chebar are separate rivers. Ezek. 'By the ford of the river Bani.' 3 he replied.

also on account of who was smaller than a pushka (hand- THAT is IT WHICH COMPASSETH THE WHOLE LAND OF HAVILAH: [this alludes to Nebuchadnezzar] who came up and surrounded the whole of Eretz Israel. 8). as it is moved and the heart of his people. Joshua b. 3 I. And their horsemen spread (pashu) themselves (Hab. the midget dwarf. of R. 'as our fruits . 128 . THAT LAND is GOOD: this teaches that there is no AND 1 his credit 2 8 These sayings allegorically teach that if a man has he need not advertise his greatness. breadth). Said 'Why is your sound not they reply. xni. Menahma (others state. THE NAME corresponding to the four heads [into which it was divided]. 4 WHERE THERE is GOLD: by ' this is meant the words of the Torah. What is the proof? AND A RIVER WENT OUT FROM EDEN TO WATER THE GARDEN: This alludes to the four kingdoms. Tanhuma in the name 4. R. xix. R.XVI. real solid virtue to *HAVILAH * This is quoted from Ps. will make the peoples of the world drink a cup of bitterness from the place whence this [river] issues. is thus connected with hohili. Text as emended by Th. according to Jewish legend. their voice is not audible and because non-fruit-bearing trees are light in fruit. Hope thou (hohili) in God. XLII. 5. blessed be He. yea. written. and as in Lev. for I shall yet praise Him (Ps. are moved with the wind (Isa. 3-4] MIDRASH RABBAH I my voice be heard that may be they to the fruit-bearing trees: audible?' ' not need it/ us/ Said they to the non-fruit-bearing trees: Why is your sound audible ? Would that we could make our voice heard so that we might be seen/ they answered. i. And his heart was as the trees of the forest 1 a). 6). Levi) said 2 : The Holy One. which are more to be desired than 5 THE GOLD OF gold. OF THE FIRST is PiSHON: this is Babylon. Eretz Israel] it is written. testify for ' ' : 'We do seen/ answered he. vn. . Huna said This is not the true reason but because the food trees are heavy with fruit. R. Viz. so called with reference to the verse. than much fine gold'. their voice is audible. R. whereof [sc. Nebuchadnezzar.

[so called] in allusion to the verse. but Haman stirred up Supra. R. i. Aha's after the All kingdoms [which] are designated of Asshur [are so called] because they enrich themselves (mith-' ashroth) at the expense of Israel. 4 Torah (learning) like the Torah of Eretz Israel. i). whence miih-naoth. to VIZ. Talmud. 4. and in language. NAME OF THE SECOND RIVER Media. PERATH its evil 3 4 5 was not so very wicked. SAME is IT Haman THE THAT COMPASSETH THE WHOLE LAND OF CUSH. Rome] : viz. in navigation. Media itself 2 passions.T. Huna R. E.V. before. : name name R. Who reigned from India even unto Gush E.: i. R.. Edom is generally a synonym for Rome.V. R. GlHON*. Jose b. IS AND THE this alludes Scripture. whose eyes Tosefta. inflamed [with hate] like a 1 serpent. which was sharp (had) and swift (kal) in its evil decrees. kidmath. Jast. FOURTH RIVER IS PERATH (EUPHRATES): that IS AND Edom. 14). and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life (Gen. 7 fruitful 1 harassed denoting that it upset (hefirati) and His world PERATH denoting that it was (parath) and increased through the blessing of that . 'to the east of. THERE is BDELLIUM AND THE ONYX STONE: Mishnah. R. in. Upon thy belly (gehoneka) shall thou go.e. Huna this wicked State said in R. Judah said: All kingdoms [which] are designated by the name of Nineveh are so called because B they adorn themselves (mith-na 'oth) at the expense of Israel. for she ordered Israel: Write upon the horn of an ox that ye have no portion in the Israel.). To which Asshur is understood as an allusion (Y. 129 K . and Haggadah. n. Th. 2 God of THAT is IT WHICH GOETH BEFORE* ASSHUR: said: In three things Greece was in advance of 4 [sc. Halafta said: All the kingdoms designated by the name of Mizrayim (Egypt) are so called THE because they persecute (meziroth) Israel. THE NAME OF THE THIRD RIVER IS IJlDDEKEL: this AND alludes to Greece. and no wisdom like the wisdom of Eretz Israel. 'Ethiopia' (Est. with allusion to the verse. Heb.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XVI.: in temples and in buildings. here connected with kodem. Jose b. Nineveh is derived here from na'ek. in the 5 of arrangement camp-vigils. beautiful. 8 7 Th.

Judah said He exalted him. 'in the garden ') with haggen (to protect). This refers to Edom (Rome).: both connect wayyanihehu (E. 1 2 xxviii. WAYYANIHEHU (AND HE PUT HIM) He gave him the precept of the Sabbath. 130 . PERATH it also denoting that I [God] will ultimately consign called] P E R A T as it is written. Mah. 12). AND THE LORD GOD TOOK THE MAN : (n. R. and bring them to their place (Isa. 5. 3). 3). the / have trodden 2 winepress (purah) alone .V. [finally. n). Judan and R. shall serve (ta-'abdun) God upon this mountain (Ex. R. Berekiah each interpreted this differently. Judah and R. interpretation: ULE-SHAMERAH (TO TILL IT AND TO allusion to sacrifices: thus it is written. as you read. 'he put him') with hanahah (repose).V. 15).: the controversy is the same as that recorded supra^ xi. Take with you words. (Isa. while R. 4 : AND PUT HIM INTO THE GARDEN OF EDEN. 4. V. R. 2). protect and delight him with there] in order to give him all trees of the means as you (Ex. LXIII. Esau was regarded as the progenitor of Rome.K. as to whether God's punishment was deferred until after the Sabbath or not. 4~5] old MIDRASH RABBAH 1 man [sc.? : exalting of Israel. v. a). Berekiah maintains that they were potential only. R. And the peoples shall take them. Berekiah said: [He put 5 garden of Eden. Ye shall observe (tishmeru) to offer unto Me (Num. protect and delight him with all the trees of the garden of Eden. and return unto the Lord (Hos. xiv. xiv. 5 * Cf. 2. Gen. and. 9). M. . that Six days shalt thou labour ta-'abod IT): (ib. him repose. in. 3 R. Judan holds that Adam actually enjoyed these benefits. but he never enjoyed them because of his sin. be-gan (E. it is account of its ultimate destiny. And rested (wayyanah) on the seventh day xx. . ULE- SHAMERAH (AND TO KEEP Sabbath day LE~'ABEDAH KEEP IT) is an Ye Keep (shamor) the Another (Deut. Nehemiah differed in their interpretations. R. and Eden with 'adden (to delight). R. as you read. LE~' ABED AH (TO TILL IT): as you read. supra > XV. Isaac] . H on to oblivion (hafer). the passage commencing Who is this 3 The passage deals with the future that cometh from Edom (ib. 39 f. read. Nehemiah said He persuaded him [to enter]. i).XVI. xxvn. 12) . Judan said: He did actually give him repose.

Generally seven are enumerated as being binding upon man 5 This is deduced from thou mayest eat it v. s&z. Sanh. xvm. nor to an animal. xxiv. alludes to the [authority of] judges. death for Eve. but not to his neighbour's wife. 6). Jacob of Kefar IJanan said When does : [an animal] become it is food. OF EVERY TREE OF THE GARDEN THOU MAYEST FREELY EAT. as you read. injunction against eating flesh torn from a living animal. which implies. 16). . 16). ed. v. * He probably interprets the verse thus: akol tokel. i). as you read. Thus He intimated forbidden character 4 limb torn from a living animal. this is omitted here. FOR IN THE DAY THAT THOU EATEST THEREOF THOU SHALT SURELY DIE (MOTH TAMOTH) (li. 566 and notes ad loc. And cleave unto his wife (Gen.e. Thou shalt LORD not GOD MAN: incest. however. 6 6. which as usual is understood as an extension. idols (Hos. II. xxiv. 1 before Revelation. pederasty. He commanded him The Rabbis thus: to AND THE LORD GOD COMMANDED. etc. 17): [this intimated] s death for Adam. of] a and when is it fit to be eaten? [the When ritually slaughtered. 2 Which in its Hebrew usage includes adultery. THOU SHALT NOT EAT OF IT.e. and death for his descendants. Levi said He gave him six precepts 1 AND HE COMMANDED (WAYYEZAW) alludes to idolatry. in Sonc. I3T . He am I? God. was not permitted animal flesh at all. as you read. . And he that Uasphemeth the name of the Lord (Lev. revile i. Whoso alludes to sheddeth man's blood (Gen. THE alludes to blasphemy. 5. and bestiality. : Saying : If a man put away his wife. AND THE LORD GOD COMMANDED THE MAN. xxn. when it is food (okeT) Infra. 56^ passim. bloodshed. Sanh. 5 Sanh. R. BUT OF THE TREE OF THE KNOWLEDGE OF GOOD AND EVIL. SAYING: OF EVERY TREE OF THE GARDEN THOU MAYEST FREELY EAT (n. nor to a male. the seventh being an Since Adam. 27). infra.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XVI. God THE this alludes to SAYING 2 as you read in. 8 For* the whole passage cf. the doubling of the verb. the judges (Ex. 24). ix. [and I command] that God and not cursed/ How do we know interpreted the whole passage said I him: 'What be treated as a [that Adam was forbidden] incest? [From the passage]. n). as you read: Because he i : willingly walked after zaw i. (Jer. R. OF EVERY TREE OF THE GARDEN EAT: here THOU SHALT FREELY 3 against theft.

. And God said: Let there be lights (ib. thou and thy household (Deut. . And the they: 2 And God said : Let there spirit (ruah) of God hovered (ib. i. . R. 1-2] CHAPTER XVII (BERESHITH) i.' and included. xvi. wife.V. and God said. said : Let the waters swarm (ib. xiv. XLIV. 5 'Without atonement': And he shall make atonement for and him. 26).' E. 14). 3 It was taught: He who has no without good. without help. 24). . wife dwells ' ' : IT IS NOT GOOD THAT THE MAN SHOULD DWELL 'Without help': / will make him a help meet for 'Without joy': And thou shalt rejoice. 1 and these are In the beginning God created (Gen. 'Let there be ruah' ' : 3 (E. IT is NOT GOOD. himself. 6) By ten . n). hovered over the face of the waters. Kirshai said: A separate command was devoted to the wind. 'Let there be heaven and earth'. for his house (Lev. that its creation required a separate order! Thus he agrees with the first Tanna.XVII. 4 'Without a blessing': To cause a blessing to rest on thy house (Ezek. 2) be light (ib. God AND THE LORD GOD SAID: IT is NOT GOOD THAT THE MAN SHOULD BE ALONE. without joy. 9) . Jose excluded. Jacob b. explains see the greatness of the wind. 20) And God said : Let the earth bring forth (ib. We learnt: commands was the world created. but apparently rendered here 'wind'). M. ALONE. 26). R. and the verse ' Probably translated . 3) And God said : Let there be a firmament And God said : Let the waters be gathered together (ib. Simon said in the name of v. to cause a blessing to rest on thee for the sake of thy house viz. : is interpreted: to rejoice with thee. i). AND THE LORD GOD SAID: IT is NOT GOOD THAT THE MAN SHOULD BE ALONE (n. without blessing. And God said: Let us make man (ib. : * These are interpreted as though they read In the beginning God said. And God n). "Ruah. 4 Household is And thou shalt rejoice only when there is a 'household 5 understood to refer to a wife. Without good 2. and without atonement. 8). spirit'. R. R. 132 . And God said : Let the earth put forth grass (ib.K.V. Menahem b. 3o). 'spirit '. 'And the spirit of (ib.

God's majesty. v. for it is written. Joshua b. Enjoy life with the wife : whom thou lowest (Eccl. a). The dowry had to be returned on divorce. IJiyya b. He went and uncovered it. she is like the wife of Hananiah b. divorce this woman. And He blessed them. and multiply 2 (ib. Jose the Galilean. for she does not act * as benefits and it your honour/ 'Her dowry is too great for me. tjakinai if not. Now once that he and R. 3. His disciples said him : Master. ix. will you kindly permit that we go to your home together?' 'Yes/ replied he. and catted their name Adam 1 i. As they entered. man (Gen. Joshua b. 62a. For in the image of God made He man (ib. Yeb. Levi Without life too. Levi: Without peace too. R. is impaired when man refuses to fulfil these functions. Gomdi said He is also incomplete. 5 and and were eating he observed. And you. she is like the wife of R. and used to put him to shame. \ WILLMAKEHIMAHELP 3 : HIM (KE-NEGDO) if (<EZER) AGAINST is if he is fortunate. 'Azariah were happened I and studying. infra. not. xxxiv. for it is : said. 5 He understood the state of affairs. Joshua of Siknin said in the name of R. she was his sister's is . 2-3 R. rx. Eleazar b. Jose the Galilean had a bad wife. Eleazar b.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XVII. ' Now R. 'Azariah as they sat together knew what he had heard. *33 . 7). she a help. she cast down her gaze [in anger] and was making her way out. against him. 1 2 Thus only both together are they 'man'. Sir. and when they finished. When they finished he said to him: "Master. 6). Nehemiah said: If a man is fortunate. R. as it were. Is there anything in the pot ? There's a hash in it/ she answered. Some say: He even impairs the Divine likeness: thus it is written. translation of 'ke-negdo'. 4 cannot afford to divorce her/ was his reply. yet we have found chickens?' 'A miracle has happened/ replied he. which is followed by. the latter 'Sir. 3 4 Lit. be ye R. she to daughter. asked her. 9). xxv.e. fruitful. R. 6). did she not say it was hash. and found in it ' * ' some chickens. 14. For the passage v. when he looked at a pot standing on the pot-range and sitting asked him. for it is said: And peace be to thy house (i Sam.

But when she came to the street of R. Later he became afflicted [with blindness] and she used to lead him by his hand through the streets of the town. She then married the town watchman. 3] MIDRASH KABBAH this abandon woman. 134 . Or possibly: in a house of his. 'We will pay it/ they said. round the whole town. Another version of this story: R. 'her dowry is too great for me and I cannot divorce her/ 'We [your pupils]/ 1 said the other. and their cries brought a crowd and the whole town was shocked at them. Jose the Galilean was married to his sister's daughter. Jose the Galilean. 1 Each 2 He became will give something toward it. Their cries brought down R.' 'I cannot fully. begging in every district. 'Divorce her. LVIII. when I he began to maltreat her. did so for And her. for she does not treat you with proper respect. And that thou hide not own flesh (Isa. who treated him shameSaid his disciples to him.' 'Sir/ he replied. so you can divorce him. 3 blind. 'and cannot bring myself to face him. her dowry/ he answered. pay So they gave it to him and he divorced her. in accordance with the verse. Jose the Galilean lived she used to turn back. as I have heard that he is charitably disposed?' 'I am his divorced wife/ she confessed. and made him marry another and better wife.XVII. Jose. 'Why do you not lead me to the house of R. But since that man [her husband] was well acquainted with the town. Looking out. Jose the Galilean. 'will apportion her dowry among ourselves. After some time he was visited with 2 affliction. but on coming to where R. 7).' On one occasion they came begging in the vicinity of R. whereupon he took and settled them in a room in his own house 3 and supported them for the rest of their lives. As a punishment for her sins she [the first wife] became married to the town watchman. When he perceived this one day and a second day. and she went about leading him. Jose the Galilean she would stop. they they 5 apportioned her dowry and had her divorced from him. who said to him. he began beating thyselffrom thine her. he said to her. R. Jose the Galilean saw how they were being jeered at in the streets.

R. beasts. Then he paraded them again before him Thee to be called : 1 In order to name them. what is LORD GOD FORMED? refers to creation. 3-4 'Why do you beat her?' 'She deprives me of the profit of this street every day/ was the reply. it taught by AND OUT [He read. at his own expense. What did the Lord do? He brought the animals. after his creation. with the ministering angels. and birds before them and asked them. Let the earth bring forth the living creature (i.' 'And of this?' 'A camel/ 'And of this?' 'An ass/ 'And of this?' 'A horse/ Thus it is written. etc.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XVII. be came to create Adam. On hearing this R. I9). Of of the field course. 2O). Hiyya said Thus it is written. R. Adam. That is My Adam called Me. 2 Thus he renders : And the Lord God assembled all the beasts 8 (which were created) from the ground. Zakkai was asked: Since it is already written. Jose the Galilean took and settled them somewhere and supported them verse. 3 paraded they and asked him. in accordance with the 'And that thou hide not thyself from thine own flesh/ 4. 'His wisdom will exceed yours/ He answered. 'What should be of this ? and the name of this ? but they did not know before did Then He them not know. He took counsel blessed He. / am the Lord. R. that is My name name by which (Isa. 24). xx. to him. AND OUT OF THE GROUND THE LORD GOD FORMED (WAYYIZER) EVERY BEAST OF THE FIELD (n. Said He man' ' ' ' . (ll. *35 . 'And what is thy name?' 'It called Adam. because I was created (adamah). 19). since Thou art Lord over all Thy creatures/ was the answer. XLII. 'Let us make 'What will be the nature of this man?' they (i. AND THE MAN GAVE NAMES TO ALL CATTLE. 26). saying to them. OF THE replied]: GROUND THE earlier verse The whereas this treats of gathering them When thou shah mass (tazur) against a city a long time. 8). Aha said: When the Holy One. 1 as you together.' he replied. inquired. in making war against it to take 2 (Deut. Johanan b. 'What is the name of this?' 'An ox. as the verse continues. fitting for 'And what is that I be from the ground My name?' 'It is is fitting Adonai (Lord). which means.

From 136 . Joshua of Siknin said in R. AND HE TOOK ONE Nahmani : OF HIS RIBS (ZAL'OTHAW).XVII. Said he. 1 Rab said: There are three kinds of torpor THEN THE LORD GOD CAUSED FALL UPON THE MAN. the incomplete form of the next world is the Sabbath. foresaw that he would bring charges against her. For the Lord hath Stupefy yourselves. But as soon as he did so. verse. he does not engage in study and does no work. an incomplete form of prophecy is the dream. Levi's is : name: The beginning of a man's downfall sleep being asleep. 6. 2l). CAUSED A DEEP SLEEP 5. . IJanina for. and the torpor of unconsciousness. R. 2 The torpor of sleep * ' : A torpor 12). a deep 'The torpor of unconit. nor knew it. in.) The Rabbis said Also the torpor of folly. the torpor of prophecy. . forthwith THE LORD GOD CAUSED A DEEP SLEEP TO FALL UPON THE MAN. 9 f). Isaac said: There are three incomplete phenomena: the incomplete experience of death is sleep. because a deep sleep from the Lord was fallen upon them (i Sam. R. yet I : THERE WAS And why did He not create her for him at the beginning ? Because the Holy One. . for they were all asleep. Or. His point on the $ela' . 'Every one has a have none thus.* R. 'The it (tardemah): the torpor of sleep. THEN THE LORD GOD TO FALL UPON THE MAN. xxvi. Abin added another two the incomplete form of the heavenly light3 is the orb of the sun the incomplete form of the heavenly wisdom is the Torah. 1 said: He took one of his sides. 4~6] in pairs. a trance or catalepsy. 6. xv. Hinena] b. R. DEEP SLEEP TO of prophecy': And was going down. through sleep 3 Cf supra. when the sun sleep fell upon Abram (Gen. 12. : . therefore He did not create her until he expressly demanded her. and be stupid! came to pass. [male MIDRASH KABBAH and female]. AND HE SLEPT (ll. blessed be He. poured out upon you the spirit of deep sleep (Isa. that. xxix. neither did any awake. Samuel b. sciousness': And no man saw : . BUT FOR ADAM NOT FOUND A HELP MEET FOR HIM! 1 partner. as it is written. as a play 4 a is One causes man to fall.

the second side (zela') of the tabernacle. Jannai the Younger and R. II They both translate: and He closed up the flesh. 8 One says: He provided him with a lock and a saddle cloth pressed over it. follows Th. is that At first He in secret ? she pursued. 6-7 on read.** R. Adda. that his modesty might not be outraged. R.GENESIS (BERESHITH) you [XVII. Jannai differed thereon. The other said He provided him with cushions. That is it which compasseth sobeb 5 answer him: the text refers there to rivers. 7 He interprets 'tahtennah' as tahath na'ah. R. 1 But Samuel maintained He took one rib from between two ribs. and you an ounce silver depositing 7. assuming the suffix in tafitennah V.e. stealing the rib. but as soon as she [Eve] was created. should one quote. u). supra. it perhaps refers to R. translation. 9 so that he should not suffer pain when he sits. like an animal. 6 AND HE CLOSED UP THE PLACE WITH FLESH INSTEAD THEREOF (TAHTENNAH). 'a man of with you in secret. A return * him ' theft I ! Yet why a litra [==12 ounces] of silver openly. 5 Heb. 10 R. said From the beginning of the Book until here no samech* is written. 137 . and not 8 The text is doubtful. aaio. Jannai b. though usually Hebrew letter. seemly nether organs. i. i. One said: He instituted burial for him. but 'And He closed with flesh in their places.e. and referring to the places of the two ribs. the north side (Ex. Ishmael. and relate it either to the actual institution of burial or to the shrouds in which God decreed that man should be buried. n. son of R. 6 But this is the first time that the samech is used in reference to man. 11 : : created] [Roman] lady asked R. If correct. 7 Rabin [said] Jannai and R. IJanina b. i. Satan 4 was created with her. in the ground under him. Isaac said He provided him with a fitting outlet (naweh) for his : nether functions. Hanina.e. which close it in. vin. Jose: 'Why [was woman 12 by a theft?' 'Imagine/ replied he. These are figurative terms for the lock of the buttocks (anus) and bones l I. for it is not written. as it were. * ' z Lit. Satan is a synonym for the evil passions. to be plural. Ila and R. While : (Gen. He arranged that man should excrete through his nether part. Ammi disagreed. * 8 Here spelt with a samech : po. : And for [And He closed with flesh} in its place.. who suspects it to be corrupt. the body. 12 God. 2O). A ]. The translation from the side like an animal. the flesh of the buttocks. xxvi. while the other said: He made shrouds for him.

but Eve was created from a bone. [at birth] with his face does a man come forth downward. it meat three days unsalted. 'and when you pour a drop of water on it. 4 it immediately absorbs it . 'And He delivered'. while a man does not need perfume?' 'Man was created from earth/ he answered. Said they. 'If you fill a pot with meat it does not make any sound. the sound [of sizzling] a man easily appeased. and Y. and made 3 him righteous.' that a pious man was married to a It once ' happened Holy One. * 1 Th. viz. who is not as beautiful as I. of the same root as wayyisgor in the present verse) mankind (lit. 'And why must a woman use perfume. flesh ') into her power. spreads immediately/ 'And why is 3 but not a woman?' 'Man was created from the earth/ he answered. 8 This story presupposes and proves another rendering of the verse. Deut. and she made him wicked. : He destroyed this creation. 'We are of no use to the 8. had Adam seen Eve in the process of creation he would have found her repulsive. and they did not produce children. The former went divorced and arose upon they and married a wicked woman. This proves that all depends on the woman. blessed be He/ whereeach other. pious woman. while the latter went and married a wicked man. but when you put a bone into it. 16: Thou shalt not deliver * tasgir. xxin. but because I was brought up with him in the same home I became plain in his eyes and he went 2 and married another woman.T. (Cf. It had been arranged that I should be married to my mother's brother. while a woman comes 'Why the rib]/ he replied. Thus. R. 138 . the earth]. 7-8] created her for . Th. 4 Thus man readily accepts an apology. but Eve was created from a bone. 'and earth never putrefies. MIDRASH KABBAH him and he saw her full of discharge and 1 blood thereupon He removed her from him and created her a second time/ 'I can corroborate your words/ she observed. Joshua was asked: forth with her face turned upwards?' 'The man looks towards the place of his creation [viz. but not a man?' 'I will give you an illustration/ replied he.XVII. For example if you leave : immediately goes putrid/ 'And why has a woman a penetrating [shrill] voice. while the woman looks towards the place of her creation [viz.

they therefore walk in front of the corpse. xv. .e. Num. V. to sanctify the bread one eats and spread the cheer of the Sabbath as symbolised by light. 3 2 Innumerable before him is understood to refer to women. supra. The 5 bakes the bread. but on the contrary. since he may have many wives. 'And why was the precept of menstruation to her?' 'Because she shed the blood of Adam [by given causing death]. but the man deposit sperm within a woman while a woman does not deposit sperm within a man?' [He replied]: 'It is like a man who has an article in his hand and seeks a trustworthy person with whom he may deposit it/ 1 'Why does a man go out bareheaded while a woman goes out with her head covered ? She is like one who has done wrong and is ashamed of people.GENESIS (BERESHITH) which even saturated/ [XVII. therefore she goes out with her head covered/ 'Why do they [the women] walk in front of the 2 Because they brought death into corpse [at a funeral] ? the world. and in a local. hers is the privilege to emphasise the inviolate character of woman. * V. that assurance. 139 . 19 ff. she is charged with having brought death into the world through her disobedience. i. 32 f). but not a man. 7 The attitude of Judaism towards woman is shown in these replies. who was the 5 dough (hallah) of the world. as there were innumerable . zoa. therefore was the precept of dough given to her/ 'And why was the precept of the Sabbath lights given to her? 'Because she extinguished the soul of Adam. 'he seeks what he does not seek him/ 'And why does a lost. xiv. 8 if you soak many days in water does not become 'And why does the man make demands upon the woman. after him. therefore was the precept of menstruation 4 given to her/ 'And why was the precept of "dough" given to her?' 'Because she corrupted Adam. [as it ' ' ' ' is draw written]. and all men before him' 3 (Job xxi. In accordance with Scripture. since she has one husband only. yet her punishment is not to be accursed. 1 A separation is naturally done by the woman who 6 I. sense. not temporal. whereas the woman does not make demands upon the man?' 'This may be compared to a man who loses lost article something/ replied he. 6 therefore was the precept of the Sabbath 7 lights given to her/ 1 woman can give With the assurance that the same will be returned. For he is borne to the grave . Sanh. made him mortal.

and is assumed to understand their import. 1 6 'Coiffure stands here for adornment in general. 7 The twenty-four are those enumerated in Isa. Samuel b. Thus he translates: and the Lord God made the rib into a woman adorned. and ! her to him Thus it is gold. Isaac: Some reverse it. 18-24 q-v. Aibu others state the following in Bannayah's name. The Rabbis and : R. For we learned elsewhere The vows of an eleven-year-old maiden are subject to examination 2 those of a twelve-year-old maiden are valid. and we examine him in the whole of the thirteenth year. 4 R. those of a thirteen-year-old youth are valid. AND THE LORD GOD BUILT (WAYYIBEN) THE : RIB. people. for there are places where coiffure is called building. b. Eleazar said in the name of R. R. The vows of . R. Jeremiah said in the name of R. every precious stone was thy covering. Simeon b. in the day that thou wast created they were prepared (Ezek. * Thus a woman's understanding develops sooner than a man's. the onyx. 8 As though she were an uncared-for foundling. her vows are valid. the workmanship of thy settings and of thy sockets was in thee. etc. 22). 8 She has reached maturity. the cornelian. Hanina said: What think you. Thou wast in Eden the garden of God. xxvm. the topaz. This connects ' ' made 140 . and the jasper.Jose Zimra: She was endowed with more understanding 1 (Unah) than a man. (u. 3 and we examine her in the whole of the twelfth year. R. i] CHAPTER XVIII (BERESHITH) i. 456. that He brought her to him from under a carob tree or a sycamore tree! 6 Surely He first decked her out with twenty-four pieces of finery 7 and then brought written. in.XVIII. whereas a man goes out into the streets and learns understanding from R. llama b* R. Simeon wayyiben with binah. and the smaragd. and it was also taught in the name of R. 5 R. the carbuncle. She is examined as to whether she understands their import. the sapphire. 2 Nid. Yohai said: He [God] adorned her like a bride and brought her to Him. rendering and the Lord God the rib into an understanding (intelligent) woman. and the emerald. a twelve-year-old youth are subject to examination. 1 13). and if she does. the beryl. because a woman generally stays at home.

'a looker' i. R. 141 . lest she be a gossip. nor from the eye. Hanina regards 'precious'. B.: this does not refer to the canopies but to a special seat. Levi's name: WAYYIBEN 'I will written. Hama b.' etc. He must certainly have adorned her as a bride. from [Adam's] head. Lakish holds that 'every precious'. Said He: of every precious stone enumerated in this verse. in one says that there were ten agrees with the says nine argues: the 'gold' mentioned : The view Rabbis. the topaz.b. Aha b. while R. R. lest she be 7 nor from the foot. 'Every precious all Now was thy covering' stone was thy covering. 'stone'. R. Kama b. Levi and R.. Kama b.e. nor from the heart. Joshua is of Siknin said in R. different canopies. while ( The cornelian. Lakish maintained There were eleven . frivolous. 2 Ten stones are enumerated. The Rabbis say There were ten canopies1 : . 750. well (hithbonnen) from not create her signifying that He considered what part to create her.' * R. Simeon b. while he who this verse 3 certainly does not allude to a canopy.B. etc. viz.. and precious stone are included [in the total]. Simeon b.' And as He created each limb . while R. 'Every is a general term. 1-2 Lakish differ. Since God set canopies. i. Lit. Simon. Lit.e. for even when he stands naked. R. Hanina and R. is a detailed enumeration: hence all are included [in the total]. lest she be a gadabout. Karsana said in R. you regard the general term as additional to the detailed enumeration. lest she be an eavesdropper. 4 Mah. R. nor from the hand. Lakish both hold: Where : we find a general term and a detailed enumeration. that part is covered. that there were nine. Eleazar b. IJanina said: There were thirteen. light-fingered but from the modest part of man. indicating ten canopies. v. nor from the ear. 4 R. lest she be swelled-headed 5 . 2. R. lest she be prone to jealousy. 'one who ogling men. R. Simeon b. and 'covering' as three s Since it is the last enumerated. IJanina said He made the walls of gold and the covering of precious stones and pearls. indicates one more. lest she be a coquette 6 . touches things' thievish. nor from the mouth. GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XVIII. R. 1 One so up many 5 * 7 Others read: light-headed. while the other says ten. Aha's name : He even made him hooks of gold.

cur. The translation follows BONE. top. edd. A . yet etc. disquiet. so that she more chambers in her than man. of the head. nor from the ear. as you read. to trouble. 19). 23). 'Be a modest woman. Th. But ye have set at nought did not create her from i. necks (Isa. I none He reproof (Prov. 6 Pa' am is given a twofold significance: (i) a bell. AND THE MAN etc. this is she who is destined to strike the bell and to speak [in strife] against 4 golden bell pa'amon (Ex. in could receive child.' Yet In spite of all all My counsel.XVIII. Abin is observed: whom the king best man! 3 THIS is (ZoTH HAb. yet she is swelled-headed. The translation and interpretation follow Th. yet she is light-fingered: And Rachel she stole the teraphim (ib. All these remarks 1 showed his amazement. xxvin. xxx. xvni.). is a . God was ' * MY 142 . 25). nor from the heart. in. Happy the citizen for R. Ilisda said: 1 He built AND HE BROUGHT HER UNTO THE MAN. Rabbi said: At first R. i). Hence he said 4. (ib.: THIS TIME SHE is BONE OF as a it is she who was created the first time. thereupon He removed her from him and recreated her a second time. yet she is prone to jealousy: Rachel envied her sister (ib.. (meaning) Th. 10). PA'AM). fashioning her broad below and narrow at the R. connecting it with the verb pa' am. xxxi. xxxiv. 34) me. 2-4] MIDRASH KABBAH ordered her. 5 to the womb. regards this * 'To strike the bell* is used metaphorically: separate statement. 3 This is she of the previous occasion . Judah (n. SAID: NOW : THIS TIME SHE IS BONE OF MY BONE. and (ii) trouble. 8 And no longer a mass of discharge and blood. yet she is an eavesdropper Now Sarah listened in the tent door (Gen. gadabout: 3. He created her for him and he saw her full of discharge and blood. however. as it is written. went And Dinah out. i) nor from the hand. 16). to bring charges and accusations. nor from the foot. and would this. nor from They walk with stretched-forth : My the eye. yet she is a coquette: And wanton eyes (*&. The reference is * Here. best man for Adam's bride. connecting it with pa'amon. it is she who troubled me 1 (me-fa amtani) all night..

it is an him: raised written. a dream that intimacy takes place] does exhaust a man? Because from the very 1 beginning of her creation she was but [formed] in a dream. the daughter of my father (Gen. in R. R. 5 say. divorce her.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XVIIL 4-5 Resh Lakish was asked: Why do not all other dreams exhaust a man.e. Helkiah in R. replied he. WOMAN (iSHAH). R. ishah is grammatically the fern. antropia. BONE OF MY BONES. xx. not his sister at all. 5. Tanhuma said : When is a man takes one of his relations to wife. 24). 4 Gini (yvvij) and antropi (an assumed form for &vd patiros) are woman and man respectively in Greek ittha and gabra are the same in Aramaic. Phinehas and R. 143 . yet this [sc. Meir's opinion. From this you Torah was given in the Holy Tongue. because Gentiles do not recognise paternity. SHE SHALL BE CALLED. so was the world created with the Holy Tongue 3 Have you ever heard one learn that the : . 8 V. But the Sages maintain : He must And divorce his maternal sister. AND FLESH OF MY FLESH. fi his niece. 5812 and notes ad loc. But in truth she was 1 2 Whilst Sc. BECAUSE SHE WAS TAKEN OUT OF MAN (iSH). and he was [previously] married to his paternal sister or to his maternal sister. 2 R. Simon's name said Just as it was given in the Holy Tongue. 7 Since the Egyptians permitted a paternal sister. It was taught: If a man be- came a [Jewish] proselyte. antropi. THEREFORE SHALL A MAN LEAVE HIS FATHER AND HIS MOTHER (n. Hanan said: This Adam was sleeping. This is regarded as evidence of the great antiquity of the language. BONE OF MY BONES. but may keep his 6 paternal sister. itha. : gmij ginia. of ish> and Adam's remark is unintelligible unless he spoke in Hebrew. of him it said. ittha. Hebrew was the first language to be used. Heb. Surely They objection against moreover she is my sister. AND FLESH OF MY FLESH. 3 I. Sanh. such as are seen in ish and ishah. he must. 12) ? He [Abraham] answered them in accordance with their own ideas. in Sonc. It is pointed out that these words lack the corresponding feminine or masculine forms. . 7 was his reply. gabra^ gdbretha?* But ish and ishah [are used] why ? because one form corresponds to the other. ed.

THEREFORE is : of [the interdicts] of the children it was explained to us: Noah! 3 Said R.XVIII. 5 R. But did the 1 He renders: ' Therefore shall a man leave. and not because she was married. 4 I. Johanan's name: culpable for [adultery with] married HIS WIFE. surely a father's sister is forbidden ? c 3 The children This continues and emphasises R. 7 Surely not. Jonah said street Samuel's name was standing in the and two men had intercourse with her. are for in with] : betrothed If a harlot women. but not women. which means she who is related to his father and she who 1 related to his mother. xx. of son the Abin. etc. Abbahu objected: surely it is sister written. Abbahu's objection. Erusin effected marriage. . The Noachides R. cohabitation? 7 Hence this proves that cohabitation in the shalt die 6 . and (ii) nesu'in (marriage or home-taking). said to wife (Ex. R. . 53 MIDRASH KABBAH SHALL A MAN LEAVE HIS FATHER AND HIS MOTHER. 20) ? R. This proves that punishment is due merely because she had already cohabited with another. also frequently for Abraham and his descendants before the Giving of the Law. 6 In ancient times marriage consisted of two stages: (i) erusin (betrothal). woman who is related to himself through his father and the woman who is related to himself through his mother. Simeon. Meir's reason is as stated by R. Behold. Ila: But THEREFORE SHALL A MAN LEAVE HIS FATHER AND HIS MOTHER the means. and but cohabitation was forbidden until nesu'in. etc. only a paternal or maternal sister is forbidden. Hanan. 'Betrothed' ' betrothal are used in this sense in the text and not in accordance with ' their 6 modem connotation. translation. and the betrothed woman could not be free without a divorce . Lit. observe not even did Revelation before If so. the Israelites view was proved to us by the verse. 144 . 2 If R. the first is not culpable while the second is. thou for she has been possessed by a man (Gen. his wife if she is related to his father . of Noah* or 'Noachides* is the technical designation for non-Jews. 4 AND SHALL CLEAVE UNTO Abbahu [adultery said in R. who is primarily related to his father or mother. And Amram took him Jochebed his father's 2 R. vi. first intend to acquire her through 3). divorce.e.' i. not an aunt. on account of the verse. such as Jochebed was to Amram.e.

may not take her Said R. Papa 5 Throughout the Book of Malachi says. The Holy One. heathen] wives. 13). 5 He reverts to the question. divorce]. Thus Malachi says. Johanan's name explained this as meaning either that they have no law of divorce at all. 3 R. 3 I. It is as though one might say. Etanina b.K. and with sighing (ib. while these would go round the altar weeping. Her former husband. His name has no bearing on divorce save in the case of Israel alone. 2 or that both can divorce each other.).e. ye actually 6 repeat [the sin committed] at Shittim! Ye cover the altar of the Lord with tears. thou castest deprived oppressed her. where only the husband can divorce his wife but not the reverse. xxv. n.e. of R. I do not apply to him the verse. 4 R. Judah b. her her of and beauty. i. and then they both went and became converted [to Judaism]. with weeping. 4 'Rashi' and M. R. 1 And how do we [XVIII. The Lord of hosts is used. In Jewish law intercourse acquires only when it is done with that 2 The husband can never divorce his wife. Num. Aha in the name again to be his wife (Deut. Hiyya taught: If a Gentile divorced his wife and she went and married another. as it [in reference to Ilanan said: When Nehemiah came up from the land of Exile [to Eretz Israel. How do we know that a Gentile has no e V. i.e. Johanan said: His wife can divorce him and she gives him a double dowry. blessed be He. seeing that they cause their own wives thus to weep? Or this may refer to the second half of the verse: Insomuch that He regardeth not the offering any more (ib. R. purpose. 1 6). divorce? 7 Perhaps : who will pay heed to their ("the husbands') tears. who : sent her away. though that accordance with [Jewish] law. And this ye do a second time (ib. 13): Who would accept offerings 1 from them. when they petition Me. whereas here divorce] we have The God of Israel. Others: a divorce document. said: 'Who will accept 7 weeping and sighing from them? Having robbed her. he found that] the women's faces had been blackened by the sun. 4). putting away [i.GENESIS (BERESHITH) case of the Noachides acquires. Ilanan in R. For I hate saith the the God of Israel Lord.e. xxiv. Simon and R. so that [their husbands] had gone and married strange [i. 5 is not in that know they have no divorce? R. (Mai. when they are responsible for their own wives' tears ? H5 L . they have no divorce as it is practised by Jews.

28) ? Every day he is wont to return at three hours or at four hours of the day. pederasty. only natural intercourse is permitted him. Abbahu. 2 present Now how [From. Issi said : Every prohibition which is written in reference to the children of 3 Noah is nor a negative command. the six hours had come. In the case of Adam this means that from the time of his intercourse with Eve until his expulsion less than six hours elapsed.XVIII. leads up to this piece of exegesis. i).. his prohibition ranks as neither. while that of the latter involves flagellation. 7. i. however. 5-6] her away!' incest. Sanh. R. which is really irrelevant. The whole of the preceding passage. AND THEY SHALL BE ONE FLESH: [that means that he shall cleave] to the place [technically] neither a positive do you arrive [at the law]? where both form one flesh. R. 2 Scriptural laws relating to Israelites are technically divided into these two categories . Sanh. which means. v. Adam. 38^. Hananiah said If a Noachide cohabits unnaturally with his wife. v. 1 R. by death (in theory only). for it is written. the violation of the former is not punishable at all (by Scriptural law). In the case of a Noachide. 57^. while to-day six hours have arrived (ba'u shesh sha'oth) yet he is not come 6 delayed ! 'Incest* connotes here all forms of forbidden intercourse. and Sisera. R. V. Israel: And the people saw that Moses boshesh (Ex. but that at the sixth hour on the day of their downfall they were 6 5 no longer enjoying their usual tranquillity. [UNTO HIS : implies. Ex. the verse]. nor to a beast. AND WERE NOT ASHAMED YITHBOSHASHU (n. AND HE SHALL CLEAVE UNTO HIS WIFE. 146 . xxxii. Samuel. but is punishable 8 About unnatural intercourse. like MIDRASH RABBAH that they are forbidden it And how do we know an Israelite ? Because says. AND HE SHALL CLEAVE UNTO HIS WIFE. but not to a male.e. Leazar in the name of R. and R. AND THEY WERE NOT ASHAMED (LO YITHBOSHASHU). Mah. Leazar said: six hours. and thus includes adultery. 25).e. Israel. 4 I. viz. AND THEY WERE BOTH NAKED. he is liable to death. 4 6. 5 Sisera: Why is his chariot so long (boshesh) in coming (Judg. 58^ and b* 1 V. Three there were who did not remain in their tranquillity Adam. lo ba'u shesh sha'oth (six hours had not come). XLI. R. but WIFE]. Obviously it cannot have the same meaning in the case of Israel and Sisera. and bestiality. which not unto his neighbour's wife.

Joshua b. Therefore And the Lord God made . 4 Hence he sought And ' . The questioner holds that God made these garments before Adam sinned. . 2I) [immediately after the former verse]? Said R. And the Lord God made for Adam and 1 wife garments of skin (Gen. 1 3 to encompass Adam's death through sin. 6 AND THEY WERE NOT ASHAMED. viz. R. so as to conclude on the brighter note of God's care. Jacob of Kefar Hanan said It is thus : written in order not to conclude with the passage on the 4 serpent. etc. he [the serpent] conceived a 3 passion for her. in. 2 Viz. garments' is reserved for the ending. and as a natural covering for their nakedness. because he saw them engaged in their natural functions. But in that case it should immediately have followed this verse. Karhah: It teaches you2 through what sin that wicked his creature inveigled them. the interpolation about the serpent. the curse he brought. NOW THE SERPENT WAS MORE SUBTLE. Now Surely Scripture should have stated.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XVIII. 147 .

i. Meir's name: According : to the greatness of the serpent so was his downfall because he cursed was MORE SUBTLE THAN 14). near Sepphoris. ague]. its load. Flagellation for violating a negative precept (v.' while the other orders. NOW THE SERPENT WAS MORE SUBTLE THAN ANY Eccl. Thus through increasing his knowledge he increases his sorrow. (ill. 4 5 In Galilee. and he that increaseth knowledge increaseth sorrow (EccL Increases his and i. Johanan said fine linen : It is like the : 4 if garments which come from Beth Shean are but as blackened are even ruined. It was taught in R. Sot. while the latter eats and does not suffer. Animals. 'Bring me roast meat. in. being punished where another would be exempt.e. p. 18): Because man increases anger against himself. they slightly they for the [coarse] linen garments which come from Arbel. one orders. though lacking intelligence. 1 Solomon said Because I to myself I multiplied anger against myself. and good wine. he was More than all (Gen. the greater one is the greater is his punishment. as he is assumed to know that the act is forbidden. n. i] CHAPTER I. because he increases his knowledge he adds to his wisdom he : sorrow. Sb. Similarly. and a flaw does not matter. and the same applies to the serpent. Thus human ills weigh heavily upon the one but not upon the other. ' have multiplied wisdom and because I increased my knowledge I increased my sorrows. 18. are generally free from these ills. much wisdom much anger. XIX (BERESHITH) CtC. 5 what is their value altogether? 6 R. It often happens that two people enter a tavern. is NOW For in THE SERPENT WAS MORE SUBTLE. i). R. Very little.XIX. 'Bring me bread and beets': the former eats and suffers afterwards. Did you This ass went out and caught the ever hear anybody say sun [i. Sanh. Scythopolis in Galilee. *the most 7 subtle' of all animals. 3 R. 146. *3&* 2 1 3 148 . white bread. or caught a fever*? 2 And where is suffering prevalent? With human beings. but in the case of a scholar this is unnecessary. Ishmael taught: 7 According to the camel so is. 2) is imposed only if the offender was previously warned. Rabbi said: A scholar : does not require a warning. ALL.

infra. BUT OF THE FRUIT OF THE TREE WHICH IS IN THE MIDST OF THE GARDEN. i. etc. XL.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XIX. 1 Cf. ii. Through a land that no man passed (Jer. owing to its great strength. Hoshaya the Elder said: He stood out distinguished [erect] like a reed. Simeon b. ' ' * 149 . Sanh. xvi. the congregation of Korah. AND THE WOMAN SAID UNTO THE SERPENT: OF THE FRUIT OF THE TREES OF THE GARDEN WE MAY EAT (ill. for had this not happened. AND HE SAID UNTO THE WOMAN: YEA (AF). etc. 16). no man come in. all around the world. too. Af also means wrath: they were 5 V.* The baker. intercourse] and then fallen asleep. and he had feet. and Haman. HATH GOD SAID: YE SHALL NOT EAT OF ANY TREE OF THE GARDEN? R. 12). infra. xx. moreover. dared to attack it. Af means yea. and he would have gone and returned.e. Hanina b. Esther the queen did let 3. The Rabbis said: He [God] took him and led him telling him : Here is a place fit for is a place fit for sowing [cereals]/ here planting [trees]. 1-3 BEAST OF THE FIELD. 30. GOD HATH SAID: YE * 2 And none would have V. 2 R. And serpent: in AND HE SAID UNTO THE WOMAN: YEA (AF). (Est. He deprived the world of much good. v. 6) 5 : i. 2). Haman: Yea (af). Now where was Adam during this conversation? Abba Jrjalfon b. 14). 596. i. The congregation of Korah: Moreover (af) thou hast not brought us unto a land^ etc. 1 R. Eleazar said: He was an unbeliever. Eleazar said: He was like a camel. (Num. R. Ber. the chief through af'. they commenced their sin with the word af. * Here is a play on words. Jeremiah b. xx. The chief baker: I also (af) saw my dream (Gen. Sansan said: Four commenced ' [their sin] with ' af (yea) and were destroyed these are they: The serpent. one could have sent his merchandise through him. Koriah said: He had engaged in his natural functions [sc. Cf. HATH GOD SAID. it ' Thus is written. 3 2. through^ and where no man (adam) dwelt Adam had not dwelt there. punished through God's wrath.

IJiyya taught: That means that you must not make the fence more than the principal thing. Hence the plural form of knowing refers back to ye 5 God. 3 (yod'eini). and thou be found a liar (Prov. supra. lest He reprove thee. 17). ' NEITHER SHALL YE TOUCH ye eat 4. vi.' : R. Cf. 2 R. but For God doth know that in the day IT. Of this tree did He eat and then create the world. so will you not die when you eat it. SHALL NOT EAT OF LEST YE DIE IT. Others read 'does it (the firmament) not supply them with water' thus being subservient thereto. The end of the verse reads : Then ye shall be as God. knowing good and ' evil. Simon said: He argued: 'Whatever was created after its companion dominates it. Sanh. Add not not say thus. Thus: heaven was created on the first day and the firmament on the second 5 does it not bear its weight? The firmament was created on the second and herbs on the third: do they not interrupt its waters ? 6 Herbs were created : 3 in order to emphasise the prohitition. yodea'} t which implies more 1 Adam. not to . 6). z. added a fence to it by 2 must not even touch it (A R N). 1 lest it fall and destroy the plants. Thus it is written. Judah b. unto His words. etc. supra. Levi's name: He [the * serpent] began speaking slander of his Creator. telling her that she than one God. The herbs interrupt the flow of rain from the firmament. for every person hates his fellow R. 'just as you were not stricken through touching it. 'knowing is in the plural (yode'e. so that you may not create craftsmen/ other worlds.XIX. saying. (ib. (in. For God knows (yodea'). whereas she did NEITHER SHALL YE TOUCH 3). thereof. Cf. sing. R. Joshua of Siknin said in R. blessed be He. ye shall not eat thereof. V. iv. GOD HATH SAID: YE SHALL NOT EAT OF IT. For in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shall surely die (Gen. 9. II. For the gods know 4 but. 'Have you then died?' he said to her. but. [the serpent] against it. the Holy One. had said. 150 . 8 4 * ' shall be. 6. zga. said: I was asked this question in answered It is not written. hence He orders you. Tanhuma I ' Antioch. Thus. vm. R. 3~4] MIDRASH KABBAH IT. 5). when he took and thrust her he saw her thus lying. xxx.

6) she saw [how plausible were] the words of the serpent. SHE TOOK OF THE FRUIT THEREOF. Zimra Three things were said of the tree it was good to eat. Or do you think that I will ready. The Rabbis said: 1 2 And through the Name of a bird. cf . saying to him: die while 6 you remain alone ? He created it not a waste. as Jast. to care for). L. may be eaten. Ps. as you read. AND THAT IT WAS A DELIGHT TO THE EYES: hence that it was beautiful to the eyes. it 3 I. 4 you said: The ziz* is : 5. and the three were said in the same verse: AND THE WOMAN SAW THAT THE TREE WAS GOOD FOR FOOD: hence we learn that it was good to eat. supra. 3 obscures the orb of the sun. Judah b. Thus it heat of the sun plant cf. AND DID EAT. And 5 Cf.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XIX. ' a clean bird. Jose b. etc. I. 7. life n. And the woman saw that it was good. 18). she gave also unto her husband .e. Then I . song of wisdom) of Ethan the Ezrahite (Ps. 4-5 on the third day and the luminaries on the fourth. : : etc. He formed She began weeping and crying over him. R. and birds to eat of it. 14. Maskil (a i). R. Simlai said: She came upon him with her answers all 'What think you: that I will die and another Eve will be created for you? There is nothing new under the sun (Eccl. except a certain bird named hoi (phoenix). . ALSO is an extension 7 she gave the cattle. 1 the luminaries on the fourth and the birds on the fifth/ R. (ib. * 6 7 dominates the sun. in public places (with In the passage. it matures and ripens. All obeyed her and ate thereof. were. LXXXIX. in. THAT THE TREE WAS GOOD FOR FOOD. Simon and when it flies it Now were created after everything in order to rule over everything. XV. as it is written. beasts. it was beautiful to the eyes. Aibu said: She squeezed grapes and gave him. supra. 5 R. R. none I. Eleazar said in the name of R. it to be inhabited' (Isa. AND THAT THE TREE WAS TO BE DESIRED TO MAKE ONE WISE (LE-HASKIL): hence that it added wisdom. and it added wisdom. 9). make haste and eat before He creates other worlds which will rule over you/ Hence it is written. XLV.

(jHAGO(a girdle) Abba b. Zakkai. R. at the end of which its body is consumed and its wings drop off. of R. said as : 5""6] MIDRASH KABBAH my nest. etc. I. but R. and R.: which brought grief into the world. 2 * They were naked of obedience. 1 AND THEY SEWED THE LEAVES OF THE FIG (TE'ENAH) TOGETHER. Even of the one precept which they had possessed they had stripped themselves. 152 . yet as my days The School of Simeon differ: The School shall multiply much as an egg is left.K. but come and I will show you how much valuable stuff you have destroyed/ Thus He showed them how many generations they had destroyed. 7). is left. R. supra. 6. Judan b. R.worker's shop and just when a basket full of goblets and cut-glass ware was in front of him he swung his staff round and broke them. (in. R.XIX. whereupon EYES OF THEM BOTH WERE OPENED Were they then blind ? R. AND THE AND THEY KNEW THAT THEY WERE NAKED. Berekiah in the name of R. Judan b. Yohai said. 2 R. R. Kahana said: HAGOROTH Not hagorah : [plural] is written now HAGOROTH and linen implies shirts [or. Jannai and R. saying to him. Judan in the name of R. xv ad fin. 1 embroidered girdles]. 18). b. Jannai maintained: It lives a thousand years. yet as much as an egg it grows new limbs and lives again.V. Isaac said : 3 ! Thou hast acted sinfully then take thread and sew AND THEY MADE THEMSELVES GIRDLES ROTH). and it grows new limbs and lives again. That is the leaf which brought the occasion (to'anah) for death : into the world. robes. Johanan Akiba explained it by comparing them to a villager who was passing a glass. Simeon said: It lives a thousand years. Thus the immediate consequence of their sin was that they had to begin sewing. M. Simeon b. Whereupon he [their owner] arose and seized him.e. I shall die with and I the holE. because of your sin you must henceforth toil. 'I know that I cannot obtain redress from you. cf. 'phoenix' (Job xxix. at the end of which a fire issues from its nest and burns it up.

23). Amram. Halapay said: We know know that we know travelled 2 [from here] that a voice may travel. the latter to the kith-pa'el. 29) then what are the wicked are they to range in the air What it means is that to do the wicked did not permit the Shechinah to dwell on earth. .V. which means that it [repeatedly] leaped and real home of the Shechinah was in the nether ascended. R. with the generation of the separation [of tongues]. 153 . E. AND THEY HEARD THE VOICE OF THE LORD GOD TRAVELLING IN THE GARDEN TOWARD THE COOL OF THE DAY (in. while Moses brought The it right down below. not to God. 6-7 so for woman 7. 1 'travelling . 5 : ! I HAGOROTH He For is plural. 4 The former belongs to the pi' el conjugation of the verb .GENESIS (BERESHITH) cloaks and just as these are made for man. Abraham [brought it down] from the seventh to the sixth. 7). Isaac from the sixth to the fifth. Abba b. : R. Levi from the fourth to the third. and Moses. it ascended to the third when the generation of the Flood sinned. The sinned it departed to the first rdkia Adam when sphere. But as against these there arose seven righteous men Abraham. hats. 1 . ix. and hair nets. to the seventh. with the Egyptians in the days of Abraham. . to the fifth. Isaac said: It is written. but we do not yet can to fire. when Cain sinned. and it is understood to 1 mean various kinds of garments. to the fourth. with the Sodomites. Amram from the second to the first. applies 'travelling* to the 'voice . and they dwell. Levi. to the sixth. and they brought it down again to earth. 'walking'. He understands the longer form as a frequentative. Jacob. Jacob from the fifth to the fourth. and dwell the land inherit shall (wayyishkenu) righteous therein for ever (Ps. R. are made girdles. it ascended to the second [firmament] rakia* when the generation of Enosh sinned. : Isaac. 5 By reading wayyashkinu (and they caused the Shechinah to dwell) 2 3 instead of wayyishkenu. xxxvii. Kohath. 1 . [XIX. Kohath from the third to the second. and whence do 'travelling apply that? From a verse elsewhere: And the fire 1 down upon the earth (Ex. Kahana said Not mehallek but mith-hallek? 4 is written here.

4 When God has declared that disobedience would be followed by death. The Lord God is certainly going to those in the garden' [to punish them]. LE-RUAH HA-YOM In Zabdi's view he was lenient toward him. east and west denote severity and mildness respectively. YOM side : in the east side [of the universe] implies in the side (ruah) which rises with the day sun]. He was severe toward him. 7 In Rab's view. As 6 'in the cool of the day*. R. blessed be He. Isaac ' : ' interpretation. and ten LE-RUAH HA-YOM.e. xc. 6 and he will live nine hundred thirty years and leave seventy for his children/ as threescore years and it is written. 4. Lo the deceiver who deceived his Creator!' 2 R. 'O God. dead) instead of mith-hallek. xv. or. Zabdi b. The days of our years are (Ps. le-rewah ha-yom (after differed in their the day's respite) : behold. explained. does man still walk about!'). just as the more the sun ascends the hotter it becomes. Levi said: He judged him in the west : LE-RUAH HA- [God] judged implies in the side which sinks with the day.V. which Now know whether ! is a thousand years. J 54 . According to these interpretations the verse is rendered thus And they heard the voice (of the angels declaring). *God is going to those in the garden* to punish them. V. xc. Ps. (either: 'O God. 7. I will give him the day's respite. tlanina b. that means one day of Mine or one day of yours. he* man 'is dead and gone". But behold I will grant him one day of Mine. II. 10). Isaac said: [They exclaimed]: 'Does he still go about!' 4 Said the Holy One. Levi and R. reading meth holek (he goes as Supra. 17). Berekiah said: For wayyishme'u (and they heard) read wayyashmi'u (and they caused to hear) 1 they heard the voice of the trees saying. Levi said: [The were exclaiming]. 5 He is doomed to die. R. or. 'He of the garden is ministering angels dead [and gone]/ 3 R. just as the further the sun declines the cooler 1 it grows. " For thus spoke I to him: For in the day that thou eatest ' ye do not thereof thou shall surely die" (Gen. Rab said : He him [i.XIX. be heard.e. Papa said: For wayyishme'u read wayyashmi'u they heard the voice of the ministering angels saying. etc. R. relates this to the trees: the trees caused their voice to 2 : He 6 7 E. 8] MIDRASH KABBAH : 8. to them: ['He will 5 die] LE-RUAH HA-YOM/ i.

AND SAID: WHERE ART THOU AYEKKAH? (in. 2 expulsion is more final.. how! used in apostrophe). supra. 8-9 AND THE MAN AND HIS WIFE HID THEMSELVES AMONGST THE TREES OF THE GARDEN. whereof I commanded thee that thou shouldest not eat (ib. with thee!' vocalising n^K (ayyekah) as nyx (ekah. : said His stature shrank to a hundred cubits. and I punished them loc. and now by the will of the serpent yesterday by [thou didst extend] from one end of the world to the other. n. 24) : . They are like a man into the (Adam)' means like Adam: just as I led Adam garden of Eden and commanded him. and hence. and does not imply a purpose or limit. 8 Cf. ' of R. 6. : (ib. Aibll . 7). My now [thou canst hide] OF THE GARDEN!' 3 R. Is it and notes ad dismissal implies for a certain purpose. R. AMONGST THE TREES man (Adam). supra. xn. 1 AMONGST THE TREES ('EZ) OF THE GARDEN. . AND THE LORD GOD CALLED UNTO THE MAN. 15). Abbahu said in the name whereas It is written. I bewailed him with ekah (how) is ! And said unto him ayyekah : ekah they transgressed 1 written 5 ) : so also did I bring his descendants into Eretz Israel and command them. that they would be placed within wooden ( ez) coffins. 23). for a limited here. whereupon I punished him by dismissal and expulsion. e 9. took the man. and I : . R. 4 Mah. R. Jose b. as it is written. ill. n)? and I punished him by dismissal Therefore the Lord God sent him forth from the garden of Eden (ib. V. xn. vi. period. 155 . and My commandment. n. and put him into the gar den commanded him: And the Lord God commanded the man (ib. 9): 'How (ek) hast will. 2 'how : 6. i. 4 and bewailed him with ekah (how) ! (I led him And the Lord God into the garden of Eden. 17) and he transgressed My commandment Hast thou eaten of the tree. whereas * V. Lit. GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XIX.. Levi said: This was a sign for his descendants. and he transgressed My commandment. Hanina: But they are like a they have transgressed the covenant (Hos. thou fallen! 2 Yesterday [thou wast ruled] . and I punished him by expulsion: So he drove out the man of Eden (Gen. vm. until man should expiate his sin by hard work .

8 A metaphor: God tested them by questions and found them wanting. as it is written. AND HE Imagine a SAID: HE SAID: WHO I HEARD THY VOICE TOLD THEE.XIX. Var. also. 156 . ix. the wicked I DID EAT Adam :ANDTHEMANSAID. and they began biting her. (in. i). 'he wishes to marry another woman and give it to her/ What did she do? She inserted her hand into it. a woman asking for leaven. xv. xxvii. I vinegar. g-ll] MIDRASH KABBAH by sending them away and expelling them. R. command the II. 4. n f)? . etc. And I brought you into a land of fruitful fields (Jer. (in. . to the wife of a snake-charmer Similarly. 1 I. : Cain : And the iv. all Israel have transgressed Thy (Dan. and let them go forth (Jer. 1 Lord said unto Cain : Where is Abel 9) ? the wicked Balaam And God came 2 Lam. AND in R. blessed be He. 2 ' went How HAST THOU EATEN OF THE THEE. lee. 10. and I bewailed them with ekah : Ekah (how) doth the city I out of sit solitary (Lam. upon whose etc. Levi said: woman borrowing and ' ' does with kindme ? He treats treat husband every your you ness/ she replied. . 'Have you touched that cask?' he demanded. 7).? TREE. and Hezekiah. xxiv. AND THE MAN SAID: THE WOMAN WHOM THOU GAVEST TO BE WITH ME. Cain. . Poor women would go borrowing or begging vinegar. My punished them by sending them away: Send them away my sight. . 20). Command the children command : of Israel (Lev. thy brother (Gen. n). who asked her. etc. I commanded them: And thou shalt children of Israel (Ex. When her husband came he heard her crying out [with pain]. knocked. Four there are Holy One. 15). viz. Adam. and I bewailed them with ekah! I brought them into Eretz Israel. WHEREOF COMMANDED AND 11. 'save that he does not permit me to approach this cask which is full of serpents and scorpions/ 'It contains all his finery/ said the other. ix. 12). 2) they transgressed law Yea. by expulsion: / will drive them out of My house (Hos. i). 3 chamber-pot. SHE GAVEMEOF THE TREE. Proem v. flask the only to find it a Balaam.. . into which they dipped their bread (Radal).

9)? Hezekiah: Then came Isaiah the prophet unto king Hezekiah. Abba b. is ' God. R. : Then would I speak. [XIX. Papa said: This may be compared to a bird in the hand of a hunter. !?5X] (zoe~oka!) t and I will eat. 14) l But Ezekiel was found superior to all of them: Son of man. Simeon b. cit. Num. xxn. who said The woman whom Thou me. Th. xxxiv. Lakish is written: I did eat and I will eat. Blaspheme God. Him. 35). not written 'shall I receive'. io). standing her counsel.B. 3). it is And dead/ was the reply. IJanina b. thus : (tva-okel). whereas he had refused to obey her when she urged. receive shall ! : 1 V. Abba said Not we-okalti (and I did eat) but wa-okel 8 R. 3 R. but speaketh (ib. and die (Job II. R. 8 Different vocalisation of the same word changes its tense. and I did eat. wish. Translating : for 6. Thou knowest.)l Said R. and said unto him: What said these men? etc. xxxvn. notwith7 B.GENESIS (BERESHITH) unto Balaam. but 'shall we we be upright in prosperity but not upright in times of evil 6 For all this did not Job sin with his lips. who had obeyed his wife and sinned. the idea seems : to be that Job's wife too was righteous. 7). can these bones live? and I answered: O Lord God. who met a man and asked him: If you wish. xx. (n Kings xx. 2 Thus: 'Can these bones I answered: O Lord God.' it is Thus written. I am WHOM THOU for I am not so with myself (Job not like him [Adam] he said.. 11-12 these and said: What men are with thee (Num. Abba: With his lips he did not sin. Said R. Thou knowest (Ezek. and not fear ix. 7 R. live? 12. his friends pointed out that even am not like (Adam. c : s gavest') to be with of God. I did hearkened to his wife. When Job said that he would speak without fear Adam.: thus he not hearken to my wife. ' ' ' . Job said: THE WOMAN etc. Kahana said: Job's wife was Dinah. and Abba: It : shall 5 What? shall we receive good at the hand of we not receive evil (Job loc. though God's handiwork. 9). but with his heart he sinned. I 2 Its life and death are in your hands. 'bsio 157 . i6tf. To which Job replied that he was not like Adam. 5 While of Dinah it is written Because he had wr ought a vile deed (nebelah) : in Israel in lying with Jacob's daughter 6 (Gen. 4 Jacob's daughter. 4 for he said to her: Thou speakest as one of the vile women (nebaloth) GAVEST TO BE WITH ME. it is alive and if you Is this dead or alive ? . could not stand before Him.

15). make him liable for repayment. and it brought 1 forth wild grapes (Isa. AND THE WOMAN read. V. here.XIX. 37. 158 . 2 I. actually brought forth the wild grapes of blasphemy.e. And he looked that it should bring forth grapes. he beguiled me. xxxii. LXXXIX. xin. he me/ as you ME (HISHI'ANI). said: until 12] MIDRASH RABBAH Adam was not banished from the garden of Eden he reviled [God] and blasphemed. SAID: I THE SERPENT BEGUILED incited me. v. xxiv. R. He incriminated me. he made me liable to Not only did it but punishment. as it is written. AND DID EAT. also Num. When thou dost 23). io) 2 . 'He incited The enemy shall not incite (yashi) him (Ps. lend (tasheh) thy neighbour (Deut. 2). let not Hezekiah beguile it not produce the fine grapes of virtue and obedience. Now therefore you (u Chron. *he incriminated me/ as you read. 'he beguiled me/ 1 as (yashi) you read.

blessed be He. AND THE LORD GOD SAID UNTO THE SERPENT: BECAUSE THOU HAST DONE THIS. . A froward man' refers to ' the serpent. Separateth familiar friends : he separated the Prince of ' : ' ' the world. who spake perversely of the Creator. 28). in. 3 He caused the Shechinah to depart. Levi In the millennium the Holy One. who uttered slander 1 against his Creator . 4. etc. viz. Another interpretation: 'A said : ' shall be hunted with thrust alludes to the serpent. but with the serpent He entered into no discussion.[XX. will 159 . cf. xix. 2. 'Why did ye mulct My children ? and they will answer Him: 'Some of them were much addicted to slander/ Then the Lord will take both and hurl them into Gehenna. 8. 4 1 The reason is that the Holy * I. 1-2 CHAPTER XX (BERESHITH) i. 12). Ye shall not surely die (Gen. A jroward man soweth strife. supra.' as it is written. Cf. CURSED ART THOU FROM AMONG ALL CATTLE. CXL. is With thrust upon thrust Adam was cursed. as it is written. xix. as hitherto. 3 and because he separated the Prince of the world he was cursed: AND THE LORD GOD SAID UNTO THE SERPENT. SAID UNTO THE SERPENT. supra. i. not walk upright. (in. but ' ' : written. Upon thy belly shall thou go 2 The violent and wicked man shall be hunted' : not 'With a thrust* slanderer' ' . xix. 4) . saying to them. . 14). xvi. R. 'Shall not . etc. etc. AND THE LORD GOD SAID UNTO THE SERPENT. 'Shall not be established in the earth. A slanderer shall not be established in the earth. and the serpent was cursed. earth' means that the serpent Cf. AND THE LORD GOD etc. and a whisperer separateth familiar friends (Prov. With Adam He [first] discussed the matter. will take the nations of the world and hurl them down into Gehenna. 'And a [he is so called] because he whispered words whisperer against the Creator. Eve was cursed. the violent and wicked man upon thrust (Ps. supra.e. with Eve He [first] discussed the matter. * But cursed him forthwith.

viz. 6). supra. v. 29*2. and finally was cursed. Hoshaya's name: From the beginning of tl Book [of Genesis] up to this point the Divine Name occu seventy-one times: this intimates that he [the serpen was judged by a full court. Judah b. Simc said in R. But in subjecting to disgrace we commen< SAID UNT THE with the smallest: AND THE SERPENT: B ECAUSE LORD GOD THOU HAST DONE Unto the woman . 5. THII CURSED ART THOU . 4 'All that thou didst ' R. save three who copulate fa< because the Shechinah spake with them. xiv. the Lord spoke unto : the fish (Jonah II. said: Because thou hast hearkened. 1 R. When conferring etc. xvm. ' Ma And unto Adam (man) He said : Because thou hast hearken^ ND TH unto the voice of thy wife.. that Adam might die and you could possess her. cf. 2-4] MIDRASH KABBAH j One. and the fish. R. when subjecting to degrad tion. Of the serpent ? SAID UNTO THE SERPENT. [The Almighty said to the serpent do was on account of this womai was not all thy labour for her sake ? 3 R. M 1 : AND LORD GOD 3. Ta'an 156. Num. we commence with the smallest. Hiyya taught: honour. his so (Lev. ^ commence with the greatest.XX. n). Hoshaya said 8 Cf. etc.: this teaches th y He sait Adam I Ada [first] the serpent was cursed. Sanh. 12. Of the fist LORD A GOD And 4. blessed be He. and unto Eleazar and unto Ithamar. 6ia. . . Whence do we know it of mar to face. he will answer "Thou badest them and I bade them: why did they igno " Therefore lie pr< Thy bidding and follow mine? T H nounced his sentence summarily hence. the serpent. 4 Sanhedrin the great Court consisted of 71 member infra. Ber. said: 'This serpent is ready wi answers: if I discuss it with him. 2a. x. 2 All copulate face to back. . 8 1 So 1 60 . SAID UNTO THE SERPENT. R. . Sanh. And unto I will greatly multiply thy pain etc. then Eve. When conferrir honour we commence with the greatest: And Moses sa unto Aaron.

When the Sages visited Rome he . art.' 'And what is it?' 'After how long does a serpent bear?' 'After seven years/ he told him. R. [when God declared. since beasts are free.). in R.v. Gamaliel turned pale [with shame] and could not answer him. 1 R. a serpent at seven 5 years. AND THAN ALL BEASTS how long it takes a serpent to bear. . large unclean cattle at twelve months. Sa. 'and I could not answer it. not domescreatures. Joshua. Joshua of Siknin said cursed him with leprosy for those etc. Eleazar said: Have you ever seen a man first beat neighbour with a staff and then whip him again with a lash ? 2 Thus. In this respect the serpent was more cursed than all living 6 In the ancient east dogs were semi-wild. a i cat at fifty-two days. 'Why is your face wan?* 'I was asked a question/ replied he. a swine at sixty days. Surely not! 1 3 For cattle stand lower than beasts. R. When he saw them copulating he took them and placed them in a barrel and fed them until they bore. 4 CURSED ART THOU.. and an adder at seventy years. small clean cattle at five months. R. while it is written. a dog at fifty days. leopard.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XX. surely he is all the more cursed FROM AMONG ALL THE BEASTS OF his THE FIELD! 3 It was taught Large clean cattle bear at nine months. and all other reptiles at six months a lion. .E. 'How do you know that?' he 6 inquired? 'Because the dog. bear. : scales [on the serpent] are leprosy. MORE CURSED ART THOU THAN ALL CATTLE. ticated. at fifty days.J. hedgehog. ill. a marten at seventy days. : * 5 Var* lee. Behemah ('cattle ) generally refers to domestic animals hayyah (' beasts ') to wild animals. A certain philosopher wished to know after what period of time a serpent bears. beasts of the chase.] CURSED ART THOU FROM AMONG ALL CATTLE. Dog. Bek. which is a wild beast. bears asked them OF THE FIELD: 1 hence just Which as the cattle are seven times Ex. and the long-tailed ape 4 at three years. ape. elephant. a deer and a fox at six months. 2 is lighter. 13. meeting him and seeing his face wan. asked him. while cattle are under man's dominion (Th. Levi's name He : R.

XLVI. and then it draws out fibres of earth and eats them. 4~53 MIDRASH RABBAH more accursed than the beast. Judan and R. but since the repercussions of the latter were worldwide. When the Holy One. or enter into a hole and escape ? EARTH [E. Codex M.* R. B Since but for the serpent there would have been no death. it follows in turn that the serpent's cry too filled the world. said to him. . all cattle. crying All that for which I toiled seven years. 22). blessed be He. taught: creatures 6 5 go bent with grief (gehonim) over their dead so thou too. viz. Bek. For had not the Almighty decreed. Huna discussed this. not Babylonia (v. who began ' out. 'DUST'] SHALT THOU EAT. to beat his head against the wall [in grief]. 1 AND The : unclean large cattle bearing at 12 months. infra. ministering angels descended and cut off his hands and feet. UPON THY BELLY SHALT THOU 162 GO. UPON THY BELLY SHALT THOU GO. 1 so Is the serpent seven times more accursed than the cattle/ At eventide he [R. 8i. where it says that the serpent originally went upright like a man. how could he flee to the wall and escape. Gamaliel] went and told it to him [the philosopher]. reads: and the other said: creatures go with (yearning) bowels over their dead. e There is a* lacuna in the text. * The serpent's cry is employed as a simile to indicate the bitterness of Babylonia's downfall . 3 and his cries resounded from one end of the world to the other.V. One [God said to the serpent]: 'Through thee My . UPON THY BELLY (GEHONEKA) SHALT THOU GO/ R. Eleazar said: Even God's curse contains a blessing. Thus the serpent comes to throw light upon the downfall of Babylonia and is itself illumined thereby. and elsewhere the reading is Egypt. UPON THY BELLY SHALT THOU GO. The verse quoted refers to Egypt. to the same extent that An s Cf. this man has come and offered to me on the end of a cane ' ! 2 5. UPON THY BELLY SHALT THOU GO. idiom for doing something with absolute ease. rather does it [the serpent] burrow down until it reaches a rock or virginsoil. He interprets the verse cattle thus are 2 more cursed art thou than more cursed than beasts. R Hilpi said: It does not mean every kind of earth. The cry thereof shall go like the serpent's (Jer. Through thee My therefore thou too. 20).XX.

xcv. UNTO THE WOMAN HE SAID: I WILL GREATLY MULTIPLY THY PAIN AND THY TRAVAIL. 5-6 R. Gehazi. Judah b. and what they possessed was taken from them. but THY BELLY SHALT thou wouldst not. therefore. Johanan in the name of R. Cf infra. V. : 6. but thou wouldst not. SHALT THOU EAT. i . Simon and R. Levi said: In the Messianic age all will be healed1 save the serpent and the Gibeonite. XLVIII. Korah. There J. and Haman 4 to them. R. And we find the same in the case of Cain. 5 Because she denied that she had laughed. hence. 5 R. blessed be He. made thee that thou shouldest go upright like man. what they desired was not given Uzziah. R. THOU GO.? WOMAN HE SAID: I WILL GREATLY MULTIPLY. but thou wouldst not CURSED ART THOU. Sot. all the tribes of Israel shall make them serve. said to him [the serpent]: 'I made thee that thou shouldest be king over all cattle and beasts. thou didst desire to kill the man : MORE UPON AND EARTH [Adam] and take his wife: therefore. This upon 4 freed of their disabilities. which 3 means. woman Sarah]. etc. it. the Gibeonite: earth shall be the serpent's food (Isa. 1 6). . shall till it (Ezek. I made thee that thou shouldst eat the food of man. and what he possessed was taken from him. 19). blessed be He. as it is written. refers to the Messianic age . the Gibeonites. THE etc. . 163 Said R. etc. UNTO is a lacuna in the text. R. Hoshaya in the name of R. R. never spoke directly with a woman save with that righteous and that too was due to a particular Kahana said in R. Absalom. the serpent.e. Adonijah.2i& reads: But it is written. Issi and R. Hiyya the Elder said four things The Holy One. hence.. Eleazar b. (ill. Abba 1 * I. b. Simon said : The Holy One. Jacob of Kefar IJanin: (He spoke that) through an intermediary. out of all the tribes of Israel. Sot.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XX. Biryi's name: And what a roundabout way He went in order to speak with [viz. Balaam. cause. Doeg. And they that serve the city. AN ENMITY BETWEEN THEE AND THE AND I WILL PUT WOMAN/ Thus what he desired was not given him. LXV. And 25) 2 . I have it. thus even then this curse shall lie * Who served hitherto viz. gb.

Go. When it is formed so as to be born at nine. Abba b. 1 Infra. it cannot live. if born at the eighth month. And the Lord said unto her Rebekah (ib. But it is written. V. And she [Hagar] called the name of the Lord that spoke unto her. (ib. Berekiah and R.e. supra. etc. And He said: Nay. Hanina: That was through an angel. *The numerical n 4 A woman =5 212). can conceive any time within three days of intercourse. Zutra said in Samuel's name Every : [foetus] that y has [developed to the numerical value of] harbeh I will multiply: i. 2 R. 15). 4 IJiyya b. 1 I WILL GREATLY MULTIPLY (HARBEH ARBEH) THY PAIN AND THY TRAVAIL. her! 6] MIDRASH KABBAH It is As written. Nehemiah answered in R. But it is written. sometimes after one. 'Because my ass is about to foal. it is viable. but is actually born at seven months.XX. and all the more so if it is born at eight months. Eleazar said in the name of R. Levi said in the name of R. XLV. 'sometimes it foals after a shorter period. eight/ R. who was explaining a subject to him. xvi. which is at nine months plus the days of conception. and I am afraid that it may catch cold and die/ 'Why does it worry you now?' he rejoined. Hama b. xxv. 2=2. at Huna said : When the foetus is so formed seven months. value * 164 . Adda was sitting before Rab. xiv. xvm. Idi's name: That was through an angel. R. 23)? R. Jose b. 2. but he could not grasp it. and it is born either at seven months or at nine months. 10. 13)? R. 200. et passim. seven. Abbahu was asked: How do we know that when the foetus is fully developed at seven months it is viable ? From your own language I will prove it to you/ replied he: 3 'Live. a foetus that has developed for two hundred and twelve days as to is viable. R. it cannot live. of rain is 212 (n 1 5. but thou didst laugh (Gen. Biba in Samuel's name said: A woman can give birth only at two hundred and seventy' be born two hundred and seventy-two. R. Zirnra: That was through the medium of Shem [the son of Noah]. R. or two hundred and seventy-three days. Joshua b. 'Why can you not grasp it?' he asked.

vn.e. suffering involved in the upbringing of children. 'when Antoninus' herd were lying. it gives birth not later than a solar year [after conception]/ 1 Said he to him.. 7 B 5 E.. But it is written. 1 THY IN PAIN. : There are four desires the desire of a desire of the woman 6 is for for none none but her husband: AND THY DESIRE SHALL Tempter is BE TO THY HUSBAND. SHALT THOU BRING FORTH. is for none but Israel: And His desire (teshukatho) is toward me (S. 4 'while here [we are discussing] an unclean . some of them calved at the right time while others calved later?' 'There it was a case of clean [cattle]/ he answered. if)? 2 'That refers to the case of small cattle 3 I am speaking of the case of large cattle/ he answered. CHILDREN.S. 'But/ he rejoined. and Rabbi's herd was made to copulate with them. AND THY DESIRE SHALL BE TO THY HUSBAND. s 7. 'and watered her'. Their period cannot be known. io). Simeon said: It is easier for a man to grow myriads of olives in Galilee than to rear one child in Eretz Israel. Or canst thou mark the ' months that they fulfil* (Job xxxix. 7). 1006. The desire of rain is for nought but the earth Thou hast remembered the earth. and it may bear before the usual twelve months. animal. the rains] that desire her (Ps. THY PAIN TRAVAIL. 6-7 but even when it foals after a shorter period. GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XX. to the agony of childbirth. R. iv. LXV.V. and unto thee is its desire (Gen. n): : 1 But here it was well before even a lunar year. 7 And the desire of the Holy One.a longer period. it gives birth not earlier than a lunar year [after conception]. to the refers to the pain of conception . even the months are not invariable. 4 3 Their period is irregular. Sin personified. blessed be He. and them [sc. The but Cain and his associates: Sin coucheth at the door. 'Er. Knowest thou the time when the wild goats of the rock bring forth? . while if after a longer period. Eleazar b. to the discomfort of pregnancy. 165 . to the sufferings of miscarriages. why then worry beforehand ? 2 I. R.

\ i. upon it. 6). O 2 Israel: The Lord our God. a bird]: She shall take 4 two turtle-doves. when we recite. 8 wealthy family of noble birth. R. or two young pigeons (Lev. saying to him.). all BECAUSE THOU HAST HEARKENED UNTO THE VOICE OF THY WIFE (HI. answers R. blessed be He. a play 2 : 1 mpn (hope). 7~8] are MIDRASH KABBAH (tashim). 6 This refers to a woman debtor . 316. Berekiah and R. the Holy One. 5 xxiv. n. AND HE SHALL RULE OVER You might all good under THEE.e. injureth. the life that is destined to spring from her. or ('Rashi') made a half-hearted vow of * Nid. Jose the think that his dominion holds conditions: therefore it is stated. Yohai said: Because she fluttered in her heart. deficient hope (mekawim) for the salvation of good deeds]. Simeon b. reading it as two words twi (weak) and S. wavered in her faith.XX. It is related that a certain woman of the house of to the Sages he Tabrinus 6 was married to a mean beggar. 3 I. I. vn. No man shall take the mill or the upper millstone to pledge (Deut. 9). He. says to her whereupon the Holy One. For he taketh a man's life to pledge (jb. SHALL DESIRE THY Another interpretation of AND BE TO THY HUSBAND: When a woman sits on the weak we still birthstool. thou wilt return to the desire for thy husband/ R.e. 4). 1 66 6 A . one may not seize a pledge from a woman. Simon in the name of R.e.e. 3 she must bring a fluttering sacrifice [i. 1 and declare the unity of the Lord's Name twice daily. 'What do you think? That I will die and another Eve will be created for you? There is nothing new under the sun (Eccl. DESIRE SHALL BE TO THY HUSBAND. xn. she declares.S. while hobel (taketh to pledge) is perhaps translated . Or do you This is on inpWJ"). 8 SAID: AND UNTO ADAM HE 17). blessed be ' Thou wilt return to thy desire. Hear. Galilean said: 8). 7 When he came produced a golden candelabrum with an earthen lamp standing AND THY 8. Simlai said: She came upon him with her ready. R. yet ruled over her. though lower in birth than his wife. : 'I will henceforth never fulfil my marital duties/ He. in fulfilment of the verse. abnegation from her marital functions. 7 Text as emended (Th. VI. yet We In though weak [i. the Lord is One (Deut.

supra.IZZ AB ON) SHALT THOUEAT OF IT. Abba of Acco that it was an ethrog 2 OF WHICH manded I COMMANDED THEE TO it (citron). and the reverse: just as redemption [requires the working of] wonders [by God]. Issi said IN TOIL (BE-'IZZABON) SHALT THOU EAT OF The difficulties of earning a livelihood are : ' twice as great as those of childbirth. Then let it produce [pests as large as] a camel for you ? Said R.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XX. Supra. 18). xv. Eleazar and R.K.' whereas in respect of a livelihood it is written. and the longer form 1 Her 3 E. 7 God daily frustrates and redeems us from the evil machinations of our enemies (M. for he could sell them and enjoy the proceeds. SAY3 : I com. R. 'saying'. 4 v. Samuel b. 5 9. In respect of birth In pain (be-'ezeb) shalt thou bring forth it is written. 7. thee to forbid to the cattle.). such as gnats. Nahman R. 'To the words of thy wife/ but To THE VOICE OF THY WIFE. so does redemption occur every day. The Rabbis said: She began weeping aloud (be-kolah) over him. Samuel b. but thou even gavest them and they ate thereof. 6 R. supra v. : midges. 5. be earned every day. it is written. 8 'Ezeb and 'izgabon both belong to the same root. Nahman said: It is even greater than a V. xix. I T .* AND HAST EATEN OF THE TREE: this supports the hence view of R. XLV. and fleas. beasts CURSED it is THE GROUND FOR THY SAKE. voice raised in weeping. Rendering: I commanded thee to say 6 V. (to the animals too that it is forbidden). 9. 7 R. 167 . so does the earning of a livelihood require the same and just as the latter must . so that will produce accursed things for you. 8-9 think that I will die while you remain idle ? He created it not a waste. IN GREAT PAIN (BE . ' Eleazar said: Redemption is likened to the earning of a livelihood. He formed it to be inhabited' (Isa. next note. and birds 4 yet not only didst thou not forbid them. Isaac of Magdala In that there would be benefit too. implies intensification. AND UNTO ADAM HE SAID: BECAUSE THOU HAST HEARKENED UNTO THE VOICE (BE-KOL) OF THY WIFE: it is not written.V. children.

These translations are based on the expression The dividing of the Red Sea was A HALL IT BRING FORTH TO THEE. for redemption comes through an angel. and. len THORNS ALSO AND THISTLES SHALL IT BRING ORTH TO THEE. Who giveth food to all flesh (ib. whereas sustenance 3 ust be provided for all flesh. Nehemiah said Hadst thou merited thou wouldst have taken herbs from the Garden of . 16. blessed be He. 1 6). What shall I be tied to the feeding-trough like beast!' Said the Holy One. Judah commented: Hadst thou merited it would have brought forth of all the trees of the Garden f Eden for thy benefit. Levi said: [Sustenance requires] tore effort than the dividing of the Red Sea. while artichokes. Nehemiah [differ in their Dmments]. hile DARDAR is cardoon. EAT THE HERB [GRASS] OF : :. KOZ IS artichokes. ow that thou hast not merited it. XLVIII. 2 10. blessed Redemption comes through an angel. for Israel only. [as Jacob 1 The dd] angel who hath redeemed me from all evil hereas sustenance comes through the Lord: Thou openest 'hy hand.e. . 2 : He. THOU repeatedly plucks his field and eats it [the while it is still herbage. HE FIELD. 4 DARDAR called AND THOU SHALT r R.). . THORNS (KOZ) ALSO AND THISTLES (DARDAR) SALL IT BRING FORTH TO THEE. CXLV. for it is ritten.. ftermath] is face broke out into a perspiration [of anguish] and he tfien a man ' ^claimed. 13). now that thou hast not merited. hereas sustenance comes through the Holy One. Isaac said: This as said with reference to the present-day generations. cxxvi.den and tasted in them all the delights of the world. R. To Him who divided the Red Sea in sunder (ib. and satis fiest every living thing with favour > s. . overlapping each other like les or shingles. Judah and R. Artichokes grow in an imbricated form. SHALT EAT HE HERB [GRASS] OF THE FIELD. so ecause it consists of rows (darim) above rows. R.X 9~~ IO1 MIDRASH KABBAH sdemption. which 168 implies edible growths. Joshua b. species of edible thistles (Jast. When Adam heard this. 'Since ! Gen. R.R. 25). i. 3 Some reverse it Koz : is cardoon. to him.

speedily eliminated. This ' Then had I been at rest.e. yet shalt thou return at the resurrection. is written. THOU SHALT EAT BREAD' (ib. : Sneezing. semen: He shall see seed [i. 16). sweat: IN THE SWEAT OF THY FACE SHALT THOU EAT BREAD3 sleep: I had slept: then it were well with me .V.thy face has 1 ig).). 7 Which thou must give back to the earth. down shall speedily be loosed' . Said He to him: 'Is not the handful of dust whence thou wast created as unlawful 7 spoil in thy possession?' FOR DUST THOU ART. 10-11 sweated. E. 'He that is bent 6 I. 'recover (ib.V. Pes.V. What matter* die (ib. for it does not say. Isaac's name: (ib. R. xxxvin. but she played the eavesdropper like the 1 Translating: I. FOR OUT OF IT WAST THOU TAKEN. semen].V. Haggai said in R. AND UNTO DUSTSHALT THOU RETURN. but SHALT THOU RETURN. is E. for (in. it is 2 On account of (E. R. His sneezings flash forth light (Job XLI. a sign of returning health. 10). is Our Rabbis motion of the bowels. life HIS WIFE'S She was given NAME to EVE HAWWAH. Simeon b. him an adviser. Yohai said: Here Scripture hints at resurrection. Abbahu said: This is one of the five things which are a favourable omen for an invalid. sleep. AND UNTO DUST SHALT THOU 8 go. 1 3 4 5 a play on words. 'in') the sweat of thy face. Then he would have had less trouble in finding his food. 8 Which he interprets : thou shalt go to the dust. II. 2 GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XX. viz. him to remain IN THE SWEAT OF THY FACE SHALT THOU EAT BREAD. of Cassarea said: Also the natural is the proof? When the waste LI.e.e. I3) 4 . Lin. 10). FOR DUST THOU ART. nyi* being read as rww. n8a. R. as it perspiring. etc.* Providing that His bread shall not fail TILL THOU RETURN UNTO THE GROUND. that he has an appetite for food. a dream: Wherefore make me dream [E. R. AND THE MAN CALLED i.e. 169 . Issi said: It had been better for with the first curse. and prolong his days (Job in. he [the sick person] shall not 14). sneezing. and semen. 2). Thou me'] and make me live (Isa. a dream.

to show forth. 5 For R. Thus she is associated with him in living. wealth. Eleazar said: That means that she all living. If he commit iniquity. Infra. xxu. she is likewise free. Simon said: Throughout the entire one hundred and thirty years during which Adam held aloof from Eve the male demons were made ardent by her and she bore. is R. Our evil inclinations lay us open to attack and hurt. (sc. which is connected here with both hawweh ddath. 6ia. Cf. I will chasten him with the rod of men. Simeon b. 4 A wife must perform certain duties. 7 while the opinion that they are harmful is based on the fact that they understand man's evil inclinations. If on the other hand he becomes poor and must sell the slaves she brought as her dowry. *Er. Cur. xxiv. but she counselled him as the serpent (bade her). 14). Keth. and thou art Adam's serpent. & Even of demons. 7 And benefit from him : therefore they return good for good. 3 a V.XX. Il] 1 MIDRASH KABBAH : serpent. i. and with the afflictions of the children of man Adam (ii Sam. she rises with him. an opinion). 4 R. if he husband] becomes poor. Infra. 48*2. and hiwya. she is free from them. the children of the first man. As the serpent had eavesdropped when God commanded Adam to refrain from the forbidden tree. thus she rises with him. and is in apposition to the children of man. : 1 170 . 2 [Another interpretation]: He showed her how many generations she had destroyed. 6 Afflictions is understood to mean demons. 2. seducer]. 3 BECAUSE SHE WAS THE MOTHER (EM) OF ALL associated with ('im) LIVING. so did she in turn listen to the serpent when he incited her to disobedience and persuaded Adam accordingly.e. she does not descend with him. which 6 means. preceding note. R. she can still refuse to work. poverty being so regarded. the mother of all life. It was taught: If [her becomes wealthy.e. vii. as it is written. v. Aha interpreted it The serpent was thy [Eve's] serpent [i. while the female demons were inflamed by Adam and they bore. but if she brings some servants with her as a dowry. 8 field are He who maintains that the spirits of the benevolent does so because they do not grow up This is a play on 'kawzoah'. as she does not descend with him. i8b. state (an opinion). sc. Simon said: THE MOTHER OF ALL LIVING means. but not in death. edd. 8 Hence they know his weakness and vulnerability to harm. (The reason for the view that house spirits are benevolent is because they dwell with him [man]. a serpent. Now if her husband becomes wealthy and buys them himself.

* 2 V. n. Johanan said: They were like the fine linen garments HIS WIFE THEM ' : which come from Bethshean. infra. before the priests were chosen for it.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XX. 1 AND THE LORD GOD MADE FOR ADAM AND GARMENTS OF SKIN ' : ('OR). Hanina said: It was a garment made of skin with its wool. (HI. supra. Levi said: The Torah teaches you here a rule of worldly wisdom spend according to your means on food less than you can afford on clothing. TIK light. which were like a torch [shedding radiance]. Pes. i.e. 7 they were but two. 4<2. broad at the bottom and narrow at the top. . R. instead of Til? skin. Meir's Torah it was found written. 16). Spend according to your means on food. v. not expensive garments. 11-12 with him. Samuel b. R. R. which certainly improves the sense. the wool that comes off it. 5 R.) 12. only simple. R. R. R. AND CLOTHED THEM.e. as it is written. R. Garments of light (or) 2 this refers to Adam's garments. yet they 1 MJC. while as for the view that they are harmful. Resh Lakish said: It was of Circassian 4 wool. 8 More than you can on a dwelling for lo dwelt in the whole world. the reason is because they do not comprehend his evil inclinations. Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat (Gen. u 171 . 3 GARMENTS OF SKIN meaning those that are nearest to the skin. Nahman said [They were made from] the wool of camels and the wool of hares. AND CLOTHED In R. Isaac the Elder said They were as smooth as a finger-nail and as beautiful as a jewel. rv. Eleazar said They were of goats' skin. 7 Cf. 4 When they used to perform the sacrificial service. but more than you can afford on a dwelling. * Viz. and these were used [later] by first-born children. Less than you can afford on : .#ul. xix. 84*. I. clothing: afford AND THE LORD GOD MADE : ! . Joshua said Of hares' skin. 13 Num. transposes 'benevolent* and 'harmful'. Jose b. 21). GARMENTS OF SKIN meaning those which are produced from the : : : skin. LXIII. 8. GARMENTS OF SKIN. . 6 I. .

14) was made to the one who 2 cried (v. in. then shall the sanctuary be victorious (ib.: shall he remain desolate in the grave for ever on account of his The translation is somewhat sin and never experience resurrection? conjectural. as it is written. 'Azariah and R. 'One refers to the Holy One. the nearer was he permitted to approach Him. 3 1 How the decree which was decreed against Adam continue for ever? Surely not! And the transgression that causeth desolation (ib. Adam. Isaac's name trampled underfoot (ib. Lord is one (Dent. or translating directly: the holy one. and another holy one said unto that certain one who spoke. etc.}: shall his transgression make him desolate in the grave? 4 To give both the sanctuary and the host to be cerning the continual burnt-offering long shall be the vision con(Dan. Holy 'because all proclaim before Him. AND THE LORD GOD SAID: BEHOLD. R. The picture is that of a series of partitions or barriers before God. 6 Lit. THE MAN is BECOME AS ONE OF us (in. 'Holy!* 'Speaking': pronouncing severe decrees against His creatures. 3 He was privileged to come more closely within the precincts of God than were even the angels. (Dan.XXL i] CHAPTER XXI (BERESHITH) i. Translating lapalmoni as Kpnimi. and the more privileged one was. Until evening morning two thousand and three hundred*. It is written. vi. which must be retained here. to So-and-so [a certain person]. Huna said: It means. 13). 22). Then I heard a holy one speaking. 'And another who spoke holy one said unto that certain one (lapalmoni) the : ' ' : R. Haggai in R.): shall trampled down by observed Surely when : it is when it is morning it is evening it is not morning and not evening? But the meaning is 1 Rashi explains: i. The 9 Lord our God. whose partition was within that of the ministering angels. cit. 18). 4 *EJ. 13). Jonathan b. 4). loc.e. viz. 2 Akilas translated it: He spoke to him who was within. blessed be He. explains differently. which refers to Adam. Thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to thee (Gen. 172 . viz. and 'host' his descendants. fyodesh Treating sanctuary as a metaphor for Adam. 5 Man. 14).)l Shall he and his descendants be the angel of death! 6 And he said unto me. vra. this statement (in v. translation.

translating it as an imperative. beauty of Adam. I Then will shall the sanctuary be declared right eous y declare him clear 2 of that decree then. loc.ir[.' however. 7 his stature Though the heavens. as it is written. to Eve. THE AS LORD GOD SAITH: BEHOLD. xxiv. mortal. And.e. but is so no to her. longer: I. 'And by the vineyard of the person 5 (Adam) void of understanding' refers to Eve. to * : in. righteous 173 . xxiv. cit. 'excellency'] mount up head reach unto the clouds (Job xx. it was all grown over with thistles (ib* 31) i. must refer there Adam home. is now but he was immortal. if one buys a field is designated person (ish) or man. as a person who having paid the penalty of his sin now starts with a clean sheet. . 30). (Gen. cit.) In the sweat of thy face.) And : the stone wall thereof was broken down (Prov. it should simply say slothful and one void of understanding. 18). 13). who was slothful to repent . while. LET THE MAN BECOME ONE OF us. 19).GENESIS (BERESHITH) this : [XXI. I went by the field of the slothful man (ish). 3 2. 3 Immortal. The face thereof was covered with nettles (Prov. 23) began to bewail him. having sent him forth He BEHOLD. 1 at that f time. 7 Lit. Thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to thee* (Gen. they spread 6 Since it is woman who normally stays at punishment in the world.V. saying. R. translation. . R. : i. refers to Adam. etc. Huna said: Behold. And lo. as though it read n.e. who was void of understanding in hearkening to the serpent.e. and by the vineyard of the person (Adam) void of understanding (Prov. 5 Tanhuma completes it : . THE MAN WAS AS ONE OF 3. * ' when Lit. XLIV. yet benefit has one [from the title of 4 'man']? '/ went by the field of the slothful man. 1 2 and his [E. loc. what Where do we to the find that Eve is called Adam? According dwell in the house (Isa. . HI. HI.to Adam. . Huna said: is or a vineyard and dubbed lazy. to 6). the former are degraded and the latter elevated. the morning of the nations of the world turns and the evening of Israel to morning. man and person being understood. 31). 1-3 when ' to evening. Therefore the Lord God sent him forth from the : garden of Eden (Gen. it was all grown over with thistles (Prov. us. lo. 4 I. not rrn.e.

They that have seen him shall say: Where is he? (*&. tlanina 2 and R. Simon in R. 7 You go too far (it is incorrect). 174 . Eleazar's name He created him extending over the whole world. a*. Since the day that God created man upon the earth. BEHOLD. 8 * I.e. 32).e. How do we know that he filled the hollow spaces of the world also? 3 From the verse. x. IV. Akiba to him Let that suffice 7 How then do you interpret MIMMENNU? : 1 This is probably an explanation of uw. 3~Sl MIDRASH RABBAH until [his stature] reaches the clouds. How do we know. Pappyas. 5). XVI. for all time. And Thou didst lay Thy hand upon me (Ps. But he goeth: since he ignored God's wishes and went after the counsel of the serpent. from before north to south? Because it says. said: How He WHO began to bewail him. and intimates that it is to s be translated stature. Thou hast formed me behind (ahor) and kedem (Ps. 7): because he rolled away [i. 4 Yet he shall perish for ever like his own rolling E. THE MAN began WAS A s ONE OF 5. all the space from earth to heaven.). endowed Adam was intended to be 'for ever'.V. amends: b. etc. THE MAN HAS BECOME LIKE ONE OF us (MIMMENNU) means like one of the Pappyas lectured: thee.V. 'behold') as the Aramaic \n where. WHERE5 is THE MAN WAS AS ONE OF US? : the 4.e. 1 R. BEHOLD. he was banished from the garden of Eden. Thou makest him strong for ever (Job xiv. do we know [that he extended] from east to west? Because it is said. i. * Translating jrr (E. He bewailing him. V. loc. where is man (Adam). Having sent him forth. disobeyed] an easy command. Said R. 6 He enjoyed our strength.XXI. Supra. for notes. ministering angels. saying. 'dung' (Job xx. R. Judah b. 20) strength with which the Holy One. saying BEHOLD. and from one end of heaven unto the other (Deut. supra.e.): i. THE MAN HAS BECOME. blessed be He. cxxxix. but does so no longer. vur.) : Having sent him away. R. Nehemiah. Joshua b. 6 (&. i. Th. R. Thou changest his countenance and sendest him away us.

translating: the man One who is among us. called one of the sons of xviii. blessed be He. (' of us '). . Hear. AND NOW R. were. supra. etc. whom [of (n Kings vi. though appearing as linen. translating: Behold. * Godlike and immortal. in. sc. viz. The relevance of 'like a snail* is not clear. 5-6 means that the before him. is also applied to Jonah (Th. And EKsha . It is perhaps best to regard it with Y. ix. R. xr. 10). i. Berekiah said in R. 2 as it is written. Simon interpreted: Like the Unique One of the universe. But for his sin. : : 6. 10 : 4 . evidently assumes that this was Jonah. S. Our Rabbis said: Like Gabriel And one man in the midst of them clothed in linen (Ezek. Israel. too. was an integral part of himself. i). 9. set two ways and death. was 8 like the and thereby has himself chosen the path of death. it was To know good and evil. the Lord Holy One. the prophets (ib. He translates: Behold. 7 so this one's glory too did not stay a night with him. as a parenthetic remark since the verse in Ezek. 2. 9 The view of R. God. Jonah 6 7 I. R. is written]. death. ch. so the former fled just as that one's glory did not stay the night with him. v. R. 10 the immediate effect of Eve's creation was that Adam should sin. how then could an angel be dressed in linen ? To which the answer is given that his dress. 1 O our God. The gourd which God V. IJanan's name is that as long as there was [only] Adam he was one. : 4 The Midrash Seder 'Olam. 5) just as the latter fled [from God's com5 6 mand]. 3. He it too disobeyed God's command. vi. in his honour. Just as 'one' refers there to Gabriel.). as 8 caused to spring up for him. Berekiah in R. Similarly. i. so here. Hanina's name Like Elijah just as he did not experience the taste of death. life R.e. in . not ist pi. (* of himself). but when his rib was taken from him. Judah b. i * .GENESIS (BERESHITH) It [XXI. I. the Lord is one (Deut. HAND. Resh Lakish said: [He has become] like Jonah. 4). 1 ' Abba ' Kahana said: This teaches that the treats That which God did not wish him to choose. and he chose the other path. But as one was felling a beam.S. but now (that he has Eve) he has been enabled To know good and evil. 8 R. 6 To carry the tidings of Nineveh's overthrow. V. the man has become as one who knows good and evil of himself. LEST (PEN) HE PUT FORTH HIS b. .M. ix. so [Adam] too was not meant to experience death. the man was as one. was smitten in a single night (ib. Akiba mimmennu as 3rd sing. 2): like a snail whose garment is part of : its 3 body. Th. : of his own free will. the verse. refers to Gabriel. wholehearted in his obedience to God.e.

with Thy likeness (Ps. but said. GOD SENT HIM FORTH FROM sent THE GARDEN OF EDEN. while in that of R. but not in the next. I shall be he who was created in Thy likeness satisfied. Joshua b. Judah. now. 6~y] MIDRASH KABBAH Holy One. Judah and R. infra. R. blessed be He. x. He Man. said: R. Nehemiah He was lenient toward him. 27). Nehemiah: As for me.e. and in righteousface. said]: When Adam] awakes. him forth. R. Israel. inf. Levi said: 1 2 3 When He Adam created him.XXI. 4 R.' etc. can only refer to what doth the Lord God Lord thy God. the other with R. 9. Adda b. XVH. iz) the Holy One. I shall be satisfied. He Cf. 15). I shall be satisfied on the awakening (the used in the Hebiew. man) has expiated his sin and thus completely righteous. is 176 . Hamnuna disputed on this. Thus God invited Adam to repent. Judah' s view He laid a severe punishment upon him. Judah said: He was sent forth from the garden of Eden in this world and in the next. blessed be He. AND EAT ALSO OF THE TREE OF LIFE? while if he does Therefore THE LORD eat. Nehemiah. R. 7. Ahawah and R. the man has [now] become as one of us. Nehemiah differ. and is interpreted: As for me (said David).' etc. I will not. provided him with an opportunity of repentance. 3 And the Lord God saith: Behold. 1 PEN (LEST) can only mean 'not'. which may bear this meaning) of him who 4 was created in Thy likeness. Huna [David [viz. one agreeing with R. I shall behold Thy face in righteousness. AND NOW: And this repentance. HE WILL the LIVE FOR EVER. and then I shall regard him Concerning that time [it is written]. shall behold Thy face when Adam (i. Nehemiah maintained: He was sent forth from the garden of Eden in this world. etc. as you : read. ness I shall behold 1 Thy as free of that decree. Free from sin. In R. THEREFORE THE LORD GOD SENT HIM FORTH FROM THE GARDEN OF EDEN (in. but to fear the FORTH HIS HAND. I is The verse is thus rearranged. said: SHALL HE PUT require of thee. xxxvm. Having began lamenting him: 'Behold. R. 2 Then (Deut. Now the following supports R. when I awake.

A priest might not remarry his divorced wife. He hath also broken (wayyagres) my teeth with gravel stones (Lam. O Adam. even in the next world. impression of commiseration for his frailty. uncircumcised '] unto you.* etc. he exclaimed: Thou hast taught 4 well.e. * Lev. xix. He was lenient toward him. 24). R. a 6 non-priest] who has been divorced and is able to return. Three years shall it be as forbidden [lit. 1 likewise banished him in : accordance with His Attributes of Justice and Mercy2 thus it is written. O Judah the son of my sister! ' ! 8. Lakish said: Like the daughter of an Israelite [i. SO HE DROVE OUT THE MAN : (ill. and so made to veil an allusion to the destruction of the Temple.pi is read twi. who couldst not remain loyal to thy charge even for a single hour. He of Justice and Mercy. as they generally married into their own rank. 6 By daughter '. the same word connotes expulsion and divorce. yet thy children wait for 'orlah three years. Lakish. . i6). 3 An 6 ' ' ' I 77 N .: O man. 23) R. Simeon b. wife is meant. 7 In R. the man. 8 R. Tibri [Tiberius] said in R. Huna observed: When Bar Kappara heard this. Johanan's view He was severe towards him in the view of R. it shall not be eaten (Lev. which intimates that He showed him the destruction of the Temple. XXV. [in connection with which it is written]. thou couldst not remain loyal to thy charge even for a single hour! 3 Judah b. 2. yet it was tempered with mercy. R. 2 His expulsion was an act of justice. In Heb. So HE DROVE OUT (WAYYEGARESH) THE MAN. Simeon b. in. as it is written. Isaac's name He banished him to the open outskirts (migrash) of the Garden of Eden.GENESIS (BERESHITH) created [XXL 7-8 him by His Attributes and when He banished him. 'Behold. and : 1 These two together were to be the foundations of God's rule over mankind. 8 By a play on words en. 7 He can never return to the garden of Eden. The Rabbis probably meant to convey that even here we find a hint that that catastrophe was the result of sin. since he did not die immediately. Johanan said Like the daughter of a priest who has been divorced 5 and cannot return [to her husband] R. . Lulianus b. [Read] wayyagres. Padiah lectured: O that one might uncover the dust from thine eyes.

i. Thus the whole passage is referred to angels. 4 Heb. so designated] in accordance with. x. i seqq. sword. as it is written. z. WHICH TURNS EVERY WAY: [turn about] as : they [the angels] change sometimes they appear as men. the Gehenna having been created on the second day. iv. etc. Huna said in R. To Cain And Cain went out from the presence of the Lord. To Adam So He drove out the man. civ. con. in the east (Deut. rising teaches that the Another interpretation : MI-KEDEM 2 angels were created before (kodem} the Garden of Eden. and caused him to dwell [sic] at the east of the Garden of Eden. sometimes as spirits. 3 AND SWORD Gehenna. To a homicide: Nod. v. It refers to circumcision. iv. : Rab said: In every : case the east affords an asylum. 6). sometimes sometimes before (kodem) the Garden of Eden the Gehenna was created. I will also command the clouds. harboth. Make thee and circumcise again. as it is written. In 178 . v. And the day that cometh shall set them aflame (Mai. 8-9] MIDRASH KABBAH appointed watchmen to watch over It. and dwelt in the land of east of Eden (Gen. 2). (Josh. 41).e. of hereb. 20). and I knew that they THE FLAMING cherubim (Ezek. 4). the angels. on the Then Moses separated three cities beyond the Jordan towards the suni.) is applied to ' this interpretation wayyegaresh' is connected with migrash. xxv. 2 the cherubim.e. 9. Another interpretation MI-KEDEM: as angels. 19). R. : women. 16). Adam. v. that they rain no rain upon it (Isa. living of Israel by the river Chebar . Abba's name: [refers to SWORD 1 knives* of flint. pi. His ministers are as flaming fire (Ps. 5 Ex. to exist and caused He Translating: before the Garden of Eden (was created). in. SWORD: [the angels are so called] in accordance with the the God were AND verse. Our appears that the whole passage there (Isa. Said Adam: 'Who will deliver my children from this flaming fire?' R. 1 AT THE EAST (MI-KEDEM). THAT TURNS EVERY WAY: because it [Gehenna] revolves about man and burns him up from head to foot.XXI. that I saw creature under This is the as it is written. and the Garden of THE FLAMING Eden not till the third.

But when he saw that after twenty-six generations Israel would accept the Torah. hence. translation. And Adam knew Eve his wife (Gen. When Adam saw that his descendants were fated to be consigned to Gehenna. 3 he applied himself to producing descendants. idea 179 .). The would 8 s is that the merit of circumcision and the study of the Torah deliver his descendants from Gehenna (Y.T. he engaged less in2 procreation. 10. Possibly it means here: he refrained (entirely). is 1 written. 9 as it SWORD refers to the Torah. Lit. 6).GENESIS (BERESHITH) Rabbis said : [XXI. 1 l). supra. CXLIX. IV. V. And a two-edged sword in their hand (Ps. i.

ii.e. R. 1 my husband now in my possession/ 6 3 Cf. man knew. she aroused sexual desire. * 4 Infra. through having given birth to Cain. and hadst Thou not given which is a thousand years. 6. l) : Lord. for thus saidst Thou to him. Abel and his two twin sisters. 5 AND SHE SAID: I HAVE GOTTEN A MAN. Eleazar Three wonders were performed on that that on very day they were created. a child binds husband to wife. and on that very day they produced offentered the spring. (Gen. 1-2] CHAPTER XXII (BERESHITH) I. him one day of 17). R. Supra. functions to all. AND THE MAN KNEW EVE O HIS WIFE (iV. it: Nehemiah interpreted [Show Thy mercies] wherewith Thou didst treat Adam. is referred to both the Viz. XX. Karhah said: Only two bed. 4 AND SHE CONCEIVED AND BORE b. For in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die Remember. * I. 'Behold. He translates: I have now a man (sc. how could he have applied to himself begetting posterity etc. 3 R. 1 [descendants]? Hence. 13. xxv. Abba's name said No creature ever copulated before Adam it is not written-. Isaac said: When a woman sees that she has children she is exclaims. and thou wast Adam's serpent. implies that he was so far unique in this respect. 6). Thus preceding verses (Adam's expulsion from the Garden of Eden) and the * The . Thy compassions and Thy mercies. Joshua b. and seven left it: Cain and his twin sister. xxiv. R. KNEW following ones (sexual gratification). but THE MAN 2 KNEW intimates that he made known sexual : : AND . etc. Joshua b. R. for R.XXII. on that very day day: they cohabited. etc. supra. v. he had been robbed of [Another interpretation]: He knew how his tranquillity he knew what his . they have been from of old (Ps. 586. 'Azariah said: CAIN. Jacob in R. R. Aha serpent [i. n. 2. Thine.xxm. 38^. viu. Eve. Num. def art.e. Sanh. AND THE MAN KNEW. 1 80 . observed: The serpent was thy serpent. his tempter] had done to him. Huna and R. Adam} in my possession. 2. AND THE MAN KNEW.

5 Abel having been conceived simultaneously with Cain. 181 . might imply that she had begotten the Lord. 14. Adam was created from the ground. AND SHE AGAIN BORE WAS A KEEPER OF SHEEP. Eliezer (iv. ix. AND ABEL WAS but not an additional pregnancy. R. Joshua b. Akiba Since you have served1 Nahum of Gimzo ' : for twenty-two years. tell me what is the purpose of the eth written here?* 'If it said. 3). 1 it "I have gotten a man the Lord/" he replied. without man. 6 4. This agrees with the E. Joshua said: 1 I. Noah the husbandman (Gen. * i. to : is required/ There- him For it is no empty thing from you and if it is empty. Ishmael asked R. 2). 20). R. Rather. CAIN WAS A TILLER OF THE GROUND. R. The term * served * is generally employed because disciples gave personal service to their teachers. Supra. 9.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XXII. but In our image. [WITH THE HELP OF] THE LORD upon he quoted (Deut. The additional birth therefore is that two twin sisters were born with Abel. Uzziah: For he loved husbandry (n Chron. xxxii.V. 6 Cain became a murderer. Three had a passion for agriculture. This supports what R. io). Karhah said : They ascended the bed two and descended implies an additional seven. It 8 8 Cf. would have been difficult [to interpret] 2 hence ETH . Noah. AND BROTHER ABEL (iv. it is so on your account. and Eve from Adam. studied under. Joshua disagree. 3 because you do not know how to interpret it. for birth. said: The world was created in Tishri. Eliezer and R. and Uzziah a leper.e. this]: In the past. 5 AND AT THE END OF DAYS IT CAME TO PASS R. after our likeness without woman nor woman (Gen. Every ok and rak is a limitation.* shall 26): neither man AGAIN (WA-TOSEF) SHE BORE HIS 3. BUT CAIN A TILLER OF THE GROUND. nor both of them without the Shechinah. [and he taught]. vm. supra. 2-4 WITH THE HELP OF (ETH) THE LORD. i. ETH THE LORD henceforth it [teaches be. and no good was found in them: Cain. Noah a drunkard. and Uzziah. 47). xxvi. but only one with Cain. while every eth and gam is an extension.

R. R. so that mid-winter (about zist December) or midsummer (about 2ist June). a date about a fortnight before being meant otherwise the period is above 60 days. after which the seasons begin to change. the fat ones [i. Eleasar and R. all agree that Abel was not in the world more 3 fifty days. OF written.e. a general term for all mankind before Revelation. R. I i6a. . But 'Passover* and 'Tabernacles* are employed here loosely. And he sent the R. Zeb. feast of lights. Jer. 5 first ripe figs but honours the king AND ABEL. burnt-offerings. He who says in Tishri holds that Abel lived from the Festival1 until rjtanukkah. 9 fat is offered.T. hence a peace-offering. 6 . which commences on the isth of Tishri. Isa. 4. Eleazar sought to refute R. THE END OF DAYS will mean about R. the best]. then 50 is only stated approximately. R. ix. In either than case.XXII. and Hanukkah and Pentecost fall about these dates respectively. 4~5] MIDRASH RABBAH In Nisan. Th. the beginning of Nisan or Tishri being actually meant. Jose b. 2. But not 9 But not the whole. Eleazar sought to refute R. . THAT CAIN BROUGHT THE GROUND: of the inferior crops. Y. 8 'The Noah' is v. HE ALSO BROUGHT OF THE FIRSTLINGS OF HIS FLOCK AND OF THE FAT THEREOF R. and similarly Pentecost and Hanukkah. states a somewhat similar reason. the fat of which was burnt on the altar while the flesh was eaten. They brought Jose peace-offerings 8 b. R. 2 He who says in Nisan holds that Abel lived from Passover until Pentecost. the which of that implying of did R. OF THE FRUIT OF 5. Jose b. xxxiv. 4 he being like a bad tenant who eats the with the late figs. R. rlanina b. END OF DAYS passage is difficult. Lev. and that Abel was murdered on the very day of the sacrifice. JJanina answer him? It means. 9 . 1 * The 3 The ATTHE AT 5 The former were 8 esteemed a special delicacy. rlanina : But it is AND THE FAT How Tabernacles. children of 7 xxiv. And certainly burnt-offerings. JIanina: But it is written. Eleazar said: The children of Noah brought even 7 said: R. Jose b. THEREOF. If on the other hand these are exact.: because before the Revelation people were unworthy of enjoying any part of an animal consecrated to God. R. peace-offerings. Jose (iv. Both assume that means at the end of one of the seasons of the year. Eliezer applies it to autumn. 6 R. fjanina differ.. Infra . Joshua to spring. R.. commencing on the 2$th of Kislew. xxvin. 182 . 4 This is deduced from the fact that it does not say. 4). of the first of the fruit.

R. thou south (ib. . R. must Now refer to peace-offerings. S. R. Jannai and R. 16) this alludes to the burnt4 offering. 2.e. while he who says that Jethro came after really differ : came after Revelation. and be practised again.offerings 3 [only]. xvm. 6). 2 R. Hanina: Awake. R. ii . took a burnt- and sacrifices (ib. Huna said R. .S. xxiv. Jannai holds that the children of Noah might offer peace-offerings. Jose b. . who offered burntofferings. Jose b. mouth}. O north wind (S. p. .S. 12)? How does R. Hiyya the Elder holds that they could only offer burnt-offerings. Jose b. which were killed [even] at the south 6 [side of the altar].) alludes asleep to peace-offerings. Jannai said: Jethro came before Revelation. R. and sacrificed peace-offerings (shelamim) of oxen unto the Lord (Ex. ceased for a time. 5 young men of the children of Israel. IJiyya the Elder said: Jethro offering : They do not he who says that Jethro came before Revelation holds that the children of Noah might offer peaceofferings. 182. therefore this incident may have happened even before Revelation. n. when he accepted the Law and thus ceased to belong to the 'children of Noah'. it had been practised long before. Hence when we find Jethro sacrificing peace-offerings. R. R. And Jethro. HEanina observed: Revelation holds that they might offer burnt. The fact that the incident is narrated before Revelation does not matter.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XXII. To what does 'come' apply? To a new To what 1 who 9 2 He translates: This was before Revelation (v. But R. without having been flayed or cut up. * I. Eleazar objected to R. it must have been after Revelation. Hanina explain this? He agrees with the view that Jethro came after Revelation. 5 And come. Ilanina explain this? It means that they were whole (shelemim) in their hide. 'sacrifices' In the passage. and sacrificed the oxen whole. but R. 6 The peace-offering could be slain at any side of the altar. i. Elanina: But it is written. offered peace-offerings. actually there is nothing to indicate when Jethro came. which was killed at the north [side of the altar]. is now to 183 . s)? 1 How does R. as it is a principle of Rabbinic exegesis that the Bible is not necessarily in chronological order. 4 i (Let him kiss me with the kisses of his Lev. : does 'Awake' apply? To something which was and now awakes. . Moses' father-in-law. iv. i. Hiyya the Elder differ in this. took a burnt-offering and sacrifices. Jethro . R. Jose b. R. Now the following supports R. since a burnt-offering is stated separately.

i) this means.S. AND CAIN WAS VERY WROTH (WAYYIHAR) AND HIS COUNTENANCE FELL: [His face] became like a AND THE LORD SAID UNTO CAIN: WHY ART THOU WROTH? AND WHY IS THY COUNTENANCE FALLEN? IF firebrand. but when read with the clause that follows it it is derived from se'ah. AND THE LORD HAD RESPECT UNTO ABEL AND 4 TO HIS OFFERING. : : a curse. 'It is that which goeth up'. Berekiah quoted is uplifted over transwho he is name in R. cf. But when law of the it treats of peace-offerings. a). v. a measure the sin overflows the is forgiven . R. * Lit. Simeon's Happy 1 sin is pardoned (Ps. 1 u E. 'the sin of that man. (ib. 5 RECEIVE6 (iv. loc* * E. vi. R. but his transgressions are not [master] over him. 184 .V. 5. I will forgive thee 8 . 4. before Revelation. and the verse is translated: And Cain was burnt up. blackened. WILT THOU NOT blessing.6] 1 MIDRASH KABBAH R.' 5 Blackened. xxxn. Ps. Ezek. xxiv. *He was satisfied (propitiated) therewith. 5). 'Wayyifiar* is derived from harah.XXII. R. viz. en. RECEIVE tation: THOU DOEST WELL. And this is the it is not of peace-offerings (ib. 6 ) a NOT WELL. u). Levi's name: The b. to burn. supports R. that the practice of sacrificing cit. 7 Se'eth is read with the preceding and the following clauses.) sacrifice 6. after Revelation. 3 Which would connote. Joshua of Siknin said in R. too.e * E.V. He accepted it. 7 Another interpreWELL. 12 Who can master his evil propensities. whose gression? 12 happy is he who is [master] over his transgressions. 4 Lit. Jose is the law of the burnt-offering: that is the burnt-offering 2 the Noachides used to offer. 8 This interprets se'eth in the sense of nasa.' 10 Here too se'eth is read both ways. AND IF THOU DOEST (ib. viz. (Lev. in the past. to bear with. 'Shall it not be lifted up*.V. S. 'Which they offered/ in the future. He did not accept it. vn. which practice. 3 will Which but offer they written. Thus it was only now. i. peace-offerings was introduced. Ilanina: This following verse. thy sin 9 overflows the brim.) IF THOU DOEST 10 but if not. BUT UNTO CAIN AND HIS OFFERING HE HAD NOT RESPECT (iv. Whose transgression measure. forgive. * 10 .

1 8).e. Woe to them that draw iniquity with trifling cords [E. 8 Thus sin pretends to sleep until it catches its victim ofT his guard. the Tempter destroyed many generations the generation of Enosh. like man. And there came a traveller unto the rich man (n Sam. as it is written. 3 b. like a woman. cords of vanity'].V. and sin as it were with a cart rope (Isa. then like a guest [who stays longer]. that Tanhum b. R. until a shrewd person passed by R. and finally like the master of the house. and the shopkeeper dozes off he dislodges a loaf near the 2 and while the onlookers are collecting [the ground. This is a comment on SIN (i. Abba sat at and saw that he was feeble. his And he spared to : own ' flock and of own herd. xn. * * * Thus SIN COUCHETH COUCHETH AT THE BOO R 185 his strength being only simulated. to dress for the guest [E. Akiba said At first it is like a spider's web. v.* He is no longer spoken of as a traveller or guest. wayfaring man '] that was come unto him (ib. . Not ROBEZ : [masc.) now he is a guest. the master of the house.] but first [XXII. R. but eventually it becomes like a ship's rope. he began to crush him. whereupon he began to crush him. Isaac said: At first it is like a [passing] visitor. as it is written. but then Tempter] take of his as a traveller who passes on.] is it written here : at grows strong. Similarly. : R. Judan said: It is like a decrepit brigand who the crossroads and ordered every passer-by to surrender his possessions. One [a dog] goes and sits down when before a baker's shop and pretends to be asleep.GENESIS (BERESHITH) robezeih [fern. LXXXIX. pretends to sleep). the generation of the Flood. but simply man 2 Thus scattering the whole pile. 24). But when Abraham arose and saw how really feeble he was.) he is now the master.V. Marion said: There are dogs in Rome know how to deceive men. and the generation of the separation [of races]. Thus it is written. And he dressed it for the man 1 that was come to him (tb. 4) [this represents the a ' : sin is weak. And I will beat to pieces his adversaries before 1 him (Ps. scattered loaves] he succeeds in snatching a loaf and making off. 6 SIN COUCHETH (ROBEZ) AT THE DOOR.

But thou 1 E. Sxik. cast If your Tempter comes to incite you to him down with the words of the Torah. ai).V. with the words of the Torah. create. it will eventually rule over him in his old What is the proof? He that indulgeth [E. I attribute merit to you as though you had created two worlds. cf. And should you argue that he is not in your 5 power. then Surely it is safe in thee (/6. when near to thee> thou tizzor (Isa. The mind stayed on Thee Thou keepest (in perfect peace} In the first passage tizzor is derived from zarar. for shalom (peace) is written here not once but is gladden 'The evil imagination If your Tempter comes to incite you to levity. Thou Greatest (tizzor) peace (ib. R. Rashi ad loc.V. 12). and I have already written for you in the Torah.' 9 Perhaps this means even your evil inclinations may be turned to good purpose. 7 He appears to connect samuk (TIBD) with simmah (rnstf). as it is : written. supra. 2. I attribute merit to you as though you had created peace. 68. n. since he can master him if he wishes.' 7 twice. '. 52^. to gladden. xxvi. "delicately bringeth up'] his servant in youth shall have him become a master at the last (ib. 3). R.). p. 7).XXII. 8 Intimating that he effects peace in this world and in the next. to fight against. Hanina said levity. AND UNTO THEE is ITS THOU MAYEST RULE OVER IT. 3 And if you do so. sin] hath hope of him (Prov. Abin said: If one indulges his evil bent in his youth. 3 4 ' : 1 86 .) not tinzor (thou shalt keep) is written. 8 2 the people crowd. BUT DESIRE. Simon said it : And if you do so. gladdened (samuk). 2 age. 6] MIDRASH KABBAH R. The shalt combat imagination. iv. Ammi said: The Tempter does not walk at the side 1 [of the street] but in the broad highway. he exclaims. explains that the Tempter servant. smoothing his hair [in self- lifting his heel [in pride]. [as the verse continues]. R. xxix. Because it trusteth in thee. 5 E. xxvi. 'This man belongs to me!' What is the proof? Seest thou and a man wise in his own eyes ? The fool [sc. ' 1 Where is is designated man's written. and when he sees a person rolling his eyes.V. now it is derived from yazar> to form. [evil] 4 ". as it mayest rule over it (Gen. but 'tizzor' (thou shalt create). satisfaction]. 6 for it says.

Joshua of Siknin said in R. was yet another. The land you stand ' is mine/ while the latter retorted. CAIN UP AGAINST HIS BROTHER ABEL. BROTHER. father for [if you kill me]?* At this he was filled with pity him.. 7-8 AND CAIN SPOKE UNTO ABEL HIS 7. the [i. the other retorted: 'Fly [off the ground]/ Out of this quarrel. 'We two only are in the world: what will you go and tell our ABEL. xvin. 3 Said R. 5 He [Cain] said to him. (iv. thinks it unlikely that the reference is to the Eve mentioned there. 1 etc.' One took the land and the other the movables. Zion in.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XXII. because she was born with me/ their quarrel 8. It must be built in mine/ For thus it is written. argument. 'let us divide the world. Johanan said: Abel was stronger than Cain. UP AGAINST HIS BROTHER R. Levi's name: Both took land and both took movables. R. straightway he rose against him and slew him. 4. but about what did they quarrel? One said. Huna An additional twin was born with Abel. etc. They had already quarrelled supra. but thinks that in the Midrashic view there 5 4 V. The one claimed: 'I will have her. Th. : Then about what was ? Said R. ROSE i2). 8). 88a. The former said.. 'Do not do good to an evil man. then evil will not befall you/ The Midrash assumes that SPOKE means that they had a legal 2 Cf. Out of that incident was born the proverb. 2. 'The Temple must be built in my area/ while the other claimed. supra. 3 V. Temple] shall be plowed as afield 2 of Out this argument. Judah b. AND CAIN ROSE etc. Rabbi : Eve. while the other maintained: 'I must have her. Pes. Their quarrel was about the first first etc. for the expression ROSE UP can only imply that he [Cain] lay beneath him. x 187 . refers to nought but the Temple. About what did they quarrel? 'Come/ said they. 'What you are wearing mine/ One said: 'Strip'. CAIN ROSE UP AGAINST HIS BROTHER ABEL. WHEN THEY WERE IN THE on is ' FIELD: now FIELD as you (Micah said : read. 4 and each claimed her. because I am the firstborn'. Aibu The Eve had returned to dust. AND IT CAME TO PASS. however. and Abel had thrown Cain down.e.

and found a man slain and another standing over him. 'You have answered nothing/ he retorted. THE VOICE OF THY BROTHER'S BLOOD CRIETH UNTO ME FROM THE GROUND.e. be in the earth (Gen. Simeon said: He killed him with a staff: And a young man for my bruising (Gen. 23) implies a weapon which inflicts a bruise. it is as if a man entered a pasture ground. as it is written. Seeing that the gullet and the windpipe. Jonathan in R. iv.) indicates a weapon which inflicts wounds. Joshua said in R. [God said to Cain]. demanding. The Rabbis said He killed him with a stone For I have slain a man for wounding me (ib. it is you who are standing over him. xxxvu. 'I will ask you [that question] instead of your asking me/ rejoined the other. Sanh. demanding. (iv. This may be compared to a prefect who was walking in the middle of the road. Levi's name: It their is written. 'Who killed him? 1 he demanded.) refers shall enter into their own hearts (ib.XXII. 1 9. 'What are you holding?' 'Nothing/ was the reply. Again. 14) the poor and needy (ib. 37^. 'Azariah and R. 'What have you in your hand?* 'Nothing/ 'But it is bleating at your back!' exclaimed he. seized a goat. To cast to Abel. as it is written]. R. But surely your hands are stained [with the juice] ' ' ! Similarly. 12). (Ps. 2 Again. Isaac's name : : said: Cain had closely observed where his father slew the bullock [which he sacrificed. LXIX. The this wicked have drawn out refers to Cain . it is like the case of a man who entered a garden. And it shall please the Lord better than a bullock (Ps. Similarly. 188 . 9). 32). Their sword fugitive 15). etc. iv. sword down A and a wanderer shalt thou AND THE LORD SAID UNTO CAIN: WHERE is ABEL. cf. The owner of the pasture pursued him. and there he killed him: by the throat and its organs. The owner of the garden pursued him. [God rebuked Cain]: 1 2 THE I. 8-9] MIDRASH KABBAH With what did he kill him? R. and slung it behind him. R. and gathered mulberries and ate them.

illustrates Mah. xxiv. R. had the king wished. and the blood (dam) of his sons. because no man had yet been buried there. but all his potential descendants cry out before Me. his blood and the blood of his descendants. and the Rabbis each commented. Cf. 'For the bloods of (deme) the sons of Johoiada' (n Chron. 'Thy brother's blood* (dam singular). 'His own servants conspired against him for the blood (dam) of the sons of Jehoiada. 1 ' GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XXII.: these three Reading 'alay (!??) for elay (^K) 'From the ground'. (iV. the cry of blood. THE VOICE OF THY BROTHER'S BLOOD CRIES OUT AGAINST M. 25). the second. . deduced from bloods '. But he did not so desire. 'Surely I have seen yesterday the bloods (deme) of Naboth. he [the victim] crying out [before he died]. the third. R. 9-10 VOICE OF THY BROTHER'S BLOOD CRIETH UNTO ME R. which means. and one overcame the other and killed him. AND NOW CURSED ART THOU b. Yohai said: It is difficult to say this thing. S king!' 4 It [the blood] could not ascend above. 2 Not only he. R. which intimates that the blood was not in one place. his blood and the blood of his descendants. iv. R.' but. and the mouth cannot utter it plainly.FROM THE GROUND. 6 5 FROM ' 189 . Surely I have seen yesterday the blood (dam) of Naboth. The Rabbis said: It is not written. Huna observed It is not written. 'Let my cause be pleaded before the Even so. 3 I. II). 5. Simeon b.' but.e. Judan. his blood and the blood of his descendants. Simeon 1 Gamaliel said: In three places Scripture was similes each illustrate something different. and the bloods (deme) of his sons (n Kings ix. the verse condemns God Himself! 4 I blame him for not sparing me. where this is Hence. Cain's bloody state. hence the blood lay 6 spattered on the trees and the stones. because the soul . 10. Judan said: It is not written.e. namely. he could ' : ' . Sanh. 2 R. Huna. but Thy brother's bloods' (deme plural): i. had not yet ascended thither nor could it go below. . 26). THE GROUND. have separated them. 3 Think of two athletes wrestling before the king. The first the futility of Cain's countering God's question with another.

Deut. WHEN THOU TILLEST THE GROUND. 38). which is made to refer to Adam. IT SHALL NOT HENCEFORTH YIELD UNTO THEE HER STRENGTH. Similarly you read Thou shalt carry much seed out into the field. 12). though had he not sinned toil 5 would have been unnecessary. transgression! : 5 BEHOLD. Thou hast driven out (my father. The verse is rendered : Behold. 4 unto thee thy strength. 3o) 2 For I have opened my mouth unto the Lord (Judg. etc. [E. vow not being stated here. 14). IT SHALL . ought to yield twenty measures and what ought to yield ten will yield five. vm. THOU HAST DRIVEN : sin is greater than my father violated a light precept and was expelled from the Garden of Eden. 6 With monotony hast Thou fashioned the world 7 how so? BEHOLD. 35). yet Thou AND CAIN my canst not bear father's. IQO . shall not yield unto thee. murder . SAID UNTO THE LORD: MY SIN 'PUNISHMENT'] is TOO GREAT TO BEAR (iv. how will he live? the field that Rather. i. xxvni. R. however. R. Said R. THOU HAST DRIVEN OUT. Without adding: by creating a mouth for the earth. Jose b. strength it it shall yield ii. Thou bearest the heavenly and the earthly. NOT HENCEFORTH YIELD UNTO THEE HER STRENGTH (iv. R. how much greater then is my sin [Another interpretation] My My ! 1 2 3 Without stating the manner or incidence of the curse. enjoy the fruit of his toil. That means that a person will sow a se'ah and gather Nehemiah: If so. Eleazar said: To thee it shall not yield [her it shall yield it. Cf. R. and shalt gather little in (Deut. hast driven out.V. maintained: Neither to thee nor to another. and Thou drivest out) me to-day ('me* follows 'driven out* in the nature of the still The 4 Man will Hebrew). but to another fjanina : said : in a se'ah. this is a grave crime. . 3 WHEN THOU TILLEST THE GROUND. lO-Il] MIDRASH KABBAH . R. 6 This interprets the past tense. Interpreting the verse as a question and a protest. ioi. v. Sanh.XXII. Judah strength]. Yesterday Thou DROVEST OUT my father AND NOW THOU DRIVEST ME OUT. to wit. Her will yield ten. xi. xvi. unduly sparing of its words: AND NOW CURSED ART THOU1 But if the Lord make a new thing (Num. 7 Text as emended . Th.

6 R.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XXII. * Translating: And the Lord made Cain (direct object) a sign (to according to Rab. Simeon b. Thou hast but one. 7 23). Said R. neither hearken to the voice of the : : ! 5 first sign. of the saving power of repentance. as you read. Hanin said: He made him an example to penitents. not to Cain. blessed be He. R. 3 R. so that God did not put him to 7 death immediately. And it shall come to pass. Nehemiah to him For that wretch He would cause the orb of the sun to shine Rather. etc. He caused leprosy to break out on him. 4 He reads 'laken* as lo ken. Rab said: He made him an example to murderers. Judah explains that Cain's fear was due to the animals. AND THE LORD SAID UNTO HIM: THEREFORE (LAKEN) WHOSOEVER SLAYETH CAIN. 'To thee I (say)/ He thus assured him that he need have no fear of the animals. which Cain displayed. Judah said: The cattle. CAIN WENT OUT. 3. 5. of the fear that haunts a murderer. etc. if they will not believe thee. tjanan. 1 AND 191 . inflicting the same upon my father and myself. 6. who is everywhere. Infra. according to R. but henceforth. Whence did he go 13. 15). as it is written. etc. say to thee (lak ani). (Gen. 'I Said the Holy One. 8). iv. beasts. R. Lakish: He suspended his judgment until the Flood came and swept him away. but had none from whom to learn [the enormity of his crime]. Aibu said : It means that he threw the words behind Surely not. animals.' this being God's answer to the 5 The reference is to leprosy. 2 to him. WHOSOEVER SLAYETH judgment CAIN/ shall etc. : Rab said: He gave him a dog. (Ex. out ? 8 R. xxxn. 8 For one cannot go out from the presence of God. Nehemiah interpreted: Cain's not be as the judgment of other murderers. All who slay shall be slain. v. so that he others) needed a dog to protect him . Cain slew. seeing that 3 there were no men on earth. VH. etc. and birds assembled to demand justice for Abel. Levi said in the name of R. vi. Abba Jose said He made a horn grow out of him. 3 R. unvarying form of punishment. EccL R. Judah said He caused the orb of the sun to shine on his account. (iv. Reading 'laken' t lak am. R. 'not so. 11-13 ME OUT THIS DAY is it possible that FROM THY FACE I SHALL BE HID? 1 12. And He blotted out every living substance. 4 AND THE LORD SET A SIGN FOR CAIN.

crying.e. 3 1 He 2 I. as though murder was a light matter. he will be glad in his heart (Ex. Thereupon Adam began beating his face. as you read. xcn. 2 like one who deceives his Creator. a to 8 be E. R. 'So great is the power of repentance. Isaac said: He went forth rejoicing. Berekiah said in R. A Psalm. clean. 192 . and he seeth thee. Bleazar's name: He went forth like one who shows the cloven hoof. swine shows his cloven hoof as though pretending hypocrite. a song for the Sabbath day : It is a good thing to make confession unto the Lord (Ps. Hanina b. 14). i).V. 1 R. iv.XXII. He goeth forth to meet thee. rejected God's reproof. 'How did your case go?' 'I repented and am reconciled/ replied he. when Adam met him and asked him. 13] MIDRASH KABBAH him and went out. and I did not know! Forthwith he arose 1 and exclaimed. A 'to give thanks 1 . like one who would deceive the Almighty.

AND CALLED THE STAME OF THE CITY AFTER THE NAME OF HIS SON written. chastening. 3. 193 o . and not rise for That He judgment. Sanh. R. world [by the flood] . them away in their houses. Their i.e. they will neither live I. to-morrow . and they will call their lands after their own names. 17). The flood will sweep refers this to the generation of the Flood. io8a. (iv. IRAD: I shall drive Levi said: All these names signify them Jordan) out of the .[XXIII. AND METHUSHAEL BEGOT LAMECH (iv. Antioch after Antiochus? R.' i.e. Joshua b. 5 2. i. infra. It is vritten. R. R.he c or ever* . 4 Moreover. 'They have called their lands after their own names': thus it is ' ' : AND HE BUILDED A CITY. 1-2 CHAPTER XXIII (BERESHITH) 1. This verse and its interpretation are a comment on the end of the verse with which the section commences. etc. etc. Phinehas interpreted it Kirbam is their houses for ever. (Ps. AND IRAD BEGOT MEHUJAEL. be resurrected] nor be judged.e. These cities shall remain an everlasting memorial Reading Lamech as mah U what have I to do? t to their shame. is. AND UNTO ENOCH WAS BORN IRAD. 2 8 is his translation of the verse. Judan explained it: What do wicked think? That within their houses [they shall live] and their dwelling-places [shall exist] to all generations. which will thus become their graves. 6. 5 * v. Tiberias after the name Tiberius. 18). 'Their Iwelling-places to all generations . AND MEHUJAEL BEGOT METHUSHAEL.heir houses become their sepulchres (kibranif. AND CAIN KNEW HIS WIFE.e. Judati and Phinehas discussed this. ENOCH. . xi. Alexandria after Alexander. 4 They will remain in their grave-houses for all time. inward thought (kirbam) that their houses 1 hall continue for ever. xxvi. la). etc. MEHUJAEL: I shall wipe them METHUSHAEL: I shall (mohan) from the world wear them out (matishan) from the world: what have I to do with Lamech and his descendants? 6 AND LAMECH TOOK UNTO HIM TWO 1 WIVES. XLIX.

Adah. vni. but subsequently they blessed Holy One. 2 U-MIKNEH AND HIS BROTHER'S NAME WAS JUBAL. 2-3] MIDRASH RABBAH (iv. [so called] because he kept her away (ya ade} from himself. thus : . who was Lamech. as it is written. secretly. in secret. organ players and flautists. The former would stay like a widow throughout her life. Formerly they used to provoke the be He. HE WAS THE FATHER OF ALL SUCH AS HANDLE THE HARP AND THE PIPE (iv. of such as provoke Cf. slaying. 194 . Him openly. Judah's name: The men of the generation of the Flood used to act thus: each took two wives. one for procreation and the other for sexual gratification. to in his ( sit shadow 1 (zillo). R. R. 21). Joshua said in R.. 20). HE WAS OF SUCH AS DWELL IN TENTS AND HAVE CATTLE (iv. The Rabbis said: Naamah was a woman of a different stamp. 8 God in their tents. that angereth. R.e. (tibbel) i. zi): i. etc. and why was she called Naamah? Because her deeds were pleasing (ne'imim). 19).. Lam. and Zillah. 1 * I. for the name denotes that she R. took two wives. The proof of this is that the best of them. 22). SHE ALSO BORE TUBAL-CAIN. sang (man'emeth) to the timbrel in honour of idolatry. He devoureth the barren that beareth not. 'cattle') Is Ha-mi%neh (E. Abba b. so that she should not bear. 3 AND THE SISTER OF TUBAL-CAIN WAS NAAMAH. and then she sat before him like a harlot. and doeth not good to the widow (Job xxiv. while the latter was given to drink a potion of roots. whereas he was THE FORGER OF EVERY CUTTING INSTRUMENT. This interprets Tubal-Cain: he perfected Cain's work. The image of jealousy.V. AND ZILLAH. Kahana said: Naamah was Noah's wife. 3). etc. provoked which provoketh to jealousy hamakneh (Ezek. AND ADAH BORE JABAL. THE FORGER OF EVERY CUTTING INSTRUMENT OF BRASS AND IRON. for sexual purposes only. Proem xxn. 'Azariah said in R. as it is written.e. connected here with ha-mabneh. Levi's (tibbel) name: This man perfected yet lacked the weapons for Cain's sin: Cain slew. THE FATHER 3. (iv.e.XXIII.

e. Judan said in R. Other legends. will do His/ 'Physician.GENESIS (BERESHITH) 4. yet judgment suspended for him for seven for who did not slay.) Said he [Lamech] to them [his wives] 'Come. replied that it would certainly be postponed for many generations. blessed be He. Jose b. And iv. Hanina said: He summoned them to To-morrow a flood their marital duties. 'FOR HAVE NG that I SLAIN A MAN FOR MY to wouND account ! I wounds should come me on his AND . * Have you kept reason apart from Eve a hundred and thirty years for any 6 On her!' children not that but hearing by beget you might this. Idi asked R. 25).' So they went to him. XX. again ') in the sense of more. R. Jacob b. Said they to him are we to bear children for a curse?' He will come : answered. A YOUNG MAN CHILD FOR MY come upon me! 1 Cain was slew. that bruises should : : BRUISING heal thine own limp ' ! retorted the other. physician. he accidentally killed Cain. 4-5 etc. and he argued that his punishment would be deferred for a greater time than that of Cain. why a child. R. He said to them: 'Do you do your duty. however. R. . he [Adam] resumed his duty of begetting children. whatever God may do. interrupted.V. 8 Why does Lamech designate the same person both a man and a child ? 4 This is a continuation of the discussion. Abba b. I 9S . while the Holy 5 One. fallacious] for if so. 5. which was parenthetically 5 Your duty is to procreate. 1 1 1 relate that ' ' Supra. and forthwith. Aha's name: This is a hint to seafarers to Desire According to this he had not slain anyone. why a man ? He was a man in deeds and a child 4 in years. Johanan: If a man. [AND ADAM KNEW HIS WIFE FURTHERMORE. ' 23 ff). let us go to Adam [and consult him]. 7 Formerly he had desire when he did not see her. AND LAMECH SAID UNTO HIS WIVES.] was added to his desire. but now he no experienced desired her whether he saw her or not. 3 if a child. to exact His bond of debt? R. surely judgment me. blessed be He. 7 * This interprets od (E. * [XXIII. generations 2 will wait seventy-seven generations!' (Rabbi said: This is a reasoning of darkness [i. Adam knew his wife again (Gen. who intentionally 2 To their objection that a Flood was imminent he murdered Abel. whence is the Holy One. (iv.

e. Half man half beast 196 . etc. is meant. It was as if two trees were standing near each other. not from a Jewish stock.XXIIL 5-6] their 1 MIDRASH KABBAH homes [i. 6. since Cain eventually died on his (active. the dead began to feel [the 7 worms]. FOR HE SLEW CAIN. and then become silent?' 'Hitherto they were created in the likeness and image [of were God]. which fell upon the other and uprooted it too. 8. Abba Cohen Bardela was asked: '[Why does Scripture 5 enumerate] Adam. AND SHE CALLED HIS NAME SETH: FOR GOD HATH APPOINTED ME ANOTHER SEED. R. Enosh. probably in a metaphorical sense. a it as and treats it *Ar. Similarly.e. INSTEAD OF ABEL. as vocalised) account. 3 the king Messiah. 8 I.' he replied. AND AND TO SETH. FOR CAIN SLEW HIM. the narrative is interrupted and recommences afresh with. that seed which would arise from another source. Seth. is so translated here. Isaac: They were themselves to demons. too. and they became vulnerable to demons. 'but from then onward Centaurs created/ 6 Four things changed in the days of Enosh The mountains became [barren] rocks. A TO HIM ALSO THERE WAS BORN HIS NAME ENOSH (iV. infra> LI. Through 4 the sin against Abel. Messiah being descended from Ruth the Moabitess. INSTEAD OF ABEL. you read. and a wind uprooted one of them. implying that the following generations were spiritually inferior. though an actual change of appearance. doubtful. remember their wives] and repair thither immediately. or. 5 Instead of continuing the genealogical record. 26). v. men's faces became ape-like. * Reading U"nn as passive : for Cain was slain . Cain was slain. Tins is the book of the generations 1 When of 6 man (Gen. v. responsible for becoming vulnerable (hulltri) is the difference whether one What they argued]: [for : 2 The meaning of the word is they return from the voyage. Tanhuma at] said in the name 2 of Samuel Kozith : [She hinted viz. i). for he slew Cain -indirectly. surname. HE CALLED SON. Said R. 7 Their dead bodies putrefied (which had not been the case before) and so became the prey of worms.

8 ix. Infra. the victims 2 of demons.' Said he to her. 'began'. 'began') to do (ib. adoring men and idols instead ' 8 They called their idols Lord *. 'I saw you in a dream divorcing me. viz. i). Nimrod) has incited them to revolt. 'Why only in a dream? here it is in actual replied ' He It is ! fact. Aha said: Ye engaged . selves [Divine] names 7 waters of the sea in in idolatry and gave yourtherefore I too will summon the above? Huhal being derived from hullm. will 1 become an 7 actuality.V. and they will be scattered. He [Nimrod\ rebelled (hehel.V. when man rebelled (hehel. * Hence four should have been stated. 6 Translating the last sentence.V. it is written. Menahem to him: Is this not explicitly stated in a verse. R. My name and destroy those evil men from the world. which obviously means. a dream. 197 .' 6 R. And it came to pass. E. He translates Then they rebelled by calling themselves by the name of the Lord (M. 6. Hence it is not an additional instance. Abbahu lectured: The Ocean [sc. E. Infra t xxvi. and translates : And this against which they dream. 4. 'began') in multiplying on the to call face of the earth (Gen. Said R. * He derives hahilam from halom. He calleth for the waters of the sea. then they rebelled against calling upon the name of the Lord.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XXIIL 6-7 prostrates himself before an image or prostrates himself 1 before man? Hence. 6). [God] smote Nimrod's head. The verse is apparently translated: then they rebelled by calling (their idols) by the name of the Lord. vi. or. An 6) ? objection was raised: but 4 what they have xi. and Mah. And this is rebelled (hahilam. x. R. and as such. They became degraded in their worship. the possibility of being scattered. exhe who has incited them to rebel 5 R. Eleazar b. of the Lord.V. : ' claiming. thus rebelling against His sovereignty. 8).K. Then man became degraded to call 2 upon the name of the Lord. 7. like one who pours downward from . E. and poureth them out upon the face of the earth (Amos v. Simon said In three places this term is used in the sense of rebellion [against God] Then they rebelled (huhal) : : 3 upon the name of the Lord .). E. profane matter. the Mediterranean] is higher than the whole world. xxrv. 'began') when he was a mighty one in the earth (ib. : Names indicating that you yourselves are gods. This man (v. Levi said: This maybe compared to a woman who said to her husband.

of that country. two times that the sea came up and inundated the world. Jose. R. Eleazar in R. * The 'heel of Italy'. R. Calabria 4 1 . while on the second it came up as far as the coasts of Barbary. v. Abbahu. sometimes to Azaria (Barbary) in N. as far as as far as at the second. R. This name 198 . etc. (Job xxxvin. 2 R. supra. And said: Thus far ('ad poh) shalt thou come. 3 Var. on the second. is sometimes applied to Africa in general . Eleazar said: At the first. shalt thou come means as far as n): Thus far ('ad poh) Acco And here shall thy : ' proud waves be stayed (u-foh yashith) intimates 3 Jaffa (Yaffah). rjanina's name said On the first. as it is written. Huna and corresponding to the : R. 2 V. lee. Aha in R. as far as the coasts of Barbary . Africa. Judan. 1 How far did it come up on the first occasion and how far on the second ? R. and R. : ' but no further. Eleazar b. as far as Acco and Jaffa. lying in the S.XXIIL 'He 7] MIDRASH KABBAH of the sea' is calleth for the waters written twice. R. as far as the coasts of Barbary.E. 6. IJanma's name said On the first it came up as far as Acco and Jaffa.

18). xxix. And the fruitful field shall be esteemed 2 i. as forests of men. the plant to its planter! That the thing made should say of him that made it : He made 1 not. 4 V. 5).e. 17) i. 15). and Subsequently he became a tax-collector. canals. and the inhabitants of the country hid from him in those chambers and caves. Nehemiah and R. He created him extending over the whole world.). THIS is THE BOOK OF THE GENERATIONS OF ADAM. And how do we know that he filled the hollow spaces of the world ? 2. Said he to them. Tanhuma in R. (Isa. cxxxix. . Woe unto them that seek deep from the Lord. 1 the verse. LXXXIX. and R. i-2 CHAPTER I. If you repent. 16)? You liken the created object to its creator. Is it not yet a very little while. Thou hast formed me behind and before From north to south? Because it is said.). How do we know that he extended from east to west? Because it is said. blessed be He. Berekiah 2 i . Joshua Thy b. R. and in book they were all written (Ps. loc. be the multitude of men. From 4 aY. (ib. Shall the potter be esteemed as the clay (ib. (ib. etc. viz. iv. i): It is their counsel who built a country with [secret] chambers. . So great shall i.[XXIV. XXIV (BERESHITH) THIS IS THE BOOK OF THE GENERATIONS OF ADAM to hide written. R. R. Levi said: This may be compared to a master builder (v. Deut. R. Banayah's name. '. And hast laid Thy hand upon me (Ps. and Lebanon shall be turned into a fruitful field (ib. 199 . created Adam. Eleazar's name said: When the Holy One. supra. 'It is I who built all these chambers and caves to what purpose then is your hiding? Woe unto them that seek deep!' And their Similarly. R. hence (ib. ' . R. O your perversity! caves. works are in the darkness etc. 32). And from (ib. R. 3. i. ' . vm. 16).e. Judah b. etc. 3 Num. the one end of heaven unto the other (Deut. Simon in R. 3 Thine eyes did see mine unformed substance. it the book of the is written.). me into a royal palace . as a forest And in that day shall the deaf hear the words of a book generations of Adam .

it refers to a righteous person. Eleazar's created him a shapeless mass. For I Adam. (Ps. Simon said: While Adam lay a shapeless stretching from one end of the world mass before existence. will not contend for ever (Isa.g. etc. as you read. every generation and its judges. 1 In the sense of Adam's potential descendants. 12). Bar Kappara taught: Wherever the word lived occurs. as it is written. 3 Lev.) with his descendants. xi. xxvi. with 16) Neither will I be always wroth (ib. Said He to him: 'Thine eyes did see unformed substance1 the unformed substance [viz. 386. 29) : . R. be written with the righteous (ib. When my soul grew to creatures.): R. the final **' being regarded as poetical. 2OO .: 'Of the book of the living means of the book of the generations of Adam. Shelah lived (Gen. Arpachshad lived (ib. the book of the living. THIS is THE BOOK OF ' THE GENERATIONS OF ADAM. Thine eyes did see my shapeless mass. from the book of the generations below [in this world] And not 3.' What is the meaning of 'ya'atof' ? He weakens it. Another interpretation of 'Let them be blotted out of the book of the living.XXIV. * Sanh. Judah b. : : no harm What is the proof? 'For the [My] windfaileth (ya'atof) before Me. R. the Holy One. and leaders..' etc. a. 14). Him at whose decree the world came into He showed him every generation and its Sages. R. to the lay other . blessed be He. but simply unformed substance '. scribes. 2 Bar Kappara commenced: Let them be blotted out of this means. THIS is THE : BOOK OF THE GENERATIONS OF ADAM. LXIX. XL. e. 7. obstructs its passage by mountains and breaks its force on hills and commands it Take heed to do 4. Golmi is now translated not my unformed substance. as it is written. Huna said When the wind goes out into the world. LVII. interpreters.): ' from the book of the ' generations above [in the next world]. and he 2-4] MIDRASH KABBAH name said He : ' in R. Ex. thy potential descendants] which thine eyes did see have already been written in the book of Adam': viz. while the speaker is God. ' .' R. For the windfaileth before Me (ib.

8 where rudh cf. What is the proof? And the souls which I have made (Isa. ed. 5<a. 2 The is ship.GENESIS (BERESHITH) weak (behith'atef. fr. Kings R. and declare it. called the Book of Adam.M. the Lord passed by. 4. 1 because they went forth with unmeasured force. B.e. behold. another in the days of Job. for says. 2 That of Job was directed against his house only. spirit Me p. is referred to. Messiah. and then 'And unto man He said' (ib. likewise referred to Messiah) shall be detained before until the souls which I made have been created. and declare it. v. for the sake of the souls which I have made. 19). Then did He see it. THIS OF ADAM. I remembered the Lord said: Through three winds the third in the days of Elijah. and broke in pieces the rocks xix. R. so that the ship was likely to be broken (ib.e. and the within me. I. wind (i behold. yea. He said twice in His own mind and then once to Moses. these are they: one in the days of Jonah. But the Lord hurled a great wind into the sea . which refers to Moses. others state this Tanhum said: in the name of the royal Messiah will not come until all the souls which [God] contemplated creating have been created. 27). 4. He established it. (Sonc. there came a great wind from across the wilderness. : but not other ships. n.Z. 1 6). yea. and searched it out (Job xxvni. 28). 8). Huna world would have been rendered desolate. R. Yeb. * 'A. What is the proof? Then did He see it. 2OI . 'ataf) [XXIV.wide. i. LVII. and a great and strong rent the mountains. II. 493. it And. Hence of . 3 And the souls are those referred to in the book of Rabbis The Adam. . 4 is THE BOOK OF THE GENERATIONS 5. Judan said: [The wind in the days] of Jonah was directed against that ship only. and smote the four corners of the house (Job I.X The verse is now translated For the spirit (i. He established it. Th. these [three] only that of Elijah was world. R. assumes from these proems that an actual work. viz. And. denotes once. 4). blessed be He. supra. 4-5 (Jonah n. The Rabbis said: Every single statement which the Holy One. Aha said: [He said ' 3 ' 1 But for God. n). for it says. for it says. 620. made to Moses. and searched it out' denotes once [again].

viz. Judah said It was fitting that the Torah should have : ' ' : been given through Adam. Which is twelve. THIS IS THE BOOK OF THE GENERATIONS OF give six him hundred and hundred and ADAM. He said: 'I gave him six commandments.e. 6 seven. it] ' 5] . said He is the creation of My hands. and am I not to give it to him Subsequently. reading i. and am I not to give him [the My privilege of begetting the twelve tribes]!' Subsequently He said: 'I gave him two sons.' by which Moses is meant. R. V. how then am I to give him twelve?' Hence.e. 2 written. said: 'He is the creation of hands. making twelve in all. 3 R. the descendants) of Adam. And declare once. not Adam. generations (i. The Holy One. 1 3 ADAM. He interprets: Zeh. 6. 5 The Holy One. Jacob of Kefar IJanan said: It was fitting that the twelve tribes 4 should have sprung from Adam. blessed be He. should have been the Interpreting: Zeh. but not to him. 'And He to him]. the zayin being and the he being five. shall be given to his generations. What is the proof? THIS (ZEH) is THE BOOK OF THE GENERATIONS OF ADAM.* once. 12. how then shall I : !' hundred and thirteen precepts. and he did not remain loyal to them. Whence does ' this follow? THIS IS THE BOOK OF THE GENERATIONS OF ADAM.XXIV. MIDRASH KABBAH ' Then did He see it denotes four times [to Himself] 'He established it. once. but not to Adam himself. 1 however. i. And He said la-adam But to whom will I give it? To his descendants: hence. to THIS (ZEH) is whom will I give them? To his sons: THE BOOK OF THE GENERATIONS OF the numerical value of zeh.' once. it. 2 : This book the Torah) belongs to the generations.e. implying the numerical value of zeh. and searched it out. and one arose and slew the other. two forty-eight positive precepts and three sixty-five negative precepts?' Hence it is I will not give it to Adam. is The deduction Reading it lo adam. * 12. from GENERATIONS. Which descended from Jacob.e. 'And unto man He said. 4 5 the descendants of Adam. and after that. blessed be He.' Yea. (sc. xvi. 2O2 . said la-adam': not Adam: I will not give [them But i. supra.

V. Levi said All these : 3 1 2 Viz. vii. 6. a V.were descendants. 14). Joshua b. For R. (The reason for the view that house spirits are ape-like. 203 . Another interpretation These are descendants. the dead began to feel [the men's faces worms]. which means. supra. Simon said: Throughout the entire one hundred and thirty years during which Adam held aloof from Eve the male demons were made ardent by her and she bore. THIS IS ADAM. Cain and Abel and Cain's descendants. and Enosh. and with the afflictions of the children of man Adam (11 Sam. These GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XXIV. they that the spirits of the field are benevolent does so because they do not grow up with him while as for the view that they are harmful. for R. Four things changed in the days of Enosh: The mountains became [barren] rocks. [for they argued]: What is the difference whether one worships an image or worships man? Hence. Isaac They were themselves responsible for becoming vulnerable to demons. What then were they? Demons. while is based on the fact that understand evil man's He who maintains inclinations. Seth. became and they became vulnerable (hullin) to demons. iv. but the earlier ones were not [human] descendants. and then become silent? To which he answered: Hitherto they were created in the likeness and image [of God]. but from then onwards Centaurs were created. supra. while the female demons were inflamed by Adam and they bore. n. prehend his evil inclinations. as it is written. while the earlier ones 1 were not descendants. Then man became degraded to call 2 upon the name of the Lord (Gen. : : -. the reason is because they do not combenevolent is the opinion that they are harmful . What then were they? Divinities! [The answer is as] Abba Cohen Bardela was asked: 6. but the earlier ones were not descendants of Adam. the children of the first [primeval] man. Said R.) These are the descendants of Adam. xxm. 26). 6 THE BOOK OF THE DESCENDANTS OF [Why does Scripture enumerate] Adam. If he commit iniquity I will chasten him with the rod of men. Why ? Because they were destroyed by the flood. because they dwell with him [man]. xx.

Akiba said But thou shalt love thy neighbour as 5 is even a greater principle. Whereas this verse stresses the God's likeness. Here it is interpreted to denote source. 2. Menahamah in Rab's name said: Adam taught them all forms of craftsare craftsmen from manship. the order is reversed. for he was created in Both these principles flow from the insult to man is an insult to God. names 6-7] MIDRASH RABBAH Irad : I shall drive them Jordan) signify chastening. Akiba. R. supra. Adam even taught the way of ruling parchment for the Scroll THIS is THE BOOK and its ruling. lit. V. Akiba's verse it might be said that when a man is put to shame he may retaliate.. 12. What is the proof? And they 2 Adam. xix.. etc.. being stated first. performed on that day: on that very day they 4 and they produced offspring. XLIV. Tanhuma to shame.. out of the world. 3 learned to write Translating: This is the Book which his descendants from Adam. R. Iedoshim iv. : IN THE DAY THAT R. Since I have said: If you do neighbour be put to shame. Adam (Isa. is even a greater principle. R. universal fatherhood of God. and an sanctity of man even then. n).e. 'And the craftsmen skilled above men' (me-adam. GOD CREATED MAN. that But thou shalt love . since he is not bidden to love his neighbour more than himself. they cohabited. the Pentateuch] 7. 3 [sc. E.V. viz.XXIV. xxiii. xxii. which implies the brotherhood and unity of man. my you must not say. know whom you put God made He him* V. Tanhuma in R. This Leazar's teaching: Three miracles were supports were created. For from R. the mem of me-adam being understood as a particle of comparison. * In the Sifra. 2 1 THIS is THE BOOK * implies that it was drawn up according to Supra. 'from men'). Eleazar's name and R. Hence thyself (Lev. Akiba's view a great principle. Mehujael: I shall wipe them (mohan) from the world. A Scroll of the Torah must be ruled before it is written . x Lamech and his descendants ? R. ad loc. Rab said: first the from i. Methushael: I shall wear them out what have I to do with (matishan) from the world. is and then Ben 'Azzai maintains that THIS is THE BOOK. [for] In the likeness of so. 2. v. next note. origin. Th. Ben 'Azzai said: THIS is THE BOOK OF THE is a great principle of the DESCENDANTS OF ADAM : Torah. 204 . 5 This refers back to Ben 'Azzai. not to R. 18) let to been put shame. regulations.

he was not.] FOR GOD TOOK HIM/ AND HE CALLED HIS NAME NOAH. i-2 XXV (BERESHITH) R. Hence * just as there an assumption is meant. A matron asked R.e. Johanan said: The to the interpretation [given to nor does the interpretation correspond to the name. he died. Jose 'We do not find death stated of Enoch? Said he to her: 'If it said. and no more. AND ENOCH WALKED WITH GOD. 205 . Translating: While Enoch walked with God The first of Tfshri. Some sectarians3 asked R. Abbahu (third century CJL) the break between Judaism it would apply here to Christians Christianity was complete. * ii Kings II. means that he was no more in the world. and therefore 1 * or heretics in general. and also in connection with Elijah/ said they. CHAPTER i.[XXV. etc. FOR Hoshaya was not inscribed in the roll of the righteous but in the roll of the wicked. I take away from thee 5 He answered observed: Tanhuma R. R. Since. R. I would agree : 1 FOR GOD TOOK HIM. R. 'If you stress the word "taking". however. AND HE WAS NOT. blessed be He. it it says. i. xxiv. AND HE WAS NOT. condemned] him on New Year. i6). name does not correspond it]. with you. so here too. [having died. SAYING: US THIS SAME SHALL COMFORT NAHEM) IN OUR WORK. (YENAHAMENU fr. said [AND HE WAS NOT means] that he 'then "taking" is employed here. while in Ezekiel it is the desire of thine eyes. Aibu also said: He judged [i. sometimes man. '"Taking" 4 is employed here. etc. 24). Aibu said: Enoch was a hypocrite. 2. (Ezek. but not death. There it definitely refers to death. : GOD TOOK HIM (v. Kama b. 3 Term generally used for Judeo-Christians.' he answered. Abbahu: 'We do not find that Enoch died?' 'How so?' inquired he. AND ENOCH WALKED WITH GOD. 2 when he judges the whole world. i. though by the time of and R.e. Behold. Therefore the Holy One. them well.* said. said: 'While he is righteous I will remove him/ 1 R. as a wicked acting sometimes as a righteous.

is understood to refer to such. But when he sinned.XXV. (Isa. corresponding to the two times [daily] that the waters came up and inundated them in their graves. nor did the furrow obey the ploughman. and thus continue to be tossed about by the waves. The same Nahman the same yanihenu [shall give us rest] or fact is The that before comfort ye-nahamenu [shall us]. for 'resting' is mentioned here. . ' 7 Shokebe.' name Nahman. does but Noah correThis same ye-nahamenu saying: 1 is that when the Holy P The truth to ye-nahamenu spond (5ne. and Inanimate. 8. they submitted: ease is mentioned here. Scripture should have written either. once in the morning and once in the evening. edd. LXXXVIII. I. nature. 7.e. . : said: The name does not correspond to its nor does the interpretation correspond to interpretation the name. Leazar said: sacrifice. R. as 1 it is 2 He was so named on account of his written. . 6 as it is written. He made them rebel against him: the cow did not obey the ploughman. viz. like those who have died an unnatural death through drowning. [the dead] in their graves.e. 3 The name Noah connotes that. He gave him dominion ' text should either have stated. they rest in their beds is just as there the rest of the grave so here too the rest of the grave is meant. 4 5 I. * The general idea is that even in their graves the dead were not at rest. for the waters of the sea For it is twice stated. The 2] MIDRASH KABBAH same shall give us rest (yanihenu}. the waters used to ascend and inundate them Resh Lakish * ' ' . 6). Like the slain that lie in the grave (Ps. 206 . blessed be He. they had rest. LVII. even those who had died 7 8 naturally were like the slain. that : lie. the furrow 2 obeyed the ploughman. animate Surely not. may be at ease (Ex. ix. 2) meant. 'And he called his . And the Lord smelled the sweet ' Text as emended. i. That thine ox and thine over : ass means the xxm. was readily responsive. so the ease mentioned here 4 implies the ease of the ox. it was easy to direct the ox in his work.e. xxm. Cf. He : enter eth into peace. 12) just as the ease stated there ease of the ox. also cur. But when Noah arose. 'This or. viz. 8 Th. . all things the cow obeyed the ploughman. supra. .' Noah arose. created Adam. 5 He calleth (Amos v. 3 and ease is mentioned elsewhere. and also else- where. But when Noah arose. 6).

once in the days of Elisha And there was a great famine in Samaria (11 Kings VI. WHICH COMETH FROM THE GROUND WHICH (v. ai). Ruth R.K. The sun and moon did not provide the * M. liveth. i). i. 3 : cease (ib. as it is written. lo yishbothu. 2 They did function. n). once in the days of Lamech: WHICH COMETH FROM THE GROUND WHICH THE LORD HATH CURSED. xxvi. Jose b. 'roll Hence the ten must be assumed not to and combines the last two: and one which upon*) the world in the future. THE LORD HATH CURSED world ten times. And the ark rested wattanah (ib. 25). but of hearing the words of the Lord (Amos vm. amount of illumination. emends will visit (lit. R. and once in the Messianic future: Not a famine of bread. 22) implies that hence it deduced: 'They shall not follows that they had ceased. Jonathan to him: mark was imperceptible. 4. 6). nor a thirst for water. that there was a famine in the land (Ruth I. twelve months [of the Flood]. Hanina said: On account of the resting of the ark. but their R. . *od : usual .K. there shall not be dew nor rain these years (i Kings xvii. 8 This actually gives eleven. Isaac said Its occurrence ought properly to have been not in the days of David but in the : . i). before whom I stand. . the God of Israel. once in the days when the judges judged: And it came to pass in the days when the judges judged.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XXV. once in the days of there was a famine in the land (ib. Samuel and R. beside the first famine that was in the days of Abraham once in the days of Jacob For these two years (ib. . Famine visited the is in the days of Adam : Cursed the ground for thy sake (Gen. i) hath the famine been in the land (ib. they have never & yet ceased. M. cf. 207 . Huna and R. once in the days of Elijah: As the Lord. 2-3 1 (nihoah) savour (Gen. Remaining stationary. in. 4). 17). : : : Abraham And 1 8 Noah is thus connected with nihoah. Liezer said: They shall not 4 they never ceased. in the once days of Isaac: And there was famine in the 10) land. vm. R. Jeremiah in the name of R. XLV. Johanan said The planets did not function the entire Said R. xii. 5 R. Joshua cease 3. he translates* the Heb. R. include the last. one famine which travels about in the world. Once 29). ' : R.

On this interpretation this statement is cited as proof. B. But in From Palestine. etc. Shila sins and Johanah David. Ruth R. 'beside the famine/ etc. 7). but not enough to satisfy (Rashi. would have been broken by a famine. opp. translates (on Ab. it should merely say. (n Kings vi. was it to be postponed for David 4 This was either a tradition or is deduced from the passage. Aha's name: of famine The Abraham.* is only when it is if it is obtainable. * 8 7 This indicating famine. Hiyya: It is like the case of a glassis punished! worker holding a basket full of goblets and cut glass. reading 'SB instead of n'n). 4. or something that is tree* (infra). lacking 2 If Saul deserved punish merit. one year yielding and one year not yielding.). 6 Text as emended 208 . who could withstand it. The ordinary price was four se'ahs per sela' (Peah. but v.. For that reason all these came not in the days of lowly [weak] men but [famines] in the days of mighty men. 3 drove it [into the wall]. who when he wished to hang the basket up brought a nail. R.XXV. (Y. v. To test its weight. * 1 : (T. Simeon observed: That 1 An idiom. 9ifl. Dosa's ( name: From the it A wheat per sela ] price of two se'ahs [of 7 and it was taught : se'ah advanced to one [per sela']. for if the contrast is merely with that in the time of Isaac. sela'. The famine in the days of Elisha was one of panic. i. postponed it and blessed the tree. JJelbo's name: faint (Isa. not easily broken. vrn. 5 Until an ass's head was sold for fourscore As for the famine pieces of silver. even at but unobtainable. He giveth power to the said in R. following arms in?. Thus Saul.B.). 29). 25). of 'a shoot of an olive rich in understanding or merit. of in the it days brought 2 Said R. the present case it was even twice as dear. of the in Lamech and one days time was one of scarcity. denoting barren of thought or merit. Jast. R. Elijah's during the days of the judges. Beside the first famine that was in the days of Abraham. but because 1 be He. Berekiah 4 There were two famines in the days of Abraham. Th. Huna the in one was There days of said in R. Holy One. 8) a famine in consequence of (war) trouble. ment. R. suspended himself thereby. which means easily broken. and then hung up his basket. whence it follows that there was also a second in his days. XL.* man must not emigrate abroad 8 unless two se'ahs cost a R. 3] MIDRASH RABBAH Saul was a shoot of a sycamoredays of Saul. 5 There was food. Berekiah applied to them the verse. altogether a se'ah per sela\ one must not go abroad. Huna said in R. R.T.

yet did not imitate the evil ways of his * Hence Scripture cannot refer to this. HAM. 32). : : thus it is written. Why did the Holy One. Happy is is the man that hath not walked. 2 According to through three generations. blessed be He. 14). etc. refers to ' Noah: That hath not walked in the counsel of the wicked. xcn. planted in the ark. (Gen. the Flood.e. 4 Forthwith. blessed of the Lord' alludes to Noah. AND NOAH BEGOT SHEM. i-2 CHAPTER XXVI (BERESHITH) i. I. (Ps. R. 20). 3) the Lord planted him [i. contemporaries. 8 6. xxxrv. order more clean animals [to be saved] than unclean ones ? Surely because He desires that offerings should be made to Him of the former. It is written. Nehemiah said: During the generation of Enosh he was but a child. Planted in the house of the Lord. saved] in the ark. AND JAPHETH(V. That bringeth forth its fruit in its season : this alludes to Shem. 3 But in His law doth he meditate : he inferred one thing from another. viu. to that of the Flood . AND NOAH BEGOT SHEM. xvi. 1 ' They shall flourish in the courts Noah lived through these. 'Planted in the house the Holy One. they shall flourish in the courts of our God (Ps. R. AND NOAH WAS FIVE HUNDRED YEARS OLD. to Japheth . 1 R. 9. whom be He.' R. the injunction not Supra. HAM. And he shall be like a tree planted by streams of water (ib. But his delight was in the law of the Lord (ib. He took of every clean beast. Nehemiah differ on this. of Enosh. Judah and R.[XXVI. [the verse is to be interpreted thus:] 'In the counsel of the wicked' refers to the generation of Enosh Nor stood in the way of sinners. Judah's view. etc. to that of the Separation [of tongues].. Nor sat in the seat of the scornful. viz. 2. And whose leaf doth not wither : to Ham. Judah said: It means i): "Happy the man' viz. and the Separation [of tongues]. He was given an additional precept. And in whatsoever he doeth he shall prosper. arguing. * to eat a limb torn from a living animal. 209 P . 2) alludes to the seven precepts which he was commanded. Infra. AND JAPHETH.

death shall be their shepherd (Ps. Ilamna how then does R. 2IO . IJanina said among none for it is In the Messianic age there will be death save the children of Noah. 1 2 Who For their father's sake. 4 was not at the time of the Flood a hundred years old so as to be liable . Judan observed: at a hundred or two hundred years. AND NOAH WAS HUNDRED YEARS OLD. From off all faces of Israel. HAM. LXV. Gen. nether -wor Id . there would have been too many by the time of the Flood for one ark.. 1 They shall be full of sap and richness (ib. IJanina explain faces (Isa. etc. 20). AND NOAH BEGOT SHEM. Levi said: Neither among Israel nor among the other nations.: 'death' is thus used to indicate punishment. 6 It was a tradition that before the Revelation the Heavenly Court did not punish for sins committed before that age. Mah.). blessed be He. 6 A general term for non. Nehemiah said in the name of R. 7 But it is written. Joshua explain it? That means that he will then be liable to punishment. to punishment. Jose the Galilean: Even Japheth. is that the Holy One. am I to put him to the trouble of 3 building many arks?' Therefore the Lord stopped his he fountain and begot at five hundred years. : written. 5. AND NOAH BEGOT. 8). xxv. said: 'If they [Noah's sons] are to be 2 wicked. 2] It MIDRASH KABBAH is of the God. Hanina: how then does R. XLIX. 15) alludes to Noah. Yet surely it is written. which supports R. which supports R. infra. Like sheep they are appointed for the . All his contemporaries begot (v. while he begot at five hundred years! The reason. however. 5 R. who was the eldest. Joshua b. They shall still bring forth fruit in old age (ib. 15). xxxvn. 3 Had he begotten children at the normal age. 32). etc. R. as it is written. And the Lord God will wipe away tears from this? off all R. AND FIVE JAPHETH.Israelites. Eliezer the son of R. R. v. 32. 4 Though he always comes last.' as written. 7. Joshua Thus: whereas in this world Pharaoh [was explain it? begot children when 500 years old. I do not desire them to perish in the flood while if they will be righteous. How does For the youngest shall die a hundred years old (ib. 7 V. 6 R. . n. cf.XXVI. which indeed redeems from death it is not meant literally.

So that their punishment will be eternal (continual). also. He time1 in the will appoint the angel of death their [sc. death ending it. AND JAPHETH. he was minister in the High Priesthood. that there be no habitation 4 But they will be resurrected and their bodies continue to for it. the Holy One. IV.) 3 : this teaches that Sheol Sisera's] officer. And the upright shall have dominion over them in the morning.V. Sanh. set His name particularly upon him . 2-4 . [other reasons for his priority are that] Abraham was to arise from him. HAM. however. 'BEGAN' (Gen. xi. viz. RJH. 4. R.. 3 E. Cf. 4 And why such severity? 'On account of His habitation. three hundred and 7 forty years. the Temple].V. 7 = 40. so as to receive punishment.' exist. WHEN MAN (ib. iya. yet their bodies will not be destroyed. 696 for another explanation. i). an .' i. AND IT CAME TO PASS WHEN MAN REBELLED : E. Pharaoh and [the nether-world] will be destroyed. this vi. SHEM. 3.. is written] first because he was [more] righteous [than the others]. where it is said that the Separation jjr~ 300. and their form shall be for the wearing away of the nether-world on account of His habitation (zb.GENESIS (BERESHITH) punished] Messianic era in his time fXXVI. 26). and because the Temple would be The son of Huta said: [Shem is because the Holy One. Gen. in his 2 and Sisera as it is written. 5 13). 'For the nether-world to wear away. Their punishment was but temporal. / have surely built Thee a house of habitation (i Kings vm. Cf.e. occurred 338 years after Arpachshad's birth. 6 written first] his name. as it is written. Surely Japheth was the eldest ? [Shem. * 5 V. because he was born circumcised. blessed be He. which took place two 2 1 years after the Flood. suspended [punishment] for the generations from the Flood until the Separation according to the numerical value of built in his territory. blessed be He. . Simon said: In three places term is used in the sense of rebellion [against God] Then they rebelled (huhal) to call upon the name of the Lord AND IT CAME TO PASS. because they stretched out their hands against His habitation [sc.

give me your blessing/ 'May "woe" never leave your mouth/ replied he. . 7. MULTIPLY . barley. yet wheat is more needed than THEM/ 3 ' . is It He replied [God] smote Nimrod's head. "May you never return 1 hither/ 5 * R. the proof?* is inquired When R. v. be many He. 4 R. and wine 'both vinegar. When he [R. to her family. exclaiming. for notes. * That 3 5 Thus daughters are But live a sign of increase. . . xi. n he who has incited them to rebel against Me This EARTH. WHEN MAN BEGAN met him he said to him: 'The has be He.XXVI. i6b. Thus a daughter is eventually lost This shows that the preference for sons was not based in on a lower opinion of women. Ker. and because they as it is them women. When she gave birth to a son she again begged him. When a man gives his daughter in marriage and incurs expense he says to her. AND DAUGHTERS WERE BORN TO MULTIPLY UNTO THEM. He [Nimrod] rebelled when he was a mighty one it is was raised in the earth (ib. . 'Father/ she exclaimed. 'Father. Rabbi gave birth to a daughter. blessed written. 20*2 . Hiyya . THE OF FACE TO MULTIPLY ON THE ' : ! the trees and teaches that they spilled their semen upon the Holy in lust were steeped stones. he answered. any way happily with your husband. 6) this And written. xxiii. Simeon b. Hiyya the Elder AND IT CAME TO PASS. are theless/ he [Rabbi] observed. supra. 'Living at 1 V. An objection r^But ? is what they have rebelled to do (ib. AND IT CAME TO PASS. Simeon] went to his 4 father he asked him. Suk. 'blessed 2 'Because it is written. 'Father/ she requested. gave One. AND DAUGHTERS WERE BORN UNTO he replied. 'pray for me/ 'May you never return hither/ said he to her. The wife of R. than more needed Is wine vinegar both wheat needed. a daughter is a sign of a blessing. 'Did the Babylonian congratulate me/ 'Neverto thus said 'and he you?" Yes. WHEN MAN BEGAN TO . he. x. 8a. BJB. begun to bless you/ 'What Holy One. 'on both occasions of my rejoicing you have cursed me!* 'Both were blessings/ he replied. 8). Gamaliel gave his daughter in marriage. 212 . yet and barley are needed. 4] MIDRASH KABBAH REBELLED.

the chief [of these nobles] entered and 8 enjoyed her first. of religion themselves transgress ? 5 long life was required for making the necessary observations. Levi's name: When the priests steal their gods. Simeon b. 4 R. R. R. 18. 4-5 home. 8 They took women married to others. Yohai said: If demoralisation does not 2 proceed from the leaders. Since the leaders are in a position to stop it. order that Huna said in R. "woe" my son has not eaten/' "woe that he has not drunk/* "woe that he has not gone to school/*' 5. For they were fair. (vi. R. though it is read as plural. [furthermore]. it is not real demoralisation. The idea is the same : what hope is there when the leaders and guardians 4 As though they were divine. Yohai called them the sons of nobles. 6 THEY WERE FAIR (JOBOTH). The idea is that one woman was taken by many men.GENESIS (BERESHITH) peace In your as [XXVI. Huna said in R. and as long will not leave your mouth. 6 Through their long life of ease they were now fully liable for all the punishment their sins merited. plural. A 213 . Yohai cursed all who called them the sons of God. 'Azariah said in R. Ed. "woe THAT THE SONS OF THE DAUGHTERS OF MEN. translation. which refers to virgins And they took them wives. Judan said: : 7 Actually tobath is written when a bride was made beautiful for her husband. 7 Singular (r^irs) instead of toboth (HDIB). 9 Whomsoever they chose: that means males and beasts. : 1 2 3 Lit. Joseph's name The generation of the Flood were not blotted out from the world until they . you that your son lives.). Jose's men might understand 5 [astronomical] cycles and calculations. 8 An allusion to the ins primae noctis. will not return here. GOD (BENE ELOHIM) SAW etc. Pentateuch and Haftorahs (Sonc. refers to married women. Hertz. by what can one swear or to what can one sacrifice ? 3 Now why name: It and Resh Lakish was are they called the sons of God? R. p. v. Simeon b. R. 1 R. 2). Hanina said: Because they lived a long time in without trouble or suffering. Hence it is written. Simeon b. R. The Rabbis said: It was in order that they might receive their own punishment and THAT that of the generations that followed them.

the wicked) with spirit U-olam (in the world 3 to come. x. R. xix.XXVI. is long-suffering for THE SONS OF MEN SAW. Ishmael derives yadon from vtadan. your breath is a fire that shall devour you (ib. 9). 3 xxxni. Supra 9 vi. E. Ilai said: There And the day that cometh The Rabbis will forth be aeither a day nor a Gehenna. Aha's name: When I restore the spirit to its sheath (nadari). but fire shall come from the body of the wicked himself and burn him is the proof? Ye conceive chaff. 5) for Hitherto you may said. The whole passage refers to the generation of the Flood. R. a Ije. that we may Sodomites] demanded. etc. n). but as soon as they [the b. v. an said: Simlai R. 'Azariah and R. I will not restore up. Ishmael interpreted this: I will not put My spirit in I give : the righteous their reward.e. What Or perhaps i. a dowry. R. 3 . vi. 1 : until they wrote marriage deeds for males and beasts they fully legalised such practices. Whose fire is in Zion y and his furnace in Jerusalem (Isa. Huna interpreted in R. intercourse they [the angels] know them (ib. Bring them out unto us. And the everything save immorality. R. they will not arise at the resurrection. Joshua's name said: The Holy One. Simon in R. 12)? have pleaded in their defence. Judah b. They would have heeded him. 19).V. 3). Judah b. My 214 . bestiality. is is Levi said in Bar Padiah's name: The whole of Joshua that night Lot prayed for mercy for the Sodomites. epidemic R. but you are no more permitted to do so/ 6. 5~"&] MIDRASH KABBAH composed nuptial songs 1 in honour of pederasty and Wherever you find lust. Gehenna. conjectures that R. 'Hast thou here any besides (#. (Gen. xxxi. ic&z. 7). 2 R. 6.. blessed be He. What which Lord said: I will blot out man the proof? followed by. What is future] save a day which will burn up them when the proof? shall set them ablaze There will be a maintain: (Mai HI. translating: I will not dower man (sc. visits the world which slays both good and bad. R. for it says. Th. ye shall bring forth stubble. Jannai and Resh Lakish said There is no other Gehenna [in the the wicked. Sanh. 'forever'). [the angels] ABIDE (YADON) IN R. AND THE LORD SAID: MY SPIRIT SHALL NOT MAN FOREVER LE-'OLAM (vi.

2 My Bathyra interpreted it: Never (le-olam) again will I judge (dan) man with this judgment. The Rabbis proved it from the following: For the tree of for [injury . judgment. the field is man an account. R. for R. * E. as it is written. : again smite (Gen. Nathan said: Even a dog or a wolf is answerable. IJiyya b. He translates : My spirit will not judge. but they refused behold. . R.e. let this I will not again curse refers to the ( 3 : children of generations. 6 R.V. I '/ will not again smite. Th. a Flood. ix. I will bend them 5 (meshaggeman) through suffering. And I will put spirit within you (Ezek.. None becomes answerable done to] man save another man like himself. The Rabbis said Noah. save he too 7 when 8 who inflicts the injury The yoke itself was punished. but in the future it will spread throughout the body. 9 I. Jast. . Huna commented in R. Aha said: Even barren trees 8 will have to render an account. just as man must render trees render an account. Infra. I intended that My spirit should judge them. E. rule and guide] them. I will not Judan b. Eleazar said. even before the Flood God stated that it would never be repeated. in the sense of guide. 6 But an animal is not answerable when man. Is the tree of the field man?* 215 . behold. i. therefore. 2 Th. Huna b. xxxiv. Joseph's name / will not again curse . the body. Gorion said: Even a staff or a thong is answerThou able. . vm. is non fruit-bearing. Jast. to 5 4 judge. so must 1 (Deut. 6 1 their spirit to their sheath.' to future intended that My spirit should judge [i.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XXVI. a sheath. therefore. the casing of the spirit. R.e. for injury done to man.V. it injures man. but they refused.* R. 19). Deriving yadon from nadan.: flashes in (i. translates differently. as it were. because in this world it [My spirit] spreads only through one of [the main] limbs.e. Abba interpreted: I will not fill them with My spirit when I fill all other men with My spirit. as it is written. 3 Sc.e. viz. For the yoke of his burden hast broken as in the day of Midian (Isa. 27). 3). Here too yadon is derived from dan. 'for that also'. 3 R.. seizes). 4 21): [the repetition implies]. xx. 10. suffice. I will bend them [break their power] through each other. xxxvi. Thus in his view. On all views this is a play on the word beshagam. He derives yadon from dm. punish.

"The Lord 7 doth the wicked condemn cited: Akiba R. they will be punished in & the nest. Ammi. Spirit'. Eleazar said: Wherever there there is 4 My 5 (tasim) before them (Ex. because I have been wroth with them this involves the change * of one letter only. etc. then man]. and so renders: And the people said. Similarly man needs suffering to place him on a firm foundation. plucked up within Torah. xxi. Aibu interpreted: What was the cause that and then I will they rebelled against Me? Was suffering? it bend them through 3 What keeps not because I did not a door in is no judgment [below] the son of R. My will not judge my generation of the Flood said. they interpreted. judgment [above]. Joshua b. 21): Betwixt morning and evening they are shattered.. wisdom without that and them? They die. the people's) spirit of rebellion. My 216 . following said: If they did Meir R. have not judged. Deut. 'judged'] before 6 Rabbi interpreted: And the Attribute of Mercy. they perish it (ib. xxxi.. Infra. If Leazar: R.andMah. am I their tent-cord not Is judgment above! Thus it is written. through lacking (Job IV. Nehemiah interpreted: Their spirit does 1 not reason with itself that they are but flesh and blood . because they did not execute justice on earth. Th/s ed. 7 Instead of translating 'And the Lord said. now the latter would come into its own. 1 And so This is * .: the long life they have hitherto enjoyed has blinded them to their mortality . as I have determined for them in this world. he treats *the Lord* as the subject of yadon (judge). Now for ever without any regarding (mesim) 'mesim* can only refer to judgment. * M. Now these are the ordinances [judgments] which thou shalt set position? Its hinges. 2 therefore I will reduce their years. Mah. Wherefore spirit/ they should not sin. Hitherto the former had prevailed . etc. and is the most preferable. 5. reads : I will grant them but few years. R. Jose the Galilean interpreted: No more shall My Attribute of Justice be suppressed [lit. judge spirit [will not to perform too not perform judgment below. v. the of wisdom the Le.K. Thus interpreting : They die. 20). bend them through R.: Jw& (My spirit) connotes His mercy . Bibi. the reading in several MSS.XXVI.yadon. R. 4 If a man's sins are unpunished in this world. hence I will shorten it. suffering. R. the subject of 'said* being the people. unexpressed. 5 . Suffering brings out the best in man. 6] MIDRASH KABBAH R. R. i). His justice. The Lord wiH not judge my (sc. as you read.

13) meaning that there is no judgment or judge. Jose b. R. anak 'to press'. Jast. Aha said: Their (nirpeh) like wax. . 'force/ 'rule') the globe of * the sun. 4 Gibborim denotes mighty. holds that this does not actually explain the meaning of the word zamzumim. xxvm. Jose connects zamzumim with zamam. Cf. 9. THE NEPHILIM WERE IN THE EARTH SAME WERE THE GlBBORIM (E. and it implies that owing to their superior military power they could always carry out their schemes. Johanan's name The marrow of each one's thigh bone was eighteen cubits long. Abba said in R. Hanina b. 5 Anakim : The Rabbis explained it as signifying that they were loaded with chains ('anakim) upon chains. 4 Zamzumim: R. 10 f.V. 7 Th. 'MIGHTY MEN') THAT WERE OF OLD (vi. u. Jast. 3 V. : a (40) +v (300) (sc. foresaw that Moses was destined to descend from him. Emim. He renders: My spirit will abide in : - .e. s Th. Re/aim. Gibborim. Thou wilt not require? (Ps. : R. and caused the world to be ruined. as you 1 &** * (2) +& (3o) +* (3) + (40) JTJD Viz. Th. to devise. I. that all who saw them melted . for the sake of him who is to live 120 years (Moses). . [in truth] there is judgment and there is a Judge. were themselves driven from the world in ruin. 345 -fn(s)=345. They were called by seven . 6 R. intend. also conjectures that R. Gibborim : necks reached ('onkim) the globe of the sun 7 and they demanded: 'Send us down rain/ Awim denotes that they cast the world into ruins. and say in his heart. 2 THE 7. blessed be He. The Rabbis adduced it from the following: And his days shall be a hundred and twenty years. 217 .GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XXVI. but is a comment on their might. names: Nephilim. x. 6-7 God. Ilanina said: They were the greatest of all masters of the arts of war. Papa said: Even Noah who was left of them was left not because he merited it. and Awim? Emim signifies that their dread (emah) fell upon all Refaim. 6 As ornaments. Anakim. infra. Deut. 4). but because the Holy One.: they seized (fr. 20 f. 23. Zamzumim. great. R. (reading ffOTB) : they increased the chains ('ana&m) around the necks ('ana&m) they subjugated many people. man Noah) only for the sake of Moses (beshagam). beshagam and Moshe (Moses) both 1 having the same numerical value.

2 3 4 Infra. R. THE MEN OF NAME: and 1 Num.XXVI. Yoma ica. 4. the generation of the Flood from that of Enosh. xxxvin. 2. were driven in desolation from the world. Levi said: All these names signify chastening: Irad: I shall drive them ('ordari) out of the world. young man. In the preceding chapter. R. as were that expert in the knowledge of they signifies ruin. xxiu. and filled the world with abortions (hippilu) the from the through (nefilim) their immorality.e. 85*2. Joshua b. children of ignoble shem (Job xxx. i. but does not necessarily imply renown. Levi explained in the name of R. R. go. Nefilim denotes that they hurled world down. Samuel b. 5 of Job is understood to refer to this generation of the Flood. 24. and the generation of the Separation from that of mented: The later generations AND ALSO AFTER THAT. Simeon said: (Ezek. Supra. 4 for R. Aha quoted: men the children of churls. yea. like man young Berekiah said: place. 32). R. for in (naflu) Galilee a serpent is called 'awwiah. i. whereupon him. xvi. It 7] MIDRASH RABBAH a ruin. themselves fell world. it R. 1 Judah b. and caused the world to be made desolate. read. 8). R. Deut. : Johanan interpreted THE SAME WERE THE MIGHTY MEN THAT WERE OF OLD. and give birth to a would she cohabit. The verse ii . I make a ruin ('awwah 'awwah 'awwah) mil Leazar b. Methushael: I shall have wear them out (matishan) from the world: What I to do with Lamech and his descendants? 5 R. WHEN THE SONS OF GOD CAME IN UNTO THE DAUGHTERS OF MEN. xxi. OF RENOWN! 3 But yet you say that they were means that they laid the world MEN desolate (heshimu). R. Shab. the Flood. Nahman: It means the men whose names are specified above. see a A woman THE MEN They are bell OF RENOWN (HASHEM). it A different kinds of earth as a serpent. Mehujael: I shall wipe them (mohan) out of the world. Rabbi comwould not learn from the earlier ones. 2 AND ALSO AFTER THAT. would go out into the market and conceive a passion for him. 218 .

7 R. that alone justifies the whole work. v. verses in Job describing the deeds of the wicked were held to refer to the generation of the Flood. it would have sufficed him.g. and Zophar the Naamathite. z). xxxn. Eliphaz the Temanite. For R. it refers to the descent of rain. generation of the Flood: whilst elsewhere elect of the assembly.. 3 seq. n. R. i. xxxvu. the Elder said Hoshaya : It refers to nought as great else but Revelation. 6 Every time orah (light) is stated in connection with Elihu. Job xxxvi. 4 Mentioned several times in Job. Hanan said: Had Elihu 4 come for no other purpose but to describe to us the action of the rain5 it would have sufficed him. as stated in the text.. 27 30. 4. 23. How God seq. xxxvn. xxxv. XV. Johanan said: fall. e. 8 caused the Flood. 9 men R.g. 1 viz. Job xxxvi. is 2 This Many 5 6 7 E. Bildad the Shuhite...g. xvi. 7 who enumerates their deeds? THE MEN ENUMERATED BY NAME. Since the Torah is called light. Aha said: Dissension It it is an evil as the says here. the men of renown (Num. 3 The meaning seems to be. 2 For Rabbi said: Had Job come for no other purpose but to enumerate for us the deeds of the generation of the Flood. 33.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XXVI. MEN OF RENOWN. 3 R. . e. says. 3. The reference is to Korah and his rebellion.. Johanan' s rendering of the phrase. Prov. 1 They were princes of the congregation.

and straightway. For there II. R. loc. I. blessed be He. etc. 20). that which is created to its Creator. 10. It Is i. 21.). 21): that refers to 5 the generation of the Flood. 6).). is written. loc. 1 God was Th. The heavens have 4 been made (ib. 220 . For all his : '. with their evil deeds. 5). 23) it means that the Holy One. as it broken up (Prov. Hence in Eccl. n. blessed be He. who compare prophets. as it is written. And his occupation vexation (ib. Simon Not with labour or toil did the Holy One. (ib. (Eccl. is a man whose labour is with wisdom. xxxni. likewise refers to God. Simon2 said We have other verses which display this more written. Yet to a man that hath not laboured therein e : THAT THE WICKEDNESS OF THE MAN WAS GREAT. : the likeness of the throne clearly than this one: And upon was a likeness as the appearance of a man upon it above 3 With wisdom. And with ledge the depths were skill' (Eccl. 26) ' .: is 8 speaking. And I heard the voice of a man between the 1 banks of the Ulai. in.): they vexed the Holy One. Judah b.' as it is written. Judan said: Great Is the power of the 21). etc. u. 19). create the world. this is He it not the R. blessed be He. By His knowknowledge" (Eccl.) from sin. I6). AND THE LORD SAW shall he leave days are pains etc. vin. with their they grieved evil deeds. 'And with by wisdom founded the earth (Prov. as is clear from the second half of the verse. 5 Man God. cit. Judan b. (Dan. R. but 'By the word of the Lord" (Ps. * in this verse certainly refers to * V. R. i-2] CHAPTER XXVII (BERESHITH) AND THE LORD SAW THAT THE WICKEDNESS OF THE MAN WAS GREAT IN THE EARTH. cit.): thus written. Berekiah said in the name of R. These were permitted to enjoy the results of God's work. AND THAT EVERY IMAGINATION OF THE THOUGHTS OF HIS HEART WAS ONLY EVIL ALL DAY (VI. 2. Yea. Judan generally mentioned. even in the night his heart taketh no rest (ib. supra. R. The Lord (Ezek. xn.): R. it for his portion (Eccl. This also is vanity and a great is it evil (ib. ill. yet referred to as a man's voice.XX VII.

. The analogy teaches that the punishment stated in the one case was also inflicted in the other. In the dark they dig through houses 2 (ib. 14). and some MSS. Johanan's name: We 3. 6). i6)? Why so? Because they make a sign for themselves 'shut themselves up'} in the daytime (ib. OF know that the generation of the Flood was punished by water and the Sodomites by fire: whence do we know to apply what is stated here to the case below [sc. From the rising until the setting of the sun there was no hope [of good] in them. below. affording an analogy.V. the Sodomites]. Sanh. xvm. and the reverse? Because 'great' is mentioned in both places. three hundred house-breakings took place. omit it entirely. 1 EVIL ALL DAY. Nehemiah interpreted it: to the Sodomites: Verily. 5 THE Or simply. Hanina interpreted: It waxed ever greater.e. V. * The thieves took the hint. as it is written. on earth. he would not have rebelled against Me/ R. they do? They brought balsam. WAS ONLY On the very night after R. AND THE LORD SAW THAT THE WICKEDNESS MAN WAS GREAT. ioga for a different version. 3 4. The murderer riseth with the light (Job xxiv.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XXVII. . 5 for had I created him out of heavenly elements. this 221 . ON EARTH. Judah said: [God declared:] 'It was a regrettable error on My part to have created him out of earthly elements. R. gezerah shawah. But it is written. In reference is Sodom and Gomorrah ' ' a longer passage. 2-4 And how do we know that by day too [they did not cease from evil]? WAS ONLY EVIL ALL DAY. they marked in the daytime the spot most favourable for breaking in. and so as not to forget it they sprayed perfume there. Thus they made preparations by day and carried out their designs at night. What did the citizens of Sepphoris do there ? which is obviously only a fragment of 1 Heb. . IJanina taught this in Sepphoris. R. the cry of great (Gen. 20). smeared it over a stone.). What did [E. a Then why say Riseth with the light? 3 I. Both stress. 4 and would come at night and dig through it. Here follows in the original. being the cause of God's regret. R. AND IT REPENTED (WAYYINNAHEM) THE LORD THAT HE HAD MADE MAN ON THE EARTH (VI. Berekiah said in R.

i. for it is said here. Joshua b. 5 AND 3). 1 Th. blessed be He/ was his rejoinder. The king grieveth for his son' (u Sam. Berekiah My said : If a he sees it. AND 'And what did you do?' 'I rejoiced and made all others know that he would rejoice/ he answered. Levl said: Seven days the Holy One. foresees the future?' 'Yes/ replied he. he would have incited the celestial had creatures to revolt. while elsewhere it says. blessed be He. made Mm 3 * s Sanh. i. R. just as he has incited the terrestrial am I created It was a regrettable beings to revolt. mortal and subject to burial. supra. 3. 7- 222 . *The commentaries (with a slightly different reading) explain: that 1 so as to remain in the earth. against displeases Surely against the architect! Similarly. preted : I am comforted AND IT GRIEVED HIM AT His HEART. io8<2.e. Aibu interpreted: evil urge (yezer ha-ra') error on part to have created an within him. 'for R. 'Yet did you not of gladness. mourned for His world before bringing the IT GRIEVED HIM. 'Even so mourning was it with the Holy One. Aibu translates the end of the verse thus: and it grieved Him for his (man's) heart. blessed be He. it and when king has a palace built by an architect is he to complain ? whom him. vin. 4 IT GRIEVED HIM AT His HEART?' 'Has a son ever been born to you?' inquired he. IT GRIEVED HIM AT HIS HEART. Infra XXXII.e. xix. Since God was His own Architect. the desire to evil which the heart harbours. R. Joshua b. Levi inter2 that I made him from the earth. Why then was He originally pleased with the creation ? Seven days is the period of deep mourning for a near relation.XXVIL I 4] MIDRASH KABBAH comforted (menuham) that I created ^hlm below.: possibly R. for had I not created an evil urge within him. and the time at 'Gladness die?' eventually of time the at mourning/ replied he. R. A certain Gentile asked 3 R. 'Yes/ was the answer. 1 he would not have rebelled against Me. Flood. 'But it is written. Karhah: 'Do you the that maintain not Holy One. Cf. for him above.

rise early and pay their would they with gestures. 2: R. supra. Kahana explained it in R. I. blessed be He. Similarly. And a line (kaw) shall be stretched forth over Jerusalem (Zech. It is written.[XXVIII. who used to rise early and pay their respects to the king with gestures. R. etc. to be ready for punishment. Let the waters be gathered together (yikkawu) unto one place (Gen. i. asked R. at first. R. cf. He then punishes them. 2. who are dumb. There- fore He 1 [day] to night. It is as if a king built a palace and tenanted it with dumb people. Said the king: 'If these. It repented the Lord. lee. 7). asserting. and finally. xxv. 25). Yema: It is written. so that they are crushed Hanina taketh knowledge of their works. AND THE LORD SAID: I WILL BLOT OUT MAN WHOM I HAVE CREATED (vi. Jonathan What does Therefore He taketh ' : knowledge of their works'. The Lord saw that the wickedness of man was great. with their fingers and with their handkerchiefs. 16). and He turneth (Job xxxiv. Let there be a measure : set for the water. then. Berekiah said in the name of R. AND THE LORD SAID: I SAID: I WILL BLOT OUT MAN. AND THE LORD WILL BLOT OUT MAN.V. that it shall come upon them unawares. Abba b. Johanan said: The planets for twelve months. : and has prepared 8 I. who arose and seized the palace. i-2 CHAPTER XXVIII (BERESHITH) i. as you read. how much more zealous respects be if they possessed all their faculties Thereupon the king tenanted it with men gifted with speech. Abba b. Levi's name thus : Let the waters be gathered together for My purpose. 223 . them for punishment. 9) that means. so that it is perpetually did not function dark.e. 'This palace is ours/ 'Then let * ! 1 E. mean? He answered: After 2 the Holy One. 'Overturneth them in ike mght\ a By restraining the planets from functioning. has turned day into night 3 and put them at their ease. etc. Var. [so as to perform what I will one day do with them]. R..

blessed be He: 'If high is mighty (#. Infra. V.) Said mouth nor speech. will cause man to blossom forth in the 3. Levi said in R. Lev. n. Thereupon the tongues} these be removed and Holy One. From sea waters. Joshua b. R. 5 ' : From the He. the mighty breakers of the the voices and what did they proclaim? The Lord on the Holy One. the and arose Enosh of generation and that of the Separation [of generation of the Flood rebelled and arose against Him. 'Bring me one and I will prove it to you/ he replied. Simon 4 was dissolved. was dissolved. Jehozadak: Even the nut of the spinal column. 10. said: 'Let their the former come [in place]/ Hence it is written. he ground it ' ' ' . supra. He threw it into the fire. but the congregation would not accept it. * * 7 Cf. i. 72. R. how neither these. Judah b. blessed be Jianania future. 4). xxvn. (Ps. the praise of the Almighty Similarly. at the beginning ascended from nought but the water. he replied. from which the Holy One. xxxr. but it did not dissolve. 'Blot out* and 'dissolve* are the same word in Hebrew.XXVIIL 2-3] MIDRASH RABBAH the palace return to Its original state/ the king ordered. 6 Hadrian may his bones rot! 7 asked R. Johanan's name: Even the nether 3 stone of a millstone was dissolved. From what part will the Holy One. xcui. R. ' I of many SAID: I WILL BLOT OUT MAN. cause man to blossom forth in the future ? ' nut of the spinal column. i. Berekiah said: Surely I created them from the earth. 1 'What do they think? That I need armies [to combat them] ? 2 Did I not create the world with a word? I will utter a word and destroy them I' R. In Ms grave. what dissolves earth? Water. supra. blessed be He. Then let the water come and dissolve the earth. as it is written. blessed be He. do thus. R. 2 224 . 1 V. 8 . R. p. 2. 6 5 At the resurrection. yet it was not burnt he put it in water. which have But the I be will more much praised when I create man rebelled against Him. Simeon b. How do you know that?' he asked. v. Adam of dust the Even said: Judah lectured thus. AND THE LORD R. xxx. Johanan said in the name of R.

3 Stores of commodities. Alfa (alpha) is the first letter of Hebrew and Greek alphabets. 6 and they have acted thus therefore I BLOT . 6. yet It remained intact. 4 He is keeping all for himself. 5. saying. so that they had to sweep it out and cast it into the fire. WILL OUT MAN. I can impose an interdict (me-maheJi) upon My creatures. 'The king is miserly/ 4 What did the king do? He opened up for them the best. * Men. As stated infra. whom *) with ashar. Eliezer. But even the best was poor. yet only One man [sc. Noah) out of the best (generations) have I found. 28). and they interdict filled the country with stench.e. to be the best. the anvil was cleft and the hammer split.V. THE BEST (ASHER) THAT I HAVE CREATED. 7 [God] contemplated creating a thousand generations. Best quality (alfa) wine. the son of R. and how many of them were blotted out? 8 R. these were the best of them. yet even so. Hence i . 5 The worst would have been even more offensive and unbearable. actions. Eleazar said This may be compared to a king who possessed mixed stores. 5 Similarly. but My creatures cannot impose an : 2 upon Me. [elef being used in the same sense] as when we learned. V. Noah] among a thousand (elef) have I found (Eccl. He translates: one man only (sc. to be strong. All flesh had corrupted their way. 225 Q . 1 4. hence translating: I will blot out man (though he is of) the best that I have created. 1 'to '] a thousand generations man. he placed It on an anvil and smote it with a hammer. xn. Huna said in the name of R. good and bad mixed together. for the other generations which I had intended to create would have been worse. revealed to them. the generations until the Flood. twenty-six in all. whence by transference. it will remain as the nucleus of the resurrected xvin. R. Lev. were the best of the My thousand generations which God had contemplated creating. ft Eccl. IX. 3 and his subjects criticised him.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XXVIII. to forbid. happy. 3-4 between millstones. vn. R. ' 7 Connecting ASHER (E. since there is much that is not They may not criticise He derives 'emheh' from maha. but it was not crushed. I WILL BLOT OUT (EMHEH) MAN WHOM I HAVE CREATED. remained uncreated. What is the proof? The word which he commanded after [E. Jose the Galilean: Nine hundred and seventy-four. R. and therefore denotes best quality. 8 I.

With reference to : Sodom grievous is it is written. xrv. And it is stated. That was overthrown as in a moment (Lam. It was left only for the sake of the destined to arise from righteous men and women that were is them that devise iniquity and work evil upon their beds them. * 4 Me'od (exceeding) being repeated. ' ' Kahana said The ten tribes did what was not done even reference to the by the generation of the Flood. i. R. while of a not of the Flood] generation these a remnant was left. implying. to how do we know (Micah n. there shall be left a remnant therein that shall be brought forth. And. With And is it the of written. from Abraham to Moses. i. however. a Comprising the Kingdom of Northern Israel. Levi said in the R. generation all evil was heart his the day (Gen. righteous men and women R. 15. ix.e. FROM THE FACE OF THE EARTH. for the sake of the daughters (Ezek. They were exiled to Assyria after the overthrow of their kingdom. 10. as it is written. 4~5] (Ps. i). Actually. Yet of those [the light. cv. R. after only twenty blotted out. of name The word which he commanded after What is the proof? 2 a thousand generations refers to circumcision. 4. When the that they did so by day too ? Because morning it (ib. 22) 4 that were to arise from them. never stretched forth their hands to : The Torah was to have been commanded. MIDRASH KABBAH 1 which refers to the Torah. Nahman: Nine hundred and eighty. generations Eccl. Samuel b. says. i. 6). Berekiah said: The tribes of Judah and Benjamin did what was not done even in Sodom. at night. Woe 3 : 5. Cf. 8).). they execute remnant was left. 26). 6. R. 9)*. both sons and meaning. every imagination Flood. xvm. R. 3. while of the former a remnant was left. hence the other 974 were 2 Which was enjoined upon Abraham. But the reason is the latter. from Noah to Abraham. 13^. IV. it was revealed after 26 generations (from Adam to Noah. Abba b. 1 Interpreting: after a 226 . only thoughts of of whereas with reference to the ten tribes it is written. vi. revealed. (Gen. thousand generations. 5). total. yet of the latter not a remnant was left. 10. Benjamin it And. behold.XXVIII. Hag. whereas of the tribes The iniquity of the house of Israel and Judah most exceeding great (Ezek. verify^ their sin is exceeding of Judah and 20). SJS.

Judan said: This may be illustrated by the case of a king who entrusted led his son to a teacher who him into evil ways. Hands therein accepted no which R. 7 6 V. Antioch. 5). (korethe) a covenant with Me by sacrifice. 4. on in. AND FOWL OF THE AIR. Phinehas said A king BOTH MAN E. this is called habra'ah (the meal of comfort). Woe unto the inhabitants of the sea-coast. Yet for whose sake do they stand? For the sake of one nation6 and one God-fearing person whom the Holy One. I. rv. be his se'tidath The rich never helped the poor.V. Huna said What was perpetrated by the coastal cities 4 was not perpetrated even by the generation of the Flood. Lam. R. 8 the Cherethites' : [Others] interpret it in a laudatory sense. from which he derives le-baroth. they even cooked their own children for the purpose! *EJ. whereat the king became angry with his son and slew him. receives from their hands. v. AND BEAST. GescMchte. 10 ( 13). etc. since nothing was left for them and they had to die of hunger. 10 (13) . 8 Th. and so it was as though they had sodden their own children. To give assistance. 5 good deeds. ( : 1 * No hands fell upon her.: proselyte. softens this by explaining: they gave their last morsel. 9 10 The fat animals and birds which they ate led them into evil. R. S. R. BOTH MAN. as it is written.S. That maketh (koreth) 6. Having nothing else. 3 Ib. 5-6 as it is written. in. the nation of the Cherethites (Zeph. men (proselytes) who arose from the Gentiles. Tanhuma interpreted: Hand did not join hand. 7 'The nation of the covenant. as you read. duties (ib. Lam. AND CREEPING THING. which means that for they deserved to be annihilated (kareth). L. 5 * Yet the former are still in existence. conjectures that the reference is to Ps. Sanh. Surely not. Ashkelon. Schurer. lee. blessed be He. Said the king: 'Did any lead my son into evil ways save this man: my son has 9 perished and this man lives!' Therefore [God destroyed] AND BEAST. V. 104^. The first meal eaten by a mourner after the funeral must not own but must be provided by his neighbours. 123. 227 . 5 : Those that have made 3. Gaza. II.\ l : it is written.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XXVIII. 2 But the former stretched forth their hands to good deeds. R. v. on the pious Var.10 R. The hands of women full of compassion have sodden their own children and provided the mourner's meal? R. 10.

20). tore down the partitions. etc. 22) multiplied unto her silver and Baal which used for (Hos. R. Judah's name: All acted corruptly in the generation of the Flood the dog [copulated] with the wolf.). 4). Subson and slew him. And was It the wicked with [the they (ib.} they saw their chains of gold melted in the fire. Go. Akiba said: All [the prophets] complained of the gold and silver which 7.XXVIII. as it is written. n. lest they should say. [The verse continues].g. and their gold have they made them idols. s Lit. 3 as a man says out the name of So-and-so who led my son into evil : ' paths/* R. : went forth with them from Egypt become dross (Isa. / will consume man and the beast. which led to evil. and then return/ whereupon it would go. Huna and R. Of their silver they gold. * Similarly. 'He needs our wealth. Jeremiah in the name of R. 1. : e. Sanh. First the Holy One. I. etc. loSa. 2 ' R. Isaac said: It is not written. may be cut off.}i stumblingblocks animals. V. fatten thyself. since that led them into sin. etc. 10).] which caused the wicked to stumble. 8. Eleazar quoted: Surely their substance is cut off (Job xxn. the fowl with the peacock . that *X sc. translation. for one would catch a bird and say to it. exclaiming: 'My son has perished: shall these remain!' Therefore 1 [God destroyed] BOTH MAN AND BEAST. the text being in the singular. 'Azariah said in R. 228 . . (Zeph. their silver.e.' And their abundance the fire hath consumed (ib. 3). and then return. 'That they may be cut off/ And I will blot but That it may be cut off ($. and rent the curtains. painting. : 1 1 Since the animals were created for the sake of man.. there was abundant prosperity. hence it is written. Samuel b. destroyed their wealth. blessed be He. Thy silver is i. (ib. VIII. 6-8] MIDRASH RABBAH chamber gave his son in marriage and prepared a nuptial and for him. fatten itself. R. decorating it. his with was the angry king sequently and broke chamber the he entered nuptial whereupon the [supporting] rods. plastering.

vi. Julian [Lulianus] b. stated in Sanh. produce it and pour it : : down upon them.wheat.wheat we now find came from the age of the deluge. but because he found grace: hence. R. I2). wheat was sown and it 2 produced pseudo. 10. Cf. 6. 7 1 Not only human 2 io8a. IX. Sanh. x. supra. are they to enjoy a portion in the World to Come?* Said R. it is written. xxvij 6. R. Hence the Flood destroyed 3 Jast. 4. blessed be He. etc. What time they wax be 17). io8a.e. Eccl. (darnel or rye-grass). blessed be He. vn. FOR IT REPENTETH ME. As well their love i. Infra. they loved idolatry. As their hatred (Eccl. xxxm. R. n.). 'Ed. Sanh. 6) (*&.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XXVIII. Johanan: The Holy One. etc. it. Cf. neither have they any more a portion in the world [to come] on account of every5 thing that was done [by them] under the sun (ib. and provoked they His jealousy. Lev. Kahana observed FOR IT REPENTETH THAT I HAVE 6 MADE THEM AND not Even Noah. Thus hot. for the pseudo. surely was left not because he deserved however. which means. 7. they vanish (Job VI. Is long ago perished. they will destroyed absolutely by scalding water. 8 1 For all flesh had corrupted their way.): the hated Holy One. Johanan said: We learnt 3 The judgment of the generation of the Flood lasted twelve months having received their punishment. will boil up in Gehenna every single drop which He poured out on them. Tiberius said in R. all. ix. 6 7 By disregarding the punctuation it appears that even Noah was included. R. 4 to 5 But it is come. 3 that they have no portion in the World beings. Isaac's name: Even the earth acted lewdly. (Gen. R. 229 . BUT NOAH FOUND GRACE IN : ME NOAH ! THE EYES OF THE LORD. Abba b.

10). Supra grace. as a special act of * 4 He refers the verse to Noah. because he was not actually righteous save by contrast with his contemporaries. 7 R. I found Israel like grapes in the wilderness (Hos. : heart faithful before Thee (Neh. 6 with whom He was pleased. delivered? an ounce merit]. Kahana said: left only was Noah But Noah. Simon interpreted: did One.XXIX. t BUT NOAH FOUND GRACE IN THE EYES OF THE LORD. blessed be He. Var.e. 30).' etc. hence. i. XXIX (BERESHITH) IN THE EYES OF THE that is BUT NOAH FOUND GRACE LORD (vi. Hanina of Anatoth said. thou shalt be delivered through 1 said: Noah Hanina R. replied he. when it not.' Even so. 'Thus saith the Lord: 5 A$ when wine is found in the cluster. on i nabd. lee. ix. Simon said: The Holy One. He delivereth him innocent (I naki). "finds' when the moment was opportune: Abraham. saying. blessed be He. LXV.3 ] CHAPTER i. ix. 'This single bunch merits a blessing.: He found these three Lit. It is man went out to his vineyard and seeing a single bunch pronounced a blessing over it. 8). that I have made them and FOUND NOAH BUT because he found grace. to introduce the worship of the true God. Referring it to God i. 4 2. 21). to receive the Torah. LXXXIX. to wield 1 2 Tfiis is a play t sovereignty over Israel. Israel. the cleanness of thy hands yea. R. BUT NOAH FOUND GRACE IN THE EYES He OF THE LORD? found. If so. 7 God did not find grace in him. Mah. why was he (unkiaf [of This agrees Through the cleanness of Thy hands*? it For repent eth Me with what R. as though it read unkia : He delivereth him that a hath an ounce of merit. but the Holy not find. for a a certain pious [ripe] blessing is in related that (Isa. and David. ad xrvm fin. 8). is Simon quoted: Thus it saith the : wine found in the cluster\ one saith Destroy Lord: As. 8). His colleagues objected: Surely My it is written. : R. I have found David servant (Ps. 230 . Abba b. R. Only l GRACE IN THE EYES OF THE LORD. possessed less than (Job xxn. found three treasures 6 And Thou foundest his [Abraham's] 3.

shows mercy to the descendants for the sake of their Th. for the sake of the 1 generation of the wilderness. How 5 he knew which animal was to be fed at two hours of the day and which beast was to be fed at three hours of the night. Lakish. R. R. R. Abbahu said: We find that the Holy One. 4 Which will unite them as though in wedlock with the Almighty. R. Phinehas. Hunia and R. Similarly. Similarly. 1 231 . intimacy. while elsewhere it is said.GENESIS (BERESHITH) The people that were [XXIX. R. when he saw a man whom he attached to himself so strongly that he gave him his daughter in marriage. And Esther obtained favour 3 in the sight of all them that looked upon her (Est. Hoshaia do not explain [what grace Noah found]. 2): that means. R. io8&. Johanan said: Imagine a man walking on a road. 3). xu. Johanan's name. Ilanan and R. xxxix. Thus Noah found as much favour in God's sight as Joseph in his master's. Lakish said: Imagine a man walking on a road. when he saw someone whom he attached to himself. Similarly. and the Rabbis do explain. n. 'grace is said here. when he saw someone whom he attached to himself. 3 The result being that Ahasuerus made her queen so that she enjoyed honour and power. And Joseph found favour [grace] in his 2 sight (Gen. Sanh. Simeon b. 2 'Favour' and 'grace* are the same in Hebrew (hen). 4 far [did God's favour to Noah extend] ? Until io). R. while in another passage we read. 3-5 left of the sword have found grace in the wilderness (Jer. To what extent? So much that he conferred dominion upon him. 5. i5). while elsewhere it says. Simeon b. because R. Berekiah in R. Simon has just spoken about 'finding*. xxxi. 4.: this is mentioned in passing. 3 The Rabbis said: It may be compared to one who was walking on a road. And I will pour upon the house of David and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem the spirit of grace (Zech. To what extent? Until he was knit to him in love. 'grace' is said here. Each successive comparison connotes a higher degree of favour and 6 V. 'grace' is said here. blessed be He.

1 1 Because BUT NOAH FOUND GRACE. as 2 generations of Noah. . for the sake of his offspring. mercy 5] MIDRASH KABBAH But how do we know that the Lord shows ? forbears. earlier ones. 2 Interpreting: But Noah found grace because of these generations that followed him 232 . . These are the Lit. which was it is written.XXIX. 'later ones . 1 to the forbears for the sake of their descendants it says.

is THESE ARE THE GENERATIONS OF NOAH. S R.e. 3 And why all this? Because. 44*2. The house of the wicked shall be overthrown (ib. a decree.e. cf. [as people curse]. THESE ARE THE GENERATIONS OF NOAH the whirlwind passeth. 3. But the tent of the upright shall flourish (ib. * as a means of cursing. He turneth not by the way of the vineyards (ib. i. it I. decree was pronounced against them that they should perish by water2 .M. He who punished 2. B. But the house of the this refers to Noah: righteous shall stand (ib. but the When righteous is an everlasting foundation (Prov. 28.e. When no more.1 is swift (kal) upon the face of the waters (Job xxiv. x. 25). CHAPTER i-3 XXX NOACH (vi. the whirlwind passeth y the wicked is no more this refers to the generation of the Flood. adds to the preceding.) their intention was not to plant vineyards.) THESE ARE THE GENERATIONS OF NOAH. ' i. 2 Kal is connected with kol. But the righteous this refers to Noah. 233 . 'and these* (we-eleh) written. the wicked is ' 9). io8a. iv. n): this refers to the generation of the Flood . is THESE ARE THE GENERATIONS OF No AH: NOAH WAS A RIGHTEOUS MAN. Noah alone was blessed with generations which continued after him and formed the origins of the new world. 4 But Noah's only intention was to be fruitful and multiply in the world: : hence. they shall remain in the earth only Dan. THESE: it Abbahu said: Wherever 'these' (eleh) cancels the preceding. Their portion is cursed in the earth the generation (ib. * Cf. as it lasting foundation* ' is an everwritten. The wicked are overthrown^ and are not (ib. 5 Cf. Here that 'these* is written. Sanh. I. 7) : this refers to the generation of the Flood . xn. xiv.[XXX. He 1 8): A of the Flood [punish them]. a voice: there is a voice.).} this refers to Noah: THESE ARE THE GENERATIONS OF NoAH. They indulged in sexual enjoyment without 1 the intention to procreate.

(Gen. of the Flood. R. Infra. it is Thus and he that deeds. 'These are the offspring of Noah: Shem/ etc. Now these are the generations of Terah. the generation of the Flood perished completely. 4 9 234 . I. is wise taketh souls (Prov. 3i)? leave it. a comfort to celestial beings and to mortals. When he was about to Huna said in R. 6. etc. xi. Behold. Abba's in [Abraham] shaltgo to thy fathers [God] informed him that his to Come Thou shalt be World in the father had a portion buried in a good old age (ib. Interpreting: The offspring of Noah were his righteousness and good & deeds. 3. a comfort to his fathers and a comfort to his children. shall the righteous 5 be requited in the earth (ib. was he requited? Surely R. as in v. Surely Scripture should have written.) He informed him that Ishmael would repent. : He .? It teaches. [a comfort] THESE ARE THE OFFSPRINGS OF NOAH: NOAH.XXX. to comfort. 4 written. 15) peace (ib. Kahana said: 4. xii . supra. 2 tliou name: But xv. Terah begot Abram. 1 cancel ? The generation THESE ARE THE OFFSPRING OF NOAH: NOAH [WAS A RIGHTEOUS MAN]. * so that its offspring are not to be counted. XI. THESE ARE THE OFFSPRING OF NOAH: NOAH.e. he replied. The fruit of the righteous is a tree of life. however. religious actions. 12. Whoever has to : his world and in the name thus repeated has a portion in this World to Come* They raised an objection him But it is written. : 5. The Midrash understands this as a question. Liezer's 1 Cf. 3 in this world and in the World to Come. for R. And he that [its is wise taketh souls: for and good he fed and provided for the Ark. xxxvm. etc. Judan said in R. 29. 3-6] MIDRASH RABBAH What does it cancels the preceding. 30) : what is the fruit of the righteous? Life. Abba b. that he was a comfort to himself and a comfort to the world. 27) : has he a world? Even this portion in this world and in the future does not contradict me. Connecting noah with nahem. After all inhabitants] the whole twelve months in this praise.

VI. it indicates a righteous man who warned [his generation]. 5). 5 Aramaic lepod. Thus their disaster came from below and above. 1 and his son Shem sacrificed in his stead. On being 'Why are you doing this?' he replied: 'The Lord universe has informed me that He will bring a Flood in the world/ Said they [his contemporaries] to him: 'If a Flood does come. 'arouse/ 'stir up/ 6 Translating : to the metal-hearted who are at ease. Infer from this: How much more the wicked and the sinner (&. . GENERATIONS] A MAN For a whole one hundred and twenty years 3 asked. R. Were all the fountains of the great deep broken up f and the windows of heaven were opened. it will come only upon your father's house!' Thus it is written.). which according to the Rabbis meant that God gave izo years' warning before bringing the Flood. thing ready for them whose foot slippeth: were ready for them: a disaster from above disasters two and a disaster from below. vn. so that he was not fit to sacrifice. blessed be He. Wherever 'a man occurs. to stir up. of the Noah planted cedars and cut them down.V. said: 'One herald arose for me in the For elsewhere 4 Flood. (contempt) intimates that they despised him and called him. 'brand') means. In spite of his comparative righteousness. 1 A 2 235 . 4 Probably referring to Babylon. supra: God did not find grace in Noah). 7 Cf.GENESIS (NOACH) [XXX. thought of him that A contemptible is brand (lappid buz) in the at ease. Gen. a thing ready for them whose foot slippeth (Job xn. Noah/ >5 'Arouse stir him 'Buz' him. which refers to the 2 generation of the Flood. 7 generation of the A maimed person may not engage in sacrificial service. 'Contemptible old man!' In the thought o/(Ie-'ashtoth) him that is at ease: this teaches that they were as hard as metal 6 ('ashtoth). viz. . Genesis Rabbah being a Palestinian work. 3. 6-7 name: When Noah was leaving the Ark a lion set on Mm and maimed him. This is quoted to show that lappid (E. 7. Noah was thus punished for his sins (v. Gen. 1 1 : . ' [NOAH WAS IN HIS [RIGHTEOUS AND WHOLE-HEARTED]. how much more then are the really wicked to be punished! 3 V. up! people say. Abba interpreted: The Holy One.

Abraham was told to be whole-hearted when he was commanded to circumcise himself at the age of 99. i) destined to suffering. the man was (Gen. and now he plunges him into that : ! ' * : : : . 8] MIDRASH RABBAH Bar Hutah said: Every * WHOLE-HEARTED.XXX. ! : ! : 1 I. Again. Cain was (ib. R. Thus in that respect he remained unchanged. i): destined to punishment. XLII. iv. Then how is 'was' to be understood in his case?3 He was destined to lead the whole world to 5 4 repentance. xxvm. Est. WAS. On the significance of 7 v. Joseph yesterday. 18) Thus he saw a new world.V.Mordecaiwa$(Est. Thus Noah lived 350 years after the Flood. in. (Gen. Johanan's name Even the nether millstone was dissolved 8 by the water whereas now you read. vi. Nahman: And they are five. * Lit. Nzanbers and Numeral. 2) predestined to exile Job was (Job i. 6 7 Or possibly: destined to be a sign to 8 Ex. Levi said Everyone of whom it is said that he was (hayah) saw a new world. i): destined to be a for a miracle 6 redeemer . : . 236 . Hanina both said Abraham was forty-eight years old when he recognised his Creator. 'is become*. n.e. ix. Behold. Johanan and R. E. Samuel b. Moses yesterday (Gen. Abraham was one> and he inherited the land (Ezek. 5 Lit. Supra. 3. R. 8. 3. 22) means: destined to die. jf. R. [Similarly]. The serpent was (ib. 24): was he then unchanged from beginning to end That too does not refute me. art. And Joseph was the governor over the land he saw a Thus new world. and lived to the age of 175. David lived 70 years. cv. while now. NOAH WAS: destined Moses was (Ex. he replied R. 2 An objection was raised But it is written. 1 8). 6) he was fleeing from Pharaoh. 4 From birth. And the sons of Noah that went forth. ' J : : . 5): destined for redemption. 19).E. Noah: yesterday [it was a case of] The waters wear the stones (Job xiv. Similarly. *that was his beginning. his contemporaries. translation of hayah. XXXIH. for R. man whom the Scripture designates Whole-hearted' completed 1 his years according to the measure of the Septennate. 4. he lived a multiple of seven years after this epithet was applied to him. n. His feet they hurt with fetters (Ps. 7 R. which is 77 years more. Johanan said: Every man of whom it is said he was (hayah) remained unchanged from beginning to end. including the 99th year. in. etc. * Since there was a change in his life. that was his end *. Levi said in R. Said R.

and the infant is called a scholar..GENESIS (NOACH) [XXX. as it says. While now. etc. XLII. Noah fed and sustained [the inmates of the Ark] twelve months. 2 When R. Eleazar said The milk of a male is clean. (ib. 4 : : : 9. Mordecai yester(ib. Abbahu taught this publicly. 'Is there any better here?' he retorted. he found turning sour. Berekiah and R. 237 . cf. The Rabbis said: Every man of whom it is said that he 'was* (hay ah) fed and sustained others. 12). Said he to them Yet is it not a Mishnah ? 3 R. Judan: On one occasion he went round to all the wet nurses but could not find one for Esther. Abbahu in R. Eleazar s name said Milk came to him and he suckled her. 8-9 the sea! Thus he saw a new world. Similarly. Nehemiah differed. XLVII. R. and he never sought a wet-nurse. He poureth out my gall upon the ground (Job xvi. * In spite of his corrupt environment. IN HIS GENERATIONS said: If he Nehemiah was 5 righteous even in his generation. and now he executes his executioner! Thus he saw a new world. the one-eyed man is called clear-sighted. the congregation laughed. Joseph fed and sustained: And Joseph sustained. etc. IN HIS GENERATIONS. righteous man generation of Moses or Samuel. Simeon b. Est. Job: yesterday. It is as if a man who had a wine vault opened one barrel and found it vinegar . Always. had he flourished in the 'It is vinegar. turning/ people said to him. (Job xxxi. And the Lord gave Job twice as much as he had before Thus he saw a new world. 536. Shab. 10) day he was ready for the gallows. whereupon he himself suckled f her. 1 how much more so [had 2 4 Surely there is no record of that I * Makshirin vi. however. Judah said: R. 7. R. ib. 13). Moses fed and sustained [the Israelites] the whole forty years in the wilderness. And take thou unto ! : thee of all food that is eaten (Gen. Judah and R. vi. 21). Job fed and sustained: Or have I eaten my morsel myself alone. 17) ? did not the fatherless eat thereof! But did Mordecai actually feed and sustain? 1 Said R. another and found it Only in his generations was he a [by comparison] . R. he was a righteous man. R. he would not have been called righteous: in the street of the totally blind. the third.

R. he said to him. Instead light for him through the window. 'Walk 'Walk mth me/ but to the adult. as it were. Judah said: 10.' Even so did the Holy One. Johanan's name and Resh Lakish gave two illustrations of this. 15). which nevertheless gave forth a fragrant odour. Johanan's Similarly. Abraham and Isaac walked before 4 Lit. whose [moral] strength Me before xvn. Abraham and Isaac walked before God and in His protection. blessed be J ' 3 NOAH WALKED ' Instead of showing a light for Me He. etc. R. he g-io] MIBRASH KABBAH Moses. to '. Berekiah in R. one child he said. (Gen. To the before me. and when his friend saw him he shone a Said he to him. Similarly. XLVIII. He might be compared to lived] in the age of a tightly closed phial of perfume lying in a graveyard. R. 'place We must 5 protection. WITH GOD. grown up and the other a child. to Abraham. of lighting me through the window. come and show a before me. make known his coming. And The God whom my view We need His proximity. Nehemiah said: He might be compared to a king's friend who was plunging about in dark alleys. 5 : On the view of Resh Lakish : 1 Sanfa. was great. say to Abraham from Mesopotamia and its environs. 2 Resh Lakish said: It was as if a prince walked 3 T along w hile the elders preceded him. 2 Similarly. so as to enjoy His By propagating the knowledge of His greatness. 4 He needs us to glorify Him. come and show one ' light : before Me in Eretz Israel/ it is he blessed Joseph. i). of Noah. On R. God. and said: fathers Abraham and Isaac did before walk. Johanan said: It was as if a shepherd stood and watched his flocks.] Walk thou feeble was whose strength [it says]. Similarly. 'Instead of plunging case is Abraham's But me/ alleys. R. [He said. 238 .XXX. written. come and walk with was who a of that to sinking rather to be compared king in dark alleys. how much * more then if it were outside the graveyard ! GOD. be near to God. and when the king looked out and saw him sinking [in the about in dark mud]. (Gen. NOAH WALKED WITH This may be compared to a king who had two sons. spreading His knowledge. z As an escort.

Kahana commented: For it repenteth Me / have made them and Noah (Gen. 2 nor among did the Holy One. nor from their tumult (hamonam). nehi> i. xxvm. the Flood actually carne on account of robbery. eminency"} creature ever enjoyed satisfaction. nor from their tumult (hamonani)/ 'Nor * from their turmoil (hemehem) from their wealth1 nor from ' : i. They made oil that 1 means is that they set within their rows. z ruah. 9. save that he found 5 grace as it is written. 7 f. 8 The idea of this ending here and the following passages is probably that notwithstanding all the other wrongs they perpetrated. Eccl. CHAPTER It is written. as it says. But Noah found grace (*6. 3 'Neither is there nohah among them': There was them'. 7 Actually between the rows of olives. Hamon Nahath sometimes used in that sense. who was left. lit. 3 was their 5 Heb. supra. But even Noah. AND GOD SAID UNTO NOAH: THE END OF ALL FLESH ME. penitence. i-2 XXXI (NOACH) i. nought comethfrom them. blessed be He.). so as to press them immediately. v. possibly too the latter 239 . Translating: Not even Noah among them was worthy. they were blotted out from the world. etc.[XXXI. vi. 8. Reading nohah actual reading. tl there nohah [E. (nohah) among them (Ezek. Violence is risen up' heaven forfend! It has not risen up.6 2. n): 7 up small oil-presses . No none to say to them: 'Let there be lamenting!' 4 Again: 'Neither was there nohah among them' [is to be explained] as R. Yet if it has. (Job xxiv. 13). was not worthy. FOR THE EARTH IS is COME BEFORE FILLED WITH VIOLENCE THROUGH THEM. io8a. Violence is risen up as a rod of wickedness. neither from them nor Why so? Because 'Neither is their dazzling magnificence. Sanh. And because they were steeped in robbery. FOR THE EARTH IS FILLED WITH VIOLENCE THROUGH THEM (vi. (m) as noah (rn) .e. AND GOD SAID UNTO NOAH: THE END OF ALL FLESH IS COME BEFORE ME.). nor from their turmoil (hemeheni) neither is there eminency . "Nought cometh from them. vn.V. v.e. it is as 'A rod of wickedness' to punish the wicked. They tread cf. * 'pleasing' or 'calming of the spirit". cf. receive satisfaction from them. 11). that Abba b.

Hanina: Hamas (violence) refers to what is worth a perutah. AND ' GOD NOAH. even when they tread their wine-presses. etc. They hate him that reproveth in the gate. Aibu said: ' * Why do They tread their wine-presses. fcz (rp) and basar are connected with fufekazez (facpn) and baser (isni) respectively. AND GOD SAID UNTO NOAH. multitude of) is connected with rib * strife. By reason of the multitude of (merob) oppressions they cry out. and suffer thirst ? Because a curse rested upon the toil of the wicked. etc. ' What hamas* (violence) and what is gezel (robbery)? Said R. 240 . is to be cut down (hikkazez) the time has come for them to be treated as unripe grapes (boser)*. Why all this? BECAUSE THE EARTH IS FILLED WITH VIOLENCE (HAMAS) THROUGH THEM. 4. etc. By a play on words. : AND GOD NOAH. 9): 'By reason of the multitude of oppressions ' they cry out refers to the oppressed . 3. until the decree of their judgment was sealed.): their wine-presses. And because they were steeped in robbery. they were blotted SAID TO out from the world hence.V. 1 Th. the term of their indictments has come. They cry for help ' by reason of the arm of the mighty to the oppressors : the latter contended with the former. to what is of less value than a is ' * and menbah^ conjectures that merob (E. 10). He [Noah] reproved them: 'Ye good-for-nothings! Ye forsake Him whose voice breaks cedars and worship a dry log!' And because they were steeped in robbery. they were blotted out from the world: hence. THE END (KEZ) OF ALL FLESH (BASAR) COME BEFORE ME: The time has come for them . they cry for help by reason of the arm of the mighty (Job xxxv. R. And because they were steeped in robbery they were blotted SAID UNTO out from the world: hence. gezel (robbery). and the former with the 1 latter. and they abhor him that speaketh uprightly (Amos v.XXXL 2-5] MI0RASH KABBAH and suffer thirst (ib. they suffer thirst. 5.

said: 'Ye have acted [for sale]. Levi said: idolatry. Idolatry. and murder. done to hamas) and 35). cf. xxvi.e. supra. Whereupon the Holy One. die.e. Others. and the text too demands it. xxi. because they evaded its provisions. A s 6 Incest : . The commentaries reverse these definitions. 3 as you read. 19). 'his flesh')- 8 Viz. in the verse implies that they rejected Him whose glory fills the earth. LI. 6 None of you shall approach to she'er besaro (E. 6. blessed be He. 5 V. 'violence'] against the because ofjudah they have shed innocent blood (Joel In hamas addition. they perish for ever without any regarding (mesim) it (zb. It is explained in the 2ia np> thus: I. The term in Hebrew includes adultery. 20). children LV.e. perutah 2 being the smallest coin. hence they engaged in idolatry. Another interpretation : FOR THE EARTH etc. robbery. also Sanh. 241 R . however. i). This is not altogether clear. xvm. 570.V. 'any that is near of kin to him'. read: In that they Jill the earth with hamas (violence) Ezek. so will I too deal with you improperly/ 2 Hence it is them? They 21): without the wisdom of the Torah. FOR THE EARTH The violence (she'eri) be FILLED WITH fr. 7 MSS. of which the whole chapter treats. : besaro. is it is AM 7 written. so that he had no redress at law. 5-7 perutah. (violence) bears its literal also. R. 'Hamas' connotes as gi R. 4 written.V. add: and she'er must refer to incest. incest. which refers to idolatry. Jeremiah in R. Is not their tent-cord plucked up within i. BEHOLD. in the latter case there was no redress. Lev. 6. the hamas [E. to my flesh me (hamasi upon Babylon (Jer. Betwixt morning and evening they are shattered. vin. Now these are the ordinances [judgments] which thou shalt set (tasim) before them (Ex. in the sense of civil law I. v. 3 improperly. And this is what the people of the age of the Flood used to do When a man brought out a basket full of lupines one would come and seize less than a perutah' s worth and then everyone would come and seize less than a perutah s worth. 17. Now 'meszm' can only refer to judgment. WILL DESTROY THEM WITH THE R. 8 I Murder: For meaning 7. lit.GENESIS (NOACH) 1 : [XXXI. 3 Here * 6 a way that you will not relish. 1 Huna and name A. and that without wisdom (Job iv. 5 is FILLED WITH HAMAS (VIOLENCE). Kahana's EARTH.

I Will them/ 2 Thus: MAKE THEE AN ARK OF GOPHER WOOD. 8 9. Simon's name said: Just as the Torah was given in Hebrew. 4 R. 7 R. R. 7~9] MIDRASH RABBAH DESTROY THEM WITH THE EARTH: destroy them and the earth with said: Even the three handbreadths of the earth's surface 1 which the plough turns was washed away. ittha. * 5 1 nurse. Cf. 9): this proves was given in Hebrew. x. and increase in learning (Prov. blessed be He. The material in is left in doubt. cells and chambers. itha. * V. Judan said in R. who reasoned thus: If I make it of or of silver (kesef). antropia. In four places this phrase "Make thee' is employed. xxi. since this nehash nehosheth that the Torah word corresponds to the other. Similarly. It is as if a royal his tutor prince had a tutor. Make thee knives offlint (Josh. antropi. said. so was the world created with Hebrew: have you ever heard one say. ginia. to spond 6) applies to (brass). * 242 . Make thee two trumpets of silver (Num. etc. 5 R. gint. R. 2) means flint knives. or as if a royal prince had a nurse. Assi's name: (ib. (vi. his nurse was punished. I WILL behold. gabretha? But [we do say] ish and ishai why? because one form corresponds to the other. a serpent of brass (ib. MAKE The wise man may hear. 6. in 3 three places it is explained. 8) is not THEE AN ARK. supra. is of cedar meant. Nathan said: That means with beams of cedar. supra. 'BEHOLD.e. while in one it is not explained. 2) is likewise clear in meaning. was punished. viz.XXXI. these words do not corregold (zahaV) 6 Hence I will make it of nehosheth the other. xxvili. correspond. gabra. 14). xvin. etc. Phinehas and R. and whenever he did wrong. and whenever he did wrong. WITH KINNIM [E.V. 'ROOMS'] SHALT THOU MAKE THE ARK: i. But the meaning of Make thee a fiery serpent clear. v. I. Isaac said: Thus translating the verse literally. Hezekiah in R. Issi said: 8. as * it A kind were. 4. nahash (serpent). Moses. the Holy One. The earth too being regarded as man's 3 What was to be made. 7 For only Hebrew do these words Viz.

The * length of the building after the ancient [lit. XIV.en.T. pitch on the outside to make it watertight.K. Judan said: AND THIS : (vi. viz.). 2 AND THOU SHALT PITCH IT WITHIN AND WITHOUT WITH PITCH. 3). AND THIS is HOW THOU SHALT MAKE IT 15). xxvin. the Temple. [would have sufficed] [God intimated] : Another destined to measure with thy cubit. and with pitch on the outside only. 4 seq. comes from Thebes. and the breadth twenty cubits (n Chron. M. . and should read : The length by cubits . slime on the inside but not pitch. 15. they used this measure for building. On the present reading the idea is somewhat similar: with slime on the inside as an additional means of making it watertight. 21. 5 And why it is it [the cubit] called tibikon?* R. supposed to be the royal cubit of the Egyptians (Jast. R.: because with it they fitted (the timber.): in Thy I will delight myself in Thy statutes (Ps. 3)? There. v. Yet elsewhere it says. edd. precepts 15 1 . etc. The ancient (first) measure is taken to refer to Noah's measuring 2 of the ark. 8 OF THE ARK THREE HUNDRED f. . so shall thy ark cleanse thee. XLI. reverse it: with slime on account of the smell and with pitch on account of the water i. Cur. Ezek.).GENESIS (NOACH) [XXXI. 9 . Solomon.e. 3 Sot. etc. i2<z. 5 The quotation is incorrect. 7 The Rabbis account of Noah's tebah (ark). but not on the inside. 3 10. cubit. 6 Thebaic 7 An . the Torah teaches you practical knowledge. ancient city of Egypt. was threescore cubits. v. Ex. I. 8 Tebah and tiU^on corresponding. which has an unpleasant odour. And with pitch on account daubed ' ' ' * of the odour. She daubed it with slime on account of the water. and Y. This is a play on words. connecting kinrdm with "k. on account of the smell. as it is written. Bar Huta quoted: J will meditate V. And she it with slime and with pitch (Ex. God thereby intimating that one day another edifice of a different nature would be measured. first '] measure was twenty cubits. i. Lev.e. R. . in. 4 [is written THIS is where]. Huna said: said: Because On THE LENGTH CUBITS. that if . II. 4 Sc. supra. since the water [of the Nile] was gentle. even Noah was not worthy hence he needed cleansing. which may be the source of the error. 'And* is regarded as an extension. cxix. 9-10 1 Just as a ken (pair of birds) cleanses a leper.

Hanan and (vi. Judah said: It contained three hundred and thirty compartments. compartments running along each side and leaving two cubits at the [outer] sides. Kahana said: It means a skylight. R. owing to its greater narrowness. a 10-11] MIDRASH RABBAH its is to stand upright in harbour. R. it troops in the caves of Tiberias. each compartment being ten cubits square^ and two corridors AND TO' each four cubits wide. Judah and R. Nehemiah maintains that there were six rows of fifty compartments on each of the three 2 1 stories. Figures in Mah. when they were dim we knew that We shone brightly that it A CUBIT SHALT THOU FINISH IT UPWARD.XXXI. Phinehas said in R. R. But R. R. each being six and three corridors of four cubits breadth. Nehemiah disagree. 16). 1086. Hunia R. and there were two cubits at the 4 R. Abba b. s Cf. thus accounting for two cubits. the compartments ran along each side [of the corridor]. breadth a sixth [of its length] and its man builds a ship which he must make 1 height a tenth. Levi's name: During the whole twelve months that Noah was in the Ark he did not require the light of the sun by day or the light of the moon by he hung up when night. R. contained nine hundred compartments. Judah holds that there were four rows of thirty compartments on each of the first and second stories. Phinehas. R. ii. and when they was night. Sanh. V. a gangway one cubit in breadth ran right round the outer side of the ark. A LIGHT (ZOHAR) SHALT THOU MAKE TO THE . Judah there It cubits square. 4 I. and when it shone he Huna said Once we were taking refuge from [Roman] we knew had lamps with us: was day. R. 3 : it was day. Nehemiah said: [outer] sides [of the compartments]. ARK and R. Levi said: A 2 precious stone. Which provided light from itself. These were the proportions of Noah's ark. 244 . but only three rows on the third. Kahana and R. Hoshaia could not explain [the meaning of z o H A R] R. was dim he knew that that it was night. but he had a polished gem which : it knew R. Levi did explain it. R. Abba b.e. 5 On the view of R.

you should set door at the side.GENESIS (NOACH) is [XXXI. 7 8 This follows by reading nfcjm. first and as soon as they descended on the earth they became a flood. . 4 I. Judah holds that the same cubit that was used in measuring the bottom of the ark was used in measuring the top (cubits varied). waters. Th. It tapered. viz.e. this question being based on the first view. 5)? BEHOLD. z How * M.K. AND 8 I. and they were topped by an inward sloping roof. Sanh. 9 [EVERYTHING THAT is IN [E. could the top storey contain as many rows as the bottom ones ? This passage is very obscure. supra. and the top for the garbage. and this is the meaning of the verse. WlTH LOWER. 5 To get the garbage (excrements) to the bottom. that Thou vin. BEHOLD is (vi. 17): I agree with the angels art mindful of him (Ps. the second for himself and family and the clean animals. it shall make itself. no 1 As was AND THE DOOR OF THE ARK SHALT THOU SET IN THE SIDE THEREOF. 1 THE EARTH] YIGWA' 'SHALL PERISH']: i. Others reverse it: The bottom storey for the unclean animals. the thirty cubits height being exclusive of this roof. M. 11-12 but on R. and the third for the unclean [ones]. vm. 7 12. 4 difficulty 2 .: R. 8 Cf. the second for himself and family and the clean animals. Nehemiah said: It was like a vaulted carriage. How then did he manage? 5 He arranged a kind of trapdoor through which he shovelled it sideways.K. that when you make its a chamber ten cubits square. Sanh. 386. shall shrivel up. Isaac said: The Torah teaches you practical knowledge. Nehemiah's view there is a its cubit below so was its cubit above: difficulty? AND TO A CUBIT SHALT THOU FINISH IT UPWARD. the three stories were of equal breadth. and by the (same) cubit thou shalt finish it above. SECOND.3 R.: 10 a destroying and devastating deluge. who urged. What I man. It helped [to build] itself. 10 3 hence the top storey contained only three rows. They were DO BRING THE FLOOD OF WATERS. and he built it sloping inwards so that it tapered to a cubit. 6 SHALT THOU MAKE IT.e. io8b. AND THIRD STORIES SHALT THOU MAKE IT: the bottom storey for garbage. 6.V. R.: and sink down into the depths like a stone.

Thou needest a covenant: the giants set their feet on the [opening of the] deep and closed it up. 1 8). whereupon tremble water]. regard your wife as though she were lonely [i. The giants [E.XXXL BUT THEE. jHiyya b. and R. AND THOU SHALT COME INTO THE ARK. Go 4 etc. in the etc. 10). : R. 50): when? Before the year of famine came 1 5 (ib. R. 3 On all views the God's or. THOU. 246 . i6). He and his wife being mentioned together. IJanan name of R.V. Abba explained: Thou thee in stead. having made covenant here does not refer to the rainbow. The lion roareth.e. it. 'shades'] shokenehem inhabitants and the waters beneath the thereof : (Job xxvi. VIII. would not have been able to keep out the great giants * ' and wild animals. XLI. and the fierce lion howleth and the teeth of the young lions are broken (ib. (vi.). (Gen. Simon Samuel b. then each attempted to enter his feet became entangled [in the the etc. 7. thou and thy wife. but to without which Noah could never have made the Ark. 2 The wild beasts. io8&. And unto Joseph were born two sons (Gen. * 5 assistance. couldst stood which convenant yet but for 2 it is written. Ark. [Read] Shekenehem (their neighbours) a lion would come to the Ark and his teeth would loosen. Abin quoted They famine (Job lonely xxx. as it is written. as it is written. 3): when want and famine visit the world. AND THY SONS. hence it is written. Sanh. Thus Ark? the entered thou have 1 My BUT I WILL ESTABLISH MY COVENANT WITH THEE: when When thou art brought into the [will that be proved]? Ark. as it is written. infra. 5). example. R. R. 3 R. wast indeed the builder. Cf. AND THY WIFE. forth from the ark. iv. AND THY SONS' WIVES apart. cohabitation was interdicted to him. He permitted it to him. that It should not decay or rot. of which the lion is quoted as an You would have been prevented from entering. menstruous]. When he went out. Judah b. AND THY SONS apart. THOU. 12] I MIDRASH RABBAH WILL ESTABLISH MY COVENANT WITH Thou needest a covenant for the sake of the produce. and in want are R. xxxiv. Isaac said: As soon as Noah entered the Ark. Muna said: It is written.

do not accept him/ Noah] . R. Lake of Tiberias. Abba It b. and 1 This follows by contrast: since OF ALL FLESH refer is mentioned life separately. and olive-shoots for olive trees. vn. Hiyya b. and glass for the figs. 1 R. Kahana said He took in branches pressed for the elephants.13. Judah said: his did. 3 4 5 8 Being too high. Hiyya prayed. AND OF EVERY LIVING THING. Levi And it shall be for thee. cf. ostriches. Nehemiah's : name: The greater part of his provisions consisted of R. fig-shoots for fig trees. Nehemiah said: Neither he nor his whelps whelps. In the view of R. 5. Abba a [re* em's] whelp invaded Eretz Israel and did not leave a single tree which it did not uproot. OF ALL FLESH. and for them implies something that is for thee and for them. AND TAKE THOU UNTO THEE is OF ALL FOOD said: THAT EATEN. In the view of R. Levi said: Vine-shoots for vine plantings. with hence it is written. Abba b. but Noah tied him to the Ark. The re* em* did not enter the Ark.v. Hoshaya said: Even spirits entered the ark etc. or will he harrow the valleys after thee (Job xxxix. Canst thou bind the wild-ox with his hand in the furrow. s. A fast was proclaimed and R. GENESIS (NOACH) [XXXI. prob. accept him a female pursuing a male. nawn i). (vi.e. LIVING THING must to those that have A enormous height. THEY SHALL * BE MALE AND FEMALE. A shrubby plant. 4 as it is written. 5 was taught in R. [God in- structed male pursuing a female. R. AND Noah . : If thou seest a 14. without flesh. 13-14 OF EVERY LIVING THING. 3 but R. supra. 10)? In the days of R. side of the (Jast. and he ploughed furrows [in the water] as great as from Tiberias to Susitha. Abba b. Kahana: And it shall be for thee. Kahana He took in pressed figs with him. of those for whom souls [spirits] were created but not bodies. 19). hazubah* for the deer. 2 fabulous animal of Wild ox. OF ALL FLESH: i. whereupon its mother bellowed from the desert and it [the whelp] went down [to the desert] at her voice. R. dstus 247 . Which These lies are eaten on the opposite by all.

2 He understands gather (r>DK) to mean store. ACCORDING TO ALL THAT GOD COMMANDED HIM. xxxvi. THUS DID NOAH. 22). for them Implies. ThlS text refers to the construction of the Ark. hence future use. for replanting. Infra.XXXI. z Noah made the Ark as God commanded him. 1 SO DID HE (VI. Thou art the principal and secondary importance And gather it to thee : it a they are of man does 1 not gather [store] anything unless he needs [for later]. it means for 248 . viz. 14] MIDRASH RABBAH . 3. Rashash.

13). xxvin.): this means . It is written. xn. this refers to Doeg and Ahitophei . CHAPTER i XXXII (NOACH) i. [when he counselled Absalom]. The murderer riseth with 'And deceit. Nahman: He annulled his [David's] citizen rights and declared him an outlaw and as one dead.): the the one permitted incest and bloodshed. CtC. so that his blood was permitted and his wife was permitted. Deriving dovere (E. that Noah too was unworthy. Uriah's wife. The other [Doeg] permitted incest: [Where do we find this] ? Said R. Phinehas Them and their company. written.3 yet what is the difference between me and them? Only that Thou showedst love to me and saidst violence (Gen. R. (VII. 9. (Job xxrv. etc. v. and permitted incest and bloodshed. loc* cit.[XXXII. 3 * The man of * 'The Lord abhorreth : they [the of the Flood] will neither be resurrected nor generation judged. Go in unto thy father's concubines (n Sam. The Lord also hath put away thy sin : thou shalt not die (n Sam. [Another interpretation]: It refers to the generation of the Flood: 'Thou destroyest them that speak falsehood': them and their speech. 13). the light. 21). Them ' said: that speak falsehood* them and their speech. 7) : Thou destroyest them that speak falsehood. 'speak') from davar> to lead : those who follow 2 In taking Bathsheba. 14). xvi. 1 their lead. Samuel b. Nahman b. .V.* as it is as it is written. vi. For the earth is filled with blood. that they will neither : be resurrected nor judged. s . The one [Ahitophei] permitted incest and bloodshed. etc. (Ps. 1 The man of blood and : deceit (ib. to me: COME THOU AND ALL THY HOUSE INTO THE ARK. 'But as for me' [Noah]: as they have acted so have I acted. But as for me (ib. AND THE LORD SAID UNTO NOAH: COME THOU AND ALL THY HOUSE INTO THE ARK. Cf the statement supra. The Lord other abhorreth (Ps. i). 8) as they have acted so have I acted 2 yet what is the difference between me and them? Only that Thou hast shown me love and saidst to me.

Lit. but the wicked but only the righteous 3 The Lord trieth the thus.R. R. R. tjanina Jose righteous. righteous. because he cannot give them a single blow without breaking them. . Similarly the Holy One.g.T. S. Similarly. SEEN. the more he beats : ' it the more it improves and the more it glistens . AND THE . blessed be He.: the verse is quoted to show that God actually loves to see the righteous: hence. a. liiyya loves his colleagues and R. Eleazar's name loves his fellow-craftsman. Tanhuma in R. 4 applies to Noah: hence. wicked and him that loveth violence His soul hateth (Ps. R. He the upright shall behold His face (Ps. Some suggest: E. however. SAID . 250 . 5). AND THE LORD FOR THEE HAVE 1 I SEEN RIGHTEOUS. upon which does he put the yoke? Surely upon the strong one. blessed be He. Hiyya'. 16. xi. 'For the Lord is FOR UNTO NOAH: COME THOU THEE HAVE I SEEN RIGHTEOUS BEFORE ME. R. Similarly." righteous* Another interpretation: ' The Lord trieth the SAID UNTO NOAH: COME THOU AND ALL THY HOUSE INTO THE ARK. 1 The Holy One. etc. R. does not test the The Lord trieth the righteous. etc. but if it is of inferior quality. n.XXXII. Hiyya 2 He is righteous and loves those who are loved R. etc. Hoshaya. also loves No man A His fellow-craftsman 2 : hence. a flax worker When said: b. * Y. Sage. the Lord does not test the wicked but only the righteous. The Lord trieth 3 * : the righteous. as it says. R.S. FOR THEE HAVE I SEEN RIGHTEOUS. as it is written. e.craftsmen. 2-3] the MIDRASH RABBAH Lord is For righteous . one strong and the other feeble. R. he cannot give it one knock without its splitting. *R. Judah's said: name and R. Irliyya (those) of R. FOR THEE HAVE I 4 z. etc. the Lord tests none but the righteous hence. Infra. xi. etc. 3 The upright shall behold righteous. Eleazar said: When a man possesses two cows. 2. R. Menahem in R. Jonathan said: A potter does not test defective vessels. Hoshaya his. 'The Lord trieth the righteous. xxxiv. who are in that respect His fellow. 9 His face applies to Noah. 7). He loveth righteousness. loveth righteousness. loves his compeer.g. knows that his flax is of good quality. LORD 3.

We find that a FOR THEE HAVE absence it says. and Th. SEVEN EACH SEVEN AND SEVEN' (vn. The swine. A 9). 'Azariah said: [XXXIL 3-4 portion of a man's merits may be declared in his presence.V. i . xxvr. but cheweth not the cud (ib. and the readings vary. and it says. R. vi. I How came into being. because he parteth the hoof.* The (ib. cxvni. (vn. for it is said.THAT ARE NOT CLEAN.). because he parteth not the hoof/ but. 2 Whether . 5 While 'male and female' might mean that the seven must include male and female three of one and four of the other (Y. when we are actually addressing Him. 3). Th. 2. for He is good (ib. Say unto God: tremendous is Thy work! (Ps. 7). i$b. Pes. 6) E. LXVI.. 3*2. v. as in the first verse quoted) only or on all occasions is not quite clear. Joshua's name said: We find that the Holy One. Berekiah in R. it 'And of the unclean R. and is clovenfooted. in speaking to him. and R. Jose the Galilean said: We find that we utter but a portion of the praise of Him at whose word the world SEEN RIGHTEOUS. Because he cheweth the cud but parteth not the hoof (Lev. employed a circumlocution of three words in order to avoid uttering an unclean [indelicate] expression: It is etc. OF THE FOWL ALSO OF THE AIR. . 1 whereas in his man righteous and whole-hearted (Gen. beasts/ but : . CLEAN. [Scripture] animals. R.). Leazar's name. R. this means in God's presence (i. not written. blessed be He. 4). Johanan's name. i). but all of them only in his absence. Jacob in R. because he cheweth the cud but parteth not the hoof (ib. 5) . Judan in R. OF EVERY CLEAN BEAST THOU SHALT TAKE TO AND OF THE BEASTS THAT ARE NOT THEE . 4 Lev. 4. xi. If you say that * it means seven of each kind. because she cheweth the cud but parteth not the hoof . 3 comes to commences : Even when Judan said enumerate the signs of unclean first with the signs of cleanness * [which they possess] it is not written. For thus it says in reference to Noah.GENESIS (NOACH) Eleazar b. too four words are thus employed instead of one. The camel.e. hare. The rock-badger.. R. Eliezer b. 3 In Heb. 3). 5 one of them would 1 lack a That was 'Er. . ad loc. 2 give thanks unto the Lord.T. R.

etc. 9 Sc. . and birds. Cain. ix. supra. in the is counted It to him: Nehemiah chronological reckoning.: i. Levi said in the name of Resh Lakish: He [God] kept him [Cain] in suspense5 until the Flood carne and swept him away: hence it is written. vii. * E. . 'not 4~~&3 it MIDRASH RABBAH means seven males and seven females. deriving yelntm from kamy to arise. They corrupted 2 R. 29). lasted a year in all. TO RAIN . 6. [said mate. and he lived 350 years after the yet his total is given at 950 (5. The etc. That means.e. Abin 4 The one who arose against him [his brother]. cf.J. Noah's counted in the number [of years]. 7). WILL CAUSE IT TO FORTY DAYS AND FORTY NIGHTS. 28). RAIN AND EVERY LIVING SUBSTANCE (YEKUM) THAT therefore I I HAVE MADE WILL I BLOT OUT. 23). xxu. FOR YET SEVEN DAYS. (vn. . * Viz. . the of in the animals. of the Flood is not (vn. whatever said: exists R.XXXII. 8 AND NOAH WENT IN. count the number of years from the world's creation. The features of a human embryo take is that sin is s of the expression dignity. E. Johanan said: .V. Berekiah said: 3 (kayomaya) upon it. 4). not 951. 12. the features which take shape "after forty days. R. * Of Moses* stay in the mountain. When we 252 . And He blotted out every one that had arisen (Gen. 6). He was not punished at the time. AND NOAH 5). R. 7 shape after forty days. . the Flood Flood (Gen. He kept his judgment in suspense. to refers verse taking present DID ACCORDING UNTO ALL. FORTY DAYS AND FORTY NIGHTS. but would now be punished. (vn. Cain. etc. beasts. . 'but TO KEEP Simeon SEED ALIVE UPON THE FACE OF ALL THE EARTH. hence that I need them' God]. AND NOAH WAS six : HUNDRED YEARS OLD. 8 For he was 600 years old when the Flood commenced.' which b. AND HIS SONS. BECAUSE OF THE WATERS OF THE FLOOD 1 (VII.V. . Judah said The year 7 Said R. The idea an essential degradation of the human This translation of yekwn corresponds to E. R. 5. 'Every living substance *. R. who arose against his brother. Yohai said: They have transgressed the Torah 1 IT CAUSE I WILL therefore was given after forty days. etc.

ON THE SAME DAY WERE ALL THE FOUNTAINS OF THE GREAT DEEP BROKEN UP.: the rain which descends causes the deep to ascend) . 5 IN THE SELFSAME DAY ENTERED NOAH (VII. AND (vn. punished them by water. infra. IT CAME TO PASS AFTER THE SEVEN DAYS This teaches that the Holy One. Th. II). prefers here the reading of cur. as it 2 . io8a. (VII. Sanh. 10). etc. Johanan said his ankles the water reached he would not have entered the Ark. 4. 6. The king grieveth for his son CAME TO PASS AFTER THE SEVEN DAYS: (n Sam. 4 therefore the Lord reversed the natural order: the natural order is for rain to descend and the deep to come up. while elsewhere we read. Had Noah entered the Ark at night his whole generation would have said. R. vi. but had we known we would not have permitted him to enter/ Hence he entered IN THE SELFSAME DAY [with the challenge]. 1 so that they might repent. supra. 'Let him who R. 8). gave them a respite during the seven days* mourning for the righteous Methusaleh. m. the natural order is for the rain to descend (first) and the deep to ascend (afterwards). 2 3). whereas in the present i. XLVII. : GENESIS (NOACH) He lacked faith had not : [XXXII. therefore the Holy One. blessed be He. And it grieved Him (Gen. xxvn. 6-8 7. Supra. but 8. io8&. R. the proof being the text. ' . The period of deep mourning for a near s relation is seven days. Through passion and lust. the instance. : : is written. Levi said: Seven days the Holy One. xix. mourned for His world before bringing the Flood. Levi said: They abused their fountains.e. Johanan said: 6 objects speak out!' 1 Cf.* 5 Sanh. Deep calleth unto deep (Ps* XLII. Another interpretation : AND R. Joshua b. IT yet they did not. edd. blessed be He. * 4 Cf supra. (first) "All the fountains of the deep were broken up' * deep ascended and after that The windows of heaven were opened * Cf. 6). Durmaskith said: They sinned through the eyeball. Jose b. blessed be He. 'We did not know what he was doing. 3 which is like water. xxvi. 9.R. Deep calleth unto deep at the voice of Thy cataracts (*EJ. 4 they poured out their semen upon trees and stones. the rain descended. 13). here.

XXXII.

MIDRASH RABBAH THEY, AND EVERY BEAST AFTER ITS KIND,
8-9]

etc,

(vu, 14).

They were the principals and

ail

others

were

secondary.
R. Eieazar said: R. 2 : This excludes Jose interpreted this to his colleagues unfit for the as or maimed those which were moulting 3 Noachides. sacrifices of the

EVERY BIRD OF EVERY WING. 1

AND THEY THAT WENT
FEMALE OF ALL FLESH
I

IN,
1 6).

WENT

IN

(vn,

Said he to

MALE AND Him: 'Am
it is

a hunter!' 4 'Does that matter to you/ He retorted; not written, 'And they that were brought,' but,
:

AND

R. of their own accord. and the book the out Lord, of of Johanan quoted Seek ye read (Isa. xxxiv, 16): if they came of their own accord in order to be shut up twelve months in the Ark, how much the more they come] to gorge on the flesh of tyrants

THEY THAT WENT IN

!

[will

Hence it is written, And thou, son of man, thus saith the Lord God: Speak unto the birds of every sort, and to every
beast of the field: Assemble yourselves, and come; gather feast that I do prepare for you, yourselves on every side to mountains the a even of Israel, that ye may great feast, upon

My

eat flesh

and

and drink blood. The flesh of the mighty shall ye eat, the blood of the princes of the earth shall ye drink, etc.
5
f.)-

(Ezek. xxxix, 17

AND THE LORD SHUT HIM

IN. R. Levi said; This

may be compared to a king who decreed a general execution in a country, but took his friend, immured him in prison, and set his seal upon him. 6 Even so,

AND THE

LORD SHUT HIM
9.

IN.
^

AND THE WATERS INCREASED, AND BORE UP
etc. (vii,
:

THE ARK,
in harbour.

name Noah's

17). R. Phinehas said in R. Levi's ark thus sank in the water like a ship standing

1

Lit. translation. E.V.

'

a

Hence:

OF EVERY WING
As
Zeb. n6a.
*

Of every sort

1

2
.

Or

possibly, to the scholars.

i.e.

were
to

not

maimed

or

lacking

in feathers.
sacrifices.
*

stated supra (xxvi, i),

some of these were required for

*How am
that

I

know

their sex?

Zeb., loc dt.

So

he might be spared.

254

GENESIS (NOACH) [XXXII. 9-10 AND THE WATERS PREVAILED AND THE ARK WENT UPON THE FACE OF THE WATERS (vil, l8). R. Phinehas said in R. Levi's name: The ark thus floated
.

.

.

upon the water
as

as

1 upon two planks [covering a

distance]

from Tiberias

to Susitha. 2

10. AND THE WATERS PREVAILED THE HIGH MOUNTAINS WERE COVERED
.

,

.

AND ALL
19).

(VII,

R.

Jonathan was going up to worship in Jerusalem, when he 3 passed the Palatinus and was seen by a Samaritan, who asked him, 'Whither are you going?' 'To worship in Jerusalem/ replied he. 'Would it not be better to pray at this holy mountain than at that dunghill?* he jeered, 'Wherein is it blessed?' inquired he. 'Because it was not submerged by the Flood/ Now R. Jonathan momentarily forgot the teaching [on the subject], but his ass-driver said to him, 'Rabbi, with your permission I will answer him/ 'Do/ said he. 'If it is of the high mountains/ he answered,
'then
it is

written,

AND ALL THE HIGH MOUNTAINS
While

WERE COVERED.
it/

if it is of the low ones, Scripture R. Jonathan immediately descended from his ignored ass and made him [the driver] ride three miles and applied three verses to him: (i) There shall not be male or female barren among you, or among your cattle (Deut. vil, 14)

even among your cattle drivers 4 (ii) Rakkathek [E.V. 'thy temples'] is like a pomegranate split open (S.S. iv, 3): even the emptiest (rekanim) among you are as full of answers as a pomegranate [is of seeds] and thus it is
i.e.
;
;

written,

(iii)

No

weapon that

is

formed against thee
5

shall

prosper ;

and every tongue that

shall rise against thee in

judgment thou shalt condemn
1
2

(Isa. LIV, iy).

I.e. it

made very slow

progress.

V. supra, xxxi,

13, p. 247,

n 4

i.e. it

covered but a short distance.

Mah. and E. J. reverse the interpretation. This and the preceding statement mean that at first, before the waters had risen to a considerable height, the ark remained as though grounded; but when they 'prevailed' * Lit. 'the Palatine Hill' a name it was lifted up and floated (E.J.). given by the Samaritans to Mount Gerizim, which they held sacred.
,

*

Barren in a metaphorical sense

of learning.

*

Cf. infra, LXXXI,

3.

255

XXXII.

Il]

MIDRASH RABBAH

ii. FIFTEEN CUBITS UPWARD DID THE WATERS PREVAIL (vn, 20). R. Judah said: Fifteen cubits over the

over the plains. 1 R. Nehexniah said Fifteen cubits over the mountains, but over the plains,

mountains and
:

fifteen cubits

any height.

2
.

ALL IN AND ALL THE FLESH PERISHED WHOSE NOSTRILS WAS THE BREATH OF (NISHMATH) THE SPIRIT OF (RUAH) LIFE, etc. (VII, 21 f.). R.
.

.

Samuel the son-in-law of R. Hanina the colleague of the Rabbis said: Here the neshamah is made identical with ruah whereas in an earlier passage the neshamah is identified with nefesh. How do we know that we should
y

apply the teaching of each passage to the other? Because 'life' is written in both places, proving that they are
analogous.
3

IN THE DRY LAND, DIED. This But some maintain that they too were included among those who were to be gathered into [the 4 ark], but they fled to the Ocean [the Mediterranean].
excludes
fish.
.
.

WHATSOEVER WAS

AND HE BLOTTED OUT EVERY LIVING SUBSTANCE AND NOAH ONLY (AK) WAS LEFT (vn, 23): AK
.
:

is

a diminishing particle of the cold. 5

he too coughed blood on account

1

water thus reaching different levels a miracle. water had one level, consequently one cannot gauge was above the plains Yoma 76*2.
t

The The

how

high

it

s

*
5

V. supra, xiv, ad fin. Sanh. IO&T. I.e. even he was not left sound;

cf.

supra, xxx, 6.

256

[XXXIII.
CHAPTER XXXIII
i.

i

(NOACH)
etc.

AND GOD REMEMBERED NOAH, AND EVERY
(VIII,
i).
is

LIVING THING, AND ALL THE CATTLE,
righteousness ments are like the great deep;

Thy

like the

mountains of God; Thy judg-

man and beast Thou preserves^ R. Ishmael Interpreted: To the righteous who accepted the Torah which was revealed on the mountains of God Thou shewest righteousness [i.e.
Lord
(Ps. xxxvi,
7).

unto the mountains of God; but as for the did not accept the Torah which was revealed wicked, on the mountains of God, Thou dealest strictly with them, even to the great deep. R. Akiba said: He deals strictly
love] reaching

who

with both, even to the great deep. He deals strictly with the righteous, calling them to account for the few wrongs which
they commit in this world, in order to lavish bliss upon and give them a goodly reward in the world to come He grants ease to the wicked and rewards them for the few good deeds which they have performed in this world in order to punish them in the future world. 1 R. Levi said: It [Scripture] gives a simile for the
;

righteous in their dwelling, and for the wicked in their dwelling. The righteous in their dwelling: I will feed them in a good pasture, and upon the high mountains of Israel shall
their fold be (Ezek. xxxiv, 14). The wicked in their dwelling In the day when he went down to the netherworld I caused the deep to mourn and cover itselffor him (ib. xxxi, 15). R. Judah said: Hobalti (I brought) is written2 : a lid for a vat is made not of gold or silver but of earthenware, which Is the selfsame material. Thus the wicked are darkness, Gehenna is darkness, and the deep is darkness hence I brought the wicked to Gehenna and covered them with the deep: let darkness cover darkness. R. Jonathan in R. Josiah's name transposed the verse: Thy righteousness [i.e. mercy] is above Thy judgments, just as the mountains of God are above the great deep : as
:

:

1

Lev. R. xxvn

i.

*

I .a.

heebalti (I caused to

mourn) with a
s

different punctuation reads hobalti.

257

XXXIII.

l]

MIDRASH RABBAH

1 the mountains are endless, so are the righteous endless ; and as the mountains press back the deep so that it should not ascend and inundate the world, so do the righteous lest it go forth and bum up the press back punishment, world; and as the mountains are sown and yield fruit, so do the deeds of the righteous yield fruit; and as the is unfathomable, so is the punishment of the wicked

deep unfathomable [i.e. immeasurable]. And as the deep cannot be sown to yield fruit, so the deeds of the wicked do not would destroy produce fruit, for if they produced fruit they
the world. When R. Joshua b. Levi visited Rome he saw there covered with tapestry, in winter so that they should
pillars

not contract, and in summer that they should not split. As he was walking in the street, he espied a poor man wrapped in a mat others say, in half an ass's pack-saddle. To those pillars he applied the verse, Thy righteousness is
'

where Thou givest, Thou givest mighty mountains to the in abundance while poor man he applied the verse,
'

like the
9

;

are like the great deep" where Thou with force. 2 smitest smitest, Alexander of IVlacedon visited King Kazia beyond the

Thy judgments

Thou

dark mountains. 3 He came forth, offering him golden bread on a golden tray. *Do I then need your gold?' he demanded. 'Had you then nothing to eat in your own * country that you have come here ? he retorted. I came
*

only because I wished to see how you dispense justice/ with a reply. As he sat with him a man came he 'This his man/ stated, neighbour. against complaint sold me a dunghill and I found a treasure in it/ The buyer argued, 'I bought a dunghill only/ while the vendor maintained, *I sold the dunghill and all it contained/ Said he [the king] to one: 'Have you a son? 'Yes/ replied he. 'And have you a daughter?' he asked the other, 'Yes/ was the answer. 'Then marry them and let the treasure

was the
*

'

1

I.e. their
'

2

8

A

reward is endless; v. Lev. R. loc cit. * Thou cuttest down. Rashi legendary king, so called because he was thought to live at the end of the world, Apparently the African interior is meant.
:

belong to
astonished,

both.'

GENESIS (NOACH) [XXXIII. 1-2 He noticed him [Alexander] sitting
'

and asked him, Have I then not judged well ? 'Yes/ he replied. 'Had this happened among you, how would you have judged ? I would have slain both and kept the treasure for myself/ 'Does rain descend in your country?' he asked. 'Yes/ 'Does the sun shine?' 'Yes/ Have you small cattle [sheep and goats] ? 'Yes/ he replied. 71 he exclaimed, it is not for your sake but for By heaven the sake of the cattle, as it is written, Man and beast Thou preservest, O Lord: Man for the sake of beast Thou preservest, O Lord/ R. Judah b. R. Simon referred the verse to Noah. The Holy One, blessed be He, said The righteousness [mercy] which I showed to Noah in the ark I showed him nowhere save on the mighty mountains as it is written, And the ark rested in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the 2 month, upon the mountains of Ararat (Gen. vin, S). Thy judgments are like the great deep : the chastisement which I brought on his generation, I brought from nowhere else than the great deep, as it is written, on the same day were
'

*

'

'

'

'

'

!

'

:

'

:

*

'

all the

And when
as it
is

fountains of the great deep broken up (ib. VII, n). I remembered him, not him alone did I remember, but him and all that were with him in the Ark,
written,

AND GOD REMEMBERED NOAH, AND
etc.

EVERY LIVING THING,

2. There was a little city (Eccl. ix, 14): this alludes to the world; And few men within it (ib.) y to the generation of the Flood; And there came a great king against it, and to the Holy One, blessed be He; And built besieged it (ib.)

great

bulwarks
there
'

against
in it

it

Now
1

was found

ambushes and a man poor and wise {ib.
(ib.)

snares. 3
15), viz.

Lit.

curse the

man

*

!

2

apparently that God's mercy was manifest when the ark rested on these mountains. Yalkut reads : Thy righteousness to Noah was like the mighty mountains (in extent) ... as for the judgment which Thou didst mete out to his contemporaries, Thou didst deal severely with them even to the great deep. 3 From which He could, as it were, attack the city. Jast. translates Craft and Guile allegorical names of towers.

The meaning

is

259

XXXIII.
written,
1

2-3]

MIDRASH RABBAH
his

Noah; And he by

wisdom delivered the

city (#.), as it is

And

he took of every clean beast, etc. (Gen.

vm,

Yet no man remembered that same poor man (Eccl. 20). 'Since none loc. at.): said the Holy One, blessed be He: him': hence, of you remember him, J will remember

AND GOD REMEMBERED NOAH,
3.

etc.

2

and His tender mercies are over all His works (Ps. CXLV, 9). R. Joshua b. Levi translated: The Lord is good to all, and His tender mercies are over all, because they are His works. R. Samuel b. Nahman interpreted: The Lord is good to all, and His tender mercies are over all, for it is His nature to be com-

The Lord

is

good

to all,

3

passionate.

R. Joshua interpreted in R. Levi's
to
all,

Lord

Should a year of show compassion men and famine commence to-morrow be He, will also blessed the then to each other, Holy One, be filled with compassion for them. 4 In the days of R. Tanhuma Israel had need of a fast, so they went to him and requested: 'Master, proclaim a fast/ He proclaimed a fast, for one day, then a second day, and then a third, yet no rain fell. Thereupon he ascended sons! [the pulpit] and preached to them, saying: 'My the and then each for with other, Be filled compassion filled with be will be blessed He, compassion Holy One, for you/ Now while they were distributing relief to the poor they saw a man give money to his divorced wife, whereupon they went to him [R. Tanhuma] and exclaimed, 'Why do we sit here while such misdeeds are perpetrated 'What then have you seen?* he inquired. 'We saw So-andso give his divorced wife money.' He summoned them and
'

inspires good R. Abba said: [spirit of] compassion.

is

and

He

name: The mankind with His

!

asked him, 'Why did you give money to your divorced wife?* *I saw her in great distress/ replied he, 'and was
1 He saved the world by sacrificing to God (cf. supra, xxvi, i). Tanhuma, however, reads: Come tkou and all thy house into the ark (Gen. VII, i), 2 EccL R. DC, 14, 15, i. which seems preferable. * Interpreting His works as the manner in which He rules. 4 On account of drought.

260

GENESIS (NOACH)
filled

[XXXIII.

3

with compassion for her/ Upon this R. Tanhuma turned his face upward and exclaimed: 'Sovereign of the Universe! This man, upon whom this woman has no claim for sustenance, yet saw her in distress and was rilled with pity for her. Seeing then that of Thee it is written, The Lord is full of compassion and gracious (Ps. cm, 8), while we are Thy children, the children of Thy beloved ones, the
children of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, how much the more shouldst Thou be rilled with compassion for us!'

Immediately the rain descended and the world enjoyed
relief.
1

sitting and studying the Torah in front of the Babylonian Synagogue in Sepphoris, when a calf passed before him on its way to the slaughter and began to cry out, as though pleading, 'Save me!' Said he

Our Teacher 2 was

do for you? for this you were fashioned/ [As punishment for his heartlessness] our Teacher suffered toothache for thirteen years. During these thirteen years no woman miscarried in Eretz Israel, and none
to
it,

'What can

I

a

suffered pain in childbirth. 3 After this period a creeping thing ran past his daughter. She was about to kill it, when

he said to her, 'My daughter, let it be, for it is written, His tender mercies are over all his works /* Our Teacher was very modest, and he used to say, *I am prepared to do whatever any person tells me, except what

And

the Family of Bathyra did for my ancestor [Hillel], for they 5 relinquished their high office and promoted him. And if R. Huna, the Resh Galutha, were to come up here [Palestine], I would rise before him, for he is descended from Judah, whereas I am from Benjamin; he is descended on the male side, while I am descended [from Judah] on the female side/ 6 Said R. Hiyya the Elder to him, 'Behold, he has comer At this Rabbi's face turned pale. 'His
1

8

* Lev. R. xxxiv, 14. Viz. R, Judah ha-Nasi. Because the sufferings of the righteous protect their generation.

*
5

Cf.

B.M.

Ssa.

For the story of Killer's rise to greatness, v. Pes. 66a. 8 I am descended from Judah on the female side only. It is not mentioned elsewhere that he was not descended through the male side.
O/\T

XXXIII.
coffin has

3]

MIDRASH RABBAH

come/ he added. 'Go and see who wants you ordered. He went out and found no one, wherehe without/ 1 himself as banned for thirty days. R. treated he upon of his Jose [Assi] remarked: During these thirty days excommunication he taught Rab, his sister's son, all the of the Torah, while he [Rab] taught [exegetical] principles 3 2 him the laws of the Babylonians. At the end of the thirty before Rabbi disguised came days Elijah, of blessed memory, 4 hand his laid the as R. Hiyya Elder, upon his teeth, and R. When him. cured Biyya subsequently visited Rabbi
he asked him, 'How is your tooth?' 'Since you laid your hand upon it it is cured/ he answered. 'I know nothing about it/ said he. On hearing this Rabbi showed him 5 honour and set him on the inner [bench]. Said R. Ishmael 'Heaven me?' before 'Even forfend/ b. R. Jose to him, 6 such a thing not be done in Israel!' replied he, 'let Our Teacher was singing the praises of R. Hiyya the Elder to R. Ishmael b. R. Jose. Said he [R. Ishmael b. R. Jose] to him: One day I saw him [R. Hiyya the Elder] at the baths but he did not make an obeisance before me/ 'Why did you not bow before him? inquired he [our of the Psalms/ Teacher]. 'I was meditating on an Aggadah two disciples him he this On he answered. gave hearing lest he the to him with in to room, used who vapour go 7 should stay too long there and become enfeebled. Another interpretation: The Lord is good to all, and His tender mercies are over all His works.' As it is written,
'
1

'

AND GOD REMEMBERED NOAH, etc. AND ELOHIM (Goo) REMEMBERED NOAH.
Samuel
b.

Nahraan
of

said:

Woe

to the

wicked
is

who

R. turn the
it

Attribute

Mercy

into

the

Attribute

of Judgment.

Wherever the Tetragrammaton ['Lord']
1

employed

*

He understood this to be Rabbi's meaning. 3 Rab being a Babylonian. Perhaps: guiding principles of exegesis. 4 men visit to was frequently. quite thought Elijah 1 Nearest to Rabbi this was a special mark of honour. * I do not promote him at your expense. 7 Meditating on sacred subjects in the baths is forbidden. Hence he assumed that he was given to absent-mindedness, in the course of which he might stay too long in the vapour room. Cf. Iid. 335,
262

GENESIS (NOACH)

[XXXIII. 3-4

connotes the Attribute of Mercy, as in the verse, The Lord, the Lord God, merciful and gracious (Ex. xxxiv, 6),
yet
it is

written,

And

the

Lord saw

And it repented the Lord that he had made man (ib. 6), And the Lord said: I will blot out man (ib. 7). Happy are the righteous who turn the
great (Gen. vi,
5),

man was

that the wickedness of

Attribute

of Judgment into the Attribute of Mercy. Wherever Elohim (God) is employed it connotes the Attribute of Judgment: Thus: Thou shall not revile Elohim

God

(Ex. xxn, 27)

;

the cause of both parties shall
;

Elohim

God

(ib.

8)

yet

it is

written,

And Elohim

come before heard
(ib.

their groaning,

and Elohim remembered His covenant

n, 24); And Elohim remembered Rachel (Gen. xxx, 22); AND ELOHIM REMEMBERED NoAH. 1 What did He remember in his favour ? 2 That he provided
for [the animals] the

hence

AND GOD REMEMBERED NOAH,
3
it,

whole twelve months in the Ark, and the spirit
for the sake of the clean animals

of justice approves
that were with

him

in the Ark. R. Leazar said:

He was

called [Noah] on account of his sacrifice, as it is written, And the Lord smelled the sweet (nihoah) savour (Gen. vm, 21). R. Jose b. R. Hanina said: On account of the resting

of the Ark, as it is written, And the ark rested wattanah (ib. 4). R. Johanan said: The planets did not function the whole twelve months. Said R. Jonathan to him, They

did function, but their mark was imperceptible. R. Liezer said They shall not cease (ib. 22) implies that they never ceased. R. Joshua deduced They shall not cease hence
:

'

'

:

:

it

follows that they

had ceased.

4

THE FOUNTAINS ALSO OF THE DEEP AND THE WINDOWS OF HEAVEN WERE STOPPED (VIII, 2). R.
4.

Leazar said In connection with punishment
:

it is

written,

Thus in the former case the wicked made the Lord decree punishment* while in the latter Elohim showed mercy. Cf. supra, xn, 15. 2 Since there is no forgetfulness before Him, the Midrash assumes that the verse implies that He bore in mind something in his (Noah's) favour. s I.e. Elohim, which connotes justice, approved Noah's actions.
1
4

V. supra> xxv,

2, for notes.

263

XXXIII.

4-53

MIDRASH KABBAH

On

the

broken up
written,

same day were all the fountains of the great deep is (ib. vn, n); but in connection with good it
.

THE FOUNTAINS ALSO OF THE DEEP WERE STOPPED, but not all the fountains, the exceptions
.
.

being the great well [of Biram], the gulf [of Gaddor], and the cavern spring of Paneas. 1
.
. .

AND THE ARK RESTED IN THE SEVENTH MONTH UPON THE MOUNTAINS OF ARARAT (VIII, 4):
2 upon the mountain range Cordyene.

i.e.

AND IT CAME TO PASS AT THE END OF FORTY DAYS, THAT NOAH OPENED THE HALON [E. V.
5.
*

WIN DOW'] OF THE ARK
it
y

(via,

6).

This supports the

view that

AND
written,

AND
SH OB ).
Simon:

w as a window [trapdoor]. 3 HE SENT FORTH A RAVEN (VIII, 7): thus it is He sent darkness, and it was dark (Ps. cv, 28).* IT WENT FORTH TO AND FRO (YAZO WA-

R. Judan said in the name of R. Judah b. R. 5 began arguing with him : 'Of all the birds that thou hast here thou sendest none but me!' 'What need for food ? for then has the world of thee ? he retorted a sacrifice?' 6 R. Berekiah said in R. Abba's name: The Holy One, blessed be He, said to him [Noah]: 'Take it back, because the world will need it in the future/ 'When ?
It
'

'

;

'

he asked.

'

When

He

replied:
7

'A righteous man
I will

the waters dry off from off the earth (ib.). will arise and dry up the

3

world,

and

cause

him

to have

need of them

[the

1 V. Saab. loHa (Sonc. ed.), p. 740, n. 8; the bracketed additions are in accordance with the reading there, Th. ad loc. identifying the first two mentioned here with the two quoted from there. The hot springs of Tiberias are omitted, as only the strongest springs are mentioned, the cavern spring of Paneas being substituted. The last named is a city in the north of Palestine 0ast. Caesarea PhiKppi, modern Baneas) whence the Jordan issues. SA 3 district E. of the Tigris and S. of Armenia. V. supra, xxxi, n.
:

Translating: He (Noah) sent darkness, viz. the raven, which is darkhued, and the raven found it dark i.e. without light or hope, and so
*

returned.
* Lit. 'giving him answers, refutations *. 'Wa-shob* (returning) is connected by a play on words with haskeb, the hifil form, * to answer.' f You are fit for neither. Cf. Sanh. 1086. 7 Viz. Elijah, who threatened drought, and the threat was fulfilled.

264

20). viz. A 265 . Neub. Akiba preached in Ginzak 3 on the theme of the Flood. and whence did they bring him [food] ? From Jehoshaphat's table. R. ' The worm feedeth sweetly on him : the worm became sweet through 6 'He shall be no more remembered. and to what does that allude ? To the generation of the Separation [of races]. Th. They wept at God's marvellous foresight. made His mercy ' forget them. She dwelleth among the nations. it would not have returned. 8 city in the North of Media Atropatene. and it was they 2 Lev. v.V. 50. 4 Probably what is related at the beginning of this section. and the audience did not weep. 2 R. (vin. righteousness : is forgetteth' They blessed be He. and un: broken as a tree (Job xxiv. 7 ' : 6. AND HE SENT FORTH A DOVE. that the raven would be required one day.e. DOVE FOUND NO REST. Geogr^ p. he shall be no more remembered. Again. of Resh Lakish: Had it found a place of rest. from rahetn. I Sanh. And the ravens [XXXIII. [feeding on] them. And among these nations shalt thou have no repose. they would not have returned [to God]. 5 Rehem is translated mercy. conjectures that it is tains that the citizens of this . like something which is broken. edd. (i Kings xvn. 375. yet produces another stock In exchange . Judah b. Bui. .. Aibu said It is not written. and unrighteousness is broken as a tree : R. 1 R. 'Rehem [the generation of the Flood] forgot to be merciful to their fellow men. Similarly. etc. is obviously out of place. she findeth no rest (Lam.) : R. 5-6 ('orbim) brought him bread and flesh. Judah maintown were called Orbim. 6). to be merciful : he forgetteth 6 This corresponds to E. I. etc. 3) : Nahman said in the name but had she [the nation] found rest. to be merciful. 'is uprooted/ but 'is broken': i. 1 130. BUTTHE .ravens]/ as it Is GENESIS (NOACH) written. Judah said: It refers to a town within the borders of Bashan called Arbo. 4 He then quoted this verse The womb (rehem) forgetteth him . 5 therefore the Holy One. 7 Which succeeded the generation of the Flood in wickedness. The reading 'Job* of cur. 8 f . Nehemiah said: Ravens literally are meant. xrx. R. but when he mentioned the story of the raven they wept. who supplied Elijah with food. and there shall be no rest for the sole 1 El Arbain in Transjordania. the worm feedeth sweetly on him. R.

said to Ezekiel Son of man. Thus the Holy One. would not have returned. xxvin. ad the reading is: Lev. What xxxvii. for Eretz Israel was : not submerged by the Flood. loc. R. . Said R. it would have Whence did she bring it ? R. Hanina said: There were three periods of seven days in all.). 6-7J MIDRASH RABBAH : of thy foot (Dent.AND IT CAME TO PASS IN THE SIX HUNDRED AND FIRST 1 I. R. as you read. said: DAYS. 2 Two DAYS s YET OTHER SEVEN between Thus she 'killed* its potentialities. 1086. say unto her : Thou art a land that is not cleansed. 3. 1 AND HE STAYED YET ANOTHER SEVEN DAYS 10 ff. does TARAF mean? Killed [slain]. . R. than sweetness from : ' : 5 your hand. Jose b. Birai said: The gates of the Garden of Eden were opened for her. 5 R.g. R. SENT FORTH THE DOVE. 24). Jose b. Zeb. Abbahu Garden of Eden. as stated in w. Joseph is without doubt torn in pieces tarof toraf (Gen. 1133. 65) but had they found it. and from there she brought Had she brought it from the it. Berekiah. the return of the raven and the sending forth of the dove. Lam. nor rained upon in the day of : 4 indignation (Ezek. Abba said She brought it from the young shoots of Eretz Israel. blessed be He. xxxi end. xxn.' AND HE STAYED YET OTHER SEVEN (VHI. saying to him [in effect] bitterness from this source [God]. while implies that he had already waited this period before. AND SHE 7. . e. He said to her: 3 grown into a great tree/ 'Had you left it. .XXXIII. 10 and 12. 33). R. R. should she have not brought something better. etc. 266 . 2 AND AND AGAIN HE SENT FORTH THE DOVE . they (VIII.ANDLOINHER THE DOVE CAME IN TO HIM MOUTH AN OLIVE-LEAF FRESHLY PLUCKED (jARAF). Hanina [He waited] three seven-day periods in all. Levi said: She brought it from the Mount of Olives. R. cinnamon or the balsam leaf? But in fact she Noah. better is gave him a hint. . Sanh. 4 In Lev. 12 ff. R. J 29. This supports what R.). AND HE RETURNED NOTAGAIN TO HIM ANYMORE.

Eliezer's view (supra. however (which Rashi has adopted in his commentary end of the Flood. the seventh month from the (ib. vni. on the seventeenth day. thus it abated at the rate of the Ab. while from Marheshwan to Ab inclusive is ten months. in the (i) In the six hundredth year of the second month. while the Bible). which is one and a half handbreadths per day. beginning by gone of one cubit in four days. 2 Another interpretation and six hundred in the to pass first year. on the first day of the month. You may thus infer that the Ark was eleven cubits in the water. We learned The judgment of the genera1 tion of the Flood lasted twelve months. the seventh month means from the tenth is from the beginning. 3 Var. and lyar (iv) And the ark rested in the seventh month. and Tebeth (29) to abate. in 60 days . IN THE FIRST MONTH. (iii) And the waters prevailed upon the earth a hundred and fifty days (ib. the seventh month. vm. since the verse that follows completes the calculation (v. the tenth 3 from the descent of the rain. xxviii. vn. Thus from lyth Marheshwan to I7th lyar is seven months. 13)*: month : 1 2 Supra. Then on the ist of Siwan. 7 YEAR. 9. so that second month mentioned is Marheshwan. the forty days ended on the 27th of Kislew. Shebat. (ii) And (ib. The calculation is the same. u). THE FIRST DAY OF THE MONTH. vu. Adar.e. and the 15 cubits 150). By the seventeenth of the month Siwan there- 267 . 5) : the waters decreased continually until the tenth that is Ab. next note). only we reckon from Kislew to Siwan inclusive. Tishri]. XXII. Is this Noah's life. And (ib. Nisan. 24) : this covers Tebeth. Thus you read. lee. upon the mountains of Ararat that means Siwan. (v) And it came in the first month [i. and it is deduced? . written. 4) the that the world was created in Tishri. From the descent of the rain means from the beginning of the Flood. : in sixty days.e.: and it is written. According to a different on the reading. on the seventeenth day of the month windows of heaven were opened (Gen. 20) i. * The verses are explained according to R. the water began was completely by which it had covered the mountains (Gen. 4) descent of the rain. Commencing then on the ryth of Marheshwan. .GENESIS (NOACH) : [XXXIII. How . the next and the whole of Tebeth 150 days thus included the rest of Kislew and Shebat lyar (118)lyar (thus: 3 days in Kislew. and It all drained off . For sixteen days the water diminished at the rate of a cubit per four days. the rain was upon the earth forty days and forty nights 12): this embraces the rest of Marheshwan and Kislew. the waters were dried up from off the earth (ib. This is perhaps preferable.

hence three seven-day periods were spent in sending out the birds. and consists of 354 days (to make up the deficiency extra months are intercalated at intervalsj. on the seven and twentieth day of the month. was the earth dry (ib. Hanina. 14) It became like parched soil. vm. Now should not Scripture have said. Why was that? Because it [the Flood] had come as a curse. the following year at that season the sun will not reach it until eleven days later. and from this you may know that the solar year exceeds the lunar year by eleven days. Now from the ist of Ab until so that it was sunk the ist of Tishri. Jose n b. is a period of 60 days. Gamaliel said: If you wish to prove for yourself that the wall solar year exceeds the lunar year mark on a by eleven days. make a on the day of the summer solstice. day of the month was the earth dry : . 13). * * Lit. like oozing soil exuding enough water to moisten other objects. 1 (vi) became And in the second month. cubits in the water. vm. ' : in the second month^ on the seven and twentieth day the month.XXXIII. and a curse cannot turn into a blessing2 so they waited until the next rainfall and then they sowed. 8 the Therefore water of the Flood disappeared completely. 6) before sending out the dove. leaving the 1 soil 8 absolutely arid. R. which they sowed. Noah had waited 40 days after the tops of the mountains appeared (ib. and the Flood commenced on the seventeenth day of the month in the previous year. * The twelve months of punishment mean a solar year of 365 days. whereas the Jewish year is lunar. R. and then the Ark rested on the mountain. and this supports R. It 7] like a MIDRASH KABBAH marsh. 'On the sixteenth 3 why then is it stated. was the earth dry ? Because of the eleven days of 4 by which the solar year exceeds the lunar year. Since the punishment of the generation of the Flood lasted twelve months. fore it had abated four cubits. but nothing would grow. 268 . by which time the earth was dry (ib. Simeon ' 'And b.

R.V. the Lord does not test the wicked but only the righteous. Bring soul out of prison' alludes to Noah. SAYING: GO FORTH FROM THE ARK. R. ' trieth the righteous. * ' with me and say unto me : Go FORTH FROM THE ARK. 5).). the Lord flax . : 269 . The Lord righteous.' R. (Ps. Eleazar When a said: man possesses two cows. 8). imprisoned twelve months in the Ark . 3. the more he beats it the more it improves and the more it glistens but if it is of inferior quality. Similarly. my soul out of prison. He remained in the Ark even after the earth became dry until he received God's command to leave it. AND GOD SPOKE UNTO NOAH. 2. CHAPTER i-2 XXXIV (NOACH) i. Jose b. (vni. that I may give thanks unto Thy name . 1 For Thou wilt deal bountifully with me : Thou didst deal bountifully * . xxxn. 15 f. 2 Mah. Supra.' Another interpretation: 'The Lord . Jonathan said: A potter does not test defective vessels. blessed be He. Similarly. CXLII. Similarly. he cannot give it one knock but it splits. the righteous shall crown themselves because of me. actually covers them.2 These last two interpretations or translations seem to be a quotation from some Targum (Th. does not test the wicked but only the righteous: thus. worker knows that his flax is of Hanina said: When a : tests none but the righteous hence.[XXXIV.' one strong and the other feeble. as it says The Lord trieth the R. because he cannot give them a single blow without breaking them. for Thou wilt deal bountifully with me (Ps. xi. The Lord trieth the righteous. the Holy One. righteous.). That I 'Bring my ' who was may give thanks unto Thy name': to give thanks to Thine [aweThe righteous shall crown themselves inspiring] name because of me': the righteous shall glory in me. The Lord ' good quality. etc. The E. It is written. upon which does he put the yoke ? Surely upon the strong one. ' trieth the trieth the righteous' applies to God said to him]: 1 Noah [who stayed in the Ark until Go FORTH FROM THE ARK. etc.

To the ark (Gen. 3 to curse?* 1 Arn I to go out and beget children for a Until the Holy One. 3-6] MIDRASH RABBAH commenced is R. leave not thy place (EccL x. 19) this alludes to said] : Of the ten generations man more than ten Noah [to whom God from Adam to Noah I spoke with none but thee': hence. blessed be He. and a time for him to leave it : Go FORTH FROM THE ARK. 13): Flood against the of the of the rebellion generation through the Holy One. Judan in Aibu's to ike evil name: In the trans- gression of the lips (Prov. for twelve months Noah was in charge of the only creatures that were destined to live. Noah argued: Just as I entered the Ark only when I was permitted.) this applies Noah: hence. ad fin. R. 5. blessed be He. putting someone in his place. however. Come thou and all thy house into 6. as it is written. and a time to every purpose (EccL in. infra. and thus acted. Thus Come thou into the ark Ilai said : : And Noah went forth. On his return he said to the 2 other. everything there is a season. so may I not go out save with permission. This refers to Noah. as stated infra and also supra. as it were. went in. he was to leave this exalted position. 4). swore to him ' . said: I entered with permission and I will leave with permission. 3. Ark but was now 270 . i). as God's regent. Go forth from the Ark And Noah Wisdom ' is a stronghold : to the wise rulers (EccL vn. xxxi. 1 : to 4. Had I been there I would have broken it and gone out! Noah. Cf 2 Now 8 Sexual intercourse had been forbidden in the permitted. LXVII. R. He may to be compared an administrator who departed for a certain spot.XXXIV. SAYING. vn. Similarly. Go FORTH FROM THE ARK. i) : there was a time for Noah to enter the ark. 'Leave your position/ But he [Noah] was reluctant go out. AND GOD SPOKE UNTO NOAH. 12. xn. If the spirit of the ruler rise up against tkee. a snare man But the righteous cometh out of trouble (&. Judah b. Go FORTH FROM THE ARK. they were brought to grief. saying.

Huna said : It is written. but it is read HAYYEZE 2 THAT THEY MAY SWARM IN THE EARTH but not In the Ark. then hozze: put them out forcibly. 50) when? Before two sons (Gen. ROMES 1 is written fully. 3) when want and famine visit the world. Aibu said. year of famine came 8. R. Possibly. the ark. Judan said: Hozze Is written. and Mah. l8). : Th. R. 19). EVERY CREEPING THING. V. 7. the full form implying that the animal must be complete. : And unto Joseph were born the XLI. however. R. R. Samuel b. it 18) thy wife. Rashi on the Pentateuch comments. 6-8 not bring another Flood upon the world. EVERY BEAST. And thou shalt come vi. Go R. R. menstruous]. : him. it is from this full form that the prohibition of castration is 2 presently deduced. . etc. nan not SETU Here too there may be no particular significance in this. and thy sons (Gen. xxxr. as It says. 3 AFTER THEIR FAMILIES: this forbade heterogeneous breeding and emasculation. as it is When he went written. LIV. . KOL . THOU AND THY WIFE. possibly no particular significance attaches to this. Hayyeze implies: order them out. .e. AND EVERY FOWL. Isaac said: As soon as Noah entered the Ark. Judah b. 12. and thy sons' wives apart. For this is the waters of Noah unto Me.GENESIS (NOACH) that [XXXIV. AND THY WIFE. R. He permitted to FORTH FROM THE ARK. AND BE FRUITFUL AND MULTIPLY UPON THE EARTH but not in the Ark. hence into it is written. supra. And out. THOU. R. 9): thou wilt Indeed be fruitful He would and multiply. if they refuse to go. for as I have sworn that the waters of Noah should no more go over the earth. cohabitation was forbidden to him. regard your wife as though she were lonely [i. 271 . IJanan in the name of R. Abin quoted: They are lonely in want and famine (Job xxx. apart. Sanh. thou. 3 Viz. etc. (Isa. WHATSOEVER MOVETH (KOL ROMES) UPON THE EARTH (vin. Simon and R. BRING FORTH (HAYYEZE) WITH THEE EVERY LIVING THING THAT IS WITH THEE THAT THEY MAY SWARM IN THE EARTH (VIII. Judan merely recording the fact.

And he sent the young men of the children of Israel. 4 I. Forbidding it. art. as it is written. 8a. R. is (Gen. 2 R. That means on the great altar in Jerusalem. of the fat ones [i. UNTO THE LORD is : AND NOAH BUILDED (WAYYIBEN) AN ALTAR : (vm. $upra.O FFE R I N G S ON THE Eliezer b. Eleazar and R. murder. io). R. R. Hanina answer him? It means. Jose b.Z. R. 272 . R. AND THE LORD SHELLED THE SWEET SAVOUR. etc. AND HE OFFERED B U R N T . the best]. Irlanina said: Also concerning blood from a living animal. Jose b. implying that did R. iv. xvi. R. Hanina: But it is written. 6. where this is referred to Adam. R. R. . 6 V. 5 V. The : 8-9] MIDRASH KABBAH Noah were enjoined concerning seven things Idolatry. R. Eleazar sought to refute R. Johanan said: Also against emasculation. LXIX. civil law. where sacrificed. of his flock of which the fat and of the fat How 2 Or V. Eleazar sought to refute R. etc. Jose b. Leazar said Also against cross-breeding. 20). incest. Hanina: he also brought of the firstlings thereof offered. 5 Straightway. Hanina said: They offered burnt-offerings [only]. R. supra. Issi [Assi] said : The children : enjoined concerning everything stated in the following passage There shall not be found among you any one that maketh his son or his daughter to pass through the fire. R.e. This interpretation 8 2 possibly: obedience to the civil authorities.XXXIV. order more clean animals [to be preserved] than unclean? Surely because He desired that sacrifices should be offered to Him of them. the word can be so read. 4). Eleazar said: The children of Noah brought [even] peace-offerings R. Jose b. xvrn. Hanina differ. 'A.e. But it is written. Jose b. Wayyaben (he understood) written 4 he considered the matter. is based on the def . AND TOOK OF EVERY CLEAN BEAST. Jacob said: ALTAR. 32). (Dent. Simeon said: Also against witchcraft. i. And Abel. R. 3 of : Noah were 9. THE ALTAR. xxvi. R. And it shall please the Lord better than a bullock that hath Adam horns and hoofs (Ps. cursing the Divine Name 1 [blasphemy]. blessed be He. R. reasoning For what reason did the Holy One. and a limb torn from a living children of animal.

R. it is law of the sacrifice of peace-offerings (ib. But when And viz. R. 2 V. 5. while he who says that Jethro came after Revelation holds that they might : offer burnt-offerings [only].S. Jose b. north wind (S. Hanina: Awake. R. R. HQyya the Elder differ in this: R. R.GENESIS (NOACH) who 5)? [XXXIV. To what burnt-offering (Lev. which (ib. which were does 'come' apply? To a new practice. vi. thou south (ib. The following supports R.} apply? alludes to peace-offerings. infra f sxxvni. Mishael and Azariah ascending from the fiery furnace. R. How b. to pay his respects. And come. To what does awake' O : ' To something which was asleep and now awakes. Moses' father-in-law. does R. some excellent 1 V.' but. viz. not having been flayed or cut up. Jethro came after Revelation. which was killed at the north [side of the altar]. Jannai said: Jethro came before Revelation. SAVOUR. Jannai and R. treats of peace-offerings. iv. IJanina explain this ? It means that they were whole (shelemim) in their hide. this is the n). offering And and Jethro. sent the king a fine gift. lianina explain this ? In accordance with the view that Jethro came after Revelation. 'which they offered. Jose b. R. Eleazar objected to R. xxiv. This may be compared to a king's friend. Huna said: R. this alludes to the burnt-offering. Jose b. 13. Levi's name: This verse too supports R. He smelled the savour of the Patriarch Abraham ascending from the fiery furnace2 He smelled the savour of Hananiah. the whole passage supra. 16) Jose b. who. and sacrificed peace-offerings (shelamim) unto the Lord (Ex. R. 1 AND THE LORD SMELLED THE SWEET . viz. which the Noachides used to offer. not written. 273 T . took a burnt- xvni. R. rjanina This is the law of the burnt-offering : that is the : killed [even] at the south [side of the altar]. 9 offered burnt-offerings. xxn. Joshua of Siknin said in R. Hanina observed: Yet they do not differ [in an independent controversy] He who says that Jethro came before Revelation holds that the children of Noah might offer peace-offerings . Hanina: But it is Jose written. 2) it viz. R.} they will offer in the future. IJiyya the Elder said: sacrifices (ib. iz)? How does R.

XXXIV. 'Your not gift is like your grandfather's/ 3 2 He smelled the savour of the generation of destruction. * The generation of the abortive and disastrous revolt of Bar Cochba. I. R. 4 Thus it is written. even Jacob. that seek Thy face. 25) . . after being Or which 4 crushed was followed by tremendous slaughter. 8). i. R. 274 . xxiv. 6). 41). 6). hence it is written. i). Selah 5 (ib. and thus imply that the wicked speak in (subjection to) their hearts. 1 Then his son came and did show him honour. xv. Thus it says]. Cf Ex. AND THE LORD SAID TO HIS HEART. Such is the generation of them that seek after Him. passions. i). said in his heart xxvii. Infra. etc. Th. The Rabbis interpreted I WILL NOT AGAIN CURSE the children of Noah. xxvii. SAID ro HIS HEART. v. Now Hannah. VI. And Esau said in his heart (Gen. she spoke at her heart (i Sam. future generations. as it were. . The wicked stand in subjection to their heart [i. and Azariah made the same sacrifice as Abraham in order to sanctify God's name. xxvi. 6. Then his grandson came and showed him honour. The fool hath said in his heart (Ps. But the righteous have their hearts under their control. Similarly Hananiali. he followed its scent and built it there. brisket g-10] MIDRASH KABBAH on a beautiful plate. 8.: Let that indeed suffice. S I WILL NOT AGAIN CURSE THE GROUND. Ze'ira: Imagine a king who wished to build a palace by the sea. EVIL. And David said to his heart (ib. but did not know where to build Finding a phial of foliatum. : [those of whom it is written]. 7 V. The phial was in the ground the king traced it to its exact spot and * made that the site for his palace (' Rashi '). IJiyya the Elder 1 2 FOR THE IMAGINATION OF MAN'S HEART said: How wretched must IS be possibly: the gift being a beautiful salver. etc. R. while the righteous speak to their hearts. Menahama b. Mishael. Shilum said in the name of R. 7 : AND THE LORD But Daniel purposed to his heart (Dan. Now heart (Est. 2) for whose sake ? For the sake of it. 10. LXVII. And Jeroboam Haman said in his (i Kings xn. For He hath founded it upon the seas (Ps. whereupon he [the king] said to him. R. xiv. 13) . supra.e. 7. giving them orders. NEITHER WILL I AGAIN SMITE. 6 The prepositions in these verses are translated literally.

GENESIS (NOACH) the [XXXIV. He remembereth that we are dust 1 (Ps. 170). xi. viz. IMAGINATION OF MAN'S HEART IS EVIL FROM HIS YOUTH (MINE'URAW). 'frame'}. Abba Jose the potter said: How poor must be the leaven when he who kneaded it testifies that it is bad! Thus: For he knoweth our [evil] passions [E. wise or foolish) of the foetus is determined. 4. R. 2.V. Iid. 6. Judan said in R. The Rabbis said: How inferior must be the he that planted it testifies that it is bad thus. infra. For the identity of Antoninus v. when plant For the Lord of hosts. 10-11 dough when the baker himself testifies it to be poor! [Thus man's Creator says] FOR THE IMAGINATION OF MAN'S HEART is EVIL. gib. Judan said: This is written mine'araw (from his awakening). And Thy My my fate. poor. Leave meat without salt for three days/ said he. that planted thee hath spoken evil of . 5 (to be rich or When. I4). cf. AND SUMMER AND WINTER. 'he would dig through the womb and emerge rather is it when he emerges [from the womb]/ Rabbi agreed with him. 275 . 3). Judah ha-Nasi. the destiny 6 Sanh. because his view corresponds with that of Scripture. ly). Aha's name: What did Leaven is a common simile for the evil passions (cf. when didst Thou place the soul the spirit of God is written. p. 'If so/ he objected. FOR THE : . 12): hence. WHILE THE EARTH REMAINETH. LXVII. 8 Viz. R. Providence hath preserved x. in accordance with Rabbinic lore. y thee (Jer. in my nostrils (Job xxvn. * Similarly the foetus would putrefy without a soul. for Scripture too supports him: All the while my soul [E. when his destiny is determined. xin. 2 Antoninus asked our Teacher3 'When is the evil urge placed in man?' 'As soon as he is formed [in embryo]/ he replied. R. R. SEEDTIME AND HARVEST. He asked him further: 'When is the soul planted in man?' 'When he leaves his mother's womb/ replied he. AND DAY AND NIGHT SHALL NOT didst determine me? When Thou CE ASE (vin.V. 1 2 22). n. AND COLD AND HEAT. 6 n. 6 u. 'will it not putrefy? 4 Rather. cm. from when he awakes to the world. Ber. 30^. which means. Num.' 5 Our Teacher agreed with him. 'breath'} is ' in me and y while in it is spirit (ib.

And it will be broken in that day. R. of which it is written. . i. Il] MIDRASH RABBAH Noah think: that the covenant to all eternity? 1 the children of them would endure That is made with not so. 6). xiv. Huna said in R.e.' R.e. * 5 Lit. But as long as day and night endure. CUTTING DOWN did not cut down. Yet when that day cometh of which it is written. ana not night (Zech. then [shall the verse be fulfilled]. none ever died young again smite .XXXIV. xi. : SOWING AND COLD AND SUMMER (KAYYIZ) AND WINTER (HOREF): I will cause the birds to summer upon them. not day. Samuel b. 2 But when that day cometh. Aha's name What do the children of Noah think: that the covenant made with them will endure to all eternity? [No. Isaac commented: What was responsible for their * The covenant of the previous verse: Neither will I again smite any more * every living thing. For the heavens shall vanish away like smoke. From the context this appears to mean that they would be exposed to the depredations of birds. 5 as you read. LI. And it [sc. the covenant] will be broken in that day (Zech. translation of the verse. Nahman was suffering with headache. while the earth remaineth. HEAT: [they shall suffer] fever and ague. And there shall be one day which shall be known as the Lord's. : : the verse]. 7). And the ravenous birds shall summer upon them. 1 HEAT 276 . but only as long as the heaven and earth endure will their covenant endure. It once happened that one of the great men of his time some say that it was R. they gave birth but did not bury? 3 Therefore henceforth there shall be 4 they shall bear and bury. and all the beasts of the earth shall winter upon them (Isa. n). and the earth shall be worn out like a garment (Isa. and he lamented: This is what the generation of the Flood did for us s Another interpretation of WHILE THE EARTH 1 etc. . 6). 8 He too understood to mean a high temperature. for] thus said I to them: WHILE THE EARTH REMAINETH. at that time [shall be fulfilled REMAINETH. their covenant will endure. xvm. Aha commented: What was responsible for their rebelling against Me ? Was it not because they sowed but R. Reading the two verses together : Neither will I 3 I.

Simeon b. Adar and the first half of Nisan are the cold season. supra. Elul and the first half of Tishri are the hot season. the second half of Shebat. of the extreme ease of their lives. lyar and the first half of Siwan is harvest time. the second half of Kislew. Johanan said: The planets did not function the whole twelve months [of the Flood]. They used to sow once in forty years. AND here was a reward for their Every year. * 5 V. Judah counted from Marheshwan. cutting GENESIS (NOACH) [XXXIV. and they travelled from one end of the world to the other in a brief down the period. This is a picture. R. B.rebelling against without having to reap?* For R. Since Scripture implies that henceforth there alternating seasons of cold and heat. Marheshwan and the first half of Kislew is seedtime. R. 1066. 17). xxv. Gamaliel said in R. the second half of Nisan. how was the climate 4 hitherto? I. 2.e. R. follows that they had ceased. which led to over-confidence in themselves and rebellion against a 1 God. i). 7 HIS SONS. making no more of the lions and leopards than of the vermin in their skin. a single harvest providing food for many years. Isaac said. the second half of Ab. THEY SHALL NOT CEASE implies that ceased. but their Eliezer said: they never mark was NOT CEASE: 12. 6 AND GOD BLESSED NOAH AND SAID UNTO THEM: BE FRUITFUL AND MULTIPLY (ix. This is * a 7 For the blessing itself had already been uttered (Gen. 2 the year]. the weather of a mild spring or early summer. and R. 11-12 Me? Was it not because they sowed cedars of Lebanon in their course. Simeon commenced with [the beginning of] Tishri. 4 R. exaggerated of course. would be new passage.M. 5 R. R. Tammuz and the first half of Ab is summer. Jonathan to him: They did function. the second half of Siwan. Said R. Dosa too said thus: [The latter] half of Tishri. Meir's name. 277 . This [blessing conferred] sacrifice. Tebeth and half of Shebat are the winter How is this to be understood? They enjoyed the climate [now usual] between Passover and Pentecost [right through 3 months. vm. Joshua deduced: THEY SHALL hence it imperceptible.

WHICH IS THE BLOOD THEREOF. for David king of Israel. R. to prevent flees. Jose b. Abin said in R. 3 was not admonished 4 against eating a limb torn from the living animal. For he had dominion over all Kings It was taught. as hayyathkem (only a change of punctuation is Reading required for this). dead. I. EVERY MOVING THING THAT LIVETH SHALL ONLY FLESH WITH THE LIFE THEREOF. your fear will only be co-eval with your life. and dominion is not enumerated in this verse which restores them. SHALL YE NOT EAT (ix. 28 f) in addition to 'fear* and "dread". to whom flesh to satisfy their appetite was permitted. Yet Og. i. 59*2. the Sabbath may not be desecrated. 2): fear and dread returned.V. v. * suicide is punished. these prero* ' gatives were lost at the Flood. 2. R. Eccl. 5 his appetite AND SURELY (WE-AK) YOUR BLOOD OF YOUR WILL I LIVES REQUIRE (ix. 10. 1516. Gen. . a 13. CtC. b. Sanh. dead. Eleazar said: For a live infant one day old the Sabbath is desecrated. Eleazar say: An infant one need not be guarded from mice or serpents them picking out his eyes: a lion sees him and a serpent sees him and flees. must be guarded For as long as a man is alive his fear lies upon the [lower] creatures. Simeon b. your life thus. Shab. You might This includes one who think that even one in the ' ' 1 God's blessing to Adam conferred upon him dominion over all creatures (Gen. were admonished against eating a limb torn from the living animal. 6 strangles himself. thus too did R. 5). 1 When did it return? In the days of Solomon.. Thus it is written. 29 f. alive. R. 3 V. . his fear is removed from the lower creatures. * 5 Since all flesh was forbidden.. Johanan's name: Adam. 12-13] MIDRASH RABBAH OF YOU AND THE DREAD OF YOU BE UPON EVERY BEAST OF THE SHALL (HITKEM) EARTH (ix. to whom flesh to satisfy BE FOR FOOD FOR YOU . 3 ). where only plant life is permitted. but dominion did not return. R.XXXIV. 4). was not permitted. 2 HITKEM A 278 . Simeon b. when he dies. King of Bashan. ! AND THE FEAR OF YOU AND THE LIFE OF YOU. And day old. But the children of Noah. the region as (i AND THE FEAR it is written.

WHOSO SHEDDETH MAN'S BLOOD. as it says. I brother. Mishael and Azariah3 therefore we have A K . without a formal for [the warning. i. that a man is condemned] on the testimony of one witness. 279 . Babylonia. 7 MAN: My My 6). are men (Ezek. vn. says. Hanina said: All these are specifically Noachian laws. one xxxi. 4 Viz. 5 EVEN AT THE HAND OF EVERY MAN'S BROTHER. * says. 5 Reading this instead of Adam. the four beasts* mentioned in Dan. 17. 2 You might think. the sheep of pasture. SHALL HIS BLOOD BE SHED: [i. 9 [He who C0mmits murder] through an agent. Who risked their lives. imply extension even one who was not warned previously. WHO- 1 Who man s alone. The verse is made to foretell the punishment of the kingdoms that have enslaved Israel. with whom. presumably he understands to WHOSO SHEDDETH MAN'S may cause conviction. WILL as it is written. even one like Hananiah.GENESIS (NOACH) plight of Saul is : [XXXIV. xxxn.e. etc. Edom and Esau stand for Rome. Persia. v. 8 'One* is a deduction from the employment of the singular. Thee. 2 It is a principle of exegesis that ok and rafc (excepting. (iX. for it SHALL His BLOOD BE SHED. from the hand of I pray Esau REQUIRE THE LIFE OF this refers to Israel.3i). a save that) are limiting particles. 14. 7 BJ . [viz. xxxiv. and Rome. 916. particularly Rome (Edom). if he slays] by means of another SO committed suicide to save himself from the Philistines. and murder of] an embryo. were identified. because it WHOSO SHEDDETH MAN'S BLOOD. [for murder committed] through an agent. BY ONE MAN SHEDDETH MAN'S BLOOD BY MAN. AT THE HAND OF EVERY BEAST WILL I REQUIRE 4 IT: this refers to the four kingdoms. And ye sheep. 3. this too refers to Esau (Rome).e. Greece. in order to sanctify God's name. either as witness or as judge. 8 Without a formal warning. from the hand of my 6 (Gen. I Sam.e. 6 I. AT THE HAND OF MAN (HA-ADAM): R. Deliver me. : BLOOD Th. as it is written. Levi said: That means. 4. BY MAN SHALL HIS BLOOD BE SHED. 13-14 : meant 1 therefore we have A K. WHOSO SHEDDETH MAN'S BLOOD. R. from the hand of Edom. On the testimony of one witness and on the ruling of one judge. on the ruling of one judge. i2). which is akin to suicide.

A WHOSO THAT MA 280 .. therefore be ye fruitful. SHALL HIS BLOOD BE SHED. thus it is written]. 8 This is a play on words. of] His BLOOD SHALL BE SHED.XXXIV. AND YOU. 9 One can shed blood and yet retain it within the victim only by strangrula. says. 2 R. man comes. . 391. SHALL HIS BLOOD BE SHED. shed. WHOSO R. because man was made in God's image. 'Azariah lectured: He who refrains from procreation is as though he impaired [God's] image. Sanh. Ben 'Azzai lectured: He who refrains from procreation is as though he shed blood and impaired [God's] likeness. why? FOR IN THE IMAGE OF GOD MADE HE MAN. if the last is violated. 57^ (pp. BY SAME * 4 Or it may mean : When Adam Having died peacefully in his bed. AND MULTIPLY. when 7 Deut. 4$a. BE YE FRUITFUL. . AND MULTIPLY. when will he be SHEDDETH MAN'S BLOOD. the former two are transgressed. BE YE FRUITFUL. R. WHOSO SHEDDETH MAN'S BLOOD [while retaining it] WITHIN MAN. 10 Thus. 10 1 Said R. as it were. 390. 8 Thus murder is punished by death because it impairs God's image. for says. IMAGE OF GOD AND YOU. n. What is the proof? WHOSO SHEDDETH MAN'S BLOOD.e. ba'adam fin man) being read ba adorn. Radal: when Messiah comes. in Sonc. if a man slew 4 slain? When man comes yet was not slain. Eleazar b. etc. supra. Referring 'by man' to *$heddeth\ and ignoring the punctuation * man within another man is an embryo. 8 R. xxi. BLOOD. * I. 25. . 7. further* the verse may be translated N i. Judah b. etc. 3 R. What proof? WHOSO SHEDDETH GOD MADE HE OF IMAGE THE IN FOR reason? is the MAN. 7 [for final judgment 5 . which followed by. comes. 1 14] MIDRASH KABBAH [the person. v. is regarded as What is the though he had impaired [God's] MAN'S BLOOD. .). Eleazar to him: Teachings are becoming when they are uttered by those who practise v. ed. For the Kid. which IS followed by. tion. Simon said Also he an embryo. WHOSO SHEDDETH THE : who murders by as it strangling. WHEN MAN COMES6 SHALL HIS BLOOD BE SHED. on his own confession shall . whole passage cf. What is the proof? FOR is IN THE MADE HE MAN. and on his own testimony. For It murder BLOOD OF MAN WITHIN [ANOTHER] MAN. Akiba lectured: He who sheds blood likeness. Levi said: Behold.e. R.

'Praised be He who has led us out from that bad climate/ 'Whence do you come?* he called out to them. B It is an insignificant place quite unworthy of praise. is not own name Yeb. 6 I. AND MULTIPLY THEREIN (iX. 'From Mazga. Resh Lakish judging it from the point of view nearest to his heart. lee. soul delights in the Torah*.GENESIS (NOACH) S [XXXIV. lest insects should eat him/ he replied. 3 A'ND YOU. 1 1 . 'Whence are you?' inquired he. 'What is its climate?' he asked. 26).K. 470. 4 God has implanted in man a love of his native soil even in bad climates (M. xxxvi.' they replied. son of 'Azzai. Sot-. 2 your teaching he pleaded. 'From Gabath Shammai/ he replied. and yet these women preferred it to Tiberias.: it contains no more than two stands (for scholars) with similar meaning. AND MULTIPLY. 'Blessed is He who inspireth the inhabitants of a place with love for it!' he exclaimed. 'I know about Mazga/ he observed. SWARM : I 1 cannot you grasp it ?' he asked. xxxvm.). preach well. 6 3 b.e. of climates. is satisfied with his own. IN THE EARTH. 'and it contains no more than two dwelling houses 5 Blessed is He who inspireth the inhabitants of a town with love for it! A disciple of R. In the future too it will be thus And I will take away the stony heart out of your flesh and I will give you a heart of flesh leb basar * : y (Ezek. was unmarried. while the world can be preserved through others. Var. 6 1 Ben Lit. 'Azzai designated by his * 8 *My this being the reason that he (Simeon).. one saying to the other. BE YE FRUITFUL. Because I am an exile from home/ he replied. 'When a child is born there we have to crush spices and smear his head with it. tft/Vo. 14-15 them. 'Why 15. a heart which has no desire of (boser) his neighbour's portion. Issi was sitting before him and could not comprehend what he was explaining to him. but do not fulfil 1 That is because I desire to study Torah.e. Resh Lakish said A covenant has been made in favour 7). . Cf. when two women came out from there. 4 Resh Lakish was sitting and studying Torah in a small forest of Tiberias. i. but you.

LISH ESTAB9). Joshua b. 3 This was not a transgression but on the contrary a more scrupulous observance of God's command. and therefore implies limitation. AND GOD . i. . command and as it is written. 'the generation of) is singular . SAYING: As FOR ME. Dorath (lit. Joshua b. Nehemiah said : He command he went beyond 2 acted with self-restraint. (ix. R. i-2] CHAPTER XXXV (NOACH) HIS SONS I AND GOD SPOKE UNTO NOAH. R. generation R. Simeon b. Simeon 6 it/ So Elijah him about and us let question go ruling: of blessed memory went to him. 5 Elijah was believed to visit people quite frequently. b. 2. having belonged to a much earlier generation But Elijah could still (2nd century) than R. t infra. etc. These generations did not need the sign of the rainbow. whereas he engaged two generations. 6 R. For whereas God had forbidden marital relations in the Ark only. 4 A body founded by Ezra to act as the official guardians of the Law. R. the le-doraih? 4 Great the of that and Hezekiah of Synagogue. he subdued his desires even after leaving the Ark. Th. * Though read le-doroth. Levi/ he answered. 8.XXXV. Hezekiah omitted the generation of the Men of the Great Synagogue and substituted that of R. 'Who is with you?' he asked. he interprets the omissions of the two wows (rrro instead of Jinn^) as intimating the omission of 1 He was told to resume marital first Ark. etc. COVENANT LEDOROTH . 4). Levi were Elijah of blessed memory and 5 when they came to a ruling sitting and studying together. Levi (3rd century). AND TO WITH HIM. is the author of the 'Here one: Said Yohai. R. 282 . 20) . Yohai of course was dead. Therefore [God's] he and his sons were favoured with [God's] allocution. 1 R. xxxvi. 22 seq. relations immediately on leaving the in planting a vineyard (v. Yohai. BEHOLD. AND GOD SPOKE UNTO NOAH AND SAID: . Joshua b. Judah was put said: Because he transgressed [God's] to shame. Simeon b. 'The greatest of his generation. consult him. THIS is THE TOKEN OF THE GENERATIONS PERPETUAL FOR This is written 12). TO HIS SONS. therefore he was put to shame by Ham (w. Judan said: two excludes thus which generations. because they were completely righteous. My COVENANT WITH YOU. 'Has the rainbow appeared in his days?' (ix. of R.

R. R.' and it was filled. and we can intercede for all from the days of Abraham until those of Messiah. Jeremiah's name: Thus did R. 3. V. Simeon b. if there is but one. 7 Var. O field. 3 R. 77^. be filled with gold ' dinars. Hezekiah said in R. Jonathan and R. [the comparable bow resembles God] as the straw resembles the grain. if 4 two. Isaac. etc. XLIX. he can effectively intercede for [ail generations] from his days until mine. . 2 R. Judan b. . is perhaps preferable: he wished to pour it out on his son in his anger but poured it. 2-3 he is not worthy of being received by me/ 1 b. 14). [XXXV.) Thus here too God promises that in His anger He will bring the clouds on the earth. LII. it is I. * 5 It is but a faint reflection of God's glory. once happened that R. Simeon b. Keth. my son and I are two of them if ten. infra. Hezekiah related in R. WHEN I BRING CLOUDS UPON THE EARTH (ix. 92^2. Jeremiah's name: Thus did R. Ezek.' if it has. R. 5 Is that to Me. 4 s Sanh. Giyori went to hear an exposition of the Torah some say of the chapter on libations from R. 8 To save his son the discomfort. 13) is My AND IT SHALL COME TO PASS. Judah it man who was going to give 1 6). they are my son and I .: a hot axe. 28. lee. I HAVE SET MY BOW (KASHTl) IN THE CLOUD : likeness (Mshutki). and was to his son. * 283 . If there are thirty. 8 : AND THE BOW SHALL It BE IN THE CLOUD. Ex. lee. 6 (ix. Simon This may be compared to 7 holding in his hand some hot flour. 97^. 2 For in a truly righteous generation it would be unnecessary. Hezekiah related in R. my son and I are two of them if five. something that that means. my son and I are two of them . (iX. Yohai say: If Abraham is willing. {Var. b. etc. R. really possible? In truth. 3 Hul. 3. not on man. . Judan said in name a of R. While if he is not willing. Simeon b. I. while I can intercede for [all generations] from my time until the advent of Messiah. Simeon Yohai had but to say. O field.GENESIS (NOACH) he inquired . R. V. Yohai say: The world possesses not less than thirty men as righteous as Abraham. Jeremiah's name: R. but gave it to his servant instead. let Ahijah the Shilonite unite with me.

vn. And they blessed the king is absent. them sent over when Joshua away them (ib. (ib. and they went unto Joshua blessed them. as it is written. they 5 a waited couple of days. to which the former verse refers. 'they received permission To 4 Our edd. obtained that is permission [to go on the however. a M. Lit. the tribes of Reuben and Gad were with them and likewise in conquering and dividing the spent fourteen years there received permission country. His last blessing was greater The tribes of than the first. but that it contradicts the former. Thereasked then few days. and sent Moretheir tents (Josh. So passage]. On the day he sent the people away. 10) ? The reason. therefore it is said. Judan said: he accompanied Joshua's personal retinue. R. 5 Viz. and they the Jordan [on their return home].K. 66).T. blessed he their unto tents. fore it 'Moreover. necessary to receive it again since they had stayed on after it. ga. 3l MIDRASH KABBAH 1 Yohai. from him* to go home. And on the three and (i Kings vin. for the eighth day of the feast of Tabernacles. not the twenty-third. Joshua : 3 says. received permission a second time. saying : Return with much Another expounded thus: Since it is written. is the twenty- second of the month. eighth And 1 a on the three and twentieth day of the seventh month. Others omit days'. but stayed on another day. read: . . which is preferable. or read 'one day'.XXXV. Y. etc. Said they: We must bid him farewell a second time.: the difficulty is not that the latter verse is superfluous. And he spoke unto them. and then twenty-second day]. and they blessed the king is it stated. why twentieth day of the seventh month he sent the people away. Reuben and Gad formed them to saw that When his retinue was thus diminished. and permission a second time. 6). they turned back and escorted him to his home. 4 and they blessed the king (i Chron. ' a couple of 284 . 3 wealth to your tents. etc. why is it further stated. xxn. 7)? The reason is because when the Israelites were engaged in conquering and dividing the land. the twenty-second and twenty-third. The people away unto their tents. After the fourteen years they but they stayed there another from Joshua to return home. . it was prove that though permission had already been granted. Then they took their adieus from him. One of them then expounded [a Scriptural 2 them Since it is already written. them sent when away. 8). saying to them away.

pay her debts. 9). however. And live thou and thy sons of the 7 rest (ib. Tabernacles] seven days (ib. 3 R. 5) why then is it stated further. viz.GENESIS (NOACH) etc. R. Then she came and told the man of God (ib. Levi said: There went forth a heavenly voice and proclaimed.e. xiv. y) 6 which means. i. hence it says. The last was blessing greater than the first. they were smitten with remorse. Levi said : It is written. R. 4 6 8 That the miracle had been duly performed. Probably translating: And the oil stood up But wait for a further increase.: not that they would live until then. to them. So she went 2 from him (n Kings iv. Elisha's first blessing had merely been that the oil would 7 Th. 7) ?3 The reason. Whereas suffice to 285 . 5 His second blessing was greater than the first. Isaac observed: 'Joyful. : : 1 the 2 The Feast of Tabernacles commences on the fifteenth of Tishri. 1 during [all] these seven days the Israelites ate. When he [R. Subsequently. Now the seven days before the Festival must include the Sabbath and the Day of Atonement.' because they found their wives clean. while Day of Atonement Is on the tenth of that month. For they kept the dedication of the altar seven days and the feast [sc.' The third expounded It is already written. who went before the camp of Israel. [XXXV. rejoiced and lit lamps. advanced in price. Yohai] saw that they were men of such culture. And the angel of God. until the resurrection of the dead. cit. he sent a couple of scholars with them. why then is it further stated. Perhaps we have done wrong by desecrating the Sabbath and eating on the Day of Atonement ? In order to tranquillise them and assure them that the Holy One. to hear what they would teach on the road.). This refers to the woman whom Elisha saved from slavery by the * miracle of the increasing oil. saying. which means that the market price advanced. but that the oil would sustain them even if they lived so long. loc. 6). One of them expounded thus It was already written. ' 7 : . ' yet drank. And they went unto their tents joyful and glad of heart (i Kings. 19). 4 and she came to ask him whether to sell now or not. however. removed and went behind them (Ex. 'Ye are all worthy of the Hereafter. is because it says And the oil stayed (ib. blessed be He. Simeon b. and glad of heart' because they conceived male children. had approved their actions. there came forth a heavenly voice and declared ' 'Ye are all worthy of the Hereafter.

[For to than rubies. xxvi. whereas you returned me something worth but a folar (a small debased coin). 4 Several MSS. gems and precious stones. whereas another verse says. in the sense of the knowledge and the fear of God. Perhaps it means heavenly judgment is exacting only when earthly judgment is lax. 15) ? Things desirable' connotes religious acts and good ' deeds Thy desirable things. n). whereas I sent you something which guards you while you sleep at ease. AND EVERY LIVING CREATURE OF ALL FLESH THAT this refers second expounded: AND THE BOW SHALL BE IN IS UPON THE EARTH: judgment below: the judgment above is 2 is pliable. in.J. He sent back word I gave you a priceless object. When thou walkest. for. as it in this world . add the following: Arteban (the last Parthian king) sent our Teacher (R. And 3J MIDRASH RABBAH the pillar of cloud removed from before them. Hiyya: My desirable things and thy desirable things are not 3 to be compared unto her. it shall mlk with thee (ib.)? It means that that very Attribute of 1 was Judgment. rigid while the judgment below is better wisdom A third expounded: One verse says. wisdom. Judah ha-Nasi) a priceless gem.) in the Hereafter/ 3 ' : ' 286 . R. which threateningly confronted Israel. and directed against the Egyptians. Moreover. The passage is somewhat obscure. says.) in the hour of death. Sc. But let him that glorieth glory understande he in this. THAT I MAY REMEMBER THE EVERLASTING COVENANT BETWEEN ELOHIM (GOD): this refers to the Attribute of Heavenly Judgment above. and knoweth Me (Jer. Aha explained it in the name of R. with the request. turned round by the Holy One. it shall watch over thee (ib. cf. blessed be He. R. vm.} and all things desirable are not to be compared unto her (Prov. IX. you sent me something which I must guard.) presumably because such wisdom is the foundation of all noble deeds. including cur. The whole story about these three scholars is quoted here for the sake : of this verse. Tanhuma b. AND I WILL LOOK UPON IT. 22) when thou Kest down.* ' ' . that th. And when thou wakest. 1 2 Judgment and mercy are often hypostasized as living personalities. 'Let me have in return an article as valuable as this/ So he sent him a mezusah. VI. it shall lead thee (Prov. 23). and stood behind them (#. And all thy desirable things are not to be compared unto her (ib.XXXV. edd.* he retorted (the mezusah symbolising the knowledge * of God).. 'My desirable things and thy desirable things are not to be compared unto her. stands higher than material wealth and even than religious observances (*E. A THE CLOUD. 6. supra.

who then can conhideth His face whom a curtain ' He demn them? they replied. 15) just as 'nakon' there means for three days. said 2 they to him. 1 287 . 14). for 'nakon' occurs here. and what did they lack? Their prosperity was complete. alter the meaning by adding: so said the generation of the Flood (according to this R. who can condemn?' he demanded. Meir inter: quieteneth Himself from His world. The Rabbis said: : bore for nakon : ' is Be ready (nekonim. Meir. (ib. R. so 'nakon' here means for three days. so here too it means one day. AND JAPHET who preted it (ix. pi. so that he does not know what is happening without. and their offspring before their eyes (ib.[XXXVI. 18). Meir merely puts these words into the mouth of the wicked). v i. And He (ib. When He gweth quietness. Levi were pregnant but three days and then stated here.e. AND THE SONS OF NOAH. They send forth their little ones ('awilehem) like a flock' R. Was not ease given to the generation of the Flood. R. etc. while elsewhere it is said. And be ready (nakon) by the morning (ib. who can demand that He should have punished them sooner? Or perhaps: did He not give them tranquillity. xxi. 1 Let that suffice thee. whilst elsewhere it is said. xxxiv. Levi ' ' : ' * : He is unconcerned by what is done in this world and is not incensed by the deeds of the wicked a remarkable teaching of God's transcendence. AND HAM. Curedd. n). 2) just as nakon there means in one day. etc.) from His world. When He giveth quietness. They send forth their * little said: Their wives ones like a flock. CHAPTER i XXXVI (NOACH) i. 29) ? R. 2 You have said more than enough heaven forfend that this teaching should be true! 8 I. Lev. 3 And what ease was given to them? Their seed is established (nakon) in their sight with them. (Job xxxiv. Even after one day. It is written. But in that case it is difficult to see why his colleagues so sharply rejected this interpretation. like a judge before is spread. when God is patient and long-suffering with the wicked. Cf. THAT WENT FORTH FROM THE ARK. 8). Then what is meant by. xix. WERE SHEM. that He seeth not (Job xxu. Thick clouds are a covering to Him. 'And their offspring before their eyes means that they saw their children's children. of nakon) against the third day (Ex. then can condemn.

V. and person. without fear (Job xxi. she would say to her son.V. who then can behold Him (yeshurennu) ? By a play on words ye-shurennu is connected with ke~shurah 7 Since He can as easily establish the world from an light or just. Go and light me a candle to cut through your navel cord/ He went out. xm. . Their : houses are is safe. and killed you/ Thus it is written. a The same word for dance is used in 8 It is daylight. with which this section began: And when He hideth his face. 8 : it Is He can establish His word from a single etc. as they were wicked. 9) of demons Neither the rod of God upon them (ib. Whether it be done unto a nation or unto a man> alike yahad (Job xxxiv. 1 * : from a nation. which a rare cf. of the generation of the Flood did evil Is He translates So that I lack 'amlehem.) they are spared sufferings. Decreeing that they should all drown. as E. 'Thou hast not done weir?6 And why did He hide his face from them? [Because as it is written]. It once happened that a woman who gave birth at night said to her son. as 2. my full strength. Yoma ua. but if the cock had not crowed yet. as you read. And satyrs shall dance there (Isa. said : 1-2] MIDRASH KABBAH In Arabia a child Is called 'awila* And their children dance (ib. and the ' ' demon Shlmadon [lit. 2i). 'He breaketh in pieces mighty men without inquisition. Go and light a lamp to cut [burn] through your 1 navel cord. * Flood 29) : Unto a nation refers to the generation of the And unto a man y to Noah. He destroyed the whole generation. 7 written.XXXVI. 'Destruction'] met him and said to him. 8 E. 5 who said to Him. individual.) like demons. word in this sense. 'Go and inform your mother that the cock has 3 crowed. "but smitten have I would had my mother cut my navel cord. when I am powerless * 6 both places. I would have smitten and killed you/ 'Go and inform your mother that 4 my mother had not yet cut my navel cord/ he retorted. AND THE SONS OF NOAH. 'Go and bring flint to cut your navel cord/ If at night. and He can set up His world * . Yet when He hid His face from them. 2 When one of them gave birth me a by day she would say to her son. 29.' fi t 288 . 'alike' for from him [Noah] was the world established. Mighty men do the 24) 1 men evil that is unfathomable (Job xxxiv. Hiis concludes the exegesis on Job xxxrv.

THE HUSBANDMAN. : their setteth others in their stead (ib. hence AND THE SONS there is none that Yea. vi. HUSBANDMAN. and no good was found in them Cain. degradation. 289 o . and young shoots for fig trees and olive trees. xxxi.): viz. / will work. transf. AND NOAH THE HUSBANDMAN BEGAN WAY(ix. OF NOAH. Cain was a tiller of the ground (ib.} ? In all the works and designs which I executed upon the people of the generation of the Flood. io). 2). for he loved husbandry (n Chron. as it is written. supra. lowliness. BEGAN. xxn. the children of Noah.. Why (ib. XLIII. etc. etc. * Wayyahel is thus connected with hullin. is treated as a substantive deriving from kana* 9 to subdue. Canaan V. xxvi. 21): a man gathers 3 in only what he will need [in the future]. And He . To his father. was degraded (nithhallel) and debased Because HE PLANTED A VINEShould he have not planted something ? He such as a young fig-shoot or a young [olive-] shoot? Instead of which HE PLANTED A VINEYARD. YAHEL (hulliri)* YARD of use. And and 1 Uzziah: he had husbandmen and vinedressers 4 ' in the mountains in the fruitful fields. AND THE SONS OF NOAH. profane. And whence did he procure it? Said R. day was I am He.). as by a huge 3. 20). since the can deliver out of hand (Isa. 1 THESE THREE WERE THE SONS OF NOAH. AND OF THESE WAS THE WHOLE EARTH OVERSPREAD (iX. 13) none can deliver any of the world nations out of My hand. IV. and Uzziah. 3. Kahana: He took into the Ark with him vine shoots for planting. subject. supra. Three had a passion for agri- THE culture. Noah. AND HAM is THE FATHER OF CANAAN: He was the source of degradation. 19).GENESIS (NOACH) ' [XXXVI. and who can reverse it (ib. 14. 2-3 ' with their wicked deeds That is unfathomable wicked deeds were unfathomable [endless]. fish that spawned its eggs and filled the earth. hence 'subjection*. And thou shalt gather to thee (Gen. and My : who could say to Me. Noah: : AND NOAH. ' * V. Abba b. 'Thou hast not done rightly'? But Noah entered [the Ark] in peace and left it in peace: thus.

Judah b. 7). he since for his sake the ground was preserved and because OF THE GROUND: filled the face of the ground. edd. vi. a contemptuous sense. WITHIN HIS TENT (AHALOH): this is written ahalah Th. 290 . R. who ended as a castrate.: a land-worker is so called because he tills the land. cur. rjiyya b. n. after having been called A righteous man (Gen. AND WAS He drank immoderately. n). Isaac said: Not WAYYGAL Is written but WAYYITHGAL exile for himself he was the cause of and subsequent generations. As he was going to Shiniadon met him and plant the vineyard the demon me [in this vineproposed. infra. 3~4l MIDRASH KABBAH [lit. became to shame. he was so termed] because he saved the face of the ground. 1 called by the name of the castle. as it Is written. R.The original is difficult and the translation is only a con* This is a more intensive form jecture. Woe unto them that rise up early in the morning. for if you do I will injure you/ 4. on one and the same AND HE WAS UNCOVERED (WAYYITHGAL) WITHIN His TENT. OF THE WINE. 2 is called A MAN OF THE GROUND . 7. just as a castle-guard Is A MAN 9). The Tribes of Judah and Benjamin were exiled only on account of wine. Judah and Benjamin] erred through wine (ib. He was more 3 beloved than Noah. Come into partnership with ' into yard]. Hanan in the name of R. that they may follow strong drink (Isa. DRUNKEN 21). omit it altogether. but Moses. i).XXXVI. and was humiliated day. after was having been called An Egyptian man (Ex. Intoxicated. A HUSBANDMAN 'A MAN OF THE GROUND': . AND PLANTED A VINEYARD. xxxni. but take care not to enter my portion. Berekiah said: Moses was more beloved than Noah. v. R. 19). exile. Simon and R. Ba all drank thereof. 2 1 Jast. then called The man of God (Deut. 3 V. But these also [viz. and said: He planted was thus put it. Noah. AND HE DRANK (ix. xxvm. by a play on words it is derived from galuth. Samuel b. Now understood in . The Ten : 4 Tribes were exiled only because of wine. R. R. as it is written.

by his teeth. 4 5. Johanan said: Shem commenced the good deed. 26 f. THE FATHER OF CANAAN. his wife's tent. 7 6. SAW AND TOLD (WAYYAGGED) HIS TWO BRETHREN WITHOUT (rx. to draw (with words). he tried to persuade them that their father had done 8 V. .. Sanh. I. 7 He saw with his eye and told with his mouth.GENESIS (NOACH) 1 [XXXVI. Cf. and was drunken (wayyishkar) and he was uncovered (wayyithgal). . 25). 2 leaving the and Now3 : he went to cohabit. and planted (wayyitta) a vineyard.e. Abba b. 22). Thus on account of these organs he was con' demned to slavery.. IX. . AND SHEM AND JAPHETH TOOK A GARMENT. it is written. 291 his master deprives . 4). as it were. . as . yet one arose and slew his brother. And he said (wayyomer) Cursed be Canaan (Gen. EHezer's a lion struck (her tent). He said to his brethren: Adam had . R. and laid it (wayyasimu) upon both their shoulders. . wrong (v. And Ham saw (wayyar) and told (wayyagged) his two brethren. AND : TOLD. . . whence 'to persuade'. Zabdi said Why does a slave go free for the loss of a tooth or an 6 eye? It follows from this: AND . * In this passage way as part of the verb occurs fourteen times. then 1 Though punctuated ahaloh. . . And Noah the husbandman began (wayyahel). and went (wayyeleku) backward. R. 5 Wayyagged' is derived now from nagad. and And Noah awoke (wayyikkez) covered (wayyekassu) and knew (wayyeda*) what his youngest son had done unto him. he forgot that he was unfit for intercourse. but two sons. And he drank (wayyesht) of the wine. Johanan said Beware of a passion for wine. AND HAM. and Shem and Japheth took (wayyikkah) a garment. R. . his words being clipped. but his semen 'was scattered and he was humiliated. : IX. because in this passage on wine way (woe) is written fourteen times. (Gen. . 8 Being drunk. and persuaded them. Ex. * The reference is to his genital organs. HE SAW. xxi. 20-25). 70*2. R. and by a play on words it is translated 'woe'. : viz. consequently. he regains his freedom. Huna said Ark name When Noah was mutilated him. 4-6 in R. and this man [Noah] has three sons and yet he wants four! He 5 spoke to them. when him of one of them.

AND NOAH AWOKE FROM his wine. young and old. and with buttocks uncovered to the shame of Egypt' (Isa. 292 . ii).: in their breeches. 6-7] MIDRASH KABBAH to him. Jotianan means that the reward of Shem (the ancestor of the Jews) was the precept of fringes (v. Judan said: It means in their prayer robes of state. 8 Burial in the land of Israel is regarded as a privilege moreover. 4). It would have been disrespectful to turn their back on him. ' etc. 5 ) cloaks. Num. ill. are cast into the fiery furnace. I will save them. blessed be He. 24): he was sobered from AND KNEW WHAT HIS YOUNGEST SON HAD DONE UNTO HIM.XXXVI. xx. as you read. to Ham: 'Thou didst bring said be blessed He. however. 38). and Abed-nego. that I will give unto The Gog a place fit for burial in Israel (Ezek. 2 3 * But actually facing Noah. Huna said: It means in their : ' The Holy One. Holy I will thy father's nakedness into disgrace: By thy life. Therefore Shem was Japheth came and hearkened talliih and Japheth a pallium?a granted AND LAID IT UPON BOTH THEIR SHOULDERS. thy descendants. R. TalUth here means a fringed garment. Judan of be-sarbelehon'] R. xv. Th. the respect due from father's cover didst 'Thou to Shem: thy be blessed He. Meshach. giving him 3 the Said father. do we THEY SAW NOT THEIR FATHER'^ NAKEDNESS? : By ! ' are bound in their cloaks (be-sarbelehon). Huna [differed as to the meaning ai)-* (R. the Greek) was ike pallium a cloak betokening his dignity. said to Japheth : : Thou didst cover thy father's nakedness By thy life. Here it means. I will reward thee When these men life nakedness thy AND WENT BACKWARDS. HIS WINE (ix. for It shall come to pass in that day. One. here it implies that they would enjoy the Messianic era. Gog is held to be a descendant of Japheth. naked and barefoot. 7. (Dan. and R. know that This. and R. 1 A cloak fastened with clasps or buckles. while that of Japheth (i. teaches that they hid their 2 faces with their hands and walked backward. 5 Jast. xxxix. Now not since It is said. his worthless son. a to a son Holy One.e. captives of Egypt. When Shadrach. lead the shall away the king of Assyria requite thee: So 1 6 and the exiles of Ethiopia. I will reward thee.

R. Ham was actually not the youngest son. x. consequently. etc. R. in the second in the sense that it was too small and consequently unfit. * 8 Coins bearing his own effigy. and Japheth. GOD OF SHEM . Similarly. God's) own house. . Katon is used in both verses. Shem. and declared. who saw it R. therefore I curse your fourth son/ 3 R. Huna also said in R.GENESIS (NOACH) little to [XXXVI. while there cannot be a curse where a blessing has been given. Nehemiah explained: It was Canaan [in the first place] and informed them. 64). 25): Ham sinned and Canaan is cursed R. he exclaimed. Judah said: Since it is written. Noah and his sons (Gen. 8. therefore the curse is attached to him who did wrong. . Joseph's name: [Noah 'You have prevented me from begetting a fourth son. Judah and R. And God ! AND HE receive the burnt-offering. v. his effigy whereupon the king ordered: I decree that be defaced and Ham and the dog his coinage cancelled. Huna said in R. blessed HE SAID: CURSED BE CANAAN. 6 Copulating in the Ark is compared to minting one's coinage (producing offspring in one's own image) in the King's (i. 2 According to the Rabbis he castrated him. Ham. cohabitation]. therefore your seed will be ugly and dark-skinned. 1 293 . Berekiah said: Noah had no young son prevented therefore me from that man 2 begetting a young son to serve me. i). [your son] will be a servant to his brethren!' R. 5 copulated in the Ark and were punished. THE GOD ENLARGE JAPHETH (ix. sgb. v. Hiyya said : Ham and the dog copulated in the Ark. as appears from the order. declared]. AND HE SAID: BLESSED BE THE LORD. Levi said : This may be compared his own coinage 4 in the very palace of the king. R. 7-8 1 Because the brazen altar that was before the Lord was too SAID: CURSED BE CANAAN (ix. Canaan. (i Kings vm. Nehemiah disagreed. rx. 'You have R. 'When I go out I will beget a young son to do this for me/ But when Ham acted thus to him. Joseph's name: You have prevented me from doing something in the dark [sc. that he grieved very much in the Ark to wait on him. 6. Sc.e. Zeb. therefore Ham came forth black-skinned while the dog publicly exposes to its one who minted copulation.

. but ' ' it may * 8 translation in general. V. Hiyya 5 sequence [of words].e. 8] MIDRASH RABBAH 26 f. 6.V. R.XXXVI. vm. . he must not read it from 7 8 memory and write it. whether certain words are to be read with what follows or also cf. Meg. Geogr.e.e. Law of : Scripture distinctly the sense i. Ia R. 294 . supposed to be Essa. 38). he read it from memory and wrote it? 10 There [in Babylonia] they say: He wrote two Scrolls. Zera and R. Lulianus said: It refers to the grammatical and finding there no Scroll of Esther. Ned. mean what precedes them. 7 they taught the traditional vocalization. Meg. And punctuation accents. he must not write a Scriptural Scroll from memory but copy from another. This alludes to Cyrus who ordered the Temple to HE1 SHALL DWELL IN be rebuilt yet even so. The Rabbis of Caesarea said: Here we have an allusion to the traditional text. I. Targum usually connotes the Aramaic translation of Onkelos. (ib. which does not always agree with the written text. AND THE TENTS OF SEEM: the ShecMnah dwells only in the tents of Shein. 6 R. E. I. 'And he'. I. Which are not marked in the original Scroll of the Bible. God. The reference is to the Septuagint. 3#. that R. Judan said: From this 3 a translation we learn that [of the Bible is permitted]. 8) this refers to : in the book. Neub. Hananel said Even if a man is as wellversed in the Torah as Ezra.e. 6 376. Japheth. LXXX. u suppressed the first and kept the second as valid [for use]. Bar Kappara explained it Let the words of the Torah be uttered in the language of Japheth [sc. in the . infra . 9&.) And (ib. But it was taught It once happened : : 4 this refers to the beginnings of the verses. Meir was a skilled writer of Scrolls. For the whole passage cf. 11 Because the first was written from memory. Meir visited Asia Minor.e. iSb. 9 3 s 8 Sc. It may also refer to a town.). And they read God (Neh. : Thus it is written. whereas the second was f copied. Asia here means a tract of land including Lydia and some small portions of what is now Asia.} they gave caused them to understand the the R. 2 Greek] in the tents of Shem.) to a translation. east of the lake of Tiberias (v. p. I. b. reading (ib. Th. 8 : Meg.

4): i.). and Lud. and all the mingled people . Cappadocia 6 (Jast. Rodanim. Jast. xxx. 1 (x. 6). 5 AND THE SONS OF JAVAN: ELI SHAH. AND THE SONS OF HAM: CUSH. : : THE SONS . AND 4 RlPHATH AND TOGARMAH (x. Simon said That is the Euphrates region R. DODANIM (i ' * : ' 2. land of the Cimmerians. Resh Lakish said: We . Hanan said When Israel are elevated they say to them. and Put. 7 One verse calls them Dodanim. shall fall (Ezek. etc. 9 : 1 this probably refers to ancient Phrygia in Asia Minor. because they come and oppress (rodim) them. Media. Hellas and Taras [Tarantum]. on the shores of the Caspian sea. : Asia proconsularis ancient Phrygia. and Germania. AND CANAAN (x.). 3 district of Asia Minor. Adiabene. Th. isanda being another name for Javan (Macedonia) j in that case several names are left unidentified. AND MAGOG. near the borders of Th. Macedonia and Mysia. Amini said: These are Africa. i-2 CHAPTER i.e. while another verse calls them Rodanim called Chron. AND PUT. Samuel b. as it does the sons of the others. XXXVII (NOACH) OF JAPHETH: GOMER.e. R. 2 Germania. since Scripture does not enumerate the sons of Put. 8 In the other branches of the family. however. AND DODANIM (x. not to Africa. 7)? R.. district and city of Upper Mysia. had not Ezekiel came and explicitly enumerated him: Ethiopia. AND TARSHISH. . maintains with Graetz that the text is correct. We are the descendants of your kinsmen/ but when they are low they come and oppress them.[XXXVII. * Thus the family of Put existed as a distinct entity in the days of Ezekiel. 6 and Dardania. Berekiah said: Germanicia. 3): Asia. 3 AND T i R A s R. might have thought that the family of Put was 8 absorbed. KITHIM. 7 A 295 . 2 The A . 4 Th. with an emended text. i. i. AND THE SONS OF GOMER: ASHKENAZ. Especially the southern part of Italy.. Italia. 5 Town and district in the province of Commagene. AND MIZRAIM. R. called Magna Graecia (Jast. s). Simon said: They are because they are the descendants of Israel's kinsmen (dodim). 2). the Rabbis said : It is Thrace.

vn. etc. 3. xxviii. This same (hu) king Ahaz (u Chron. I. This (hu) Ezra went up (Ezra VH. i. he because is so Cushite? [He called] Hence it is written. It is not clear how he translates 'ben yemim* (E. the cunning ot the Romans in verbally entangling those whom they accused until they inadvertently confessed to what they had never committed. vi. Edom. 43). These are (hu) that Dathan and Abiram (Num. and five times denoting a good one.e. 26). Isaac: He [David] composed this with reference to the seat of 1 judgment of that wicked man. This explains the text. (HU) WAS A MIGHTY HUNTER. xxvi. i). i). being descended from Shem. S : a mighty hunter]. Five times hu' denotes a good character: Abram the same is (hu) Abraham (i Chron. R. These are (hu) that Moses and * HE Aaron (Ex. lying to the south of Judea. Five times 'hu* is found denoting a wicked character. Esau. but who was your accomplice in the murder/ . 296 . HUNTER BEFORE THE LORD Nimrod [was LIKE NIMROD '[True. 27). 8). This is (hu) Ahasuerus (Est. R. Berekiah said in the name of the Rabbis of the other country : [i. LIKE NIMROD A MIGHTY AND NIMROD (x. which he sang unto the Lord. Rome] snare people by their words. meaning Rome. 30). saying. This (hu) is Esau the father of the Edomites (Gen.e.] you have not stolen. but 4 the their did one snared so as the words. We have another that is better than all He is (hu) 1 Babylonia] the : Lord Sc. whilst Benjamin's territory was in the south of Palestine. 27) . I. Hanina b.XXXVII. 6). the land of Esau. These are (hu) that Aaron and Moses This same (hu) Hezekiah (n Chron. Understanding hunter metaphorically. 2 8 4 Surely not. I. (*&. xxxii.V. Implying that there was another like him. 22). Shiggaion of David. Joshua b. [but tell us] who was your partner in the theft you have not killed. 2-3] MIDRASH KABBAH GUSH BEGOT (x. It is employed five times to denote a wicked character: HE (HU) WAS A MIGHTY HUNTER. concerning Cush a Benjamite ish yemini (Ps. 'a Benjamite') in that case. Rashash conjectures * that it means a southerner '. Was then Esau a 2 acted like Nimrod. 9). Nehemiah said in the name of R. xxxvi. R. 9): it is not written.e. by just people other [Esau.

suffocation'. 10 Viz. * 5 Lit.e. while 'Lord* describes 2 In Mesopotamia. 3 IN THE SHINAR connotes that it is emptied (shemenu* ereth) of precepts. AND ERECH. OUT OF THAT LAND WENT FORTH ASSHUR from that scheme8 Asshur dissociated himself. must be understood literally.V. Proem xxiv to Lam. 'went forth*. this is Babylonia. AND REHOBOTH-IR. AND BUILDED NINEVEH. 297 .> however. xxxvii. and Calneh. v. which may have been the small kingdom of Bit-Adini Lit. last-named being] Talsar. hence. connotes that its princes (sarim) die young (ne'arim). cv. 11 Yet he [Asshur] did not remain constant [in his righteousness]. xi. 9 When he saw them come to wage war against the Holy One. LAND OF SHINAR: SHINAR 10): i. tithes. and when he came and joined I * them in destroying the Temple God said to him: is often understood to denote permanence. 1-9). also Her. and the Sabbatical 4 connotes that its inhabitants die in year. R. in His Attribute of Mercy (v. Edessa. xu 15). * ' To on the Upper Euphrates. teaching that His mercy endures for 4. z6a on the lack of oils for lighting in Babylonia. blessed be He. he quitted his country. xiv. assume that in this clause 'princes' means scholars.GENESIS (NOACH) our [XXXVII. supra. and Ctesiphon. Wa-yenaer in Ex. 6 Shab. like all precepts bound up with the soil. AND CALNEH (x.): Torah ii in their youth. Erech. In that case princes 8a. Th.). V ' 8 9 II build a city to heaven (Gen. lacking the precepts of terumah. and Shab. 27 (E. 3-4 God (Ps. on the eastern bank of the river * These. Hu' God 3 A to be observed in Palestine only. finally connotes that its princes study the SHINAR SHINAR f. conjectures that this may be identical with Telassar mentioned in Isa. AND CALAH. But v. AND THE BEGINNING OF HIS KINGDOM WAS BABEL. were Tigris (Jast. 256. 2 Nisibis. light and without a bath. 7 (X. Said God to Him: 'Thou hast departed from four places10 by thy life! . 12. where awsa instead of D^an is read: whose ' princes are youths and trample upon the Torah. [the I will give thee four'. Commentaries ad loc. 7 This last is absent in several MSS. 'overthrew*) is * translated by the Targum suffocated '.. AND ACCAD. 5 6 without a anguish. city in the southern part of Assyria. Babel. 7). on the lack of baths. AND RESEN. Accad.

it is written. Abba b.XXXVII. EGYPT] BEGOT. 8 s A 298 . Other MSS. a city of Syria on the eastern bank of the Orontes. We do not know whether Resen is the great city or Nineveh. 7 Also called Caesarea Libani. descriptive of disgraceful types which originated in Egypt. Now Nineveh was an exceeding great city (Jonah in.e. which means. 6. f If this is a place-name it has not been identified. have quite a different reading. you have stifled your good intentions. 4 The passage is extremely obscure. (x. 5. 3 THE SAME is THE GREAT CITY. 13 f. AND MIZRAIM R. a town at the north-western foot of Mount 8 Lebanon. [i. said: etc. 14) : THE PHILISTINES AND CAPH- ToRIM the Philistines were mighty men. Casluhim implies shame. it being loosely rendered: they have been delivered to a curse. They have been an arm to the children of Lot (Ps. retrogressed. the translation being only a conjecture. a curse. 3). it follows that Nineveh is the great city. 8 THE ARVADITE: Aradus. HIS FIRSTBORN.e. whilst now thou art shut up like [a chicken in] an egg' 2 . AND CANAAN BEGOT ZIDON etc. Phoenician seaport. 1 You have I. but the meaning of the actual words in the text is very doubtful.). however. since. probably. The first half of the verse reads : Assyria also is joined with them. 7 THE SINITE: Orthosia. R. while the 5 Caphtorirn were dwarfs. THE H i.e. 5 Kaftor (niJ-iBS) in Hebrew is a button. This is a play on words. forth What came from them? (x. He seems to mean that the name of Mizraim's children are all adjectival. and he probably interprets 'Caphtorim* as meaning button-like little and rotund people. Jast. 10 I. 9).e. translates: the cave-dwellers. Kahana said : The Pathruthim and Casluhim set up bazaars where they stole [interchanged] each other's wives. (x. aft (Lot) being read aV?. Kahana The entire coinage of Egypt is thoroughly debased: thus Pathruthim implies 4 degradation. therefore. for a curse (le-lewat). Abba b. Emesa. 9 THE ZEMARITE: Hamats10 and why is it called Zemarite? . south of the river Eleutheros. 15-18). * 4~6] MIDRASH KABBAH 1 Yesterday a chicken and to-day an egg! Yesterday thou didst soar aloft with religious actions and noble deeds. I THE ARKITE: v I T E: the inhabitants of Hildin6 Arkas of the Lebanon. * On the Phoenician coast. . LXXXIII.

* The Hebrew may mean: the brother of near the Dead Sea (Jast. 19): OF THE CANAANITE WAS i. the ancients did not know). Shem would have been 102 years old two years after the Flood. . AND UNTO SHEM.). Shem was a hundred years and AND UNTO EBER WERE BORN TWO SONS. THE FATHER OF ALL THE CHILDREN OF EBER. Now his children are enumerated thus: Shem. it follows that Japheth was the elder. IN HIS DAYS Jose said: WAS THE EARTH DIVIDED (x. not 100. but we who cannot avail ourselves of the Holy Spirit are named after our fathers. because they could avail themselves of the Holy Spirit. not of age. R. xi. 6-7 wool (zemer) is 1 manufactured HAMATHITE: THE . . 3 Warm springs on the eastern side of the Jordan. being the youngest. and Japheth the eldest (Sanh. named days]. This is rather forced. the elder Japheth. We do not know from this verse whether Shem or Japheth was the elder. 21). since they knew their genealogy. are the generations of Shem. seeing that he named his child in reference to a [future] incident. as far as Caliirrhoe. is more logical and preferable. Simeon b.GENESIS (NOACH) Because [XXX VII. there. R. 69*). Hence we must assume that they are enumerated in order of wisdom. FOR [i. as it is 1 A city of Syria. and is therefore ambiguous. while the Flood occurred in his 6ooth year. Jose b.e. which reverses the statements (i. TO HIM ALSO WERE CHILDREN BORN (x. themselves in reference to the events [of their The But we who do not know our genealogy name ourby our fathers. and perhaps the reading in the Yalkut. THE NAMEOF THE ONE WAS PELEG division].e. Ham. selves 5 ancients. Now these old. * For Noah begot his first child at the age of 500. 299 . Gamaliel said: The ancients. and Japheth consequently. . 6 Thus an infant's name corresponded to an event that might happen in Shem his later life. R. 2 7. named themselves in reference to [forthcoming] events 6 . Ham a year older. 25).e. begot Arpachshad two years after the flood (Gen. if these were in the order of birth. 4 10). AND THE BORDER UNTO LAS HA (x. Epiphania. 3 But since it is written. Halafta said: Eber must have been a great prophet. THE ELDER BROTHER OF JAPHETH. 5 And thus found it unnecessary to state who their fathers were. R.

how much the more so when an older minimises his importance! 8. in general that it is the finest and most fertile district. 8 as A 300 . written. where and hope daily for said: It refers to a place called Hazar people eat leeks. 14). 7 8 Babylon. AND HAZARMARETH said (x. 2 Maweth. 3 It is a place of extreme poverty and misery. Th. * The island formed by the Euphrates. 125. 72<a it is called Zizura. 'district of the sea': that region of Babylon which is traversed by 1 The reading supra. . Judah is vi. 3 . and Elam is dying. 30). Eleazar b. this * 2 rivers 7 and canals. 1 What did he thereby earn? He was privileged to found thirteen families. . Now if a younger is thus rewarded because he minimises his affairs. 4. in the other two they are mixed. Now if the younger is thus rewarded because he minimises his importance. son founded that place. Media is 5 Habil Yamma6 is the glory of sick. how much more so when a great man minimises his importance! Similarly. and laid it upon Ephratm's head. SONS.e. district not far from the Tigris. which was rich and fertile. plants. wear garments of papyrus. (This is the explanation given in Iid. Obermeyer. p. XLVIII.) 6 Lit.XXXVII. while Maweth means death. R. But younger (za'ir) means that he minimised (maz'ir) his importance. Landschaft. Rashi in Jid. Zuzira is the glory of Habil Yamma. Huna: Do we not know from the birth records that he was the younger. jza: It may also mean its inhabitants are of the purest birth in Babylon. the Tigris. In ICid. who was the elder (ib. & The Jews of Mesene are all unfit genealogically. while the majority of Elam are not. but the majority of Media are pure. And Israel stretched out his right hand. Said R. 716. 7^8] MIDRASH KABBAH AND UNTO EBER WERE BORN TWO etc. dead. it actually was. AND JOKTAN BEGOT Huna death. the waters of whose canal debouched into the Tigris between Baghdad and Madam. : the reference is probably not to a place of that name in southern Arabia. And why was the other called 'Joktan'? Because he minimised (maktiri) [the importance of] his affairs. Samuel : They did not even have garments of papyrus. IJazar (hazir) is translated herbs. R. 26). AND THEIR DWELLING WAS FROM MESHA 4 Pappos said: Mesene (X. What did he thereby earn? He attained the birthright. is because he made himself small'. I. R. and the Royal Canal.

4 pp. the moun.: between the Euphrates i. As THOU GOEST TOWARD SfiPHAR: i. rejects this purer than that of Palestine. 3 Its genealogy is pure. tains of the East. Oberraeyer. 301 .e. The genealogy of Babylon was regarded as even ijast. he. Kid. 8 A city in southern Arabia. Babylon] in 2 respect of genealogy. * The text is an Aramaic translation of the Hebrew.* and maintains that 'between the rivers' is the Talmudic designation for any region of island formation. cit.e. 6gb. and here applies to the Euphrates region from Hit (Ihi de Kira) to Anah. Taphar3 UNTO THE MOUNTAIN OF THE EAST: i.GENESIS (NOACH) said: [XXXVII Between the rivers 1 Is as the Exile [sc. 100 and the Tigris.

to and fro by Thy power wander them 'And bring them down' from above to below. Jose b. XVI. R. Zimra related the verse to the generation of the Separation [of races]. is weary and weak-handed xvn. therefore let us go and make supports. our Shield (Ps. but for us. one in the west. Make cast them away.e.e. 21).XXXVIII. 5 But they refused to recognise the Flood as a Divine visitation for evil. lest my people forget. one In the north. 302 . And I . Jose b. one In the south. i] CHAPTER XXXVIII I. AND THE WHOLE EARTH WAS : etc. O Lord. Lix. This one [Ahitophel] permitted them. [for he counselled]. Israel said: * Slay not the generation of Separation. i). so that his blood was permitted [his life was forfeit] and his wife permitted. let and the words of their lips (ib. Go in unto thy father's concubines (li Sam. For the sin of their mouth. Samuel said: He annulled his [David's] citizen rights and declared him an outlaw and as one dead. lest the generations that follow them forget. xxxii. I. i . (xi. whilst ' ' may : : 1 * 2 Their sin and their punishment. : shed. make them wander to and bring them down. Zimra with the text Slay them not. lest my and fro by Thy power people forget. cast 'And bring them down" from their greatness. and that one permitted incest and bloodwander ' to 'Make them them about. For the sin of their mouth for the sin which they uttered with their mouth. The Rabbis relate the verse to Doeg and Ahitophel David said. They said Once in one thousand six hundred and fifty-six years 4 the Firmament totters 5 . Leazar in the name of R. and I will smite the king (ib. 12). . .e.' 1 i. (NOACH) OF ONE LANGUAGE. 2 R. ' ' : lest ' : The Lord be our shield. The Lord be our Shield'. * The period from the Creation to the Flood. from the top of their tower. and fro by Thy power. ^ : "Slay not Doeg and Ahitophel. will come upon him while he [while he further said]. Leazar commenced his discourse in the name of R. lest my people forget the generations that follow them forget. 2). 13) this one permitted Incest and bloodshed. Supra. 3 But for us.' i. And the other [Doeg] permitted them: Nahman b.

(Prov. [sc. for him that hateth thee implies that he had he is bound to go to his assistance. xxiii. 4 With this the generation of the Separation was deemed 8 Translating. Berekiah related a * The Hebrew has the singular. evil evil for good''. you are still indebted to him. to have begun. yet. evil shall not depart. but [two years. as it is written. thou shalt surely release it with him (Ex. why? Because he showed hospitality to ' you Whoso rewardeth 6 first. xi. . Johanan began thus : VlHioso rewardeth evil for good. Kahana: Like a man who pounds barley in a frame. 5) : of such Scripture saith. the punishment was being inflicted. xxvii. 3 evil shall not depart from his house (ib. Kahana began thus: Though thou shouldest bray a fool in a mortar with a pestle among groats. Abba. If that even if one has done evil to another. Whoso returneth evil instead of returning good. but even he * who rewardeth his house. Even while the fool is being chastised. yet good. xxvi. though actually the Separation took place 340 years after the Flood 5 The lesson was forgotten so soon almost whilst (supra. etc. so he [who chastises the fool] thinks to improve him. Simeon b. AND THE WHOLE EARTH WAS etc. R. 5 OF ONE LANGUAGE. explains that thou see. Simeon b. Thus the generation of the Flood was removed from the generation of Separation.. Abba b. to supports R. and quotes the verse. 22). R. Said R. Mah. R. R. . 2 yet even as it [the pestle] rises and 3 Yet will his foolishness not depart from him (6. 1-3 eastern support. Babylonia] their lips will ' be its it And 2. the THE WHOLE EARTH WAS OF ONE LANGUAGE. Johanan: If your neighbour [first] entertained you with lentils and you [subsequently] entertained him with meat. 4 io). 'Evil shall not depart Alexandri commented on the verse Wfioso rewardeth for good' now the Torah said: If thou see the ass of : Mm that hateth thee lying under its burden.' evil for evil.GENESIS (NOACH) at this spot ' [XXXVIII. word 1 of : thus AND eta R. xvn. Said R. Abba from said: Not only R. the latter must return 6 7 The prove done him harm. Abba b. is written. etc.' etc. falls. 13). Wfioso rewardeth evil for 7 the good.). Alexandri point here is not quite clear. Shem begot Arpachshad] two years after the flood (Gen. 3). 2 This reading is preferable. thou shalt forbear to pass by him.

3 for the deeds of the generation of the Flood are explicitly stated. WAS OF ONE LANGUAGE. 'Azariah commenced: We would have Babylon. they returned evil by rebelling against Him. 10). xi.V. and their hearts. vi. 3 This is his translation of debarim ahadim (E. the generation of the Flood from that of Enosh. Rabbi commenced: They know not. Leazar said: That means. etc. Judah b. neither do they understand . 6. 'But she was not healed' in the generation of the Flood. and the generation of the Separation from that of the Flood [from which it was but two years removed. 9) healed Babylon' in the generation of Enosh. as it is written. that they cannot see. whereas those of the generation of Separation are not explicitly stated. R.' yet. AND they 1 OF ONE SPEECH (AHADIM): that means that spoke against two who were unique [lit. AND THE WHOLE EARTH WAS OF ONE LANGUAGE AND OF ONE SPEECH (AHADIM). * N E SPEECH')- O 34 . Though God had saved them from the Flood. WHOLE EARTH WAS OF ONE LANGUAGE. 3-6] verse to these MIDRASH KABBAH 1 Now the generation generations. We would have healed 5. AND THE WHOLE EARTH WAS etc. (Gen. The generation of Separation. LI. 4. years after the flood. Thus were in the earth in those days. * As the narrative ends : And from thence did the Lord scatter them abroad (v. is written. R. AND THE WHOLE EARTH etc. 9) thus each went 'into Ms own country*. but she was not healed (Jer. 2 OF ONE LANGUAGE. as it is written.XXXVIII. for their eyes are bedaubed.) * : is written. 'one']. years after the flood AND etc. and let us go every one into his own country (ib. Shem begot Arpachshad] two THE (Gen. 18). yet. ' 3 of the Flood was removed from the generation of Separation but [two years. 'Shem begot Arpachshad] two it stand (Isa. Forsake as it her. that they cannot under- The Nephilim R. Rabbi commented: The later generations would not learn from the earlier ones. XLIV. Judah b. R. 4). viz. of veiled deeds.

that it may appear to wage war with Him/ Yet of the former not a remnant was left. as it is written. 8 Thus they wished to supplant God a more heinous offence.T. 3 R. (ib.viz. Leazar said: Who is worse the one who says to the king. and let us build a tower at the top of which we will set an idol holding a 5 sword. whence to satisfy. as in the text they convinced God that * For he means to usurp the king's throne. mule1 and cannot produce offspring/ Against The Lord OUT God. another and found it sour. What is the ' * * Almighty. 15). Neither you nor I will dwell in the palace ? Surely the one who says. And since the latter. 4). they violently take away flocks and feed them xxiv. vi. which will thus appear to wage ! war against Him/ Another interpretation: AND ONE SPEECH (AHADIM) means united in possessions. 24) and One (Dent. rather. 3 This is a play on words. Come. Either you or I/ 4 Similarly. united in thought. whereas of the latter a remnant was left! But because the generation of the Flood was steeped in robbery. and a third and found it sour. loved each other. whereas the generation of Separation said: *It does not rest with Him to choose the celestial spheres for Himself and assign the terrestrial world to us. they were uniformly evil. He opened one barrel and found it sour. the generation of the Flood said. 2 what one possessed being at the other's disposal. [XXXVIII. that we should serve Him? (Job xxi. against against The Lord our God. The be Rabbis said: OF ONE LANGUAGE (SAFAH) may ' by the case of a man who had a wine cellar. the Lord is Said they: 'This Abraham is a barren ' GENESIS (NOACH) Abraham who was one (Ezek. on the other hand. : 35 x . 1 2 The mule was : held to be incapable of breeding. to tranquillise. safah (language) being connected with skafe. Either you or I will d\vell in illustrated * the palace. 2). the Lord is One': 'He has no right to choose the celestial spheres for Himself and assign us the terrestrial world But come. 6 xxxin. whereas the other wishes to drive him from it but not to usurp it. So Mah. They remove the landmarks. Y. This satisfies (mashpd) me that all the barrels are unfit/ he remarked. therefore not a remnant of them was left.' or the one who says. let us build a tower at the top of which we will set an idol holding a sword in its hand.

V. R. AND ALL THE EARTH WAS ONE LANGUAGE OF SHARP WORDS. 2). the Holy One. He permits them to scorn (Job accept either :THEYFOUND: THERE.V. R. AND IT CAME TO PASS. 1 a remnant of them therefore LANGUAGE. IV. says. Judah said: All the nations of the world assembled to discover which plain would hold them all. Mah. whether good or bad an assertion of free-will (cf Yoma 3 Sb. Simeon They betook themselves away from the Ancient (kadmon) of the world. AS THEY JOURNEYED FROMTHEEAS T M IKK E D E M (xi. 2). 'He scorneih them'. love and unity * Isaac said: Wherever A 4 * by the Rabbis. for it is him alone (Hos. I have no dominion ' THE WHOLE EARTH written. while this spot will be its eastern support. divided. united. what is they bear their guilt Ephraim is united in idol-worship . God permitted them to find a spot . therefore let us go and make supports for it. one in the west.e. 'Ephraim is joined to idols'. 34)* 6 AND THEY DWELT 1 I. and eventually they found it. the Rabbis maintain that they travelled from a still more easterly point. 4 They travelled from further interpreted: east to nearer east. is AND WAS OF ONE over let them ' . I. now shall said. : Th. translation. 'We refuse to Him or His Divinity/ THAT THEY FOUND A PLAIN. x. 17). 306 . (ib. too. Leazar b. Lit. R. blessed be He. 'Once in one thousand six hundred and fifty-six Another AND ONE SPEECH Firmament totters . HI. saying. 5 R. suitable for their purpose. If it concerneth the scorners.XXXVIII.e. one in the south. Since they came to Shinar (Babylon) which is itself in the east. 7. striHng tribute to the value assigned to brotherly 8 E. But when their hearts are written? Their heart is divided. as it were. * E. io&). R. Thus here.' Thus years the it is written. for even if Israel practise idolatry but maintain peace amongst themselves. 3 OF interpretation : means that (AHADIM) they spoke sharp words (hadim). Nehemiah observed thus it is written. as it 6-7] MIDRASH KABBAH was left. God gives all men the opportunity to follow their desires. one in the north. 3 Rabbi said: Great is peace. saying.

e. destined AND THEY HAD BRICK FOR said : : STONE. 6. Abba said: however. he replied : And they not left off to build the city (ib. Satan becomes active. 1 Ilelbo said Wherever you find contentment. the palm trees below AND LET US MAKE A NAME (SHEM). R. a third was burnt. 7. 8. LXXXPV beginning. Who whom? Said R. R. AND BURN THEM (WE-NISREFAH) THOROUGHLY: This is written weis AND THEY 5 6 nissorfah (and we will be burnt): this people to be burnt out of the world. R. A third of this tower which they built sank [into the earth]. 8 LEST WE BE SCATTERED ABROAD UPON THE FACE 1 By MT the Rabbis understood to live in tranquillity. etc. drink. Idi's it [the remaining third] is small R. An objection is raised : city But it is written. 8 Cf. being mentioned. loga. 8). The School of R. 4). R. 4 COME. brings you find dwelling mentioned. while a third is still standing. Satan accusations. An d the Lord came down to see the and the tower (ib. 7-8 R. 3). Huna said name: When him : one ascends to the top. Ex. infra. Satan's ire! 3 E to eat and SAT R. Huna Their work prospered a man came to lay one [stone] and he laid two he came to plaster one [row] and plastered . Ishmael taught else SHEM (A NAME) means nought but an idol. Levi translates : AND THEY DOWN THER * V. Berekiah: Mlzraim said to Cush. 2 R. Levi said: 3 Wherever you find eating and drinking. And should you think that in R. the arch-robber [Satan] cuts his capers [is up to mischief].e. two. 5 I.GENESIS (NOACH) : [XXXVIII. v. XLI. Hiyya b. but they did not build the city. He 37 . LET US MAKE BRICKS. said to SAID ONE TO ANOTHER (XI. he sees like grasshoppers. translates: And the brick turned itself for them into stone. they themselves. 7 * The work seemed to grow of itself! I. LET us BUILD us A CITY. AND A TOWER (xi. Sanh. the word may be read so with a different punctuation. etc. 5) ? Read what follows. the tower. 7 AND THEY SAID: COME. x. Judan said: The tower they built. which rouses 2 So as to disturb it.

etc. both being ungrateful. of thee. 8 4 fi 1 they showed themselves his spiritual heirs. E. after all the good which : to be said. xi. ' THE WHOLE EARTH WAS OF ONE yet. etc. blessed be He. Abba b. (xi. in. io).e. however. R. Abba now 308 . which they purpose to do. AND THE LORD CAME OF THE Simeon b.XXXVIII. i2). They are enumerated by Th. the children of the 3 first man [Adam] Just as Adam. years. THEY ARE ONE PEOPLE. THEY ARE ONE PEOPLE AND THEY HAVE ALL ONE LANGUAGE. Berekiah said : Would we then have thought that asses or camels built it ? It means. Halputha ruin (Prov. R. (Deut. as it doth the Lord thy God require etc. said. Two years 5 after the flood' (ib. $upra> 6. etc. Simeon b. He made I. R. BEHOLD. 4 so though the generation of the Flood [preceded that] of the Separation [by but two I bestowed upon him. down. if they repent I will accept them.' 7 * R. they live in unity. indicates repentance.e. Judah interpreted it: Since. And now. AND LANGUAGE. 2 is one of the ten descents WHICH THE CHILDREN OF MEN (ADAM) BUILDED. gave repent. Yohai said: This mentioned in the Torah. He uproots it fruit. And the latter might easily have shared their fate. (Gen. THEY ARE ONE PEOPLE AND OF ONE LANGUAGE? against AND NOW. PURPOSE TO DO BE WITHHOLDEN FROM THEM (XI. as it is said]. Nehemiah explained rebel it: What caused them to Me? Was it not because. Israel. but to fear the But they 'No!' THEN LET ALL WHICH THEY ? ! Lord thy God. 8-9] MIDRASH KABBAH 1 WHOLE EARTH. for AND NOW What them an opportunity says. x. 12). BEHOLD. AND THE LORD SAID: BEHOLD. 6). to R. 9. The woman whom Thou gavest with me. xvui. selves responsible for I. cf. Kahana said: This teaches that the Holy One. pEJalafta] quoted: A fools mouth is his DOWN TO SEE. etc. R. what does its owner do to it By saying this they unconsciously prophesied their fate and were them2 One of the ten occasions when God came it.V. y). God's very goodness the excuse for his sin. splits up the verse thus in three portions.: 'And nothing will be withholden from them. R. 7 decreed the Lord. When a vineyard does not yield 6).

'While Mizraim (Egypt) retains his land* is obscure. sixteen from the sons of Keturah and twelve from Ishmael. 8 He reads ndblah (E.3 Thus one said to his fellowwater/ whereupon he would give him which he struck him and split his skull. the singular instead of the plural to obviate any idea of plurality in the Godhead. 23). at which he struck him and split his skull. at me them. 8 and as for the remaining two are in thy 1 And the Lord said unto her : Two nations womb (Gen. 5 R. Nehemiah who follows both hold that the Separation took place after the nations had been apportioned their territories thus. 309 . 8). and in Yalkut. 'Bring axe/ but he brought him a spade. R. R.e. of the things which they 1 altered for King Ptolemy [changing it to] 'Come. those nearest to the Tower of Babel) of all countries and joined by lines into a huge figure. Judan said: The Tyrians went to Sidon and the Sidonites to Tyre. * Th. COME. SO THE LORD SCATTERED THEM ABROAD WAYYAFEZ (xi. 'Bring earth.'* R. is to be read wayyazef (SCATTERED) (swept away): the sea came up and swept away thirty families. 3 The I. destruction) and interprets sefatham (E. 8 7 V. and this is presumably his comment upon it. The idea is as though points were taken on the inner borders (i. Cf.V. I will go down. 'confound') as nebalah (meanness. vin. and it is omitted in cur. 'their language') * The verse is not written as referring to the words of their lips. 7 R. Levi's name No misfortune comes to a man which does not profit somebody. Whence were those : WAYYAFEZ : thirty families replaced? From Abraham. and the nations entered within this and withdrew each those of its members who had gathered there to build the tower. Thus R. as they were before they gathered to build the Tower. the Separation merely transposing them. supra. Nehemiah holds that the people remained in their own countries after the Separation. This is one 10 worker. xxv. Gen. xxv. Abba interpreted it: Through their own lips will I destroy GENESIS (NOACH) [XXXVII I. Nehemiah said: All the countries assembled within the angular points and each absorbed 6 The Rabbis said its own inhabitants. Judan and R. transf. and there confound their language. Through their me an own lips I will 4 destroy them. edd.e. LET us GO DOWN (xi. 7). translators of the Septuagint. obscenity.10. 13-15The allusion is unknown. 5 subsequently to the Flood. n. 2-4.V. while Mizraim [Egypt] retains his land. Thus it is written. Phinehas said in R.

asked him. Johanan was sitting before (xi. Thou shalt be buried in a good old age (ib. 'From Borsif/ he answered. broke them. AND HARAN DIED (xi. 'Not that is its name/ he in accordance with the text. 'What is the cause It is because I am exiled from my home/ replied he. A man came and wished to buy one. 'How old are you?' Abraham 13. R. A disciple of he demanded. 'you are fifty years old and would worship a day-old object At this he became ashamed and departed. ' Mm and THEREFORE WAS THE NAME OF IT CALLED R. Abba b. raised an THESE ARE THE GENERATIONS OF TERAH. FATHER TERAH 28). etc.? That too does not disprove replied he. 9). TERAH BEGOT ABRAM. But thou [Abraham] shalt go to thy fathers in peace (ib. rejoined. remarking at the same time that it should be called Balsif. Johanan identified with Babel.XXXVIII.): He Informed him that Ishmael would repent In his own days. 27). Now it. and put the stick in the hand of the largest. this name being compounded of balal and safah and thus showing its it 1 origin. IN THE PRESENCE OF HIS Hiyya said: Terah was a manufacturer of Idols. ' BECAUSE THERE THE LORD DID CONFOUND (BALAL) THE LANGUAGE (SEFATH) OF ALL THE EARTH/ 1 TERAH BEGOT ABRAM. R. 11. for what is the meaning of. 'Woe to such a man!' he exclaimed. When his father returned he Borsif was a city near the site of Babylon. He once went away somewhere and left Abraham to sell them in his place. XV. 15)? He [God] Informed him that his father had a portion in the World to Come. etc. (xi. 'Whence do you come?" inquired he. On another occasion a woman came with a plate' ! ful of flour and requested him. NOW objection to him: But it is written. and R. 1 1-13] MIDRASH RABBAH BABEL of this ? could not grasp his teaching. 310 . Kahana said: Whoever has his name thus repeated has a portion in this world and in the World to Come. 'Take this and offer it to them/ So he took a stick. 'but Balsif. 'Fifty years/ was the reply. They 12. THESE ARE THE GENERATIONS OF TERAH.

3" . and let your God whom you adore come and save you from it/ Now Haran was standing there undecided. "I must eat first/' Thereupon the largest arose. 'we but the fire. One claimed. 'have they then any knowledge!' 'Should not your ears listen to wiiat your mouth is saying/ he Thereupon he seized him and delivered him to Nimrod. and you find that Haran begot children at six years Nahor was a year 1 * You deny their knowledge and yet you worship them The Rabbis translate *al pens' 'because of he died because his father ! * * : manufactured idols. 'Then let us worship water!' 'Let us rather worship the clouds which bear the water. AND HARAN DIED 14.' he cried out. Hence 'Of whose . he seized and cast him into the fire his inwards Thereupon were scorched and he died In his father's presence. are just bandying will wind/ 'You If Abram is victorious. I will say that I am of Abram's belief. took the stick. [now deduct] the year of pregnancy with Milcah and the year of pregnancy with Iscah. When Abram descended Into the fiery furnace and was saved. (xi. he [Nimrod] asked him. belief are you?' 'Of Abram's/ he replied. which extinguishes the fire/ replied he. Behold." while another claimed.' he rejoined. 'A woman came with a plateful of fine meal and requested me to offer It to them. Then let us worship the clouds Let us rather worship the winds which disperse the clouds/ Then let us worship the wind F Let us rather worship human beings.). IN THE PRESENCE S FATHER TERAH. etc. [thought he]. Nahor and older than Haran. AND ABRAM AND NAHOR TOOK THEM 29 f. 'Let us worship the fire!' he [Nimrod] proposed. [hence Abram was] two years older [than Haran]. "I must eat first. HIS OF ('AL PENE) it is written. Abram was a year older than WIVES. 'Let us rather worship water. 'What have you done to them?' *I cannot conceal it from you. and broke them/ 'Why do you make sport of me. while if Nimrod is victorious I will say that I am on Nimrod's side.GENESIS (NOACH) [XXXVIIL 13-14 demanded. 1 ' ' ' ' 1 ' ' words/ he exclaimed. I will cast you worship nought into it. who withstand the retorted.

According to the Rabbis. And a redeemer will come to Zion. etc. 14] MIDRASH KABBAH Abram was] ' of age. surely it should have been granted to Abram to beget children ! The Midrash answers that the fault was not in Abram but in Sarai. (Isa. who was barren. Sarah's father. i). ' Wherever she had not : is found. Again. 21). BARREN. * and yet you say that Abram could not beget child/ is not clear. 11. Now Abram was ten years older than Sarah (v. since he was two years older then Haran. and unto them that turn 1 from transgression. 20). it means that eventually she did have. yet you say that [The reason. however. children And (i Peninah had Lord remembered Sarah (Gen. could beget children at such an early age. irans VT gives a rather more plausible explanation which. Haran must have been six years old when he begot a child. xvn. 17). however. she was his second daughter. etc. > 312 . when his wife conceived by him. 17). Levi said : so). written. Sarah was bom when Haran was only eight years old. SHE HAD NO CHILD: eventually she did is WAS have. xxx.XXXVIII. written.e. could not beget a child! 1 : AND SARAI WAS (ib. She is Zion. LIX. SHE HAD NO CHILD R. an unbeliever. as it is she bore three sons. And the xxi. does not fit in so well with the text. but Hannah had no Sam. there is none that careth for her (Jer. children. and since the period of pregnancy and child-bearing is roughly a year for each child. as it Thus AND SARAI BARREN. 2): eventually she did have. And I. Yet eventually she will have [one to care for her. The point of the difficulty. (ib. i. iJjn'jN tarn racMD says: If Haran. Iscah was Sarah. as it is written]. Again.

Said R. however. fragrance blessed be He. Said R. 1 Is it possible sider. Isaac commenced his discourse with.[XXXIX. Berekiah: What did Abraham resemble ? A phial of myrrh closed with a tightR. Is it conceivable that the world without a guide ? the Holy One. This and the following are assumed 1 to be said by God to the angels (Th. For he is thy Lord. 12): ' i. The owner of the building looked out and Abraham our is the owner of the building/ Similarly. forget also thine own people. Isaac: This may be compared to a man who was travelling from place to place when he saw a building in flames. so that its fragrance was it was taken up. the corollary of which is the unity and brotherhood of man. the Holy One. as soon as hence. CHAPTER i-3 XXXIX LECH LECHA i. looked ' ' am out and said to him. Hearken. blessed be He. 'I building lacks a person to look after it? he wondered. to make thee glorious in the world. and con- and incline thine ear . and thy father's house (Ps. etc.e. Now THE LORD SAID UNTO ABRAM: GET THEE OUT OF THY COUNTRY. etc. Similarly. R. fitting lid Berekiah commenced: Thine ointments have a I. vm. * By proclaiming the unity and oneness of God. goodly fragrance (S. XLV. GET THEE. that the said.)- 313 . 8): this refers 2 Bar Kappara observed: us. for world the whole (ihah) Similarly Abraham saw the world being destroyed by the flames of vice and wrongdoing. its was disseminated. 3. O daughter. etc. who united (ib. Berekiah commenced: We have a little sister ahoth to Abraham. the Sovereign of the Universe/ So shall the king desire thy beauty (ib. R. and do homage unto him (ib. and lying in a corner. i). I am the Guide. 2.S. 3).) hence. n). and thy name will become great in the world': not disseminated. said to Abraham: 'Travel from place to place. THE LORD SAID : UNTO ABRAHAM: GET THEE. (xn. because father said.

): no breasts suckled him in piety or good deeds. He [God] 2 will build up 3 if she be a door (deleth). [whom wisdom made stronger] than the ten generations from Noah to Abraham out of all of them I spoke to thee alone. LI. that is the probable meaning of the passage.) : if he is poor ' will enclose (nazur) her (da!) in piety and noble deeds. xxxvin. Now THE LORD SAID UNTO ABRAHAM. enclose (nazur) her with boards of cedar (ib. If she be a wall. 9). ? him * from. 'Little': even while young he stored up pious acts and good deeds. And 1 she hath no breasts (ib. sons are breasts like the towers thereof (ib. What shall we do for our sister in the day when she shall be spoken for (ib. into his country (ib. 5. And We just as a drawing (zurah) [on 4 boards] is only temporary. wise Wisdom maketh a 5 man stronger than ten rulers Abraham. GET THEE. whom to draw inspiration.) y as it is written.XXXIX. lee. R. 5. ig) : this refers to . xxxiv. translates: a world will be built upon him he shall be the ancestor of a new order. But she was not healed' and let us Now 1 3 go every one in the generation of the Flood. We would have * healed Babylon in the generation of Enosh . we will [a defence] for him. Forsake her.) unscathed hence. 9) : if he resists [Nimrod] like a wall. 3-S] MIDRASH KABBAH Like a person who sews a rent together. Mah.) ? Le. E. (Eccl. Supra. 10): I stand as firm as a wall. Cf. 4 5 ' 3H . VII. 5.): Hananiah. Var. supra. : : Now fiery furnace] in THE LORD SAID UNTO ABRAM: 4.V.: we. Said he [Abraham] to Him: Sovereign of the with boards of cedar ' : and * Universe! I Ahd my am a wall (ib. and Azariah/ Then was I in his eyes as my one that found peace peace and left it he entered [the (ib. THE LORD SAID UNTO ABRAM: GET THEE. as it is 6 written. He had none Will save It is easily rubbed off. 'Azariah commenced: We would have ' * healed Babylon^ but she was not healed (Jer. Mishael. Wisdom is a stronghold to a wise man more than ten rulers that are 6 7 in a city'. we will build upon her (ib. on the day when the wicked Nimrod ordered him to be cast into the fiery furnace. so will I protect him only for a time. He translates: We will treat her like a drawing.

4 learn that the wicked.) ? If thou desirest the world to endure.6.) 315 . and yet it is narrated before. 1 while if Thou desirest absolute justice the world cannot endure. 8). and hated wickedness. 'Azariah in R. Said the Holy One. the world cannot endure. xvni. 32). Aba's name thus: Thou hast loved righteousness. Unless Thou forgoest a little. even during their lifetime. Aha explained this Thou hast sworn not to bring a deluge upon the world. thy God. justice untempered by mercy.): from Noah until thee were ten generations. presumably this was much later. desiring both the world and absolute justice. (Ps. etc. age died sixty-five years after it is command. R. xi. GENESIS (LECH LECHA) [XXXIX. LORD SAID UNTO ABRAM: GET THEE may [which followed by] Now THE (LEK LEKA). THE LORD SAID UNTO Now Now (ib. hence Terah. (Though stated supra> xxxvur. 3 But first you called dead. are For Abraham was afraid. saying. Aha's name referred the verse to our father Abraham. Isaac said: From the point of view of chronology a period of sixty-five years is still required. 7. God. * To bring the narrative to the death of Terah. R. what is written there ? from Thee to do after this manner (Gen. 12. what precedes xi. R. Levi commented: Shalt not the Judge of all the earth do justly (ib. 6-7 'Azariah commenced in R. that he repented. When Abraham our father stood mercy for the Sodomites. 4). hence. to Abraham oil ' : Thou hast loved righteousness. and hated to condemn them as wicked. Translating: Thou hast loved to justify (thy fellowmen). there can be no absolute justice. therefore ABRAHAM. yet Thou wouldst hold the cord by both ends. 'Shall I go * I. R. xn. 26). blessed be He. this passage is ? And Terah died in Haran 32). Wouidst Thou evade Thine : to plead for That be far oath! Not a deluge of water wilt Thou bring but a deluge of fire? Then Thou hast not been true to Thine oath. XLV. whilst Abram departed from Haran at the age of seventy-five (fb. whose at 1 death was two hundred and this 4 five (ib. R.e. and hated wicked- ness2 . and out of all of them I spoke with thee alone'. XT. 25). For Terah was seventy years old at Abram's birth (Gen. Hence Terah is already in his lifetime called dead. hath anointed thee with the of gladness above thy fellows (ib.

etc. thee. xxm. where lek (' go *) alone would have sufficed.V. Moreover. 6 'In the day of thy warfare' [lit. xv. retinue']. etc. 41. Gen. and this Leka (E. xn. 'And Terah died in Haran' is stated first. though it is recorded later. Num. R. 3). as people He left his father in his 2 though I exempt no one else from this duty. from the ancient mountain did Me 1 This is one of the most important teachings of Judaism a wrongful deed dishonours one's faith and one's God. blessed be He. edd. to mean 430 years after the Covenant with Abraham . to mean this by a mere change of punctuation. one passage [referring to his departure] from Aram Naharaim and Aram Nahor. which can be proved. go) 3 is 'Lek leka' is written twice. I will record his death before thy departure/ Hence. e{ J-8] MIDRASH RABBAH upon the Divine out and bring dishonour " old age and departed ? >l Therefore the Holy One. GET THEE (LEK LEKA). cf. parents.) Therefore the Midrash states that God made him fly from the Covenant of the parts to Haran. of the Bible read 'mm. and the other [to his departure] from Aram Nahor. (The 400 years mentioned in the Covenant are calculated from Isaac's birth. by comparing various figures mentioned in the Bible. 5 It is written willingly (nedaboth) in the (Ps. one passage [referring to his departure] from Aram Naharaim. * V. Judah said: 'Lek written twice. will say. and then. Nehemiah said: leka (Go. 13: Come (leka). that the Exodus took place at the end of 430 years. 7 all those bands. and the other intimating that He made him fly from the Covenant between the pieces 4 and brought him to Haran. * Our faith in the hour of trial won many converts. ' R. a This is deduced from the emphasis GET THEE (LEK LEKA). 316 . 6 It is stated in Ex. when thou didst bring In the mountains of holiness . Thus it precedes his departure from Haran.XXXIX. This means: I was with thee ('immeka) when : thou didst willingly offer (nadabta) for * My name's sake to enter the fiery furnace. Thy people ('ammeka) offer themselves day of thy warfare (heleka). THE LORD SAID UNTO ABRAM. 1 figure can be right only if Abraham was then 70 years old. 30 years later. * The Hebrew may be made Abraham's J. in the adornments. reassured him: 'I exempt thee (leka) from the duty of honouring thy Name. : 3 I pray 'thee ) may mean 'go*. Now 8. ex.

so art thou a sign of blessing to the world. Selah (ib. Simon: Because all other birds. LV. 4 Lo. rest on a rock or a tree. it is written. he exclaimed. journey after journey. 'May my portion not * be in this country ! he exclaimed. the wilderness. 1 From the womb of the dawn merehem 2 have (ib. * even when exhausted by persecution. Judan b. 8 thee. And should you object. so have thy sins mishehar I : ' evaporated [disappeared] as dew is a sign of blessing to the world. * The translation is only a conjecture. (Gen. still endeavour to Thus 5 This is a comment on 'Get thee\ i. R. 'Azariah in the name of R. sake *. when tired. or. 'Go for thine own progress. But when he reached the promontory of Tyre and saw them engaged in weeding and hoeing at the proper seasons. 'Perhaps I bear guilt for having worshipped idols all these years. wander far off (ib* / would lodge in 8) : exile after exile. 6 why did he not emigrate [sooner] ? Because he had not yet been permitted but as soon as he was permitted. he saw its inhabitants eating and drinking and revelling.) because Abraham was afraid and said to himself. if he [Abraham] had no qualms but rejoiced [to go to Eretz Israel]. So Abram went> as the Lord had spoken unto him. Israel.): from out of the womb of the world sought thee (shihartika) for Me. Eretz Israel being so much superior. Why like a dove? Said R. It is written: And I said: Oh that I had wings like a dove! Then I would fly away^ and be at rest (Ps.) : better is it to 5 lodge in the deserts of Eretz Israel than in palaces abroad.I sanctify GENESIS (LECH LECHA) [XXXIX.' God reassured him: Thine is the dew of thy youth': even as dew evaporates. but when a dove is tired she draws in one of her wings 3 and flies on with the other. the world was made to grow. Thine is the dew of thy youth (ib. R. according to tradition. 317 . 'Would that my portion might be in this country!* Said the Holy 1 Tfcu: this may mean the mountain of Moriah out of which. preceding note). and Lot went with him . but certainly gives the general meaning of the passage. 2 This may mean either the Mount of Moriah (v. Levi said: When Abraham was travelling through Aram Naharaim and Aram Nahor. 4). xn. 7). then I would . 3 To her body and rests on it* from the very creation of the world.e.

2) 'which one?* 'Thine only 'Whom thou son. thee of (ib. Johanan said: And he said: Take now thy son (ib. and in. 7. Simon a said in R. and again when he was commanded to go and sacrifice 2 Isaac (Gen. to place. in blessed be He. He sifted Once here. COUNTRY KINDRED Johanan said: GET THEE OUT means. from thy province. whether the first or the second. Berekiah b. 8-10] MIDRASH RABBAH this One. Thus it is written. xv. upon the king halted and gathered the sand in 1 piles. and then He reveals to them the meaning of the matter. 18). literally.' 'Each is the only one of his mother? 'I love them both: are there limits to one's lovest.* emotions?' Said He to him: Even Isaac. Johanan. 2) . R. for R. Wherestationed his retinue there. 318 . for R.) . tell Upon one of the mountains which I will the proclamation that I forth into the plain. Arise y go I will there speak with thee (Ezek. first places the righteous doubt and suspense. 22).XXXIX. Nehemiah's passing name This may be from place illustrated by a king who was when gem fell from his head. Levl said: 'Get thee' is written twice. Eliezer's name: The Holy One. AND from the place where thou OF THY FROM THY thy art settled. R. AND FROM THY FATHER'S HOUSE father's house. UNTO THE LAND THAT I WILL SHOW THEE: why did He not reveal it to him [there and then]? In order to make it more beloved in his eyes and to reward him for every step he took. v. Huna said in R. and brought sieves. 2). blessed be He. 9.' And why did He not reveal it to him [without delay] ? In order to make 1 ' him even more beloved in his eyes and reward him for every word spoken. And make unto it bid thee (Jonah Hi. 10. to him: Unto thy seed have I given land(ib. xxii. infra. This agrees with another teaching of R. 1 and we do not know which was more precious [in the eyes of 2 God]. This is apparently incomplete. : R. To THE LAND THAT I WILL SHEW THEE. R. LV. xxii.

Nachshon. the Holy One. 2 f. Shalmon. ix. xvni. with My holy oil have I anointed him (Ps. that hath God so nigh unto them (Deut. 7). Actually greatness is only mentioned twice. R. I WILL MAKE OF THEE Him: 'Yet hast (xn. Shelah. Aminadab. Eber. 8 V. e 10-11 but did not find it the second but did not find it but in the third he found it. Levi b. 8). wherein is my greatness? From Noah Thou hast raised seventy nations.). 'And I will give thee. Peleg. Boaz.' or 'And I will set thee/ 4 but. Said The king they has found his pearl/ Similarly. AND 2). Ren. * He was the pearl that God found. Serug. For what great nation is there. I ham found David My servant. Seventy was thought to comprise all the possible nations how then could another arise now? Or. AND I WILL MAKE THEE: i. 18: Seeing that Abraham shall surely become a great and mighty nation. R. Y. 5 This may refer either to his circumcision or to his change of name to Abraham. Ahyatha and R. ' * 3*9 . 21). and 'blessings four times6 He thus informed him that there would be three Patriarchs 1 : and four Matriarchs. In like manner God said to David: 'What need had I to trace the descent of Perez.. Abba said: Thrice is 'greatness' mentioned here. Berekiah said: Because travelling has three adverse 1 3 All this led up to thee. Obed. And foundest his heart [Abraham's] 2 faithful before Thee (Neh. * II. [XXXIX. others include Gen. them will I raise up from thee/ R. after I have created thee as a new creation5 : thou wilt be fruitful and multiply. LXXXIX.e. regarded as a new creation. Ram. and Terah? Was it not on thy account?' 1 Thus it is written. but from me only one (Mah. and Jesse ? Was it not on thy account ? Hence it is written. * p't&K respectively: both these words could be used in *pr*K and the required sense. Arpachshad.T. Hezron. Nahor. xii. Berekiah said It is not written. Said he to A GREAT NATION Thou not caused the 3 seventy nations to spring from Noah?' He replied: 'That nation of which it is written. through both of which he may have been. iv. blessed be . : He. said to Abraham: 'What need had I to trace the descent of Shem.GENESIS (LECH LBCHA) the first pile . Some explain that '/ will make thee' counts as one.

Isaac and Rebekah. it [fame]. His firstling bullock. 8 I. 4 (iii) David. etc. ix. Thy neck is like the with turrets (S. you lose a life. 6 on the 1 Even a short distance causes some loss. 320 . corre(ii) Joshua. while in a long journey a member of the household may easily die through the danger and fatigues of the 2 The promise of greatness. as effigy ? Sackcloth and ashes on one side and a golden crown other. (iv) Mordecai. diminishing procreation. vio. [God gave him counter assurances]. I WILL MAKE OF THEE A GREAT NATION. and a boy and a girl on the other. i . road. though the AND MAKE from one house R.e. it decreases AND one's diminishes wealth. Berekiah said in R. 3 it is written. So the Lord was with Joshua. And what effigy did his coinage bear? An old man and an old woman on one side. And what was its effigy ? An ox on one side and a wild-ox on the other. Helbo's name: It2 means that his coinage was current in the world. AND I WILL MAKE OF THEE. And what was its sponding to. For Mordecai was great in the king's house y and his fame went forth throughout all the provinces (Est. majesty is his. Abraham and Sarah. 4). And the fame of David went out into all the lands (i Chron. Est. Il] MIDRASH RABBAH effects. Indicating that he was originally a shepherd. Since it diminishes procreation [He said to him]. xiv. 15.S. And 'When you hence. builded it is written. 27). one's name travel AND I WILL BLESS THEE.' yet in truth thou wilt lose neither life nor property. 17). : as it is written. 5 and a tower on the other. which means that his coinage was current in the world. corresponding to. and his horns are the horns of a wild-ox (Deut. vi. 4) this too means that his coinage was current. IV. Cf. proverb says. iv. THY NAME GREAT. as it is written. hence. to another. 17). which means that his coinage was current. was in all the land (Josh. XXXHI. from whom Joshua was descended. from one country to another. you lose a 1 shirt. and reducing one's wealth and one's fame. * & 8 This refers to Joseph.XXXIX. as his fame and tower of David. There were four whose coinage became current in the world (i) Abraham. And what was its effigy? A staff and a wallet on one side.

Levi said: No man ever priced a cow belonging to [in order to buy it] without becoming blessed. heaven).e. and they were remembered [i. Isaac said : n [God promised Abraham] ' : I will set thee 1 as a blessing in the Eighteen [Benedictions]. Etanina said: Even ships travelling the sea 1 The AND 2 principal part of the daily service. and they were healed. Abraham used to pray for barren Abraham women. R. we then recite 'who not : resurrectest the dead/ 3 [AND I will I WILL MAKE THY NAME GREAT. 'toward . and on behalf of the sick. xn. this is * referred to here as Mine*. xv. another is termed geburoth (strength). 10.] R. Presumably he translates : and be thou the first of the blessings/ 4 The bracketed sentence has probably fallen out of the text. Th. but. R.GENESIS (LECH LECHA) [XXXIX. the blessing referred ' to here . supra. add the : Abbahu commented thereon It is not written. 321 Y . This is R. w ABAREKEKA (AND I WILL BLESS THEE): to just as WA- ABAREKEKA do the letters 7 amounts two hundred and forty-eight. 7 pnaitt ( a he = V. letter he to 4 thy name. Judan said: The numerical value of the letters of thy name will equal those of A : Look now hashamayim (at the Look now hashamaymah B. Huna said: It was not necessary for Abraham to go to the sick person. * this * means. 249. so of thy name amount to two hundred and forty-eight. Ze'ira's name Thine is before Mine after having recited 'the shield of Abraham'. for when the sick person merely saw him he was relieved. they conceived]. ANDBETHOUABLESSING ' of D-wn. and then thou wilt be fruitful and multiply. ' ' One of the eighteen is called aboth *. but omits the conjunctive wow at the beginning. Yet thou dost .V. nor did a man ever price a cow [to sell] to him without his becoming blessed.) respectively.e. assumes that he reads reoiaKi with actually 5) at the end. jwaem with a n (he) at the end of the word instead and Th. heaven' (Gen. R. Isaac's comment on BE THOU A BLESSING. The verse does not indicate which of these two takes precedence. the patriarchs. Radal 5 I. s) 5 with this he I created the world 6 behold.n. Aha in R. R. I will add it to thy name. * = this gives the required 248. R.' 2 Said R. know whether Mine is first or thine is first. 3 The concluding formulas of'abotk* and 'geburoth" (v. in which mention is made of God's strength in bringing rain and resurrecting the dead. 2.

Simon said in the name of R. For them that honour shall be disgraced (i Sam. Eleazar said be He. which may also be drunk. Joshua b.e. 340. whereas concerning the I honour of the righteous it is written. Ber. was stricter in defence of the honour of the righteous it is own honour. Jeremiah b. 30). R. My AND I WILL BLESS THEM THAT BLESS THEE : The Holy One. than of His Me Me AND WILL BLESS THEM THAT BLESS THEE. R. Jewish wine is ' cheap. be thou a berekah (pool) just as a pool purifies the unclean. Levi: Once he [the king] had bent the knee. 10) no man who took a farthing from Job had to take a second one from him. blessed (xii. Thou hast blessed the work of his hands (Job I. and written. [God] said world. and High a king must bow at the beginning and the end of each benediction. as it is written. so do thou bring near [to Me] those who are afar. IJ-I2] MIDRASH KABBAH were saved for Abraham's sake. Joshua b. 3). s reduces the demand for wine and thus cheapens it.XXXIX. Berekiah said: Seeing that I it is already written. It : ' . But did they not contain forbidden wine? 1 [There is a proverb]: 'Vinegar cheapens wine ? wherever Gentile wine is available. these ships carried forbidden cargoes. R. AND WILL BLESS THEE. II. what was the purpose then 2 of saving them ? An abundance of vinegar. he did not 1 I. Isaac b. 322 . henceforth the blessings are entrusted to thee: whom it pleases thee to bless. he must be instructed to refrain. and at the beginning and end of We give thanks' and if a man bows at each benediction. Nahman Priest said in the name of R. Isaac said: Job too He did thus. R. To : : R. why is AND to BE THOU A BLESSING added? He / had to bless bless/ 12. was taught 3 At these benedictions one must bow: at the beginning and end of the first. R. Levi: The bows at the beginning of each benediction. they that despise which means through others. For in respect to His own honour I will honour. AND HIM THAT CURSETH THEE WILL I CURSE I Myself. AND BE THOU A BLESSING (BERAKAH): this means. do thou him: 'Hitherto.

And the thing became known to told it unto Esther the queen. So ABRAM WENT. When chosen by Ahasuerus. as it is written. * : 1 3*3 . AND LOT WENT WITH HIM (xn. AS THE LORD HAD SPOKEN UNTO HIM. 'And he told it unto Esther the queen. as written. ! : : : he meant ! we But in respect of wealth.)? 8 The question is rhetorical. etc. Levi b. (i Kings vin. that AND shall IN THEE SHALL BE BLESSED: come for thy sake. 7). zoo) He [Mordecai] reasoned thus Jacob blessed Pharaoh. And Jacob blessed Pharaoh (Gen. n. etc. n. Now if that IS [Mordecai] was circumcised while the other [Ahasuerus] was uncircumcised. : was merely joined on with him. Rab said She was forty years old 4 Samuel said She was : . and we give it to them. cxix. he became lame and was not healed. 7). And he brought up Hadassah (Est. he arose from before the altar the Lord. who written. moreover. 54). it is rain and dew Now 22): Mordecai. Judah quoted From my elders I receive understanding (Ps. from kneeling on of his knees. IJiyya the elder showed Rabbi the action of keri'ah. Nehemiah said: The Holy One. XLVII. 4): Lot AND ABRAM WAS SEVENTY AND FIVE YEARS OLD. This is a question why did Mordecai care about the conspiracy of Bigthan and Teresh against Ahasuerus (v.'* R. but was subsequently healed. said to Abraham: AND IN THEE SHALL ALL THE FAMILIES OF THE EARTH BE BLESSED.GENESIS (LECH LECHA) is [XXXIX. Thus it is written. What is keri'ah and what is berikah? 1 R. v. did not Joseph reveal his dreams to him. Both denote a form of bending the knee. 21 ad /oc. blessed be He. its purpose being to show the Jewish attitude * of loyalty to his country of domicile. hence. they are surely wealthier than it was meant in respect of counsel : when they get into trouble they ask our advice. when Solomon had made an end of praying all this prayer and supplication unto the Lord. (Est. Susi showed Rabbi the action of keri'ah. and became lame. it And was so. 12-13 it straighten himself until he finished his entire prayer. yet he had pity on him2 R. and did not Daniel reveal his dreams to Nebuchadnezzar? So I too. but in different ways. 13.

Now let it say. UNTO THE PLACE OF SHECHEM CANAANITE WAS THEN IN THE LAND they still AND THE (xn. 'That he had made'. AND ABRAM PASSED THROUGH THE LAND . yet you say. 1 noin: n (5) Is + = whole 324 . observed in the name of R. 4. 5 is (XII. AND ALL THEIR SUBSTANCE WHICH THEY HAD GATHERED. to the proselytes [which ' . 9 2 * Lit. the Rabbis of that place [i. 5 It was on that account that he built the altar. R. 14. 4 Their measure of sin was not yet full. to which the word as a added. E. Zimra If all the nations assembled to create one insect they could not endow it with life. Berekiah observed in the name of the Rabbis The Holy One. Jose b. Ilunia: Abraham Sarah the women.V. translation. AND ABRAM TOOK SARAI HIS WIFE. THAT THEY HAD MADE? converted the you that he who brings a Gentile near [to God] is as though he created him. 7): what is on account of the good tidings about Eretz AND HE REMOVED FROM THENCE UNTO THE i (4) -f D (60) -f n (5) 74. 16. cf. 'That they had converted That is to teach men and Said R. they had made]. that they should be expelled from the country. AND THE SOULS THAT THEY : HAD MADE! why It refers. : 13-15] MIDRASH RABBAH eighty years old. : assured Abraham: 'Thou didst leave thy father's house when seventy-five years old. 'gotten . Leazar (XII. Gen. infra. . xv. why THAT THEY HAD MADE? Then let it say. LXXXIV. AND SAID: UNTO THY SEED WILL I GIVE THIS LAND. Cf. . Babylonia] said She was seventy-five years old. blessed be He. however. the redeemer whom I will raise up from thee shall be seventy-five years 1 old/ this being the numerical value of Hadassah. 5). 6): so far had a right in the land* 4 AND THE LORD APPEARED UNTO ABRAM. by thy life. AND HE BUILDED THERE AN ALTAR stated here Israel. making 75.e.XXXIX. 3 15. AND THE SOULS THAT THEY HAD MADE2 IN HARAN R. AND LOT THEIR BROTHER'S SON.

15-16 MOUNTAIN ON THE (xn.e. Isaac b. 27). Josh.e. 8): originally it EAST OF (MI-KEDEM) BETH-EL was called Beth-el (house of God). showing the honour paid in Judaism to women. 5 V. 8 Though vocalised ahalo. (i. 6). heap of dung : he who does not earn for himself the epithet. xin. Beth-awen (house of iniquity). R. the Lord until the evening. I. 4 l6. vii. 'amela called 'amidah. Hanina said: is after having pitched Sarah's tent he pitched his own. Shamua* said: They began recalling the merit of our father Abraham.GENESIS (LECH LECHA) [XXXIX. as it is written. who said. R. And Joshua rent his clothes. Leazar said: He built three altars: one on account of the good tidings about Eretz Israel. vn. 9): he drew a [future] site of the ' STILL TOand journeyed toward the 1 Temple. 1 6). / am but dust and ashes (Gen. cf. 6 AND ABRAM JOURNEYED. 6 Translating: and he summoned people to the name Lord. glory) of the 325 . does not merit being called ben but now it is called Liezer said: He who he-amal is There [in called ben he-'amad* R. that he might possess Eretz Israel for the merit of 2 ' Amal : toil 'amad = A having built this altar. translated: in former times. while urine-soaked AND PITCHED Ahalah (her tent) dung is HIS TENT (AHALO). written 3 . and fell to the earth upon his face before the elders of Israel. OF THE LORD: with Another interpretation of AND CALLED: course he began to make converts. Leazar b. XVIH. 4 deft touch. GOING ON WARD THE SOUTH (xn. Palestine] Nahman called said: a good worker is (industrious). R. Mi-kedem' is . 2. 17. 1 R. he and the and they put dust upon their heads (Josh. earns for himself the other epithet. a toiler in the Torah. AND HE BUILDED THERE AN ALTAR UNTO THE LORD (xn. did then Abraham build Thee an altar at Ai for aught but that his children should not fall Ark of there ! AND CALLED UPON THE NAME prayer. another for his possession thereof. 5 and a third [as a prayer] that his descendants might not fall at Ai. his tent.

XL (LECH LECHA) A AND THERE WAS whom FAMINE IN THE LAND. IN THE LAND. the eye of the Lord is toward (xii. 'And teachest out of Thy law (ib. xciv. cxi. O Lord (Ps. 3. etc. 326 . xxxm. xxxm. but. 2). He hath given Him.): to Jacob. (*&. murmur nor not did he against Him. 19): from the 1 death decreed by Nimrod. (Ps. but Abram? 'And I will bless thee. R. 13. but. cit. 18) this alludes to Abraham. he retained his faith 2 Calling God's justice into question. Said R. etc. and went on to Egypt.3 As soon as he set out. He will be them hath given wanderings (tiruf) unto in the Messianic future. supra.e. And to keep them alive in famine THERE WAS A FAMINE AND thus it is written. As soon as he set out. xxxvin. fearing is written. Behold.V. etc. Joshua b. 'He will be ever mindful of His covenant. Joshua b. xn. loc. 20). and make thy name great famine assailed him. protest yet 3 AND ABRAM WENT DOWN INTO EGYPT. Ten famines have come upon 1 One in the days of V. To deliver their soul from death (Ps.' For what is written of Levi: In this world that fear He Him. 2 chastisest. 2). 8 I. For now I know that thou art of His wait that them Toward for man xxn. 12): yet is written then. thus it is written. Levi commenced thus: teref [E. AND THERE WAS A FAMINE IN THE LAND. 1-3] CHAPTER I. 10). the earth. R.): (Gen. Hanan of Sepphoris: Happy is the man whom Thou should he object. AND ABRAM WENT DOWN INTO EGYPT TO SOJOURN THERE. 5). 2.XL. (Gen. a Godit is written. and make thy name great" famine assailed him. : etc. xii. 12). It them that fear him (Ps. 'food'} unto them that fear ever mindful of His covenant (Ps. Phinehas commenced his discourse in the name of R. protest yet AND THERE WAS A FAMINE IN THE LAND. murmur nor not did he against Him.): what of Abraham? And I will bless thee. (Gen. mercy to Abraham faithfulness mercy Thou wilt show (Micah vn.

that there was a famine in the land was a (Ruth i. David the in xxi. one year being next year unproductive. 29). he brought a nail he while it to on held and hung up his basket. For that reason all these [famines] came not in the days of of the mighty ones. xxvi. time for its manifestation was in Isaac said: The proper the days of David. one in the days of Isaac: And there was famine in the land. and it ought really to have come in the the shoot of a sycamore days of Saul. Jeremiah in the name of R. Berekiah said of in R. v. postponed it and One. Aha's name: There was one days of Abraham. the Lord. . 17).GENESIS (LECH LECHA) [XL. Samuel b. Until an Lamech and one in the . 3 Adam: Cursed is the ground for thy sake (ib. R. before whom I stand. and one will be in the of Elijah: As Messianic future Not a famine of bread. who lowly [weak] men but in the days could withstand it. one in the days of Elisha: And there was a great and there is one famine famine in Samaria (il Kings VI. Berekiah applied to them the verse. but of hearing the words of the Lord (Amos vin. but because Saul was be blessed the He. nor a thirst for water. R. Shila sins and Johana is brought Said R. one in the days of Lamech: Which cometh from the ground which the Lord hath cursed (ib. Hiyya: Imagine a glass-worker holding punished! a basket full of goblets and cut glass . the wall]. Huna and R. beside the first famine that was in the days of Abraham one in the days of Jacob: For these two years (ib. R. 6). R. in. i) of (n days famine . : . He giveth power to the faint (Isa. Helbo's name : There were two famines in the days Abraham. The famine productive and the ass's head in the days of Elisha was one of panic. 1 1). liveth. when he wished to and drove it [into hang the basket up. 25) . The famine of Elijah's time was one of scarcity. the God of Israel. 29) one in the days of Abraham: AND THERE WAS A FAMINE IN THE LAND. 6) one in the days when the judges judged And it came to pass in the days that the judges judged. one in the days of David: And there in the days one Sam. i). hath the famine been in the land (ib. i). XLV. there shall not be dew nor rain these years (i Kings xvn. XL. it in the days of David. Holy tree. Huna in the days of said in R. that travels about the world.

for the famine during the days of the judges. 3. 2 R. BE- A FAIR TO LOOK UPON! The reason. suggests that Hazor is an error for Tabor. I will go with thee against Hazor 4 . Judah b.XL. Simon: [Abraham said to Sarah:] We have traversed Aram Naharaim and Aram Nahor and not found a woman as beautiful as you. R. 8 To summon the warriors of Zebulun and Naphtali v. etc. Dosa's name: From the price of two se'ahs [of wheat per sela'] it advanced to one se'ah [per sela']. 13). R. She Was with him all these years. R. 9 f * I. but if thou wilt not with me in Song. etc. THOU ART MY SISTER. . If thou wilt go with me. I will not go with thee against Hazor. 1 328 . I will not go with thee to battle. Simeon observed: That is only when it is altogether unobtainable. however. Y. II). Huna said in R. . even at a se'ah per sela one must not go abroad. . And go 3 : 2 For notes v. (n Kings vi. supra. is because travelling takes toll of one's beauty. against Jabin who reigned in Hazor. name of R. (XII. (ib. SAY. Judah Abraham and called And she sent and Barak . xxv. 5 If you undertake to join me in singing praises to God v. WHEN HEWASCOME NEAR TO ENTER INTO EGYPT. whereas it was taught: A man must not emigrate abroad unless two se'ahs cost a sela'. etc. then I will go . As 3-4] MIDRASH KABBAH was sold for fourscore pieces of silver. v. v. now that we are entering a country whose inhabitants are swarthy and ugly. Nehemiah explained it: If thou wilt go with me in 5 Song. I will not go (Judg. as it is written. I PRAY THEE. but if thou wilt not go with me. R. 25). R. Barak. NOW KNOW THAT THOU ART says to her.e.T. Phinehas said in the subordinate. THAT IT MAY BE WELL WITH ME FOR THY SAKE. yet I now he WOMAN HOLD. I will go with thee to battle. > 4. Judg. iv. whilst if thou wilt not go with me to Kadesh. Lit. . 6 fL). 'Azariah said in the name of R. explained If thou wilt go with me to Kadesh. but if it is obtain1 able. AND ITCAME TO PASS. 'through journeying a person becomes despised' but Sarah retained her beauty. And Barak said unto her . 2. R. . Reuben: Two people were principal actors and yet made themselves Barak. viz.

GENESIS (LECH LECHA)
she said:

[XL. 4-5

will surely go with thee, notwithstanding (efes) the journey that thou takest shall not be for thy honour (ib. 9). R. Reuben said: as [Efes] is a Greek to

I

word, though say hafes (let alone).* Said she to him: 'What thinkest thou? that the glory for the Song shall be given to thee alone!' He retired into the second place, as it is written, Then 2 sang Deborah and Barak the son of Abinoam, etc. (ib. v, i). Abraham was the principal, as it is written, And Abram took Sarai his wife (Gen. xn, 5), but he made himself of
importance,
saying, SAY, I PRAY THEE, SISTER, whereupon he really became her, as it is written, And he dealt well with
(ib. 16).

THOU ART MY
subordinate to

secondary

Abram for

her sake

was Sarah ? He had put her

S. AND IT CAME TO PASS, THAT, WHEN ABRAM WAS COMING INTO EGYPT, etc. (xn, 14). And where

When

officer]

he
'I

carrying silks/ he asserted. 'I will pay on silks/ 'You are carrying precious stones/ 'I will pay on precious stones/ 'It is imperative that you open it and we see what it contains/ he insisted.

replied. 'You carry garments in that will pay the dues on garments/ 'You are

in a box and locked her in it. he came to the customs-house, he [the customs demanded, 'Pay the custom dues/ 'I will pay/

box/

said he.

As soon as he opened it the land of Egypt was irradiated with her lustre [beauty]. R. 'Azariah and R. Jonathan in R. Isaac's name said: Eve's image was transmitted to the
reigning
written,
I,

beauties

And

Elsewhere it is generation. the damsel was very fair 'ad me'od (i Kings
to Eve's beauty;

of each

3

4),

which means that she attained
it

but

THE EGYPTIANS BEHELD THE WOMAN THAT SHE WAS VERY FAIR (ME'OD)
here in truth
is

written,

which means, even more beautiful than Eve's image. 4

AND THE PRINCES OF PHARAOH SAW HER, AND PRAISED HER (xii, 15). R. Johanan said: They went on

1

Gr. d^?- 2 Deborah first, as the principal. 8 As a standard of beauty. V. supra, vin, 5, where 'me'od' is treated as an allusion to Adam, and XXI, 2, where Eve is called Adam. The present comments are on the same lines (Th.). 'Ad implies up to a certain point, but no further.
*

329

XL.

5-6]

MIDRASH KABBAH
:

1 one said, 'I give a hundred outbidding each other for her dinars that I may enter [Pharaoh's palace] with her,' whereupon another bid, 'I give two hundred dinars to enter with her/ 2 I know this only of their advancement;

whence do we know
says,
(Jer.

it

of their degradation? 3 Because
cast

it

Then took they Jeremiah, and

him

into the pit

4 xxxvin, 6): they raised his price.

We

of this world:

whence do we know
it is

it

know it only of the Messianic

future ? Because

said,

And

the peoples shall take them,

and
6.
1 6).

bring them

to their place (Isa. xiv, 2).

AND HE DEALT WELL WITH ABRAM,
It is written,

etc.

(XII,

gave men charge concerning him, etc. (ib. 20). R. Phinehas commented in R. Hoshaya's name: The Holy One, blessed be He, said to our father Abraham, Go forth and tread out a path for thy children/ For you find that everything written in connection with Abraham is written in connection with his children. In connection with Abraham it is written, And there was a famine in the land (ib. 10) while in connection with Israel is it written, For these two years hath the famine been in the land (ib. XLV, 6). Abraham: And Abram went down into Egypt; Israel: And our fathers went down into
*

And Pharaoh

;

Egypt (Num. xx, 15). Abraham: To sojourn there; Israel To sojourn in the land are we come (Gen. XLVII, 4). Abraham For thefamine was sore in the land; Israel And the famine was sore
:
: :

in the land (ib. XLIII, i).

Abraham And it came
:

to pass,
:

when

he was come near (hikrib) to enter into Egypt ; Israel

Pharaoh drew nigh
1

hikrib (Ex. xiv, io). 5

And when Abraham: And

Lit. *she

3

This

is

a

was progressively raised' (in price). comment on the end of the verse

:

WAS TAKEN INTO PHARAOH'S HOUSE.
3

ANDTHEWOMAN

Viz. that when the righteous are to be humbled and mishandled, 4 As in last note. people outbid each other for the privilege of doing so ? 5 This appears difficult, since the second phrase refers to Pharaoh, not Israel. Mah. explains that in both verses fcarab, the bal form, should have been used, not ktfcrib) the hifil, which literally means, 'caused to draw nigh.' Hence the Midrash translates: the fear of the Egyptians caused Abraham to bring himself near to God, and similarly Pharaoh, by casting his fear upon the Israelites, caused them to come near to God ; cf. Ex. R. xxi, 4.

330

GENESIS (LECH LECHA)

[XL. 6

they will kill me, but thee they will keep alive; Israel: Every son that is born ye shall cast into the river, and every daughter

ye

shall save alive

(ib.

I,

22).
it

that thou art

my

sister,

that

And God dealt well with the And it came to pass, that, when Abram was come into Egypt ; Israel Now these are the names of the sons of Israel, who came in Egypt (ib. i). Abraham: And Abram was very rich in cattle, in silver, and in gold (Gen. xm, 2) Israel And He
:

Abraham: Say, I pray thee, may be well with me; Israel: midwives (ib. 20). Abraham:

;

:

brought them forth with silver and gold (Ps. cv, 37). Abraham: And Pharaoh gave men charge concerning him, and they sent him away ; Israel: And the Egyptians were urgent upon the people, to send them out (Ex. xii, 33). Abraham; And he went on his journeys (Gen. xm, 3); Israel: These are the
journeys of the children of Israel

(Num. xxxm,

i).

331

XLL

i]

CHAPTER XLI 1

(LECH LECHA)

i. AND THE LORD PLAGUED PHARAOH AND HIS HOUSE WITH GREAT PLAGUES, etc. (XII, 17). It is

written, The righteous shall flourish like the palm-tree; he shall grow like a cedar in Lebanon (Ps. xcii, 13). As the palm and the cedar have neither crooked curves nor excrescences, so the righteous have neither crookedness nor
cast afar, 3 so

shadow of the palm and the cedar is the reward of the righteous far away [in the future world] ; as the heart of the palm and the cedar is directed upward, so are the hearts of the righteous directed
excrescences 2
;

as the

is

toward the Holy One, blessed be He, as it is written, Mine eyes are ever toward the Lord, for He will bring forth my feet out of the net (ib. xxv, 15); as the palm and the cedar have desire, 4 so have the righteous desire. And what is their desire? The Holy One, blessed be He. R. Tanhuma 5 said: There was once a palm tree in Amatho that did not yield fruit. A palm-gardener passed and saw it; said he: 'This ungrafted tree looks to [a male palm] from Jericho/ As soon as they grafted it, it yielded fruit. Or [will you argue] as we cannot make utensils from a palm tree, so are the righteous Therefore, it says like a cedar'. R. Huna observed: There [in Babylonia] utensils are manufactured
:

*

!

from

it

[the
'

palm

6

tree].

Then

does not produce
stated,

fruit, so are

will you say: as the cedar the righteous ? Therefore it is

The righteous

part of the

shallflourish like the palm-tree ': as no palm has any waste, the dates being eaten, the
7

branches used for Hallel, the twigs for covering [booths], the bast for ropes, the leaves for besoms, and the planed boards for ceiling rooms, so are there none worthless in Israel, some being versed in Scripture, others in Mishnah,
1 In the British Museum MSS. Add. 27169, which forms the basis of Theodor's critical edition, this is still Ch. XL. But in the cur. edd. and several other MSS. Ch. XLI commences here, and this has been adopted for the sake of convenience. From Ch. XLIII the edd. and MSS. are 2 3 In their character. Their foliage being at the top. again alike. 4 To be grafted with the male palm standing at a distance (Th.). s Th.: a place in Transjordania. Var. lee.: Hamtham, also a place, one * 7 mile from Tiberias, v. Meg. zb. Cf. PCS. 88a. V. Lev. xxm, 42,

332

GENESIS (LECH LECHA)
some
in

[XLL
as

1-2

Talmud, others

1

in

Haggadah.

And

whoever

climbs to the top of the palm and the cedar and does not take care of himself falls and is killed, so whoever comes to
attack Israel eventually receives his deserts on their account, the proof being that because Pharaoh took possession of Sarah for one night he and his household were smitten

with

plagues,

as

it

is

written,

AND THE LORD

PLAGUED PHARAOH,

etc.

2. R. Simeon b. Lakish said in Bar Kappara's name: Pharaoh was smitten with lupus. R. Simeon b. Gamaliel said An old man suffering with boils met me in Sepphoris said he to me: 'There are twenty-four varieties of boils, and out of all these the only one upon which a woman has an injurious effect is lupus' 2 and therewith was the wicked Pharaoh smitten. AND HIS HOUSE. R. Aha said Even the beams of his house were smitten, and all exclaimed, 'It is BECAUSE
:

;

;

:

OF SARAI ABRAM'S WIFE/

R. Berekiah said: Because

he dared to approach the shoe of that lady. And the whole of that night Sarah lay prostrate on her face, crying, Sovereign of the Universe Abraham went forth [from his land] on Thine assurance, and I went forth with faith;
' !

Abraham

is without this prison while I am within!' Said the Holy One, blessed be He, to her: 'Whatever I do, I do for thy sake, and all will say, "It is

BECAUSE

OF SARAI ABRAM'S WIFE/" R. Berekiah

said: Because
:

he dared to approach the shoe of that lady. 3 R. Levi said The whole of that night an angel stood with a whip in his hand; when she ordered, 'Strike/ he struck, and when she 4 ordered, 'Desist/ he desisted. And why such severity?
1 a

general discussions on the Mishnah. In both cases the translation is only a conjecture. 8 This repetition is absent in cur. edd. Its purpose is presumably to serve as an introduction to R. Levi's statement. 4 All these statements are deduced from the verse under discussion. Al debar (E.V. '/or the sake of) can also mean, 'by the word of. Hence it is account of Sarai ; interpreted By the word of all people, that this was on the word of again, by the word, i.e. prayer, of Sarah, and finally, by Sarai to the angel. 'Abram's wife' is superfluous, hence the comment:
:

The

that

he should have dared

to

approach Abram's wife!

333

XLI. 2-3]

married woman/ Because she told said (the same was Leazar R. her. not leave he would yet
also taught in the

MIDRASH KABBAH him [Pharaoh], 'I am a
name

of R. Liezer b. Jacob)

:

We

know

was smitten with leprosy and Abimelech with the closing up [of the orifices] how do we know that what is said here is to be applied there, and vice versa?
that Pharaoh
:

Because

'for the sake

of occurs

in

both places, that an

1 analogy may be drawn.

3.

AND ABRAM WAS VERY RICH
(xni,
2).

SILVER, AND IN GOLD

IN CATTLE, IN Thus it is written,

And He
cv
37).

brought them forth with silver and with gold; and there was none that stumbled among His tribes (Ps.

AND HE WENT ON
Leazar said
:

HIS JOURNEYS

(XIII,

3):

He

returned by the same route by which he had come. R.

He went
ALSO,

to settle his debts.

AND LOT
ALSO,
God

WHO WENT WITH ABRAM,
;

etc.

(XIH, 5). Lot enjoyed four boons on account of Abraham: And Lot went with him (Gen. xn, 4) (ii) A N D L o T (i)
etc., (iii)
(ib.

And

he also brought back his brother Lot,
;

and his goods

xiv, 16)
cities

and

(iv)

And it came

to pass,

when

of the plain, that God remembered Abraham, and sent Lot out of the midst of the overthrow (ib. xix, 29). Now in return for these his descendants should have requited us with kindness, yet not alone did they not requite us with kindness, but they even did us evil. Thus it is written, And he sent messengers unto Balaam
destroyed the

Come now (Num. xxn, 5
.

.

therefore,
f.);

again,

children of

Ammon

thee, curse me this people he gathered unto him the and Amalek, and he went and smote

I pray

And

Israel (Judg. in, 13); also, And that . the children of Ammon,
.

it

came

to

pass after

this,

.

and with them some of

the

Ammonites, came against Jehoshaphat to battle (11 Chron. xx, i); also this verse, The adversary hath spread out his hand upon all her treasures (Lam. i, io). 2 Their sin is
V. Gen. xx, 18 For the Lord had fast closed up all the wombs of the house of Abimelech, for the sake of Sarah Abraham's wife. * All these verses refer to the Ammonites or Moabites (v. Lam. R. I, io; Yeb. 1 66), who were descended from Lot (v. Gen. xix, 30-8).
:

1

334

recorded in

GENESIS (LECH LECHA) four places: An Ammonite or a
.

[XLL

3-5

Moabite shall
(Deut.

not enter into the assembly of the Lord you not with bread and water in the
;

.

.

because they met

way,

etc.

xxm,

4 f.) Because they met not the children of Israel with bread and water, etc. (Neh. xm, 2) O My people, remember now what Balak king of Moab devised (Micah vi, 5). 1 Four arose and sealed their prophets doom, viz. Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Zephaniah. Isaiah said The burden of Moab, etc. (Isa. XV, i); Jeremiah: Then I will cause an alarm of war to be heard against Rabbah of the children of Ammon, etc. (Jer. XLIX, 2); Ezekiel: / will open the flank of Moab
; :

. . . together with the children of Ammon, unto the children of the east . . and I will execute etc.

(Ezek. xxv, 9

Sodom,

judgments upon Moab, Zephaniah: Surely Moab shall be as and the children of Ammon as Gomorrah, etc.
.

if.);

(Zeph. u,
4.

9).

HAD FLOCKS, AND HERDS, AND TENTS.
b. R. Isaac said:

R.

Tobiah

He had two

tents, viz.

Ruth the

Moabitess and Naamah the Ammonitess. 2 Similarly it is written, Arise, take thy wife, and thy two daughters that are found (Gen. xix, i5) 3 R. Tobiah said: That means two 'finds 4 viz. Ruth and Naamah. R. Isaac commented: / have found David My servant (Ps. LXXXIX, 21) where did I find him? In Sodom. 5
:
1

,

:

5.

MEN

AND THERE WAS A STRIFE BETWEEN THE HERDOF ABRAM'S CATTLE AND THE HERDMEN OF
(xm,
7).

LOT'S CATTLE

name: Abraham's

R. Berekiah said in R Judan's used to go out muzzled, 6 but did not go out muzzled. Lot's Said Abraham's herdmen to them: 'Has then robbery been permitted?'
cattle

To which
1

Lot's

herdmen
Th. adds
(v.

replied:

'Thus
10):

did

the
the son

Only three

are stated.

Lam. R.

i,

Then Balak

of Zippor, king of Moab, arose and fought against Israel: and he sent and called Balaam the son of Beor to curse you (Josh, xxrv, 9). 2 He understands tents figuratively, as meaning descendants. 8 * V. infra, L, 10 ad fin. Two precious things. 5 He was descended from Lot who was saved from the destruction of * So as not to graze in others' fields. Sodom.

335

XLL

5-6]

MIDRASH RABBAH

Unto thy Holy One, blessed be He, say to Abraham: seed will I give this land (Gen. xn, 7); now Abraham is a 1 barren mule, who cannot beget children, therefore Lot will be his heir; if they eat, they are eating their own/ Said
the Holy One, blessed be He, to them: 'Thus did I say to him: Unto thy seed have I given this land' (ib. xv, 18): 2 When? when the seven nations are uprooted from it.

Now, however, AND THE CANAANITE AND THE PERIZZITE DWELT THEN IN THE LAND, etc.: so far
they
6.
still
3 have a right in the land.

AND ABRAM
I strife

NO STRIFE,
etc.

SAID UNTO LOT: LET THERE BE PRAY THEE, BETWEEN ME AND THEE,
name: Just

in R. Judah's (xin, 8). R. 'Azariah said

between the herdmen of Abraham and as the herdmen of Lot, so was there strife between Abraham and Lot, as it says, AND ABRAM SAID UNTO LOT:
there was

LET THERE BE NO STRIFE, etc. FOR WE ARE BRETHREN. Was
IS
9),

he then his brother? In fact he called him so because his features resembled his own.

NOT THE WHOLE LAND BEFORE THEE?
I

SEPARATE THYSELF (HIPPARED)
R.

PRAY THEE (xm,
is

Helbo
is it

said:

Not

hibbadel*

written,

but

HIPPARED:
semen, so

just as a peredah (mule) cannot develop impossible for this man [Lot] to mix with

the seed of Abraham.

IF THOU WILT TAKE THE LEFT HAND, THEN I WILL GO TO THE RIGHT; OR IF THOU TAKE THE RIGHT HAND, THEN I WILL GO TO THE LEFT. He
said to him: 'If thou goest to the left, I go to the south, while if I go to the south, thou goest to the left, so that in 5 either case I go to the south/ R. Johanan said: This may

be compared to two
1

men who had two

stacks,

one of wheat

* As follows from w. 19 f. Cf. supra , xxxviii, 5. Pesikta comments a righteous man influences his household and servants to be likewise, while a wicked man makes his household wicked. * 4 Which has the same meaning. Translating the second half of the verse or if I take the right hand, then I will make thee go to the left.

3

The

:

:

336

GENESIS (LECH LECHA)

[XLL

6-J

and the other of barley. Said one to the other: 'If the wheat is mine, then the barley is yours, while if the barley is yours the wheat is mine; in either case then the wheat is mine/ 1 R. Hanina b. Isaac said: It is not written, we-

man
7.

asme'elah but we-asme'ilah*: in [Lot] go to the left.

all

events I will

make

that

AND LOT
said:

b.

Hanan

LIFTED UP HIS EYES, etc. R. Nahman Whoever is fired with immoral desire is

eventually fed with his own flesh. 3 R. Jose b. R. Hanina said: The whole of this verse connotes immoral desire.

Thus:

AND LOT LIFTED UP
as

And
7).

HIS EYES,
to

as

you
(ib.

read,

AND BEHELD ALL THE PLAIN
you
read,

his master's wife lifted

up her eyes

Joseph

xxxix,
is

(KIKKAR) OF THE

JORDAN,
IT
as

For on account of a harlot a man

brought to a loaf (kikkar) of bread (Prov. vi, 26). 4

you read, And wehishkah (Num.
it

WAS WELL WATERED (MASHKEH) EVERYWHERE,
lie

THAT
drink

shall

make

the

woman
you

v,

24)* ;

BEFORE THE LORD
as

DESTROYED (SHAHETH) SODOM,
came
to pass,

read,

And

when he went

in unto his brother's wife, that
9).

he spilled

LIKE THE GARDEN OF THE LORD LIKE THE LAND OF EGYPT: LIKE THE GARDEN OF THE LORD in trees, and LIKE THE LAND OF EGYPT in cereals. SO LOT CHOSE HIM ALL THE PLAIN OF THE
,

on the ground (Gen. xxxvin,

JORDAN, etc. (xm, n). like a man who covets his

AND LOT JOURNEYED

R. Jose b. Zimra said: mother's dowry. 7

He was

EAST (MI-KEDEM): He

betook himself from the Ancient (kadmon) of the world, 8 saying, I want neither Abraham nor his God.
1

The probable meaning is
mine while
;

is
2

if

if you examine the wheat, you will see that you examine the barley, you will see that it is yours.
:

it

The

first is intransitive,

cause another to go left. 4 and beheld Translating & The reference Jordan.
:

I will 3 all
is

go

left

;

the second
incest.

is

transitive, I will

He

commits

the loaf i.e. the immorality of the to the water ordeal of a woman accused of

adultery.
7

Lot was

heritage.

We-shifieth, lit. 'destroyed'. as eager for immoral pleasures as 8 Cf. supra, xxxvm, 7.

a

though they were his due
2

337

XLL

7-9]

MIDRASH RABBAH

AND THEY SEPARATED THEMSELVES THE ONE FROM THE OTHER. ABRAM DWELT IN THE LAND OF CANAAN, etc. (ib. n f.). Rabbi said: There was no
was
a man was evil he Sodomite and there was no nation more cruel than the Arnorites; when a man was cruel he was called an Amorite. R. Issi said There was no city [in the plain] better than Sodom, for Lot searched through all the cities of the plain and found none like Sodom. Thus these people were the best of all, yet, THE MEN OF SODOM WERE WICKED AND SINNERS (ib. 13) they were WICKED to

city

more wicked than Sodom: when
;

called a

:

each other;

SINNERS

in adultery;

AGAINST THE LORD
refers to bloodshed.

in idolatry; while

EXCEEDINGLY

8. AND THE LORD SAID UNTO ABRAM, AFTER THAT LOT WAS SEPARATED FROM HIM (XIII, 14 f.).

R. Judah said: There was anger [in heaven] against our
father

Abraham when his nephew Lot parted from him. 'He makes everyone cleave [to Me]/ said the Holy One,
'

cleave [to

blessed be He, 'yet he does not cause his brother's son to Me] R. Nehemiah said There was anger [in
!

:

heaven]

against the Patriarch
'

Abraham when Lot

his

promised him, Unto thy seed have I given this land" (Gen. xv, 18), said God, 'yet he attaches Lot to himself; if so, let him go and procure two common soldiers! This explains the text: Cast out the scorner (Prov. XXH, 10), which alludes to Lot; And contention will go out (ib.), alluding to, And there was a strife between the herdmen of Abraham's cattle, etc. Yea, strife and shame will cease (ib.), as it says, And Abram said to Lot :
I
1

brother's son went with him.

Let there be no strife. He that loveth pureness of heart that hath grace in his lips, the king shall be his friend (ib. n): FOR hence, AND THE LORD SAID UNTO ABRAM:
, .
.
.

ALL THE LAND WHICH THOU SEEST, TO THEE WILL I GIVE IT, etc.

AND I WILL MAKE THY SEED AS THE DUST 9. OF THE EARTH (xni, 1 6). Just as the dust of the earth
is

found

from one end of the world
338

to

the

other,

GENESIS (LECH LECHA)

[XLI. 9-10

so shall thy children be found from one end of the earth to the other ; and as the dust of the earth can be blessed only through water, so will thy children be blessed only
for the sake of the

and

Torah, which is likened to water 1 ; as the dust of the earth wears out even metal utensils

yet itself endures for ever, so will Israel exist [for ever] while the nations of the world will cease to be ; and as the

dust of the earth

is

trodden upon, so

downtrodden under the heel of

written, And I will put 'it into thee (Isa. LI, 23); which means, those who make thy wounds flow. Nevertheless, it is for thy benefit, for they 2 purify thee of guilt, as you read, Thou makest her soft with

thy children be [foreign] powers, as it is the hand of them that afflict
will

Bow

3 showers, etc. (Ps. LXV, n). That have said to thy soul: that we down, may go over (Isa. loc. cit.). What did

they do to them ? They made them lie down in the streets and drew ploughs over them. R. 'Azariah said in R. Aha's name: That is a good augury: as the street outlives those who travel on it, yet itself remains for ever, so shall thy sons, [said God to Abraham], outlive the nations of the world while they will remain for ever. 4
10.
17). It

ARISE,

WALK THROUGH THE LAND,
:

etc.

(XIII,

he walks in the field, whether along its length or its breadth, he acquires it as far as he walks. This is the view of R. Liezer, 6 but the Sages maintain: He does not acquire it until he takes possession. 7 R. Jacob said R. Eliezer's view is based on the verse, ARISE,
If
:

was taught 5

WALK THROUGH THE LAND. 8
1 3

Cf. Isa. LV,

i.

2

Lit. 'they beat thee
'

out of thy

guilt*.
*

Words of the same root are used for makest soft* and that afflict thee'. The Midrash understands the former in the sense of making the rain flow, and hence the latter too to make the wounds flow. 4 Nations that persecute the Jews are in the long run doomed to perish.
6 6

B.B. iooa.

One of the legal methods of acquiring land is hasattah, taking possession,
in the land to

and R. Liezer holds that walking

be acquired constitutes

hazafrah. 7 text as emended E.g. by fencing part of it. The translation follows the by Th., which agrees with the text in the Talmud. 8 By this act of walking Abraham was to acquire the title to the land.

339

And he fought his servants. AND IT CAME TO PASS * IN THE DAYS OF 1 AMRAPHEL). and when earth until his mouth Zakkai that the breath they went and told R. Ben Zizzith Hakeseth.XLII. Johanan b. 15). Joshua commenced his discourse in the name of R. 4 8 a To study in his academy. i] CHAPTER XLII (LECH LECHA) IN THE DAYS OF I.R. and The Ben Kalba Shabua. he said to him: 'As the smell of your mouth became unpleasant for the sake of the Torah. and found him sitting the greatest of the land sitting before with and lecturing him. Said his father to him. now. etc. AMRAPHEL. 4 The bracketed passage may be spurious . 15). Th. I to disinherit thee. i).Liezer s brothers out the sword. he and Amraphel and his . as it is written. Through povert He would not profit through his learning. while he was ploughing on the mountain. this alludes to companions To cast down the poor and needy (ib. etc. when his cow fell and was maimed. 2 an offensive emitted odour. however. 14). and have bent the bow came up ' : * . Nikodemon ben Gurion. for proved fortunate for him that his1 He ate there clods of ZakkaL he fled to R. against them by night. He was expounding this verse wicked have drawn out the sword. property is given to thee as a gift. Johanan b. To slay such as are upright to Abraham. AND IT CAME TO PASS (Ps. Eliezer's mouth smelt foul. Their sword shall enter into in the way (ib.) their own heart (ib. 'My son. R. . Levi: The wicked have drawn xxxvn.)to Lot. j were once ploughing in the plain. as it is written. It cow was maimed.' After some time his father to disinherit him.' 'Behold/ 3 will I take me 'let it be herem [accursed] to . all my he replied. (xiv. so will the fragrance of your learning be diffused from one end of the world to the other. only an came up only equal share with my brothers/ (Another interpretation: The wicked have drawn out the sword' alludes to Amraphel and his allies. and smote them. from R. (Gen. etc. xiv.

] With Chedorlaomer : king of Elam. and in old age before death he is the same. v. show no longer his friend is killed]/ Thus it is written. : R. on words the phrase is read way kayyah.e. and Tidal king of Goiim. neither He hath gathered them as the sheaves to the threshing-floor (Micah iv. so he goes with slops. there was woe. so shall he go (Eccl. the kingdom of Greece. Nahman denotes biyeme) occurs. 1 R. Samuel: As he comes with slops. Thus. Eleazar's name The following teaching came to us from the Exile3 : wherever 'And ' came to pass in the days of (wayyehi trouble. By a play from Babylon. is R. AND IT by the hands of Abraham. Said R. Phinehas quoted in R. 2 [He commences with four kings. R. Tanhuma said in the name of R. Rome]. and the empire of Edom [i. 12). the kingdom of Media. Samuel commenced his discourse: And this 2-3 also a grievous evil. 341 .2. etc. and Arioch king of Ellasar (Gen. Berekiah said in R. And they turned c [this friend] [if 1 At birth he can only eat slops. Samuel b. for the king will favour to this province as was his wont. Woe to us.e. 3. This may be AND IT compared to a king's friend who dwelt in a province. 4 R. 2 3 4 so at an advanced stage of his history shall he be subject to four powers. AND IT CAME TO PASS (WAYYEHl) OF AMRAPHEL. But when barbarians came to attack him they lamented. 15). ends with four kingdoms: the kingdom of Babylon. Abin's name But : they know not understand they His counsel^ for the thoughts of the Lord. so will he conclude with four kings. I. why Came all these as allies (Gen. that in all points as he came. 9) so he . 3)? In order that they might come and fall hence it is written. said : And it came to pass in the days of occurs five times it it : CAME TO PASS IN THE DAYS OF (i) AMRAPHEL: THAT THEY MADE WAR. Iliyya the Elder and R. R. and Amraphel king of Shinar. CAME TO PASS IN THE IN THE DAYS DAYS OF AMRAPHEL. GENESIS (LECH LECHA) [XLII. and on his account the king used to visit the province and showed it favour. xiv. xiv. Abin said: Just as he commenced with four kings. Abin relates the verse to the Jewish nation: just as his history commences with an engagement between Abraham and the four kings. viz.

is 2 3 4 The reference is to Abraham. (ib. Hence when barbarians came to attack him. i6). For it And what 1 shall not be forgotten out of the did it avail him [sc. no disciples. 'he'. Jacob said in R. (Deut. Though read hi. Aha said: They came only In order to attack the eyeball of the world 1 the eye which executed judgment in the world they desire 2 to blind! The same (hi) is Kadesh: R. ix. This may be compared to the son of a king against whom his tutor plotted in order to kill him. Ahaz] ? Behold. R. my life will be forfeit ' to the king. 5 hu. and since that hour I have hoped for Him. Said he to himself: If I slay him now. 341. vn. 18). for He said to me. IJunia said in R. literally mouths of their seed (ib. blessed be He.XLII.' Ahaz said If there are no kids there are no wethers if there no wethers there are no sheep. xxxi. it i. masc. its consonantal form V. Understood in the sense of to shut out from them 342 . no adults. etc. no disciples. i): (ii) And it came to pass [What]? The Arameans on the east. Thus it is written. n). 17) no hour is as grievous as that whereof it is written. I and the En-mishpat means 'the eye of judgment'. no sages. Aha said: This is written hu (he) 3 : was he [Abraham] that sanctified Holy One. no elders. thus 'There was woe in it of the the days of Amraphel/ 4 in the days of Ahaz (Isa. no sages. And I will surely hide my face. shut (ib. if there is no shepherd there is no world. He reasoned thus to himself: No children. back and came to En-mishpat. will not cause His Shechinah to rest upon them. all began lamenting 'woe!'. Therefore I will rather withdraw his fostermother from him. Aha's name: vin. feminine. in (kiddash) the name the fiery furnace. etc. no adults. n. 3] MIDRASH RABBAH . no prophets. blessed be He. 21). Leazar's name: Why was he called Ahaz ? Because he seized (ahaz) the synagogues and schools. up the instruction among My disciples R.e. 7): R. 4. and the Philistines on the west (ib. that hideth His : face from the house of Jacob. and he will die of himself. if there are no sheep there is no shepherd. and I will look for Him (ib. Bind up the testimony. no elders. p. and if there are no likewise : . .. Isaiah said: 5 And I will wait for the Lord. are prophets the Holy One.

however. (v) And it came : ! sought to destroy all the Jews (ib. 23). is the Rabbinical rendering of the present verse. it was waste and void (ib. there was woe in the days when the judges were judged. (iv) And it came to pass in the days when the judges judged (Ruth I. I. (R. (iii) 3) / beheld the earth. and the third thinned second the single grapes. 'Woe to us when the king learns of this what he wished to do to us we have done to him': similarly. the craftsmen a thousand and the smiths a thousand. xxiv. woe to the generation that 2 judged its judges Thus. 22) Nebuchadnezzar a thousand (n Kings deported The craftsmen and the smiths R. iv. and the king sent a treasury officer to collect them. and cast it into the fire ' (ib.GENESIS (LECH LECHA) children [XLIL 3 whom the Lord hath given me for wonders (Isa. Pharaoh Thus vines. vin. 1 But as soon as he seized the synagogues and schools. [Similarly we read]. all began lamenting woe thus there was woe in the days of Ahaz. This may be compared to a king who sent an ordinance to a province what did its inhabitants do ? They took it. that : he cut 23). the decreed. compared to a king who had a vinemay attacked: the first plucked off enemies three which yard. This may be compared to a province that owed arrears to the king. 16). * This so far his attempt to kill Jewish education was a failure. the clusters. I. when Jehudi had read three or four columns. be m. 343 . ' J : It came to pass in the days of Jehoiakim (Jer. beat him and mulcted him. and so he called them his children. The Rabbis said: It means a thousand in all. 18). and burnt it in fire.e. tore it up. i) That there was a famine in the land (ib. teaches that they were dear to him. Every son that uprooted is born ye shall cast into the river (Ex. Were ! shall be for signs and they then his children? Surely they were his disciples This. to pass in the days of Ahasuerus (Est. And it came to pass.). : 1 I. and to. in said Berekiah Judah's name That means. When they saw this all began crying woe' thus there : was woe in the days of Jehoiakim. 6). Then they cried.) But Haman !7 !) Wherefore Haman This . it with the penknife. xxxvi. What did the inhabitants do? They seized him.

2)? That too was not an occasion of joy. Samuel b.. . wished to slay. 1 8). a fourth day . When they saw this. Johanan's to pass) is in the days of Ahasuerus. and to cause to perish all Jews 13). mustard must be sweetened. for whatever was created in the first six days of Creation 3 (Isa. And the Lord was (wayyehi) with Joseph (ib.' 'and it came to pass'. (ib. 4) ? That too was not an occasion of joy. e. he answered. in. 13) . 2 (R.. 8) still do not connote joy. And God said : Let there be light and there was (wayyehi) light (Gen. Simeon [b. 3) ? That still does not connote joy. there was none like it. with the shall he conversive. it denotes trouble . : 1 translated.? These (ib. a second and (wayyehi) evening a third day (ib. But the path of the righteous is as the light of dawn.XLII. They objected But it is written.. etc. since the world was not privileged to make use of that light. xxxix. R. : : as it is written. replied he. Abba] said Wherever wayyehi (and it came name: it employed trouble. 6).) They objected: But it is written. R. but when the Holy One. LI. I. and the earth shall wax old like a garment objected: But it is written. for everything created on the first day is destined to wear out. 6. he replied.g. as it is to pull written. For the heavens shall vanish away like smoke. there was none like it. day (Gen. He hid it away for the righteous. supra. Judah said By the light which was created on the first day man could have seen from one end of the world to the other. that shineth more and more unto the perfect day (Prov. They objected But it is written. foresaw the wicked. R. 'and Wayyehi is the impf of the verb to be with the waw conversive. And there was (wayyehi) evening and there was (wayyehi) morning^ one day (Gen. generally it was. To destroy. They needs further preparation [before it is fit for use].. 19). It should be noted that ' understands 'joy in the sense of a permanent joy. as it is written. waw come to pass/ 344 . I. 'and it 3 8 V. if joy. generally rendered 'and it shall be'. all began lamenting 'woe': thus there was woe in R. iv. Nahman came and drew a distinction: wherever wayyehi is stated. And there was there was (wayyehi) morning. connotes either trouble or joy . 3] MIDRASH KABBAH up the very roots. I. wheat must 'be ground. blessed be He. we-hayah is the perf. if 1 we-hayah denotes joy.

6) . And it came to pass etc. (n Sam. that the mountains shall drop 1 8). Nadab and Abihu died. (Jer. And it shall come to pass (we-hayah) in that day. xxxvin. i)? That does still not connote joy. thou i)? shalt not build the house (i Kings vin. when there was Jerusalem was taken (we-hayah) (Jeremiah) connotes ? Even that joy. 19). he answered. in existence (though probably not in its erected form) until the Temple was built. vn. because on that very day it is [Potiphar's wife] written. And it shall man shall rear that day. punishment of Temple was destroyed.. But it is written. 345 . as for sins. Nathan came and informed him. 27) ? That still does not connote joy. of the Temple. he replied. And it shall come to pass (we-hayah) in that day. Samuel b. 28) on that very day Israel received full quittance for their as R. vi. since he eventually had to rend his garments. etc. And he They objected: (Joel iv. and his fame was in all the land (Josh. because it [the tabernacle] was hidden away at the building of the Temple. (Isa. vn. ix. that a great horn shall be blown. Thereupon he cited And it shall come to pass (we-hayah) 4 : (wayyehi). * 3 The chapter treats of the building Over the defeat at Ai (ib vn. was his reply. xiv. Nahman said: Israel received that the quittance in full measure for their sins on the day is The it written. down sweet wine But it is written. Nevertheless. 1 2 verse treats of the final consecration of Aaron to the priesthood. that the Lord will set His hand again a second time to recover the remnant of His people (ib. he replied. i) ? That still does not connote joy. n). when the king dwelt in his house. And it shall come to pass (we-hayah) in 13) . 2 But it is written. vn.GENESIS (LECH LECHA) because that [XLIL assailed 3 she-bear Another objection: But it came to pass 1 (wayyehi) on the eighth day (Lev. 3 But it is written. 6 This refers to the Messianic era. And him. : in that day. that a a young cow. And it came to pass (wayyehi) on the day that Moses had made an end of setting up the tabernacle (Num. etc. 8). 2i) 5 . Said they to him: We have quoted our objections do you quote your proofs. xxvn. come to pass (we-hayah) in that day. The This implies that the Tabernacle was . (ib. xi. that living waters shall go out from Jerusalem (Zech. So the Lord was (wayyehi) with Joshua.

is grow in the territory] of Ellasar. 5 and [its inhabitants] took a certain man and made him king over them. and Amraphel. as he was descended from Cush (Gen. AND this 'nations']: Rome] which levies troops from all R. Eleazar b. also that to he made sport of Abraham again. ARIOCH KING OF ELLASAR. 22).e. Thus Amraphel is read as an abbreviation.' [Another interpretation is] that he made sport of (amar we-afle] the world.XLII. text reads: The language. Goiim also means nations. AND IT CAME TO PASS AMRAPHEL. 3-4] thine iniquity iv. Nimrod. 6 R. Jose of Milhaya 4 said: Why are they [hazel-nuts] called elsarin? Because [they CHEDORLAOMER KING KING OF GOIIM. This is hardly intelligible and is probably a gloss. R. its 5 The translation 4 is conjectural. names: Gush. which is called there in Rome (or.e. 4. He was called by IN THE DAYS OF 2 imrah). x. Another interpretation: AND IT CAME TO PASS IN THE DAYS OF AMRAPHEL KING OF SHINAR: this alludes to Babylon. The proof is that in the days of Abraham. Cush. Levi said Johanan said: And his name was Tidal. 1 other. see the Powers fighting each ' other. is certain. 6 : 346 . 'I will cast down (appilah). Probably in Galilee. in the Roman Latin). (Lam. Abina said: When you the nations of the world. that he ordered Abraham be thrown (amar we-hippil) into the furnace. greatness came to 2 That was his real name. 8). ARIOCH KING OF ELLASAR: alludes to the wicked CHEDORLAOMER KING OF ELAM: TIDAL THE KING OF GOIIM Power [i. Th. is MIDRASH RABBAH complete. that alludes to Greece. because these Powers fought against each Abraham. Neither the text nor meaning i. 3 . peoples hence he interprets that he was king because the people had so appointed him. [lit. etc. R. that is Media. because he was indeed a Clishlte1 Nimrod. OF ELAM. AND TIDAL : There is a place which so called there [sc. R. in Babylon]. because he incited the world to revolt (himrid)\ Amraphel denotes: he made a declaration (amar three . O daughter of Zion. feet '] of the King Messiah. look for the coming [lit. Others translate 3 differently.

nut. 6). that its inhabitants were swallowed up Meir used : . R. and the vale of Succoth. 8 Identifying shaveh with shaweh. b. Aibu said There was : no sea there. fruit trees. BEL A. v. in the choice '. and finally. 17. . R. thou art a god to us/ 4 But he replied The world does not lack its king and the world does not lack its God/ Succoth/ implies that it was overshadowed (me-sukak) with trees. (xiv. R. He cutteth out channels among the rocks (Job xxvm. 4). xxni. but the rocky banks of the river [Jordan ?] were broken through7 and a sea [lake] was formed. while uttering praises Hear us. TWELVE YEARS. 10). Helbo in the name of there R. fig. Berekiah and R. They art king over us. in thought and act. 5 The valley was probably pictured as terraced by rows upon rows of 6 At the time of this engagement. that he flew 1 and procured riches. that it suckled : vale of Shaveh its children like breasts (shadayim). (Gen. to interpret l etc. saying ' : us.GENESIS (LECH LECHA) 5. The R. equal. alike here. that it was divided up into fields (sadini) . names B E R A signifies that he was an evil son (ben ra ) B I R s H A that he was a wicked son that he amassed wealth (sho'eb (ben rasha')\ S H I N A B mammon) SHEMEBER. almond. 5 apple. 6. Gamaliel disagreed. he made himself wings. 7 When Sodom was overthrown. as it is written. Simeon 1 etc. and peach-trees. . R. V. pomegranate. 2 347 . 8. 2 Siddim signifies that oak trees (saddanim) grew there. the three are identified here. again. R. ALL THESE CAME AS ALLIES UNTO THE VALE OF SIDDIM (xiv. LX. 3). Jose said: Twelve years Reading the name sam eber. Nahman said: It was so called because all the peoples of the world became unanimous (hushewu)? felled cedars. [XLIL 5-6 (xiv. Jose and R. . my lord : thou art a prince of before him. and Ps. THE SAME 6 is THE SALT SEA. erected a large dais for him [Abraham] and set him on top. the vale of Shaven. * Reading 'prince* and 'God* as independent substantives. Tanhuma said: said to God among him: 'Thou ' : * These were the vine. 2). etc. This was called by three names: The vale of Siddim. Samuel b. THEY MADE WAR WITH BERA. (niih-baWu).

his allies playing a subordinate part. E. R.e. 7).: the terebinths of Mamre'). 2 ' * ' HAM ' 348 . 7. ' * Kiryathaim is the dual form of kiryah. v. The owner of the beam has AND it. is BY THE WILDERNESS. AND THE HORITES UNTO EL-PARAN.. 7 Connecting El with elone in xni. by the 7 plain of Paran. in ed. 2a. Since they had served Chedorlaorner. 3 THE ZUZIM IN HAM: that means the most cities illustrious of them (ziwtane ba-hem}. 6-7] MIDRASH KABBAH [service] and thirteen years [rebellion]. How It then do I explain. 18 et passim. 4 This connects ZUZIM with saw. Simeon said: It means thirteen in all. which the Targum * translates: the plain (of Mamre. which is found in several MSS.V. Jose's view. Aha it was he [Abraham] that On R. (* they were two reading Ninevehs'). in order to attack the eyeball of the world the eye which executed judgment in the world they desire to blind! THE SAME said: This 1 is written hu (he): (HI) is KADESH: R. free. IN THE FOURTEENTH YEAR LAOMER. lustre or brightness '. Suk. AND THE FOURTEENTH to bear the YEAR? 1 means their rebellion. This is a proverb. he had to be in the forefront now. 5 (xiv. 6): Eleutheropolis [Free6 town]. AND IN in Ashtarta lying between the horns. which is also similar to that of cur. edd. 6 Hori is derived from heruth. among them/ 5 Text as emended by Th. or to a town Navah in Bashan in the vicinity of Ashteroth kamayim.e.e. AND CAME TO ENMlSHPAT THE SAME IS KADESH (XIV. it is suggested there may be an actual reference to Nineveh.XLII. 3 Karnayim literally means two horns. On the present Th's. a city. CAME CHEDORweight of 2 AND THE KINGS THAT WERE WITH HIM. freedom. I. R. and hori. between two mountains. AND SMOTE THE REPHAIM IN ASHTEROTH KARNAIM: i.* AND THE EMIM SHAVEH KIRYATHAIM: They were twin both called Shaveh. thus amounting to twenty-five. WHICH i. and with bahem. And why was it called Eleutheropolis? Because its inhabitants chose it and made themselves independent [free] in the generation of Separation. AND THEY TURNED BACK.. Aha said : They came only .

in v. 4 2. n Chron. . R. SODOM 8 f. while AND THEY THAT REMAINED FLED TO THE MOUNTAIN refers to the kings. io): full of pits producing asphalt (hamor). 'Azariah and further explanation: When name gave the following and was rescued. Amalek had not yet arisen. Judah there is no difficulty. Now on 4 the view of R. AND THEY THAT REMAINED FLED TO THE MOUNTAIN. . while AND THEY THAT REMAINED FLED TO THE MOUNTAIN refers to the troops. V. Isaac's of R. Judah said: AND THEY FELL THERE refers to the troops. is a palm-tree. v. Nehemiah.. AND ALSO THE AMORITES. AND THE KINGS OF SODOM AND GOMORRAH FLED. 2 He declareth the end from the beginning (Isa. furnace the into Abraham descended fiery had it believed nations the happened]. hence it states out to meet him. 3 * ad init. . blessed be AND THEY SMOTE ALL THE COUNTRY OF THE AMALE KITES. io). supra. in En-gedi of the AND THERE WENT OUT THE KlNG FOUR KINGS AGAINST THE FIVE kings OF (XIV. AND THEY SMOTE ALL THE COUNTRY OF THE AMALEKITES ! But. XLVI. yet you say. Four NOW waged war with five and defeated them. But on the vie\v R. XX. PITS THE VALE OF SlDDIM WAS FULL OF SLIME HEM OR (xiv.GENESIS (LECH LECHA) sanctified (kiddasli) the name of the He. AND ALL THEIR VICTUALS (OKLAM). . means. But when the King of Sodom descended in Abraham into the slime and was rescued. AND THEY TOOK ALL THE GOODS OF SODOM AND GOMORRAH.). while of some [that others disbelieved. * 3 It is called THE COUNTRY OF THE AMALIKITES in anticipation. . R. 1 [XLIL 7 Holy One. Nehemiah said: AND THEY FELL THERE refers to the kings. then all believed retrospectively. 17: kings escaped . AND THEY FELL THERE.. in the fiery furnace. Jonathan in R. THAT DWELT this 3 IN HAZAZON TAMAR: palm-trees. R. Tamar The And the king of Sodom went 349 .

n). Josh. 8. blessed be He. 13). AND THEY TOOK LOT They : AND HIS GOODS. etc. but the companion of fools shall smart for it (Prov. Judah said: Was it not a big thing to take ALL THEIR VICTUALS? Said R. for I have that him Lot is : delivered him : into thy hand y etc. 4 But because thou didst intend to slay that righteous man. (xiv. Simeon b. 4 Obviously. Nehemiah : What is meant is . that he spoke in the . xxi. Judah said [HA-'IBRI signifies that] the whole world was on one side ('eber) while he was on the other side ('eber)* R. AND TOLDABRAM. xin. It was Passover-time. etc.). past tense have delivered implies before. (Num. and the Rabbis held that Abraham fulfilled all the precepts of the Torah even before they were promulgated. thus fulfilling the verse. The Rabbis said: It means that he came from across the river7 further. viz.MIDRASH KABBAH XLIL 7-8] AND WENT THEIR WAY (xiv. And why did he come to this? Because HE DWELT IN SODOM (i&. V. for a different version. Nehemiah said: [It denotes] that he was descended from Eber. King of Bashan. Lakish name of Bar Kappara That was Og 2 and why was he called Og? Because he came and found Abraham said in the : . in the days * He alone of all mankind believed in the true God. I. while I will take Sarah/ 'By thy life!' said the Holy One. . 7 V. sitting ('ugoth). 3. Deut. of 350 . 5 (HA-'IBRI). 34). AND THERE CAME ONE THAT HAD ESCAPED. R. And the Lord said unto Moses Fear him not . 1 dry dates. R. 20). since he was alive in the time of Moses. to him. is vindictive: I will apprise captured then will he go out to battle and be slain. . R. xxiv. 'thou wilt receive reward for thy journey [footsteps] by living a long time in the world. did this to Lot they put him in a boat and took him with them. 3 5 The Abraham. 25. and engaged in the precept of [unleavened] cakes s He did not act from a pious motive. AND TOLD ABRAM THE HEBREW language of the dwellers across the 1 river. thou wilt see myriads of his descendants and wilt ultimately fall into the hands of his sons/ as it is written. R. but he said to himself: 'This man Abraham . 2 These are easy to carry yet highly esteemed. He that walketh with wise men shall be wise.

on R. R. xvin. 351 . blessed be He. Judah' s view a place called Mamre is meant. to him: 'Thou gavest him good advice. it refers to a person called Mamre. 3 V. 3 Aner said to him: 'You are already : a hundred years old. Judah said: That means. R. blessed be He. 'BY THE TEREBINTHS OF') MAM RE. Nehemiah' s view. And the Lord appeared unto him i). in the plain of of Mamra. 34. Probably R. and in your war with the kings? Will you not obey Him then in this matter! Mamre 7 Said the Holy One. And why was he called Mamre? R. Simon. yet you would inflict this pain upon and yourself?' Eshcol said to him: 'Why should you go make yourself distinguishable to your enemies?' 4 But said to him: 'When did He not stand by you in the fiery furnace. 'he showed a * stern countenance*. in the palace of Mamre 1 2 (Gen. to circumcise himself: by thy life! I will reveal Myself to him only in thy palace/ Hence it is written. By circumcision. Nehemiah said: In the palace Mamre. 'Azariah said in the name of R. v. Lit. Judah 1 Because he rebuked (himrah} 2 Abraham. R. 8 NOW HE DWELT BE-ELONE (E. in famine.GENESIS (LECH LECHA) [XLII.V. commanded Abraham to circumcise himself he went and took counsel with his three friends. When the Holy One. Judah b. On R. etc.

also. AND ABRAM HEARD THAT BROTHER WAS TAKEN CAPTIVE (xiv. trusting in the Lord (Ps. It is written. 3 R. etc. Five 2 kings could not defeat them. also. etc. LXVIII. 3 This is one of the cardinal teachings of Judaism it is man's duty to act nobly and uprightly even at the cost of his life. Zabda He made them with weapons. And he divided himself against them by night.e. CXH. say unto my soul: I am thy salvation (Ps. while in R. opinion he made : 352 . they opposed him. his heart is steadfast . as you read. I5). : blessed be He. *he emptied them' (herifyari). xxxni. he shall not be afraid (Ps. Abba b. loc. 2. xxxv. z 1 Lit.V. and the battle axe. 14). a wrathful ' ' who turned countenance (horiku panim) upon Abraham. With the shimmer of (yerakrak) gold (ib.e. as you read. 'stand against them'. Burnish (harek E.XLIII. against them that pursue me. Thus it is written. saying. Andfoundest his heart faithful before Thee (Neh. xv. CXH. Fear not Abram (Gen. Simeon b. of blood. 8) . R. 15). Judah holds that he made his I. 1-2] CHAPTER XLIII (LECH LECHA) HIS i. Nehemiah interpret wayyarek. HE LED FORTH (WAYYAREK) R. 4 14). Nehemiah^s himself pale by defying them. Nehemiah interpreted it: He turned a defiant countenance (horik panim) to them and exclaimed. for in so doing he sanctifies the Divine Name. i). He 1 stoppeth his ears from hearing etc.). Levi said: He thinned their numbers by reading (horikan) Abraham would not hear of violence without seeking to remedy it. Until he gaze upon his adversaries (Ps. He shall not be afraid of evil things. 8). I will ! ' go forth and glitter fall ' in sanctifying the name said of the Holy One. 3). also. R. cit. he made pale (in anger). servants' faces pale. 4 Lit. 'draw out') also the spear. Lakish said: He made them glitter with precious stones and pearls. i. R. xv. AND ABRAM HEARD. yet we are to defeat them R. Judah and R. His heart is established. ix. (Isa. etc. Judah said: It was they HIS TRAINED MEN. 7) . Both R. also. Consequently. (Gen.

Benjamin maintains that the night divided itself. Because Jeroboam was destined to set up The meaning it is after a golden calf at Dan (i Kings XH. Ex. he inspired them with courage by pointing out that the fainthearted need not go. was Eliezer alone. This means. 2 R.GENESIS (LECH LECHA) [XLIIL 2-3 the section of the heralds. R. is regarded as working with and assisting God. The Rabbis say Its Creator divided it. and as they were converted by Abraham they took his * BORN (30) name. 'AND HE DIVIDED HIMSELF AGAINST THEM BY NIGHT*. Jast. empty . R. And it came to pass 1 He derives zvayyarefy from refc. a surname (v. n. i). the numerical value of Eliezer being three hundred and eighteen. Idolatry smites both before it comes and after it has departed. like his own. IN HIS HOUSE figuratively. blessed be He. i6). 3 AND PURSUED AS FAR AS DAN. s. 2 This connects hanikaw (E. Simeon b. i. g6a. The snorting of his horses is heard from Dan (Jer.v. Cur edd. 19). those bearing his name. showing Abraham the exact moment. con'E. vni. 6 The Holy One. "his trained men'} with hanikah. Similarly.J. noble action. ro'un). as it says. It smites in anticipation. as it is written.e. he emptied them '. 6 Both explain the verse. Benjamin : b. xviii.V. xx. hence rendered: the men bearing his name.V.: he understands verted by him. Sanh. 353 Aa . 4 3 K (i) + > + ' (10) -f j? (70) + f (?) + 1 (200) 318. Cf. Lakish said: It name being Abram. 4 3. as it is written. and was left with Eliezer only. Cf. while the Rabbis hold that God 7 Abraham's rescue of the captives. even after it was destroyed Jeremiah speaks of terror raging in Dan. R. being a divided it for Abraham. i. as you read. AND PURSUED AS FAR AS DAN. What man is there 1 that is fearful (yare) and faint-hearted -rak (Deut. therefore I too will act for his sons at midnight/ And when did that happen ? In Egypt. is). their THREE HUNDRED AND EIGHTEEN. said: 'Abraham has laboured with Me 7 at midnight. AND THE NIGHT WAS DIVIDED AGAINST T H E M to mean that exactly at midnight they suffered defeat and pursuit.e. Johanan's name: The night was divided of own accord. Jepheth said in R. 5 E. Abraham was weakened now when he came to that place and so could pursue them no further. i. But since a man cannot ascertain the exact moment of midnight (cf.: he made them bright (encouraged them). AND THE NIGHT WAS 5 DIVIDED AGAINST THEM its (xiv. It smites retrospectively. 8)? BORN IN HIS HOUSE. is that the evil effects of idolatry are felt both before and actually practised.

It is written. three miles ('E. and it turned to arrows. The said: will Some state Holy One. : : : : : ' : : sense of killed How then smite and then pursue them ? 3 E. 'safely') 5 354 .' It is written. AND PURSUED THEM. z) 2 the Righteous One] the Life of all [this alludes to Zedek 3 who illumined worlds. Nehemiah differed. Thus saith the Lord: About midnight will I go out. is connected with TWJ. Who hath raised up (he'ir) one from the east. R. vin. for 1 it says. 3] MIDRASH KABBAH Tanhuma said: at midnight (Ex. and passeth on shalom (ib. Eleazar in R. AND SMOTE THEM. which became stubble.' as it says. raise up. it is written. none will perform me. Judah b. 'Abraham went forth at midnight. therefore I too go forth with his sons at midnight.V. Levi and R. But the other argued It is not written. 3). 4). as it says. R. being read as an abbreviation of shalosh 7 M. For they pursue htm smitten (Ps.). Phinehas: Those who were pursued by Abraham were [already looked upon whom thou hast as] slain. xi. and maketh him rule over kings .K. LXIX. R. R. supra. 29). Reuben said Righteousness 4 cried out and said 5 'If Abraham will not perform me. XLI. 6 R.e. stubble. R. etc. The way with his feet he treadeth not (ib. 27). : a mile is the shortest distance which milin. 1 : AND HE SMOTE being understood in the first could he 2 Rendering: Righteousness (personified) summoned him (Abraham) to i.J. (me'ir) his path wherever he went. Judah and R. Jose's safely name said: Abraham's steps were three miles long. this in a different form. He pursueth them.}. Berekiah said: The planet Zedek [Jupiter] illumined his path. Simeon said They were one mile long. He giveth nations before him. By a play on words Tpn. and arrows. 4 The Attribute of Righteousness personified. to do it. 5. 'At whose step victory attendeth* .V.XLIII. to awaken. cf. can be called way. Zedek (Righteousness) calling him to His feet (Isa. (ib. his bow as the driven stubble (ib. One maintained This means that Abraham threw dust at them [the four kings] which turned to swords. to illumine. 'He maketh dust/ but 'He maketh them as the dust they threw swords at Abraham which turned to dust. his (righteousness') feet 6 Shalom (E. Does then a man pursue the slain? 1 Said R. xii. R. Again. Thus he passed over a whole mile without treading.). his sword maketh them ds the dust. blessed be He.

xm. 3 Thereupon they arose and became proselytes and cut off the reproach of their fathers. Cur. 3-6 R. vii. M. XLII. so did I descend into the slime and was saved/ I H M SODOM WENT OUT TO MEET AT THE VALE OF SHAVEH THE SAME IS THE KING'S VALE. Who are The worst of the nations'! Said R.K. as a sign of familiarity. under the wings of the Shechinah. 7 saying to him: 'Just as you descended into the fiery furnace and were saved. Sc. Berekiah and R. Nahman said: It was so called because there all peoples of the world became unanimous.e. edd. 3 *E J. daughter of Zor [E. Abba b. evil I. sinners (Gen. says. as it Now the men ' l6). AND MELCHIZEDEK KING OF SALEM BROUGHT FORTH BREAD AND WINE (xiv. 6 i3). 4 Thus it is written. though they had not trodden the way with their feet. AND THE PEOPLE (XIV. R. 6 And it was the children of these that God brought back to Himself. they freed themselves from their fathers' ways. AND HE BROUGHT BACK ALL THE GOODS AND THE WOMEN ALSO. Samuel b. 2 4. .e. Bibi's 1 name: Their feet became no more dust-stained than those of one who goes from his home to the synagogue. R. to teach them righteousness. Aliter : he began to fawn on him *. Kahana said: He began putting on airs. Judah: The people of Sodom. Wherefore I will bring the worst of the nations 5 (Ezek. of Sodom were wicked and 5. 5. explains differently. .: he renders wayyasheb ('he brought back ') in the sense of restored to their place: Abraham restored the adults to their original place. R. 1 8).: they 5 underwent circumcision. 8 V. 17). . but not the children. * 355 . Y. in order to curry favour. but retained the children. 'he brought I. AND THE KING OF (xiv. It is written. 24). Helbo in the name of R. "he began wagging his tail against him'.V.GENESIS (LECH LECHA) fXLIII. Nehunia said In R. 7 Lit. the richest of the people This is Th/s conjectured emendation. supra. 'They brought back* is thus meant generically Abraham's company. as 2 back* 4 is preferable. And. and said to Abraham: 'Be thou king over us/ But he replied: 'The world does not lack its king and its God/ 8 6. 'Tyre 1 3 ].T. Judan said: They brought back the men and the women.

E. 'kings' in the second case being employed genetically. 13). Adom-zedek' 8 Translating Shalem whole. 10 The speaker is Wisdom personified (v. said : R. xv. He instructed him in the laws of the priest- alluding to the shewbread. as I. is [Another interpretation] : AND x. 5). XLV. 356 . 6 The Lord i). ' shall entreat thy favour with of Zor' alludes to Abraham. Abba b. 3 Read as two words. ' R. i. 12 In Ned.T. 5 This is the comment on the word Zedefe'. and they shall afflict them. the 'whole' king. Jerusalem called Zedek (righteousness). it THE KING OF ZEDEK.e. 8 BROUGHT FORTH BREAD AND WINE. And they shall serve them. IX. Isaac the Baby- lonian said : This implies that he was born circumcised. 'Daughter and who was distressed by it distressed (hezar) 1 kings 2 They shall entreat thy kings. 12 1 2 Deriving zor from sarar. (Gen. xvir. eat of my bread. Come. Gen. 4 Sc. i-io. who favour with a gift^ as is written. supra. R. as it is written. in her (Isa. 1-3). Y. 6] MIDRASH KABBAH a gift (Ps. etc. R. Give me the persons (v. Nahman hood. Zedek (righteousness) lodged 21). Levi said Here too we have not escaped unscathed. xxxvirr. and to libations. of Zedek (Josh. ' 7 now. e So translated ' '. complete. distress. for : immediately after this it was revealed to him. AND MELCHI- ZEDEK KING OF SALEM BROUGHT FORTH BREAD AND WINE. 11 Every mention of wine-drinking is followed by some record of trouble. 9 The Rabbis said: He revealed Torah to him. Jerusalem (Salem in the English). which means righteousness. is written. and drink of the wine BREAD WINE which I have mingled (Prov. s Both were in charge of the priests. hence 'bread' and 'trine' there refer to the Torah. 326 this is stated to have been Abraham's punishment for complying with the request of the king of Sodom. instead of converting them to the true faith. This presumably refers to Abraham's pursuit of the four kings and his persecution by Nimrod (v. to vex. u except in the present instance.XLIII.V. R. i3). Samuel b. 13) respectively. as in the original. 21). cf. KING OF SALEM (SHALEM). 10 AND HE WAS : PRIEST OF THE ' GOD MOST HIGH. Kahana said Wherever wine is mentioned in the Torah it leaves its mark. Levi perhaps holds that this complaisance was due to the convivial and friendly mood induced by the drinking of wine. AND MELCHI ZEDEKS This place 4 made its in: habitants 7 5 righteous.

E.3 8. Abraham. thy plans.] as one says. Le. 5 e The kings. supra. HE BLESSED HIM. 'Maker of. schemes. 3 2 I. In the case of Abraham it and Jacob. WHO [sc. R. These were highly esteemed . 8).' 'What shall we say?* they asked. koneh here means. Nehorai's name: In virtue of that blessing the : AND three great pillars of the world. By diffusing the thus became a partner in knowledge of God amongst men. yet I incited them to rebel against each other. Huna interpreted it: Who hath turned thy weapons 4 against thine enemies. enjoyed prosperity. -who acquired a partnership in the world. Isaac said: Abraham used to entertain wayfarers. xxiv. ABRAHAM] HAS ACQUIRED HEAVEN AND EARTH. 7. 2 R. but it refers to Abraham. ' 357 . AND HE BLESSED HIM. in possession of. so that they might fall into thy hands. Judan interpreted By how many contrivances did I bring them5 under thy hands! They were close friends and used to 6 interchange gifts of dry dates and other presents. 19). HE GAVE HIM A TENTH OF ALL.e. 'Say a blessing. R. Abraham ' * God's work.ACQUIRED (KONEH) 1 HEAVEN AND EARTH From whom then did He acquire them? Said [ACQUIRED is GENESIS (LECH LECHA) [XLIII. Judah said in R. among My AND OF THE GOD MOST HIGH. it may also mean. fconeh does mean acquired. AND SAID: BLESSED BE ABRAM OF THE GOD MOST HIGH. and after they had eaten he would say to them. Abba: attributive. And 1 the Lord blessed Abraham in all things (tb. WHO HATH DELIVERED (MIGGEN) THINE ENEMIES INTO THY HAND (xiv. is written. The purpose of the Creation was the making of man who should ever strive to come nearer to God. So-and-so has beautiful eyes and hair.V. blessed be He. AND BLESSED BE GOD THE MOST HIGH. Isaac. Magnun. 7-8 7. WHO HAS (XIV. cf. Then the Holy One. R. with which irdggen by a play on words is connected . XLII. 'Blessed be the God of the Universe of Whose bounty we have eaten/ replied he. R. said to him: 'My Name was not known and thou hast made it known among them: I will regard thee as though thou wast associated with Me in the creation of the world/ Hence it is written. i). AND SAID: BLESSED BE ABRAM creatures.

XLIII. And he lifted up his right V. Nehemiah said: From Isaac. When So magnify thy sons like the stars ? R. Look now toward heaven. So shall thy seed be preceded by. Eleazar Hanina gave different replies. blessed be He. Then ye shall set apart (waharemothem) of it a gift (terumah) to the Lord (Num. and because I have all (ib. 8-9] as MIDRASH RABBAH for.: leader sc. 5). for it says. xv. Judah said: Israel privileged to receive the Priestly From Abraham. other maintained: is shalt thou say to the house of Jacob. 'So shall ye bless the children of Israel' When tained: will I and R. saitk the Lord: Israel My son. Num. as a reward for. So (koh) shall ye bless the children of Israel (Num. AND HE GAVE HIM A a reward AND HE GAVE HIM And I ALL. of all (ib. xxvn. 11). So (koh) IV. Of Isaac is TENTH OF ALL. therefore the Holy One. AND HE GAVE HIM A TENTH OF ALL. vi. it A TENTH OF have eaten written. with a message 'So viz. viz. And I and the lad will go yonder 'ad koh (Gen. to which corresponds. 23-27. 33). [for in his shalt thou say to the house of Jacob (Ex. 26). R. as a reward for. R. 358 . edd. vi. for it is written.' The Rabbis taught: From Jacob. R. Jose ' b.] So (koh) shall thy seed be (Gen. Whence were 1 Blessing? case it is written. 23). xxn. 3 The leaders are Moses and Aaron. So (koh) R. Judah said: He had separated . 9. as you read. My firstborn (ib. 22) 3 . 4 as you read. One mainI reveal Myself to them with a message 'So'. terumah thereof. . promised: 'So (koh) shall ye bless the children of Israel. xxxni. Cur. while there it is written. Because God hath dealt graciously with me.). R. 5). 3).' 2 The I reveal Myself to their leaders When '. This introduces the chapter of Revelation. xix. 21 f. and count the stars. Moses 2 4 1 is Of the spoil. . Of Jacob it is written. AND THE KING OF SODOM SAID UNTO ABRAM AND ABRAM SAID TO THE KING OF SODOM: I HAVE LIFTED UP (HARIMOTHl) MY HAND UNTO THE LORD (xiv. XVIH. Nehemiah interpreted it: He had taken an oath in respect of it.

by thy life! I will give thy children the precept of fringes/ as you read. a thread of blue wool. as it says. 9 hand unto heaven. according to their nature. but kept guard in his absence. aromernenhu' V "My father's God. blessed be He. R. as you read. Zeb. viz. 2). Bleazar's in name Moses : which my I said: With the very same language ancestor uttered song. which was adorned with blue wool and purple wool. and I will exalt Him THAT LATCHET (xiv. different sacrifices was sprinkled. And that they put with the fringe of each corner a thread of blue (Num. in. vn. yet that the merit of Abraham's self-denial. 38). 53^. WILL NOT TAKE A THREAD NOR A SHOEAbba b. 24). Then 9). 359 . xxv. had not accompanied Abraham. 5 Thus 1 2 The Aramaic translation of the Hebrew is given here. 4 NOR A SHOE-LATCHET: this alludes to the feet of the : NOT : [festival] pilgrims. and I will exalt Him aromernenhu (Ex. Another interpretation A THREAD: this is an allusion to the Tabernacle. harimothi. My father's God. Berekiah said in R. which differs from E. xv. i . will I ' utter song. How beautiful are thy steps in sandals (S. which is rendered. R. ESCHOL. xv. [also] LET ANER. 7). SAVE ONLY THAT WHICH THE YOUNG MEN HAVE EATEN AND THE PORTION OF THE YOUNG MEN WHICH WENT WITH ME. Shoes being made from animal hides. in connection with which NOR you read. 2 Another interpretation: NOT A THREAD alludes to sacrifices. 5 Note the punctuation. The Rabbis said: He had uttered song [to God] on its account. AND MAMRE TAKE THEIR PORTIONS (xiv. assured him: 'Because thou saidest.V. I WILL NOT TAKE A THREAD. According to this Aner. etc. Above or below which the blood of the they were to receive their portion.S. NOR A SHOE-LATCHET alludes to the badger skins. viz. and swore (Dan.. xii. Mammel said: The Holy One. as we learned3 A thread of scarlet girdled it [the altar] about the middle.GENESIS (LECH LECHA) hand and his left [XLIII. 2). 23). This too probably means 4 Israelites obtained these in the 3 Mid. shall she loose his shoe from off his foot' (Deut. 1 A SHOE-LATCHET: 'I swear to thee that I will give thy children the precept of yebamah.

the share of him that goeth down to battle. of those that went with David. AND 1 MAMRE TAKE THEIR PORTION. . . he was from that day and above. xxx. Then said David : Ye shall not do so. 'forward'. that Sam. . who said. 22-25). . R. they shall For as is all share alike. and formerly. Which means.XLIII. so shall be the share of him that tarrieth by the baggage . SAVE ONLY THAT WHICH THE YOUNG MEN HAVE EATEN LET ANER. it is 9] MIDRASH KABBAH written. ESCHOL. Then answered all the wicked men and base fellows.V. E. Judah said: (i It is not written. my brethren . . 360 . [From that day] and onward/ but [From that day] and above' 1 from whom did he learn? From his ancestor Abraham. and said: Because they went not with w. . [also] so it And ' made it a statute ' :. we will not give them aught of the spoil . .

1 how much the more He Himself! Rab The precepts were given only in order that man might be refined by them. Be not wise in thine own eyes . is As for God. but he that The righteousness hath a sure reward (ib. 6 But none else. fear the Lord (ib. Earneth ' deceitful wages'. the is word of the Lord tried (u His way said: perfect. ABRAM. ABRAM. 3 for it is written. (11 Sam. who departeth from evil. of the same root as zerufah (' tried ') in the verse just quoted. etc. (Neh.) . and departeth from evil (Frov. I AM THY SHIELD. And this is the meaning of The word of the Lord is tried. loc. in. AFTER THESE THINGS THE WORD OF THE LORD CAME UNTO ABRAM IN A VISION. JIanina's The wicked doeth work of falsehood? . tried him in a fiery furnace. blessed be He.[XLIV. ' : thou foundest his [sc. ABRAM. It is written. 18). FEAR NOT. 6): though thou fearest! 4 feareth. man A 1 wise xiv. (xv. Abraham's] way faithful before The word of the Lord is tried Thee. 7): Be not wise by what thou seest with thine own eyes5 ' : . name : ' R. whose 1 soweth wicked works Le-zaref. 8). 1-2 CHAPTER XLIV (LECH LECHA) i. He is a shield unto all them that take refuge ' 1 And in Him 2. 1560) Abraham saw in his horoscope that he was not destined to beget children. Another interpretation His way is perfect alludes to Abraham. does he fear ? 5 According to the Rabbis (Shab. 31) if is perfect. etc.V. cit. blessed be He. xxn. His way Sam. care whether a man kills an animal by the throat or by the nape of its neck ? Hence its ' 2 purpose is to refine [try] man. doeth work of falsehood* alludes to Nimrod. 4 The verse is apparently rendered as a rhetorical question : a wise man. etc. For what does the Holy One. yet thou [Therefore I say to thee] FEAR NOT. etc. and this was the cause 2 of his fear. I AM THY SHIELD. hence. canst thou say that I will cause thee to beget or that I will not cause thee to beget ? Fear the Lord' 6 thus it is written. intimates that the Holy One. xi. 3 The verse will then be translated: O God! his (Abraham's) way. i). ix. 7 E. Abin commenced his discourse in R. FEAR NOT. art wise and departest from evil. 361 .

1 E. and shalt .) My My i. 'Hath a sure reward'. I uphold thee with My victorious right hand. blessed be He. and his heart melted like wax. / have chosen thee and not cast thee away (ib. in old age (Mah.e. But he that soweth Abraham. 4.XLIV. perspirapoured over his legs. to 2-4] MIDRASH KABBAH r were of falsehood. as it is written. Come near. be not wax-like (teshawa'). R. even them that contended with thee (ib. ' 2 I. yea. Levi said: Abraham was filled with misgiving. I help thee . the seed of Abraham friend. For I as nothing. That they may keep the way of the Lord. that I may feel thee (Gen. thee. those are hostile to thee . I AM THY SHIELD. 19).) this means.) I chose thee when thou wast Abram. But thou. whereupon the Holy One. and these supported him by the elbows. xvin. engage not find them. thou whom I have taken hold of from the ends of the earth (Isa. R. 10 f. Hoshaya said: When Isaac said to Jacob.) : I summoned : for I am with thee. ABRAM. The uttermost parts thereof. Behold. Levi explained this in two ways. xxvii. FEAR NOT. is who say unto thee : Fear 13). 12) this refers to those who wage quarrels with thee. XLI. to do righteousness and justice (Gen. from Mesopotamia and its its . and in strife the Lord thy God hold thy not (ib. be not dismayed. the Rabbis in one. one at his right and one at his left. for I am thy God (ib. FEAR NOT.V. those who with thee Thou shalt seek them. 362 .e. 2 Fear not. chosen. THY REWARD SHALL BE EXCEEDINGLY GREAT. Jacob whom I have 3.) that means. Israel. etc.). servant. ABRAM. They that strove with thee shall be shall perish (ib. 10). 8 f. For I am thy God' . provided him with two angels. and Th. thee from nobles 1 (ib. I strengthen thee. of whom it is righteousness' alludes written. country towns And called thee from out of its distinguished men. right hand. they shall all be ashamed and confounded I pray tion 1 ' who that were incensed against thee (ib. 21). R. and did not cast thee away when thou wast Abraham.e. Hence He said to him. that he might not fall. yea. 'Be not dismayed (tishta') i. as it written.

) all that I have done for thee in this world I did for nought. 5. a gift of grace (maggari) to thee. which Thou hast laid up for them that fear Thee. ABRAM. 363 . [The king] caught sight of him. as thorns cut down. saying. reassured . Levi made another comment: Abraham was fearful. This may be compared to a straw-merchant who was passing the king's orchards.e. all I AM THY SHIELD: spears and just as a shield receives withstands them. etc. 4-5 thinking to himself. whereupon he tried to hide himself. xxxi. *I descended into the fiery furnace and was delivered I went through famine and war and was delivered: perhaps then I have already received my reward in this world and have nought for the future world ? Therefore the Holy One. NOT. now that and receive your reward/ He. R. Why do you hide?' he said to him. and seeing some bundles of thorns. I AM THY SHIELD EN ( M A G meaning. Perhaps the sons of the kings that I slew will collect and come and wage war against me/ Therefore the troops Holy One. but in the future that is to come. descended [from his wagon] and took them. Judan and R. blessed be Abraham: 'Those troops that thou slewest it is written. so will I stand by thee/ : explained it thus Abraham was filled with misgivings. come Thus the Holy One.GENESIS (LECH LECHA) [XLIV. doomed to death. blessed be He. 20). reassuringly. Huna both said in the name of R. 12). (Ps. 'I needed labourers ' to gather them. Maybe there was a righteous or Godfearing man among those troops which 1 slew. said to him 'FEAR NOT. 1 I. Oh how abundant is Thy goodness. xxxin. that are burned in the fire (Isa. Judan: Wherever ahare occurs it denotes 'in immediate condenotes that there is no ahar whereas nection with'. : ' ABRAM. said to were thorns already cut down 51 thus . ' The Rabbis him : TEAR . R. even as you read. R. saying to himself. blessed be He. Jose b. THY REWARD SHALL BE EXCEEDING GREAT'. AFTER (AHAR) THESE THINGS. you have gathered them. And the peoples shall be as the burnings of lime .

He said to God ? : Sovereign of the Universe Thou madest a covenant with Noah not to exterminate his children. connection. And which is the severest form? R. saying. Huna said: Wherever ahar is stated it denotes 'in immediate connection with'. to him but from thee I set up shields of the righteous. T. Perhaps another will arise and accumulate even a greater store of precepts and good deeds. Misgivings were entertained Who entertained them Abraham.XLIV. mean afyare (the second is the pi. and enigma. Moreover. spoke (dibber) roughly with us. Johanan said: Speech (dibbur).: Noah's descendants could not shield their contemporaries.' 3 Th. 'after. as it says. : this distinction holds good only in the phrase after these 2 This is a play on words. speech. 3 righteous. metaphor. heavy Great then was the power of Abraham that [Divine] converse was held with him in burden (Ps. whereas ahare implies that there is no connection. Radal and Mah. Y. 4 that I should forgive them for their sake. then I arose and I accumulated meritorious acts and pious deeds. A grievous vision is declared unto me (Isa. 30). The man. const. XLII.: I did not say to Noah. parable. I am thy shield/ as I said to thee. etc. 2 c AFTER THESE THINGS. 2). Leazar said: Vision. I will see one righteous man amongst them who will be able to say to My Attribute of Justice. ahar. burden. lord of the land. ' * ' 364 . misgiving. when thy children take to transgressions and evil deeds. preaching. IN A VISION. with kirhur. "Enough!" whereupon I will take him and make him atone for them/ ' : 6. whereupon my covenant superseded his. xxi. 'flow of words'. 5). R. (Gen. the etc. Both ahar and When merely implies that one episode followed the other but was unconnected with it. there. as it says. command. As a vision 1 and in speech. vision. form of the first) a passage is introduced by ahare it implies that its contents are closely connected with what precedes it. as it says. blessed be From Noah I did not set up shields of the He. 5-6] 1 MID RASH RABBAH R.' being connected things'. Lit. The Rabbis said: Burden. whereas ahar after. and then a covenant with him will supersede Thy covenant with me?* Said the Holy One. THE WORD OF THE LORD CAME UNTO ABRAM [Prophecy] is expressed by ten 4 designations: prophecy. xxxvni.

Chedorlaomer and his sons. (Gen. viz.) One dwelt at one end of the world and the other dwelt at another end of the world. 4 Shem is Together with Noah. One helped the other with blessings. He directed 365 . Ahaz. 3 And the other helped the former with gifts. WHAT (xv. And he blessed him. and the King Messiah. so were Abraham and Shem outstanding in the world. ABRAM. which were regarded as ends of the identified with Melchizedek. n). who made the Ark 4 . Abraham. Perhaps he nurses resentment against me for begetting wicked offspring. XLI.: Abraham and Shem dwelt in Transjordania and world. : 8. The Berekiah said: Shem. thinking. who said: 1 be joined to the God of Abraham than to the Nimrod. as it says. Solomon: Ask what I shall give thee (i Kings in. all to the fear of God.): he smoothed with the hammer and beat all whom mankind good (ib. And he strengthened it with nails (ib. 5) just as islands stand out in the sea. 2 They drew near. vn. fXLIV. The former feared the latter. 20).) into one path (pa am). viz. ig). The ends of the earth (ib. 'And feared*: Each one feared the other.GENESIS (LECH LECHA) 7. blessed be He. thinking. AND ABRAM SAID: O LORD GOD. respectively.) viz. 8 5 Jerusalem descendants. and feared (Isa.: Solomon. Ahaz: Ask thee a sign (Isa. etc. And he gave him a tenth of all (ib. They helped every one (tb. 1 Whose slain. Whom He feared did he fear? written. and said: Blessed be Abram. It is better to idol of . WILT THOU GIVE ME 2)? R. And the latter feared the former. Abraham.) : this is Abraham. isles FEAR NOT. And he that smootheth with the hammer him that smiteth the anvil pa'am (ib. 1 : as it is saw. refiner (ib. Perhaps he nurses resentment against me for slaying his sons. as it says. Jonathan said: Three persons were bidden 'ask'. The the Holy One. refined [tried] in the fiery furnace. had a Th. 5 Saying of the join : It is : This refers to the nations of the world. xiv. 7): this alludes to Shem. and came each approached the other.) his neighbour (ib. 6): each helped the other.): Abraham strengthened Shem in religious acts and pious deeds He shall not be moved (ib. : : XLI. 7-8 R. So the carpenter encouraged (Isa. 5).

n.' Jacob said. And of all that Thou shalt give me (Gen. death. (Ps. me in the 2 OF DAMASCUS it kings as far as Eliezer . etc. Ezek. 1 And see if there and lead me in the way be any way who have sprung me that is grievous. said : O LORD GOD: to ' Universe/ he cried out Him. Judan and R. Is DAMESEK ELIEZER [E.K.XLIV. will anger Thee. cxxxix. Reading Eli I. Two men Abraham children R. Johanan's name said: said the same thing. whose soul. He led forth his trained men. R. the steward of my God helped me.] longs (shokeketh) to be my heir.V.e. Nahman said: We can cite another two from the Haggaddh: Abraham and Jacob. 8). Jose b. for whose sake I pursued the kings as far as Damascus and God helped me. 'twere better for me GO CHILDLESS/ David said: Search me. [said Abraham. and know my thoughts who I sar'appay (Ps. . cf. and his name was actually i. try me. Ahi in the name of R. * xxvui. xxxi. 22). 'if I am to beget children to provoke Thee. Zimra: BEN MESHEK BETHI (MY HOUSE) alludes to Lot. my house (M. 23) know those in from me. 3 R. for 1 : by his assistance I pursued the Damascus. 'Ask. and he would not say.e. (xv. 'if I am Sovereign of the destined to beget THAT God.e. Lakish said: BEN MESHED BETHI means 'The son of my household' 4 is ELIEZER . And of all that Thou shalt give me" unless He had previously said to him: 'Ask/ 9. sarappay 'my branches 2 my 3 4 metaphorically. 8-9] MIDRASH RABBAH The King Messiah: Ask of Me. everlasting (ib* 24): 'Sovereign of the Universe!' he pleaded. says. Berekiah and R. Samuel b. 'twere better for me that Thou didst lead way everlasting/ AND HE THAT SHALL BE POSSESSOR (BEN MESHEK) OF MY HOUSE. He appears sons. . Abraham and David. Leazar said in the name of R. O and know my heart. Aibu in R. WHAT WILT THOU GIVE M E unless He [G o D] had previously said to him. to translate 5. Abraham: WHAT WILT THOU GIVE ME? He could not say. ' three Th. 2). etc. 'ELIEZER OF DAMASCUS']: this means. R. 'ezer : I.). Simeon b.

' ' 367 . xiv. which is usual. 5 Not an angel. I will free you from your planetary fate. . commented Sarah can beget/ 2 11. 26). nor the outer huzoth (Prov. Levi's name : Did He then lead him forth without the world. Jose's LORD CAME UNTO HIM . Leazar said in R. is added. 2. Isaac [Abraham said :] My planetary fate oppresses me and declares. R. R. . 10. E.[XLIV. The names cause some difficulty here. . 'Lot is accursed. Joshua said in R. I and three of my angels reveal ourselves 4 to thee and say to thee. While as yet He had not made the earth. 6 R. speech after speech. 6 1 By contrast. vm. Th. not as was 3 By changing your names I.] THE LORD TO HIM. Ha-huzah and huzoth are both derived from the same root. R. BEHOLD. accursed. suggests that R. the numerical value of Eliezer being three hundred and 1 eighteen. AND HE BROUGHT HIM FORTH WITHOUT HA-HUZAH (xv. THE WORD A previously stated. BEHOLD. Huna stated that R. R. he shall not be Abraham's heir/ R. AND. Each addition implies an additional messenger of God's 4 word. AND. THE LORD: He came and 5 spoke with him. 14). Simon spaces 1 2 Cf. Huna and R. angel after angel. that He showed him the streets of heaven. AND. that it AND HE BROUGHT HIM FORTH WITHOUT? says. Samuel b. TO ME THOU (xv. Judah b. THE WORD OF THE LORD CAME UNTO HIM. blessed be He. It means. huzoth Is understood to mean the heavens.V. 'Abram cannot beget a child/ Said the Holy One. GENESIS (LECH LECHA) AND ABRAM : SAID: 3). speech after speech implying. 9-12 hundred and eighteen (Gen. (xv. Jose's name. and on top of that there is the further addition of N D. THE WORD OF THE LORD CAME [SPOKE] UNTO HIM. etc. This is a play on words. The Lord (spoke) to him as if that were not enough. Leazar name said: [We have here. Lot is Ufa. angel after angel. THE WORD OF THE in R.e. 4). 3 : this signifies. Eleazar said this in R. 12. Jose's name: thus It is written. instead of the simple And the Lord said. BEHOLD. . we have. supra. Judan and R. as you read. XLIII. the fields'. to him: 'Let it be even as thy words: Abram and Sarai cannot beget but Abraham and HAST GIVEN NO SEED BEHOLD. 5). however. BEHOLD.

32^ on this and the following passages. themselves^ upon whom My Name is called. righteousness. that they turnedfrom their evil ways (Jonah in. xx. Johanan's name: vault of heaven . for it says. VH. Shab. 15) And turn from their evil ways (n Chron. in righteousness (Ps. 1 HEAVEN. he who art is but thou [Abraham] them down [ignore them]. as stated above. 14) here you have seek prayer.* In the days of Jeremiah the Israelites wished to entertain this belief [in astrology].XLIV. but the Holy One. n. 3 Either metaphorically: you are superior to the influence of planets.) alludes to righteousness. Then will I forgive their sin (ib. and be not dismayed at the signs of heaven. shall humble and pray (n Chron. man's wife. 367. blessed be He. but I is on your foot tread below them fears them. 2): your ancestor to entertain this belief long ago. loc. R. simple righteousness. Some say. for it says. Judan said in R. hence him up above the to says him. change of place. i$6a and Ned. would not permit them. from the people of Nineveh. And God saw their works. 10). LOOK (HABBET) to look down from him]: 'Thou art a NOW TOWARD above. after that. Now the Lord said unto Abram : art now above thy fate. placed would not permit him. p.) denotes repentance. Huna said in R. 2. . charity being regarded 5 V. for he is a prophet (Gen. Cf. as My face (ib. prayer. not an astrologer/ as it says. And the three are enumerated in one verse: : If My people^ And read. Thus saith the Lord : Learn not the way of the nations. Thus it is written. you I shall behold Thy face xvn. R. 368 . charity. Abraham wished etc. HABBET signifying The Rabbis said: [God said to Now therefore restore the prophet. The same word zedakah means both. and canst ignore it. Levi said: While the sandal down the thorn . 4 and repentance. (Jer. Leazar's name Three things nullify a decree [of evil]. 12] MIDRASH KABBAH He He lifted said in R. 5 Good deeds. cit.). 7). placed 3 so trample above them. 1 Hence thou 3 4 as Or. R. too. x. Change of name is learned from Abraham and Sarah. or actually. viz. Joseph's name: Also change of name and good deeds.

* As the next verse says : Take me a heifer. '! '. SAID Liezer b. Huna said: Also fasting. 369 Bb . Jacob said: Michael descended and rescued Abraham from the fiery furnace. 14. Mishael. even : on the Sabbath. R. (xv. 12-14 1 Get thee out of thy country. 2). three kinds i. (XV.). xu. xx. 2 I. Hama one not as making a complaint. 13. ao). R. which also means fire. etc. R. 8)? R. which was to be childless. and Azariah. 6 f. (Gen. and is so translated here: I brought thee forth from the fire of the Chaldees. Guria said in Rab's name: Fasting is as effective for counteracting an evil dream as fire for consuming tow. He showed him three kinds of bullocks. AND HE BELIEVED IN THE LORD . Raba b. Mehasia and R. The Rabbis said: The Holy One. Joseph said Providing it is done on the same day. . The Lord answer thee in the 2 day of trouble (Ps. Hanina said: ' ' : AND HE SAID UNTO HIM: TAKE ME A HEIFER OF THREE YEARS OLD (MESHULSHELETH) A SHE-GOAT OF THREE YEARS OLD (MESHULSHELETH). the 1 And only then Will I make thee a great nation (ib. The Hebrew for Ur is nw. IJama b. 5 The Midrash translates meshulsheletk' three-fold. etc. rescued him. blessed be He. three kinds .e. AND HE KNOW THAT SAID: I O LORD GOD. 3 And when did Michael descend? In the case of Hananiah. for three different purposes.GENESIS (LECH LECHA) [XLIV. AND A RAM OF THREE YEARS OLD (MESHULASH). WHEREBY SHALL IT (XV. in a day of fasting. etc. [He spoke] but he asked Him: 'Through what merit [will I inherit the land] ? God replied Through the merit of the atoning sacrifices which I will institute for thy sons/ 4 I SHALL INHERIT b.). . 3 This is the source of the famous legend that Abraham was thrown into a fiery furnace. of goats. thus it is written. etc. and three kinds of rams. 5 Three kinds of bullocks : the bullock sacrificed on the Day of Atonement. the change of place changing his destiny. as explained in the text. 9 f . i). as it says. AND UNTO HIM: I AM THE LORD THAT BROUGHT THEE OUT OF UR OF THE CHALDEES.e. I HE AM THE LORD THAT BROUGHT THEE OUT OF UR OF THE CHALDEES. which was proclaimed in dire trouble.

Three kinds of rams the guilt5 4 offering of certain obligation. A HEIFER which produced and Evil-Merodach. Simeon finds no allusion to this in the present verse. iv. 3 V. 14-15] MIDRASH RABBAH bullock brought on account of [the unwitting transgression 1 was of] any of the precepts. sin-offering 15. : 6 brought by an individual. Only the kings who impinged upon Jewish history are taken into account* . Lev. while elsewhere it is said. Simeon b. Lev. the guilt-offering of doubt. iv. Darius. blessed be He. R. xxi. Leazar and R.XLIV. Which the dove and young pigeon symbolised. 4. Johanan explained how. BUT THE BIRD DIVIDED HE NOT. One. All these are regarded as atoning sacrifices.. Dent. 13 f. clean. 2 V. Lev. etc. as stated at the beginning of the section. when he completed Num. a nazirite several other cases. which produced three kings: Cyrus. 32. He that the fowl burnt-offering 10 11 is not divided. but the fowl Another kings. vi. a leper when he became 5 To which one is liable when in doubt whether he committed a transgression which if certainly committed would have 8 involved a sin-offering. II ia V. V. AND . and the heifer whose neck 2 broken. his 12. iv. stated here. Three kinds of goats: the goats sacrificed on festivals. The Rabbis said He showed him the tenth of an ephah [of fine meal] also for A L L T H E s E is : . 37 . V. 7 The Hebrew is translated into the more familiar Aramaic. 5. R. Zeb. TAKE ME Nebuchadnezzar. 1 1 R. 8 V. IJuL 2i&. showed Abraham all the atoning sacrifices save the tenth of an 8 ephah [of fine meal]. THREEFOLD: three interpretation: this alludes to Babylonia. v. 24. and the goat 3 brought by an individual. And thou shalt bring 9 the meal-offering that is made of these things (Lev H. xix. R. I V. the goats sacrificed on New Moon. intimated to him is divided. 27 f. Lev.G. 20. and the lamb [sin-offering] AND HE TOOK HIM ALL Yohai said: The Holy THESE. AND A TURTLE-DOVE (TOR) AND A YOUNG PIGEON 7 (GOZAL): that is. A SHE-GOAT THREEFOLD: this alludes to Media. 8 The use of these in both verses hints that the same thing is referred to in 10 both cases. and Ahasuerus12 AND A RAM THREEFOLD: this alludes to Greece. and v. vi. 1-9. 15. a turtle-dove and a young pigeon. 4 E. Lev. naziriteship. 8). Leazar said: She conquered all parts [of the world] Balshazzar. xrv.

4). Abba b. does not reverse the text. gazal. 20. R. but [killed]. [prince] [HE LAID EACH HALF OVER AGAINST THE OTHER symbolised] the throne of one R. Assi said: Abraham took a they were not smitten 1 flail and beat them. n). ABRAM This verse of Daniel is understood to allude to Greece. According to it the where the great Nehemiah. 1 A TURTLE-DOVE AND A PIGEON (GOZAL). Rashash. Kahana the said in R. 2 AND YOUNG AND HE TOOK HIM ALL THESE. and northward. 8 He showed him the hostility of the nations toward each other. yet even so.GENESIS (LECH LECHA) : [XLIV. On the view of R.). name: The Holy One. 4 BUT THE BIRD DIVIDED HE NOT. R. rv. and no beasts could stand before him (Dan.J. Levi's R. This comment on Edom (Rome) was natural enough to the Rabbis. and southward. but he who bends before it is not swept away by it. blessed be He. Consequently he reverses the reading here. Mah. however. a robber turtle-dove. the ram is related to Media and Persia. since eastward is not stated. 3 opposing the throne of another. but explains it differently. in contrast 2 with which the bird. 4 Israel. 15-16 save the east. This interprets gozal not 'a young pigeon* but as an attribute (fr. 5 l6. Nehemiah said: He showed him the princes of Israel. to rob). AND THE BIRDS OF PREY CAME DOWN UPON THE CARCASES AND ABRAM DROVE THEM AWAY (XV. Eleazar's] reason too. intimated to him that he who attempts to resist wave is swept away by it. symbolised place Sanhedrin [Court] of Israel sat and determined the laws of Israel. Judah. This refers to Edom [Rome]: it was a turtle-dove. symbolising united ('E. 21. R. 371 . 3) hence that too can be symbolised in this verse. too. was not to be divided but The Sanhedrin sat in crescent-shaped rows. vm. 5 Only by such a course could the bird symbolical of Israel be saved from being cut up and destroyed. Said R. but of a predatory nature. while the he-goat symbolises Greece. Johanan to him Even so it is written. and that is his [R. points out that in w. . so that the ends could see each other (Sanh. Judah said: He showed him the princes of the Gentile nations. / saw the ram pushing westward.

FELL UPON HIM (/&. 5. it is then that Abraham's merit will disperse the birds of prey. R. The whole passage supra. Abramj: When thy without 1 children become carcases [corpses] sinews or bones. and be stupid! AND : . THAT. 3 4 North of Jotapata in Galilee. The Rabbis said: Also the torpor of folly. Rab said: There are three kinds of torpor (tardemah): the torpor of sleep. 2 He interprets the verse in the same way. xxvi. EVEN A GREAT DARKNESS. A DEEP SLEEP FELL UPON ABRAM. PASS. DREAD refers to Babylon. poured out upon you the spirit of deep sleep (Isa. repentance. Abin added another two the incomplete form of the heavenly light is the orb of the sun the incomplete form of the heavenly wisdom is the Torah. as it is written. for they were all asleep . as it of prey represent the nations swooping down on Israel. 9 f. The torpor of prophecy: IT CAME TO PASS. Hanina [or R. thy merit will support them. 12). R. the torpor of prophecy.). 21). he does not engage in study and does no work. an incomplete form of prophecy is the dream. R. the incomplete form of the next world is the Sabbath. AND. xxix. AND IT CAME TO WAS GOING DOWN. 12). 'Wayyashsheb' is thus connected with teshubah. R. nor knew it. because a deep sleep from the Lord was fallen upon them (i Sam. but relates 'carcases' to Israel defeated and despoiled. n. 1 372 .). and it is only when Israel turns to God in penitence that his enemies are driven off. The torpor of unconsciousness And no man saw it. Israel The birds Abram i. 2 17. etc. THAT. 4 : . WHEN THE SUN said in R. Joshua of Siknin The beginning of a man's down- sleep being asleep. xvn. . and he slept (Gen. MIDRASH KABBAH DROVE THEM AWAY WAYY ASHSHEB) 16-17] ( 'Azariah said: [God hinted as to by repentance. For the Lord hath Stupefy yourselves. Levi's fall is : name : 3 (xv. Isaac said: There are three incomplete phenomena: the incomplete experience of death is sleep.e. . A DREAD. tried to beat them off by physical force but without success. The torpor of sleep: Then the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon the man. WHEN THE SUN WAS GOING DOWN. JJinena] b. neither did any awake . and the torpor of unconsciousness.XLIV. LO.

(Est. i5) 2 . written. : : : just as the scorpion lays sixty eggs at a time. as it is written.e. Simon said The Kingdom of Greece set up one hundred and twenty commanders. DARKNESS refers to Media. Then was Nebuchadnezzar filled with fury (Dan. After this I saw 5 . YEA Know that I shall disperse thy seed. xxi. King Ashuerus did make FELL UPON HIM great. 7 I. y). Cf. ig). know that I will free them. etc. Media. as it is written. in. know that I will redeem them. until four hundred years after seed shall be granted to thee. n. Fallen. for it is written. R. DARKNESS of as Israel it is alludes to Greece its DREAD . AND THEY SHALL AFFLICT THEM (in actual fact the oppression in SEED SHALL BE A STRANGER. This is symbolically applied to Babylon. fallen is Babylon (Isa. as is stated in the preceding verse qsu. KNOW know them in AND HE them together. Serpents. The earth FELL UPON HIM quaketh 3 at the noise of their fall (Jer. 1 in. which darkened the eyes of Israel with fasting and tribulation GREAT refers to Greece. (xv. know that I will give 6 pledge. Judan said: The The word for fury (noTt) is somewhat similar to that used for 2 dread (TO-K). 4. 4. alludes to Media. Egypt lasted much less) but to and this period is counted from the birth of Isaac. dreadful and terrible (Dan. exile is 6 4 5 The THY 373 . vn.) alludes to Babylon. 2i). Some reverse it: (ib. 7 R. and Greece respectively. AND THEY SHALL AFFLICT THEM FOUR HUNDRED YEARS: this means. . and one hundred and twenty generals. 18. eyes with decrees.GENESIS (LECH LECHA) is [XLIV. supra. 4 alludes to Edom. AND SHALL SERVE THEM. FOUR HUNDRED YEARS does not apply to SERVE THEM. 13): that I will gather SAID UNTO ABRAM: KNOW. 9). so did the Greek state set up sixty of each. know that I will allow them to be enslaved. xvr. and scorpions (Deut. one hundred and twenty governors. 17-18 written. 1 ' ' The fourth beast was applied to Edom. 8 This refers to Edom. as it is written. THAT THY SEED SHALL BE A STRANGER IN A LAND THAT IS NOT THEIRS. XLIX. a fourth beast. The Rabbis said Sixty of each. alludes to Edom [Rome]. that darkened the GREAT i). regarded as putting Israel in pledge to expiate their sins. vm. fiery serpents.

the Name of the Holy One. 3 WILL I JUDGE (DAN). It apparently means. l8-20] MIDRASH KABBAH condition of being strangers. R. by signs. Rome. which was their decreed term. p (I will judge). 1 9.' which is not to be counted. reduces the time still further by translating. promised our forefather that He would redeem his children with these two 4 but if they repented. you will find seventy-two letters. 3 Further. by trials. V. Sc. 5 In the Hebrew that passage contains seventy-two letters. Persia. [Or hath God assayed] to go and take Htm a nation from the midst of another nation. Helbo's interpretation it means that not only should Abraham's seed serve strangers. that only the three things together would occupy four hundred years. and by an outstretched arm. and by a mighty hand. (Heb. also they [Abraham's descendants. blessed be He. AND ALSO THAT NATION. Aha said: 1 The passage is rather obscure. iv. 20. (xv. he appears to translate: And also the nation which will put 4 thee to service. and afflicted in a land not theirs was to last four hundred years. R. and to Isaac when in Gerar. WHOM THEY SHALL etc.XLIV.. 'Names of God'.two letters. 'And ALSO THAT NATION WHOM THEY SHALL SERVE: this indicates. AND AFTERWARDS (AHARE KEN) THEY SHALL COME OUT WITH GREAT SUBSTANCE. Jose's name: The Holy One. 5 R. R. deduct the second 'nation. the time being counted from Isaac's birth. Viz. Ilelbo said: Instead that nation/ Scripture writes AND of. seventy. of which there were several. gam} is generally treated as an extension . and to Jacob in Haran. the condition of an alien being held to apply to Abraham when he had to dwell in the country of the Philistines. would be spread over four hundred years. con6 sisting of seventy-two letters. and by great terrors (Deut. 6 The longest form of God's name. Th. SERVE. He would redeem them with letters .jf. and should you object that there are seventy-five. 34).E art. Eleazar said in R. 2 ALSO 374 . Media. and by wonders. like the preceding statement. 14). in servitude.] also Egypt and the four kingdoms2 which will subjugate thee. Babylon. and by war. Judan said: In the passage. Abin said: He redeemed them by His name. but in the fulness of time Egypt and the other four kingdoms too would be subjugated. blessed be He. according to R. R.

R.GENESIS (LECH LECHA) [Ai. 20-21 Not ahar is written here but AH A RE 1 this teaches. R. THOU SHALT BE BURIED IN A GOOD OLD AGE' (ib. 2 The Hebrew is translated by Aramaic. And Gideon made an ephod thereof (Judg. Hama b. Gehenna or into the power of the asked him. 3 Which would conquer Israel. then THEY SHALL COME OUT WITH GREAT SUBSTANCE. with the promise: As long as thy children occupy themselves with the latter two. R. viz.iv. except their rock had given them over (Deut. the Lord had delivered them up (26. He assured him. Papa said: Abraham himself chose [subjection to foreign] powers. WHEN THE SUN WENT DOWN. : Said he [Abraham] to servitude?' Him ' : Shall I too be included in this 'Bur THOU SHALT GO TO THY FATHERS IN PEACE. 30) : He [foreign] kingdoms? this alludes to Abraham And . xxxn. but the Holy One. Revelation. David deserved it. Thus it is written. R. Lakish said: Of three men was 'In a good old age' said: Abraham deserved it. Papa. 374. Gehenna. n. blessed be He. 2 BEHOLD A SMOKING FURNACE AND b. containing an additional yod (== 10) is used. Idi. and two put ten thousand to flight. 15). AND IT CAMETO PASS. 375 . Johanan's [God] showed him four things. z. Wouldst thou rather that thy children descend into . IJanina said Abraham chose Gehenna. v. How should one chase a thousand.)? this Huna 1 teaches that God approved his choice. Aha's name: Abraham sat wondering all ivix Both mean after. 27) for idolatry. 17) : there was intense darkness. AND THERE WAS THICK DARKNESS (xv. and R. 4 R. Simeon b. Why? 21. Simeon Abba said in R. and the Temple. the [foreign] 3 kingdoms. here the longer form. Judan. tjinena b. said in R. R. 4 This agrees with R. but Gideon did not deserve Because. chose [subjection to foreign] powers for him. vin. they will be saved from the former two if they neglect the latter two they will be punished by the former two. it. THAT. A FLAMING name: He TORCH. rJCinena b. when I have visited ten plagues upon them. p.

R. Jose b. V. R. chose the [foreign] kingdoms for him. IJama b. R. 13). THAT PASSED BETWEEN (Gen.e. Hana b. 18). and R. Papa said: Abraham himself chose [subjection to other] powers. Papa and R. 21-22] MIDRASH KABBAH day. Berekiah said: R. Judan. meaning. said: R. Akiba disagree. The other maintains that He revealed to him both this world and the next. 12). b. R. IN THAT DAY THE LORD MADE Judan A COVENANT Johanan : WITH ABRAM (xv. Samuel b.). One maintains This world He revealed to him. Dostai said in the i. The discussion turns 376 . blessed be He. Thou didst cause nations to ride over our heads.e. 4 UNTO THY Huna and 1 2 SEED HAVE I GIVEN THIS LAND. 'Which should I choose?' Whereupon the Holy One. 'Make a decision without delay'. while the other said: He revealed to him the future from that day. when Israel would leave Egyp^ while the other held that He revealed the future to him from the Exodus until Messiah's coming (M. 3 I. R. IJinena b. our servitude should now exempt us from Gehenna.). In this matter we come back to the controversy of R.} y THESE PIECES GEZARIM GEZARIM having the same meaning] as in the verse. Ex. Joshua said: He is also showed him the dividing of the Red Sea. LXVI. One maintained: He revealed to him [the future] until that day. * helped Abraham to make his decision. 'cut* Sc. and R. Irlanina. Thou hast caused men to ride over our heads (Ps. Lit. gezarim . R. cxxxvi.] (Ps. Gehenna LI. viz. for it written. R. Ilinena b. 3 but not the next. i. R. Ilanina said on the authority of a certain sage in Rabbi's name: The Holy One. R.XLIV.K. Idi. loc. Idi. 22. of R. said to him. R. Leazar and R. blessed be He. R. Judan. thinking.e. [O give thanks to Him who divided the Red Sea in sunder . 7. the future of Israel in this world. Berekiah apparently states that one held that God revealed Israel's future to Abraham only until that day. 18). xv. In that day the Lord made1 a covenant with Abram. name R. hence it is written. on the implication of IN THAT DAY. tit. Thus it is written. R. which is as 2 though We went through fire and through water (ib. (Gen. IJanina disagreed. R. etc. Zakkai and R.

AND THE PERIZZITE.' but.). the Shalamite. and 6 one in Syria (Jast. and gather them. AND THE AMORITE. . Asia Minor. long the Lord hath ransomed Jacob is said: It . Abin said: It is not written. AND THE KENIZZITE. Deut.V. for I will redeem them. i 2 . U-bara is perfect tense with the waw conversive. 'And the Lord will create (we-yibra). Simeon b. etc. Dostai said in the name Samuel b. Whom He hath redeemed (Ps. Abba's name It is not written. (Isa. Johanan's name: The Holy One. Nahman: Because the Hivite is not mentioned here3 the Rephaim are substituted in their stead. iv. 2). and the Nabatean. v. The Rabbis not written. (u-bara) . E. of R. tjelbo said in R. AND THEKENIZZITE. but. For a discussion of the various places Jast. the other three KENITE. Abba's name in R. xxxi. 8). R. 23. is SEED HAVE equivalent to action. Joshua translates it as a simple perfect: has created. AND THE REPHAIM. for it says. Yohai said: They are the Damascus region. So let the redeemed of the Lord say whom He redeemeth. Jacob said: Asia Minor. and Carthage. 5 R. 3 V. but G i v E N . vn. AND THE KADRabbi said: They are Arabia. And the Lord has created 2 a cloud and smoke by day. Th. R. but R. being. 'will create'. 22-23 Nahman: The mere speech of the Holy One. blessed be He. R. x. For the Lord ransometh Jacob. 5): it has been created and ready. : 4 The Roman mentioned in this passage. AND THE JEBUSITE (xv. 4 and Apamea. but 'For I have redeemed them' (Zech. but For UNTO THY HAVE : (Jer. Joshua said: It is not written. AND THE CANAANITE. R. especially one in Bithynia. 377 .). Thrace. AND THE GIRGASHITE. blessed be He.* R. / will hiss for them. era. AND THE HITTITE. bequeathed by King Attalus to the Roman Republic. 1 Thus His mere promise province embracing the west part of the peninsula of Asia Minor. 19 f. THE KENITE. The is as though it were already fulfilled. AND THE KADMONITE. 5 Several towns. but He gave them only seven. ad loc.GENESIS (LECH LECHA) [XLIV. n). Liezer 6 b. I GIVEN: not 'I will I give'. R. did at first contemplate giving Israel possession of ten peoples. Judan said in R. one in Mesopotamia. THE MONITE.

as it is said. vn. But in the days of the Messiah 2 they shall once again belong to Israel. however. all these.XLIV. 'Once again* as Dan. i) 1 2 The language is Biblical. 378 . Isaac said: The swine grazes with ten of its young whereas the sheep does not graze even with one. yet so Sarai Abraham's wife bore him no children (Gen. far. (Deut. whereas the clean sheep is alone. and the chief of the children of Ammon1 are the three nations that were not given to them in this world. Moab. viz. For I will not give you of their land. [were promised to Abraham's seed]. etc. 41. n. R. THE KENIZ- ZITE. etc. He has given them but seven. 8 litter This was proverbial the unclean swine is always surrounded by a large of its offspring. Seven nations greater and mightier than thou (ib. 5). as it says. THE KENITE. Now. i). xi. ! xvi. though through God's promise : this had already been the case. 3 Thus. v. 23] MIDRASH RABBAH Rabbis said: Edom. in order to fulfil God's promise.

is understood to mean pregnancy. R. in her were limited. Nehemiah said: Neither to him nor to anyone else. i XLV (LECH LECHA) Now REN. 5 This is a technical term. SARAI ABRAM'S WIFE BORE HIM NO CHILDA woman of valour who can find. you (sc. How then does R. AND SHE HAD A HANDMAID. Kahana said: 10). for notes. describing the portion of a wife's dowry. * M on Abram' s account. xvi. 3 V. supra. xxxi. 4 thus: She did Sarai's own account nor T o She was a handmaid of 'plucking' 5 whom he was bound to support but might not sell.e. 'and she had a Y. CHAPTER i. [hence Abram was] two years older [than Haran. 2 children at six years of age. without usufruct the any further responsibility in the same. * The verse continues And to her was a handmaid (E. (xvi. and you find that Haran begot nativity (Ezek. find pregnancy more attainment than rubies. Lakish was asked: What is the meaning of what we learnt6 Servants of 7 plucking'? 'What you pluck.V. and mikrah is now identified with mekurah.T. It is written. Now Abram could SARAI ABRAM'S WIFE BORE R. for her price (mikrah) is far above rubies (Prov. From the term she had it is deduced that Abrarn's rights 6 'I. : 1 as in the case of Sarah. Nehemiah reads HIM and (disregarding the punctuation) TO HER. Thine origin (mekuroth) What and thy older than Nahor. the husband) Yeb. Judah said: To HIM Abram. deduct] the year of pregnancy with Milcah and the year of pregnancy with Iscah. conception.[XLV. R. but had she been HIM NO CHILDREN. i. Simeon b. XXXVIH. Now Abram was a year and Nahor was a year older than Haran. mekuroth. etc. Righteous women. teaches that she did not bear to married to another she would have borne children. pi. R. 1 as you read. AN EGYPTIAN. 3). enjoy 379 DID NOT . 8 'Origin/ by contrast with 'nativity'. i). does 'mikrah' mean? R. 14. yet you say that not beget? Hence. Her pregnancy. vn. you pluck/ he answered. Abba b. the usufruct of which the husband enjoys without responsibility for loss or deterioration. Nehemiah interpret DID NOT BEAR TO Interpret TO not bear to herself HIM? H i HIM on and TO HER. : difficult of : BEAR together with T o handmaid'). 3 DID NOT BEAR TO HIM.

the daughters of [two] kings. and only that which is demolished must be builded up. 1 he took his daughter and gave her to Sarah. xv. It was taught He who has no child : though he were dead and demolished. Yohai said: Hagar was Pharaoh's daughter. E. therefore hearken unto the voice of the words of the Lord : To Sam. and the translation a conjecture. 4 Both the text and the meaning are doubtful.) this alludes 2. 'Better let my daughter be a handmaid in this house than a mistress in another/ as it is . AND SHE HAD A HANDMAID. At thy right hand doth stand the queen in gold of Ophir to Sarai. or else I am dead 5 (Gen. too. THE LORD HATH RESTRAINED ME FROM BEARING. z).' * Abimelech. 3 10): viz. AND ABRAM HEARKENED TO THE VOICE OF SARAI. saying. Viz. is as : R. WHOSE NAME WAS HAGAR. i). Kings' daughters are among thy favourites (Ps. XLV. Pharaoh saw what was done on Sarah's behalf in own house. 6 as you read. play on the name Hagar. Better let my daughter be a handmaid in this house than a mistress in another house thus it is written. etc.XLV. R. his 1-2] MIDRASH RABBAH Simeon When b. . when he saw the miracles performed in his house on Sarah's behalf.V. (xvi. ' or else / die*. gave his daughter to her. translation. it is Said she I know the source of my affliction not as people say [of a barren woman]. AN EGYPTIAN. 'Here is thy reward (agar). i). 1 * 2 V. ' saying. 6 Which he felt moved her to speak. written. she needs a 4 NOW. she needs a charm/ but : : BEHOLD THE LORD HATH RESTRAINED ME FROM BEARING. xn. he (Pharaoh) saying. Pharaoh and Abimelech. (ib. As though demolished: IT MAY BE THAT I SHALL BE BUILDED UP THROUGH HER. IT MAY BE THAT I SHALL BE BUILDED UP THROUGH HER. AND SARAI SAID UNTO ABRAM: BEHOLD NOW. 17. As though dead And she said unto Jacob : Give me children. talisman. Jose said Now (i the voice of the Holy Spirit. 5 A is only Lit. Gen. xxx.

Thus were both the daughters of Lot with child by their father (Gen. 'in the clefts/ etc. : proves that the time he spent without the Land3 was not included in the reckoning. yearns for their prayers and supplications. thou art as the Why did I make thee barren? thy countenance. Lit. Ammi said in the name of Resh Lakish: What is the source of what we learned 1 If a man married a woman and spent ten years with her and she did not bear a child. Thus Hagar conceived time. n. IN UNTO HAGAR. Haytha said: She became pregnant through the first intimacy. but not a concubine. s 6 6 7 Though they were only once with him. R. blessed be He. the Land par excellence. Levi b. Palestine. yet of their own accord In order that. let Me hear thy Yeb. AND GAVE HER TO ABRAM HER HUSBAND TO BE To BE A WIFE. 4 4. whereas Sarah had to wait a long barren. R.V. 4). I. But must remarry.S. 3-4 SARAI ABRAM'S WIFE TOOK HAGAR THE : AFTER ABRAM HAD DWELT TEN YEARS IN THE LAND OF CANAAN. Pazzi observed: Thorns are neither weeded nor sown. Johanan's name: Because the Holy One.e. 3). AFTER ABRAM HAD DWELT TEN YEARS: this A WIFE TO HIM. but not to another. 'they 8 mastered themselves*. AND SHE CON- R. i4) : forth their virginity. IJanina b. he may not stay sterile? 2 This verse : (xvi. Sc. Tanhuma: By an effort of will power 6 objection is raised: surely they brought they grow and spring up.3. Let 1 3 * Me see O my dove. Helbo in R. 381 . Levi said in R. ' AND art EGYPTIAN Ha PPY GENESIS (LECH LECHA) [XLV. Eleazar said: woman never conceives by the first intimacy. R. Shila's name and R. immediately. AND HE WENT (xvi. whereas how much pain and toil is required before wheat can be made to grow! 7 Why were the matriarchs barren? R. 640:. and thus conceived at the first act of intercourse. Thus it is written. 8 clefts of the rock (S. xix. She persuaded [took] her with words thou to be united to so holy a man/ she urged. 36)? 5 Said R. An CEIVED A it is written. Hagar was to enjoy all the rights of a wife. E.

4 R. 3 This paragraph is a comment on the phrase. 5). whereas I conceived in one night Said Sarah Shall I pay heed to this woman and argue with her No I will argue the matter with her master 3 poor woman mistress Sarai ' ' ! : ! . For had she been a righteous woman. 382 . would have felt quite independent of their husbands had they also been blessed with children in their early years. I have a grievance against you. 'what is stolen from me*. The matriarchs. R. voice 4-5] 1 MIDRASH RABBAH R. Judah's name: Thou wrongest me with words. Sarah complained Abraham robbed her of the words that he ought to speak on her behalf. since thou hearest me explained thee. Meir's name said: So that their husbands might derive pleasure from them. Idi. and as the king passes one of them cries out.XLV. Jeremiah in the name of R. AND SARAI SAID UNTO ABRAM: MY WRONG (HAMASI) BE UPON THEE (xvi. Huna and R. for when a woman is with child she is disfigured and lacks grace.)." he would ' have released 1 me just as he has released you but . Abin in R. possessing both beauty and wealth. Abba's insulted yet art silent. 'Execute justice for me!' The king orders him to be released. Hiyya b. Thus the whole ninety years that Sarah did not bear she was like a bride in her canopy. Hanina's name: So that (ib. but she is not. for had you said. 'Azariah said in R. it in R. see how many years have passed without her conceiving. whereupon his fellow-prisoner says to him. and she would say to them. R. SHE 2 SAW THAT SHE HAD CONCEIVED. Ladies used to come to inquire how she was. Berekiah name I have a grievance against : For imagine two men incarcerated in prison. ' ! 5. 4 AND WHEN that 'Hamad' really means. R. "Execute justice for us. R. and R. Abba said So that they might pass the greater part of their life untrammelled. HER MISTRESS WAS DESPISED IN HER EYES. Huna. Go and ask about the welfare of this : ' [Hagar]/ Hagar would tell them: 'My is not inwardly what she is outwardly: she appears to be a righteous woman. Judan explained this in R. now that In prayer. 2 they might lean on their husbands in [spite of] their beauty.

Tanhuma the Elder. 5 he released you but you not me/ Similarly. Had you asked. Greedy. 'my wrong'} is derived to scratch. Nehemiah said: scratcher ND She is also a scratcher and talkative. A gadabout: And Dinah went out (ib. 2). to me Thou hast given no seed' (ib. xv. Now however that thou didst say. Berekiah said in R. 'Behold. 10). 2 xxxi. i). THE LORD JUDGE from frimmes. And she took of the fruit : thereof. R. R. Hiyya R.V. and it of R. 'Lend me seed/ and he ordered. This may [also] be compared to two people who went to borrow seed from the king. R. thou saidest. to us Thou hast given no seed/ then as He gave thee so had He given me. from years. xvm. 3). and rendered: my scratch be upon thee. '1 have a grievance against you. Sarah should have reached Abraham's but because she said. He gave thee a child but not me. xvin. "Lend us seed/' he would have given me just as he gave you. 2 Cf. prone to steal and a gadabout. supra. Eleazar's name: said in the name Whoever plunges eagerly into litigation does not escape unscathed. however. By a play on words hamad (E. eavesdroppers. xxx. i). Joshua b." ' "Execute . and did eat (ib. 2. i). Talkative And Miriam : MY SCRATCH BE UPON (Num. Prone to steal And Rachel stole the teraphim (Gen. And Sarah Make ready : quickly three measures of fine meal (ib. He gave to thee but not to me. 19). "Lend me seed/' he has given you but not me/ Similarly. Abin's name She scratched his face. Levi said: She : is also THE LORD JUDGE BETWEEN ME AND THEE BENEKA). now however that you said. 'Give it to him/ Said his companion to him. 6) envious Rachel envied her sister (ib.GENESIS (LECH LECHA) said. 1 (u- R. We go childless/ then as He gave thee a child so would He have given me since. hadst thou said. 'Behold. slothful: . xxxiv. A : A SARAI SAID UNTO ABRAM: THEE. 1 The Rabbis said: Women are said to justice for me. 383 . eavesdroppers: heard in the tent door (ib. in. spoke against Moses xii. 6). One of them asked. hadst thou said. and envious. slothful. [XLV. Menahema [Nehemiah] said in R. : possess four traits they are greedy. as it says. And I go childless (Gen.

8): after we have made her a mistress. BUT ABRAM SAID UNTO SARAI: BEHOLD. R. (In cur. 1 Seeing that is already written. and she fled from her face (Gen. This was the work of a slave. To sell her unto a foreign people he shall have no power. but according to tradition each yod () is dotted. R. 9 1 The word for AND THEE. Thus she called down God's wrath on him. Thus she did not actually ill-treat her but made her do work unsuited to her new status. because thou hast humbled her (Deut. said: FROM HER FACE. the unborn Ishmael.) 2 Spoken by the angel to Hagar after her flight. forty-eight years. And he went in unto Hagar. would conceive again. 5-6] MIDRASH KABBAH her life BETWEEN ME AND THEE. however. 8 9 But not Abraham's.). thou wilt conceive (ib. u)? 2 This. It is written. xxi. seeing he hath dealt deceitfully with her 7 (Ex. it would have sufficed her. it was reduced by R. Berekiah said: baths. R. Thou shall not deal with her as a slave. 8 Abba from cohabitation. loc. and thy son. and she conceived. TJW is written -pal. which may be read "pal.e. shall we make her a bondmaid again? I am constrained to do her neither good nor harm. given her the status of a wife. 4 6. angel spoke to her! 6 7 Since she is now my wife. which means that it is disregarded. why is it further stated. Said he: 'I am con- good nor harm/ It is written. 14): after we have vexed her. hence it is written. 4 8 Hence the How much greater then was angel told her that she 384 . can strained to do her neither 6 5 we now enslave her again? I am constrained to do her neither good nor harm. while it is written. Behold. 6). xxi. Berekiah said in R. AND SHE FLED She restrained her She slapped her face with a slipper. teaches that an evil eye took 3 possession of her and she miscarried. of the Bible T^i is actually written. And Sarah dealt harshly with her. Hanina observed: Had the prophet Elisha told her that by the Holy Spirit.XLV. AND SARAH DEALT HARSHLY WITH HER. edd. Heb. cit. sc. Abba's name: She bade her carry her water buckets and bath towels to the R. the honour conferred upon her in that an 5 Because she has insulted you. I. Hoshaya said: Binka (thy son) is written. THY MAID is IN THY HAND (xvi.

). supra. 13. Isaac said: were born. IJaninasaid: Five. 9 f. AND HE xvi. AND THE ANGEL OF THE LORD SAID UNTO HER: BEHOLD. . Shur was the wall or fortification which protected Egypt on the east from the incursions of raiding Bedouins (Hertz on Genesis.). Isaac quoted She seeth the ways of her household (Prov. tliyya observed: Come and see how great is the difference between the earlier generations and the 3 ingels visited her? R. etc. MULTIPLY THY SARAI'S HANDMAID* etc. xm. 7): on the road of . 7-8 AND THE ANGEL OF THE 7. 8). LORD FOUND HER N THE WAY TO SnuR (xvi. though after the superfluous. 2 AND AN ANGEL OF THE LORD SAID UNTO HEBi RETURN TO THY MISTRESS. 1 GENESIS (LECH LECHA) [XLV. 4 Actually they had seen an angel. Abraham said: Behold. v. 3) she recognised Sarai as her mistress. do not believe JTOU him. AND AN ANGEL DF THE LORD SAID UNTO HER: I WILL GREATLY . . yet a bondmaid. if two tell it to fou. for each time 'speech' is mentioned it refers to an angel. czf. so she [Hagar] was accustomed to them. 22) 4 . R. more than time it is 385 cc .lalizah. Hence. AND SHE SAID: I ?LEE FROM THE FACE OF MY MISTRESS SARAI. etc. 6) the angel said HAGAR. SARAI'S ' : SEED. thy maid is in thy hand (ib. a It is assumed that since occurs AND AN ANGEL OF THE UNTO HER LORD SAID first once. order a halter/ Thus. (xvi. R. Aha said The finger-nail of the fathers rather than the stomach of the sons R. So runs the proverb If one man tells you that have ass's ears. THOU ART WITH CHILD. What is said in the ' ' The name in Aramaic. etc. Three were called by their names before they Solomon. R. : HANDMAID. . 1 Isaac. n). loc. them R. surely dte ! : ! : : 8. The Rabbis said: Four. and Josiah. etc. (xvi. SAID: HAGAR. 8 In spite of her higher status (v. sees five angels and is not afraid of Hagar. different angels are referred to. this being the number of times 'angel' occurs. xxxi. later ones! y What because did Manoah say to his wife? We shall we have seen God (Judg. How many llama b. . . 27) Abraham's household were seers.

His hand and his dog's (kalbo) 1 are alike. R. 3 because he shut them up ^azurari)* in the wilderness and slew them. And wheresoever the children and the fowls of the heaven 2 them into thy hand (Dan. 28): his name is written 'Nebuchadrezzar'. Kings xm. of men. his dog. he would be reared in the wilderness. 38). 'A WILD ASS') MAN (xvi. for his name shall be Chron. AND EVERY MAN'S HAND AGAINST HIM (KOL BO). and of the kingdoms ofHazor. 9. [i. dwell. the beasts of the field. z 1 386 . a son shall be born case of Isaac ? to thee. 2). hath He AND HE SHALL DWELL IN THE FACE OF ALL HIS 'Kol bo' being read kalbo. Just as his dog eats carrion. non-Jews] CHILD. 8-9] MIDRASH KABBAH And God said : Nay. with the present spelling. who (i from all Solomon his enemies man of rest. In the case of Solomon? Behold. AND SHALT BEAR A SON. but Sarah thy wife shall bear thee a son.V.e. a son shall be born unto the house : of David. he plunders lives. 8 Instead of the more usual Nebuchadnezzar.XLV. word of the Lord : (i O altar. and thou shall call his name Isaac (Gen. 9). xvn. which. Resh Lakish said It means a savage among men in its literal sense. In the case of Josiah? And he shall be a cried against the altar by the thus saith the Lord : Behold. HIS HAND SHALL BE AGAINST EVERY MAN. whose ruthless policy of conquest aroused the whole world against him. n. altar. for whereas all others plunder wealth. and I will give him rest round about. Johanan and Resh Lakish debated : R. given Hence it is written. ends in azar and is read as though it were *a$ar (nxy). 12). xxii. R. Some add BEHOLD. Josiah by name Ishmael among the nations THOU ART WITH AND THOU SHALT CALL HIS NAME ISHMAEL. XLIX.e. 4 A play on the name. which Nebuchadrezzar smote (Jer. Johanan said: It means that while all people are bred in civilised surroundings. OF A this. AND HE SHALL BE A PERE (E. Eleazar said: When SHALL HIS HAND BE AGAINST EVERY MAN AND EVERY MAN'S HAND AGAINST HIM? When he shall come of whom it is written. I. 19). Of Kedar. to shut up. so does he eat carrion. in the days of Nebuchadnezzar.

Simon and R. JJama b. blessed be He. but even with royalty too. 1 say. ad loc. xiv. i). while (Gen. as soon as he stretched out his hand against the Temple. Idi's name: That was through an angel. supra. 2 387 . who attacked Aristobulus and besieged Jerusalem (v. but xvm. And He said: Nay. 15) But it is written. Levi said in the name of R. as you read. 23)? R. Johanan in the name of R. written: Irjanina: name That was through an angel. V. But it And the Lord said unto her Rebekah (ib. 17)? As long as Abraham lived. on the bearing of this passage on the date of the composition of Gen. xxv. Joshua b. xx. Rabbah. Eleazar b. R. and that too was through a particular cause. That Thou hast brought me thus far 1 FOR SHE SAID: HAVE HIM THAT SEETH ME. in the next world. 'He fell. 'Hefeir [shall be applicable to him]. R. HE SHALL DWELL. Here you elsewhere you read. as soon as he died. SHALL DWELL. 9-10 HE SHALL DWELL. Aibu of R. R. Zimra: it : explained Thou She said: I have been granted not only speech [with the angel]. xxv. R. LORD b. in is R. King of Nabatea. Jose b. AND SHE CALLED THE NAME (XVI. Josephus.GENESIS (LECH LECHA) [XLV. Ant. Th. I EVEN HERE (HALOM) SEEN Bacher suggests that the statement that Ishmael (which is not to be identified with Rome) attacked the Temple alludes either to Aretes. Nehemiah answered (ib. R. AND SHE [HAGAR] CALLED THE NAME OF THE LORD THAT SPOKE UNTO HER? R. a. R. OF THE R. SHALL DWELL. Sarah]. name: And what speak with her. Kahana said in R. Simeon said: The Holy One. or to the Arabian Prince who joined V. 'He fell: Before he stretched out his hand against the Temple. 6. never con- Judah descended to hold converse with a woman save with that righteous woman [viz. BRETHREN. Vespasian's army. He fell HE HE 10. Abba b. Leazar said in the That was through the medium of Shem. 13). seest the sufferings of the persecuted. THAT SPOKE UNTO HER R.' In this world. as thou didst laugh a roundabout it is way He took ! Birya's in order to written. 2 THOU ART A GOD OF SEEING (EL ROI).

Hiding her face in modesty. but even now that I am alone. 388 . Cur. halorn. 7. This explains the comparison that ends the section. edd.XLV. v. but even my mistress who was with me did not see him (while I did). 1 Referring to David's royal rank. I was favoured [to see the angel] not only when with my mistress. Thus here too halom* expresses Hagar's gratitude that kings would spring from her. Samuel said: This may be compared to a noble lady whom the king ordered to walk before him. while she did not see him. supra. 2 Rendering : I have seen (the angels in the wilderness) after having seen ' them 8 (at home). iS). 3 Thus her maid saw [the king]. 10] MIDRASH KABBAH 1 (n Sam. vn. have here: Not only was I favoured to see the angel together with my mistress. 2 R. She did so leaning on her maid and pressing her face against her.

5). ch. Judan said: Just as a fig contains nothing inedible save its stalk.[AX. There are several views as to Abraham's age at the time. i). 1 Even so. and Jacob. then there were Abraham and Isaac. 1-2 i. To everything there is a season. should he not have circumcised himself at the age of forty-eight. etc. 'so as not to shut the door in the face of proselytes'. when [God] spoke with him between the pieces? 4 In order that Isaac might issue from Why 1 At first single figs here and there ripen . Who 389 . when he recognised his Creator ? 2 In order not to discourage proselytes. VI. 4 V. XLVI (LECH LECHA) AND ABRAM WAS NINETY YEARS OLD AND NINE. Until eventually. at the beginning. 10). threes. but all the people that were born in the wilderness by the way as they came forth out of Egypt. then three by three. WALK BEFORE ME. Lit. and increased abundantly. had not been circumcised (Josh. (Ex. AND WHEN ABRAM WAS NINETY YEARS OLD AND NINE. And the children of Israel were fruitful. For all the people that came out were circumi). viz. then Abraham. and with its removal even this defect ceases. There was a season when circumcision should be to Abraham viz. xv. your fathers as the first-ripe in the fig-tree at her first season (Hos. 26). R. Isaac. as it is written. in. etc. In the self same day was Abraham given circumcised (Gen. then little clusters of twos and z Cf. (xvii. 24). CHAPTER I found Israel like grapes in the I saw wilderness. 3 Then why not be circumcised at the age of eighty-five. v. vn. AND BE THOU WHOLE. in the wilderness. Judan said: At first the fruit of a fig-tree is gathered one by one. supra. there was a season when his descendants were to neglect it. It is written. then two by two. etc. 8. Abraham was one (Ezek. xvii. so did God say to Abraham: 'There is nought unworthy in thee save thy foreskin remove it and the blemish ceases * : : hence. ix. cised. xxxm. i). and a time to every purpose under the heaven (Eccl. xxx. 2. and multiplied. R. 3 might otherwise think that it was too late in life for them to be circumcised. but eventually the whole tree ripens. until eventually they are gathered in baskets and with shovels. It is written.

* I was not interested in the previous generations. God assured that even if circumcision should deter would-be converts. so was circumcision to renew his virility. it did not matter. to him: 'Let it suffice thee that I and thou are in the world. 'day' ALMIGHTY): It is I who said to I not said I' to had And world.K. Nathan said in R. the 'day (enough)! AM EL SHADDAI (GoD My My a 1 I. and Y. because they did not acknowledge and recognise me. I. 5 Since none practised it. Mah. after I. ' when ' let it I am circumcised?' 6 'Abraham/ said God to him. Simeon b. how much more when I am circumcised and so I emphasise the difference between us.XLVL 2-3] 1 MIDRASH RABBAH Then let him be circumcised at the age of Ishmael was born? 2 Said R. which is necessary. * Abraham am ' 39 . and it is enough for uncircumcision to have existed until now. lends colour to this interpretation. suffice thee that I am thy God let it suffice thee that thy Patron. similar to that of M. Will they come and join me 3. 6 7 I. the world must cease. Isaac's name : I world. when a difficult operation is On this interpretation. : ' : world: just as the cinnamon tree yields fruit as long as you manure and hoe around it. V. so [shall Abraham be] even when his blood runs sluggishly and his passions and desires have ceased/ 3 [Abraham] asked: 'If circumcision is so precious. let it suffice thee that I thy Patron.e. I will set up a cinnamon tree in the Lakish [God said] a holy source.e. 16. xvi. Aha's name. and it 5 is enough for circumcision to have been forlorn until now/ men came and I circumcised 'Before he: Said myself.T. Said the Holy One. Shaddai is derived from day> enough. blessed it not given to Adam? was why be He. This may therefore be directed against Paulinism. joined me [in my new faith].. it does not on the whole seem very probable. This and the following comments are based on the phrase. sufficient for My world that I am its God and its Patron/ 7 R. Th. it is enough for My world to have existed until now. men fought against me. and not only for thee alone. which abolished circumcision in order to facilitate the spread of Christianity.e. but it is I am .e. Though God's reply. 3 Abraham was to be like a cinnamon tree which no matter how old can be made to produce fruit. By a play on words. and R. when eighty-six. translate differently: (Even) before I was circumcised. Berekiah said in R. 4 If thou wilt not undergo circumcision. Abraham's circumcision. / am El Shaddai (God Almighty).

Huna 'orlah occurs in reference to a tree (Lev. Eliezer b. He was a proselyte. The Targum that follows corresponds to these two meanings of day '. The ' 391 . 390. WALK BEFORE etc. so 'orlah employed in reference to man means and and said in Bar Kappara's name: Abraham pondered 3 drew an inference: 'orlah (foreskin) is said here (v. Said R. * Though translated differently. who knows but that some defect may have been found in me? Said the king to her.GENESIS (LECH LECHA) [XLVI. God said to Abraham. WILL MAKE MY COVENANT. 4) is accordingly understood in the sense of 'assessment whole world cannot be assessed as having such greatness as *Mine. for. AND R. (XVII. Day original is very difficult. Jacob It is I whose Godhead outweighs the world and the fulness : thereof. R. ME. author of a translation of the Bible into Greek in the second 3 Lit. sat '. thought she. pare it and the defect will be gone/ Similarly. the (v. n. I WILL MAKE MY COVENANT BETWEEN ME AND THEE. 1 Akilas 2 translated it: Sufficient and incomparable. 4. illustrated Levi the This may be by a noble lady whom king commanded. It was taught in the name of R. WALK BEFORE said: ME. century. and this is Th/s conjecture. 2). 3-4 heaven would still have been spreading and the earth would have gone on expanding to this very day. the Hebrew is the same in both cases. 'Walk before me/ She walked before him and her face went pale. xix. 'Thou hast no defect. AND WILL MULTIPLY THEE EXCEEDINGLY: hence. but that the nail of thy little finger is slightly too long. AND BE THOU WHOLE. n). 'Thou hast no other defect but this foreskin: remove it and the defect I will be gone/ Hence.p. viz. 23 ) 4 : just as 'orlah in the case of trees refers to the place where it yields fruit. the IJanina to him: analogy already been given to Abraham? Surely not! But [he learned it from God's promise]: member which produces offspring Had then reasoning by [fruit]. AND BE THOU WHOLE. 1 The * ' ' ' ' sufficient z and ' assessed '. with [that member through which] I WILL MULTIPLY THEE EXCEEDINGLY. AND!WILLMAKE MY COVENANT BETWEEN ME AND THEE.

which disqualifies a priest. Again. The Lord hath sworn. he was ordered. he would be unfit to offer sacrifices . R. If he circumcised himself at the ear. R. as appears from the 2 1 reference to the heart. 'orlah is used in connection with the ear. I am 'aral [E. AND BE THOU WHOLE. 10). 25). xvn. their ear is 'orlah E. 4 The heart was regarded as the seat of the emotions. as it says. at the mouth. the mouth. it is said. at the heart.V. BEFORE ME. Nowhere else than Nakdah said It at the 'orlah of the is body. V. he cannot speak. the heart: For all the house of Israel are ' 'arle [E. Thus. And ye shall be circumcised in the flesh of your 'orlah (Gen. 6. 'dull' (Jer. where could he perform circumcision and be fit to offer? Nowhere else than at the 'orlah of the yet body [the foreskin]. Ishmael said: Abraham was a High Priest. Akiba [reasoned R. he cannot think. is that we must perform circumcision on the member which marks the distinction between male and female. Tanhuma Is there observed This argument of Nakdah AND THE UNCIRCXJMCISED MALE (xvn. 5. he would not be WHOLE. he would be unfit to offer.XLVI. 14). he would not be WHOLE. ix. 5] MIDRASH KABBAH as follows]. n). at the heart. Akiba said: There are four kinds of 'orlah. 3 'Aral has the same root as 'orlah. ex. vi. Behold. to offer. every (Gen. In each case it would be a blemish. 2 viz. 4 Where then could he be circumcised and yet be able to : WALK Now. Ned. written. 4). and will not repent : Thou art a priest 1 for ever after the manner of Melchizedek (Ps. he would not be WHOLE. 326 and Lev. 30).V. however. if at the mouth. Ishmael and R. This is probably merely argumentation for its own sake. R. he would be unfit Hence. at the mouth. 392 . xvn. 'uncircumcised*] in the heart (Jer. where the verse is applied to Abraham. xxv. uncircumcised^ of lips (Ex. 12). vi. Behold. If he circumcised himself at the ear. R. is logiqal. and * think ' probably has that meaning here. he cannot hear. then an uncircumcised female? The meaning. at the heart. Where could he circumcise himself and yet be w H o L E ? is eight days old male among you.V. And he that shall be circumcised think? Only : at the 'orlah of the body. Now if he is circumcised at the ear.

3 for a different interpretation. Their question was: how do we know that even then notarikon is a permissible method of exegesis. It is related that R. xn. R. v. Moses came and circumcised them. 3 AS FOR ME. (xvn. The above translation. v. According to the Rabbis the Israelites in Egypt were uncircumcised until just Here. Abba. etc. and R. His prayer 4 .GENESIS (LECH LECHA) [XLVL 6-8 6. Levi's name: Abraham fell on his face on two occasions. Bar Kappara said: Whoever calls Abraham Abram'. when sitting : TUDE OF NATIONS). though fitting in with the text. In this treatment the general form of the word only is considered. etc. Levi said: A positive commandment and a negative commandment. BUT THY NAME SHALL BE ABRAHAM (xvn. since it assumes Abraham's unwillingness (the second falling on the face can certainly not bear this connotation). 105*2. 3). and he fell on his face in prayer that they might not lose it was answered through Moses and Joshua. when circumcision became essential for the eating of the passover-offering (v. BEHOLD. once raised the question How is notarikon [as a permissible method of exegesis] deduced from Scripture? 4 We know it from this: AND THOU SHALT BE AB HAMON (THE FATHER OF A MULTIBerekiah. : his children were deprived of circumcision once in the wilderness and once in Egypt2 In Egypt. 5). and studying. while a particular letter or so may have to be ignored. the resh being lacking. His falling on his face is regarded as an indication of unwilling assent to God's command. and prior to their departure. AND ABRAHAM FELL ON HIS FACE. 4). 3 V. : Abraham foresaw these two occasions when his descendants would not be circumcised. MY COVENANT IS WITH THEE. violates a positive commandment.Hence the n (resh*) must be ignored in a case where altogether. Phinehas said in R. 1 In consequence. 48). 'multitude'). Samuel b. 5 8. NEITHER SHALL THY NAME ANY MORE BE CALLED ABRAM. Ex. Notarilkon is a method of exegesis whereby words are broken up and each letter or syllable is treated as an abbreviation. R. 17. Abba b. n. Ammi. 393 . EJ. (xvn. 5 His name was changed from onsN (Abram) to nrmx (Abraham). f 1 2 when he was informed about the birth of Isaac. is not very probable. but v. Josh. Scripture itself provides the exegesis. Kahana. in the wilderness. 5. R. Cf Shab. R. 7. Joshua came and circumcised them. so that it might read ab (father of) ham (an abbreviation of hamon.

: ' ' ' ' : ' ' 9. B. Berekiah and R. they will enter the Promised Land. 10) Jacob will be the principal name. (iii) If they accept circumcision. it is men of the Great Assembly1 called written. : The authorship of Nehemiah is here apparently ascribed to it. Gen. I will not be their God and Patron. 15 Thou shalt not call her name Sarai. Y. 5 Translating: And by this word did Joshua circumcise them. as him while he was yet it means that He chose Abram. 4) Joshua spoke a word (dabar) to them. THE LAND OF THY SOJOURNINGS. if not. s 3 V. (XVH. But Israel [too] shall be thy name (Gen. Surely not! * Only four are given here. 'Jacob/ does one who calls infringe a positive It was not intended ' that the command? [No. Then. ' but that Israel should be his principal name. for] it was taught: name Jacob should disappear. R. Divinity. BUT THY NAME SHALL BE ABRAHAM that is a positive command. IJelbo in the name of R. they do not accept My they accept My Divinity Divinity. 'that 1 : A body instituted by Ezra as the supreme ecclesiastical executive council. Abin b. Promised Land. 5 'What think you/ said he upbraiding them. Aha's name At all events. There it different. R. 8). Thy name is Jacob. R. who didst choose him Abram. AND TO THY SEED AFTER THEE. AND I WILL GIVE UNTO THEE. if not. Again. does one Sarah 'Sarai' infringe a positive command? 2 3 No. Jose said: It is written. by analogy. Judan gave five interpretations of this. Thou is . while Israel will be an additional one. Judan said: God said: (i) 'If thy children accept My Divinity. And this is . 394 . by analogy. I will be their God and Patron if not. . etc.XLVL MIDRASH KABBAH NEITHER SHALL THY NAME ANT MORE BE CALLED ABRAM that is a negative command. xxxv. and circumcised them. while Jacob should be a secondary one. save that. (ii)'If thy children enter the . R. if one calls Israel. (iv) If thy children accept circumcision. xvii. But 8-9] surely the as ix. they accept My the cause (dabar) why Joshua did circumcise (Josh. they will not enter the Promised Land/ 4 R.B. Zebida interpreted in R. i$a. . they do not accept My Divinity. for only he [Abraham] was enjoined respecting her. Abram (Neh. if not. 7). v.

TEM) It [the prepuce] is like a sore (numi) hanging from the 2 Once Monabaz3 and Izates. When they came to the verse. Then each went and had himself circumcised. hence it follows that only he who is himself circumcised may perform circumcision. AND TO THY SEED AFTER THEE. one turned his face to the Wall and commenced to weep. 9). The grammatical form. V. * A prince of Adiabene. YE SHALL BE CIRCUMCISED (U-NEMALTHE IN FLESH OF YOUR FORESKIN (XVII. . Johanan said: He must needs be circumcised himmol yimmol (ib. AND YE SHALL BE CIRCUMCISED. Rab said: AND AS FOR THEE means AND providing that you the condition. and so by a play on words it is read: numi (a sore) maltem (shall ye circumcise). 6 Without his brother's knowledge. xx. and when they came to the verse. Jos. fulfil 'AND I WILL GIVE UNTO THEE.. 8 The name of a king of Adiabene. MY COVENANT* (XVII. R. who embraced i seq. brother of the second Monabaz. 395 . also of one of his sons. THOU SHALT KEEP. unemaltem. is unusual. 6 Some time later they were sitting and reading the Book of Genesis. blessed be He. 6 The mention of King Ptolemy is surprising. for he too is counted elsewhere as one of the heathen kings who embraced Judaism. and how much more so an uncircumcised Gentile 10. YE SHALL BE CIRCUMCISED. He is possibly mentioned in error. 1 It was ! taught: An uncircumcised Israelite [Jew] may not circumcise. R. 9-10 enter the Land uncircumcised ? Thus did the ' to Abraham. my brother!' to which he replied. 13) teaches that the circumciser must himself be circumcised. FOR THEE. 3 1). etc. one said to the 'Woe to thee. Huna in Rab's name and R. were sitting and reading the book of Genesis. Judaism the second one is referred to here. 2. 4 the sons of King body 5 Ptolemy. AND AS FOR THEE. Johanan each commented. AND AND 1 2 other. THOU SHAL. AS one like thee [must perform the actual circumcision] . . and the other turned his face to the wall and commenced to weep.T KEEP MY COVENANT. This follows from the doubling of the verb. say GENESIS (LECH LECHA) [XLVI. Ant. since they were the sons of King Monabaz.you will Holy One.

1350. requite them? Said R. It was likewise taught. 1 11. It 1 signifies the inclusion of b. This intimates circumcision. and an angel descended and rescued him.).* and removal of the shreds [of the corona]. 2 ' ' . Mah. 13). 10-12] MIDRASH RABBAH 'Woe to thee. 5 This and the following statements are based on the emphasis and ' extension implied by the doubling of the verb. taught: If a man buys the unborn child of a non. himmol yimmoL* The 396 . R. blessed be He. ad loc. . R. and 'For a daughter* means in all cases. iv. while Samuel taught SamueFs statement is based on the verse: For a son. Simeon : 8 V. whatever the circumstances in which the son is born. HE SHALL SURELY BE CIRCUMCISED YIMMOL (xvii. with which this does not agree.e. per'i'ah. HE SHALL 5 SURELY BE CIRCUMCISED: ciser this teaches that the circum- must himself be circumcised. ness. Jos. circumcision must be on the 2 * verse actually treats of the mother's period of uncleaneighth day. and therefore it was applied to circumcision. Jose said: He must be circumcised on the eighth day. Phinehas: When he went out to battle a band of enemies attacked him. 6) For a son means in 3 all cases. Shab.XLVI. AND HE THAT IS EIGHT DAYS OLD SHALL BE HE THAT IS BORN IN THE CIRCUMCISED HOUSE OR BOUGHT WITH MONEY (XVII. suggests that it may have been regarded as superfluous. I. Eleazar said was taught. When their mother learned about it she went and told their father: 'A sore has broken out on our sons' flesh and the physician has ordered circumcision/ 'Then let them be circumcised/ said he.Jewish bondmaid belonging to a Gentile R. . but not to me/ Thus they revealed the matter to each other. Hama b. my brother. of the corona by splitting the membrane and pulling it down. It Was . Johanan said: He must be circumcised on the eighth day [after birth]. xn. V. How did the Holy One. HIMMOL 12.#. since its scope is covered by the preceding verses 4 The uncovering (<?. : HE SHALL SURELY one Beth Shammai BE CIRCUMCISED this who is born circumcised. R. or for a daughter (Lev. not of circumcision at all. and whatever the status of his mother (the daughter '). the same. and 6. 12).

Shab. the Sabbath. Eleazar the son of R. 4 5 Lev. whose circumcision is disguised must re-circumcise. 14). Said they to R. however. Beth Shammai maintain The blood of the covenant must be made to flow from him. I. a minor form of circumcision is necessary. In Yeb. Under the Hellenising Lit. Yeb. when Greek games were intro- Hence duced into Judea. in which the competitors appeared naked. Berekiah said in R. it must be postponed until after the Sabbath. R. R. R. R. Nahman said in R. xii. while Beth Hillel rule: : said unnecessary. notwithstanding that it is hidden. V. because it is a 8 suppressed foreskin. Isaac's name. 6 Cf. Eleazar Hakappar Beth Shammai and Beth Hillel agree that in both of these cases the blood of the covenant must be made to It is : flow. and R. 6 This refers to 7 It was is whose circumcision one taught: He disguised. R. On the present reading the meaning is that it is indeed circumcised. supra. Haggai said in R. Isaac's name: Is there then an uncircumcised female? The meaning. many underwent operations (epiplasm) to hide the fact that they were circumcised. 4 . They disagree only about a man who became a proselyte when already circumcised. 1 because it is a suppressed foreskin. ad loc. (XVII. Sc. and the eighth day after whose birth2 fell on the Sabbath. etc. 5. Eleazar Hakappar. Judah said: He does not re-circumcise. Eleazar the son of R.GENESIS (LECH LECHA) [XLVL 12-13 and Beth Hillel agree that when one is born circumcised. 5 The 13.e. Hoshaya's name: halachah is as stated by the disciple. is that we must perform circumcision on the member which marks the distinction between male and female. They disagree about one who was born circumcised. v. Judah: Yet there 1 HE HATH BROKEN MY COVENANT. 8 : 397 . jza the reading is because it endangers his life. 3 On the eighth day. 7 the skin over the prepuce. 3. Beth Shammai then maintain: The blood of the covenant must flow3 while Beth Hillel rule: It is unnecessary. Isaac b. AND THE UNCIRCUMCISED MALE. 2 When circumcision must be performed. 7ia. the blood of the covenant must be made to flow from him. 'drawn' influence of the pre-Maccabean period.

1 The leader of the ill-starred revolt against Hadrian. which ended in the crushing defeat of Bithar in 135 C. GesMchte (fourth edition). 398 .E. iv. he whose circumcision is dis- guised.XLVL 13] MIDRASH KABBAH were many in the days of the son of Kosiba1 who recircumcised and yet gave birth to children after that. CISE D even four or HE SHALL SURELY BE CIRCUMfive times HE HATH BROKEN : MY COVENANT viz. Th/s text probably requires emendation. On the historical fact v. 2 They survived it. Graetz. 2 Hence it is written. 73 .

1 i6). said: Lord took from * : Sarai soared 1 God and protested Sovereign of the Universe Because I am the smallest of all letters.M. whereas here we read. In all that Sarah saith unto thee. It is written. xii. but she did not derive honour from him. Karhah The yod which the 12). her husband (Prov. the husband gives orders. blessed be He. name. Usually. its letters now I will set says. THOU SHALT NOT CALL HER NAME SARAI. one for her became (Sarah). The passage might interprets T H Y also mean quite simply that Abraham derived honour and glory from her. which are apparently superfluous hence he i F E who brings thee honour. 16). > He numerical value of from her name and is God now the took the * THY : w : : a 8 In actual writing it is Changing j?ann into mn\ almost a mere dot 0). and one to be added to Abraham's was thus changed from erox to nrroK. sovereign) to him. xvn. Joshua b. while that of n is 5. . but Sarah was not crowned through him. R.e. THOU SHALT NOT CALL HER NAME SARAI. R. xii. but it would probably require a slight emendation of the text. Hence Abraham refers this verse to Sarah. BUT SARAH [i. He deduces this from the words WIFE. xxi. explains was then her husband (Abraham) crowned through her while she was not crowned through him surely each cast glory upon the other? To which the Rabbis answer that the meaning here is that she was to be a mistress (crown. i CHAPTER XLVII (LECH LECHA) i. etc. Mana Hoshea the son of Nun Joshua said: Formerly she was a -nttf. hearken unto her voice (Gen. but she was not crowned through her husband.' called (Num. which was crowned (his name was changed to denote his greatness v. 399 . 2 Thou hast withdrawn me from the name of that righteous woman Said aloft before ' ! the Holy One. 4). Y. 1 The Rabbis said: She was her husband's ruler. PRINCESS] SHALL HER NAME crown BE (xvn. AND GOD SAID UNTO ABRAHAM: As FOR SARAI THY WIFE. This seems the most plausible interpretation. 5) through Sarah. xm. Thus split it up into two n s. which m name. R. Her original name was 10. And Moses 3 beginning of its letters. to virtuous woman is a 15). to in a woman's name and the last of thee in a man's name and at the as it it: 'Hitherto thou wast . as we find in connection with Pharaoh (v.[XLVII. BUT SARAH SHALL HER NAME BE. Aha said: Her A husband was crowned through her.

infra. LII. supra. whereas a princess [Sarah] to all mankind. V. LIII. xxv. Moses came and circumcised them. his children were deprived of circumcision. This implied prophecy could not refer to Ishmael. Another interpretation is this: R. I WILL BLESS HER in respect of milk.XLVII. LXI. that God restored to her her youth. AND MOREOVER I WILL GIVE THEE A SON FROM HER. 1 2. 400 . is 1-3] MIDRASH KABBAH now she princess [Sarai] to her own people only. Judah said that God informed her that He would bless her with sufficient milk to suckle other children too (v. seeing that he was not even conceived yet. R. Judan said in the name of Resh Lakish: She lacked an ovary. Hanina said Abraham drew a deduction from AND : this and took back Keturah. In consequence. R. IJanina: I will inspire all peoples with awe of her. Phinehas said in R. so that they should not call her. Levi's name: HIS FACE (xvn. Nehemiah to him: Had she then already been informed about her milk? 2 This teaches. in the wilderness. which implied that he was also to beget children from another wife who would not be kings of peoples. According to the Rabbis (v. explains it differently. Rash. infra. Said R. On two occasions did Abraham fall on his face. KINGS OF PEOPLES SHALL BE OF HER. 1 6). is The passage rather difficult. 17). Nehemiah objected that she had so far not even been promised sufficient for her own child. I WILL BLESS HER. Abraham deduced that FROM HERhe would have kings of peoples. Joshua came and circumcised them. 9). R. 'barren woman/ R. (xvn. Abbahu explained it thus in the name of R. R. THEN ABRAHAM FELL UPON R. AND I WILL BLESS HER. however. 4) Keturah was Hagar. once in the wilderness and once in Egypt. but the Lord fashioned an ovary for her. In Egypt. YEA. AND I WILL BLESS HER. YEA. Judah said: This means. fromwhich the present passage might in error have come here. i. infra. 6. 5. to which R. R. 3 3. It apparently means that there was no need to inform her that she would be able to suckle her child. but that the latter is 2 more comprehensive. Jose b. XLVI. IJama b. etc. 8 V. that she should give thee a son. 4 V. for he was already born. 4 1 He holds that both Sarai and Sarah denote ' princess '.

2 And I shall not hope for another son. . THAT is NINETY YEARS OLD.V. 4 R. Lakish: When she is called Mother So-and-So and does not mind. AND WILL MAKE HIM FRUITFUL refers to Isaac. Do not fill me allowance/ your king with a false hope/ he rejoined. l8). AND WILL MULTIPLY HIM refers to Isaac. 2 SHALL BEAR THEE A SON I NAY. 'I HAVE HEARD 1 THEE * '). BUT SARAH THY WIFE AND AS FOR ISHMAEL. Now that his name was coupled with Ishmael could be sure that his blessing too would be fulfilled. SHALL SARAH. Biryai's name: There was nothing improbable in his begetting children. I the HAVE BLESSED HIM refers to Isaac. Judan interpreted: SHALL A CHILD BE BORN UNTO HIM THAT IS A HUNDRED YEARS OLD? Why [this astonishment]? For. Hananiah: Here the son of bondmaid might learn [that he would be blessed] from the son of the mistress. R. Johanan 5. ' ' ' said. Who Isaac's. I have already informed thee 3 [about his blessing] through an angel. etc. 19 f. BEHOLD.) that even his blessing would be increased. [said he]. OH THAT ISHMAEL MIGHT SAID: LIVE BEFORE THEE. BEAR? ' A man ' does not grow aged. Kahana said in R. 4. Judan's name: Imagine a king who wished ' I intend to double the informed him. AND AS FOR ISHMAEL. R. 3-5 AND SAID IN HIS HEART: SHALL A CHILD BE BORN UNTO HIM THAT IS A HUNDRED YEARS OLD. 8 Reading shimatika instead of shem'atika (E. . 401 Dd . pray only that you do not withhold my present allowance! Similarly Abraham to increase his friend's allowance. Judah said in R. AND ABRAHAM SAID UNTO GOD: OH THAT ISHMAEL MIGHT LIVE BEFORE THEE! (XVII. (xvn.). and he was surprised only because of Sarah's age. Simeon b. HAVE HEARD THEE. 1 When is a woman to be regarded as aged? Said R. etc. xvi. Joshua b. 10. 'EJ. or (as spoke to Hagar.GENESIS (LECH LECHA) [XJLVil. For. Abba b. but a woman does. R. said in the name of R. AND GOD .

5-6] MIDRASH RABBAH Here the son of the mistress might learn from the son of the bondmaid: BEHOLD. he said to Him. or than smaller must ask of leave him. : AND HE LEFT OFF TALKING WITH HIM. xxv. and then I will speak with you/ When he had spoken with God all that he needed. 4 He holds that these tidings were announced at the time of the Feast of Tabernacles (i5th-22nd of Tishri). 21). Idi's name: That year was inter- BUT MY COVENANT WHOM SARAH calated. 9 ). 28) these were the descendants of the mistress [Sarah]. R. Passover. 'vapours'] and wind> etc. 14). Since this gives an interval of only six months. 2 (Prov. when the ministering angels came to speak to him. But these were matoth (tribes) as you read. Said he to them. All these are the twelve tribes (shibte) of Israel (Gen. From he. which is greater than you. which then gives seven months. THIS SET TIME (LA~MO'ED) IN THE NEXT YEAR (XVII. while la-mo ed means at the Festival. Isaac said: It LISH is MY written. Huna said in R. To make up to the 365 days of the solar year a month was intercalated in certain years. XLIX. He who ' ' ! 1 As the present verse continues : then lay Sarah's superiority? 2 Their glory would be transient. and they would soon pass away. greater whom do we learn it? From Abraham. Yet did not Ishmael too produce twelve 1 [princes] P In truth those were nesi'tm (princes) in the same sense as you read. 4 It Was his from whether he is taught departs neighbour. On one occasion Abraham was speaking to God. The Jewish year is lunar. SHALL HE BEGET. both meaning tribes and both meaning rods. Ishmael. As nesi'im [E. 3 WILL I ESTABLISH WITH SHALL BEAR UNTO THEE AT ISAAC. 'rods'] of the word. in. Selah (Hab. 3 Shebet and mateh are synonyms. and consists of about 354 days. Let us take leave of the Shechinah. R. Ishmael. we must assume that the year was prolonged by the intercalation of a month (Adar). How AND WILL MAKE HIM FRUITFUL refers AND WILL MULTIPLY HIM refers to much the more then WILL I ESTABCOVENANT WITH ISAAC. Sworn are the matoth [E. in Nisan. sc. I HAVE BLESSED HIM refers to to Ishmael.V.XLVII.V. Sovereign of the Universe 6. Wherein TWELVE PRINCES (NESI'IM) 4O2 . Thus these tribes would endure like rods that are planted.

E. while in the second verse you say. and a severer operation was necessary.GENESIS (LECH LECHA) [XL VI I. God rode upon them. 'When children lapse into sinful ways. And. the sign of the accusative. 2 7. WHEN HE WAS CIRCUMCISED IN (ETH) THE FLESH OF HIS FORESKIN (xvn.V. The passage of course a lesson in manners. but since Ishmael had not been made flabby through a woman. again. as though. 43 . Thus it is written. Me AND GOD WENT UP FROM ABRAHAM. God then said: . AND ABRAHAM TOOK ISHMAEL HIS SON. and in Rabbinic exegesis denoting an extension. the Lord stood upon him (ib. WHEN HE WAS CIRCUMCISED IN THE FLESH OF HIS FORESKIN. Aibu said: When Abraham circumcised those that were born in his house. AND GOD WENT UP FROM UPON ABRAHAM. he set up a hillock of foreskins the sun shone upon them and they putrefied. 4 His flesh was firmer. as it were. And God went up from upon him (Gen. 23). ETH BESAR 'ORLATHO ? 3 The reason is this: BESAR 'ORLATHO is written in the case of Abraham. 4 Understanding it as though God first asked leave. i3). The idea is that through the Patriarchs the knowis * ledge of * f God was diffused among \ all peoples. THIRTEEN YEARS OLD. 24 f. 1 ETH BESAR 'ORLATHO is written. 1 Resh Lakish said: The Patriarchs are [God's] Heavenly Chariot. a In these verses ty is translated literally upon '. AND ISHMAEL HIS SON WAS 8. AND ALL THAT WERE BORN IN HIS HOUSE (XVII.). I will remember that odour in their favour and be filled with compassion My for them/ AND ABRAHAM WAS NINETY YEARS OLD AND NINE. BESAR 'ORLATHO. R. 13). The flesh of his foreskin* but in the second verse referring to Ishmael it is preceded by eth. xxxv. Here you say. because he had been made flabby through a woman. behold. and their odour ascended to the Lord like sweet incense. and that is indicated by the extending particle eth. xxvm. 6-8 I have need to take speak [with the angels]/ 'Then let leave [of thee] in peace/ replied He. further. Thus it is written.

b. fields. AND THOSE BOUGHT WITH MONEY OF A FOREIGNER.Z. R. and only work which cannot be postponed is permitted on them. said: 'Had Abraham been circumcised at night. Thus the Holy One. vineyards. 'A. R. Radal and a falsehood? The passive indicating that he was made to lie suggests : would you teach a 8 4 5 feel his circumcision. Abraham circumcised himself/ but WAS ABRAHAM CIRCUM- he examined himself and found that he was [already] circumcised. Berekiah said: It is written. Levi said It does not say.XLVIL MIDRASH RABBAH DAY WAS ABRAHAM CIR9. : R. xxxn. Jewish fair Lakish: Not only circumcised. R. 3 so that the Lord might double his reward/ : CISED this intimates that ' : I 10. Berekiah observed: It was at that time that R. WERE CIRCUMCISED WITH HIM (xvn. These possess a semi-sacred character. all his contemporaries might have said: "We did not know of it. so that the Lord might double his reward. 26). IN THE SELF SAME CUMCISED (xvn. and male and female slaves from them. 8. blessed be He. 19). It was taught 4 You may attend a non: on the Intermediate Days of a Festival 5 to buy houses. R. THOSE BORN IN THE HOUSE. Simeon b. 404 . Levi. he replied. him who objects speak out!'" 1 felt [with the challenge]. supra. AND ALL THE MEN OF HIS HOUSE. i 3 a. 27)." IN THE SELF SAME DAY. Levi asked Resh Lakish: Is it permitted to buy uncircumcised [heathen] slaves from a Gentile? About when do you ask me. R. Some MSS. because you thereby bring them under the wings of the Shechinah. omit: on the Intermediate Days of a Festival. saying to him hood 2 He felt the smart and suffered pain. Ammi said in the name of R. / 9-10] have not spoken in secret (Isa. Joshua b. but had we known of it we would not have Hence he was circumcised let him be circumcised. Kahana It is a lie and a falsehumiliated R. XLV. but even uncircumcised slaves. Abba ' said: He the smart and suffered pain. Abba b. about a 1 Cf. "Let WAS ABRAHAM CIRCUMCISED. 2 To suggest that Abraham did not perform circumcision.

'A. 10 It was taught: This is permitted even on the Sabbath.M. least idolatrous. reverses the meaning: the fair of Batanea was the loc. ad proves the correctness of the translation adopted. the fair of Acco. Jast. 1 Hezekiah taught: [Thou mayest build bulwarks against the city that maketh war with thee. n. uncircumcised .T. ' mortals visited thee.] until it fall (Deut. xvin.: only these three fairs may be visited on the Intermediate Days. 4 Abraham said: 'Before I became circumcised. travellers : used to visit me now that I am circumcised. 20) even on the Sabbath. and the fair of Batnan [Batanea]. 9. i). as slaves are certain to be found there who may thus be initiated in Judaism. And the Lord appeared unto him (Gen. 2 Cf. He would not actually hand him the money then. a town and district east of the Jordan. Z. blessed be He. for thus we find that Jericho was indeed reduced on the Sabbath. 3 4 Num. 2 There were three annual fairs: the fair of Gaza. My 1 For the reason stated. . xx. and therefore the Intermediate Days may not be desecrated. Y. but the parallel passage in Jer. But slaves were not always procurable at other fairs. Y. now I in glory will appear to thee/ Hence it is written. to him: 'Before thou wast circumcised.GENESIS (LECH LECHA) festival? [XLVII. 3 and none of them is so clearly [of an idolatrous character] as the fair of Batnan. : R. perhaps they will no longer visit me? Said the Holy One.

God did not permit him to rise on account of his age and the weakness 8 caused by circumcision. and Thy right hand hath holden me up. . Translating and after I removed my foreskin. R. as it were. And when after my skin this is destroyed (nikkefu). then through my flesh shall I see God (Job xrx. 4 Deriving nikkefu from hi%kift to surround. as it is written. 36). i. / am thy shield (Gen. * He denied that his wife was in the right. AND THE LORD APPEARED UNTO HIM also given me Thy shield of salvation alludes 'And Thy right hand hath holden me up' ' to Abraham1 . 1-3] CHAPTER XLVIII VAYERA (xvm. 6 whereupon he gave her [his wife] the lie in her do me the lie before my own presence. in famine. and in [my battle with] the kings. proselytes flocked. 13)? R. Radal and Rash. 5 Hence through circumcision performed on my flesh shall I see God. . Thou hast also given me Thy shield of salvation. i). Thou hast It is written. Abraham said: After I circumcised myself. 26). through should 3. AND THE LORD APPEARED UNTO HIM . what shall I answer Him the cause of (ib. i). Issi commenced his discourse thus : If I did despise my manservant. and Thy condescension hath made me great (Ps.e. when contended with me what then shall I do when God riseth they up ? and when He remembereth. 4 Then ' my flesh shall I see God': had I not done so. : : 406 . 2 2. ' i.XLVIII. Issi's wife quarrelled with her maid- servant. xvm. in the fiery furnace. AND THE LORD APPEARED UNTO HIM. 'And Thy condescension hath made me great': with what he condescension did the Lord make Abraham great ? In that sat while the Shechinah stood thus it is written. 1 * He replied: 'Did not Job say. XV. 'Why you give servant?' she complained. why God have revealed Himself to me? 5 Therefore. or of my maidservant. . 3 many proselytes came to attach themselves to this sign [of the covenant]. xxxi. AS HE SAT. surrounding him.

make unto Me My Abraham who circumcised himself for My sake! Consequently. and the locus classicus for said: ' all Scripture. as it says. R. when God punishes the heathens. . Simon said: This may be illustrated by a robber chief who revolted against of his servants. but circumcised them too. Hanufah is generally translated hypocrisy. Jeremiah b. R. AND THE LORD APPEARED UNTO HIM. AND THE LORD APPEARED UNTO HIM. the sinners in Zion are * afraid. 1 Said he: 'Had I not done so. It is XXXHI.GENESIS (VAYERA) shall [XLVIIL 3-6 . 4. The sinners in Zion are afraid (Isa. Jonathan written. etc. xvn. 3 R. ' cised why them (Gen. to [take] an ox and a ram for peace-offerings for to-day the Lord appeareth unto ix. . trembling hath seized the ungodly (ha-hanefim). . [God] said: 'If I reveal Myself to and you (Lev. it refers to cases is the verse. Eleazar said: This may be illustrated by two children who ran away from school: when one is punished the other trembles. bless much him who sacrificed an ox and a ram for My sake. xx. Isaac An altar of earth thou shalt [then] / will come unto thee and bless thee (Ex. 5. R. 14). 23). what then "If I did despise the cause of my manservant I do when God riseth up? and when He remembereth. Levi commenced: . Said R. what could I do that God should honour me by standing before me? 3 Similarly. . . how much the more . should God have revealed Himself to me?' 2 Con- sequently. 4). and circum. etc. The sinners in Zion are afraid. but it also means x He did not despise the rights this godlessness. Whenever hanufah occurs in 4 heresy. being a 'right* (privilege). Judah b. R. 2 Translating: If I did despise. And Abraham took Ishmael his son . And . etc. 407 . what shall I answer Him?"' Another interpretation: 'If I . who circumcised himself for My 6. 21). commenced thus: etc. sake!' Consequently. AND THE LORD APPEARED UNTO HIM. did despise the cause of my manservant alludes to Abraham. faithlessness.. Isaac: If I reveal myself to bless him who built an altar in name. how the more to Abraham. R.

a shoe latchet (Gen. loc. And speaketh uprightly (Isa.) And I will fetch a morsel of bread (Gen. hence He said to him. God Most High (Gen. that they may keep the way of the as it He is . . 16): R. supra. cit.R. Hanin in R. in. 4).S. R. thinking what punishment the king would man who pronounce upon him. from hand unto the Lord. written. y 19). LORD APPEARED UNTO HIM. Judah b. To the end that he [sc. The 1 upright ones do love thee (S. Thine eyes shall see the King in his beauty (Isa.' R.S. 15) alludes to Abraham.XLVIII. Thus. holding of cit. in the Messianic future Israel shall fear. I have lifted up my (Isa.) this alludes to the clouds of Glory. He that despiseth the it / will not take a thread or as says. cit. 408 . That shaketh his hands bribes loc.). that walketh righteously (ib. AND THE is ad loc. The other was filled preferment with anxiety. 16. thinking what One morning. His waters shall be sure (Isa. infra.) as it is written. XLIV. 5). viz. 3 His bread shall be given (ib. 17). Cf. xiv. He shall dwell on high (Isa. the king would give him. i His place of defence shall be the munitions of rocks (Isa. Johanan's name said: He lifted him [sc. I. 6] MIDRASH KABBAH ' the king. xvm. 12.) y 23). xxxni. Let now a little water be fetched (Gen. Simon and R. R. xiv. cit. and the Gentiles will fear: The sinners in Zion are afraid. this verse applied 8 Which frequented Abraham's home. 1 E. loc.) ? Why are they called Everlasting burnings (Isa. Because if they were given free passage they would burn up the whole world. Judah b. xv. king ordered them both to be guarded until was filled with anxiety. loc.V. In S. a to the Patriarchs.). "Sincerely do they love thee' .). loc. to any I will give preferment captures him/ A man arose and caught the and him. xxxni. xvm. Lord to do righteousness and justice (Gen. LX. cf. is Look now (habbet) at heaven (Gen. And they shall come in fear unto the Lord and to His goodness (Hos. Abraham] up above the vault of heaven. Abraham] may command his children . 22). 4). gain of oppressions (tb. loc. Simon ' said: tit. cit. and the king announced. 5): 'habbet' 2 applicable only when one looks downward from above.

as it says. In them hath He set a tent for the sun (Ps. 3 Ready to see God's glory. edd. 'Behold. IN THE TENT DOOR. R. Cur. for if not for thee I had not created heaven and earth/ as it says. 2. S. xix. Holy upon them. R. Berekiah said in R. Hiyya and R. Hanina's name said Every time that Israel praise the One. and thus they sit in honour. xxxin.e. [God said to him]: 'Thou hast opened a good door for travellers. even the moon hath no brightness'. Mah. and accordingly it can be punctuated aw.R. 9. (nizzab) in the congregation of God (Ps. 7-8 7. As HE SAT (YOSHEB) IN THE TENT DOOR IN THE HEAT OF THE DAY. 5). 8 This derives ya'ahil from okel. 6 The statement is suggested by the use of the word tent in both verses.V. O upon the praises of Israel (Ps. R. Levi said In the Hereafter Abraham will sit at the entrance to Gehenna. as you read. Levi's name: This but GENESIS (VAYERA) he wished to rise. And thou shall 3 be stationed (nizzabta) upon the rock (Ex.S. his post). He causes His Shechinah to rest is the proof? Yet Thou art holy. XL. 2 My 409 . for the whole passage.V. 'And thou shalt stand'. as it says. 5). xxil. R. token to thy children: as thou sittest while the Shechinah is standing. 4 Cf. it is written defectively aw. but for thee I had not created the orb of the sun. and thou art a God LXXXII. retains E. E. is : written yashab (he sat) 1 God said to him: 'Sit.[XL VIII. What Thou that art enthroned 4). add. blessed : be He. Judan in R. even for the moon He doth not set a tent ya'ahil (Job xxv. Haggai said in the name of R. a tent. Behold. 1 I.V. which means ready. But for thee I had not created the moon. instead of atsrp. He spreadeth them out as a tent to dwell in (Isa. Samuel b. 22). Isaac: Not 'omed (standing) is written here but 'nizzab' (stationed at standeth 2 i). thou hast opened a good door to proselytes. 2i). and permit no circumcised Israelite : 6 What then will he do to those who have sinned very much ? He will remove the foreskin from babes who died before circumcision and set it upon them to descend therein. i.* 8. E. R. 5 Again.: That is when Israel enter their synagogues and houses of study and recite the shema'. God stands ready in the congregation of God to answer Israel's prayers. so will thy children sit and the Shechinah stand/ as it says.

3 This interpretation is presumably the basis of R. 3 day cometh. Thus it is written. : 410 . put an uncircumcised foreskin upon the wicked. IN THE HEAT OF THE DAY. AND HE LIFTED UP HIS EYES AND LOOKED (xvin. 1 . written. 6 R. 7 Rashi in the Bible ad loc gives a different reason so that travellers might pause to rest. Jannai said: The Holy One. . in. Yet the reverse? At four hours it is cool in the that [!N THE HEAT OF THE DAY] means when people cannot find shade beneath it [the sun].XLVIIL hence were it is 8-9] MIDRASH KABBAH and then let [the sinners]. ? it follows that heat is beneficial to a wound. E. at four hours.e. perhaps it is shade and hot in the sun.e. When it says. 2) he saw the Shechinah and saw the : ' ' He . 'Against them that were at peace * with hint' I. 5 lN THE HEAT OF THE DAY implies that it was hot everywhere that condition is fulfilled at noon. Ishmael taught: And as the sun waxed hot. whereas at six hours both the sun and the shade are equally hot.m. ' [Abraham] complained Before I was circumcised travellers used to visit me. 4 About 10 a.V. them descend into Gehenna. Tanhuma said: must refer to six hours. to him: 'Hitherto uncircumcised mortals visited thee but now I and My retinue will appear to thee. 4 You and it say. 5 R. ig). angels. behold. Levi's teaching here. 'be in pain while the whole world is at ease!' ' [That is From 9. blessed be He. 6 I. IN THE HEAT OF THE DAY. at midday or just after. perhaps they will no longer visit me ? Said the Holy One. 2 IN THE HEAT OF THE DAY: when the [this is an allusion to the time] that day will come of which it is written. yet means at six hours ? melted (Ex. blessed be He. Sc. Shall the righteous/ He said. For. but not in the shade. this the implication of] IN THE HEAT OF THE DAY. it hours. he hath profaned his covenant. and not be a burden on Abraham's hospitality. made a hole in Gehenna. xvi. it burneth as a furnace (Mai. But And as the sun waxed hot indicates that it was hot only in the sun. making the whole world intolerably hot to its inhabitants for a short while. R. He hath sent forth his hands to those that whole1 . the circumcised wicked. now that I am circumcised. 21) means at four perhaps that is not so.

In the Messianic 1 Commentaries in cur. that living it is sing waters shall go out from Jerusalem (Zech. a master mariner. R. Palestine. viz. swear that I will repay thy children (in the wilderness. Bracketed passage added from cur. And in the Messianic future? And it shall come to pass in that day.R. xxi. 1 Said he [Abraham]: 'If I see that the Shechinah waits for them. edd. O well ye unto it (Num. edd. in inhabited country [the Land Eretz Israel]. LET NOW A LITTLE I WATER BE FETCHED. R. and in the Messianic future)/ 3 Thus written. xiv. I will know that they are worthy and if I see that they pay respect to each other. xvi. God Abraham. 8). 9-10 The names of the months came up with in the guise of a Saracen. R. yanina said us from Babylon. 'Thou hast said. R. he knew that they were distinguished. Sc. . I. R. and an Arab (probably a Bedouin). LET A said to LITTLE WATER BE FETCHED (XVIII. I will know that they are coming to me/ When he saw them turn : aside. Rafael. Eretz Israel] ? A land of brooks of water (Deut. I will know that . immediately HE RAN TO MEET THEM. Then sang Israel this song ! Spring up. 2 The 8 * rendering is conjectural. Michael. Judan said It was like a double2 gated passage. Michael. In the Land? Wash you. 4). Levi said: : : GENESIS (VAYERA) [XL VI II. 10. 7). IF NOW I HAVE FOUND FAVOUR IN THY SIGHT (xvin. 3). make you clean (Isa. 16). Simeon b. or perhaps here. Said he: 'If I see them turn aside. in a civilised country. 9) refers to the wilderness. they are distinguished/ And when he did see them pay respect to each other. vm. AND SAID: MY LORD. 7) that was in the wilderness. and Gabriel. translate: a baker. the second and the third in the guise of an One appeared to him in the guise of a Nabatean. Where do we find it in the Land [sc. 'Thou WASH YOUR FEET: I swear to thee hast said: that I will repay thy children/ Then washed I thee in water AND 4 (Ezek. Hiyya taught: He NOW said this to the greatest of them. Lakish said Also the names of the angels. Abbahu said: The tent of the Patriarch Abraham opened at both sides. Arab.

In Transjordania. 27). that the quails came up. 8). II. In the Messianic future ? The breaker is gone up. . merely quoted to prove that the quails came from God. 42). washed away the filth of hast said: AND 'Thou (ib.e. In the Land ? A land of wheat and barley. (Deut. In the Torah: ANDIWILLFETCHAMORSELOFBREAD.' Thus: Behold. LXXII. Isaac said: In the the [i. AND STAY YE YOUR HEART. standeth in the congregation of God (Ps. AND STAY YE YOUR HEART Torah we (xviii. and the Writings find that bread strengthens the heart. RECLINE YOURSELVES UNDER THE TREE: by thy life. etc. 13). LXXXII. 8). that is in the wilderness. R. 2 xxxii. iv. XI. 4). I will that is cause to rain bread from heaven for you (Ex. In the Land? Now the children of Reuben and the children of Gad had a very great multitude of cattle (ib. In the Land? 39) shall dwell in booths seven days (Lev. STOOD BY THEM them (Ex. In the Messianic future? He will be as a rich cornfield in the land (Ps. xm. 'Thou didst say. 'Again. In the Messianic future? And it shall come to pass in that day. As a AND And Land ? God i). xvi. i). thou didst run after the herd: I swear that I will repay thy children/ Thus : And there went forth a wind from the Lord. 13 And it came to pass 2 in the evening. 16). before them * and the Lord at the head of them (Mic. 21) HE reward for Lord went the before (xviii. n.XLVIII. Messianic future ? in the And there A shall be a pavilion for a shadow day -time I from the heat (Isa. xxiri. since it refers to punishment. where they received their territory instead of on the west of the Jordan. Ye that was in the wilderness. Pentateuch]. and two sheep (Isa. that a man shall rear a young cow. 1 In the Prophets : Stay thy This verse is not really appropriate. 6). (XVIII. vn. lO-Il) future ? MIDRASH KABBAH Lord shall have iv. AND I WILL FETCH I will MORSEL OF BREAD 5): repay thy children. vin. the Prophets. It is : 412 . AND I WILL FETCH A MORSEL OF BREAD. xvi. 5). 4) in the wilderness. and swear that 1 brought across quails from the sea (Num. the the daughters of I will When Zion repay thy children/ He spread a cloud for a screen (Ps. In the 21). while the verse treating of quails as a reward is in Ex. In the cv. there you have the wilderness.

Mah. civ. created you ye were destined to come to me.GENESIS (VAYERA) [XL VIII. 6). 2 The Hence ' 7 The Heb. 3 E. however. which is imperfect.This proves that the 2 Tempter has no power over angels. io). R. 7 three of habiz^ and three of 1 pastries. as it were.V. Th. 'we neither eat nor drink. I. one to do good and the other to do evil. ly). and interpret it as referring to the life of happiness.: this is deduced from the word rwyn. Abiathar said: She baked nine measures in cakes. R. read it le-holah. 5 Then too you will have an opportunity of displaying hospitality to guests. xix. So DO THOU. SINCE FOR THIS PURPOSE YE ARE COME TO YOUR SERVANT. AS THOU HAST SAID. 'Turn lebabekem (your hearts) to the dance/ but.V. Joshua b. Hiyya's view too. In the Writings: And bread that stayeth man's heart (Ps. while 'three measures' denotes yet other kinds of pastries. 11-12 heart with a morsel of bread (Judg. Abiathar maintains that separate confections were made from kemah and soleth respectively. This proves that the Tempter will have no sway in the Messianic future. IJiyya said: It is not written. 'And stay le-babekem. That is R. SINCE So (ken) FOR THIS PURPOSE ( K I [KEN be the *AL KEN) YE ARE COME: as in the verse] has the same meaning here Lord with you (Ex. so wilt thou do on a future occasion*. AND SAID: MAKE READY QUICKLY THREE MEASURES OF FINE MEAL (XVIII. 15). 'Mark ye well her ramparts' le-helah. 4 AND THEY SAID: So DO THOU.' but 'And stay libkem' (your heart)}. e Jast. Nehemiah said: [Abraham urged:] Since the day when the Holy One. Aha said: It is not written. as a dance. KNEAD shorter form Dro ? is used.e. 413 . AS THOU HAST SAID. honey and oil beaten into a pulp. for R. which they derive from mehol.' 12. but thou who dost eat and drink. x. and Rash.: a dish of flour. three of 1 all. Turn libekem 3 (your hearts) to the dance (Ps. and so R. lit. is kemah soleth (E. 'fine meal'). and they did not have to do good their hearts were all as one two hearts. The Rabbis. R. and he regards this as a limitation. which the righteous will 4 for this purpose. Actually fcemah denotes a coarse flour. 'As for us/ said they. 5). AND ABRAHAM HASTENED INTO THE TENT UNTO SARAH. and may this day be repeated in honour of the son 5 [that will be born to thee]. ye are come so enjoy in the Messianic future. blessed be He. XLVIII. R. a dance.

Passover eve. not necessarily which refers to the young. ND you might think that was lacking [in flavour] therefore AND GOOD this is AND GAVE UNTO THE LAD: to train was Ishmael. that loveth to He thresh (Hos. preceding Passover (Y. x. Meir.XLVIIL I2-I4J MIDRASH RABBAH 1 It was the SCaSOtl IT. said in R. 11 A nickname meaning one who was fond of raising difficulties. calf.e. him AND HE TOOK BUTTER.T. Ephraim is a heifer well broken. [The change of name to Alush teaches this] On account of whose merit : were Israel privileged to have the manna given to them? of On account of LUSHI (KNEAD 13. The Rabbis said : He certainly brought "Ugoth' are thin wafers.e. T E 8 . 4 By a play on words Alush is derived from lushi. it therefore T E stated. 13. Jonah and R. AND MAKE CAKES ('tJGOTH). lianina said: The wilderness of Sin and the wilderness of Alush3 are one and the same. AND MILK . 71. R. xxxni. Others a cucumber merchant. part of the milk while inferior [butter] is from a twentieth. DID meaning half i. 8 So young that the flesh had not yet developed its proper taste. ipa 6 The Heb. 7 p a Heb. 4 (xvni. Levi said it is ran to anticipate the people of whom written. Num. R. 6 'Rashi': he ran to prepare atonement in anticipation for Ephraim. 14. tjama b. in the form in which unleavened bread is baked. AND MAKE CAKES. The manna was given to Israel in the wilderness of Sin (v. Ex. might mean a member of the herd. [the merit Abraham who said]: IT). 5 AND FETCHED full-grown 6 . 7). the second half of the day 3 V. Now where was the bread? 10 Ephraim Miksha'ah. A CALF. 7 If IT that it was E R . 8). 2 Or. Meir's name Sarah became menstruous and the : dough was 1 defiled. 11 a disciple of R. IJanina said: Best [butter] is made from a hundredth 9 medium quality is from a fortieth part . (XVIII. xvi). AND ABRAHAM RAN UNTO THE HERD : R. You might think N D E R is stated. 4*4 . 2 of Passover. from the creamiest part of its cream.). 9 I. 10 It is not mentioned that he did actually give them bread. and the Rabbis understood it to mean unleavened cakes. Levi in the name of R. R. n). [Abraham's] purpose being in good deeds.

'When in does/ 5 Above fin the celestial sphere] there is no eating and drinking. 'Azariah said: Just as they said to Abraham. xvni. R. 4 Michael trembled and Gabriel trembled. 9)? The alef. hence when Moses ascended on high he appeared like them [the angels]. But earlier you read. Then I abode in the mount forty days and forty nights . is 'WHERE SARAH. and : waw are dotted. I did neither eat bread nor drink water (Deut. this HE STOOD OVER THEM: name he inspired them with fear. But in R. 1 too. Therefore the mention of it is omitted as superfluous. Tanhuma in R.'GENESIS (VAYERA) [XLVIII. is AND THEY SAID UNTO HIM (ELAW): WHERE SARAH THY WIFE (xvni. Meir's Rome. he became their superior. 9).. 4*5 . 7 Thus. They stood over him'*] but when they had performed their mission. IN THE TENT. follow its customs'. Did eat. and so he stood over them. Abun said: The proverb runs. 4 Now that they had nothing more to do. TREE. where is he. for If he brought them what he had not ! how much more what he had offered 2 AND HE STOOD OVER THEM. you must interpret the dotted letters. Here that the dotted letters exceed the undotted.] 'Where is he Abraham?' R. Thus it is ' Sc. milk and (butter) curd. but the lamed is not dotted. 2 1 The word I^K in this passage is traditionally written 1^x. you must interpret the dotted text. so they said to Sarah. yod. 'when you enter a town. Eleazar said Wherever you find the plain writing exceeding the dotted letters. AND HE STOOD BY THEM UNDER THE THEY DID EAT. if the dotted letters exceed the plain writing.M. The question is probably meant in the sense of how is he ? and was asked as a matter of polite* 7 ' ' ness. we find. 'Where is Abraham?' AND HE SAID: BEHOLD. cf. B. 2) ? The explanation is ' : before they had performed their mission. AND to they then eat? They pretended removing each course in turn. IX. Simeon b. 3 As though his superiors. do as Rome below. 14-15 them bread offered. Three men stood over him (Gen. as it says. 6 R. where there is eating and drinking. 15. [the angels asked Sarah. Bleazar's name and R. 5 Lit. you must interpret the plain writing. The three dotted letters read T>K. 870.

angel and Sarah] should not be alone. yet but for her [Jael] they [the children] would have been 1 R. Presumably he reads zve-hi. Blessed above women shall Jael be. 10). Since ? because the Holy One. it had ceased. Now Abraham was old (Gen. They gave birth to children. Now ABRAHAM AND Johanan said : SARAH WERE OLD (xvm. the wife of Heber the Kenite. and so she stood behind him to hear what they would say. Nahman said: Above the destroyed. it is n). R. while further on it means old age without virility.e. R. Eleazar said: It means. But if thou shalt forbear (te-hedal) to vow (Deut. Th. it had forborne.XLVIII. They gave birth to children. xxiv. blessed be He. : 4 5 The second verse refers to a later period. Matriarchs. [HADAL means]. Samuel b. why is it again 4 The reason written. her menses were now and fii) they had altogether ceased. irregular. She understood that Abraham had ordered the preparations for guests. This refers to Ishmael: AND HE WAS BEHIND HIM. yet but for her they would have been destroyed. Ammi said: Here old age combined with virility is meant. and she was behind him. And forbeareth 5 2 (we-hadal) to keep the passover (Num. 15-16] MIDRASH KABBAH written. We have here two renderings of ' hadal'i (i) it had forborne or refrained i. is IT HAD CEASED (HADAL) TO BE WITH SARAH AFTER THE MANNER OF WOMEN. . 1 3 ix. AND HE SAID: I WILL CERTAINLY RETURN UNTO THEE WHEN THE SEASON COMETH ROUND AND SARAH HEARD IN THE TENT DOOR. 13). v. Another interpreHE WAS BEHIND HIM: she understood tation 2 : AND that the guest had come. 24). as in the verse. By Sisera. so that they [the . therefore. This is the reading in M. 416 . 23). AND HE WAS BEHIND HIM (xvni. 3 now written. xxin.. i) R. 'And Abraham was old' must then be written a second time. 16. . restored him to the days of his youth. The translation follows Th. as in the verse.K. above women in the tent shall she be blessed (Judg. above the women of the generation of the wilderness. Or. Now ABRAHAM AND SARAH WERE OLD.

'edi (Ezek. said:] 'Ye declare 3 yourselves young and your companions old. p. / decked thee also with A woman. . This is one of the texts which they for AND SARAH LAUGHED . spoken as a I This takes the AND AM OLD reproof.* King Ptolemy. yet I A M 4 T o o o L D (xvm. SAYING SHALL HAVE 'EDNAH [E. Bar Kappara said: Great is . ga: they amended the text so that Ptolemy might understand that God was angry with Sarah because she had publicly laughed at the promise. 12). IS ANYTHING TOO HARD FOR THE LORD name to a (XVIII. before her relatives (bi-kero']. young. 8 I. she stated that she would become young. AFTER I AM WAXED OLD. thus implying that she herself was young enough. for even Scripture written. . xvi. in This may be compared 1 man who had Simon: his hand V. 4 in v. WHEREFORE DID SARAH LAUGH. R. supra. AND THE LORD SAID UNTO ABRAHAM: WHEREFORE DID SARAH LAUGH. : that MY LORD is OLD/ Judah said He is virile. SAYING SEEING THAT I AM OLD (xvm. . as long as she I AM WAXED OLD. n). . 61. 17). is menses. Judan b. SAYING: I SHALL ' OF A SURETY BEAR A CHILD? It does not say. xvii. AFTER i. as a means ornaments is finery. n. R. while I fact. .e. amended . even Sarah ridiculed the promise on account of Abraham's age. The said: SHALL HAVE 'EDNAH. Since my lord is old. 19. R. 17-19 SAYING (xvm. a According to this. Judah said in the of R.GENESIS (VAYERA) [XLVIIL 17. R. Rab Simon [The Holy One. blessed be He.' but SEEING THAT / AM OLD. 14). has her regular periods. whereas Abraham had laughed to himself (v. Thus. 2 however.V. 13 to refer to God. 13). 13) to perform miracles!' 18. peace. Rashi in Meg. 'PLEASURE She Said thus that ' : As long I AFTER woman is young she has finery. made a mis-statement in order to it is preserve peace between Abraham and Sarah. Judah b. I behah). i. whereas AM WAXED OLD. reading it. I SHALL HAVE 'EDNAH. as in the verse. yet impotent.e.

etc. Simeon b. Leazar said in the name of R. [God said]. AND LOOKED OUT TOWARD SODOM. IJanina: That was through an angel. 6. 19-20] ' MIDRASH KABBAH * ' two parts of a lock 1 and went to a smith and asked him: Can you repair these ? I can make them from the outset/ he replied. Zimra: That was 2 through the medium of Shem. xxv. as it is written. angel. SAYING: etc. never condescended to converse with a woman save with that righteous woman [viz. But And she [Hagar] called the name of the Lord that spoke unto her. AND ABRAHAM WENT WITH THEM TO BRING THEM ON THE WAY* 1 Or. BUT THOU DIDST LAUGH. 1 6). xvi. R. Eleazar said: The Holy One. Joshua in R. 13)? Said R. 'and you think that I cannot repair them!' So here. R. and that too was through a particular cause. Abba b. Judah b. R. AND THE MEN ROSE UP FROM THENCE. * Supra> xx. Biryi's name: And what a roundabout way He sought in order to speak with her. Simon and R. Johanan in the NOT. Levi said in the name of R. 23)? R. name of R. AND ABRAHAM WENT WITH THEM TO BRING THEM ON THE WAY (xvm. I LAUGHED R. two parts of a chain (Th. blessed be He. ! THEN SARAH DENIED. 418 .XLVIII. (Gen. So runs the proverb: 'When you have given your guest food and drink. Nehemiah's name in R. escort him/ Hence. AND HE SAID: it is written. NAY. yet [you would say that] I cannot restore them to their ' youth 20. rjama b. Jose b. 'I can create man from the beginning. R. Idi's name: That was through an But it is written. Sarah]. Kahana said in R.). And the Lord said unto her Rebekah (ib.

rot his bones!' Then why did they not say this (when they read his name) in the Book of Jeremiah? Because whenever Nebuchadnezzar occurs in Jeremiah he was yet alive.[XLIX. Meg. vii. whereas here (in the book of Esther) he was already dead. Text as emended according to Jer. x. whom Nebuchadnezzar away from Jerusalem with the captives had carried away (Est. Sisera. IJelbo in the name of R. edd. they slacken. 419 . Jonathan. Levi or 1 Rab [whenever he mentioned Haman] would Judah. . when they came to the verse. have you ever heard a man call his son Pharaoh.e. R. they remain taut. God blesses Israel when He mentions the whole nation. if you lay them aside. as it says. mentions Israel by name. Thus. the house of Israel (Ps. he violates a positive command. 17)? R. u. say. Est. 6) would exclaim. Reuben. Samuel b. Phinehas said: One must say. 8 I. Who had been . The Lord hath been mindful of us. or Simeon. cxv. AND ABRAHAM single Israelite AND THE LORD 1 Nahman and carried . What is the reason ? But the name of the wicked shall rot (ib. Huna said in the name of R. 3 says: How Aha: I know this only of six hundred do we know that the Lord blesses every when He mentions his name? Because it SAID: SHALL I HIDE FROM ABRAHAM THAT WHICH I AM DOING. thousand. * V. Isaac: If one makes mention of a righteous man and does not bless him. blessed be He. XLIX (VAYERA) AND THE LORD SAID: SHALL I HIDE FROM : (xvm. R. Said R. R. Nahman said We find that when the Holy One. He blesses them.' While he who mentions a wicked man and does not curse him also violates a positive command. as long as you use them. What is the proof? The memory of the righteous shall be for a blessing. 12). . or Sennacherib? No: he calls him Abraham. Berekiah.). Jacob. add: R. . Samuel b. CHAPTER i i. 'Cursed be Haman and his children/ R. 9. . 7). in ad fin* ' . He will : 2 bless . Cur. Nebuchadnezzar. Samuel b. Nahman said: The names of the wicked are like weaving implements. R. Isaac. 'Harbonah. be he remembered for course thus ' ABRAHAM good/ R. Isaac commenced his disThe memory of the righteous shall be for a blessing (Prov.

'and didst cut a covenant for him/ but 'And didst cut a covenant with him\ which teaches that the Lord held [the foreskin] with him. blessed be He. 1-2] MID RASH RABBAH NATION. but not very plausibly. Some commentators attempt to fit is ' : . as it says. I. Now A GREAT AND MIGHTY need merely have said. 16). From them I will set up seventy elders. add Now what is the secret of the Lord ? Circumcision. 1 The secret of the Lord is with Another interpretation them that fear Him. Thy fathers went down into Egypt with threescore and ten persons (Deut. yet he was afraid.V.). Moses took upon him to clarify [E.V. What did the Lord do ? He put forth His hand and held it with him.' What 1 : He My the secret (sod) of the Lord? Samech stands for sixty. waw for six. said to Abraham: 'It is sufficient for a servant to be like his master/ [Mah. 14). AND BECOME A GREAT AND ' 1 this righteous man. 42O . Now it is not written. From them I will raise up Moses. as it says. thou wilt receive the secret (sod) of the Lord. making In the merit of circumcision I will cause seventy in all. 20). shall I not ABRAHAMSHALLSURELY MIGHTY NATION.] Now God said to him: 'If thou wilt circumcise thyself. ix. [' Covenant' was often understood to refer to circumcision.V. holds that this is out of place here. [By 'clarify' the Rabbis understood that it was to be intelligible to all peoples hence it must have been explained in all languages. him (Neh. x. but the Holy One. i.] The Holy One. . as it says. Gather unto Me seventy men of the elders of Israel (Num. as it says. the cry of Sodom and Gomorrah is great (Gen. Thou art the Lord God> and didst cut [E. xvm.XLIX. [Radal: 'establish'] Between Me and thee implies that it was in the nature of a secret which remains as it were between two. An d the Scripture Lord said : Verily. For it says. 'madest'] a covenant with who didst choose Abram it in. Abraham took a knife forthwith and held his foreskin and was about to cut it. is It is written.e. to know it (Ps. 'expound'] this law (Deut.' as it says.' At first the secret of the Lord was : Cur. and His covenant. who will study the Torah in seventy languages. said: SHALL SURELY BECOME Having made mention of bless him ? Hence. [Thus God said] seventy people to spring from thee. 4). xi. whilst Abraham cut. Then Abraham said to Him: 'And who me?' 'Thyself/ He replied. 22). Lord make them 2. untiJ Abraham arose and He gave it to him. . 'counsel'} of the with them that fear Him and ' His covenant. and daleth for four [that is the Hebrew spelling of sod (no)]. blessed be He. The secret of the Lord is with them that fear Him.V. 7). edd. The secret [E. xvn. covenant between Me and thee (Gen. being an old man.] For the merit of what was all this ? For the merit of circumcision. 7 f.] shall circumcise . xxv. which did not reveal until twenty generations after Noah. And 1 will give [E.

'Sincerely do they love thee'. 4 if I ask him first. 12). 6. The upright love thee (S. and Lasha. Lit. but He revealeth His secret unto His servants the prophets (Amos in. The verse is referred to Abraham. yet if I 'Now Unto thy seed have I given this land these five towns 5 were indeed in My heritage them even of his ancestral he would not refuse Me: what then does it desired matter [if I ask him] ? And so He consulted him. xx. Judah b. XLVIII. 'this Abraham is upright/ as it says. Whereupon he evicted one from the palace. 32). from the context these appear to be of a higher spiritual E. 'this Abraham is a prophet/ therefore restore the man's wife. xxn. mentioned in x. They are likened to non-fruit-bearing trees. Zeboiim. Said the king: 'Had I wanted [to cut them] down even from his patrimony. etc. because they Heb. I lose? 4 And so he consulted to him about it blessed be He. b. Admah. (ib. 4. But His secret was with the upright. for he is a I. 1 level. blessed be He. AND THE LORD SAID: SHALL I HIDE FROM ABRAHAM THAT WHICH I AM DOING. S. said : Similarly. 8 Sc. Simon said: This may be compared to a king who had three friends without whose consent he did nothing. viz. as it says. Now the Holy One. For the Lord God will do nothing. Now I know that thou art a God-fearing man (Gen.S. D'Htzn a : produced nothing good.GENESIS (VAYERA) with them that feared as it [XLIX. R. with the upright (Prov. R. Now 2 4) . as says. xv.S. as it says. the impending destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah. 421 . 7).V. and finally with the prophets. SAID: SHALL I HIDE FROM ABRAHAM. ' : prophet (Gen. 7) shall I then not reveal it to him ? ' 3 Hence. Sodom and Gomorrah. said: 'This Abraham is God-fearing/ as it says. I. AND THE LORD etc. the Holy One. later is it is written. in. he would certainly not refuse ' me: what then can it. Joshua Levi said : It is like a king who presented an estate to his friend and subsequently wished to cut down five nonfruit-bearing trees from it. 2 1 Him . But on one occasion he desired to do something without their consent. v. R. R. supra. territory. 'what is in it' 6 Which I am to destroy. I have already made a gift of this land Abraham/ 1 8). According to tradition all five were destroyed. 19.

24) . He without his consent/ R. will one day give to Jerusalem. 5) does one judge the son without the father's knowledge? Gehenna I have revealed to him: the giving of the Torah I have revealed to him. blessed be He. b.XLIX. he wished to do something without his consent. xvn. Judan said The Holy One. IJelkiah. But as * I will do nothing said. whereupon he observed Surely I made him my adviser for no other reason than that I should do nothing without his consent/ R. . Cf. XLIV. 5 hence the comments on : Abraham's knowledge of God's laws. Alexandras name. My laws and belong to xxvi. blessed be He. affixing his seal on it [the prison door]. Because that . XLVI. supra. Judah's name said Not a day passes in which the Holy One. in (ib. n) for any other reason than that I should do nothing without his consent? With them [the Sodomites] is Lot. Berekiah. R. At that time they shall call Jerusalem. 2 R. said thus Did I designate him The man of My counsel (Isa. * : : He On : * brother's son. Samuel said: Abraham even knew the new name which the Holy One. R. he * said. 17). Abraham kept . shall I not reveal to him Sodom's judgment! 1 R. and the Rabbis of (Jer. is the proof? Hear attentively the noise of His voice. But as for the third. his did nothing. and R. 16). Simon in the name of R. !' made For the father of a multitude of nations have I (Gen. cannot do anything without his consent/ out the man (Gen. says. Hiyya. 2 This and the following sentences are out of . Aha said in R. in. thee : that country [Babylonia] in R. Nathan's name: Abraham knew even the laws of the 'erub of courtyards. . place. Samuel b. The Throne of God R. Phinehas. in. blessed be He. yet I am not to reveal it to The Rabbis said: I have already called as it him [Abraham] him their father. I Adam So He drove Noah And the Lord shut him loved Abraham so much He Similarly. whom he loved exceedingly. does : What 1 not teach a new law (halachaK) in the heavenly Court. as it says. and R. Samuel Nahmansaid: It maybe whose compared consent to a king who had an adviser without one occasion. 2] MIDRASH RABBAH the second he put in prison. however. vii. Nahman said in R. 422 . . 21.

1 8). what do I owe you? he would reply. being found in several MSS. heh five. [XLIX. 4 8 Cur. Alexandras name deduced it from this verse: SEEING THAT ABRAHAM SHALL SURELY BECOME HAYOH YIHYEH yo d is ten. drink. Judah's name 'Azariah visiting First zedakah and then mishpat (justice): how is this to : be understood? 5 Abraham used to receive wayfarers. * Cf. Aha in R. said in R. TO THE END THAT COMMAND HIS CHILDREN ANDmSHOUSEHOLD AFTER HIM THAT THEY MAY KEEP THE 4. After they had eaten and drunk he would say to them. SURELY BE3. Aha said in R. and heh five. 19). But thou shah meditate therein day and night (Josh. If one consented to recite grace. 'Now recite Grace/ 'What shall we say?' they asked. 1 . FOR HE MAY WAY OF THE LORD. the sick. 5 Zedafyah' and 'mishpat' were often regarded as antithetical. xxxv. 3 : I HAVE KNOWN HIM. Even those laws Abraham knew. Pay me what you owe me/ 'Why. : A small debased coin. z. Irlus Elai 1 in R. A ' 423 .: to the (provision of) the These are the letters of rw. mourner's meal which had to be provided by neighbours. R. * ' meditation refers to nought but Torah. * Blessed be the God of the Universe of whose bounty we have partaken/ he replied. SEEING THAT ABRAHAM SHALL COME HAYOH YIHYEH (xvni. Judan and R. and depart. R. 2-4 Now the meditation that goeth out of His mouth (Job xxxvn.GENESIS (VAYERA) and 2). 8). he would demand. TO DO RIGHTEOUSNESS AND JUSTICE ZEDAKAH U-MISHPAT (xvin. yod ten. supra. Jast. R. Tanhum said in name of R. edd. he would [be allowed to] eat. 7 e A measure. R. nearly a pint. Alexandras tality [to name This (zedakah) : refers to his hospi- 4 The Rabbis said: It refers to wayfarers]. * 'mishpat' being an insistence on the strict letter of the law. as in the verse. i. Berekiah's name: He informed him that the world must never contain less than thirty the 2 righteous men like Abraham. while connotes a kindly forbearance. One xestes 6 of wine costs ten follera? a pound of meat * ' * name not occurring elsewhere nevertheless it appears to be correct. But if one refused.

For it says. I WILL KNOW. R. Yohai taught: This is one of the ten descents mentioned in the Torah. i. I places. who will give you wine you meat in the wilderness. leaves a son toiling in the died. R.XLIX. . I will teach them that the Attribute of Justice exists in Implying that God's promises actually applied to Abraham himself. xxxvm. who will give you bread in the costs ten follera . Blessed be the God of the Universe of whose bounty we have eaten/ Hence ZEDAKAH is written first and then MIS HP AT. 4-6] MIDRASH KABBAH round of bread costs ten foilera. TO THE END THAT THE LORD MAY BRING UPON ABRAHAM. THEN IT IS AN END 4 they must be completely destroyed. Kahana said: This teaches that the Holy One. and the reverse? Because 'great' is fire: mentioned in both 6. R. . 1 5. etc. 3 * E. AND IF NOT. THE CRY OF SODOM AND GOMORRAH is GREAT (xvin. TO THE END THAT THE LORD MAY BRING UPON ABRAHAM THAT WHICH HE HATH SPOKEN OF HIM. and the Sodomites whence do we know to apply what is stated here the case above.e. But of course Abraham died long before the land became his hence he must still be regarded as alive. . 3 R. I WILL GO DOWN NOW. What is the proof? Torah is as though he had not Hanina interpreted: It waxed ever said in R. xxvii. It does not say Simply. Yohai taught: He who The verse. affording an analogy. 3. . 1 424 . THAT WHICH HE HATH SPOKEN. AND SEE WHETHER THEY HAVE DONE ACCORDING TO THE CRY OF IT. 2 WILL GO DOWN NOW (xvni. Berekiah that the generation by to by water.V. a will give wilderness? ' Seeing himself thus driven into a corner. 9. 'have done altogether Supra. but THAT WHICH THE LORD HATH SPOKEN OF HIM. 21). 20). * he who would say. Johanan's name: of the Flood was punished We know greater. blessed be He. V. supra. Simeon b. Who in the wilderness. Abba b. because his descendants are occupied in z the study of the Torah. R. according/ etc. gave them the opportunity of repenting. AND THE LORD SAID: VERILY. Simeon b.

NOT. cf. 1 R. translation.)2 By a play on words rabbah. they took and burnt they [the Sodomites] her. : 3 As they had * strictly forbidden charity. 2. yet I will not utterly destroy them. 6-7 [God said]: 'Even if I wished for a certain maiden (ribah) does not keep silent. Hence wayyifenu : thence' is apparently superfluous. the omniscient. Simon which has Rendering :AND IF ascended to Me. blessed be He: 'Even if I desired exchanged [their pitchers]. yet they did not. Eleazar said: The real prosperity of Sodom lasted fifty-two years only. and they know it not.T. thus vindicating the demands of justice for their past misdeeds. Who removeth the mountains. and for twenty-five of these the Holy One. What did she do? She filled her pitcher with flour and they each taking the other's. R. yet their faces were still looking upon the place whence they came. Sanh. 'Why are you so pale?' 'We have no more food left and are ready to die.GENESIS (VAYERA) the world. Thus they were given an opportunity of repenting. 109 a. I WILL KNOW how they are not as evil now to as the cry punish them by suffering. When discovered this. 5). face. ' M. Said one to the other.2). blessed be He. a(nd the verse translated And the men went toward Sodom. 1 [XLIX. but ACCORDING TO HER CRY 4 the cry of that maiden. BUT back. 3 Said the Holy One. a maiden.: 'from is 425 . connected with panim. b. THEY Me WHETHER HAVE DONE ACCORDING TO THEIR CRY. Lev! said: to Me two damsels went down to draw water from a well. is read ribah. and Y. 5 ABRAHAM STOOD YET BEFORE THE LORD. as it is obvious. 4 5 Lit. justice for that maiden does not permit to keep silent/ Hence it does not say. did not know whether they were evil or not. AND THE MEN TURNED (WAYYIFENU) FROM THENCE (XVIH. to be silent. 7. Jeremiah b. This proves that angels have no AND THEY WENT TOWARD SODOM.K. justice 2 to silent/ For it once happened that permit keep R. great.' replied she. This interpretation is adopted because otherwise it would appear that God. and the verse translated The cry of Sodom and Gomorrah on account of the maiden. which is impossible (Man. made the mountains tremble and brought terrors upon them in order that they might reform. when to He overturneth them in His anger (Job XX. Hence it is written.

XLIX.
said:

7-8]

MIDRASH KABBAH

This is an emendation of the Soferim, for the 1 Shechinah was actually waiting for Abraham.
8.

AND ABRAHAM DREW NEAR, AND

SAID,

etc.

and the Rabbis each (xviii, 23). R. Judah, R. Nehemiah, R. Judah said: He drew near for battle, commented. as it says, So Joab and the people that were with him drew nigh unto battle, etc. (u Sam. x, 13). R. Nehemiah said: He drew near for conciliation, as in the verse, Then the children of Judah drew nigh unto Joshua (Josh. Xiv, 6) to effect a reconciliation. The Rabbis said: He drew nigh
for prayer, as it says, And it came to pass at the time of the ojfering of the evening offering, that Elijah the prophet came near, and said: Lord, the God of Abraham, of

O

Isaac, and of Israel, let it be known this day that Thou art God in Israel, etc. (i Kings xviii, 36). 2 R. Leazar said: Interpret it thus: I come, whether it be for battle, conciliation, or prayer.

R. Phinehas, R. Levi, and R. Johanan,
of Gallia, 3 said:

in

the

name

of

Menahem
4

When

one

not say to him, 'Come and do/ 5 but 'Come and draw near ', which means, Come and wage war for us, come and offer the public sacrifice 6 R. Tanhuma said: Why did they institute [i.e. pray]. the that fifteenth benediction should be 'who heareth 7 To correspond to the Divine Name which prayer'?
passes before the Ark,
V. Ex. R. XLI, 4. The phrase, . implies that he was still at the same place, which is incorrect, since he had accompanied the angels some distance. Hence it really means that the Lord was still standing before Abraham, since He is omnipresent, but as it would be derogatory to His honour to say that He was standing before Abraham, as an inferior before his superior, it is reversed. Y.T. and Th. this does not mean that the Soferim actually emended the Bible, but that it was originally written thus in such a way that it might loosely appear a Soferic emendation. 2 He drew near to do 'battle 1 i.e. argue with God, viz. That be far from thee, etc. (v. 25); to conciliate: Behold, now, I have taken upon me to speak unto the Lord, etc. (v. 27); to pray: Peradventure there are fifty
1
. . : ,

we do

BUT ABRAHAM

LORD

righteous, etc. (v. 24).
8

Mah.
'

Gallia or Galatia in Asia Minor.
5
*

v. infra, xcni, 6. * officiate as

To

Reader for the
duty.

Congregation.
6

Which means, Come and do your

Because draw near implies both. In the original 'Amidah of eighteen Benedictions (before a nineteenth was added), the fifteenth ended with the formula, ' Who heareth prayer. '
7

426

GENESIS (VAYERA)

[XLIX. 8

occurs fifteen times in the Psalm, Ascribe unto the Lord, ye sons of might ... as far as The Lord sat enthroned
at the flood (Ps. xxix),
1 visiting the world.

which

restrains

punishment from

WlLT THOU INDEED SWEEP AWAY THE RIGHTEOUS WITH THE WICKED? R. Huna said in R. Aha's name: WlLT THOU INDEED (HA-AF) SWEEP AWAY (TISPEH)
I

Thou

confinest anger, but anger cannot confine Thee. 2

R. Joshua b. Nehemiah interpreted it: The anger (of) which Thou bringest upon Thy world, wouldst Thou 3 destroy therewith the righteous and the wicked And not
I

enough

dost not suspend judgment of the wicked for the sake of the righteous, but Thou wouldst
that

Thou

even destroy the righteous with the wicked! Rabbi and R. Jonathan each commented. Rabbi said: [Abraham pleaded:] A human being is mastered by his anger, but the Holy One, blessed be He, masters anger, as it says, The Lord avengeth and mastereth wrath (Nahum I, 4 R. Jonathan said: A human being is mastered by his z). jealousy, but the Holy One, blessed be He, masters His jealousy, as it says, The Lord is God [i.e. master] over 5 jealousy and vengeance (ib. i).
R. Simlai asked R. Jonathan: 'What
verse,
is

meant by the

swept away means without judgment on his own town/ 7 he answered. Thus it once happened that a man was sent to collect [a fine] from the citizens of Tiberias and Sepphoris. Whilst he was thus collecting in Tiberias, he saw a citizen of Sepphoris, whereupon he arose and
is is

But

there

that

without judgment

(Prov. xiii, 23)

?' 6

'It

seized him. 8

'I belong to Sepphoris/ he protested. 'I have warrants instructing me to collect in Sepphoris too/ he replied; but before he finished collecting in
prayers stay punishment. The Lord sat enthroned at the understood as a reference to His oath not to repeat the flood. 2 Translating a/, anger,' and tispeh 'to take away', 'remove/ from asaf, whence 'to dominate'. Thou dost rule Thine anger.
1

I.e. Israel's
is

flood

*

This gives tispeh its usual meaning of 'to destroy'. 5 E.V.: 'The Lord is a jealous and *E.V. 'Is full of wrath.' E.V. . 'by want of righteousness.' avenging God.' 8 1 For payment. As explained.
fl

8

.

.

427

XLIX.
this

8-9]

MIDRASH KABBAH
was granted
'gathered in'

Tiberias, remission

to Sepphoris, and thus without the judgment of his own town. R. Levi and R. Simon commented. R. Levi said: [Abraham pleaded: 'Is Thine anger] like a she-bear ravaging among animals which, if it does not find another

man was

beast to destroy, destroys its own young!' R. Simon said: [Is Thine anger] like a scythe which cuts down thorns,

but when
9.

it

finds [no more] cuts

down

roses

!

THAT

BE FAR

FROM THEE

HALILAH LAK (xvm,
:

R. Judan interpreted: It is a profanation (halalah) A LI L AH for Thee, it is alien to Thy nature. R. Aha said 1 action would Such is written twice, profane implying,
25).

H

2 (Mai) the Divine Name. R. Abba

said:

Not

'to

do

this*

is

written

here,

but

To DO AFTER THIS MANNER:
it

neither this or anything like lesser nature.

nor anything even of a
the same
thing,
viz.

R. Levi said:

Two men
:

said

Abraham and Job. Abraham THAT BE FAR FROM THEE, TO DO AFTER THIS MANNER, TO SLAY THE RIGHTEOUS WITH THE WICKED. Job It is all one therefore I say :
:

He

destroy eth the innocent

and
for

the wicked (Job
it,

ix,

22).

Yet Abraham was rewarded

while Job was punished for it! The reason is because Abraham said it in confirma3 'It is all one!' R, IJiyya tion, while Job said it in cavil 4 b. Abba said: We have here a merging of answers. Thus
:

Abraham

said: THAT BE FAR FROM THEE, to which God replied: So SHALL [THE WICKED] BE AS THE RIGHTEOUS! Thou desirest that judgment of the wicked
;

should be suspended for the sake of the righteous but are they righteous ? Surely they are but counterfeit righteous For R. Johanan said: Wherever zaddikim (righteous) occurs in connection with Sodom, it is spelled defectively. 5
!

1

In that verse,
it

a

q.v.

second,
8 *

would profane Thee

I*e. surely God is not so unjust as to slay the righteous with the wicked Abraham's question and God's answer are merged. the second yod being missing. This I.e. Dpnx instead of ffp^Sf, intimates that the righteousness even of those who laid claim to it was
!

Thus the first halilah means foreign ', and the by casting doubts upon Thy justice.
' '

'

5

defective, a hypocritical pretence.

428

GENESIS (VAYERA)
said:
'

[XLIX. 9
for R.
the

That corresponds with R. Johanan's view, And our elders (zekenenu) and all

Johanan

inhabitants

of our country spoke to us (Josh, ix, n): it is spelled zekenenu'V intimating that they were elders in wrong2 doing, eiders in wickedness. R. Joshua b. Levi said: [Abraham pleaded,] 'Combine their good deeds, and so they will amount to fifty/ 3 R. Judah b. R. Simon said: [Abraham pleaded:] 'Art

not the righteous One of the universe? Combine Thyself with them and they will amount to fifty/ R. Judah b. R. Simon said: [Abraham pleaded thus:] 'Even in the case of a human judge, an appeal can be made from
the

Thou

commander

to the prefect

and from the prefect
'

to the

governor; but Thou, because no appeal can be made from Thy judgment, wilt Thou not do justly ? R. Judah said further When Thou desiredst to judge Thy world, Thou
:

didst entrust

it

to two,

Romulus and Remus, 4 so

that

if

one wished to do something the other could veto him; while Thou, because there is none to veto Thee, wilt Thou not do justly ? R. Aha said: [Abraham pleaded:] 'Thou hast sworn
not to bring a deluge upon the world. Wouldst Thou evade Thine oath Not a deluge of water wilt Thou bring but a deluge of fire ? Then Thou hast not acted according to Thine oath/ R. Levi commented: SHALL NOT THE
!

JUDGE OF ALL THE EARTH DO JUSTLY?
desirest the

If

Thou

world to endure, there can be no absolutely strict judgment, while if Thou desirest absolutely strict judgment, the world cannot endure, yet Thou wouldst hold the cord by both ends, desiring both the world and absolute judgment! Unless Thou foregoest a little, the
1 a
8

imp? instead of iwpr.
'Elders'

means

Many must
The

have some

chiefs: in wickedness and evil too they were elders. little good in them, and if Thou combinest

the good of
4

all it will be equivalent to that of fifty righteous men. legendary founders of Rome. These are mentioned because Rome did appear as God's instrument for punishing the world. Or possibly (as Th.) this is a reference to the early Roman system of dyarchy, under which a duumvirate ruled, and appeal could be made from the decision of one to the other,

429

XLIX.

9-10]

MIDRASH KABBAH

world cannot endure. Said the Holy One, blessed be He, to Abraham: 'Thou hast loved righteousness (Ps, XLV, 8): thou hast loved to justify My creatures; and hated wickedness : thou hast refused to condemn them. Therefore God,
thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows (ib.). From Noah to thee were ten generations,

and out of
10.

all

of

them

I

remembered but thee alone/ 1

AND THE LORD
26). R.
2

SAID: IF

I

FIND IN SODOM
FORGIVE

(xvm,
b.

Judah b. R, Simon, in the name of R. Joshua Levi, quoted: For it is for God to have said: I have forThus,

given (Job xxxiv, 3i).

THEN WILL

I

ALL THE PLACE FOR THEIR SAKE. Lo ehbol (ib.) means, I will not take them in pledge, as in the verse, 3 If thou
at all take thy neighbour's garment to pledge

tahbol (Ex.

xxn,

Yet they [men] abuse Me with words and say: 'He does not judge well/ Apart from Myself, I will see (Job xxxiv, 32)*: i.e. without Me, do thou go and scrutinise My judgment. And if I have erred, Teach thou Me (ib,). And if I have wrought injustice (ib.) to the earlier genera6 5 tions, I will do it no more to the later generations. To him will I keep silence [and] to his branches (Job XLI, 4) 7 [God said to Abraham:] 'To thee will I keep silence and to the branches that proceed from thee/ [I will keep silence] to Abraham, who said: THAT BE FAR FROM THEE TO DO AFTER THIS MANNER; to Moses, who
25).
:

against Thy said: Wherefore people (Ex. xxxii, n); hast Thou at all brought this people over the Jordan (Josh, vii, 7); and to David, who said: Why standest Thou afar off,

said:

Lord,

why

doth

Thy wrath wax
to Joshua,

hot

who

1

a V. supra, xxxix, 6. E.V. 'For hath any said unto God: I have a borne chastisement , though I offend not?' I.e. take them for their sins. ' 4 I will see that you recognise the justice of actions. E.V. That which

My

I
5

see not.'

6

The generations of the Flood and of the Separation of races. The Sodomites. According to this interpretation God is the speaker
Abraham
Reading
V? (to
1

these verses, defending Himself before
injustice.
7

in against the charge of

branch,

i.e.

from la, a him) instead of x ? (not), and deriving ' to his descendants. E.V. Would I keep silence concerning

na

Ms

boastings.'

43

GENESIS (VAYERA)
1

[XLIX. 10-11

Lord, etc. (Ps. x, i). Or his proud talk, or his fair (hin) array of words (Job loc. cit.): his [sc. Abraham's] long speech was endowed with grace (hen) when he beseeched mercy for the Sodomites.
ii.

AND ABRAHAM ANSWERED AND
I

SAID:

BEHOLD

NOW,

HAVE TAKEN UPON ME TO SPEAK UNTO THE LORD, WHO AM BUT DUST AND ASHES (XVIII, 27). He said: Had Nimrod slain me, would I not have been
dust,

and had he burnt me, would I not have been ashes ? 2 Said the Holy One, blessed be He, to him: 'Thou didst say, I AM BUT DUST AND ASHES; by thy life, I will give thy children atonement therewith/ as it says, And for the unclean they shall take of the ashes ('afar) of the
burning of the purification from sin

(Num.
up

And

a

man

that

is

clean shall gather

xix, ly) also, the ashes of the
;

3

heifer (ib. 9).

We

learnt 4 :

What was

the ritual of a fast? 5

The Ark

was carried out into the public square of the town and burnt ashes were sprinkled on the Ark. R. Judan b. R. Manasseh and R. Samuel b. Nahman disagreed. One maintained: [The ashes were to recall] the merit of

Abraham,

for

it is

written, I

WHO AM BUT DUST AND

ASHES. 6
recall the

But the other maintained that they were to

merit of Isaac 7 ; he learnt 'ashes' only. 8 The following statement of R. Judah b. Pazzi disagrees, for he would publicly announce If the congregational beadle cannot get to anyone [to pour ashes on his head], let him take ashes himself and pour them on his own head. 9 [That is not so, for] R. Judah b. Pazzi's announcement
:

teaches that 'afar (dust) and efer (ashes) are identical. 10
All these indirectly questioned God's justice. $upra> xxxvm, 13 ad fin. * 3 Ta'an. 150. 'Afar really means dust (of earth). 6 Specially proclaimed in times of distress. 6 Thus either dust or ashes might be sprinkled on the heads of the people. 7 Who might have been reduced to ashes as a burnt-offering. 9 8 But not dust. This disagrees with the first view. Not dust. 10 Either could be taken. The text and meaning are doubtful, and the
a

1

V.

rendering

is

conjectural.

43

XLIX.

12-14]

MIDRASH RABBAH

12. PERADVENTURE THERE SHALL LACK FIVE OF THE FIFTY RIGHTEOUS. R. IJiyya b. Abba said:

descend from fifty to five, 1 but the 2 Holy One, blessed be He, said to him: 'Turn back/ 3 R. Levi said: This may be compared to a clepsydra full of water; only as long as it contains water may the defending counsel plead; yet sometimes the judge desires him to continue his defence, and so he orders, 'Pour more water into it.' 4
to
13.

Abraham wished

AND HE
.
.
.

ANGRY

SAID: OH, LET NOT THE LORD BE PERADVENTURE TEN SHALL BE FOUND

THERE
be

(xvin, 32).
all

And why

ten? So that there might

on behalf of

men to pray] of them. 5 Another reason, why ten? Because at the generation of the Flood eight righteous 6 people yet remained, and the world was not given a respite for their sake. Another reason, why ten? Because he thought that there were ten there, viz. Lot, his wife, his four daughters and four sons-in-law. 7 R. Judah b.
sufficient for

an assembly

[of righteous

R. Simon and R. Hanin in R. Johanan's name said: Here ten were required, while in Jerusalem even one would have sufficed, 8 as it is written, Run ye to and fro in the streets of Jerusalem and seek if ye can pnd a man, if there be any that doeth justly (Jer. v, i); and thus it says too, Adding one thing to another, to find
.

,

.

.

.

.

out the account (Eccl.

vii,

27).
[for

R. Isaac said:

How
far as

far

can an account be extended

one

city]

?

As

one

man. 9
14. AND THE LORD WENT His WAY, AS SOON AS HE HAD LEFT OFF SPEAKING TO ABRAHAM (XVIII,

Without the intermediate steps. He probably renders Perad venture a fifty shall be lacking, and there be but five. This is too great a 3 jump. Jast. a water-clock used in courts of justice for measuring * the time given for argument. So too God desired Abraham to plead for the Sodomites, though He knew beforehand that it was useless (Mah.). 8 6 Ten is a quorum for public prayer. Noah, his three sons, and 7 their wives. But he was mistaken in thinking them righteous 8 But not even one was to be found. (M,K.). 9 Mah.: Translating, the righteousness of one man saving one town.
:

1

the

:

432

GENESIS (VAYERA)
33).

[XLIX. 14

A

when

Similarly, AND THE LORD WENT His WAY, AS SOON AS HE HAD LEFT OFF SPEAKING TO ABRAHAM. Again, an advocate goes on pleading as long as the judge is willing to pay attention to him, but when the judge rises to go, the advocate becomes silent. Thus, AND THE LORD WENT HIS WAY, AS SOON AS HE HAD LEFT OFF

judge waits as long as the advocate is pleading; the advocate becomes silent, the judge rises [to go].

SPEAKING TO ABRAHAM; AND ABRAHAM RETURNED

UNTO

HIS PLACE. Again, as long as the defender pleads and the judge shows himself willing to hear, the accuser waits when the judge rises and the advocate is silent, the accuser LORD sets forth on his mission. Similarly: AND THE WENT HIS WAY, AS SOON AS HE HAD LEFT OFF
;

UNTO HIS PLACE.
angels

SPEAKING TO ABRAHAM; AND ABRAHAM RETURNED This is followed by, And the two
came
to

Sodom

at even (Gen. xix,

i).

433

Ff

L. 1-2]

CHAPTER
I.

L (VAYERA)
AT EVEN

AND THE TWO ANGELS CAME TO SODOM
(xix,
i).

etc.

It is written,

And

the living creature ran

(razo)

and returned
I,

as the appearance of a flash of lightning

Aibu said: Not razoth (running) is 14). (Ezek. written but 'razo': they are eager (raziri) to perform their mission. 1 'As the appearance of a flash of lightning'
R.
(bazak) R. Judah b. R. Simon said in the name of R. Levi Parta: [Like the flames breaking forth] when one scatters (bozek) olive refuse in a stove. R. tliyya b. Abba
:

b.

said: It was like wind driving sparks (zikd). The Rabbis 2 said: Like a lightning-flash to the eye. [returning to our subject,] they take leave of Abraham at noon, and arrive in Sodom in the evening! 3 The fact is, however,

Now

that

that they were angels of mercy, and they delayed, thinking perhaps Abraham might find something in their

favour ; but

when he found nothing

in their favour,

THE

TWO ANGELS CAME TO SODOM
2.

AT EVEN.
etc.

THEN THE TWO ANGELS CAME,

at one with Himself, and who can turn Him? soul desireth, even that He doeth (Job xx