E. N. Waddington' Bookstall,

Blackpool.

PURCHASED FOR THE

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY

FROM THE

CANADA COUNCIL SPECIAL GRANT
FOR

ANTHROPOLOGY

IS

f
'I

b

LIFE
AS10NG

THE INDIANS
BY GEORGE
CATLIN.

LONDON:
GALL AND
INGLIS,
25

PATERNOSTER SQUARE

AND EDINBURGH.

LIBR4
MAH *

*>

ten

^VOFTO^

PREFACE.
ON my recent return from a long and toilsome campaign amongst the Indian tribes of South and Central America, as well as those on the Pacific side of the Kocky Mountains in North America, I was requested to prepare a book of facts for youthful readers on the character and condiI at once embraced the tion of the American Indians. suggestion made to me, and am here entering upon the plan, the results of which will be met and judged of
in the following pages. As the youthful readers of this

have read
lished

my work

volume will scarcely on the North American Indians, pub-

some years since, they may reasonably expect me to some introduction of myself before we start together, give which I will here do in a few words, and leave them to learn more of me when I may incidentally appear in scenes and scenery to be described. The place of my nativity was Wilkesbarre, in the Valley of Wyoming, rendered historically famous by its early and
disastrous warfare with the Indians
races

whom

the civilized
lore

had driven out of

it,

and celebrated in

by the

" popular poem by Campbell, Gertrude of Wyoming." In my early youth I was influenced by two predominant

and inveterate propensities, those My father and mother had great

for

hunting and

fishing.

difficulty in

turning

my

in the midst of success. and after reading for a couple of years longer. passed my examination. I thus took leave of professional friends and fession. and to pursue painting as my future. I devoted eight years of my life in visiting about fifty . I very deliberately resolved to law library into paint-pots and brushes. fortunately or unfortunately. at the proper age. I But when. and culprits. to which all my love of pleading soon gave having covered nearly every inch of the lawyers' table (and even encroached upon the judge's bench) with penknife. juries. which I followed for several years. pen and ink. this I was obliged to break. and pencil sketches of way . and many other obstacles to encounter. and so much of the labours of future life as might be required. and after a few years. was admitted to the Bar. another and a stronger passion was getting the advantage of me. that for painting. and after judges. and who all mag- To do cruelty. with apparent great from friends the most dear to me. attention from these to books. and penetrated the vast solitudes from whence I have brought the information to be given nified the in the following pages.VI PREFACE. During this time. and apparently more agreeconvert my able profession. I attended commenced reading the law the law school of the celebrated Judges Reeve and Gould. I started in 1832 with canvas and colours. apprehended dangers before me. who could not appreciate the importance of my views. my pro- and immediately commenced portrait-painting in the city of Philadelphia. for two years. in rescuing the looks and customs of the vanishing races of native man in America from that oblivion to which I my plainly saw they were hastening before the approach and certain progress of civilization. I again resolved to use my art. for a profession. in Connecticut. and commenced the practice of the law. With these.

the Andes. to Cuba. and other parts of Brazil. such as will the most forcibly and correctly illustrate native man and Lis modes. These three last successive campaigns. roamings. landscapes. in Paris. visits. Peru. California. the Pacific Coast to the mouth to Santa Fe. and brought home a collection of more than six hundred oil paintings (in all cases made from nature) of portraits. the Aleutian Islands. costumes. tribes in Vll North America. of weapons. etc. to select for the instruction and amusement of the youthful readers. in the Louvre. at the invitation of His Majesty. to Kamtschatka. which was sufficient to enable me to overcome all obstaand from incidents. in London. . and every article of their manufacture. on the American continent. and customs. in this little work. who paid it many Queen and the rest of the Eoyal Family. to of the Columbia.. and describe campaigns. and people.PREFACE. THE AUTHOR. which have been performed in have been in some parts difficult and hazardous. across the Rocky Mountains by the Rio de Norte to Matamoros in Mexico. and subsequently traversed British and Dutch Guiana. that I have met with in these and my former extremely . Bolivia. altogether forming an extensive museum. I shall endeavour. and back to the ing point. I started again in 1853 for Venezuela. to Yucatan. and afterwards in the Salle du Seance. but full of interest. and cles countries. and Indian customs. which was exhibited for several years in the Egyptian Hall. wigwams. with the Not content with the collection I had thus made and shown to the world. the Valley of the Amazon. Louis Philippe. start- Guatemala. in South America. Equador.

.

CONTENTS. . PAGE . MY ADVENTURE WITH THE I FIRST INDIAN 27 53 68 EVER SAW. MEDICINE MEN FIRE FROM 83 THE SUN. THE MANDAN INDIANS THE SIOUX INDIANS PIPE -STONE . HOW THE IV. INDIAN WAEFARE V." VI. A RIDE TO THE CAMANCHEES ALARM. VII. NEST" XII. CATCHING WILD HORSES A BUFFALO HUNT." . 17 II. THE INDIANS OF AMERICA. .148 164 QUARRY "STONE MAN "THE THUNDER'S MEDICINE. AN ADVENTURE WITH BEARS. A FALSE 177 . XI. A CHALLENGE ! 132 X. CHAPTER I. 108 VIII. 121 IX. HOW THE INDIANS PAINT THEMSELVES 99 THE PRAIRIES. THE CHIEF'S TALE. . " DRAWING . INDIANS BUILD THEIR WIGWAMS. . . SCALPS AND SCALPING. III.

. . " CHARLEY " ACROSS 196 XIV... ." .325 347 . . PAGE A SOLITARY RIDE ON THE PRAIRIES. A JOURNEY DOWN THE ORINOCO . .219 237 EN ROUTE FOR THE AMAZON CINE GUN.. AND A RATTLESNAKE. XVIII. XIX. . RED INDIANS IN PARIS.. POISONED 310 XX.... . .." XV..253 AN 273 295 STILL EN ROUTE FOR THE AMAZON . ADVENTURE WITH PECCARIES.. THE INDIANS OF THE AMAZON ARROWS. . CHAPTER XIII. RIO TROMBUTAS ADVENTURES WITH A TIGER . . THE " MEDI- XVI. XXI. RED INDIANS IN LONDON. THE "HANDSOME DANCE. . ON THE AMAZON.CONTENTS. XVII. ...

which the Spanish and Portuguese navigators were expecting to find.LIFE AND ADVENTURES AMONG THE AMERICAN INDIANS. in steering their vessels to the west. when first discovered. in which these races will be spoken of as Indians. or 17 To an . Indian Civilisation |HE native races of man. exception will be taken in this work. was supposed to be a part of the coast of India. appellation so long. General Character National Character. from the somewhat curious fact that the American continent. though erroneously no applied. occupying every part of North and South America at the time of the first discovery of the American continent by Columbus. CHAPTER The Name "Indian" I. across the Atlantic. and still existing over great portions of those regions. have generally been denominated " Indians" from that day to the present.

and you your own instruction and amusement . my young is readers. These numerous races (at that time consisting of millions of beings. divided into some and speaking mostly different languages whose past history is sunk in oblivion from want of books and records three-fourths of many human hundreds of . tribes. for whom I have said this book intended. and no more. and the wrongs of these poor people to be set forth in this little . neither of which terms will be intended necessarily to imply the character generally conveyed " by the term savage!' but literally what the word signifies. as forming a legitimate education. the condition. savages. . into the minds of their children. and pestilences introduced amongst them by civilized people . we will now for start together myself upon my task. halting but for one impression more. part of the foundation of their Confident in this belief. and the remainder of them at least.18 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. one of the most deeply interesting subjects for contemplation that can possibly come under their consideration. by dissipation. the thoughts. and never lose sight of for a moment when you are estimating the character. from similar causes. wild (or wild man). and I feel assured that parents will justify the inculcation of just notions of these simple and abused people. the actions. have already perished by fire-arms. whom. which I deem it important you should start with. with no better prospect than certain extinction in a short time) present to the scientific and the sympathising world.

they . . they are feeble they are in the ignorance of nature. from their chiid-like nature. 19 many senses like yourselves. from the distance they are from them. like everything else nearest to nature. is more or less wrapped in obscurity as a profound mystery." the and they.GENERAL CHARACTER book. They are therefore mostly in the habit of treating the character of the American Indians which. knowledge and arts of civilized man . or a little girl (as would be the case if they could take you by the is hand). in that they are children of the word. been called). owing to their ignorance of them. in the habit of regarding all people as anomalies (or do not and act. but they all acknowledge the Great Spirit. always calling them their red children call all . In their relationship " with civilized people they are like orphans. Governments who deal with them assume a guardianship over them. and whenever they can have the pleasure of shaking hand of a little white boy. their Great Father . they are the most simple and easy of all the human family to be appreciated and dealt with. They are without the ." The civilized races in the present enlightened age are too " much more ignorant than themselves oddities/' as they have live. the relationship always that of "brother and sister. judge decidedly wrong for." and the " President of the United States. because they and look like themselves. have said that these people are like children . if the right I mode be adopted." government officials in their country. but there. "Fathers.

I have seen. profound ignorance of their origin." find these people living in their rude huts. we "wigwams. your early days is the time when the foundation of a lasting knowledge and just appreciation of the true character of these simple people should be formed . therefore. and with that view. from what I have learned in fourteen years of my life spent in familiarity with them. . instead of the frightful impressions too often made upon the youthful mind. for want of historical proof to show from whence they came. and Central America. but no proof and I think there is . I am quite sure that if you were amongst them you would learn their true character and their feelings much sooner than your parents would for with children they would throw off the mask and the reserve which their justlyfounded suspicions of white men induce them to wear in their presence. or at present numbering something like four millions. I will try in this little work to bring the condition and customs of these children of the forest in a true light before you. their numbers were nearer twelve or fourteen millions at the time of the discovery of America by Columbus and yet the world is left (and probably will remain) in .20 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. It seems to be the popular belief that the two Americas have been peopled from the Eastern con- tinent is by the way of Behring's Strait of this there a possibility. that and from what . and South. and in every nook and corner of North. Distributed over every part. though. in all probability. I believe.

there has been a mutual intercourse across the strait. when first visited by civilized people. should go a great . in several instances. and from all that I could learn. and of so excita nature. in Mexico and Peru and by the hand of some way not yet explained. but from this they have been thrown back by more than savage invaders as seen in the histories of Providence. interest to me for many years past. but no proof of the peopling of a continent either way. 21 much and very strong presumptive proof against its The subject has been one of great probability. sufficiently proved by the resemblances in language and in physiological traits . or loss of my property by theft. in advancing by themselves of civilization. the American Indians have been found friendly and hospitable and my own testimony. when I have visited nearly two . as distinguished above the brute creations. the Aleutians equi-distant between the two continents and the natives on the American coast opposite to them. without having received any personal injury or insult. of All history on the subject goes to prove (and without an exception to the contrary) that. in Central America. millions of them. to the Koriaks and the Kamtschatkas. that I have recently made a tedious ing and expensive tour to Eastern Siberia.INDIAN CIVILIZATION. and most of the time unprotected. In the progressive character with which the Creator has endowed mankind. the American savages have. made the intended uses of their to a high state reason. in the cities more ancient destruction of the ruined Palenque and Uxmal.

And these epithets are sometimes correctly applied . of which I shall give you many proofs in this little book." are often habitually applied to these people by those who know but little or nothing about them. and are totally ignorant of the meaning and value of money. and drunken Indians. If these people. to the shame and disgrace of . they live and act without those dangerous inducements to crime. As they know nothing of commerce. understanding. that are like your own and that their hearts are good their true character and modes are worth your . under such circumstances. which seems to bound nearly all their earthly wishes. if properly treated. and fish in their country for food. and hospitable people in the world. you. In their primitive and natural state they have always been found living quite independently and with an abundance of animals happily. but only so to those classes of Indian society who." for there is no punishment amongst them for theft or fraud. will at once decide with me. my young readers. that. except the disgrace that attaches to their character in case they are convicted of such crimes. naked. and stimulated to honesty by rules of honour belonging to their society. and honourable. The contemptuous epithets of " the poor.22 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. American Indians are amongst the most honest. guard my and help me in safety through their country. though poor . would my life and property. they practise honesty without any "dread of the law. way the to corroborate the fact. as they have done.

who fears to go farther. . these people are all tem" all teetotallers . should be constantly borne in mind that these people invariably have. using and and fire-arms. whisky. only . with the aid of rum and whisky. In their primitive state. the world. and . the semicivilized and degraded condition of the savage B . with their other misfortunes. and diseases which end in their destruction. properly speaking. and jealousies excited by the abuses practised amongst them. it To estimate the Indian character properly. who. This district being the first and most easily reached by the tourist. It should also of Indian society be known that there are two classes the one nearest to civilization. and their character changed by civilized teaching. he too often contents himself by what he can there see. civilized people." and sufficiently clad for perate the latitudes they live in and their poverty. and their worst passions inflamed. and nakedness. 23 have been reduced to these condi- by the iniquitous teachings of white men. the most wicked and unprincipled part of civilized and these white people. as their first civilized neighbours. no to are amenable law and amongst a people they who have no newspapers to explain their wrongs to society to deal with . where they have become degraded and impoverished.CHARACTER. . which lead directly to poverty. have introduced tions dissipation and vices amongst them. in a country where rum. when the treacherous hand commerce and the jug are extended begins of white man's to them.

and humane traits of earth: . and personal without the aid of laws . have a national character and appearance very different from the other native races of the in colour They differ in language. The American Indians. My labours have generally commenced where that . Indians for information. and rights to be protected. and and in their native simplicity they have many high. a great and national family. I have me. in expression. my state of civilization leaves off believed. and honourable. : and what people are not so ? the cruelty of savages. There is is an excuse for Cruelty savage for it? life: and who else has so a necessity in good an excuse Indian society has to be maintained. like all savage races. which will be illustrated in the following There are no people on earth more loving and kind to their friends and the poor and yet. and modes American thus doing injustice to the character of the people. they are correctly denominated cruel . character. chiefly. and. as a race.24s LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. and where there ambition has led there. and less than justice to those who read . for those ends each individual is looked upon as the . as I have always been in the greatest safety when in It has been the primitive state of Indian society. as the only legitimate place to portray the true character of Indian life. as the true definiof the too often endorses tion of the appearance what he sees. and there where I have laboured.

The Indian's " cruelty and treachery in warfare. They is all worship the Great and have a Idolatry belief in a spiritual existence after death. much The Creator has also endowed the North Ameri- can Indians. and the other intellectual qualities bestowed on the rest of mankind. you are now prepared to fol- the contrary. Spirit. which it has taken you but a few minutes to read." we but cruelty and treachery in Indian and civilized warfare are much alike. and if he does not punish with cruelty and with certainty there is no In the exercise of security to person or property. 25 avenger of his own wrongs. with reason. but does tribe compel him to do. and how they act. with courage. so that cruelty is at the same time a right and a duty the law of what the their land. with ingenuity. with a high moral and religious principle. with humanity. how they look. nowhere practised by them. though you may read of many instances of both to brief suggestions on their general character and condition. or be subjected to a disgrace which he cannot outlive . everywhere. he not only uses a privilege. that they call themselves such. this right. After these low me through scenes and events in which I shall endeavour to show you how these interesting people I have told live. and that if you were amongst them they would take you by the hand as brothers and sisters and I .NATIONAL CHARACTER. nor cannibalism. you are now fully prepared in . therefore. believe. you that they are children. hear of.

ignorant can under their peculiar circumstances.26 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. to explain to you. to estimating their character and actions. and are all and but who are doing the best they feeble. which I am make those allowances which all Nature prompts actions of kind hearts to extend to the who are oppressed. those .

Indian I ever saw was in this wise. out. tribes.CHAPTEK Wyoming Massacre Saw-mill Lick II. it was ascertained one day on to attack the that large parties of Indians were gathered the mountains. the Kevolutionary on the Susquehanna Kiver. and False Alarm- John Darrow A Huge Story of the Panther Deer in the Lick Indian Red Indian at the Lick Run from A the Lick Johnny O'NeiTs "Gipsies" of George's Indiana The Saddle Kettle of Gold Venison On-o-gong-way's Story The My Tomahawk. A The Old Valley of the Oc-qua-go Chill. armed and prepared white inhabitants. 27 . who were pushed were contesting the right of the white people to settle in it. 1HE first I have before told the beautiful and ing. you that I was born in famed Valley of Wyom- which is of Pennsylvania. After having practised great cruelty on the Indian tribes. a Shiver. and been warned from year to year by the Indians to leave it. a settlement was formed in that while the Indian fertile valley by white people. in the State Not a long time after the close of War in that country.

advanced towards the head to the five or six The white men number of in the valley immediately armed. who was then years old. Amongst was I mother's side. the Indians marched down the and took possession of the fort containing the women and children. and destroyed them lives all. descended into the valley. with the exception of a very few. and at a favourable spot. where the soldiers were to pass. and scalping-knives in hand. and a child only seven my mother. but kept as prisoners . their wives of the valley in search of their enemies. hundred. and leaving and children and old men in a rude fort on the bank of the river. is a merit in the science of all After this victory. from whom my grandfather on my have often had the most This onslaught is called in thrilling descriptions. though in the hands of more than a thousand fierce and savage warriors. were not put to death. and in an instant rush. at the sound of the war-whoop. thus taken in the fort was also Amongst the prisoners my grandmother. who saved their by swimming the the latter river. These several hundreds of prisoners. and strategy warfare. " history. The Indians. lay secreted in ambush on both sides of the road. to whom not one of the husvalley bands returned at that time.28 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. watching the movements of the white men from themountain tops. sprang upon the whites with tomahawks . not treachery . the Wyoming Massacre" Some have " called it treachery" It was strategy.

These brief facts. its This lovely and picturesque little valley. when a reinforcement of troops arriving over the Pokona mountains for their relief. with the women and children in it. my infant mind was filled impressions. made on my mind and Whilst my nerves by the thrilling incident I am about to describe. for the relief of with these his health. with the greatest pro- priety and kindness. impaired by the practice of the law. treating them in every sense." and to the honour of the Indian's character. my father. having hunted for them and supplied them with food. calling them "sisters and children. resolving to turn his attention during the remainder of his life to agricultural pursuits. and painted their faces red.VALLEY OF THE OC-QUA-GO. 29 for several weeks. removed some forty miles from the Valley of Wyoming to a romantic valley on the banks of the Susquehanna River. being . having become startling legends of that region. in the State of New York. be it for ever known (as attested by every prisoner both men and women). the Indian warriors left the fort. called by Indian name " Oc-qua-go. will account for the marvellous and frightful impressions I had received in my child- hood. which happened many years before I was born. of and also for the indelible impression Indian massacres and Indian murders. where he had purchased a beautiful plantation. with a thousand others which could be narrated." surrounded by high and precipitous mountains and deep ravines.

every defile and mountain pass. Mohawk and Oneida nearer to the straggling remnants of the defeated Indians. father with a light single-barrelled fowling-piece which my had designated as especially my own. pheasants. which was covered with rust. and with which I was enthusiastically forming a little cabinet or museum . when years old. as well as those of the neighbourhood. one of my father's ploughmen brought from his furrow the head of an Indian pipe -tomahawk. quails. and pursuing their . But I began now to feel a higher ambition that for which the rifles of my two of killing a deer elder brothers were the weapons requisite. which the labouring men of his farm.30 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. this early age. and whose paths and other markings were still recent. as the most valued of its acquisitions. and with which my slaughter of ducks. I was in a position to increase rather than to diminish the excitements already raised in my mind relative to the Indians who had barricaded and bravely defended in their retreat. one by one. the handle of which had rotted away. were bringing to me. and which (they being absent. and one day. who had retreated before the deadly rifles of the avengers of Wyoming's misfortunes. The ploughs in my father's fields were at this time daily turning up Indian skulls or Indian beads. and Indian flint arrow-heads. I had become At probably only nine or ten a pretty successful shot. and squirrels was considered by the neighbouring hunters to be very creditable to me.

Near by it. 31 academical studies in a distant town) I began to lay temporary claim to. visits (a "deer lick"). and consisting only of masses of thrown-down timbers and planks. is A "lick" . under and around which I always had deer. converted into piles by the force of the water. to which my co-propensity. and deserted road leading to following mostly along the winding banks of the creek. about one mile from my father's back fields. to it the mountain sides down were freshly leading my trodden.THE OLD SAW-MILL LICK. in the phrase of the a country. still riley with their recent steps. and to obtain the salt. allay their thirst. often called me I had observed that the saw-mill lick was much frequented by scene of and that I soon fixed as the more my exciting operations. Most of the which seems necessary for digestion. This solitary ruin. The "old saw-mill" was the shattered remains of a saw-mill which had been abandoned for many years. hemlocks and fir-trees. future and my greatest success in trout-fishing. now In my " then recent visits to the " Old Saw-mill" on the Big Creek " a famous place. overshadowed by dark and tall was the "lick" to which The paths aspiring ideas were now leaning. salt-spring which the deer visit in warm to weather. showed me the fre- quency with which the deer were paying their to it. that of trout-fishing. with an old it. was enveloped in a dark and lonely wilderness. in a deep and dark gorge in the mountain's side. and the mud and water in the lick.

by a manoeuvre. and by recollections. . creeping along through narrow defiles. of the recitals of several of the neighbouring hunters of their great success in the old saw-mill lick. in consequence of which they fall an easy prey to wild beasts. to the old saw-mill lick . and fidence in difficulty was the positive order of was not to meddle with the arms of my elder brothers. at a late hour of the night. where I concealed it for my next afternoon's contemplated enterprise. and putting my little fowling-piece in its place. from of herbivorous animals seem to visit these places as if necessity. I resolved to try my first my luck there. unless it was rested rifle A upon something for its support. yet fresh. with a light and palpitating heart. For this I foresaw a remedy. which lie in wait for them. had every conBut the greater I my father that I ever. and taking the rifle into the fields. between logs and rocks. by extracting one of them from the cover. and as yet was not strong enough to raise. through the winding and lonely road.32 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. The hour approaching. Stimulated by the proofs aboved named. my accuracy of my problem of aim. for this enterprise was absolutely necesa sary weapon which I never had fired. which were in covers and This I solved. and appear oftentimes under a sort infatuation in their eagerness for them. as well as to hunters. until. by a fair glance. and finding the rifle loaded. howhanging against the wall. I proceeded.

A SHIVER. CHILL. which it took me some time to get over. it had not occurred to me . The nook into which I clambered and seated mywas elevated some twenty or thirty feet above the level of the lick. until that moment. and where the deer were in the habit of coming to lick. I remained until near nightfall without other excitement than an occasional tremor from the noise of a bird or a squirrel in the leaves. which I mistook for the The falling of a footsteps of an approaching deer ! dry branch. and at the proper distance for a dead shot. often worked living in the neighbourlor him in his fields. AND FALSE ALARM." which. it 33 at the at the lick. Having taken this position about the middle of the afternoon. I here found myself in a snug and sly little box. with the muzzle of my rifle resting on a little breastwork of rock before me. which had evidently been constructed and self used for a similar purpose on former occasions by the old hunters. in the midst of this silent and listless anxiety.A moment. at the old saw-mill lick John Darrow. which came tumbling down upon the hill side above and behind me. not long before. . however. gave me one or two tremendous shivers. even after I had discovered what it was for it brought instantly into my mind the story which I had often heard Darrow relate. of "killing the panther. I I found there was no game in then took to a precipitous ledge of rocks in the side of the hill partly enclosing the dark and lonely place where the salt-spring issued. took ! place. a poor man hood of my father.

for which his success had gained him a great reputation in that vicinity. with a bullet hole between its eyes. on a level with his target. ran thus (as " : I was watching he called my father). and as he took a peculiar fancy to me for my hunting propensities. Squire old saw-mill lick. at the height of the middle of a deer's body a small bit of phosphorescent wood fire. Darrow had been in in the habit of "watching a great deal the old saw-mill lick.S4 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS." wildernesses. and of placing beyond the lick. one can easily see how I became attached to this first wonderful man. he had told on arriving at my father's house one morning at an early hour from one of these nocturnal hunts. His story of the panther. He often supplied my father with venison. and how I came to take my " lessons in deer-stalking and bear-hunting with him. and his his light was obscured. and with a huge panther slung upon his back. himself covered from head to foot with blood. looking like a small Then secreting himself before dark on fire. which I was now revolving in my mind. Well. at the last night. at any time of the night when he heard the stepping of the deer in the lick. the ground. . his rifle resting in a couple of crotches and aiming directly at ball of phosphor light. to pull trigger was a certain death. but was more fond of hunting. wood which often occurs in those and called by the inhabitants "foxprobably from phosphor) and which is always (a rotten visible in the darkest night.

d'ye he sprung upon me. with hands. " rifle in both In this position. but it seemed a long time. for I feet. Seated on the ground. I was badly torn. I was waked by a tremendous blow. Squire . My rifle was left in the crotches. and dropped me. no hope but from knowing that the cowardly animal had slipped and I had now will never spring while you look him in the face. though I could was total darkness. but keeping rifle. until just the break of day (the only thing I wanted it was but a few hours. I fell asleep. I assure you). and my cocked. and landed me some ten or twelve feet. my it eyes knew exactly where he was but could lying. I sat. 35 and it getting on to be near midnight. for it knew by the noise when was a painter.STORY OF THE PANTHER. much heightened by such reflections in such a place and every leaf that turned behind me calculated more . and feeling my way very gradually with my set upon the brute. and felt the blood running in several places. My knife out of the scabbard in the struggle. at last I could see the head of you. and made only one see . and I let from me/' slip ! The beast One can easily imagine my juvenile susceptibilities . and my back leaning against a beech tree. as I it he stopped. I at length got hold of the do me no good in the dark. and then the wrinkles betwixt I can tell ' I could just begin to discover his eyes ! Time moved slowly then. not hearing even a leaf turned by him. and Old Ben there was ' : no time to be lost was about twenty feet now. like a stroke of lightning 'twas this beast. I knew see nothing. when his outline. jump farther himself.

The woodlark was at that moment taking its favourite limb in the lofty and evergreen hemlocks for its nightly rest. until actually shaking the top of it after my head. Just then I heard the distant proaching the lick. lest he should discover me. and ing. on the surface of My rifle. but they shook me. and sometimes looking me. each one of them. full in the face. my teeth actually chattering. My resolve. and making the wooded temple of solitude ring and echo with its liquid notes. my shakes increas- at length it entered the pool. nor to wait much longer for the desired gratification.36 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. I don't recollect where from. was rested before me the rock. stopping often to gaze. and shortly after discovered in the distance a deer (a huge buck !). save my- . when I was afraid even to wink. of course. apparently. whilst all else was still as death. . was not to trust myself in that gloomy place in the night. chills seemed to rise. timidly and cautiously descending the hill and ap- way home. licking for and commenced and the resolve that the moment had arrived set my grand achievement. cocked. or less to startle me. and my nerves Successive decidedly too excitable for my business. and I was on the eve of descending from my elevated nook and wend- ing my sounds of footsteps in the leaves. My young blood was too boilable. which I was then believing I should have to forego for that day at least. they seemed to go out at The deer kept advancing. and all things.

for I don't tremble now. or to explode fired little ! had those risks. much moment ." the deer came gliding through the bushes and into the lick again. and feeling again more calmed. I tried again events. like a snake running through me from my feet to the top of my head. veloped Just at this moment also popped into my head me one or two renewed I another idea that gave shivers. my fowling-piece hundreds of times without harm. I must run to kick. until I could see more clearly the forward sight of my barrel. what a loss a chance is gone ! ! " what a misa coward. stepping out of the lick. which. and then more prudently resolved to lie still a few moments until I could get my nerves more steady. and. and again. 37 after several useless were perfectly ready but I before I could pull got my aim. when away went another of those frightful chills. seemed to be enin a sort of a mist. What and what a poor fool am I though. disappeared in the thicket.DEER IN THE self. sure I could have if killed him. because I was just about sions for a few to pull trigger ! The deer at this time seemed to have got enough ! of licking. but in vain. fortune ! What Oh. Just at this cool But I am he had stopped. I was getting my aim with tolerable accuracy. LICK. one minute longer. and at all trigger." After checking my latter apprehen- moments. I lost it again. but I never had fired " It may be overloaded. attempts from another chill and a shake. or so long loaded as a rifle but never mind. as yet. .

One little chill nearer than before. and grace with which this . which he had drawn across the neck of the deer. nor ever dreamed of seeing in that place tall and graceful form of a huge Indian. or the and composure. and tumbling upon the ground. made upon my infant mind. while he suspended the animal by the hind legs from the limb of a tree to let it bleed.38 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. which had fallen much nearer to me than it was when it was shot. and drew himself slowly over the logs and My head little ! through the bushes. when bang went the crack and the flash of a rifle. showed me that I was too late! lowered a and the breech of my rifle were instantly more behind my stone breastwork. he ad- vanced to the carcase of the deer. His rifle he leaned against a tree. he clenched between his teeth. quite dead. horrid ! horrid to ! what what a life fate is mine ! what am I do?" No length of could ever erase from my recol- lection the impression which this singular and un- expected scene ease. but by gritting my teeth tight together I succeeded in getting a more steady aim. and then oh. as he pushed his red and naked shoulders. but half bent forward. "Oh. Trailing his rifle in his left hand. and drawing a large knife with the other from its sheath in the hollow of his back. began ! . bounding a few rods from the pool on to an elevated bank. a little to the left of me! and the deer. and the blade of his bloody knife. horrid what I never had seen bethe fore.

wiping his huge knife upon the moss and laying it by his side. the living figure of a Red Indian ! he sees me. as if he were sending up thanks to the Great Spirit in the blue clouds of smoke that were curling around him. and steel. with which he lit his pipe. and drawing from his pouch his flint. I had not feeling nor a shiver my now was no longer the ebullition of childish anxiety. . but the awfully flat and stupid one of dread and fear . were too tightly strained to tremble. and the blue streams were curling upwards from his mouth and bis nosc . 39 phantom seated himself upon the trunk of a large and fallen tree. and from which it seemed. and moved his piercing black eyes over and about the ledge where I was sitting. in a moment" before me." And a better one followed when he turned gently around. his An instant thought came to me. rifle. he will scalp me and devour be- my me dear mother will never !" know what came of From another the crack of that chill. Who will ever imagine the thoughts that were passing through my youthful brain in these exciting moments ? for here was before me. and Here was " perhaps death every muscle was quiet. and me I'm lost . and I am perfectly cool a bullet would put an end to all my fears. when naked back and shoulders were turned towards me " My rifle is levelled.KED INDIAN AT THE LICK. : however. for the first time " If in my life. and spunk. which My seemed elongated as though they were reaching half-way to him. eyeballs. in a few moments.

until a doubly reasonable time had elapsed for this strange apparition to be He having seemingly. but rifle. the deer. which I did as soon as perfect safety seemed to authorise it. was through the woods. in the momentary glance of that face. which at this time My position was taking the gloom of approaching night. my attention was now turned to a different but more difficult By clambering the huge precipice still above me. he slung upon his back. and such the mode of seeing an Indian. The last of these. was recovered on the following day. " last view. with its fore and trils for I hind legs tied together. but solely " my first with youthful impulse . exclaiming as I approached . and. taking his rifle in his hand. the next thing was to announce him. His pipe burned out . to have taken the direction of the old road" by which I had expected to return. Such was the adventure. and none but human nature I saw humanity.4f) LIFE . however. saw then (though a child). without hat or and without the least know- ledge of the whereabouts in which either of them had been deposited or dropped. at entirely out of my way. AMONG THE INDIANS. could express. but the other never came to light." Having seen him. what infant human nature could not fail to see. I safely lodged in my father's back fields. scarcely daring to look back. and by a run of more than a mile route. which I did without plan or reserve. and reflections were still like lead that could not be removed. he silently and quietly disappeared in the dusky forest.

" I had a restless night. a faithful farm-labourer in and in the morning. " yer parthen. seated on a bear-skin spread upon the ground." where we Indian warrior my (Paddy's gipsy) (Plate No. and as pale as a " " I've an Indian I've seen an Indian seen ghost. and taking me by the hand. Johnny O'Neil. gude o' 'em. an' yer suckin'an' yer chahkins.) big wheat-field. bed. was at the door. where ye sae thit lattle areesin. and his pipe at his lips with his wife. and at last comforted poor dear mother came and me a little I believe My dear George. and . for I tal ye ther'll be nae smohk may pigs. his elbows resting on his knees. however. when I awoke. he and Johnny O'Neil and myself started off for the farther corner of the found I. I do believe you I believe your story to be true you have seen an Indian. " I bag for there are no gipsies in this country. I related the whole of my adventure. and my father continued be bound these are George's Indians!" and putting on his hat. sae ye be lookin' oot for yer toorkies. Johnny. as no Indian had been seen neighbourhood for many years. has kimmed thae japsies." Poor Johnny O'Neil for. " His legs were crossed. my father's employment. ! he was not believed either .JOHNNY O'NEIL'S " GIPSIES." said "I'll Johnny . " Jist in the toother eend of the bag whate-field. and my by my " by saying. my ! ! No in the one believed me. ." I was mad I went to bed mad and crying knelt . and then they thought " the boy was mad." said my father. That's almost a bull. announcing that." 41 the vicinity of father's bouse.

some one hundred and miles distant. he that he was an Oneida. in to feel something of the alarm I had felt the day be- fore. suspended by the corners from four crotchets fastened into the ground. with blankets wrapped around them. with a steak of venison cooking for their breakfast. these are Indians. to screen them from the sun." said " I. and. and over them all. his little daughter of ten years old. and had learned to sing their songs and ." " Yes. who had been familiar with Indians. and a small fire in front of the group. it him. " There is the Indian. charging . and that's the man I saw. Johnny O'Neil. Understanding and speaking a easily explained to my father little English. you were right. when he cleaned out his pipe. and looking us steadily the face as we approached and though I began very . as we speak somewhat of their language in his early life. " said to me. my father's stepping up to him and taking him by the hand with a mutual " How how how/' and the friendly grip of his soft and delicate hand.42 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. father !" said I and my father. and turned my alarm to perfect admiration. " There's the japsies !" said were approaching. and their necks covered with beads. my boy. reclining by the side of him . George. that his name was On-o-gongHe asked us to sit down by (a great warrior). a blanket. which was extended to me also." He was smoking away. soon dissipated all my fears. living near fifty way Cayuga Lake.

was no doubt a part of the animal I had seen in the lick. and almost. The saddle of venison. commencing a smile." He laid his pipe down. father then explained to him adventure the to " day before at the the story of my old saw-mill every sentence of which I was nodding yes." and the Indian a giant. he took me by both hands. though very small. but not quite. as the Indian was smoking his pipe." meaning that I was a good hunter. though on more familiar acquaintance." and trembling. as well as the motive which had brought him some hundreds . you half very good. exclaimed. where he had suspended a small saddle of and laying it by my side. though it had appeared to me the day before. and repeated the words. he proved to be no larger than an ordinary man. to my great surprise. " Good good good hunter. which. and brought it. was a pledge of his friendship.THE SADDLE OF VENISON. was earnestly looking me in the face. The story finished. as I had represented it at home. afresh with 43 father to smoke. and very deliberately as he climbing over the fence. and that half of the venison belonged venison. as he laid his to me. This generous present added much to my growing admiration. hand on my head. made to my father and myself. a "buck of the most enormous size. of his history and of some of his adventures. My lick. " Dat you. my lighted. stepped into the shade of the forest. and gave it to my and then handed it to me. father explained. which was increased again as I listened to his narrative. tobacco.

he said. another army of white men came from the north." said he. his father made him assist in carrying many heavy things which they had plundered from the white people. " " now listen. on those very fields.44 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. and whose deep-rooted hostility to all savages induced them to shoot them down whenever they met them in their hunting grounds. and the poor Indians had no way but to leave . through which the river passes) . During this disastrous retreat. of miles over a country partly of forest and partly inhabited by a desperate set of hunters whose rifles were unerring. father. as one of the most difficult to carry. a kettle of gold !" " Yes. "What!" the . had been one of the warriors in the battle of Wyoming. lying beneath and in front of us). and amongst them was afterwards driven by the white soldiers. which then were covered with soldiers " came through the narrows yonder trees " (pointing to my father's fields. at mouth of the Tunkhannock amongst which. was a kettle of gold. said my " father. " was a great battle. where they fought a great battle. and were entering the valley on that side. between the Oneida and Cayuga Lakes. and one of the most valuable. The white see you (pointing to a narrow gorge in the " and mountains. up the shores of the his tribe Susquehana to the country where the remnant of now lived. and many were the warriors that fell on both sides. after many battles and great slaughter. he being a boy about my size. father. but at that time. His father.

I saw my father and my mother bury the kettle of * gold. " father My we buried the ' kettle of gold at the foot of a large pine-tree that stood on the bank . on which the old saw-mill was and which passed in a serpentine course through " On the banks of my father's farm to the river). and where shall I go to look? This. I is kept a secret for many years. somewhere near that bridge. to dig up the ' kettle But I see this day. and my road in going back I know is beset with many enemies. they fol" (pointing built. my father. but I see there no use in keeping it a secret this makes and my heart sad. " These green fields. my its lowed the banks of that creek to to the creek head father. but I see the trees are all gone. and my heart ' very sad. I was obliged to hunt for him.THE KETTLE OP GOLD. my father. my where the road crosses. and all now is covered with green grass . father. I have any longer. which are now so . my father.' that there is no use in looking for is where I now sit. father "When my was old and infirm. but since he has gone to the land of his fathers. that creek many who were unable things were buried by the Indians.' with other things. come a great way. and amongst them. it. and make their way through the forests to Cayuga. in the ground. to carry them over the mountains . I have made the journey a great way. on the farther bank. from of gold. " In passing these mountains. and I could not come . and to cross these high mountains behind us. 45 the river and all their canoes.

and we are your children. father. looked like gold. but was much harder.' and bring it here as quick as you can. which.46 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. nimbly (but occasion) in my lifetime." My to me. grounds of ." and beautiful trees. and turning it over and over. he extended both arms in the form of a circle. " it was about thus large. and of much less ." it had occurred to my father that Buel Rowley. While this conversation was passing about the " kettle of gold. to be sure. and just as much as I could lift . one of his hired men. had ploughed up a small brass kettle a few years before. his fingers' My " ends just touching each other. than I ran and scaled the fences on this errand. * ." run had more on one never." and in answering these. my father described to him the manner and place in which it was found. was now under the eyes of the child of the forest. after a and " said. fathers. perhaps. on the bank of the creek. and at the identical spot designated by the forefinger of the Indian and that kettle being brought by me from my mother's culinary collection. Whilst he was in silence gazing upon it. turned run down to the house ! and ask your mother to give you the little brass I kettle. and must be of great value. There. George study of a few minutes. and that it was made of brass. were once covered with large and they were then the hunting and they were many and my but but now a very few we live a we are strong great way off. beautiful to look upon." said he. father asked him many questions about the "kettle of gold.

which were to be retraced. and drawing a deep breath or two through his pipe. . that he had no doubt but it was the same kettle. and in this wise accomplished his object but his dangerous steps. After a pause of a few minutes. as it was then a and the other. and he had thus far escaped his enemies. that he found it was not a The first error he attributed to his having carried it when he was quite a small boy. learned amongst the white people that a very small piece of gold was worth ten dollars . from having heavy load for him . and the " kettle of gold" other. and those of his wife . 47 value. and having estimated from this standard the probable value of a " kettle of gold. but that two things troubled his mind very much the first was. and his little daughter. and rim of trying his knife two or three times on the upper it. long journey had cost him no gold. as ii he recognised the long-hidden treasure. and without the change of a muscle." not having as yet learned enough from the white people to know the difference between gold and brass. for he had none his rifle had supplied him and his family to spend with food. but drawing a deep sigh. Poor ignorant child of the forest he had learned ! from his teachers something of the value of gold before he knew what it was and he had risked his . .THE KETTLE OF GOLD. said to my father. that the kettle should be so small. he laid it down. were life. in his for of miles through the hundreds wending way forests infested with hunters whose rifles were His levelled upon every Indian they could meet.

The handle finished. and he gave a new gleam to mine. My rusty tomahawk head I handle. This lighted the eyes of the child of the forest. or a piece of hard hickory wood. and curiously carved brought to him. the pith of which is easily burned away with a heated hole." little thinking. when he filled the bowl . until it while bright. so completely were all my fears turned into admiration. rendered tenfold more dangerous from the vague reports which had accidentally and unfortunately got into circulation amongst the hunters and bri- gands of the forests through which he had to pass. and was returning with. that he had dug up. a " of gold" and several of his neighbours paid visits to his little bivouac . as " there was no gimlet long enough to make such a he explained the secret to me. as wire. me a The handle was perforated for smoking through. a mystery which no one of the neighbours could solve.48 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. and I spent frequent kettle My father nearly all my time there. for which he made it with his knife. friend Johnny my O'Neil laid the head and blade of turned. I on the grindstone was everywhere silvery it and its edge as sharp as a knife. that the handle was made of a young ash.

My (like young readers must know that the tomahawk Sheffield the scalping-knife. too deadly and de- structive to have been made by the poor Indian. when ! chick it seemed to pronounce. combining the two essential requisites of being capable of being used in war as the most efficient and deadly weapon. ing I its had not the power to draw it out but under his practised hand it seemed to leave the tree like a . and bury- at the blade in the solid wood. as quick as elec- . which generally has the mark upon it) is a contrivance of civilized invention and construction. and. The first of these characters of the tomahawk having been illustrated as above stated. of being turned into a luxury.MY TOMAHAWK. by throwing or striking with. to my inexpressible delight. He steps. explaining to me the certain fate of an enemy within an equal distance. and raised my astonishment and admiration still higher. of it 4-9 with tobacco (or k'nick-k'neck. my good and confiding friend now arose with the tomahawk in his right hand. breath of wind. for which it is equally valued. an Indian for substitute tobacco) and commenced smoking through it. and the tobacco all burned out . then stepped back again some ten or fifteen with the end of the handle in his hand. And tomahawk was yet the great charm still to come and mystery of the yet to be learned. when war is at an end. by throwing it trunk of a tree some rods distant. the smoke passing through it when charged with tobacco.

slung it on my back. no matter what the distance. murderous enemies in disguise plotting and prowling around them. and while he was maturing a plan for sending them home by a different route. no doubt. which he He made me looked upon with an evident gloom. and my attachment to them laid iny mother's pantry under daily and heavy contributions. present day. without failing once. and at his own expense. . Here I was left in one of the several inexplicable mysteries which I have met in Indian life. What of my could more completely have capped the climax boyish ambition than this ? The honesty and childlike simplicity of these poor people gained them many friends in the neighbourhood. with the arrows in it. and was there buried again more than twenty times. and never have been able to solve. and the blade. ! This he did tricity. always entering the tree." which I would have killed) he made me a quiver. and. it was discovered one morning that their smoke was missing in the corner of my father's .50 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. even to the . My father made them many presents. and from a young hickory he made me a beautiful bow. shafts (which he feathered) to a number of them . and yet there were. and ornamented it with woodpeckers' feathers and from the skin of the fawn (the " huge buck. My father was under constant apprehensions for their safety. to the astonishment of my father and others looking on the weapon revolving many times in the air. My flint arrow-heads I brought to him.

and poor Johnny O'Neil. found hanging in my always open on one quills wood-house. honest. giving me wound which was several of months in healing. by which I was . an' the " I'll eagle's quill. squire. and as an unmistakable evidence of his friendship and gratitude. and harmless man he had left. Upon my be shot if word. thase is nae japsies " thot mon's not a gintleman ! A few days after the departure of the Indians. cutting deep into the cheekbone. to meet the chances for his life on his long journey home. The Indians are gone the Indians are gone ? was echoed everywhere. two neighbouring boys and myself were practising with my tomahawk. which was a fine saddle of venison. his choicest plume. if youthful they have the my . and a scar which any one readers may always know opportunity of seeing me. " when he looked upon taining the saddle of venison conexclaimed. when the sharp blade struck me on the left cheek. he had left this silent parting gift. covered with blood .MY TOMAHAWK. in the morning. and with it. me by. standing too closely. " 51 big wheat-field . it glanced from the tree." and on the same morning was father's side. " ! to identify the giver. with one of the beautiful and well-known eagle from the head of On-o-gong-way fastened ! in it! Poor. and felling me a to the ground. by throwing it at the trunk of a tree and when thrown by the hand of one of the boys. as he could not write his name. and through the neighbourhood.

but not . some eight or ten miles from my father's plantation. new and later. notwithstanding his exertions from year to year. . to the detection of so foul a murder." which my father had confident hopes would have led . which it was necessary for him to cross in order to reach his own country and friends. This was the first catastrophe growing out of the singular acquaintance thus recited. a dark and dreary wilderness. What became of his poor wife and the interesting and innocent little daughter. in Randolph Valley. never furnished any clue to the villainy. pierced by two rifle bullets. no mortal was ever able (or willing) to say and the " kettle of gold. the saddest that came to our and in this lamentable knowledge a few days form that the dead body of poor On-o-gong-way was found.52 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS.

from my boyhood to the age of thirty-three. and mountains. we will now enter upon scenes that I witnessed in those pursuits. was the first field of my roamings. and lakes. from which a more intimate knowledge of these people and their customs may be gleaned. IN the foregoing chapter received I have shown how I my earliest . as I have said. I entered the forests to learn more of it. 53 . when. Portraits and Costumes The Sioux Sionx Wigwams Skin-builders Drying Meat Grass -builders Indian Dirt- Slavery builders Scalp-Day Bark-builders Timber-builders.CHAPTER Indian Tribes Village Interior of III. containing nearly one-half of North America. The great valley of the Mississippi and Missouri. . Indian character impressions of the and skipping over the intervening part of my life. with its vast prairies. and some of the finest races of mankind in America or in the world the principal. and most interesting of these were the Sioux the Blackfoot the Crows the Mandans . and most numerous. which occupied some five or six years of my life during which time I visited many tribes.

they live. from the scenes of my younger days just described. and in my the Arapahos. Camanchees Osages subsequent travels west of the Eocky Mountains. and afterwards to their customs. which you will then be better able to After knowing how they look and how appreciate. a few of the numerous the Apachees the Shoshonees tribes. the Flatheads Ojibbeways Pawnees and Choctaws . where men and animals are roaming in their native beauty and independence. which my portfolio .54 the LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. and fifty others. where the Indian tribes have all disappeared many great still American years since. to the centre and heart of the wilds. you will more easily and correctly understand how they act Will you not ? We now take an immense stride of twelve hundred miles in a moment. connected narrative of my wanderings amongst of these remote people large and perhaps tedious readers. in the State of New York. the Garibbees the Arowaks the Ghaymas the Gooagives the Macouchis the Guarani the Tupi the Botocudos the Connibos A all the Chiquitos the Moxos. on the great and almost boundless grassy plains of the Upper Missouri In the absence of a pictorial illustration. but. and in South and Central America. I will introduce you at once to the people themselves and their modes of living. I will would require a very book. my young not fatigue you by travelling over the whole ground I will take a shorter way. let me describe a painting from life. and others.

orna- mented with porcupine quills. very warm D . The dress of the skins of the mountain sheep. clad. The chief wore a robe made of the skin of a buffalo. always the people for in their native state. comprising the head war-chief of the great Sioux nation. they have an abundance of skins and furs to clothe themselves with . or cradle. 55 contains. a curious mode. and the seams embroidered with porcupine His moccasins. with her infant (papoose) slung in its pretty crib. young woman was made of the more light and more soft than deer-skins. of a family group. . with his daughter (an unmarried girl) and his wife. His shirt (or tunic) and leggings were made of deerskins. hand he held his lance . made dress. were handsomely embroidered . denoting his office as head warchief of his tribe. and was very prettily embroidered and painted. extended quite to the ground. with the battles of his life painted on it. when it is more agreeable to be naked. partly they are abundantly and comfortably. except in weather. before white men come to It will be destroy their game. and oftentimes elegantly. The costume of the wife of the chief was much the same as that of the daughter her leggings and moccasins being beautifully garnished. and.PORTRAITS AND COSTUMES. and his head- made of war-eagles' quills and ermine skins. dyed of various bright colours. quills and fringed with scalp-locks. which I found to be the same in most of the tribes. seen by this description that these " " are not poor naked Indians . in his right of deer-skins. and was surmounted by a pair of horns.

we have it in the civilized world. Here is the father. those paternal and filial affections as strongly as any people in more enlightened society. is the custom amongst most of the other There is no tribe better clad. than the Sioux. some striking examples of in this little book. in form * Pronounced See-oo. and with him. construct their wigwams with them. numbering about twenty-five thousand. they deal their deadly arrows. they form the government of the nation . divided into forty bands. By my observa- tions amongst them I find that they feel and observe those conjugal. and such tribes. oftentimes in groups of several hundreds. clearly showing as that these people have the institution of marriage. which chiefs are again subordinate to one head-chief . also. or wield their long and fatal lances in the chase of the buffaloes. who live in better houses (wigwams). in council. They catch an abundance of wild horses. which will yet be given The Sioux* is one of the most numerous and powerful tribes in North America. and from their horses' backs.56 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. living mostly in a country of prairies (meadows). at full speed. . and also in war with their enemies. We discover in this family group. where they easily procure the buffaloskins. a good illustration of the domestic relations existing amongst these poor people. each band having a chief at its head. the mother. the husband. or who are better mounted. These people. the children . which are grazing on the prairies. the wife.

live. by which means the Indians are enabled to follow the migrating herds of buffaloes during fall the summer and seasons. you rise up and find a lofty space of some twenty feet above your head. The family are all seated. one of these wigwams you have to stoop rather awkwardly . and most curiously painted and embroidered. and have the advantage of being easily transported over the prairies . but when you are in. all built much in the same manner some fifteen or twenty pine poles forming the frame. my little correct notion of the manner readers will get a very in which these curious this village people There were in about four hundred skin tents. From the view (Frontispiece) of a Sioux village.SIOUX VILLAGE. and no one rises to salute you. 57 which are more comfortable than rude huts constructed of timber. the Inside of these tents. All lower their eyes to your feet. whatever your office or your importance may be. of all colours : . when they are busily engaged in drying tion. instead . with their feet to the fire . meat for their winter's for their and dressing robes this own clothing. Upper Missouri. and not uncomfortable mode. the fire is placed in the smoke escaping out at the top . centre. a most When you enter safe. of tents. presenting one of the most curious and beautiful scenes imaginable. are more easily built. consumpand on also for barter to the fur traders. covered with one entire piece of fifteen or twenty buffalo-skins sewed together. and at night the inmates all sleep on buffalo-skins spread upon the ground.

and extending their arms and head forward. sit down upon. and your heels drawn quite close under you. a chair. The Indians. accustomed to this from childhood. like the men. : they rise they place their feet in the same position. and their arms and head also. and rise to a perfectly straight position. and get a fair and deliberate glance at things around you. and rise from.58 of staring LIFE AMONG THE face. apparently without an effort. closely locked together. he don't know what to do with his legs. This is very curious. The men generally sit cross-legged and to sit down they cross their feet. but it is exceedingly graceful . INDIANS. and then you can take the pipe when it is handed to you. you are seated. robe or a mat of rushes is spread for you. selves to the ground. the ground with the same ease and grace that we sit down in. slowly and regularly lower their bodies when quite to the sitting posture on the ground and neat. and rise. and without touching their hand to the ground. to feel at ease your legs crossed. and. It is an awkward thing for a white man to sit down A upon the ground he is until he gets used to it. lower and raise themselves without touching the ground. without a hitch or a jerk. The women always sit with both feet and lower legs turned under and to the right or the left. and when down. When must be . and rise Both men and women lower themfrom. to sit you in the and you are asked down. and as they have no chairs you are at once embarrassed.

you can take a look at other things. a another process. of doing this is curious : they stretch the skin. and a great variety of other picturesque things hanging around. and buffalo masques (which each man keeps for dancing the buffalo dance). The first startling thing you will meet it is on entering will be half-a-dozen saucy dogs. and pouches. Their mode some three or four days with the brains of the buffalo or elk spread over the fleshy side. and cradles. and saddles. the picturesque group around the most curious scenes imaginable. that of "smoking. and after it has remained and deer-skins. and picturesque. and spears. and bristling. to which they are fastened by thongs . dressing robes and drying meat. and medicine bags. as seen in the illustration. and showing their teeth. one of the In front of these wigwams the women are seen busily at work. and oftentimes as many screaming children. when we look at it. they pass it through For this. but very curious in effect. suspended from the poles of the tent. either on a frame or on the ground. made of a piece of buffalo bone. barking. and lances. The skin-dressing of the Indians. and you see shields.INTERIOR OF WIGWAMS. These hushed. with fire. they grain it with a sort of adze or chisel. both of the buffalo is generally very beautiful and soft. " After the process of graining/' and the skin is apparently beautifully finished. and quivers. the whole presenting. 59 The furniture in these wigwams is not much. frightened at your savage and strange appearance." .

producing a strong and peculiar sort of smoke .60 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. passer-by as She labours very hard She does most of the and wigwam. . when he mounts his horse. for it is not exactly it is so. and as he his is pipe. does not yet belong skins to dressed skins in civilized countries. It is proverbial in " the the civilized world that poor Indian woman has to do all the hard work. it into thin (as seen in the cut). to keep the poor women at work. I believe. is hole of some two or three feet in depth dug in the ground. After this prothe dresses made of these skins may be worn cess. and working every nerve and every muscle. and a smothered fire kindled in the hole with rotten wood. cured. etc. coming in from the hunt. true. and constantly. " " slices Drying meat and exposing is done by cutting in the sun. lying at his ease. repeatedly in the rain. drudgery about the village transporting heavy loads. it Men are here seen also with their horses loaded with meat and skins. and is seen This all looks to the the slavish compulsion of her cruel is often seen who husband. in which the grained hang for three or four days. without salt hung upon poles where it dries." Don't believe this. and over this a little tent. with his His weapons in hand. dashes amongst the herds in the chase. and is successfully and without smoke. and so closed as to prevent the smoke from escaping. and will always dry perfectly soft a quality which. labours are not seen. and therefore are less thought of. smoking looking on. made of two or three buffalo-skins.

in civilized communities. and help to defend his country. a slavish and equally so are the lives of most women . about the encampment. to provide food for his wife 61 and his little children. and tends to her little children. spending his time and his as well as her own earnings. considering their labours about equally divided. like the ! poor Indian idle woman . and she may be a slave to an husband. she voluntarily assumes the hard work . every man is a hunter and a soldier he must supply his family with food. and see the industry and the slavish labour of poor woman She works all the days of her life. to protect them from the assaults of their enemies. " Slaves to their husbands " is an epithet so often and so inappropriately applied to the poor Indian woman by the civilized world. brings water. The education of woman in those countries teaches her that the labours are thus to be divided between herself and her husband and for the means of subsistence and protection. at the constant risk of his life. is The world is full of such slavery as this . The Indian woman's life is. for which she depends upon his labours. makes fires. and scours the country both night and day. to be sure.INDIAN SLAVEKY. who civilized money. Look into equally poor in all civilized countries. and so frequently reiterated and kept alive by tourists who have . their humble dwellings in all cities and towns. or in one the country. but amongst the American Indians such a system does not and cannot exist . in a tap-room. .

of the distinguishing natural traits of the Indian. If this system should. my young pass it readers. in which. that I cannot. the person of every individual in society." they can and do labour for mutual interests and mutual subsistence. happened to see an Indian woman or two at work when their husbands were asleep or smoking their pipes.62 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. have its . All efforts made (and there have been many) to enslave these people. either within the pale of the domestic relations or out of it. a better and a more voluntary division of the toils of conjugal life can be found than exists amongst the American Indians. have resulted in failures . is considered sacredly protected from the lash or a blow. lest the disgraceful epithet " " slave should be applied to them by their tribe. In the relationship of man and wife. is his uncompromising tenacity for un- bounded freedom. that stamps his character as One American mentally superior to that of the African and some other races. consent to by in this place without some further comment. and such an abhorrence have they for each other or for white of the system. without incurring this reproach . and in all cases they may be revenged by with death. among the poorer class of any civilized people on earth. By the custom in all the American tribes. nor injustice to the Indian. and I do not believe that. which in themselves imply degradation or servitude. possibility. both are one. in common honesty to you. as " amongst white people. that they cannot be induced to labour men for any remuneration that can be offered.

which are estimated by the number of scalps he has taken. and it to the redound to the honour of and what a lesson is for the civilized world. happens to be of the other tribes. so the signal for all the warriors to do the same that the chief and every person in the village can count them. his race. like most scalp-day . and understand each warrior's standing is . which are suspended the scalps as holidays. with their little children and dogs around them." from which which he has taken." which are observed somewhat The chief on those days passes through an aperture in the side of his wigwam. We ment in here see the Indian women in the full enjoy- of their domestic happiness. to be explained further on as we advance.SCALP-DAY. and the little cupids taking their first lessons in archery. work. that there never was known to exist amongst them the unnatural brute that has beaten his wife or his little child ! " slavish these poor women at their us go Let robes and meat. and erects " over it a pole called the scalp-pole. which is the most important feature in their education." dressing drying back to them for a few moments yet. disadvantages. having several days in the year for " counting scalps. and claims to promotion. the villagers dressed their ordinary costumes. lest we should But we left lose about sight of a Sioux village before we know all it. This " " the Sioux. and of course be unable to appreciate some extraordinary and amusing Sioux customs. . 63 it how much does credit of the Indian's character.

and the timber-builders. . who many ways This is of constructing their dwellings. the Crows. and yet several other tribes living in the vicinity of the herds of buffaloes. and for the same objects. which. these ingenious people. the Blackfoot. the Shiennes. a warrior. The Assinneboins. the Camanchees. and yet other builders." There are also the grass-builders. A warrior is one of those who has taken one or more a brave is one who goes to war as a soldier. the bark-builders. has killed no enemy. with the mode of taking it and using it. and live much in the manner of the Sioux. All of these I would denominate "skin-builders. All are armed and ready to go to war if necessary. them. How curious it is that have invented so ing with stone. but from their ignorance All the universal policy of leaving no monuments. which I have thus briefly explained. and to which we shall have occasion again to return. will be more fully described hereafter. the Omahas. never yet have adopted the mode of build- probably not the result of want of or invention. a brave.64 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. the dirt-builders. or a chief. all of whom will be noticed in their proper places. From the Sioux mode of constructing their villages. scalps but as yet has taken no scalps. Amongst tary the Indian tribes every man is a mili- man. Taking the scalp is practised by all the American tribes much in the same way. build their wigwams. we will now take a glance at some other modes practised by other tribes living at great distances from .

build their wigahge). they destroy their marks. having much the shape and appearance of a straw beehive. if they cannot take them with them. . This singular mode. American tribes are more or less all and by when they move. pleted. is very convenient . when combent in at their tops .GRASS-BUILDEES. they are comfortable dwellings. 65 migratory . in Western Texas. and partially so by the Kiowas and Wicos. a over frame of poles fastened in the ground and the structure.Picts (in their own language Tow-eenumerous tribe living on the head waters of the Ked River. burning their wigwams. and " smoothing over the graves of their parents and children. a wams by a sort of thatching of long prairie grass. smaller tribes subjugated by the Pawnee-Picts. which is only practised by that tribe." The Pawnee.

in a cirsome three or four feet into the ground. These living in skin tents. and construct their wigwams with more labour and more strength. on the Upper Missouri. unlike the Sioux and other tribes and who are constantly roaming live in permanent villages. for a foundation. demolished when they are left. easily constructed. and they all seem to construct their wigwams much in the same manner. The tribe of Mandans. and uniformly fortify them against the assaults of their enemies. by the bank of a river on one side. from which they make a superstructure of round timbers lying against each other. are always made by excavating. are the only dirt-builders. the Pawnees of the Platte. and the Riccarrees. wigwams cular form.66 LIFE AMONG THE and easily INDIANS. . These tribes. and a stockade on the other. the Minatarees. by putting a fire-brand to them. about the country.

.BARK-BUILDERS AND TIMBER-BUILDERS. entitles them to a high position amongst the families of the world. always built in the centre. further view of their personal appearance. which. then. and found the smallest to be forty-five feet. and obtain important information in support of the character of these abused people. like the . and others. permitting the whole family. and many of them sixty feet in diameter. and supported within by beams resting on upright posts the whole is covered with willow-boughs. to recline and gambol on the top of it in pleasant weather. timber-builders and palm-builders in Central and South America. So much for the various modes in which these will now take a little curious people live. using a thousand different shapes in constructing with those materials. from which I We intend you shall draw more amusement. and then proceed to their actions and usages. I have fearlessly said. to preserve . with the The fire is smoke escaping at the apex. In the Mandan village I measured several of these. dogs and all. and the smaller ends concentrating near the top. are the only modes of construction which are confined to any uniform shapes the woodbuilders. 67 the butt ends placed in the bottom of the excavation. and the bark-builders. as seen in the illustrations. and covered again with a foot or two in thickness of a concrete of tough clay and gravel. the dryness and soundness of the timbers. These.

ing word as you pass along. for the Buffalo-hunts. my little readers. and equipped for war. we will more easily understand their . how the people look first and then. foundation for what is skip over nothing. in war dress and war paint. but read every for we are so far getting a to follow. an officer of the highest rank. |OW. the Thunders Nest. Don't get impatient for the description of Scalps and Scalping.. III. the Stone- man Medicine. These I have I now selected 68 from amongst my numerous Dortraits painted . we are soon coming to scenes and events that will be more excit. etc. in full last chapter I In the dress.) three distinguished Indian warriors. but learn as I have said. the head war-chief of his tribe. with his wife and children around him present to . the Dog-feasts.CHAPTER Warriors IV. have described to you the family of an American wild man. actions. and your acquaintance (Plate No. "War the Dress Smoking Whistles Shield Flags and War Paint War WeaponsWarfare WarWar-Whoop Scalps and Scalping Prisoners of War Calumet (Pipe of Peace).

power ready to guard my property and even at the hazard of their own. are men are warriors. wrestled.WARRIORS. owing to several causes which don't exist to the same extent amongst civilized nations. With these . my young readers. from the life. They have no settled (but always disputed and imperfectly . These young said. and places far distant from their homes. Warriors. and yet they were the those of these who have taken men were people on earth to meddle with mine. of Indian the key. surrounded by other tribes with whom they are generally at war. Nothing. These gallant young men were all my familiar and hospitable friends. I have The leggings scalps. to warriors and Indian warfare Indian life and Indian doings yet to be described in the following chapters. 69 will be able to get of the ideas appearance of that lasting class of citizens who are found in all the tribes of faithful and from them you and the American Indians. that I can convey to you of Indian character and Indian modes can poslast of all sibly be more interesting and more important than the chapter I am now entering upon. whilst I was living amongst them . fringed with scalp-locks taken from their enemies' heads . run races and in hunting with them I have confidently and safely trusted my life with them in our excursions over the prairies. Every Indian tribe is a separate community. fine young men I have smoked. in fact. and ready at all times to afford me any aid or facilities in their life.

and painted for war with his bow and several arrows clenched in Omaha warrior. the war-chief takes the command. a his his 2. who are all volunteers. an dressed. the one mode to rise to enviable dis- tinction in their tribes. that of being a great warrior. back . if they are willing to meet the disgrace that attaches to them on their return. filled with arrows. In war. in war costume and war paint ready. or are warriors in Plate II. No. and his leggings are fringed with scalp-locks. and more frequent the popular ambition to signalise : who have but themselves. his hand. and always ready at an instant his buffalo robe. 1 represents Om-pa-ton-ga (the Big Elk). exposing them to the attacks of their enemies cause of warfare. 3. Of the three warriors shown its military. in War). with his battles painted on it. a Pawnee war paint and war cos- . No. defined) boundaries. and his quiver slung on he wears a necklace made of the huge paw bow and arrows of a grizzly bear. wrapped around him and his quiver slung on his back. is another. Loo-ra-wee-re-coo (the Bird that goes to warrior. and without the least compulsory power leads his warriors. Seekh-hee-de (the Mouse-coloured Feather). Mandan warrior. over which their fierce hunting excursions often lead them. and at liberty to desert the chief at any time. which is felt amongst all Indian warriors. No. and that all the young and braves. I have already said that every tribe has its civil and men war chief.70 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. and armed.

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mixed with bears' grease. in such a manner as even to be disguised. . in fact. vermilion. sometimes half black and half red. his body is curiously ornamented with his war paint his ankle ornaments are strings of antelopes' hoofs. most generally amounting to (nearly) no And the second. and his head is shaved (according to the uniform custom of the tribe) and ornamented with quiver. and horse-hair. in shape much sembling a Grecian helmet. from his own familiar friends. at a distance at which they would not distinguish him from his comrades from the natural . Each warrior has some peculiar and known way of painting. his limbs being chiefly dress at all naked. by which he is recognised by his fellowwarriors. a beautiful red crest tail made of the hair of the deer's re- dyed red. 71 bow and arrows. and at other times the whole face black. consisting of a thick daubing or streaking of red and white clay. is something It is the invariable custom of the very curious. warriors of all Indian tribes in America. and. " War dress and war paint" here. and charcoal. . oftentimes. and shield. covering various parts of his body and limbs. so as to afford the greatest facility for the free use of his weapons . to go to first consist- war in war dress and war paint .WAR tume with DRESS AND WAR PAINT. as well as his face. and and his spear in his left hand . the ing in a mode of dressing the person just as each individual may fancy for himself. which make a frightful rattling noise when he dances or walks he wears a beautiful kilt made of eagles' quills.

on whichsoever they may use them. and generally made of the skins of animals adapted in shape and size to hold them.72 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. with the greatest the solicitude. for . as to enable them to enter the flesh of the buffaloes or their enemies. with a point and two sharp edges. short and light. being mostly covered on the backs with layers of buffalo sinews. mostly pointed with flints. being thus more ready to be drawn suddenly and without obstruction. their arrows are carried in the quiver with the points downwards. all warriors The principal arms (or weapons) of all the American tribes are seen in the portraits of these three their bows and arrows. These arrows are carried in a quiver slung on the back. possibility and the misfortune of losing their lives when they are not in their war paint. was one of the curious and unaccountable facts met with in my travels. When not in service. Their bows are warriors horseback easy and effective handling on but they have great power. differences. that I never in any instance was able to get a warrior to stand for his portrait until he had spent the requisite time at his toilette (oftentimes from sunrise until eleven or twelve o'clock) to arrange himself in his war dress and war paint. so great is their air resemblance in the open when naked and in action. for protection . . leaving the points standing out. the arrows are reversed. but when they are going into battle. Their arrows are giving them great elasticity. broken in so ingenious a manner. And I also everywhere learned that It that I apprehended through life.

but " he must make it for himself and how ? does He He must kill With a gun ? the buffalo bull with his own hand. that they are proof against arrows. completing his dress and equipments. ("Medicine you will understand in a few moments.SMOKING THE SHIELD. Can he buy one ? " it won't protect him if he might. and add to their picturesque appearance by suspending eagle quills and other beautiful plumes from them. already shown and explained. tanned and hardened in such a manner with the glue remaining in them. perhaps. the thickest part of the hide . it one of the grandest and. and oftentimes painting the representation obliquely. These shields are invariably made of the skin of the buffalo's neck.) " Smoking the Shield" Have you ever heard of " ? Smoking the Shield I believe not. No . Indian lad one can't is or eighteen years old old enough to go to war he is sixteen he wants a shield "must have go to war without one. and war clubs of various shapes and materials. a smaller boy than he can do . Why. most imposing ceremonies Let's see. These shields are carried by every horseman. 73 Besides the bow and arrow. and lances. of their " bags " is medicine bags upon them. completely in the classic style of the ancient Koman and Grecian cavalry. They and ornament these shields in a great variety paint of ways. and shields carried on the left arm for protection. and even against a gun shot when held which they do with great skill. the tomahawk. An to be seen in the Indian countries. are used in warfare.

then . To witness "smoking insure its this ceremony. I was " invited to go and see the Smoking a Shield. to give it the hard- ness and stiffness required. within which a circle. Why. a little elevated above the surface. was preserved by a line marked on the ground. the bit of bull's hide. he has got to make his shield. In the centre of this circle a young man had dug a hole in the ground. tightly strained by a great many pins driven into the ground. Can any and make himself a warrior ? Have they any newspapers to announce their the making of a warrior is a enrolments ? No public act. all the warriors of the village had assemsuccess. of which he was to forge his shield." they call order to and legitimately to publish its owner's change from the phase of boyhood to that of warrior. he must kill it hide off with his with an arrow. while the glue extracted from the buffalo's hoofs. and must be made in a public way the riors are the property of their Indian lad secretly enlist. In the great Camanchee village. and take the and then Well. .74 that : LIFE AMONG THE own hand INDIANS. nation." An immense crowd was assembled a little out of the village. Can he do this privately. was frying and roasting into it. and over it. Indian warwhat ? . of a hundred feet or more in diameter. and spread over the skin. and a fire burning in the excavation underneath. : : warriors help in this. the which in (or roasting) shield. and at his leisure ? No Indian soldiers are counted by their shields. in 1836. stretched horizontally.

I arms. and when a few scalps are taken. All the American tribes may properly be said to be warlike. and a book might yet be written on Their their modes of conducting and ending them. sufficient for retaliation. take a scalp. Warfare amongst those people is generally conducted by small parties who volunteer under a warchief. to their avenge some wrong or cruelty inflicted by enemy. 75 bled at his invitation. they depend somewhat more upon strategy to gain advantages than white men do and in these . ency of their weapons of his enemies. to guard and protect him from the shields over it. scalp As these people have fewer and less efficient weapons. vaunting forth the wonderful effici" " own. make a great boast. as I have shown. No . are not numerous. and paint. with their shields in rings within rings. and invoking the fire-spirit to give strength and hardness enough to that of the young warrior. in full war dress and war on their arms. Was he then a warrior ? . . and consequently their wars are not so devastating.WARFARE. their tomahawks. he this and ceremony his was a brave a soldier He enlistment no more. nor so destructive as those used by civilized nations . If he can can go to war. as you have been told. and entertain the villagers with the dance and other ceremonies. they generally return. have explained the principal causes of their wars. he then becomes a warrior. who formed and danced in circles around the roasting shield. his shield finished. and each one passed it brandishing their war clubs.

the In the warfare waged between these people and Indians are often condemned for their strategy. when It is a shrill and piercing note. the poor Indians know the advantages wrong which white men have.76 they are LIffE AMONG SHE all INDIANS. with their rifles. and evading if necessary. Their sagacity in tracing or reconnoitring an enemy. and very intelligent The world-wide notorious (but war-whoop (or war-cry) is one and is given by all the tribes. beyond conception ingenious and inventive. is almost beyond the reach of comprehension for those not familiar with their modes. of these. under such . with the most rapid vibration possible. in the open field and their refusal to stand before them and be cut down.. This is (i. circumstances. rushing into battle. and with a swell. partially appreciated) . and being shot down like pigeons). sounded long. on the highest key of the voice.e. if they can only be assured that they are contending with an enemy with equal weapons. both in North and South America. war are many. . be called prudence rather There are no people on earth more courageous and brave than the American Indians. pursuit Their signals in as well as curious. as "cowardly. instead of coming " out into the open field and " taking a fair fight coming out and standing before the cannon's mouth. should than cowardice. civilized forces. and revolvers. and cannons." because they prefer secret ambuscades and surprises. precisely alike.

perhaps. Another signal is the war-whistle. raising an unnecessary and disastrous alarm. It is the associations of those its character. which is very curious. so shrill and so piercing. when others. A person listen to the not accustomed to Indian modes might war-whoop as the Indians were rushing on to him. its being known to be the infallible the war-whoop never being signal for attack sounded until the rush is made. the two ends of which have two very different sounds. is of the hand or the nothing so very frightful in the sound the for many sounds can be produced by more human voice. but none other.WHOOP made by There itself. No Indian is allowed to sound the war-whoop in time of peace. except in the war-dance and other ceremonies countenanced by the chiefs. and weapons are its raised for shedding blood. Every chief leading in war carries a little whistle of six or eight inches in length. that could be heard so far. aware of its meaning.WHISTLES. that they can be distinctly heard an immense distance blowing in one end is the signal . made of the bone of a turkey's leg. would shudder at its sound. in themselves far terrifying than the war-whoop . without alarm. who know it its meaning and that give terror. flat 77 the striking of the fingers against the lips.WAR. lest it should be echoed by their sentinels on the hill tops and their hunting parties through their country. and so different from the mingled war-cry and other din in battles. WAR. and so distinctly in the din and confusion of battle. .

The white in all tribes a flag of truce." But then the No . How use it. strange (not that the Indians should brought the custom out of savage life) but how strange that the native races of all the world should use the same colour as emblem of peace . is the piece of the skin of a cruelty of scalping ? man's head is cut off after he is dead it don't hurt A . Have Christian nations ever done so in their wars with the Indians " We shall see. its better Such a disgraceful act name would be "savage cruelty of scalping!" of course. would be strategy 1 treachery'. in the midst of battle. No chief goes into battle without one of these little hanging on his breast these sounds. but where savage. the same as in civilized nations. him the cruelty would be in killing . war-whistles suspended from his neck and and no warrior goes to war . . and a red flag the challenge to combat. because savages do it . for civilized nations have . Has an Amerieven in the din and rage of battle the ! can Indian ever been of the known to violate the sacredness white flag in time ? of war? No. their lives sacred and protected under it. for advance on and in the other retreat. an emblem of peace. INDIANS. without knowing the distinction and meaning of also are used as war-signals.78 for " LIFE AMONG THE on " . and as sacred and inviolable. and in the Christian world we kill hundreds of our fellow beings . and advance with it even into their enemies' ranks. All savages are found using the curious is this Flags flag is How ! white flag.

It would be almost as bad as taking their watch. ! 79 where the poor Indians kill one Cutting a small piece of the skin of a dead man's head is rather a disgusting thing but let us look What . warriors should treat their fallen victims thus. or the gold from their pockets ! But the Indians sometimes happens. a man might be scalped without injuring the bone. it would be far worse. to be a genuine one. These scalps. and have after- wards risen from the field of battle and recovered. sup- posed to be dead. scalp the living? Yes. enemy's head. as things which warriors would not have a right to claim. of course. The scalp. and in the hurry and confusion of battle. There would be no motive or apology for it. would not be carried. He must keep some These people have no reporters to follow them into battles. and chronicle their victories to the world. must be from an and and that killed by enemy dead. The scalp being only the skin with the hair.SCALPS in battle off AND SCALPING. the wounded and fallen. and. and which their superstitious fears would induce them to get rid of. I have seen several such. record. have sometimes been scalped. the hand of him who carries and counts the scalp. but would be buried. that but very rarely. and the better can the Indian take? chiefs If demand civilized it. as the Indians were rushing over them. . their customs sanction the mode. without destroying life. if the Indian should ever be made aware of the fact.

All tribes exchange prisoners. they are buried in his grave with him his sons can't inherit them if they want scalps. in the few instances that we know been much of. and for the last half-century have not been heard of at all. . the reach of imagination have been cruel and diabolical. An may have sufficient provocation to justify the customs of his country. with all the rights and privileges of other citizens. in slaying a under mm. prisoners of war. as far as equal exchanges can be made . their father got his. nave been but very rare at any time. the surplus are adopted into the tribe. in savage warfare as of savages sometimes but this has Their modes of torturing exaggerated. where they are captives . Prisoners of war are made well as in civilized nations. which he must procure by his own hand . himself in such case by taking the scalp. they must procure them in the same way as . these prisoners are compelled marry them and support them and their children. Scalps are the Indian's badges or medals. and make reliable and even against their own nation. and as far as there are widows of warriors who have been killed in to battle. and go to war with them. the remainder of those not exchanged are adopted into the tribe. . precisely as is the practice in civilized nations. . man in his own tribe but he would disgrace Indian . to their prisoners is The cruelty terrible. almost beyond but these occurrences . efficient warriors. he can neither buy nor sell them without disgracing himself and when he dies.80 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS.

81 The torturing of prisoners is therefore nowhere a general custom. differing in appearance and in its uses It is public property. to wreak their revenge upon and prisoners taken. and the other blood red. facing each other.CALUMET (PIPE OP PEACE). . from all and always kept in the possession of the chief. much in the same manner as amongst civilized nations but from the causes above named. in some cases. to the women related to the person or persons who have suffered. . and only used on such occasions. the relations of persons cruelly tortured by the enemy's have demanded of the chiefs one or two of the tribe. and their modes of cruelty have. no doubt. one white. the chiefs. have handed over the who have been . and treaties of peace made amongst the Indian tribes. nor a frequent mode. is used. and of less duration. and take their seats in two semicircles on the ground. The chiefs and warriors come together in treaties under the white flag. peace establishments amongst them are less solid. been as cruel and fiendish as the accounts we have heard of them. Wars are ended. peace) others. each warrior having his head decorated with two eagle's quills. In the isolated cases which have been known. after a long deliberation and hearing of the grounds of the claim. informing their enemies that they are ready for war or for In these treaties the calumet (or pipe of peace. prisoners demanded. as the world has been led to believe. The calumet is strictly a sacred pipe.

the treaty. in the centre of the circle formed by the chiefs and warriors seated in treaty. in turn. the calumet rests in two little crotches. have no means of recording them and the smoking through the sacred stem is equivalent to the " signing in writing. draw one whiff of smoke through the sacred stem. as the solemn engagement to abide by the terms of .82 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. and after him. of a treaty. charged with tobacco. as they " These treaties are all verbal. each warrior of the two tribes. which they are unable to do . and ready to be smoked when the treaty stipulations are agreed upon . when each chief. of course. For this purpose.

or a kind of sorcery. which they practise should know something as the last resort with their patients. new and Amongst ignorant. the people their The American Indians are all more or less superstitious. and other specifics. who were the first traders on the frontiers. and consequently superstitious. and here we a different suddenly enter upon a chapter. " Me'decins" the French word for physicians and by . These Indian doctors were called by the French- men. and all have their physicians. and also pretend to great and marvellous cures by mysteries. people.CHAPTEE Medicine V. who deal in roots. |NDIAN life has many phases. and herbs. when all the other attempted remedies have failed. 83 . Men Looking at the Sun Medicine WeddingBain Makers Rain Stoppers Medicine Lodge The " Great White Medicine "Medicine Bag. mysteries are so mixed up with the actions and thoughts of their lives. that it is necessary we of them fully to understand and customs.

therefore. are gained without risk of life. whom he had placed on the ground. who are weak enough to believe that his mystic arts often produce miracles. and was hopping over and over. and who breathed his last under his strange and even frightful gesticulations. and in the full dress and performance of his mysteries over a dying patient. Medicine Fire. and all mysteries. Medicine great before many other medicine things to deal we are at the end of this little book. To begin. and growls. We Medicine Drums. by a little legerdemain and cunning. Medicine Men. Dances. n a subsequent frontier population. on the Upper Missouri.84 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS." as synonymous with mystery. and groans. On the title-page we have an Man. in the manner that a bear might have done. I had an opportunity of witnessing a Blackfoot doctor's display. Medicine Rocks. Medicine Rattles. . " Medicine. over a dying patient. and pawing about with his hands and his feet. "Medicine Men. which often exceed that of the chief of the tribe. Here is a gentle- man who children. and a shall have. who gains laurels without going to war stays at home and takes care of the women and His fame and his influence. Whilst residing in the American Fur Company's Factory at the mouth of the Yellowstone Eiver. with illus- tration of a Medicine a Professor of mysteries (a Blackfoot doctor) in the full sense of the word . which are easily practised upon a superstitious people. in this identical costume (the skin of a yellow bear).

I painted his portrait as here seen. the extraordinary dress. to interfere with their complete success. and the stamping of his feet.MEDICINE MEN. lifetime of practice. Every tribe has its physicians and There is by the powers of nothing but what they will attempt to do their medicine . of bats. strung with skins of deformed animals. and crying with their hands over their mouths. their grating made by with his face hidden underneath his dying patient. and if they fail. . in Paris. adding to them the frightful flats and sharps of his growling and squeaking voice. of toads. reptiles. during his up and constructs some medicine dress. and the frightfulness of and rattling as he them. they have generally not much trouble in making so superstitious a people believe that something was wrong in the time of day (what is more probable) in Each one in their the weather or want of faith. with all its appendages. as he dances and jumps over and around the sounds dances. and birds the claws and toe-nails of the hoofs of animals birds the skins of frogs. which has formed an interesting object in my Indian Collection. and also purchased. conjures frightful conception for his of these Indian physicians. and been examined by hundreds of thousands of persons in London and . and everything else that he can gradually gather to consummate his ugliness. all physicians deal (or profess to deal) in mysteries (or medicine). 80 The day after this pitiable farce. at an extravagant price. upon which some hundreds of his tribe were looking.

with the hand over the mouth.86 LIFE AMONG tHE The doctor never puts on his frightful dress until he goes to pay his last visit to his patient. if a doctor be near . if his patient dies. less faith in the efficiency of this dernier (as From what said I have seen and learned to cure). and when he moves through the village with this dress on. he gets along by with the relations. and all. which of generally the case. and from sympathy. they all gather around in a crowd to witness the ceremony. and assuring them that condoling for some purpose which they are not allowed to course is know. I have said. And on the other hand. . it is known to all the villagers that the patient is dying. his medicines are of no avail. the Great Spirit has called their friend away and that when such is the case. and a renown that nothing can shake. every tribe. One such success in presence of the whole village it gains him presents to last him his is enough lifetime. and call the villagers together witness the miraculous cure of a patient whose previously discovered to disease they alone have have taken a favourable change. they are in some instances these official ingenious jugglers to sometimes put on the garb of monstrosities. These jugglers. All persons in Indian societies breathe their last under the operation of these frightful mysteries. exist in . commence crying and moaning in the most pitiable manner. as well as from a general custom. and all the crowd seem to have more or ressort.

and for the traveller passing through their country. They therefore. of which they have many . with a little his great present given expressly in compliment to a distance. They are a sort of octroi to every village. is very great. and and smoking a pipe with the chief. a regular and formal installation. Medicine men are perhaps more often made by . 87 and are invariably looked upon by the people as oracles. as high priests. will be sure to be a kind and friendly welcome and most everywhere. to keep it up through the remainder of life." which have heard of at fame. it Some unaccountable cure. the next important inquiry should be for the great medicine man . what. as Doctor (or Fellow) of Mysteries. as soothsayers. little matters an Indian to the appellation of mystery or medicine and once lucky enough to gain the public confidence in this way. likely. the usual badge of or other effect. in a convocation of medicine men. shi-quoin ! that enviable Order. it requires no very great degree of tact and cunning. as it is to have his passport to travel on the continent of Europe. at first inter- view. by the presentation of a shia mystery rattle. and are entitled to a seat with the chiefs in the councils of the nation. you long " The results of this little prudence. as the author has several times experienced. it is as necessary to have the good will and countenance of these dignitaries. as sorcerers. at one's first entry. officiate in all religious ceremonies. Their influence. after conversing. first entitles . amongst those ignorant people.MEDICINE MEN.

which often costs them great pain. singing. to which cords were attached. and which he was trying. . with his feet slightly resting on the ground. and reciting the heroic deeds of his life. whilst his enemies and the sceptical were laughing at him. resulting in a disgrace as fame would be in case of success. . His friends were gathered around him. naked. with the danger of a great lasting as their failure. inch by inch. with the exception . I was one day attracted by a great crowd surrounding a man who was endeavouring to show his people that he was great medicine. and doing all they If he succeeds. to encourage him and increase his strength. than by any long and laboured design. and beating their drums and throwing down for him many presents. some mere accident.88 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. The custom which is often practised amongst them. when I was residing in a large Sioux village on the Upper Missouri. could to embarrass and defeat him. and their other ends tied to the breech-cloth top of a pole set firmly in the ground. He held his medicine bag in one hand and his bow and arrows in the other. For instance. and in this position was endeavouring to look at the sun. which was bending towards him. from its rising in the morning until it set at night moving himself around the circle. of his with splints about the size of a man's finger run through the flesh on each breast. as the sun moved. by nearly the whole weight of his body hanging under it as he was leaning back. they call " Looking at the Sun" Here was a man. and his many virtues.

as long as he lives. shouts and hisses are showered upon him. and his disgrace not only attaches to him for the moment.MEDICINE WEDDING." and therefore he is great medicine. But if his strength fails him and he falls. Whilst I was residing amongst the tribe of Punself- living farther down. gave him nine horses. Hongs-kay-de. and is therefore more seldom resorted to as the mode of making a doctor than many cahs. and myself were lucky enough to be present on the . without fainting and these difficulties. and no efficient in its results. but the scars left on his breasts are pointed to as a standing disgrace in his tribe. and compliments and presents are bestowed upon him in the greatest profusion. for having dared to set himself up as a medicine. in looking at the sun all " the Great Spirit falling. little doubt equally years. and and marry. under holds all 89 day. a gallant warrior of eighteen it and son of the chief. which one will easily have been much more agreeable. no matter how near to his complete success. for the rest of his life. a medicine man . in. and other presents in the world) to marry four wives in Major Sanford. and he has nothing else to do to make him. the government agent. and had told him one day. others that might be named. on Missouri. I witnessed another the bank of the of mode the creation of a medicine conceive to man. It is easily seen that this is a somewhat dangerous experiment to make. him up. took into his head (when his father old enough to a handsome wigwam to live to start him he was a man.

and the exchange made. according to promise . merry occasion. who also had a beautiful daughter about twelve years old. who had a very pretty little daughter of thirIt teen or fourteen years of age. and made arrangements for her hand in marriage. but the condition of this until was to be profound secrecy he asked for the hand of the girl at that place. back of the village. He then went to a second chief. with his daughter. where the horses would be ready. on a certain day. and for whose hands he stipulated precisely in the same manner as with the first. seems he had gone to one of the subordinate chiefs. on the top of the little hill. and afterwards to a fourth chief. which was to take place at noon.90 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. He then went to a third. where all the villagers assembled. he invited the whole village to attend his wedding. having thus disposed of eight of his horses. and which they as yet but partly anticipated. where he had assembled the whole tribe to witness the plan which he contrived. each of whom had a beautiful daughter. and also on the same condition of secrecy. and to witness the exciting scene which took place on a little hill just back of their village. and the chief was to meet him exactly at noon on the top of that little hill. It . and appointing the same hour and the same place for the ceremony. and made with him a similar arrangement. The appointed day arriving. keeping one for his own riding. for which he was to make him a present of two horses and other things. enjoining in each case profound secrecy.

" replied the chief. turning to the second whom he had arranged " My friend. the hill was completely covered. and addressing himself to the chief whom he had " first whose little daughter was arranged with. " . placing her hand in that of the young chief. and I was " " to give you two horses . like the first one. in the centre . you promised me the hand of your daughter in marriage this day. your promise I in marriage. and sitting by his side in a very pretty dress My friend." replied the chief I now demand the hand of here and are ready. and you two horses was this so ? " The horses are standing Yes. placed her in that of the young chief j and precisely in . The proud chief with fellow then said to the crowd. you agreed to give me the hand of your beautiful daughter in marriage on this day and at this place. your daughter/' The chief rose and led up his little daughter. be patient and. where the ceremony was to take place. which was followed by a great shout of applause by the multitude. 91 was a beautiful scene. was this so ? Yes. My friends. The chiefs were all seated around on the ground.MEDICINE WEDDING." little " Then I expect you to perform demand the hand of your daughter The chief then arose and led up his band daughter. leaving a little space in the centre. and. " who were little then about to disperse. I " was to present " . At in the moment appointed new-made chief (for his father the gallant young and had that day abdicated his favour) presented himself with his waving plumes.

or for having stopped it raining when the rain was continuing to an inconvenient length. leading off to the village his four beautiful wives in their pretty dresses. yes Hongs-kay-de then descended the little hill triumph- antly. the constituted medicine men take especial care not to run any risk by making a second attempt . and. he said to the chiefs.92 the same LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. two in each hand. taking two in each medicine?" cine chief ? " This day makes me hand. in a very dry time. when their maize and other vegetables are dying for want of makers" and also . In the Mandan tribe I found had " Rain- they "Main-stoppers" who were reputed medicine men. the crowd all following. received the manner he demanded and hands of the daughters of the other two chiefs whom he had last arranged with. however impossible or ridiculous it may be. from the astonishing fact of their having made it rain in an extraordinary drought. How. how (Yes. But in these efforts where the results are in the least uncertain. "Yes. For -this purpose. which was thenceforth the wigwam of the medicine chief." father has this day "My I not a medimade me chief of the Puncahs ! Am !) " to which the whole " ! tribe shouted with one " voice. but they superintend and manage the preliminary forms. I have before said that the medicine men will undertake to do anything and everything by their mystic operations. to his own wigwam. leaving younger aspirants to run the chances of failure or success.

to see him strut and up.). it is is better. rain. from day to day smoking and praying to the Great Spirit for rain. some one more lucky than the rest happens to take his stand on a day in which a black cloud will be seen moving medicine reported through the village that "his when the whole tribe will gather round him to hear him boast. etc. shield for rain his on his arm. is turned into his hand with the bow). and comes down at sunset without having succeeded. in presence of the crowds gathered around him. can never." bend his bow upon the clouds. and pointing with his -finger. with a clear sky.RAIN-MAKEBS. with his bow and arrows in his hand. as the string snaps. " There ! my friends. by ballot. takes his turn to mount on the top of the wigwam at sunrise. on any occasion." After several days of unsuccessful attempts have passed off in this way. and sit around a fire in the centre. is " his medicine not strong. while the requisite make number of young men volunteer to try to Each one of these. . to see him let fly his arrow (which by . commanding it to rain and when he sees the rain actually falling in the distance. commanding it to rain. One of these young men. the 93 the Medicine expressly for medicine Lodge (a large men assemble in public wigwam built medicine operations. you have seen my arrow go. his dexterity. again pretend to medicine. and it rain. talking to the clouds and asking or ranting and threatening the clouds with drawn bow. councils. who flourishes through- out the whole day in this manner.

that the Mandans may have no him a feast he comes down he give further cause to complain. and a rattle). and the other. When is a "medicine man. sawing the air and commanding it to continue raining. that those who once succeed in making it rain." the doctors shi- and a great ceremony. never undertake "The whole village have seen second time. and myself as the greatest of medicine men. These sacred places.94 there is LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. in it presence of the whole village. and all their religious ceremonies performed. and I would rather give other young men a chance. they all know what I can do.'* Every Indian village has its medicine (or mystery) lodge. for when the ceremony is once begun. shall a hole in that cloud. for painting their chiefs and warriors. strictly a public building. shi-quoin (a doctor's These manoeuvres are very wonderful. they are obliged to keep it up from day to day until rain begins to fall . which are closed most of the year. granted to me as the place to paint my which they always looked upon and treated as great medicine." The rain begins to fall in torrents. a sort of town-hall. that when the doctors commence "rain making" they never fail to succeed . the gaping multitude are hidden in their wigwams. a me make it rain. in whose portraits they often discovered " the corners of the . were generally portraits in. we soon have rain enough. in which their councils are held. but this successful debutant in mysteries still stands. until he is completely drenched. and there are two things about them that are curious the one.

to know if I should like to marry all of which complimentary and tempting . though reasons seemed to be sufficient. were great mysteries. and making fire in his mouth. was styled the greatest of all medicine. pretty costumes." considering. therefore. from various reasons. and was soon exhausted by one of the medicine men. to a certain degree. from the portraits I had made of the warchief and the great doctor. and no one was willing to touch them. with percussion caps. " Te-hee-pe-nee Washee!" (the Great White Medicine)." which he had given did with wonderful villagers. in them. was also great medicine. a beautiful shi-shi-quoin. to no a offence. to decline. Amongst the Mandans I was soon the talk of all the village. by a mode he soon discovered. 95 mouth and the eyes to move. until the effect. and the chiefs with I the whole village assembled in crowds around it. offers I was obliged. that there must be life.THE GREAT WHITE MEDICINE. amongst the astonished box was unfortunately exhausted. My answers. which they had not seen before. give disappointment. His medicine was much improved for the while by . The wives of several of the chiefs brought their beautiful and modest little daughters to the door of my wigwam in splendid. who turned it to great account after I it to him. My wigwam was filled and warriors from day to day. I received the doctor's badge. and the interpreter to explain. the matches by drawing them between of igniting " his teeth. and my My gun and pistols. The remaining half of a box of lucifer matches I had. and was regularly named.

over the age of fifteen or sixteen years.96 this little LIFE lift. or bird. This. he con- absence he to siders the Great Spirit has designated. beautiful pair of leggings for it. to be his mysterious protection through life. AMONG THE INDIANS. or to suppose. by which he could light his pipe anywhere when the sun shone. He returns home. he could never wear out. I explained. This is one of the most important and extraordinary medicine things in all Indian losing caste tribes. tains not only to This curious appendage to the person permedicine men. but to every male person in Indian society. reptile. . during which time no one makes any inquiries about him it is enough to know. A lad of that age is said to be "making his medicine" when he absents himself from his father's wigwam for several successive nights and days. and the first animal. relates his dream to his parents. whether warrior or brave. me he lost it all when his matches gave The poor fellow seemed by the unfortunate exhaustion of his matches. and introduced him in his dream. that he dreams of. but he told out. his medicine. and which. . and more highly valued. that he is "making is his medicine" During this fasting the whole time. the usual time of life when it is first instituted. and I presented him a little sun-glass which I carried in my pocket. was a greater wonder to him than the He gave me a very other. therefore. and until the day that I left them he had crowds about him to see him " draw fire from the sun !" Medicine Bag.

a loon. by adopting that of an enemy whom he has slain his . in battle. . To lose it in battle is to to live To go in disgrace in his tribe. to the size of a duck. a charm life as person that protects him from all harm. After the feast he starts out and his relatives who make him a it. though such things have in several instances been presented to me by warriors who had No money taken them in battle. who all compliment and congratulate him on his success. to which he invites and as many of his friends as lie chooses. and which he confidently believes is to accompany and protect him in the world to come it always being buried with him with the greatest care. then reinstated . and even sometimes .MEDICINE BAG. hidden under the dress. These talismans are of all sizes. which he prepares and preserves as nearly in the size and shape of the This he carries about his living animal as possible." and under the conviction go that he would be killed. and to which he attributes all the good luck of his life . 97 choice feast. together with the scalps of their enemies. most of the his his talisman. no matter by what means. an otter. as "a man without medicine" until he can procure another. from the skin of a mouse. to battle without his medicine bag would be with a " faint heart. traps or hunts for the animal or bird until he kills and obtains the entire skin. a badger. therefore could purchase an Indian's medicine bag. but by no means can he ever institute a second medicine if he loses his medicine is first.

I always carry a wolf. the skin of a wolf. and inquired if he had ever carried a wolf ? to which he " replied." medicine bag made of the skin of a white wolf. Yes. I was painting the portrait I inquired his name. as Ish-a-ro-yeh I expressed my surprise at (he who carries a wolf). and therefore exceedingly to carry. and lying by the side of him. . sitting by. I shall therefore end this chapter and have something more to say of them and their doings in future pages. as he was sitting on the ground. I recollect that awkward of a when Camanchee chief. which another chief. here.98 to LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. lifting up his Medicine men and mysteries I need say no more of in this place. gave me. his getting such a name.

the sages. the loways. the Pawnees. or and the into the ever-green valleys of the Essequibo Amazon. in the chase. the Saukies. and other tribes. Mandans. in war. with their long and glossy-black hair trailing on the ground as they walk the Knistineux. before we sweep off across the Rocky Mountains. of which they have many. to each other. there are the and the beautiful Grows. In general. the Omahas. all of whom I have lived yet many amongst. in South America. they bear a strong resemblance as well as in their colour and features. Besides the Sioux and the fierce and terrible Blackfoot. the Ojibbeways. 99 . in their ways of life. let us take a little further look yet at the numerous tribes and their modes. and in their amusements. Assinneboins. the Winnebagos. and studied their looks and their modes. the Gamanchees. the . the Shiennes.CHAPTER Indian's Colour VI. and the country about us. Wild Horses and and Form Indian's Painting Buffaloes The Prairies. JN the midst of those vast plains denominated the valley of the Missouri.

which last them through black and have Indians All the American straight hair. sometimes a light . spine and the limbs. giving straightness to the life. . is black) are of a deep and their effect eyes (though and their teeth. reddish-brown. Their forms are generally very perfect and hand- somely proportioned. is not exactly either . as yellow. and generally (though contrary to the opinion Their of the world). and also the rigid which all American Indian infants. the exact colour of cinnamon bark red.100 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. which has often been described as and more often as copper colour. without exception. almost without . Their colour. but more correctly described as cinnamon colour. free from the enervating and weak- ening effects of manner in heavy costumes. owing chiefly to the facts that they are so constantly exercising their naked limbs in the open air. are reared in cribs (or cradles). their backs lashed to straight boards for the space of six months or a year. much more so than those of any civilized people. and at others more but that may with truth be said to be the standard of colour amongst the American tribes. exceedingly fine and silky. little more dark.

society. reared G . and This would seem to be a great deal of trouble. their fine in. they daub the paint on with their fingers used for brushes. These people have probably got the appellation " of " Ked Indians from their habit of using so much red ochre and vermilion. and ready for and. but it then will little else to do. to occupy much of their time uselessly . . in painting their bodies and faces. which I have already said is not red. be borne in mind that these people have and time is not so valuable to them as it is to other people. and few Indians allow themselves to be seen in the morning until they have spent an hour or so at their toilette. with the aid of a looking-glass. their favourite colours. and painting their faces and limbs. 101 exception. as I have said. rather than from their natural colour.INDIAN'S PAINTING. The habit grease of painting is much the same in all the various tribes. for. uniform and regular in their arrangement. They are excessively vain of their personal appearance. after which they consider themselves in full dress. oiling and arranging their hair. without the flabbiness and emaciation which overclothing generally produces. and manly figures. and white and sound. even to old age. and well they may be. and used to. They mix their colours with bears' little bit of broken which they buy of fur traders. Paint is considered by them as a part of their dress . have a roundness and beauty which the civilized world cannot produce. the open air.

Of their skins their comfortable their beautiful robes. strength The buffaloes. the rest of the flesh is about equal hump to the best of beef. we have a right to believe. already and sinews are used for explained. have in time wandered away and spread over the prairies as high as the fifty-first degree of north latitude. when cured. and their to bows. who catch and convert them to their use. and also of carrying on their warfare with more effect. their brains are used for dressing their . wants and comforts. many other purposes . have been created for the use and happiness of the Indian tribes. as it is familiarly called) on the shoulders . The tribes which I have above named. are amongst the greatest of luxuries. and converting almost every part of of exercise in these useful animals to the supply of their various Their tongues. which were no doubt first in- troduced into America by the Spanish invaders of Mexico. and equally so the (or fleece. the means of killing the and other game with more ease. the strings bones of the shoulders form the trees for their Their saddles . The wild horses. living chiefly in a country stocked with buffaloes and wild horses.102 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. and what is best of all. who exist almost entirely on their flesh. also hunt and go to war much in the same manner. a pleasurable and healthful mode buffaloes the open plains. as dwellings are made. so conducive to and manly beauty. clothing themselves and constructing their dwellings with their skins. affording the Indians.

few words must be said of the prairies. before he has been ensnared by the craft and cunning of the mercenary white man. that the healthiest and most beautiful races of men are found that are to be met with in America. A my anxious little readers. herds of and from these causes. no doubt. These noble and useful animals roam over the same vast and boundless prairies of green grass where the wild horses graze. which resembles and equals the and their hoofs are boiled up for . and are often seen in richest of butter glue. 103 skins. his wants all supplied. in the unshackled freedom of his nature. dwellings of savage steeds and savage beeves. the But. dotted with flowers of all colours where the Indian gallops on his wild horse. many thousands together. and his mind as free as the air that he breathes that man. and has extended his hand in friendship. world. what shall I say little ? I am here beginning to fear that this to be five times too small for book is going want to describe to you.BUFFALOES. If we could together leap from the deck of a steamer upon one of the grassy banks of all that I . extends. and it is here. or perhaps in the It is over these interminable carpets of green. to all strangers in his country. One can easily that here is the easiest and most independimagine ent region for the Indians to live in . which they use in the construction of their beautiful bows and other weapons. the bones of their legs are broken up for their marrow.

an ocean of green. horses together. the huge white wolf. horses' feet the surface from its next. and farther on. . a partial knowledge of an American But if at this point we could mount our prairie. the bowing lilies on our hands and feet. .104 the LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. enamelled with all colours at our feet. But we go on the noble " taken the wind. under his . from our faces the' purple violets under our feet till from its rounded top over the vast expanse of green and of blue beneath and around us of the serpentine and leaving . . and the gay sunflowers. knocking of yellow. back and the west." and are sweeping away elks have to the right or the left the stately moose. with a dogged sauciness and reluctance. Upper Missouri. back of them. with its vast alluvial meadows alternating on one side and the other . further knowledge of the prairie. and take a glance windings of the river above and below us. the thousands of shorn and green bluffs sloping down like infinite ranges and redoubts and. and blue. with the bristles raised on his ugly back as he stands and scans us as we pass. the swift antelope bounding over the frightened deer rising and springing lair . and gushing ripe strawberries we come back. and gallop to the east or to the west here a covey of grouse fluttering from under our of grass-covered ramparts of them again. in the east . and. and clamber up the sloping sides of the bluff. to smell and follow in our track behind us we should then be gathering . licking his hungry chaps as he walks slowly out of our way. and of red. but terminating in a horizon of blue you would get in that glance.

to the right. 105 long and unbroken trot. with a party of Sioux Indians with arrows and lances pushing them up on the flanks and in their rear. a band of wild and starting horses. and his mighty horns. my young friends . as we move on. still wiser. Next we find the green sward under our horses' feet cut to pieces. and on on on again. individual objects moving in various directions. with their rising manes and tails. and our horses are brought to the ground by breaking into their vaulted underground villages and the huge and frightful rattlesnakes are seen coiled and ready for a leap we are . the black streak you see is formed by the backs of a large herd of buffaloes. passes out of sight the funny little prairie dogs in myriads. And yet farther on. and the cloud of dust which you see. the herd has here . and eyeballs beyond. as we discover. we now in the midst of a great and level prairie we are " " out of sight of land . put off for a five-mile heat before they stop . like like a newly-ploughed field. much still rises and rises yet. barking from the tops of their mounds of dirt. farther yet . . and evidently nearing us. and at length the black streak disappears. here and there. On on. in the distance. which shows us they are in motion. they are all out of sight . a cloud far ! of smoke fire ? is rising from the ground " ! That can't are be a " No. a straight black line forms all the western horizon and over it. And at last mere specks in the distance. but the cloud on we go.THE PRAIRIES. dart into their burrows. is raised by their feet. glaring upon us. and looking.

A converand in the midst of this. refreshed hunters have invited us to their village. Here is a pause and a rest for all. all. We are all upon our feet. with bows and lances in their hands. with three or four times that number dogs. and offer them your hand. for the port it to their village. have a dread of the savage and we must dismount.106 passed . coming out from their village to skin the slaughtered animals. we fall in their wake. and cut up the meat and transsee no more. and remounted. It approaches . place. leaving the We women and children to do the rest. with inflated nostrils and shaggy manes. we of see it is a phalanx of several hundred women and children. what sation takes places do we see ? In the distance. and the pipe is lit and passed round. . of all colours. . at last. Indians and and our horses held a shaking of hands takes Next moment we are seated on the ground. as they shake their heads to part their falling locks from before their eyes. unintelligible dismounted. and. like civilized people. . and in the distance we discover here and there black specks lying upon the surface. and horse- galloping to them and dismounting. a moving. they rush up with the friendly hand extended but our horses. Smiling and exulting. mass. for all are tired. or be . come dashing up from different directions. a hundred warriors astride their horses' naked backs. on their puffing and snorting little horses. rein up our horses to them don't be afraid men We will : put on a bold and calm front (the Indians always admire a bold and daring man). LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS.

107 covered wigwams. have we seen all ? Not quite we yet to return the morning ! . before we should find its end. . tent Their village. well taken care of by and brought when we are ready to start back. seated on beau- tifully-garnished robes and rush mats spread upon the ground . for a month We have of days. is built of skinWe are taken to the chief's we smoke the pipe with him. and lodge in it during the to us in night.THE PRAIKIES. the chief's sons Our horses have been and relations. we feast with him and the hunters in his hospitable dwelling. But where are we ? only one day in the prairie And so we might go on from day to day. take a different route. as I have described.

" such is and oftentimes The wild horse the power of his eye in distinguishing his enemy man from wild animals. will generally run in immense herds. run from the approach of a man at a " mile distance. dropped the and animal chokes the Indian. checking tight . thrown from the back of another horse. are the shyest animals of the prairies. the loop is and being drawn over the horse's neck. when the elk may be approached within half-a-mile. rifle. five feet. while made they ride at full speed. The lasso is a strong cord of raw hide. without getting the wind. which they generally do with the lasso. The Indians have a hard struggle in capturing these animals. Buffalo Chase Turning to the Left Walking the The Giant Bull JILD horses. which being open some four or his own horse 106 gradually.CHAPTER Catching Wild Horses Circle VII. I have said. and drawing on the length- . and the buffalo and deer oftentimes within dead-shot distance for a before they take to flight. with a noose at the end of it.

After a few breaths exchanged in this manner. standing in front of the animal. which are fastened and it Before can rise on remains in a sitting posture. The horse who it. allowing the which. with the weight of his body on the throw halter. on the shortened halter. prevents it from doing. in a few moments. is then completely at its captor's mercy. the animal's fear is increased to the highest degree. back of the teeth. The horse makes a its fore-feet. which the Indian. and gradually slipping his hand over its eyes. and yelling as loud as he can. and then to tame For this he hobbles the animal's two fore-feet together. the . the lasso animal to breathe is by loosened. at last brings the animal to the ground. and at length begins patting the horse on the nose. and then fastens a short halter with a noose around the horse's under-jaw. By a great many useless struggles to rise. begins breathing in its nos- trils. its hind feet. it still struggle to rise. 109 ened cord. it requires to its head quite back.WILD HORSES. it finds the Indian at the end of the halter. proceeds to secure his prey. as is getting strength to rise. The Indian still advances nearer on the tightened halter. by leaning back. At it this moment . prepared to prevent its rising on to its feet. which falls for want of breath. getting only on to together. the horse remaining yet in its sitting posture. while its mouth is wide open and it is gasping for breath. their noses being together. and the Indian approaching nearer and nearer (inch by inch) to its nose.

and always have viewed them with escape. in some respects. and then a struggle ensues which is cruel. the Indian is seen stroking down its mane. Earey has not the wild horse to catch. riding quietly off the moment of this unaccountable compromise. Rarey's wonderful mode of breaking and taming vicious horses. in its captor .110 relaxation LIFE of AMONG THE horse's INDIANS. its the muscles and other that it motions. and painful to look upon . to its new master. seems to disarm the spirited animal. but it : It requires a severe effort to catch great surprise. the animal seems to make no further effort to it ! From becomes attached to its master. whom which it always seems recognises by the breath fond of exchanging from that moment. and actual pain. Karey an Indian could not break a vicious horse and at the same time it might . It is very likely that as well as Mr. for Mr. Rarey to take the lasso from an Indian's hand when he has its over the neck of a wild horse. of fright. You have all read of Mr. which I believe. fol- lowed by soothing and kindness. but the excess of fatigue. in a mysterious way. and to attach it at once. I have witnessed these exciting scenes on a number of occasions. show that its fears are at an end recognises a friend instead of a foe. and conquer and break it. be equally. and otherwise caress ing it and in fifteen or twenty minutes he is seen . and stop career. and this compromise being effected. the horse in the first place. is very similar . but Mr. as an Indian does. . got it if not more difficult.

which he chews as he runs and at a long lasso coiled left . the poor creature's to over- fatigue itself in its first efforts. and forcing it to run in a different alarm causes it direction. which puts off at full tilting pace. the greatest possible speed. who is coming at his regular pace. and forcing it off to the right or to the left. he starts upon his own legs. and a little parched corn in his pouch. the Indian separates some affrighted animal from the group. But here is something more Shiennes. the horse discovers his pursuer coming towards him. is which he speed. and to fall a prey to feebler efforts. a whip fastened to the wrist of his right hand. but more judiciously expended. which they overtake the wild horse on their own legs is done in this way Plunging into a band . though he seldom is able to overtake the fleetest of them. he dismounts from his own horse. Ill The judgment of man in guiding his horse enables him. its feet. catch a great proportion of their horses without the aid of a horse to the who ride . : of wild horses while on the back of his own horse. on his and able to keep all day. on an animal of less speed. he stops and looks back for his pursuer. he follows the affrighted animal. In the beginning of the chase. his body chiefly naked a arm. animal he Throwing himself between the troop and the is after. and hobbling or leaving it in the hands of a friend. close on to . to get alongside of a wild horse. when he puts off at and at the distance of a mile perhaps.CATCHING WILD HOESES. surprising yet capture more wild horses than any other tribe.

his steady pursuer. to all the Indians. never run in a they always straight line : make a curve in their running. while his pursuer has gone but half or three-quarters of the distance. and another. and other animals. and generally (but not always) to the left. and caressing through the night (for they encamp upon the ground)." knows just about the point where the animal will stop. . and having taken up " I his hobbled horse in his way. and getting nearer to him. that the wild horse. for the Indian village the rides his captured horse into the next morning. as he becomes more and more exhausted . before sun-down the animal's curves. and steers in a straight line to it. more alarmed than ever.112 LIFE ! AMONG THE INDIANS. animal . generally turn to the left" How curious this . and another . The alarmed is off again. and what compromise is effected. and by a day's work of such and such alarms. have said that the horse and other animals fact. where they arrive nearly at the same instant. gets near enough to throw the lasso over the animal's One must imagine the rest what kindness neck. the deer. while his cool and cunning pursuer is known It is a curious fact. the horse having run a mile. having attached his lasso with a noose around its under-jaw. him Away goes again the affrighted steed. and strength as his curves are shortened at last to a few rods. whose pace has not slackened. and at its highest speed. the elk. each time shorter and shorter. The Indian seeing the direction in which the horse is " leaning. is all gone he is covered with foam. and makes another halt.

and you will be sure to meet him . and always bends his course to the left : why this ? While ascending the Upper Missouri." Why bend their course? Because all animals have their homes their wonted abodes. and with my rifle in my hand. which might not be the case for some weeks." man. having no compass with me at the time. some years since. we started to perform the journey on foot. first During the day the sun shone. In our course we had a large prairie of some thirty miles to cross. 113 and from what cause? All animals "bend their course. travels in a curve." said he. lost in the wilderness or on the . in order to be using my brushes amongst I left the steamer with one man to accomthem. when a deer gets I had from my up. George. and we kept . we had no object by which to guide our course. he always runs in a curve. and there was no prospect of getting it off until the water rose. pany me. and when he stops he always watching his back track" is But man "bends his course. never follow him. and the second day being dark and cloudy.prairies. and they don't wish to leave them but why bend to : the left? I never have forgotten one of the first lessons that dear friend Darrow. on a steamer. I was anxious to reach a Sioux village on the bank of that river. about one hundred miles above where we were detained. but turn to the left. and my sketch-book on my back. the vessel got aground. in deer-stalking " " in the forest. if the ground is level.TURNING TO THE LEFT.

where we had bivouaced the night before. though we appeared to be progressing in a straight line.114 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. having laid (and kept) our course without any difficulty. man the chiefs united in assuring is lost on the prairies he travels in a circle to the left. we circle. There was nothing to be seen about us but short grass. the horizon around us. Late in the afternoon.) in the chase. The horse being the the rider on its back is swiftest animal of the prairies. we came upon the very spot. and broken it for the purpose. by which means he supplies his family with food. the Indians all laughed at us On very heartily. all travelled all day in a the sunshine. The next day. and relating our singular adventure. and at the little distance necessary to throw . and which we had left on that morning. we see him (Plate III. and all me that whenever a . The Indian having taken his wild horse in the manner above described. able to come alongside of any animal . to our great surprise. We had turned to the left. of and also that he invariably turns which singular fact I have become doubly convinced by subsequent proofs similar to the one mentioned. and when we were very much fatigued. everywhere the same and in the distance a straight line. and in the same manner also he contends with his enemies in battle. arriving at the Sioux village. our course very well but on the next morning. though we started right ("laid our course") we no doubt soon began to bend it. and no doubt .

being sent with such force as to penetrate the heart of that huge animal the buffalo. and generally not more than two feet and a-half in length. a long lance to " of the approach. the lasso. Now. which is attached to its neck a different thing from . in case he is thrown from his horse. and covered on the : back with buffalo's sinews. but more often of wood. but made of great strength. and in more with effect the chase than deadly perhaps the arrows . for the Indian. and by some travellers and writers. The bow used for this purpose is very short. object of this cord is. I must be allowed to . the Indian always has dragging behind his horse a long cord of raw hide.BUFFALO CHASE. so closely glued together as seldom to come apart. the first 115 arrow is generally fatal . In battle and in the chase. by the horse falling or stepping into holes. and oftentimes (as I have myself witnessed) sent quite through the animal's body." easily rides near enough to the side animal to give the fatal lunge of his lance. speaking of buffaloes. and be again upon its back. that he may grasp hold of it and The recover his horse. which seldom fails to reach the heart. his arrows. tumbling the animal instantly to the ground. and with much ingenuity the main part frequently one entire piece of bone. I'arrdt (the stop). with his horse trained Besides the bow. being more convenient for handling on horseback. This is called by the French. leaving a wound resembling that of a gunshot. larriette. is often used.

prairies its ! had me into the great Poor Darrow he was good for nothing else but hunting but what a veneration I had for him How he could trace a deer or a bear . white caps. and how deadly . making constant progress in the slaying art. when I have said. and some of ray own exploits. instead of diminishing that passion which first led me to the old saw-mill lick. entered the deep " the spend day in a good trackrifles you. from the affair of the " kettle of gold. . The young reader will recollect that I commenced early career with a strong passion for guns and huntfishing-poles. in our white hunting shirts and ! ." to the age of thirty-three. say a few words of myself. amongst buffaloes in the prairie country. ! the crack of his rifle What music it was to my young ear when I heard it sing amongst the lofty and how happy were those days when forest trees John Darrow and I. he will easily my believe that during that period. and which eventu- weight in leading ally of the Far West. and that I had greatly increased. as my teacher. and with my old Nimrod I companion. and in rifle-shooting . John Darrow. and to come back to where I left forests to " trailed. my young readers. I started on Indian campaigns . and will scarcely believe that my my ing propensities lay dormant during the gap that I have mentioned.116 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. surrounded as I was was with all the temptations. with our and lonely ing ! snow But to fight off" from these scenes in my native valley and my boyhood. in the buffalo range.

said to be a very good animal in the chase. Several others of his men were ordered to follow at a proper distance. on the prairies mouth of the Yellowstone River. and were then grazing on a beautiful plain across the river. and himself took the lead. that a large herd of buffaloes had arrived during the night. called "Chouteau" (for what reason I never knew). with a small and exceedingly light and short single -barrelled fowling-piece in his hand. at the as soon as the animals took the alarm. for which he turned out some five or six of his best hunters. we were called to a halt. to decide upon the best mode of attack that de: cided. At the buffalo hunt. and but two or three miles distant. on horseback. on the banks of the Missouri. where the American Fur Company have a large factory. two thousand miles above St. all moved off. I was residing with Mr. the dust was in the midst of them rising. This done. They furnished me with a tremendously tall horse. ready to make gallop. M'Kenzie instantly resolved that he "wanted some meat. M'Kenzie. when it was announced one morning by one of his men. with one-horse carts. and we were ! . to bring in the meat. and we caravan." and invited me to join the hunt. and ready for 117 my first of the Missouri. or trading house. Louis. somewhat like a regular of When we had arrived within half-a-mile or so the unsuspecting animals. the chief factor. all hands started off upon a the dash signal given.BUFFALO CHASE.

that I might get my shot from the proper point. and Chardon were the most experienced. The repeated flashes of their guns I distinctly saw.118 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. before I could extricate myself from the throng. for hundreds on hundreds were plunging along behind me. I saw in the crowd the back and horns of a huge bull towering so high above all the throng that I resolved upon his scalp or nothing. no doubt with a most imprudent risk of my life . When I got relieved giant of the band. These men were hunting " for meat/' and of course were selecting the fattest and the sleekest of the young cows for that purpose . M'Kenzie. but I had quite a different ambition . and ready to have trampled me to death in a moment if I had lost my balance. from the herd. My first shot seemed to have no effect. Major Sanford. who had risen up . and. having no further ambition than the capture of this overgrown. as they seemed to be buried in the moving mass of black and dust. and the herd I was swept along a great distance passed on. My gun was a double-barrelled fowling-piece. but the second one brought him down upon his knees. and made a desper: often ate rush for his right side. several desperate lunges with old Chouteau" into the various openings which seemed to I made " afford me a chance of coming near to him and as was closed in and jammed along with the moving mass. and consequently the most successful in the mel^e. in fact. I reloaded and rode back to my noble prize. I at length saw my way clear.

I sat horse. near to his head. in perfect safety. and stood balancing his 119 legs. Here was just the subject I wanted. six fat cows in the run. His frightful mane was raised. and was perfectly satisfied with that I my first exploit. and which was found to be issuing from a round hole through one of old "Chouteau's" ears. for all the world : and having my sketch-book with me. I claimed a great victory nevertheless. I was astonished to find that the former. change the to describe demoniacal looks of this possible my enraged animal when he bristled up and was just ready to spring upon me. had selected and shot through the heart. where my first ball had undoubtedly passed. and made my model upon his It is impositions as I wanted them. with a singlebarrelled gun. my horse's My sketches completed. which had not observed.THE GIANT BULL. who were looking up and claiming their victims left upon the ground they had run over. M'Kenzie and Sanford came riding up to me. and his eyes bloodshot with madness and rage. and partly tumbling to the ground at each attempt. and laughing most excessively at me for attacking a poor old bull which scarcely the wolves would eat. however. huge carcass on three one of his shoulders being broken. had a little Sanford asked me how it was head was covered with blood. which . I finished the old bull with another shot in the head: and joining M'Kenzie and Sanford. it drawback to when which. and with a flint lock. as he was making lunges at me. While I was engaged in this operation.

in which time he must have reloaded his gun five times at full The carts were soon up. to the factory's larder. that my we had not seen the whole of the prairies that " we should We are a great way from return by another route. and speed ! conveyed the meat. was probably not over a mile distance." home. . I said at the end of the last chapter.120 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. so we will leave our horses and take a canoe. in the rear. with the head and horns of venerable bull.

ex. trapping beavers and other furs at the base of and in the Rocky Mountains. Adieu tiste. by the winding course of the Missouri. and were now returning to St. Louis. a Mississippian. 121 . cepting wild men and the wild animals that roamed over and through it. Ba'Bogard. a Frenchman. was but about two thousand miles . Louis and of myself. little and frail canoe in front American Fur Company's Fort.CHAPTEE VIIL Stores laid in Coffee-pot The Tame Eagle Bivouacing Melting the Freaks of the Eagle Stoop of the EagleGrizzly Bears inspecting us Grizzly Bears overhauling us to the Grizzlies. will be learned hereafter. which. and I took leave of M'Kenzie and his |EATED in a light of the colony. at the mouth of the Yellowstone River. and Abraham Bogard. more . were two discharged hands who had been for eight or ten years in the employment of the Fur Company. for a voyage to St. and the whole of that way without other habitations than the occasional villages of the wild Indians and without inhabitants. Jean Ba'tiste.

then rifles. with a good ducks. a knife. the second in the centre. paddled. and that there was a glorious prospect for the indulgence of sportive passion.122 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. and a tin cup and though we had no bread or butter. as well as the gratification of Indian propensities. and myself in the stern. imagination is pretty strong. We three. and rifle double-barrelled fowling-piece. each man a spoon. and sawyers. We had powder and ball in abundance laid in. my my part of this to little have left my little outfitted book. whilst the boiling current swept us along. and salt . . plenty of ground coffee. the two first of whom with good and knowing well how to use them and myself . and sand-bars. as I would have been inclined canoe and the beauti- ful shores of the Missouri. the first amid snags. and a first-rate for long range. and ten thousand things of curious I must needs again be brief. to the wharf in St. and prairie hens. with which I steered it in safety. a coffee-pot. will easily see we had a tolerable chance for enough to eat. with my steering-paddle. . the little reader. for geese. and our fishing tackle some good robes to sleep upon and under a tin kettle. There are now interest before us. and most of the time all three. ahead of me and he will be just about as much disposed to skip over the now coming . whose accidents. but not without some bark . to cut. a fryingpan. and rocks. and Ba'tiste and Bogard. of sugar. Louis. and a belt with two side pistols for nearer quarters took our seats in our little in the bow. . have taken a nearer and footed it over land. .

seemed in the distance like black snakes drawing their long carcasses over and around the hill sides. thus forming for our little craft the most picturesque and appropriate to figure- head that could be imagined. silently surveying all that we passed above and below . and a great many " other things to speak compagnon du I had which almost voyage.THE TAME EAGLE. green carpets of sometimes speckled with herds of buffaloes grazing on their sides. rivers. : appearing in the distance as velvet were spread over them scattered herds grouping together and running in little and winding paths. At our we had another grown. from the quantities of pelicans and white ewans that were grouped upon them. and the quills of which they so much value to adorn the heads of chiefs and warriors. M'Kenzie had made me a present of a fullstarting. on which it rested in perfect quietude. surveying the grassy and rounded bluffs in groups. I had a perch erected for it some six or eight feet high." forgotten to mention. . without being fastened. over the bow of the canoe. for 123 we shall have other of. The sand-bars in the distance sometimes seemed as if they were covered with snow. domesticated war-eagle. sometimes hundreds on hundreds. which the crack of a rifle would set in motion the if . The white wolves that were looking at us from the banks got an occasional pill from one . From day rising the beautiful shores day we thus passed on. the noble bird which the Indians so much esteem for its valour. Mr.

leaving fire. more or were generally off again at daybreak. quietly spreading our knowing fire with. that trace the water's edge for the carcasses of dead fish. and sometimes the terrible grizzly bears. mistaking us for their enemies or for some of the fur traders. scarcely dark. The sound of their rifles soon announced to me that they had got some meat (for they made it a rule I . and the buffaloes often left fastened in the mud. against less of whom these people have long and of complaint. and our then. and. liable to pay the forfeit. paddled on till some time after our buffalo-skins out. and while making a sketch of a very pretty scene in front of me. where we could discover dry wood enough to make a and ate our supper . lest prowling war-parties mi^ht be attracted by the smoke of our fires. and strike a blow upon us in their sudden way. hauling what was around us. in causes just such cases. where large herds have been crossing the river. my two men. and usually stopped at eight or nine in the morning. when we had just finished. and for which we are. We At one of these delicious breakfasts. of our rifles. took up their rifles I remained by the and went for some meat. I resolved that would have another cup of coffee before we started. observing a herd of buffaloes grazing on a hill at a short distance. fire. to make and to take our breakfast.124 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. and placed the coffee-pot on the fire to make it hot. after we had been some days on our voyage. We went ashore every afternoon a little before sunset. cooked beds upon the grass.

having heard my firing and when we went to our little bivouac. nor in self-defence and I never shot for the mere pleasure of killing after that. and several thousand passing by me within gun-shot. and placing myself in the bed of the stream then dried up. and the seams of my poor coffee-pot all unsoldered. I made a . was simple. and wicked . but this was excessively awkward. and proved a decided failure. Was not this retribution ? I shot not for meat. I seized my rifle and ran to a deep and narrow defile where the whole herd were aiming to pass. and Bogard. I stood unobserved. but were left for the wolves to devour. each one tumbling down within a few paces from where he was struck. was easy. and the moment came the throng dashing down the hill near by me. 125 next never to lose a charge of powder for nothing). the tongues. and behind a small bunch of willows. nor the humps. of the deep ravine). and clambered up the other. because Ba'tiste and Bogard had got meat enough to last us for several days. My two men joined me. and reloaded and fired until I had shot down some twelve or fourteen of them. I found my coffee all boiled away.MELTING THE COFFEE-POT. Our tin kettle having fallen overboard a few days sort of coffee a few times in the frying-pan. of these poor creatures were taken. which I always regretted. and probably unheard by them (such was the thundering of the throng as they came plunging down one side. Not even the skins. and the fabric falling to pieces. This wanton slaughter. who had a before.

126 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. and thus was our luxury of coffee. a few feet above our heads. We always found him on his stand in the morning and during the day. for there he was sure of his daily food. which had vanished with the loss of our tin kettle. would hover and soar for miles together. and could not have been to leave He was well fed with fresh us. for the rest of the voyage at an end. Our noble and at : beautiful pet was a picture to look he held to his perch. filling his rabid taste for coffee. when he became tired of his position. . as we were gliding along. species soaring in the sky. as they flew over. this monarch of the air would gaze at from his perch and whenever he discovered one of his own made buffalo meat. he commenced a chattering of recognition which no other excitement could bring forth. and which they invariably answered. but the perch that he clenched in his feet he preferred. and could easily have gone to them in a moment. His eagle eyes gazed upon all around him. had the privilege of pocket with ground coffee and sugar. and fanning us at times with fresh air. he would raise himself upon his long and broad wings. while it lasted . ! . He knew them. or even in the clouds. looking down upon us. which was sometimes the case. . and at other times shading us from the rays of the sun Birds of all kinds and wild fowl. and spreading them over us. and sometimes with fish. and he seemed to be owner and commander of the expedition. and in precise progress with the canoe. which he daily ate from the hollow of his hand. with that of delicious soup.

just grazing the side of the ragged clay bluff. by the mosquitoes that infest the shores of that river in some places. " " ! He has gone he has taken air. that we were all hunters and adventurers together. which the eagle's eyes had discovered basking in the sun as we had passed. and . 127 One day. and which he had gone back directly over poor making a delicious for. as the snake. "Sonnette! sonnette!" exclaimed poor Ba'tiste. and unusually high from his perch. with precipitous clay banks. when we ! all of one final accord exclaimed. his fright. to was to eagles than to us. that was writhing and twisting in his deadly grasp as he was coming towards the boat." a deep gorge through which the river passes.STOOP OP THE EAGLE. our royal guest rose suddenly. Having one night selected such a beach. probably better known his perch. from which he lifted a huge snake. for they generally fly only as far as the grass extends. not to be a rattlesnake. but he made a circuit or two in the and then a stoop. and admitted that "it was all right. when the eagle ! was on hang right over his head It happened. and sometimes almost to death. while we were passing through what is * called the Grand Detour." Annoyed to agony. and kept rising. we generally selected a barren sand-bar or sandy beach as the place of our bivouac. head. of feet in height. luckily perhaps. was regularly Ba'tiste soon got over meal of. flew back some hundreds some leave distance. on each side. Ba'tiste's and now on his perch. and flapping his long wings. but a harmless reptile.

Mr. and probably a true " man lying down is medicine to a bear " one. no . we spread our robes and got a comfortable night's rest . ! up. and knowing the danger of attacking them. on looking around. for it is a curious saying of the country.) The time had passed heavily with them while they had been waiting for us to wake up. (Plate No. Mr. Caltin voila Caleb ! ! grizzly bear) I raised myself regardez. about enough alto- gether for us three to have furnished a comfortable breakfast. regularly reconnoitring us . and found Bogard and Ba'tiste rising gradually. waiting. the female with her two cubs . . little well on to it. IV. and scattered them about and that our poor eagle was gone. motto of the country. with their hands on their rifles. sitting a few rods from us on the slope of the prairie. and their attention fixed (as the trappers of these regions habitually call the " " upon a monster of a grizzly bear. doubt . for which they were no doubt.128 LlfE AMONG THE INDIANS. and pawed them open. and as we discovered. although they are sure to attack him if We all alike knew the they meet him on his feet. that these terrible beasts had been in our canoe and hauled every article out of it on to the beach. that that grizzly bears will not attack a man when he is asleep. yet I believe none of us were quite disposed to go to sleep for our protection. drawn our canoe on the soft sand. and a after daylight in the Ba'tiste exclaim" morning. with some impatience. and swallowed. I heard " Voila. and at a little distance farther. A council of war was the first thing that was necessary .

.

.

My paint-box was opened. and nothing left in it the brushes were scattered over the beach. and leggings. chewed. and robes. were daubed in the mud and spread out upon the beach as if to dry. or to be dis- . Two packs of Indian dresses. laid in. and we began to gather our robes and other things which were strewed in all directions.GRIZZLY BEARS OVERHAULING US. The animals made no move towards us in the mean time. safely were as regularly untied as if done by human hands . and a quantity of pemican. all of which were devoured. and all colours. We moved our canoe into the water. We over everything. 129 we agreed that our canoe scattered remnants of have time to was the first thing . with a doubtful and suspicious canoe. were as regularly unrolled and looked into (and smelled) as they would have been in passing a custom-house in France or in Brazil. and our guns safe in our hands. arose. passport. and shirts. had three or four days' supply of fresh meat and some delicious dried buffalo tongues. and the contents scattered and daubed. and green. and headdresses. simultaneously and got our paddles into it. but was sadly pawed about in the mud. in strange mixtures of red. and many of the bladders with colours tied in them. and a roll of canvas which had stood the test. the our property (if we could collect them) the next preferring to have our battle afterwards. Some packages were carried several rods from the portfolios of drawings and everything excepting a couple of large which they could not untie. tied with thongs.

which he seemed to be aware of. which he gave to the female as she came. than two or three feet apart. as he was casting his piercing eyes around and over the gathered wreck. in all fury and with horrid growls. no one had the least knowledge. to the water's edge .130 posed of in LIFE lots AMONG THE at INDIANS. the enormous footprints sinking two or three inches into the hard sand. little we pushed out a at ease. showed us that these stupid and terrible beasts had passed many times around and between our beds. whilst he was drawing in his long wings. which were not more. she received his ball in . knowing from the shore. on^'s nerves a Was not here enough to shake little ? Our for a better things thrown in confusion into our canoe arrangement at a more agreeable place. and seemingly shrugging his shoulders with satisfaction at being back to his old stand. and out of danger. perhaps. sale. an auction ! What an unprincipled overhauling this In taking up our sleeping robes. Bogard and I he being the nearest to us levelled at the male Ba'tiste reserving his fire. Now we were ready for the attack we were brave we could flourish trumpets. or where he got his night's lodging. the long and yellow legs of our illustrious passenger were reaching down for their perch. From what hill-top or ledge this noble creature descended. and felt again that the grizzly bear will never afloat. enter the water for anything. The moment our canoe was with the accustomed flappings of his wings.

followed her companion.ADIEU TO THE GRIZZLIES. were now floating down stream again. of following those creatures into a thicket die. and most likely very prudent ones. and though I urged my two companions to go back with me and complete the engagement. they both had fears. . in thdlr own way. or to cure their . 131 her breast. and. which had got our two rifle balls. We so we left them to wounds if they could. and entered a thicket of high grass and weeds. galloping off.

two hundred and fifty miles below the mouth of Yellowstone.CHAPTER Mandan Singularities IX. as well . as they call themselves. Mandan War-ChiefLance of the Mah-to-toh-pa and the Crow Chief Indian Belles Singular Names Tradition of the FloodDestruction of the Mandans Taking leave of the Mandans Riccarree Chief A Silent Gift. and of whose medicine operations in rain-making and rain-stop ping I have before alluded to) I considered one of the up by the wigwam. guest while I stop The Mandans (of whom I have shown you one of their warriors in Plate No. ]E are now at the village of the kind and hospitable Mandans (or. People of the Pheasants). III. from which we started : a tribe of two thousand. See-pohs-ka Nu-mah-kah-hee. inasmuch as their customs. where they are to I want them. living in a village of claycovered wigwams.. My canoe and all my women to the chiefs be kept in safety until not a sixpence to pay. on the west bank of the Missouri. and I a welcome things are carried most interesting tribes that their language and many of 132 I visited.

MANDAN

SINGULARITIES.

133

as personal appearance, were so decidedly different from all other tribes in America.

As
they

they were not a roaming, but a stationary tribe,
all lived

protected against

in one village, which was effectually Indian assaults by a high and

precipitous bank of the river on two sides, stockade of large timbers set in the ground,

and a on the

back

part.

tribe, not following the migrations of the herds of buffaloes, like the Sioux and other tribes, secured themselves against want by raising considerable fields of maize (which they always kept hidden)

This

in sufficient quantities to answer them when the buffaloes might for a time leave their vicinity.
singularities in the personal of these people were those of complexion, appearance and the colour of their hair and eyes. I have before

The most striking

said that black hair, black eyes,

and cinnamon colour

were the national characteristics of all American savages but to my great surprise I found amongst
;

the

Mandans, many families whose complexions were nearly white, their eyes a light blue, and their hair of a bright, silvery grey, from childhood to old
age! This singular appearance I can account for only by the supposition that there must have been some
civilized colony in

of which neither history nor tradition to furnish any positive proof.

some way engrafted on them, but seem as yet
several distinct
their skin canoes

From having found
in use

Welsh words
round like a

amongst them

;

134
tub,

LIFE

AMONG THE

INDIANS.

and
of

mode

precisely like the Welsh coracle, and their constructing their wigwams like that in

use at the present day in the mountainous parts of Wales, I am strongly inclined to believe that this
singularity has been caused

people
after

by some colony of Welsh the American coast, and having wandered into the interior, have been

who have landed on

taken into this hospitable tribe. The Mandans I found to be a very peaceable people, not engaging in warfare except to defend
their for village and preserve their existence, which they have had many hard struggles with the Sioux and Crow Indians. When I was with the Mandans, there were living amongst them two chiefs of great distinction, the Wolf chief, head civil-chief, and Mah-to-toh-pa (the

Four Bears), head war-chief of the tribe. I painted the portraits, at full length, of these valiant and proud men ; and the latter, who became very much
attached to me, I shall always consider one of the most extraordinary men who has lived amongst the

American tribes. He was in every way graceful, elegant, civil, and and at the same time most gallant and polite, After I had painted his invincible as a warrior. he which was much pleased and with portrait, astonished, he presented me his robe, with all the battles of his life painted on it, his wife being allowed time to make him an exact copy of it. On this extraordinary robe he was represented, at full length, in fourteen battles in which he had been

LANCE OF THE RICCARKEE CHIEF.
victorious,

135

and for which he had the scalps as proofs which no one could deny. When he gave me the robe, lest it should be unappreciated by me, he spread it upon the ground, and inviting me to sit

down by the side me each group,
fought, success
;

and and

he proceeded to explain to the place where the battle was the manner in which he gained his
of him,

for each

battle

he showed

me and

placed in my hand, the scalp. Several of his most celebrated warriors,
familiar, of course,

who were
to

with his military exploits, were

listening to his explanations,

and nodded assent

every scene which he described, and which I wrote

down, word for word, in my note-book ; and amongst those fourteen achievements there was one which he
described in this

way

:

ground behind him, and laying

up from the on the robe a spear of some eight feet in length, and ornamented with a number of red and white eagles' quills, and
spear,"

"This

said

he, taking it
it

with a long blade of

"
steel,

this spear

once be-

longed to the war-chief of the Eiccarrees (a tribe about equal in numbers to the Mandans, and living

two hundred miles below them on the same bank of The Riccarrees have always been makthe river). ing war upon us, and in one of their cowardly midnight attacks upon our village,
of our

when a

great

many

young men,
;

as well as

women and

children,

were

my brother, younger than myself, was and three days after the battle, in which missing we had driven our enemies away, I found the body
killed,

136
of

LIFE

AMONG THE

INDIANS.

my

brother amongst the willows, with the blade

I recognised of this spear remaining in his body. the spear as belonging to the treacherous war-chief

of the Kiccarrees, having seen

when we had
in of

it and handled it and smoked the calumet a treaty of peace but a few months before many

sat together

;

I prewarriors also recognised the spear. served it, with the blood of my brother's body dried

my

on

its blade,

and

I then

swore to avenge

my brother's

death with
"

my own

hand.

I kept this spear for three years, and no opportunity occurring, and unwilling to spill the blood of the innocent by bringing the two tribes into conflict, For I resolved to get my revenge in another way.
this

purpose I put

my

body and face into war

paint,

which a

chief, by our custom, is not in the habit of I took parched corn in my pouch to last doing. me several days, and without other weapon than

this spear in

my

hand, I started

off,

unknown

to

my
day.

people, for the Riccarree village, travelling over

the prairies by night, and lying secreted during the

"In

this

manner

I

came near

to the Eiccarree

village on the sixth day. the last day, and when

I secreted myself during it was dark I approached

and entered the
tected.

village without

danger of being deof the war-chief, I

Knowing
it,

the

wigwam

and often peeped in and saw him seated by the fire smoking his pipe. " His wife at length went to bed and after he had sat and smoked out another pipe by himself, he
loitered about
;

LANCE OF THE RICCARREE CHIEF.
went
to
;

137

The time for me had then was almost out, and the wigwam I gently opened the door and walked quite dark. in with the spear in my hand, and sat down by the fire. There was a pot hanging over the fire with some meat in it, which I commenced eating, as I was almost starved to death. Whilst I was eating I heard his wife ask him what man that was eating from the pot in their wigwam to which the chief
bed
also.

arrived

the

fire

;

'

replied,

No

matter

;

I suppose the

man

is

hungry/

After I had satiated
stirred the fire a little

my

hunger, I very gradually with my foot, until I just got
to

light

enough to

see

my way

my

enemy, when

I

arose and drove the lance to his heart.

I darted

from the wigwam with the lance in one hand and his scalp in the other, and made my way as fast as
possible towards the

Mandan

village,

without their

knowing where the enemy was from, or which way he had gone.
I travelled fast all that night, and lay secreted during the following day, and so travelled night after
"

night until I entered the Mandan village in triumph, with the scalp of the war-chief of the Eiccarrees
resting

on the point of his own
"
is

spear.

This,

my

the scalp of that enemy, and this is the spear which I drew from the body of my brother, and with which, I believe, it was the will of
friend," said he,

You the Great Spirit I should avenge his death. see, uiy friend, that I have done it, and the blood of
both
is

now

dried upon
friend,

its blade.

This,

my

was unlike the deeds of Mah-

138
to-toh-pa deserved.
;

LIFE

AMONG THE

INDIANS.

but I went to slay a dog, who died as he Though he was a war-chief, and had
he was not an honourable man; he

many

scalps,

hung about our village like the sneaking wolves in the night, and even scalped our women and children

when they were bathing on
If

the shore of the river.

he had been an honourable man, Mah-to-toh-pa would have given him a chance for his life in equal
but as his life had been that of a coward, would not have been just that he should die the death of a brave man." Now, the rest of this little book might be filled with the exploits of Mah-to-toh-pa ; but I will describe one more, and then we will pass on. While sitting upon the robe, Mah-to-toh-pa showed me
co Abat
;

it

the scalp of a brave

man

a celebrated chief of the

and, pointing to the illustration on the ; while the interpreter described in this dictated robe,

Crows

way: " The Crows have long been our enemies their war-parties have often attacked our village and our
;

when they have been upon the few years since, many hundred Crow plains. warriors appeared on the prairies, not far distant from the Mandan village, when Mah-to-toh-pa, with
hunting-parties

A

his warriors,

went out

to

meet them.

When

the

two war-parties were coming near to each other, on a level plain, and just ready for battle, they halted, and the war-chief of the Crows sent a white flag Is Mah-toto the Mandans, with this message
'
:

toh-pa, the war-chief of the Mandans, there

?

He

MAH-TO-TOH-PA AND THE CROW CHIEF.
is

139

a brave man.

If he leads the
alone,

Mandan war-party
and he and
I will

to-day, let

him come out

decide this combat, and save the lives of our brave warriors. Hora-to-ah, war-chief of the Crows, sends
this

message/

Hora-to-ah is Mah-to-toh-pa replied a chief and a brave warrior, and worthy of Mah-tothis

"

To

'

toh-pa.

party this day.

Mah-to-toh-pa leads the Mandan warMah-to-toh-pa is glad to meet the

war-chief of the Crows, and save the blood of his

brave warriors.

It is Mah-to-toh-pa, war-chief of the Mandans, who sends this reply/ "After the messenger had returned, the Crow chief was seen galloping out upon the plain, on a

milk-white horse, with a shield on his arm and a gun in his hand.

Mah-to-toh-pa was not slow to meet him. They passed each other twice, and fired with their guns
without effect;

"

but Mah-to-toh-pa's powder-horn was shot away ; he held it up, and showing that he had no more powder, the Crow chief drew his powderhorn from his neck, and flung it to the ground and his gun also, and drew his bow, his shield and quiver
being slung upon his back. Mah-to-toh-pa did the same, and the combat was now with bows and arrows. Many were the passes that were made, and

many

the arrows that were shielded off. Each chief was wounded in the legs, and the horse of Mah-totoh-pa fell, with an arrow -through its heart. Mahto-toh-pa was on his feet, but his bow and his shield were before him.

They were generally modest and timid. for at last the Crow chief raised and shook his empty quiver." The women in the Mandan tribe. were comfortably. were very beautiful. hand of Mah-to-toh-pa. as you see. drew and battle here terrible knife. The Crow chief gallant and brave warrior . is crippled for the remainder of his days. His knife was not in his belt but it was too late. belong to Mah-to-toh-pa. and was worthy of Mah-to-toh-pa he sprang npon the ground. the reputed belles when I was there were Mi-neek-e-sunk-te-ca (the mink). Amongst the Mandans. Mah-to-toh-pa's was also hurled to the ground. clad with skins. extending from the throat quite to the feet. but was near its end. and the ri^ht knife. and here they are. and driving an arrow through the heart of his horse. the two-edged blade of his antagonist's knife was twice drawn through his hand. The scalp of that chief and his war with his own blood dried upon it. Thus fell Hora-to-ah. stood before his antagonist. The began again. of which the Indians seem to have a correct and high appreciation. like those of most of the neighbouring tribes. they were in each other's arms The wounds of Mah-to-toh-pa were ' brandished his ' ! ! ! several . and throwing it to the ground.140 " LIFE AMONG THE was a INDIANS. and he said quiver Yes as both were rushing on. and observed exSome of them ceeding propriety in their conduct. the war-chief of the Crows. and oftentimes very beautifully. but he at length wrested it from his enemy's hand and plunged it to his heart. and .

amongst the hundreds of female portraits which I have made in the various tribes. and which they wear in braids amongst the strings of beads on their necks. Kay-te-qua (the female eagle). Hee-la-dee (the pure fountain). made of the mountain sheep-skins. the Shawanos. and whom I have painted. by and braves. not with scalp-locks. in their soft and white dresses. How curious their names. daughters of two of the subordi- amongst the Riccarrees. and Mong-shong-shaw (the bending willow). and sometimes how droll They have no . All of these have been brought to the chiefs me to paint. also And Among the Pawnee-Picts. (the sweet-scented grass). Wun-pan-to-mee (the white weasel). embroidered with porcupine quills. Pshan-shaw and amongst the Minatarrees. and among the Puncahs. And the names of the men also ! . amongst the Assinneboins. how infinitely various.SINGULAR NAMES. of the loways. and amongst the Kiowas. Seet-see-be-a These were all very beautiful (the mid-day sun). I painted their portraits full length. as their most beautiful and modest girls. but with ermine. or glow-worm). a few miles above the Mandans. Shee-de-a (wild sage) . Ru-ton-ye-wee-me (the strutting pigeon). and beautifully nate chiefs . and how pleasing! The sweet-scented grass is a sort of grass with a delicious odour which these little girls gather in the prairies. and (then) unmarried girls. 141 Sha~ko-ka (mint). Chin-cha-pee Amongst (the fire-bug that creeps. and fringed.

especially and entirely his As in the few examples selected amongst the : and braves whose portraits I have painted The Thunderer The Thunder The Roaring Thunder The Whirling Thunder The Red Thunder The Yellow Thunder He who comes on the The Cloud The White Cloud The Thunder The Black Cloud The Driving Cloud Flying Cloud The Strong Wind The Sleep Wind The Walking Rain The Hail-storm The Moonlight Night The Deep Lake The Round Island The Hard Hickory The Earth Standing Both Sides of the River To fix with the Foot The Man of The Busy Man The Mouse -coloured Sense Feather The long Finger-nails The very sweet chiefs Man He who sits everywhere He who travels The Smoke There he goes No Fool He who carries a Wolf New Fire Tobacco Stone with Horns He who fights with a Feather The Wolf tied with Hair Hair of the Bull's Neck The Bow and Quiver The Handsome Bird The Flying Gull The Bear's Fat The Bear's Shoulder The Buffalo's Back-fat The Bird of Thunder The Grizzly Bear The Bear's Track The Yellow Bear The White Bear He who drinks the juice of the Stone The Grass. some resemblance. but own. Bush. as they may get them from some achievement. . and Bloseverywhere som. family names. or some whim or accident of their lives. nor Christian names. as we have in the civilized world. and which . etc. And yet ten thousand others.142 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. like John and George. every one has a name.

where he professes to dwell. are. of this personage is very grotesque he. professes to come every season (about the middle of June) and open the Medicine Lodge. Nu-mohkMedicine Lodge. in commemoration of the event. who landed his big canoe on a high mountain. to open the ceremonies again. or only man. The Mandans related to me a very curious and distinct tradition they have of the Deluge. whom they then 0-kee-pa-ka-see-ka (the conductor of the ceremonies). not far from their village. and to commence the celebration call by appointing a medicine man. The appearance and curious . and have an immense kept solely for this purpose. excepting one man. lasting four days. lest ceremony wigwam should happen again. telling the people they may be sure he will reappear the next year. nor have they ever to sign their names to contracts or promissory-notes or bonds. This strange called they 0-kee-pa. and that all the present human family have descended from that man. or what their names are. often changed and and it matters little to these poor . no doubt. 143 new ones taken from these circumstances.TRADITION OF THE FLOOD. and was saved." was Numohk-muck-a-nah. The name of this " first. muck-a-nah. and happy people how often their names are changed. and they held an annual religious ceremony. teaching that all the human race were destroyed by the rising of the waters. as they are nowhere en rolled in tax schedules. called the it This strange man. is a medicine man who . and then returns over the prairies to the high mountains.

under the influence of cruelties ignorant superstition. from the mountains in the west. to personate a white man. and their errors The second summer after my visit to them. so hospitable. and enters the village at sunrise. and arras. fully explained in this I consider it altogether the most extra- ordinary and curious of all the customs I have met in the savage countries. It was pitiable to see so kind. one of the American Fur Company's steamers. and breasts. fortunate people. practising such self-inflicted but it was a part of their religion. like all religious customs. goes out upon the prairies the night before. they are are done away with ! But. He wears a robe made of four white wolf-skins. was fortunate enough to be present during the four days' ceremony. and entirely too long to be place. and. and I otherwise torturing themselves in various ways. almost too shocking to describe. and to supply their trading establishments with rum . poor ungone. his head-dress is made of two raven-skins. where he tells them he has resided from the time that he landed in his big canoe. in which the young men were suspending their bodies by splints run through the flesh on the shoulders. . would have required time all and patience to have corrected. as a religious penance.144 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. and his body. is covered with white clay. and his face and his cheeks painted. and apparently so happy a people. otherwise naked. ascending the Missouri River to trade with the various tribes. apparently.

" am What an illustration is this of the wickedness of mercenary white men. written by a Mr. calling these poor people up to trade under the cannon's mouth. and they mostly women and children. This I give to the world on the authority of a letter in my possession. and. im- prudently stopped in front of the while there were two of their Mandan village men sick with small- pox on board. and ordered the commander to turn it back but he was two thousand miles beyond the . writing. and at that time a clerk in the Fur Company's factory at the and who says " At the moment I Mandan village. Potts. in the space of three months. in a country where brute force was the law of the land. and what could he do? He . there are but thirty-two of these poor people in existence. who push their commerce into the Indian country. at eighteen dollars articles of extravagance and took place.DESTRUCTION OF THE MANDANS and whisky. in Scotland. luxury at similar ruinous prices There was a government Indian agent on board of the steamer when this unfortunate occurrence ! and other village at that time. as these poisons were sold at the Mandan per gallon. The disease was soon taken into the Mandan the two village. thousand Mandans were reduced to the exact number of thirty-two. and selling rum and whisky to them. and other articles of 1 45 commerce. reach of the laws. formerly of the City of Edinburgh. a staunch and honourable man Major Dougherty who remonstrated against the steamer's advancing to the Mandan village with the small-pox on board.

and Bogard. and how much farther towards the Pacific. and the Great Medicine. to my great surprise. a Wolf successively . and. and fur-traders are not the most reliable sources for information. Louis. The last I saw of my friends the Mandans. and made a sign for me to lay it down in the canoe.146 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. was at the shore of the river in front of their village. gallant young warrior whom I recognised followed opposite to us. canoe and all my packs were brought down in safety to the water's edge canoe placed in the water the whole tribe upon the beach. the all chief. at the water's edge. and on our way for St. for newspapers are not received from those regions. which I did. could do nothing against the weight of a solid cargo rum and whisky. I took in my paddle and opened the parcel by untying a great many thongs. when we had got too far into the current to stop. and seeing me attempting . leaning over. All now was done. and myself were again afloat. of of whom twenty-five thousand perished. and well under way. the warriors and braves shook hands with me. . Mah- My my to-toh-pa. embraced me in their arms . -My friend. and. no one knows. and how many other thousands perished. and we were off. After we had got a mile or so from the village. and the women and children saluted me with shouts of farewell and Ba'tiste. and so the poor Mandans suffered . he waved his hand and shook his head. tossed safely into the canoe a parcel which he took out from under his robe to unfold it. and the disease went to the Blackfeet. At this exciting moment.

and handsomely garnished with porcupine- These I instantly recognised as belonging to the son of a famous chief. but got no reply." identical pair I purchase. and which so opened the eyes and the heart of poor Johnny O'Neil ! . he compels me to accept as a present what he could not sell to me the day before for the price of I a horse and envelops which he had intended ! it I in an intricacy of thongs should not be able to untie until the current bility of my had wafted me beyond the possimaking him any compensation for like the gift of the saddle of them ! and how much left in venison my father's wood-house. quills." and the had been for some time trying to which I had offered the young man a horse. and for What a beautiful trait this Having parted with me without the least prospect of ever seeing me again. excepting that " he could not sell them. fringed with a profusion of scalplocks. the "Four Men. as the scalp-locks were so precious as trophies. by the unfortunate Ou-o-gong-way.A SILENT GIFT. containing the eagle plume.warriors would laugh at him if he sold them. and his fellow. 14? found the most beautiful pair of leggings which I ever had seen.

148 . instead of ploughed houses and hedges removed. as Ba'tiste and Bogard paddle and I steer the unceasing banks of greensward. and for weeks of nights. around. with their verdant sides. with the Such are yet the American prairies. and more must be said of them before they will be fully understood. The river still winds in its tortuous course.CHAPTER Indian the Signal X. before. with tufts and copses of trees. no still glides our little boat. and the countless sloping ]N . with here and there beautiful meadows. Doctor An Excitement Fort Pierre The Sioux Sioux Portraits Jealous Sioux Chiefs Story of Death of Mah-to-chee-ga Dog Pursuit of the Dog Death of the Dog The Author Challenged. still fields. enamelled with beautiful wild flowers. and many of the hill-sides dotted with solitary oaks the whole presenting a continued and never-ending view as of an old and beautifully cultivated country . Night after night. are still and behind us. greensward. hills and knolls. and at every turn a new and cheerful landscape is presented.

and and Bogard were relating to me some exciting and amusing stories about the Crows and the Blackfeet. Bogard was anxious go . was low.SHOOTING IN A RAVINE. and nicely approaching in a deep ravine (Plate No. and making signs and calling to us to come ashore.) we got our three tongues and our three fleeces (or humps) without the slightest trouble. came to whistle. in whose countries they had been trapping and trading. and our robes spread upon the grass or upon the barren sand-bars. while the silvery. it was natural to sing. but to is generally the second invitation. The shot fired ahead of us was the usual friendly mode of inviting parties ashore on that river. skipping. The great tribe of Sioux are below us. Whilst we had enough to eat. alone. but discordant notes of the bands of howling wolves are hourly serenading us as we are getting our night's rest. and there Our larder are probably some days yet between us. the first being by signals and by calling. our little craft is 149 hauled ashore. and our paddles were constantly at work. V. and a lazy little herd. quietly sleeping and grazing on the right bank. tempted us ashore. bang! went a gun on the shore opposite to us. a rod or so ahead of our canoe! An Indian was standing at the water's edge. and continued on. and to tell stories for amusement. and skipping. where we silently landed our canoe. I having stopped a few minutes to make a sketch of the snug little box in which the band were luxuriating. and whilst Ba'tiste a bullet across the water.

In this place his com- panions. oui . from my looks. what would have been the instant conse- . go ashore " and I Oui. The was very wide where we were. for this man could scarcely be supposed to be there alone . as they might easily have . " I don't like the look of things ashore . and he had placed himself on the shore just above the sudden bend in the river. nor the position of things . when both . drew in their paddles and violently threw them down in the bottom of the canoe. Bogard. ashore. and. I instantly seized my double-barrelled gun. " and Ba'tiste said. there being then existing tribe many unsettled feuds between some of that and some of the river fur-traders. in case we drifted with rocky shore.150 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. if he had any. who was a drunken fellow. and I believe thought it be an opportunity for getting something to might " We will drink. and were evidently looking over their shoulders for their rifles. for which I or any I other traveller might be liable to suffer. having their backs. They perfectly understood the meaning of this movement. would bring us in quite near to a it. said in rather an authoritative tone. and cocking both barrels. No the canoe is mine. and I won't go ashore said. luckily. laid it across my lap. but I did not exactly like the mode of invitation. towards me. which were lying under a buffalo robe between them and me. where the current running in very swift. would naturally conceal themselves in case they had any unfriendly design upon us. " " . and steered the canoe nearer to the opposite side. to prevent floating with the current into the bend.

which showed us beyond a doubt what their Notwithstanding all our exertions. and in forcing it towards the opposite side. "on ne combattre " II faut Ba'tiste. as he I. and succeeded. I then commenced paddling the canoe myself. " ! seized his pas." " No . " ramer ! ramer ! On rame ! " said laying down his rifle and taking up his all paddle. and nearing the boat. Bogard.AN EXCITEMENT." said exclaimed Ba'tiste. solitary Indian/' some twenty or thirty naked warriors. in every man about in the middle of the I kept the canoe order to take advantage of the strongest current. and running down the shore to meet us below the bend. were in a little time some distance below us. rose from behind the rocks where we should naturally have landed if we had gone ashore." river. " said. " No. Just at this time. who was a I said. . and three paddled with all our might. and to ply his paddle. we have nothing to do but to row. raising the war-whoop. seeing that we were not coming in. and the Indians were running on the beach and sounding the war- whoop. poor. desperate and sullen fellow. holding their bows and arrows in the left hand above the water. and when the two men were snarling and growling at me for " being afraid of one. in not allowing it to fall into the current near the shore. 151 quence if either of them had reached for his gun. We must knock over some of those fellows. " II faut combattre rifle. by a violent effort. when some eight or ten of them sprang into the water and came swimming towards us. Seeing them thus ahead of us. they object was.

and commenced returning in our hands. the whole party followed opposite to us for several miles. though . that Seeing they were armed with only bows and arrows. and some of them within a few rods. upon fire. they use these with great effect in the water. with fifteen hundred skin wigwams of Sioux . . a large trading establishment amongst the Sioux. and could easily have killed every one of them as they approached our boat. has been a source of continual that gratififire cation to me we had the forbearance not to upon them. whether Sioux or Eiccartheir design. take up your rifles. however. but finding the chase unprofitable. Who rees. when they sunk almost entirely under the water. we should have been obliged to us. or what was but learn . Now. A few days more cf paddling brought us to Fort Pierre. Getting ashore. when yelling. and resolved not to use any unIf they had begun necessary cruelty upon them. several of them approached us a second time but in a similar manner were turned back. I never was able to it river without further molestation." rifles We all took in our paddles. dark.152 I then said to LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. " my men. I raised my rifle as if to fire. and with our cocked. they turned back. I felt no further alarm. I beckoned to and them to go ashore but still coming nearer. towards the shore. and Those on shore were still running and setting them on us again. and we paddled on till after and bivouaced on the opposite side of the these people were. but don't fire unless I give the word.

picturesque subjects to paint. tion. until this private opera- only to the chief and his doctor. quite silent about my wigwam." doctor.FORT PIERRE. and you can easily imagine now how picturesque and beautiful a scene was around us. portrait. to shine grow over-night to-morrow. you cannot see him. box. as amongst the Mandans. and my advent but little cared about or known. ! boy. (I had made a dead colouring of the old and set it by to dry. Ha-won-je-ta (the One Horn). he is now sitting and smoking with the chief. my to-morrow you will friends I am but a little alive . in a beautiful costume. and I was soon at work with my brushes. My canoe. held by the corners of the was elevated above the heads of the crowd by frame. but . I have shown you how the Sioux Indians build and ornament their tents. crying to the gathering multi" tude in front of my tent Look. head civil-chief of the Sioux. and as many children and dogs guarding them. was and his finished.) " Mine is put in a . Hundreds on hundreds of horses were grazing on the prairies. was the first whose portrait I hit off. look at is when the one is dead the him and be ashamed he ! upon you and Be patient. 153 Indians grouped upon the plains around it. This is the wonderful work of a great white medicine man. and plenty of . my face will upon you. was carried by the squaws (as they call their women) a tent was prepared for my painting operations. my friends we : ! have now got two chiefs other will live smiles see me. known the great medicine. the All had been size of life.

and Some were mounted on horses. brought into my wigwam and warriors most distinguished chiefs . The Great Spirit has shown him how to do these things. my friends!" The doctor's harangue was long and very curious. ! ! " eyes is My friends. and you must make but little noise. of eagles' quills. the astonished multitude was one of the most curious an interminable mass of red sights I ever beheld and painted heads. and. lances. raised upon the shoulders of their friends. for a photographic lens what a picture or two I could have got . to-morrow you will see me!" Mr. he sees you all at one alike. whose house I was made welcome. My a great chief but here is a chief whose eyes are on you all at the same time . spears. and then you can look at him. and I think so. shields. He says I can do the same thing. Oh. move ! " if any doubts that. of ermine-skins." said the doctor.154 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. and others quivers. our chief and look at the chief again. of beads and brooches. ! let you see the chief's him walk round friends. perhaps he will sometime walk through our village. and all gazing in wonder and astonishment at the one the chief "that had a little life" (as they object the corners of whose mouth many of them said) could see to move. time What chief can do that ? My in friends. the factor at that several of the fort. through some little crevices in my tent. put your hands over your mouths and be silent. and the eyes of which actually turned and followed all as they changed their positions. Laidlavv.

with orders not to allow any one to enter except those whose and the facetious had enough to do outside." In the meantime the door of my wigwam was tinual guarded by a warrior with a lance in his hand. a sort of police placed there by the chief. and the laughing and fun was increased when the operation was over and the portrait placed before them. whilst he was keeping back the women and children and dogs. and the importance of medicine. creditable or otherwise. Thus progressed the mystery operations inside and outside of my wigwam from day to day and I had but one difficulty which I could apprehend before me. to be 155 The painted. which was this It had been represented to these chiefs and warriors that I was a great chief in my own country. magnifying my wonderful powers. and . and warriors were seated round the sides of the wigwam and smoking their pipes while I would be at work at one. The scene was one of con- merriment and laughter. and hushing them into respectful silence. when they were not sparing in criticisms on its good looks and in " anecdotes of his life. relating all the anecdotes. that I had heard they had some very distinguished chiefs and warriors amongst them. and unable to deny anything that was said. with his mouth shut.SIOUX PORTRAITS. and I had full employment. which it reminded them of. This time they seemed to while away very merrily. whilst he was under the operation of the brush. : . and each one waiting patiently for chiefs his turn to come. rank entitled them to admission old doctor . of his life.

chief decided that it was all right. but that was a fait accompli. Laidlaw brought into my wigwam paint. had come a vast distance to see who they were." sure the chiefs will agree that he shall be To this the chiefs all agreed. Mr. it until I had painted nearly that I cared about painting. that you to paint . and from necessity. His first attitude and was . I am painted. and he taking his position. I have brought in a friend of mine Mah-to-chee-ga (the Little Bear) he is not a chief. and of so good a character. with forty chiefs. and ten times that number of medicine men and great warriors. In the midst of these growing difficulties. and amongst these jealous spirits. for Catlin.156 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. and ready to take their turn as decided by the chiefs. but he is a young warrior of such distinction. I began to apprehend a serious diffi- also culty approaching. arid "Mr. several of raised the as to by jealous chiefs. and to obtain their portraits to hang on the walls alongside of the great men in the civilized world. some of the ugliest looking men I ever saw . and knowing that the Sioux tribe contained forty bands. This made head the necessary that they should be painted in I had begun with the order. and finding new subjects waiting in my wigchief. and gone on number wam every day in full dress. being the right of the great medicine being painted next Some remonstrances were to the and the head chief. a fine and war said and fully young man in his war dress armed and equipped. according to rank. I put a canvas on my easel commenced immediately.

STORY OF THE DOG. as he has left it out in the picture." Mah-to-chee-ga replied. therefore. which was carried on tant prairie. to the great amusement of the chiefs. in this way . rather a surly-looking fellow. " Shon-ka says it. and what I wanted. he addressed " I see that you are to him this insulting remark " Who says that ?" said Mah-tobut half a man. He was towards the sides of the wigwam. disliked by most of his fellowand chiefs. Mah-to-cheega seemed to have the advantage of his adversary. what " call a one-half of we ." Here a sharp repartee took place for a few minutes. and whose portrait I had painted some days before. in a low tone of voice. and for a while overlooked the operation of my brush." replied the Dog." chee-ga." thrown into shadow. beautiful. crept round behind me. it painters three-quarter face. While I was painting. having a full view of the portrait. and somewhat sarcastic. I am man enough for Shon-ka in any way he pleases to try it. "If I am but half a man. . the white medicine it." Shon-ka proves that man knows one-half of your face is good for nothing. the Dog keeping his eyes upon the portrait. as if gazing over a boundless prairie the face was. one of the secondary chiefs. jealous of this rising warrior. and without the evil-disposed change of a muscle or the direction of his eye. by the name of Shon-ka (the Dog). " Let Shon-ka " prove it replied Mah-to-chee-ga. and those of Mah-to-chee-ga still stretching over the disIn this dialogue. and had the portrait pretty well advanced. Being an man. 157 looking off.

but set his gun aside. Apprehensive of what might happen from the last expressions of the Dog. and went out. from the change in still their mansub- ner. ject and so stood until the portrait was finished. to which he made no reply. After sitting chiefs. let Jura come out Spirit. the voice of the Dog (who had gone to his own wigwam. and set it down and at the next moment. as he had left my wigwam. he got up. when he deliberately took off from his legs a beautiful pair of leggings. chief. to be apprehensive of the result. down and smoking a pipe with the and hearing their comments on his portrait. according to their mode when danger is near. his feet. with which they were all well pleased. suddenly darted out of my violently who sprang upon wigwam. while my stood without a change or apparent emotion. and asked me to accept them as a present. fringed with scalp-locks of his own earning. which excited the apprehensions and inquiry of his wife. evidently in a rage. and returned with his gun in his " If Mah-tohand) was heard in front of his door chee-ga is man enough for Shon-ka. which was but a few paces from mine.158 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. to prevent misextracted the ball from his gun without his knowing it. he prayed a moment to the Great and during that moment. and prostrating himself upon the ground. . passing into his own wigwam. he took down his gun and loaded it in a hurried manner. his face to the dirt. The chiefs seemed. shook hands with me. his wife . and wrapping his robe around him.

the chiefs all rushed out my wigwam. . where he called upon the warriors of his band to protect him. and the instant he rushed out. and disappearing in an instant. each one raising the tent behind where he sat. and children. welter! ing in his blood." Like a flash of lightning. when Laidlaw " Now we shall have it " said dashed into my tent. and they are saying everywhere that you are the cause of the Little The warriors of the Little Bear's band Bear's death. " That splendid fellow. were fired Mah-to-chee-ga fell. fled to the outer part of the village occupied by his band. from the prairies. proaching. the Little Bear. left is dead ! all that side of his face you ! I out in the portrait is shot off Hang the pictures have been afraid of them. the twilight was apand the dogs were howling. and saw women. with his face a little blackened. I have urged these sit for ! people to these pictures. his gun in his hand. and decided by the Dog to be "good for nothing . 159 Mah-to- and prove it. I was At left not a word for some time. that side of his face entirely blown away which had been "left out" in the painting. alone I peeped through the crevices in my medicine house. the two guns. lapping over each other. now for the pictures he full gallop ! ! ." and the Dog. I was slipping my pistols into my belt. but footsteps . and running leaping were heard in all directions. and examining the caps of my double-barrel. chee-ga was upon his feet. and men running in all parts the horses were caught and brought in at .PURSUIT OF THE DOG. and the thumb of his left hand carried away. of the firing of the guns.

Bear's Several fine young men on both sides were reported . all open it is but half-finished. leavand ammuniarms ing excepting my Most of Laidlaw's men were off on the prairies tion. cut off before morning/' all with him. barricading the windows and doors as well as we could. and. and our position therefore was extremely I followed behind me critical. and we may all be . appearance. a small log building. which we loaded. On the following morning all was quiet." said " and come into the fort you know it is Laidlaw. convincing us that the Dog was retreating. We kept our quarters darkened. and receiving from the Company's stores some two or three dozen of muskets. and myself. but the village and fort had assumed quite a different All was silent. are all arming. and could hear the constant trampling and running in different parts of the village. and stood listening and waiting results during the greater part of the night in almost breathless anxiety. and at last a rapid succession of flashes on and over the prairies.160 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. Leave your tent as quick as lightning. if they can't kill the Dog. protected by his warriors. took possession of one of the unarmed bastions. . whilst the warriors of the Little band were pursuing him into the country." At " this moment guns were heard firing in the out- skirts of the village. they have said they will look to you for satisfaction. One of Laidlaw's clerks. by the name of Halsey. and seemed sullen. and now and then the flash of a gun or two. at the time.

killed Tah-tech-a. was still reand pursued. killed. or I would not have left it out in the portrait and if I had not left it out there would have been nothing said about it. they succeeded in killing the Dog. that in pursuing the Dog. the friends of Mah-to-chee-ga had. M*Kenzie in St. by mistake. 161 and the Dog. My We paintings and all things were speedily packed. " clusive physics amongst these people to rebut such conreasoning as this . and that therefore the Little Bear would still have been alive. Louis. He had just learned that my medicine was must have known that that too great. to be on the water again could. My wigwam was found solitary and unentered. just as I had left it. and though we had the breach as well as mended we the safest way was . near the base of the Rocky Mountains. raising an honourable monument over his grave . but the medicine man was of a different opinion. was in no wise to blame . The chiefs treated me apparently satisfied that I with friendship afterwards. who descended affair. I thought as quickly which it as possible time in effecting. but a very fine man. and whose portrait I had also painted." and that I side of the warrior's face was good for nothing. though wounded. notwithstanding all his kindness and attachment to " me. joined together in burying the remains of the fallen warrior. and afterwards. and all made liberal presents to his of his relations. . treating.PURSUIT OF THE DOG. widow and which saved us perhaps from violence.da-hair. a brother of the Dog.* * is easy to imagine I lost no the Missouri some months after this I learned from Mr." There was no meta.

The portrait was recogafter I painted the portrait of a fine nised and approved by all . . having painted several of the chiefs and warriors. will help to show further how far their superstitions will sometimes carry them. strongly illustrating. exciting and lamentinterviews with these Thus ended one of the most able affairs growing out of my curious people . from its beginning to its end. but I had observed him coming in and sitting and going off. While ascending the Missouri Eiver on a subsequent occasion. and a striking instance of the extent and certainty to which they are sure to carry their revenge. down." The portrait was a three-quarter face. always in the habit of looking white men in the face but here they would all see him with his face turned ." He requested and make his eyes look straight for- . and looking at his portrait a while. apparently in a somewhat surly and melancholy mood. young man. the high and chivalrous jealousy existing in their society. Another brief anecdote.162 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. and said " he did not like his picture it was not good. others right. if he was ashamed. but a brave. and stopping in the tribe of Omahas. growing out of the unaccountable process of my portrait painting amongst these people. it looked ashamed. and the He said " I had painted all the eyes looking off. the other way. as me to alter it. One day he brought in the interpreter. and may be worth relating. looking straight forward. He had been for several days afterwards. who was not a warrior. because it was looking the other way.

here my palette in my hand. which the chiefs all liked so much . The chiefs were so. with some water colours mixed on my palette with some dry white lead. and said I had got to fight . went out with sure. and the interpreter came into my wigwam. Louis. and he believed there was alternative. ward. that I had not thought he was so much offended with his portrait. I ex: plained to him that I was very much surprised. no I and ready. and he sitting a few minutes. as He shook hands they were looking straight forward. entirely naked and ready. which pleased him exactly. advised 163 it. one of the most interesting in collection. seeing what I had done. I painted him a new set of eyes. my L . and made me a present of a pair of leggings as an evidence of his satisfaction. and the eyes of his picture was all that he wanted. and to be he was. This prevented all necessity of our meet- ing. all pleased with and me not to do He had learned a few days afterwards that I was not going to change his eyes in the portrait. and the next day.THE AUTHOE CHALLENGED. and that I loved him too much to fight him and also. that the young man was in front of my wigwam. and the portrait now stands as it originally made. I would do it with the greatest pleasure the if to alter next day. staring in a prodigious manner across the bridge of his nose. a some clean water took off the pair of eyes. with me. a year afterwards. On my new was piece of sponge with return to St.

for the fall season was approaching. wharf at St.CHAPTER XI. Peter's Packs Stolen The Root Diggers. until the sunburnt redness of the upper half could be made to 164 . Louis it is a long distance. were now in flames . my little readers. and Bogard and I did jog smoke and on. Louis within two hours after our arrival and my beard being thoughtlessly shaved off. not go on all the way to St. and the broad prairie though Ba'tiste meadows. and their months our beards had had own way. Canoe Stolen Pawnee War-PartyFalls of St Anthony Fox and Wisconsin Rivers St. JUT. My poor little Mandans and canoe. with their waving grass eight or ten feet and our long beards in high. for unfortunate affair of my razors were lost in for the six the tin kettle. we need . rendered me a laughingstock for the space of two or three weeks. Peter's River Pipe-stone Quarry Stone Man Medicine The Thunder's NestDescent of St. through through fire. so safely taken care of by the the Sioux. so that my friends might know me. constant danger. was stolen from me at the .

and also in the most numerous herds of buffaloes. was Master of her Majesty's Household. on the Missouri. their country abounding in countless numbers of them. and painted blood-red. in this man's wigwam that the Hon. All is the fires are all around us . on the banks of which dwell the numerous tribe of Oh. 165 harmonise with the death-like paleness of the nether portion of tny face. a very dignified and hospitable man. These are the gentlemen who catch such vast quantities of wild horses. is the head chief of this It was tribe.PAWNEE WAR-PAKTY. and yet beautifullooking set of warriors they are . but the smoke gloom . From the Sioux." and his (Have you read his " on the Prairies ?) We are now near the base of the Rocky Mountains. the prairie hens . " " Tour Prairie Bird. with the blades of their long lances glisten- ing in the sun. Murray. for several subsequent years. as I have before described to you ! When a war-party of them. Shon-ha-ki-hee-ga (the Horse chief}. protected. it is but a step of two or three hundred miles to the Platte Kiver. and made welcome on his visit to the Pawnees in 1833. on their war horses. oftentimes called Wee-tar-ra-sha-ro. shaved. Charles Au^. Mr. bowing and waving in the wind. their heads all Pawnees. they look like a bed of red poppies mingled with the silvery heads of barley. is getting too bad here too. what a terrible. are prancing along over the prairies in the distance. and surmounted with the beautiful red crests. Murray was entertained.

and wild fowl and deer. seated in a beautiful birchbark canoe. My paintings were made. Imagination (how lucky) can waft us in a single moment to the falls of St. drawing our light little craft upon the beach at night.166 LIFE AMONG THE . wending our way amidst the towering cliffs and grassy plains of the mighty Mississippi to St. the Henomonies. all in are flying in all directions the deer are motion . I started from this beautiful scene. the Winnebagos. and supplying our little larder from day to day with rock bass taken from the rocky eddies. in the summer of 1834. and shrouded nature has lost its charms. and consequently hostile ground. which indicate the destructive scenes which have been enacted there. This dashing. which we killed with our rifles. he paddling while I steered. the black and smoking plains are strewed with bleaching bones. second only to Niagara. The Indian tribes which we saw on the banks of this river were the Sioux. foaming cataract. the Foxes. the frogs and reptiles are looking for their burrows. where perhaps there is a clear sky. the Saukies. Mississippi the distance is Anthony. for centuries past between the Sioux and the Ojibbeway tribes. . and loways. on the Upper but a thousand miles. and the vicinity around is strewed with human bones. has been a dividing boundary line. Louis. a distance of nine hundred miles. and we were treated by . With Corporal Allen. which was discovered and christened after his patronymic saint by the good old Father Hennepin in I860. INDIANS.

my dear sir." said I if you will carry the . Wood (now residing in Philadelphia). also in a river. " taste)." Oh. I had my pretty little canoe lifted on to the deck of his steamer lying at the wharf. we had but a distance of two miles over a level prairie. Louis. "But what are we to do here?" "Well. "we have got to take turn about with our little canoe ." Turning the canoe bottom upwards. was always taken care of by them while we stopped. I never again could hear of In the next succeeding summer. for it it was gone. which we were to descend to the Mississippi. and placed in the water when we were prepared to proceed on our way. but. which he played with great " .POX AND WISCONSIN RIVERS. for the sake of safety. our luggage was lifted and sent to my hotel." said I. 167 them all with kindness. raising it fear. My little bark canoe. with an English gentleman. At the head of that making the portage to the head of the Wisconsin. When we arrived at the wharf at St. Mr. to remain for a few hours until I could find a place to store it. which was beautifully painted. and. what shall I do with my dear little wife?" (meaning his beautiful little guitar. it has carried us a great way. in bark canoe. I ascended the Fox Eiver. Never pack which I have now made up. My companion said. and when I came it. I will take the canoe on my shoulders and your guitar case under my arm. with the captain's permission. from Green Bay to its source. now we have " got to carry our canoe.

168 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. that the one may be very hard work. and the singular character of the pipe-stone. paddles in hand. and the other is sure to be but in the latter. This place we found to be one of great interest. Men in these regions sometimes have to use their arms Falls of St. and have had much of it to mar my progress in life but . encamping at night upon its grassy and picturesque shores. to the red pipe-stone quarry on the Grand Coteau des Prairies. not only from the Indians' traditions about it. we are encouraged by the pleasure we anti- cipate in riding down. there but a few yards wide. we took our seats. "up-river work. but from the peculiar features of the country. Anthony. and. St. From the Falls of St." with a somewhat similar meaning. like the boy who drags his sled with hard labour up . where the Indians procure their red stone for making their beautiful pipes. I very easily carried it the distance. a distance of four hundred and fifty miles. is a term less perfectly understood. I "Up-hill work" we all know the meaning of. After we entered the Mississippi we had some hard work against its boiling current before we reached Prairie du Chien and from that to the . upon one end. as well as legs in travelling. commenced our descent of some hundreds of miles to the Mississippi. and laying it on the clear waters of the Wisconsin. some "up-hill work" again. Peter's Anthony we ascended the visit Eiver one hundred miles. . The difference between them is. and getting the middle beam on my shoulders. the hill.

Great Spirit told them it was their own flesh. so as to try to buy it from them. asserting that no white people had been there. and that none were permitted to go. and that we would respect all their feelings. they permitted us to go and see it. and they did not wish to sell it. Assuring them." for no other purpose than the bowls this and made to our resistance great going there. and must be used of their pipes. in whose country stopped and detained us several quarry is. protected from the weapons of their enemies. that told . under the belief they all have that the Indians were cisely their ilesh made from own colour and it the red stone. While at the pipe-stone quarry the Indians . Many of the contiguous tribes have no doubt been in the habit of visiting this place to procure the red stone for their pipes. because it was a sacred place. who had only curiosity to see it. having been given to them all alike. however. They said they believed we were sent by the government to see what it was worth. but differing from any other sort found in America. The Sioux. that we were but two private persons.PIPE-STONE QUARRY. provided twenty of their days. it being pre" that it is a part of their it that the Great Spirit gave to them expressly for their pipes. or perhaps in the world. warriors could accompany us probably to see we committed no sacrilege about the place. the Great Spirit would be angry if they raised their weapons against their enemies going to or The returning from the red pipe-stone quarry. 169 a species of steatite.

" said he. and guide. . a " Never place where every Indian who is going " mind. we must go and Well. Wood. "it the place where the thunders are hatched out. previous to the thunder-showers. covered with short .170 us LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. Wood. on our way to the "thunder's nest" and the "stone man medicine" We rode off at an early hour with three of the [ndian party." " " How large ?" such eggs ?" No. the bird was sitting on her eggs." said one of the medicine men." " The thunder comes out of an egg. what on earth is that?" is Why. it's very small" " most as large as the end of your little finger men of the Sioux have seen it. does it ?" " It must be a " pretty large bird to lay Certainly. then. he would take us a little and we would see the " stone man medi"is a great curiosity " cine" "This." " " friend Mr. we were " nest!" within twenty miles of the " thunder's "Thunder's nest! why. told us was on the highest ridge of and the Indians believed that in the very hottest days. . the last of which we found on the top of a high and rounded bluff. a half-breed. and must be something Our interpreter that this strange place the c6teau. I have heard a great deal it I venture to say very curious to see. and when they hatched He told us that on our out it made the thunder. don't tell us all about it that will spoil it all let's go and see it." about it." said Why. of the medicine my see that by all means. about ." So we took an early start the next morning. way to the thunder's nest to the west. and spent the day in looking at these wonderful places." said Mr.

a war-party in that direction. and deposited there and. composed entirely of flat stones. which couple of acres of slightly rounded " It was the stone man medicine. no matter how far it be out of his way. by size and different colours. or on . countless . has.STONE grass. Whatever led to the beginning of this strange monument no one knows but the Indians tell us that no Indian going on a hunting excursion. probably through centuries. in toler- lying on his back. the features of the face." sloping hills of to the horizon. we started for the . of some three or four hundred feet in length." success unless he stops at the and adds a flat stone to the figure . what was singular. I could not discover another stone the size of a pigeon's egg for several miles on ably good proportions. has any confidence in " stone man medicine. arms and his legs distended. and even the fingers and another. man either side of it. nothing of the character of a barrow in no one stone lying on the top of and the number may well be said to be exhibiting. lay the figure. and explained all they could to " thunder's nest" us. a On surface. of a his . or is how far he has to carry the stone. There this strange mass. toes of a human figure. perhaps. which had been brought by Indians. Our Indian companions having each deposited their stone offering. MAN MEDICINE. 171 could be seen and from the top of which no tree or bush all around was a mass of rolling and : green stretching off the top of this mound.

and found it. leading the horses by their halters. Anthony. and each one tossed a plug of tobacco into the grass. my gun in both hands. I started to walk into the hallowed ground and see if I could put up the little bird . thickly matted. like the other. and then. where we observed a small bunch of hazel bushes. The leader of our States army in the vicinity of the Falls of St. the doctor requested The Indians us all to dismount and wait a little. forward of us. and hear- . Within some two or three rods of the bushes the Indians halted. and placing them under their robes. This terrible-sounding mystery we reached after a of hard ride. on the top a high prairie mound. with their robes wrapt around them. occupying some two or three rods little party at this time was a " Blue Medicine" very droll old fellow. and the doctor leading the way. and with their little lookingglasses took a squint at their own faces. of passing I and with gave the reins of my horse to my companion. all marched slowly towards the bunch of bushes. to see if the paint was all right.172 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. called the extensively known to the officers of the United of ground. showed no sign of human trespass . but. which. seemed much trodden down by the frequency visitors. and as high as a man's waist. and near to the wonderful place. as if to shoot upon the wing. under our feet and behind us. took all the plumes out of their heads. and when we were ascending the side of the mound. smoothed down their long glossy-black locks.

nately sleep " dear of his when we pleased little pleased. and then the mighty Mississippi again. retreated superstitious children of the forest as sacrifices to the " The Thunder Spirit" in Spirit they there invoke dread of whom they always live. Anthony.DESCENT OF ST. I looked back. and seeing the poor Indians all with their hands over and evidently in great distress. and oh how happy like it) and down we were for we could paddle when we pleased. 173 ing a deep groan behind me. but a wafted off. Peter's River. PETER'S. Traverse de Sioux/' at the base of the Wood and myself left our horses. or alteror listen to the sounds his for rich tenor voice. Thus we descended the St. I and came out without seeing anything excepting some hundreds of bits of tobacco. At the " coteau. and little little ! seated ourselves again in our canoe. to its junction with the Mississippi at the Falls of St." accompanied with which he told me had echoed many in " years on the stage of the Italian Opera-house London. Mr. that had been thrown by the poor their mouths. as Corporal Allen and myself had descended it the . stream (not down hill. guitar. And our canoe was still going on on on as the hills resounded and echoed with Away to the Mountain's Brow. lying in the grass." etc. or fish when we . These are but two of the numerous shrines to which the poor Indians travel out of their way. and at which they throw their hard earnings as propitiatory offerings.

Louis. of these things on his vessel I remonstrated with the captain. it is known at once by all the world to be filled with Indian curiosities. sir. and on Why. and severely so.174 LIFE . don't you know." We arrived at St. I related to the captain my former misfortunes in losing my and canoes at St. being fatigued with paddling nine hundred miles. AMONG THE INDIANS. and as often lifting our beautiful rock bass from the same eddies. Louis too late in the evening to remove my and in the morning I was saved the trouble this occasion. we hailed a steamer descending the river. and with ourselves had our little canoe and its contents lifted on board. containing several very beautiful For the loss articles of Indian costumes. should take more care of heartily. and that you will never see it " again unless it goes ashore with you ? said. . for the parcel taken from the cabin of his steamer with my name on it. with George Catlin marked on it. summer before spreading our robes upon the grass. and canoe. etc. . pipes. with my name on it. For this he laughed at me in the face again. and told him I this. and supplying our larder in the same manner often bivouacing on the identical spots. Louis. that if you leave a box or a parcel in any steam-boat on the Missouri or the Mississippi. with it had departed for ever a large package which I had left in the cabin. " . but you shall at least be sure of one. and from under the same rocks. and having a strong wind against us. said. The day before we reached the city of St. "You He laughed at me have been very unlucky.

to cured. the Kayuses. 17 5 This accounted for the losses I had met with on former occasions of boxes and parcels sent by steamers and other boats. and live by digging roots and killing rabbits and pheasants with their short clubs (beng- which they throw very dexterously . a comment civilization is this ! upon the glorious advantages of But we Indians are are yet at the Falls of St. the many around us. Every- thing here gloom . they have no guns and no horses. What . and transported them over long distances in safety for me. and carried them over rivers. they are everywhere. everywhere steeping in smoke and ashes. the Paunches. and the Snakes. the Kayuls. after I St. on the Snake . and therefore never venture out upon the plains. The prairies are yet here. Louis. and their modes are curious. from various remote places in the Indian countries. . the "Root Diggers" who burrow amongst something new shall Where the rocks. overtake or injure in them amongst the rocks and crags which they live. we go ? In the Rocky Mountains there are the funny little fellows. Beyond them are the Banaks.THE BOOT DIGGERS. nor can the horsemen twas). containing one-third at least of all the Indian manufactures I ever pro- had purchased them at exorbitant the poor Indians had stored and oftentimes prices them. and let us be off to more fresh and more congenial. Anthony . but much is like what we have the country is seen.

whose birds and insects always sing. several inches in diameter. we may take . with their long lances. constantly trembling and half-a-dozen other "hos" living west of the . and their lasso always in hand. them on our way back their countries are all prairies. and their eyes stand out like Heads. I know of a country that is always fresh and green. that has no smokes. passed through their under-lips "to add to their good looks. and the Nayas. I can show these. no winters. the Flat infants the heads of their very young between boards until an unnatural and distorted shape is given. Shall If we take a look at these ? we have space. and like those we have just seen. who squeeze those of a rat caught in a dead-fall. are probably. why not . before whom the Californian gold-diggers are the Arapahos. take a peep into the other ? Allans I . LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. Eocky Mountains. on the Columbia. the Navahos. who wear great round blocks of wood. and fruits and flowers are always growing.176 Kiver . America has two hemispheres we have seen the wild people and their modes in the one. no fires. at this season. and below them. no. fuming in smoke and cinders." I can show you the terrible Apachees. not at present.

" " the Wicos. the Kaskaskias. the Konzas. the Chocktaws. who hang on the sides of their horses on their fields of battle . JUT stop ! we are travelling very fast. the Kickapoos. grass. in the . all of whom I have lived amongst. with their shaved and crested red heads (like the Pawnees). the Peorias.CHAPTER XIL Ride to the Camanchees Charley Bought ! Deer Stalking ! The Author Decoyed "Booh the Panther Walking the Circle Indians About Stampado ! to you. build their wigwams of shape of straw bee-hives). the Pawnee-Picts (who. the Oneidas. There are yet the bold and daring Camanchees. the Weeahs. the Cherokees. iheKiowas. the Seminolees. And and yet others. the Shawanos. too "Story of A Creasing a Wild Horse False Alarm Indian Honesty. the Delawares. I have before said. the Potowatomies. and a dozen other os and " was " in Western Texas. the Muskogees. then the Senecas. the tall and manly Osages. dagos. 177 . the Ononthe Mohawks. the Mohigans.

which were at that time becoming very alarming on those parts of the frontier. at Fort Gibson. and with our own weapons and horses. We had proposed to travel and maintain ourselves quite independent of the regiment. Joseph Chadwick. and ready. Louis. In the spring of 1836. under the command of Colonel Henry Dodge. a regiment of mounted dragoons. and other wild tribes on the western too far and of some whom borders of Texas. with my faithSt. We had. on a visit to the Camanchees. . to make a first acquaintance with those tribes. was ordered to start from Fort Gibson. for the pleasure of shooting. only asking for their protection. of man who was their country. a young attached to me. the Pawnee-Picts. supplied ourselves with a mule to carry our packs and our culinary and other requisites. This favourable opportunity of seeing those remote and hostile tribes I took advantage of. and of seeing the Indians and ful friend. For this expedition I had purchased the horse then finest known in that section of the country. and willing strongly to give his time and risk his life for me. therefore. by obtaining from the Secretary-at-War the privilege of travelling under the protection of the regiment. on the Arkansas River.178 LIFE of AMONG THE I INDIANS. Armed and equipped. and to put a stop to border difficulties. we wander must say a few words before away from them. seven hundred miles west of the Mississippi. Joe Chadwick and myself were on the spot.

and his black mane nearly so. he had too much excited the nerves of his rider. He had been taken and broken by the Camanattention his flourishing gaiety chee Indians. and slender-legged while resting in the encampment for the regiment to start. "Charley" (the name he answered to) was an entire horse. the march . his black tail sweeping the ground. for some weeks before the regiment was ready to commence and my friend Joe. made of the bark of a young sapling. where he attracted the and admiration of all the officers . of two or three inches in M . rode and galloped beguiling him into the I Charley about. who was willing to sell him for the price of two hundred and fifty dollars. who had become a little afraid to ride him on parade. as hunters and guides for the regiment . a sort of whistle. which he had bought of an Indian hunter. semi-civilized. which I gave for him. they amused Joe and me by the ingenious preparations they were modes making for their different and entrapping game. was everywhere my companion. Amongst these there was one that attracted our of decoying particular attention. with several of other tribes.CHARLEY BOUGHT. on his nimble. 179 belonging to Colonel Birbank. gradually relationship. but by and prancing. an aged officer of the garrison at Port Gibson. of cream colour. new little buffalo charger. Colonel Dodge had employed two famous Delaware Indians. a mustang. who take great care never to break the spirit of those noble animals.

and lying secreted in the grass. we approached. the young. at an early hour. led to their certain death by the natural sympathy which that animal has for the calls of imitation produced Joe and ahead of I." a range of hills and heavy-timbered country. in luncheons in our pockets. from our impatience for the pleasures became exceedingly fatigued with the of the dragoons. and . and the perfect by that curious instrument. by sounding this. by blowing in which they would precisely imitate the bleating "ma!" of the young fawn. they would invariably great bring the deer up to them. and other schemes for solitary haunts. delay we resolved to shorten one day at least. We flags a drove. and which they carried in their pouch. having for a long time lost sight and knowledge of Joe. length. I came to the edge . Leaving our horses with a half-breed Indian who lived at the foot of these mountains. the accomplishment of our designs. which was said to be steeds full of deer and turkeys. we entered and traversed these dark and laying out and carrying out our numerous drives and meets. and without success we we saw met. Ridge. so that when- ever they discovered a deer on the prairies at too a distance to shoot. by taking a " day's amusement at deer-stalking on the Maple us. and about the middle of the day.180 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. and to shorten weary time. many their white number of times. we mounted our hand and our and galloped off. some eight or ten miles from the garrison. rifles So the next morning. times. but had got no shot.

towards the and getting near. it called again. lying concealed in the grass. I kept creeping on. my rifle cocked and drawn to my to my inexpressible surprise. and stepping a little into it. I felt sure that I was going to get a carefully. . bushes. until I got quite close to the copse. and at too long a distance for a dead shot. 181 of a small prairie. and learning from them that there was not the slightest use in stalking at " no game at that time of day was that hour.THE AUTHOR DECOYED. and heartily laughing at me. the two Delaware Indian called out "ma!" right 'behind me. as moving. which was ma ma!" Frtm several times repeated "ma its direction I was sure the little creature was in the shade of a small copse of bushes farther in the prairie. hunters. I beheld. but without changing my position. 1 heard the sudden bleating of a fawn." we spent an hour or so in the shade. eye fixed upon the place. so I dropped myself upon my knee in the grass. and at last again and believing that one or both of its parents was with it. the poor little thing and on turning my head slowly around. with shoulder. but with greater and greater caution. and . resolving to wait a while until it might come out. shot. within ten feet of where I had passed. My down by hunting pretensions were a good deal cut this little occurrence. when. I kept it my called again. but I sat down with these good-natured fellows. and presently and I then began to creep slowly and on my hands and knees.

iny whistle for Joe. stood smiling at me. I often sounded then entered the timber again. while he was engaged eating his lunch. which he had brought in his pocket. through an open but dark and gloomy forest of large timber. and as slowly and cautiously I started in a straight line towards as I could step. I thought jokes would be better than nothing . and there seemed little chance of getting any game. I let my right hand fall upon his shoulder with a "booh!" at which instant came a heavy red to paw on my own Poor Joe I ! shoulder. he made his leap near nearly as far in a twenty and made mine different direction. but heard nothing of him. and my rifle in my left hand and : forty rods and thirty or carefully setting one foot lifting the other. I travelled on and on. not to make a thus advanced with after creeping noise in the leaves to startle him. rifle with his in his left hand. him. but descending a gently-sloping hill. and laughing at the jump he was to make if 1 could only get a step or two farther without his hearing me which accomplished (as he was chew- ing away). As I had had my shock. remaining in the air where my and his right still shoulder had left it. so I resolved on giving Joe a little shock. and saw no game . with a "booh / you too /" feet. until I had got very near to in this manner for some gradually and him. with his back towards me and his rifle standing by his side. I espied Joe sitting on a large log.182 I LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. a huge Osage Indian. . And in the very tracts that I had left.

would take day to mend the friend here and I both had our rifles with and we went ashore into the woods to hunt. and the all captain told us wheel. The Osage was a good-natured and harmless Indian. and there were a great many signs of deer.STORY OF THE PANTHER. and took different directions. . about four or six inches deep." said I. knowing my object. he had stepped his foot into every one of my tracts in the whole of that distance the instant that my foot was lifted out. My friend and I separated after we got a little way into the woods. and that we had hunted many I told days together. by the side of a great and dark it forest of cotton-woods. The day was very gloomy and dark. going from the mouth of the Ohio to St. we had somemyself times had better luck. and spoke a little English. him that notwithstanding my friend and had killed nothing that day. and having shared our lunch with him. which amused us very abilities much. young man and I were on a steamboat. on the Mississippi. 183 good-natured right . but We all straightened up. he related several of his hunting feats. one of the wheels got broken and they stopped the boat at the shore. Louis. and "My us. that. I felt more ashamed of my hunting than I ever had felt before in my life. there was a fine tracking snow. and the expression of the Indian's face set us all when he related to me. "when this "One day last winter. and a little canteen of brandy which Joe had in his pocket.

resolved to overtake the person on whose track I was following. but the forest being so dense. and the day so thick. I at length found another man's ' track coming into it. for I know I am lost and going wrong/ I continued on.184 after I LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. " who could. That's Joe Very likely . ! he perhaps. probably. "After walking a long distance farther. and at length came to a large log where the snow was brushed off. and walked pretty a shot. fast. The man has been sitting down Yes . I sat down. in order to overtake him. and following the track. as I am I'll push on and overtake him. After a long walk I stopped. . had travelled a long distance without getting fell into the track of a man who had just gone along ahead of me. But stop this can't be my friend Joe. and had leaned my against upon the by the side . I ' : . put me on the right course. with a large dog following him That can't be my friend Joe ? no he had no dog with him? I followed on. and this is the very log I brushed the snow from and sat upon half-an-hour and that is my since It can't be it must be is lost . and he is following that man with the dog. ' ! ! own track ! I But that dog ? ing me a dog's!' ! am lost He steps ! I in ! am walking my track in a circle ! he is stalkis like I have no dog a panther's track I was at this moment rifle sitting it log. I'll push on and overgot a dog also. and brushing the snow from a large log. take him. for he has Never mind. I began to think I had missed my bearing and was lost. I then started on again.

and found to be Both Joe and I were complinearly nine feet. as he rested his fore-paws upon it. I . One was ' my old. was measured. and slung on my was able to walk under his weight. at the distance of some six or eight rods I discovered the head of a huge panther raised over the top of a log. and its length. "My panther was laid upon the deck of the steamer. I just walked up as confidently as I would have walked up knowing exactly where the bullet had This fellow made no more tracks! gone. deliberately into my hands and no time if there should be need and rising slowly. to a target. without winking or moving a muscle ! " I I. that when he fell behind the log.DEATH OF THE PANTHER. heavy and hearing the carpenter's blows on the as it was boat at this time. ' his heels tied together. . and he told me he had dressed and hung up two more. for which he was just sending two men from the boat. saddle of venison on his back. boyish shivers began to rise as But/ said raising my rifle to my shoulder of ' ' ' . and the little black wrinkle between the gentleman's eyes so snugly took the bead. I took it. to bring in. back track. from the end of the nose to the end of its tail. I was enabled to lay my course to I met Joe near the boat. of me. and looking back on my back track. my nerves were perfectly steady. and was staring me in the face. that won't do it won't do to miss this time/ And by the time I had got my barrel levelled. 185 it cocked for it to lose behind me . coming in with a it. on his " With back.

on their march. and galloped home. mented by the officers of the boat. sance. Joe and I espied one day." and were now creeping along on the dividing ridge between the Canadian and the Ked River. Joe and I got back to our horses. for our day's work. from day to day. and near to their sources. we galloped off towards them for a nearer reconnais- On nearing them we discovered a ravine.186 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. After a week or two of days and nights thus " Little Blue. and through the timber two by two. . by our heads. and placing our pack-mule in the leading of one of the soldiers. and our horses picketed at length prairies The dragoons were stringing off over the . with our little pack horse. and we shook hands and parted." and swam passed. we rode till we sup- . near the banks of which they were grazing. a band of wild horses grazing. Bands of wild horses were running from us. at too great a distance to the right to be frightened by the dragoons." My story pleased the good-natured Osage Indian very much. So ended that day of our amusements. and from herds of buffaloes the rifles of our Delaware hunters were supplying us with a daily abundance of fresh meat. were hanging on one or the other wing. While moving on and on in this manner. and so encamping at night our buffalo robes spread upon the grass. we had forded the " the Canadian. our saddles for our pillows. and throwing ourselves into this. their usual mode of marching and Joe and I. and also by the passengers.

others were pied and with two. had we approached them with the least mercenary view but a thought instantly suggested itself. and oftentimes were feet. and. and commenced our ambuscade march on foot. which seemed generally to cover their eyes. snow white. Poor Joe and I saw no way of encompassing or nor appropriating this noble and beautiful stud . and sometimes three.CREASING A WILD HORSE. notwithstanding their exceeding shyness. posed 187 we were near their vicinity. Their tails different colours intermingled. and dragged on the grass as they were feeding. of all colours. We both had heard of the mode which the Spaniards and other frontier hunters often use. which gave us. a perfect view of them. and others spotted and Some were silver. displaying all their blemishes and all There were perhaps some two or beauty. fell under their from both sides of the neck. generally dragged on the grass. with a rifle through the fleshy (or rather gristly) . which is done by shooting them . to within a fair rifle-shot of them without being discovered. we fastened our horses to some alder bushes. and dismounting. as we lay concealed. grey. that of " " creasing them. from jet and glossy black to chestnut. some were iron. I had always in my pocket a powerful operaglass. who cannot take them in the usual way with the lasso. and their long and shaggy manes. We successfully approached behind some tufts of hazel bushes on the brink of the ravine. like a kennel of their hounds. striped. three hundred in the group.

I fired. at that distance. by which the animal is stunned for the moment. as horror and shame. " " I. as approached the animal. carried and reloaded on horseback than our There was no certainty of sufficient accuracy with them.188 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. and hobbled its feet together. difficulty again : Well. and he tumbled down. as the herd were " off. to find. and had more tears to this shed. Let's crease one whispered Joe. but we resolved and one of the handsomest and noblest of to try . as if Beautiful ! beautiful " ! by a blast of wind. it be subjugated by !" its cruel master. a beautiful silver grey. and armed ourselves with light and short single-barrelled fowling-pieces. a profound secret. and being more easily rifles. to and the hunter having advanced and fastened it. Joe and I were soon remounted. and alongside of . as better adapted for our daily support. and leave We had the best of reasons for the wolves to eat. that the ball had fallen from my Poor aim. the halter upon rises again. turning himself round to a fair broadside. and passed through the animal's heart ! we arose and we did to our was too tender and too noble to stand he was younger than I. and falls . and he wept bitterly over the fate of this noble creature. which we did not mean to injure. part of the neck. by throwing shot as well as ball. and it adventure this for keeping Joe ! his heart ." said But here was a to travel light and handy. was never known to any of the regiment. for creasing. both Joe and I had left our heavy rifles at Fort Gibson. said Joe. the troop. on the top of the shoulders.

and probably many of the officers. in squads of flying cavalry. and though in our long. and heretofore considered hostile to the whites us. our fowling-pieces. The Camanchees one of the most powerful and warlike tribes in America. now and then dodging about over we were under the tops of the grassy hills. announcing to us that the gaze and reconnoitring of a war- party of Camanchees. these hordes of mounted horsemen were gathering around a great distance ahead of us. never had seen an Indian. and dis' . us . and undoubtedly the most bold and efficient warriors on horseback. were now hovering around and their villages. Cat. were but a poor reliance. many uneasy nights of bivouac. Joe. Most of the men in the command. ! " ! plumes and the glistening blades of their long lances began to be seen." About this time began to be heard through the " Indians Indians Indians about !" regiment.INDIANS ABOUT ! 189 the dragoons again . constantly more or and less in full view. which were easy to handle and deadly in the chase from our horses' backs. evidently not For several days' as and march. reconnoitring us at a distance. and during the daytime. and were now undergoing something like the pulsations and vibrations which a certain little boy once underwent at an old saw-mill lick. and at last their waving cases. in front in rear of us." or " Crease him. and it became a motto in such light little Crease him. Their signs were fresh. long travels over the prairies and through the oak open- ings we had many a fine chance for a rifle-shot.

close by the side of each other. fierceness and elasticity of their horses. in that country. is a small stake of iron or of wood. we'll have it. which brought them nearer to me glass. or (what is a Spanish word. dash at full speed. the companies forming into laying their knapsacks and saddles on the ground. Stampado ligible). then. than they thought for. of some hundreds of bold and furious Indian warriors. when wearied soldiers and their horses are fast asleep.190 LIFE AMONG THE IKDIAKS. were altogether one of the most beautiful sights I ever beheld. mounted on their darting war- in brandishing hand. like a flash of lightning lances and war-clubs . and the appearing over the With my . to be always ready when the encampment is to be formed. and is generally carried A during the day attached to the saddle or crupper. in case of a and each within its owner's reach. and perhaps more intel- when a party horses. hills as we approached them. " Stampado" little is Did you ever hear my readers? No. the grace and elegance of their movements." much the same. to which the horse is fastened. well. the men inside the square. sudden surprise. with their horses picketed hollow squares. made to be driven into the ground. meaning "a trampling. of a stampado. and bivouacing in the nights open prairies. for their pillows. they were beautiful to behold the fierce and manly expression of their faces. with a tremendous scrambling and scampering. in the stillness and darkness of midnight. picket. We in the kept moving on.

All were talking of stampados. over each other and their owners. and broken guns. Such is a stampado. leaving the scienwarriors with broken arms. several nights past.STAMPADO 191 with the thunder following. dash against and the horses. and by the daylight next morning an easy prey. mingling the frightful war-whoop with their the unearthly sound (not unlike theatre thunder) of parchment robes shaken in the hands to frighten The instant flash of a few guns begins the frightful mel^e. en masse. and tific . and are off like a whirlwind upon the prairies at the highest speed. and in the confused escampette. It is like a tornado that's And where is it ? did it stop ? is it passed on. with broken legs. No scalp was taken. all preparing for them. with their enemies behind them . gazing through the dark in vain for some moving object to " draw a bead" upon. twenty miles off run and pressed to the last breath. coming back ? No. and where are they? Why. and his A . upon their hands and knees. . and none was looked for none was wanted or thought of horses were wanted. ances as we learn stampado had been apprehended and feared for from the surrounding appearfrom the dark and gathering clouds and their electricity that a storm is gathering and preparing to break forth. and every precaution in the regiment was made for the event. into and through an encampment. Every man slept with his rifle in his arms. the affrighted horses. a play spell for the Camanchees' lassos before breakfast.

whatever deaths we might die. a few days after the Indians had ceased to show themselves on the my left friend Joe and the whole caravan. and I Joe happened to be ogling fast asleep was when flash went a gun. their nocturnal discipline with the spy-glass. within a few rods of where we were and bang ! . horse picketed within his reach . and therefore to relax a little in hill-tops. therefore. close by a little bunch of hazel bushes. to spell each one sitting other in our sleeps during the night and whilst the other was awake. and on the uphill side. not to be trampled to death. excepting and I. and hobbled them at the same time. had begun to think they had the vicinity.192 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. and poor Joe and I. and had at least ten thousand of the most desperate mounted warriors in the world and we resolved . voyance of the vicinity of the bivouac than anybody About midnight. nor to lose our horses if we could help it. taking straight up his nap. for reasons which the world will never guess. on one starlight night. knew These were trying times for Joe and me. a better sort of clairit. and laying our own saddles a side of quarters. and took the precaution while on dangerous ground. preferred spreading little out- all. and doubtless had. My lorgnette we else in was a pretty good night-glass. We therefore drove their pickets close to our heads. in the centre. . for I that the Camanchees were thirty thousand. notwithstanding we were invited to sleep in the officers' our robes.

of groaning ! of a gun.A FALSE ALARM. like a fleet (but swifter) under full sail disappearing in a mist In the camp all were d genou." cocked and ready. horse . as he was trembling and alternately glancing his eyes over the flying mass. awful ! the snapping of cords. hold my ensued. only a vanishing of steeds. or groaning with their wounds. where a sort of council of war was held. it's that fool of a fellow yonder who has done all " bushes. lying. and that of Charley stood. but no war-whoops nor rattling of parchment skins. other. A moment of silence Here." poor horse there. in the Joe walked into the camp amidst pointing and aimed rifles and fixed bayonets. to wit. with his mane and his tail spread his eyeballs glaring and a picture in himself to look at . the trampling of hoofs. his nostrils raised. Poor Joe. at some risk of his life are no Indians !" this a- he has shot Saying this. ! ! notwithstanding. oh. instantly followed by a struggling and rustling in the bushes. to know if I was frightened. tails and manes. 193 his and where a sentinel had been walking rounds. When I awoke. from which came a deep and frightful groan ! And in the camp. that " a sorrel . and then said Joe. that carried terror with their elevated and confusion as they fled and disappeared. and turning his head to smell my breath. when his little charger in the I arose. succeeded in arriving at the officers' quarters. and Joe made his report. my friend Joe had Charley's halter ! in one hand. the sounds Now and then the flash of grunting. or " lying close. Cat. " Don't shoot don't shoot me there exclaiming.

had got loose. and after not learning Who's there ?' and getting no countersign. of course. and also three or four others. and carefully and most honestly brought to the camp. and delivered to their owners. Some were retaken within twenty miles. for a Camanchee Indian. and it lasted for some weeks. taken with the lasso. who fired at Lieut. who took it. and after he had observed the poor creature feeding it presented its head and breast bunch of hazel bushes near to one of the sentinels. little out of a ' poor brute through the heart. belonging to the commissariat. could proceed. as well as I can remember. though not all gone. excepting those whose wounds were being dressed during the rest of the night by the surgeons and their assistants. and that from necessity for the horses. a halt for some days was ordered. and was mistaken for a Camanchee Indian. Joe and I soon after. and our horses. went to sleep. by the very people . some were never taken. and a great many were brought in by the Indians. of course. Hunter and missed him. The poor affrighted creatures had taken the direction of their back track in their flight. horse. and also Corporal Nugent. blazed away and shot the about for some time. whose guns had gone off accidentally or otherwise in the meUe.194 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. some within fifty miles. because he wore a fur cap. Here. and the rest of the caravan." The sentinel was put under arrest. as he was holding on to his horse. were so reduced in numbers that they must be recovered or replaced before the regiment .

. in and who knew by the flight of our horses what had taken place. and even marching.INDIAN HONESTY. 195 been sleeping. and that we stood in need of dread of. whom we had friendly assistance.

and their beautiful white shields on their arms. and fully equipped and As they came galloping and dashpainted for war. with their ing up. long lances in hand. Camanchees after this for it was soon learned that was a mutual good feeling. Pawnee-Picts Fort Gibson Charley saddled Cherokees and Creeks Seminolee Treaty Death of Seminolee Chief " Dade's Massacre" Capture of Osceola Sad Story Death of Osceola Charley's Freaks Shake and a Koll in the Grass Bivouac with A A Charley Thunder Storm on the Prairies Buck Charley Tracking the Buck Crossing Shooting the the Great [HE reader can easily imagine. all mounted on fine horses. 196 . that there tfas little difficulty in making acquaintance with the . and a wish on both " sides to shake hands. were sent out to meet us with a hundred or more of their most beautiful and celebrated warriors. they presented one of the most thrilling and exciting scenes that I there ever beheld. from the close of the last chapter.CHAPTER Grand Review for St. Louis XIII." which was done in a few with two or three of the secondary chiefs who days.

what they never before had seen. whichever we might propose. and at the distance of a mile or so from the village. some three or four days' march. they invited us to the great Camanchee village. two or three thousand horsemen were seen. in real mili- The chief was in tary order. and the other blood red showing . and after resting an hour or so in that position. Dodge formed his regiment in three columns. with his body-guard around him. and breaking the hill. showed us the great Camanchee miles. advance. by which they furnished the regiment with daily food . a of truce. himself occupying the front. for the chief and the cavalry of the tribe were coming out to Colonel meet and welcome us. Arrived on the summit of a overlooking an extensive and beautiful valley. with his staff . village. in the meantime. The white flag was seen waving in the hands of .GRAND REVIEW. they gave also to the officers and men. and. that he was ready for either war or peace. and his flag colours flying on each side the one a white flag. as we passed along. their astonishing feats in slaying the buffaloes. and pointing. advancing towards us. they requested the regiment to halt. and showed us daily. 1 97 After a general shake of the hand with the officers. an exhibition of their powers of taking wild horse. at the distance of three or four with eight or ten thousand horses and mules grazing on the plains around it They then led us into the valley. to which they conducted us. requested us to halt again.

and then to all the other officers as he passed. and the pipe of peace was smoked. their allies. After an exchange of friendly feelings between and his staff Colonel Dodge and the chief. . but we must go on. and the red flag was lost sight The chief now advanced. made with them also. eighty miles farther on. in a beautiful village of twelve hundred skin tents. buying and selling horses. length. on the banks of a clear stream. himself taking their position in the centre. which afforded the writer of this and Joe Chadwick. etc. and thatched with long grass. ball-playing. councils. where I have said their wigwams were made in the form of straw beePeace was hives. chief then indicated a suitable spot for our encampment. and then formed his army in a double column of nearly a mile in.198 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. in studying their manners and customs. each one extending his hand to Colonel Dodge. the whole Indian force passed in review. and we went to the Pawnee-Picts. Everlasting peace and commerce with the United States was agreed on. Here was material enough for the remainder of this little book horse-racing.. of. and plenty to do. and the officers were embraced of his faithful friend. and facing the officers of the dragoons. and we were soon settled for a residence The two weeks. shook hands with Colonel Dodge and the rest of the officers. dressed and manoeuvred with a precision equal to any cavalry manoeuvre I ever saw. amusement enough. dancing. each of our ensigns.

as with the " Camanchees. which but few horses or few men have probably fully understand. two months. in the 199 sha-ro. and Charley went to pasture in a large field overgrown with white clover and other delectables. the whole ground that we travelled over in peace and friendship became hostile ground. I at this time was taken extremely fever. and a thousand abuses. Back to Fort Gibson was a long and yet an ing journey. and the Arapahos . the consequences of which were." The mission of the dragoons was accomplished. from a great circumstances. arms of the venerable chief Wee-tar-raWe saw also the Kiowas. or could ill with bilious and went to bed. had grown to a perfection felt. and has remained so ever whilst the works that I did have not faded since .FORT GIBSON. but remain as fresh as the day they were made. and also the far more important designs of the author. and peace with all was easy. and until I was my ever faithful friend and was constantly by me. and was established. and whisky. but its interest- incidents need not be recounted here that Charley was as fat and sleek on sufficit. all were friendly. During my illness of . to last for ever. and aftercompanion. our return as he was when we started. that in one year after. the Wicos. though I had rode him more than two thousand miles and our . in a convalescent state. or changed. Joe. familiarity variety of and mutual attachment. for under the treaty of friendship and commerce came rum.

and that he had got so wild and so independent that no one could get near him. Charley .200 wards of LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. where his business called him. started me to the field where Charley was busily graz" ! and on entering the field I called " Charley which the noble animal. which are entirely wild and without roads. would be a heavy expense. but to send him down the Arkansas seven hundred miles. and with a little compass in my pocket. I sent for Charley to be brought up and saddled. of five hundred and forty miles. " that Charley couldn't be caught. and that no one could get near him/' An old schoolmate of mine. but the answer was soon brought back. I could not see during this siege two months but I heard reports of him often. Charley and 1 would start for St. Louis by a shorter route. a distance. from the Valley of Wyoming. and with ing. then surgeon of the port. by steamer. who had attended me through my illness. Louis. I was anxious to take Charley to St. September. by crossing the intervening country of prairies. evidently recognising at my . I felt no apprehensions whatever for So one morning in the beginning of the result. and plenty of ammunition. Dr. I knew the point of compass. left for the Mississippi. Wright. and learned that he was doing well. in a straight line. feeling sufficiently strong to mount Charley with a little aid. and a clear sky. and having prepared my little outfit. and then up the Mississippi nine hundred. and I resolved that just as soon as I should be able to ride.

and with the grass still out of his mouth. of 25. with a couple of buffalo robes for my bed. and with full of grass. built school-houses and churches. and about the half pistols in of a boiled ham. raised his head. and held his head down. which he forgot to chew. and opened his mouth for the bridle which I put upon him. In half-an-hour's time. walking to a trot. and were raising extensive fields of cotton and corn. and 1400. are located in this vicinity. which had always seemed a pleasure to him.000 the Creeks. The Cherokees. came up to me with mouth " another " eegh-ee-e-hee etc. and mane. and the me. 700 miles west of the Mississippi. of 15. commenced smelling hanging ! my breath. in their own countries many of them semi-civilized were owning large plantations.. I was ready to mount Charley and be off.CHEROKEES AND CREEKS. with plenty of ground coffee and sugar. and some my my belt. and Florida. and with which I led him to my quarters. . and 1800 miles from their former localities in the States of These people are Georgia. and then to a gallop. 12.000 .000 and the Seminolees of the Choctaws. salt. and lived in comfortable houses. Creek (Muskogee) chiefs assembled to take leave of What have I told you of them ? Nothing. and my fowling-piece in my hand. . but here were the Cherokee. " with a eegh-ee-e-hee !" and started instantly replied soon increasing his pace towards and me.000 . the Choctaw. Alabama. and 1200. of 21. voice after 201 and his also his beautiful black tail two months' separation. . a small coffee-pot and a tin cup tied to my saddle.

but none at the west . and their fields. and the Indians were bad all neighbours. sides. and " These lands were too valuable rich. It took a long time. meaning. is were therefore the best cotton-lands in Georgia and Alabama. assigning as their reason that their parents and their children were buried around them. north. but too long to be detailed in this place. all is easily explained. their and printed and published several newspapers in own language and English. These people owned and occupied vast tracts of in this. and that the country was their own. for a country given to a with them here. was laid before the chiefs in council. who all refused to sign it. boundary line on the east. he decided that the Indian tribes should be removed west of the Mississippi." at that time General Jackson was elected President . destroy as many of the buffaloes and wild Indians to the west of them as they pleased. the process of moving them was a very disastrous one on both The draft of a treaty for the chiefs to sign. With the Seminolees in Florida. But how came they this wild and desert region ? there's medicine in here. crops growing in their that they must not trespass on their white neighbours on the east. given to them by the Great . and the the and south. and was cruel . they were forced to leave the graves of their parents and their children. but that they might. which they were to agree to exchange their lands by for a country west of the Mississippi. for Indians to possess. and their houses and lands. not at all . No. with their rifles. and it was done.202 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS.

signed. to see if their chief treacherous an act. where he fell a corpse. The and though it was subseon floor of the Senate that the the quently proved chief Charley Omatla had been bribed with 7000 dollars. and as he was rising up from the table. and then six others from the chiefs. according to his promise. was the treaty.SEMINOLEE TREATY. 203 and that they would therefore never remove from it. where it was to be done. and leaning over the table. " ton. whose name you all have probably heard he was not a chief. the head chief. supposing the other chiefs would follow him. the table. 1 With these chiefs . the bullet from Osceola's rifle. and went to the Government agent's office. were through his body before it was to the ground. and no railroad or telegraph in those parts at that time. but a desperate warrior. but it being announced to the eleven subordinate chiefs one day. made his signature to the treaty. a distance of 1800 miles." (!) to be ratified in session) before the by the Senate (then news of the manner of signing should reach there. that Charley Ornatla. Spirit. stepped forward. This treaty was sent by an express to Washingtheir hands. as we shall see. with their rifles in the next day was going to do so came Osceola. The treaty was several times urged upon them without success. and Charley Omatla. had agreed to sign the treaty which they could not believe they all assembled. and of great The treaty was spread upon influence in the tribe. . still the tribe was removed by force under treaty ratified.

kept them at bay for six years. American Indian he who kills the chief in his long as they allow him to live if his act is approved. and so was every successive the treaty. last captured. and of course across the Atlantic. at the head of his Spartan band of warriors. no one can object to his lead and if it is not approved. He was at bravely disputing every foot of ground. them. a very meritorious officer. the announcements were headed " " glorious victory ! The gallant Osceola. as . chief. " " as a horrid massacre . . he is at once destroyed. by the custom of all tribes. with the exception of one man. tribe : own is.000 disciplined troops. This was echoed through all the newspapers in the United States. de facto. the chiefs followhim as their leader for. by force of arms. by an equal or more cunning stratagem. battle for six years afterwards when the Indians had the best of the fight. retiring before some 10. had been destroyed by the Indians. under into the forest to Major Bade. and gained an advantage by springing upon them before they could use their rifles much in the manner of the " Wyoming massacre/' mentioned in an early part of this little book.204 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. with . ing Osceola fled into the wilderness. a number of the Indians were killed. had command of this invading force and in a few days the news arrived that Major Bade and his whole force. who had lain in ambush. however (or rather kidnapped). One hundred United States troops were then sent commence a war upon the Semiand to move nolees. . and whenever.

Here. whose lives are always perilled vicinity. living exposed on the borders of their country. we have arrived at last to " a definition of Treachery in Warfare" This disgraceful act was condemned United States army. they were encompassed by an order from the officer in command.000. as " PKISONERS OP WAR. a dis- . 205 four of his principal chiefs and 200 of his warriors. and 2000 innocent and defenceless men. but the chiefs were too valuable a prize to be released. Administration discountenanced the act. known to be im- when an Indian war the city of is waging in their From New York to Charleston. Thus was broken the spirit of the Seminolees. and sent to Port Moultrie.CAPTUKE OP OSCEOLA. by a stratagem too disgraceful to have ever been They were called up practised by an Indian tribe. at Charleston in South Carolina. nothave sufficiently withstanding . and all were sent. of the one who was guilty of The punished him for it. where we now find them." through the States. pinioned and fastened on horses* backs. after an expense to the Government of 32. as many Indians. my little readers. to the wilderness frontier.000 of dollars. were made prisoners of war. white flag in reply in his own hand. the lives of 28 officers and 600 soldiers. and it by every is officer in the probable that the shame and repentance it. women. as Osceola and advanced. and their weapons left behind them. and thus ended the Seminolee war. and. with a by a flag of truce. and children.

There were at Fort Moultrie at this time 250 men. by the custom of their country. Cloud. his . who were taken with Osceola. affable. who took cognisance of it. and King Phillip. while the young man accused had no evidence to give. and also those of Mic-e-no-pa. Co-a-ha-jo. of having The stolen a chicken from him the night before. and pleasant man. and spoke fort. Chee-ho-ka to steal?" However. complaint was laid before the chiefs. One young men of the handsomest men I ever saw. hearing the proofs advanced by the accusing party. Osceola. was. and the shameful manner in which he had been entrapped. though prisoners of war (they being partly civilized). I travelled with my canvas and brushes to paint the portrait of this extraordinary man. but broken-hearted. the four chiefs captured with him. I English enough to describe to me many of the interesting events of the war. Though a humble prisoner in the found him an easy. the next morning. the " white man's evidence was so strong that he was convicted. a producer of poultry and of the this party. and the sentence of the chiefs. women. At seven o'clock. living in the vicinity of the fort. which he made out to be very conclusive. tance of 1500 miles. only ever know Did any Seminolee asking the chiefs. vegetables. and one of was one morning accused by a white man. and all held as prisoners of war. I painted his portrait full length. and children. that he should be publicly whipped the next morning at nine o'clock. however.206 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. He was a half-caste.

and what had ten times more effect. and alive. and the women and children hooted and hissed him out of the fort. And a little time after. and his disease was express. and quite dead. He died the next day after I left the fort. and from an impulse quicker than thought. him with both hands by the throat with an was capable of before or since and lynching. not been stolen ! This wretch was standing right by my side at the moment. for several of the officers stepped forward and begged me to use no violence . when he . After these events I returned to to New York. with the chicken under his arm. and gave him his chicken to carry home. that I never expressed in my face.DEATH OF OSCEOLA. the fiend came up who had sworn against him. by my had passed me on the road. don't. and great surprise on my arrival in that city. The news. like waiting under the saddle. the soft and delicate hand of Osceola was laid lightly on my shoulder. my friend. must have been I seized iron grip. announced as a sudden attack of the quinsey. without waiting. But this is an awful long time to keep poor Charley for. I learned that Osceola was dead. "Don't. don't hurt him . while the officers of the garrison and the Indians were in a group around him. when he whispered. 207 body was found suspended from a spike in the side by a thong of raw hide. with a noose around his neck. myself. don't strike a dog !" I let the monster go. and confessed that it had of the wall of the fort.

with brooks. . I said. and myself in a . he was always impatient I took leave of Well. of meadows and grassy plains. The country for hundred and forty miles ahead of us (about twice the breadth of England). life. state of convalescence. from a deadly fever raging at the time. and apparently tedious but as my departure from the deadly atmosphere of Fort Gibson was a sort of escape. and the extent to which such sympathies may be cultivated between an animal that works for an object. Dr.208 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. and the chiefs who. autumn around me. my old friend. I. to bid me good-bye. I entered upon sure that few can appreciate with the bracing air of it with a plea- who have seen and felt but the monotones of Charley and friends. was ready. Wright. was vast. to be off. though heretofore the best of had always before had too much company with us to know how much we loved each other . and therefore were sorrowful but my farewell to the country was quite the reverse for the officers and men of the garrison were dying at the rate of six or eight per day. had gathered These good-byes were for ever. and five Charley and I mounted the grassy hills back of soon disappeared. and another that labours without one. the officers of the post. and of the Indian tribes in the vicinity almost an equal proportion. and oak openings. and rivers. of hills and dales. we both required the solitary and mutual dependence we were now entering upon to fully develop the actual strength of sympathies that had long existed between us. the fort.

CHAKLEY'S FREAKS.

209

much

There was another advantage we had that took of the apparent hardships of our coming cam;

paign from our shoulders that arising from the fact that Charley and I were old campaigners together,

and knew exactly how to go at our work And there was yet another advantage that cheered the way very much. Twenty-five days is a long time to
be entirely
voice

mum, without

the power of speaking to

any one, or hearing the cheering sound of any one's

and from a long familiarity and practice, Charley and I had established a sort of language which was at times very significant at all events and therefore very cheering in better than none
;

breaking the awful monotony of a solitary campaign on the prairies. As, for instance, when I went to
the field to catch Charley, as I have before mentioned, after a separation of two months, when I said,
" Charley, is that you ?" he instantly replied, Eeghwas an here ee-e-eh" (yes); affirmative, distinctly
"
;

some might call this gibberish, but still it had its meaning and if he sometimes used it in a wrong sense, he was nevertheless sure to be right, provided I put him the right sort of questions ; and certainly he had one agreeable peculiarity which by no means
;

belongs to
countries,

all travelling

companions in those desert
immediately
either

that

of answering

night or day, to any question I put him.
shall see.
I said

But we
our

we had

set off;

we were now wending

way

over the prairie hills and knolls, crossing beautiful green fields, passing through forests of timber,

210

LIfE

AMONG THE

INDIANS.

leaping and wading brooks, and, when night overtook us, bivouacing in the grass. By the sun,

while
it

it

shone,

we

easily kept
little

was obscure, our
I

and when it showed pocket compass
our course
;

to us.

was

ness,

feeble, having just risen from a bed of sickbut meeting a cool and bracing autumnal wind,

I was every hour gaining strength, though I had every alternate day an ague chill and fever, and

them coming on, I dismounted from Charley, and lay in the grass until they were over.
for these, as I felt

Charley profited by these halts, as his saddle and packs were taken off, and he had an hour or two to luxuriate on the prairie grass, of which he was very
got a good roll or two in the grass in the meantime, which seemed to be a great luxury to him ; and these rolls he took a peculiar pleasure in
fond.

He

performing as near to me as he could without rolling on to me. The shake and the fever, the bait and
the roll
over, and Charley saddled again, we on our course. Carrying one of my barrels always charged with shot, ready for grouse or other small game, and the other with ball, our larder was easily supplied from
all

would

start

day to day with fresh food without the trouble of
dismounting, except to
tie it to

my

saddle for

my

Grouse supper and breakfast where I encamped. were many times a-day rising under Charley's feet, and now and then a fine fat doe was gazing at us,
little

thinking that in

five

minutes the choicest part

BIVOUAC WITH CHAELEY.

211

of her rump-steaks would be suspended from Charley's saddle-strings.

With the exception
I

managed

to bivouac

of one night in the twenty-five on the bank of some little

stream or
coffee,

river,

where there was water to make
to

my

and wood

make a

fire.

We generally halted

a

before sundown, so as to give Charley abundof time to get his supper before I took him up; ance that is, before I took up his picket and brought him
little

in.

The moment

his saddle

was

off I

drove

down
and

his picket

where the grass was plenty and

fresh,

gave him

the full length of his lasso to feed around.
;

I would then gather my wood and make my fire and that well going, I would dress my prairie hen or prepare my venison steak, erecting them on little sharpened stakes before my fire, and get my coffeepot on the coals, and spread out all my little traps, such as a tin cup, a bowie-knife, an iron spoon, a little sack of salt, some sugar, and a slice or two of cold ham. I was in the habit (and this was a habit of long standing with Charley and me) of leaving my little bivouac just at such times and going to Charley with a little treat of salt, of which he was very fond, and which he no doubt took with an additional relish from the fact that I always stood by him, while he
licked

This might perhaps have it out of my hand. been one of the causes of Charley's affectionate attachment to me and on this occasion I had taken
;

care to lay in enough to keep up friendly feelings between us during our campaign.

o

212

LIFE

AMONG THE

INDIANS.

little

also, of receiving this attention at that particular time when his meal was about half enjoyed and mine about ready ; and

Charley was in the habit,

he had learned the time so

well, that if I

was not

ready at the moment, his head was up and his tail spread out like that of a turkey-cock, while he would
stand gazing at me.
I did not ask

him on

these

occasions what he wanted, for he might have been perplexed to answer emphatically, but I would say
to him,
"

Charley

!

do you want your

salt ?"

"

Eegh-

He never failed to answer me in ee-e-eh !" (yes). the affirmative on these occasions, and I never failed
to carry it to him.

After finishing my supper, and just at dark, having brought in and driven his picket close by the side of
me, I was in the habit of spreading one of my robes upon the grass, and using my saddle for a pillow, with the other robe drawn over me, head and all
;

thus sleeping soundly and

comfortably until day-

light, when Charley became restive ; getting up and moving his picket, I generally got another good nap Fire of an hour or so before rising for the day. built, breakfast eaten, and Charley saddled, we were

jogging along again. In one instance we crossed a large prairie of many miles in extent, without a tree or a bush in sight, all
a short grass of some six or the country all around us, and inches high, eight when we were in the middle of it, perfectly level,

the

way covered with

" and the horizon a perfect straight line, out of land," as it is termed in those regions.

of sight

Night

THUNDER-STOKM ON THE PRAIRIES.
overtook us in the midst of
this,

213

and we were obliged
fire.

to bivouac without water, but not without

We

had no

night ; but a venison steak I cooked very nicely with a fire which I made
coffee, of course, that

of dried buffalo dung, which
prairie.

I

gathered

on the

I was awoke in the middle of the night by thunder and lightning approaching in a terrible thunderI got up and drove Charley's picket doubly storm. strong, and folding up my nether robe to keep it dry, and laying it on the saddle, I took my seat upon it it, and spread the other one over my head falling to the ground all around me in the form of a tent, sheltered me and all my things perfectly from the The rain fell in torrents, and the flashes of rain. lightning seemed to run like fiery snakes over the surface of the prairie, as if they were hunting for and I feared at every flash something to strike that Charley and I might be snapped up for that
;
;

purpose. The rain continued until morning, and I got some sleep, but not of the most satisfactory kind, as I was

obliged to keep

my

upright position

all

night.

The monotony of these broad and level prairies sometimes became exceedingly tedious, and even
doleful.

I repeatedly fell asleep while riding,

and

waking, I always found Charley not only going Sometimes for along, but keeping on the course. hours together, creeping along, without a moving
bird or beast in sight, while both were in deep

thought and contemplation,

I

have

"
said,

Charley

!

a

214

LIFE

AMONG THE
"

INDIANS.

Eegh-ee-e-eh !" Charley penny for your thoughts." both bracing up our nerves, and would reply evidently moved along with a new life, and conse;

quently increased speed. One day, while we were thus jogging along, each one wrapped up in his own thoughts, suddenly sprang

up from

his lair, right before us, and within eight or ten rods, a stately buck, with a pair of horns that looked as if he had a great chair on his head!

Charley raised his head suddenly and stopped, and was gazing at him, while I was getting my left barrel to bear upon him, and he was trembling so from fear or anxiety, that I had difficulty in getting my
aim.

When

I fired the deer staggered back a
off,

little,

but recovered, and bounded
ing his flag,"
right.
hill,

but without

"

show-

A

by which I knew I had struck him few rods took him over the top of a little

and he was out of our sight. I pushed Charley where he had stood, and I saw a proup fusion of blood on the grass, showing me that all was right. While I sat reloading, Charley had his nose to the ground surveying the bed where the animal had been lying, and also smelb'ng of the blood
to the spot

upon the
I

grass.

I then guided Charley along

on the track, which
traces

could

easily

follow
hill,

by the

of

blood.

Getting over the

the deer had gone

into a

meadow of high grass which came quite to the top entered the high grass on of Charley's back. the animal's track, and observing the extraordinary

We

excitement that Charley was under, which I could

CHARLEY TRACKING THE BUCK.
feel

215

by his motions as well as

see,

his disposition to trace the deer, I

and observing also had curiosity to

slacken the rein and let him take his course. He went on in an unnaturally fast walk, snuffing and

smelling along at the blood, keeping the exact track
as precisely as a hound would have done, followed it for half-a-mile or more; and

and so
finally

breaking out of the high grass at the foot of a small hill, he suddenly turned his elevated head to the left,

and his ears pointing forwards, exclaimed, " Eegh-eee-eh
direction,

(here he is, evidently) ; for I looked in the and at twenty or thirty rods from us, on the side of the hill, lay our noble buck, with his
!

"

frightful horns, quite dead I never straightened the
!

rein

even then

;

but
tail

Charley started upon a
(oh, I

trot,

with his head and

wish I had a picture of him !), and brought up me within a few paces, and stopped. I then pushed him up, and he smelled of the animal's nose and
the
"

bleeding wound.
"

"Are you
"
(yes).

"

Charley
I,

?

Eegh-ee-e-eh
I
"

sorry," said " Oh, no," said
"

I,

I,
;

"

Charley, you are not.
"

put the question wrong

didn't
right."

Charley

?

Eegh-ee-e-eh."

That's

I dismounted, and Charley looked on while I cut out a nice steak, and looked and smelled

back at me as I was tying it to his saddle, and knew, no doubt, as well as I knew, that he was going to carry it, and that I was to cook it for my
supper.

The almost

incredible attachment of this noble

animal, and the rest of the curious incidents of this

and then. enough for ft and must be One incident. journey from Fort Gibson to book of themselves. I said. and put him out to graze with his picket. The greatest difficulty Charley and I had apprehended on our route was the Osage Kiver. to inform the young reader how we travellers in those rude countries get across rivers which we often meet. however. There was no mistake he was used to . must. we cannot go round it. laying down my gun. I got Charley's packs off. I then took up Charley's picket.216 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. where there are no bridges or boats. which it was absolutely necessary to cross. and laying these at the water's edge. leading him to the water's edge " and taking off his lasso. and cross it we the rate of five or six miles an hour. its banks full with a freshet. be necessary here. have been written. and its muddy and boiling current pouring along at Here poor and I both looked Charley chapfallen give it up we can't." about this. Louis. as it was a thing have to do. and all them I them into an awkformed getting together. I followed up the river-shore for full a mile. " " Do you know what you Charley ? Eegh-ee-e-eh. may omitted in this place. Having gathered enough in that way to form a raft sufficiently large to carry rny saddle and other things dry above the accumuwater. St. ward raft. We came to it it was half-a-mile wide. I began following the shore down and as I these advanced lating floating along. and . picking up drift-wood that I could find near it.

But I had no them and hold alternative it I must force it against from pulling to pieces. and. moved my it.tops extending into the water. caught in the limbs of a tree lying in the water. and thereby threatening to pull it to pieces. no doubt. however.CfcOSSlKG I ffifc GBJSAf OSAG& off pointed to the other bank and drove him in. but very slowly. were I all taken off. but he got to the bank and out upon the prairie. and he started for the other shore. at all events. arranging my things on my raft laying my saddle on it first. and then he turned about and looked at me with a tremendous " I am meaning this time. were sinking so low rotten. and then my robes. and throwing me out again quite into the stream. tree. and my gun. it and swimming I behind with one hand on propelled it. as the stream wafted us down. and I wish you the same. A second effort." had no axe to make them of equal lengths." Charley then went to grazing. if possible. and I went to work. which eegh-ee-e-eh ! . whirling it round. brought rne to a little better . I laboured steadily and hard. and my clothes. " myself. but with two alarmthe dried logs and sticks with was constructed were many of them my the water. raft into the stream. safe over. and was at length nearing the other shore. and get . my things Some of the long timbers of my raft. and. however. absorbing as to bring some of my things into the river and the shore where I was to land was lined with logs and ing apprehensions raft : which . The current swept him down a considerable distance. as I ashore.

. and as I turned " " said Charley. place for landing. of course. as he was round. and preparing to start through the woods for Charley. Eegh-ee-e-eh ! weeds and nettles the thick crowding through disappeared behind the point of timber. " Ration ! of what Of salt. I was startled by a cracking noise in my rear. and that he loved me. mile below where ing with his and full a had lost sight of Charley standhead and tail up." Was he a noble animal ? and for what ? Could I repay Charlie for such affection ? I have said that Charley " was a " noble animal/' I " ? gave him a double ration. my clothes on and all behind me. and at length I got my feet the ground and my traps all safely landed.218 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. upon I was then in front of a dense forest. and watching me as I I Getting things ashore.

of bloom. and leaves are dropping. Who has breathed seen the gaudy colours. of gaiety. and song where dreary winter's blasts are not known. not a great way . go there and see But we are not quite in it yet the valley of the exactly. scorching 219 the beginning. jOW for the fields and forests of everlasting and never-ending green. this music-hall. this aviary of the grand and boundless valley of the the world Amazon and who will not. but it is on a sandy. of all Nature's uninterrupted joy. and heard the sweet notes of this flower-garden. if his life it ? and his purse be long enough. It is in Venezuela. The Scylla Plains of Venezuela Caracas Indians of Venezuela The Handsome Dance The Bolas Catching the Wild Horse Canoeing on the Orinoco Opening of a Spathe The Pirates at the Spathe Campanero (The Bell Bird) Wakened Sloth Mouths of the Orinoco Wigwams in the Trees. of Caracas is not in Amazon. South America. and buds and flowers are ! growing at the same time such a place as air.CHAPTER XIV. ! I have said that I knew the delicious this. nor is it from it.

at the head of tide water it is is . only 1800 . and how long forged in the mighty it has been worked. ject a distance of only nine miles The Orinoco is a large river not far ! from us the Amazon larger than the Missouri. occupied by individual nabobs. destroying ten thousand inhabitants . and the largest of them. and it was there that I first is there we will begin." a 140 ! gun-ship.000 head of horses and Naval engineers who have surveyed the bed cattle of the Amazon at the expense of the United States Government report that the " Pennsylvania. contain only 50. What is furnace underneath us. It formerly threw out its smoke and 19. and for a long distance on the coast. . a terrible shock and a shake were given in the From some unknown beginning of this century. built in Philadelphia. larger but not quite so long . nobody knows. the chimney . Natural things are on a large scale in the country now ahead of us. bello wings can be heard only 600 miles off! and a block of granite of 327 cubic feet it was able to profeet laid " high. landed. much but thirty miles wide it has but about 1500 islands. back of the town. LIFE It AMONG THE INDIANS. and.220 coast. only Chimborazo (Tchimboratho) is now at work is Cotopaxi up of its groanings and equal height (Cotopassi). you may still see the frightful chasms which were opened at that time. could go only as high as Tabatinga in low water : that is.000 " its cinders at the top of Chimborazo. accident in the giant furnace that is burning underneath that region of country.

" down from its Can one climb it ? No. not in the bottom of the ocean. but the sky and the ocean are one. here's another. if the water was low ! The valley of These distances are not very great the Amazon is rather large .CARACAS. if you can venture near enough brink can't . you can see neither. without being liable to get aground. and on the top the cloudwhat's here ? Here is a pebble a sea-shore pebble worn round by the waves on the sea-shore . ! 221 and ordinary passenger miles from its mouth steamers could go only 1000 miles higher. And then. for there are no waves there. you may see a and some little red patches to the at your feet. and you them. France. but it could not pos! more than the populations England. thousands of others ! bird could have brought this here ? and another. If the weather is thick little strip of white sand and overcast. and the United States put together: for putting more than that number in might make some men's farms rather sibly hold with comfort of too small ! The town in the precipitous wall of rock just back of the ! of Caracas is only " " " shakes it 6000 feet in height and shook and shuddered so that the stones and trees were tumbling reeling sides in all directions. where is the town ? and where the ocean ? If the day is perfectly clear and sunny. the waters lie still in that divorce capped summit ! ! place. What but stop. and then . Belgium. But by a hard day's work you may get to its summit by going a great way round.

to be changed from the living animal. their beds have been cretaceous. and looking into it at When were these pebbles rolled by the our feet. we are too high. for thousands of years. with all their curious and intricate tentaculae. so. of course.222 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. let us get down from this place. while he reads and and groaning but he loses tugging much that we see. He carries no knapsack and the escape from one rattlesnake. These pebbles are flint they contain silicified Everything has a life and a death zoophytes these have lived zoophytes live and grow only in the sea . plains. and I. We are ! . we now on grand plateau that There are Indians on these much trouble to get back the top of the " Scylla. He . and perhaps for thousands of centuries. waves of the sea ? Where. how came they here ? or where has here been ? But don't let us go mad ." the sweeps off to the Orinoco. . smiles at our sits at . escaped me ? Yes. No are . or from ache like ours. from one tiger. Have any Indian tribes ever Shall I ever see them all ? I reader travels ! don't believe How easily the across the Atlantic how soon he how quick upon the summit ! is of His sea the Scylla and the plains of Venezuela don't cost him his knees don't fifty pounds voyage I home. must cross them. one drowning produces. in one minute. rounded as they are ? In what cretaceous bed lay they for thousands of years. only 6000 feet above the sea. it's too again . perhaps. into silex before they were rolled? and to be how long have they lain here ? and then.

are with me. and his have no horses. and copses and bunches of timber and bushes on their sides and along the banks of the streams. The meadows are filled with lilies of various hues . resolve to cross these beautiful plains on our legs My knapsack it. acres on acres of geraniums in flowers of all colours and of various odours of wild roses. the pennated.PLAINS OP VENEZUELA. and. ! The busy little humming-birds are buzzing about . but I have resolved to Dr. of all hues are under our feet. lofty. at their feet. 223 This more pleasure than he enjoys in a month. with their mules. We . and now and then a huge rattlesnake ! . oh. but we man. Louis. The prairies in this country are pampas. how lovely bananas. in shape and distant appearance they are much like those which Charley and I passed over between Fort Gibson and St. may carry be so who can contradict it ? is heavy. with beautiful clear streams winding through them. Hentz. and still white with Pinks of a hundred colours and sweet blossoms. the hedges are bending with wild plums and wild The orange and fig-trees are on every little grapes. and violets patterns. hillock. Angostura is on the Orinoco . it is but a hundred may be and fifty miles that's nothing. a German botanist. and dwarf palms. will help us. the Gauchos. rolling and sloping about in all directions. But those bunches and copses when we come near There are the beautiful to them. palmettoes. and fifty kinds of flowering plants. and yellow with fruit.

because the Indians are pleased with us. Goo -wa. are knocking and butting against us. beautifully formed. of beautiful scenes into my portfolio . mostly mixed with Some full-bloods colour and character Spaniards. though and more over our heads bend our necks more to look at it. or thankful. the mach-ee-o-a (handsome or glad dance). and rum.gives. while he is gathering these beautiful plants and lovely flowers. that no one stops to inquire about. shadow is shorter. we Man begins here to feel less than he does in England. Doctor Hentz. Small-pox. are there any? Yes. smaller. and ten thousands of beetles and other clumsy flyers. but not many. much like the Ojibbeways in North America. Who time ? is the happiest man in the world just at this Why. but quick and powerful men. rather small and slight in stature. and so far behind him. and no deformities . it don't follow him so exactly. glad. LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. I.224 us. and whisky have destroyed the Here are the Chaymas and the most of them. and these putting What dance ? yesterday. as per. who am Why. the next happiest? Why. The sun looks haps a have to his little it does at home. that beautiful dance ! Chayma is And who course. amongst them. and perhaps have received some valued . semi-civilized. Spathes of palmflowers are opening. and packing them in his large books. The Indians. and these swarm in myriads about them. which a employed to help to carry to Angostura.

The young Three women dance young and in this country. . The chiefs portrait was held up by the corners in the same way. And then and then. How were these Each one had a beautiful tiger. 225 has told present. Did they on raise their feet they danced ? from the ground when not No. exactly the ! man same as in North America. with white clay. and strings of blue and white beads were dangling from them large and small beads hung in great profusion around their necks. Why then came the handsome dance.THE HANDSOME DANCE. with strings of blue and white beads on their slender wrists and ankles their cheeks were painted red. and the medicine men had a grand dance around it.skin under her feet. And then the warriors danced the war-dance. but not often. and gave the war-whoop. their toes were always the tiger-skins. quite. and also because the medicine them that I am great medicine. what? ! . falling down in shining tresses. and polished brass bands were worn. Did they separate their big . Was it beautiful ? The most girls beautiful thing I ever saw. it was an extraordinary compliment paid to my medicine. What medicine men here too? in South America? Yes. and their bodies were coloured white dressed? . . upon which she danced their spread fastened hair. long pins of silver were run through their under lips. beautiful women were selected by the chief to give this dance . for many years it had not been seen. What the war-whoop here too ? Precisely the same. by a silver band passing around the was head.

branching three ways from the centre. Did they dance to music? In perfect time to the beat of the drum and a chant Were they graceful ? Yes. or with his knife. This mode is used only for "killing/' horses are killed in this The wild manner for their skins and . but with the deadly bolas. and the other two are swing- ing around and over his head until he is in the right position. One of these balls horse the rider holds in his right hand. balls keep their respective opposite positions as they are whirling about in the air. with a leaden ball of half-apound or so in weight at its end. The three giving them all a sling at the same time. does the rest. who. while his is at full speed. Orinoco. till one of the cords strikes the neck of the animal. around which and its legs the cords instantly wrap themselves. not with the bow and arrows or lance. with a long lance from his horse's back. each branch being some eight or ten feet in length. The bolas is a cord of raw hide. They are abundantly stocked with wild horses and wild (not buffaloes. when he lets go the ball in his hand. by disanimal falls upon its mounting. which answer all the same purposes for food to the Indians as well as to white men. but) cattle. can be more beautiful of their kind than Nothing the rolling plains between Caracas and the of the chief's. and the head and becomes an easy and certain prey to its assailant.226 toes? LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS Not an inch. These are taken both by the Indians and the Spaniards.

I believe the natural spirit of the animal is irretrievably lost. their and In taking wild horses for their use. in the folds of the bolas. employed of the Gauchos. the lasso is used by these people much in the same way as it is used by the Indians in North America. cattle for their flesh. it for life. which had suddenly broken out. which stuns the The captor then animal. and its speed is . their hair. places a bandage around its eyes. we learned that a large armed force of insurgents in the civil war at Venezuela. and gets upon its The horse. which has been described only with the difference. on the back part of the head. we got posted on to SanDiego. or disable For catching the wild horse. and it falls to the ground. and from that to a point thirty miles below . rising. was marching on Angostura and by the aid of mules which we .CATCHING THE WILD HORSE. stopped. recovering from the blow. therefore. and entangled would break the animal's neck. 22? and the wild their horns. soon yields to the wishes of its cruel master. which I have seen and closely studied. about sixty miles from the Orinoco. By the effects of this mode of breaking. for in nine cases out of ten the of the horse while at full speed. At the small town of Chaparro. this mode would not answer fall . skins. that when the horse is arrested by the lasso. and back. to such a degree as greatly to diminish its value. not daring to run with its eyes blinded. they strike it with a short baton (loo-tank) " loaded with lead (something like a life-preserver").

no go on there.228 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. the green-heart. and why should we ? What did we see. with their little ones on their the copal locust. forests there anything like lieve it. go on there!" The beautiful white swans by hundreds. with clumps and bouquets of beautiful flowers of all colours and at all heights and chattering monkeys leaping from branch to branch. Cult." and the olow. Is overhanging the shores of the Orinoco. we saw from our little "dug-out" the stately and dark . to us from the withered tops of the lofty moras. tso-cano no. in British Guiana. "Stately. as white as the snow. no. the miiiti. ! ! and pelicans also. Demerara. were flapping their long wings and on the air before I could " Sam " to bear upon them. and from that we got a steamer to Georgetown. we could not. queen mingled and intermingled with cordage and ropes of creeping. the tough hackea. the beautiful hayawa. with their sweet gushing . backs. " Sam who's get ! Sam?" Why. them on earth? I don't be- did I say? The Yes. twenty others. and what did we do ? Why. a canoe took us to Barrancas. But stop we did not come to Demerara in a moment. and lofty. and the graceful resin. with its tall and elegant shaft. the ebony. and saluting us " Tso-cano. and hanging vines. to the banks of the Orinoco . a six-shot little rifle . Sam. and climbing. cunningly ogling us as we The solitary tocanos bowing passed. towering mora. the of and the banana. forest. Angostura.

this. (an omnibus the crowd " must give way is in a triangle. and these and almost twisted. to the Londoners. and in the midst of there is din as well as motion . for birds and wild fowl. and the tortoises. as all There are on the wing. and some evidently expresses. John ! go on. for they chatter as they travel. a flock of wild geese must pass !) . The timid turtles were shoving down from the heads. "Go on. than through them and these crooked avenues. by which a tiger's or an alligator's eye. their leader distinctly cries. John ! Paddington Paddington!" while the beautiful tocano turns his head sideways. wedged foliage. ! they fly a "conductor" and ! ! Get in. taking shelter under the waves whilst their enemies passed. 229 always lying before me during the day. once in a while. at a hundred yards. and rolls his piercing eye down from the tops of the mora. with their matted. as he echoes. sorts. The to drop last of everywhere basking in the sun and plunging off from their slimy logs as we approached. with their elevated came pacing out of the forest where they roam.CANOEING ON THE ORINOCO. John! go on! go on !" . actually they dart through the crowds like a shot. Many So are gossipers. John get in. was sure a red tear these were but don't interrupt me. banks of sand. some loungers. easier to fly over the water and between hundreds of islands. and all colours some slow and some fast. and in my arms during the night. and all sizes. are what the Strand and London Bridge are It is .

The fruit start palms grows just where the leaves and branches out from the trunk. There's no danger of being stung now. and you know what a spathe is better than I . I admit. perfuming the atmosphere for a great distance around them. " and 111 tell its fruits in its own shape." said the Doctor. These busy little creatures. "that's you. for the back-loads of three or four men. when a bright and clear morning shows them their feast opened and spread before them.230 " LIFE Here's a AMONG THE INDIANS. and gather in myriads around them. are visible for weeks. Doctor. and other colours." "Well. containing the for flowers. . ready for the onslaught. that's in your line. and each sort has its blossoms and of all true. and here is now just going on the 'set-to* and pell-mell for honey. Doctor. That is the scene now before us. present from ten to one hundred fragrant thousand and honey-bearing flowers purple. swarm shall of bees ahead of us.sucking birds and insects generally get a few days' previous knowledge of these important approaching events. of when opened. "The honey. of pink. and sometimes months. before they are sufficiently perfected to These spathes on some palms are large open. "we be stung to death!" "No." There are over two hundred different varieties of palm-trees in this country. You see in the midst of that whirl- ing cloud of insects the spadix of a palm in full bloom. its only the opening of a spathe . enough and." said Dr. Hentz. and before the fruit comes large immense sacks or spathes.

the nearest to eternity. the had Doctor . they have their little ones to feed. let's step and look at them a while.PIRATES AT THE SPATHE. where were they ? darting and glistening sizes and all hues. and humble bees. But there were others apparently even more successful the busy. and culled their choicest. These seemed masters of the feast. Doctor. it was easily seen that these were divided amongst the lucky few. he loves honey. of humble-bees." This was a short lecture in you. . where others could not enter but Like too many of the then. freshest sweets. and no time now to sting. as they balanced on their trembling wings. he gets it in a shorter way he picks up these little labourers as they come The sharp claws hawk suspended him from . world who enjoy the sweetest things. but sucks it not. Through my opera-glass the scene was indescribably curious. . that crept between and through the winding maze of flowers. Whilst thousands of honey- and humming-birds. of the bright-eyed little beethese mats of flowers. and other honey-sucking insects were whirling around it. little humming-birds. The surface of these clusters of flowers seemed chiefly engrossed by the swiftbees. fearless. 231 though most of them with stings. of beetles. our and looked at the busy canoe. ready to dart away when danger comes. are all at work. of all whose long and slender bills entered every approachable cell. botany given us many. . like all other riches and luxuries of the world. stopped Thank We group. and others. little bees.

and to hear your description of "I don't think there are it. on the wing. in the grass. and stoop upon him and snatch him up as he passes Amidst these incongruous through the open air." said the Doctor." said the Doctor." any near here. out with their rich loads. and that white one too ? they are both of one species. but heavily. the thing wish most to see is a cocoa-nut tree. but stronger . though the world don't believe it. and puts them in his crop. They know just as well as these insects when a spathe of flowers is opened. with their accumulated ensue . and we shall probably see many of them before long." fact. and there ("Let's go ashore. "There. "the cocoa-nut is not a native of America. and here they are.232 LIFE AMONG THE he INDIANS. drop to the ground beneath." Well. with his plundered prey. do you see that little green snake. they both are honey-eaters." "How "From I did you learn this curious the Indians. were I but ." said I. His feast finished. masses of contending and jealous insects. we were jogging along on the Orinoco. They sit like silent on the dry limbs of overhanging trees. flies. with their fleeter and sentinels deadly weapons. " and I'll show you") and he did show me. and knows the gauntlet he too has to run his enemies are of his own kin. though their colours are different. treasure. Doctor?" "Doctor. but it has been introduced. They take the honeyloaded carcasses of the unlucky combatants that fall. many conflicts and many deaths and many such. "next to the Indians. have not met one yet.

in great numbers are darting about amongst us. 233 Look. when one . I take it. around. Though these forests and these lovely river-shores are constantly ringing with song. They are all here. set of songsters are done. ! . it it's equally near. and and their notes And the campanero (strange bird !). another begins The songs of the day are all but how different joyous and cheering. for we never see them. I never could see though it I am a "medicine man. we can't tell which way they are if we go one way or the other . only just at night. humming-birds. if we could understand them. just at daybreak. but may be within a few yards . and travels with us but we'll drop it. phantoms it's "fly before us." Is it a bird? or is some sort of ? a distant cow-bell mirage of sound ? Is it not It's not a phantom. still one -half of animal nature seems to sleep during the day for . exactly like the tinkling or tolling of a bell. a size larger than the equally beautiful in plumage. There's medicine in this like the thunder- bird of the "thunder's nest. and behind us." one. when it when the ! too late to see or difficulty is the It's same. They They give the forest the most singular character. next time you go to the Museum. and distant. . to look for them. all . from some mystery in sound not yet explained. is it tolls it. and then.CAMPANERO (THE BELL we not ? for the beautiful BIED). before. and perhaps hunt for it again." this does not fly. all all the same the sound is around us it seems a mile . cotingas . We hear their strange notes. there are several sorts of them. are solitary birds.

voice. how emblematic of the gloom and loneliness about us. ings of the red monkeys the hooting of owls and every night the inquisitive goat-sucker. more before we What great ugly beast is start. Bang he falls into the river but he swims and now upon the bank and at one leap upon the side He can't move ha ! ! ! ! ! . characteristic of the glow and warmth of sunshine but in the dark. . are you? go away go away !" Well. ! its like sleeping in a all ! Sleeps day I believe he is up all night looking fellow. we'll go away ! ping too long in this place well jog on we are stopbut then. the laziest animal of all hasn't the energy to stand all the world. who lights upon a limb as nearly over us as he can in safety. the doleful howl. What! hangs and sleeps all day ? Well. and if you have a hen-roost I advise you to beware fat What a gentleman hammock. unprotected. But he is a . and shocks our nerves. prey ! The frequent roar we . hanging under a branch of that hayama tree ? That ? That's a sloth. in his coarse and perfectly masculine and human . fast asleep under the limb of a tree. "Who . that's easier than to stand and sleep . sir. one word . but hangs day without moving. and perfectly harmless . I'll prick him up a little.234 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. that I see yonder. often hear of the hungry jaguar . he seems well fed ." gentlemen. of him. and see what he's made of. the world is full of such hand me " Sam. and characteristic of that stealth with which the animals of the dark steal upon their sleeping. and. hangs by his long toe-nails. it upon its legs.

First-rate. captain. We town rara . they water. I believe he is a great a tree ! another tree ! ! ! . their trunks standing in the water." a strange looking place. upon and the next. no alligator could your lazy gentleman. and where air A Mynheer. captain. . rascal. we must " good chance to overhaul and go. Hentz. . out of sight That's Why. few monkeys would be a match for him. not exactly I am an American that's not far from it" . are at Barrancas now . but they don't look Yes. The tide is getting well in low so exactly I see you are an Englishman. . just where our " little canoe can't go. am told ?" " " ! No only fifty. sir?" nigh up now. " No. ha catch that fellow in the water no dog could catch him on the land. Barrancas is a large but what are large towns to us ? London is This steamer goes to Demeconsiderably larger. I ." Dr.MOUTHS OF THE ORINOCO. actually us ! How or portico of " some mighty are edifice !" truly so . a vast number of islands there are ahead of us is " This What ! We are at the " " mouth of the Orinoco ?" Not It quite/' has a hundred mouths. and amongst the trees." grand and magnificent the forests around Those thousands and tens of thousands of lofty palms. Why. they seem like a grand colonnade. your plants. of 235 and at another of forty feet.

. . . birds' nests are those in those trees ? on the shore." " But. sir. Guaroanes (Caribbees) . sir not in time." " ! Splendid captain. sir. for I am going to send the yawl to one of them with that Spanish gentleman and his two daughters sitting in too. they build their houses in the trees. may have visit a first-rate opportunity you wish. and go up to them by a ladder from their canoes." "That's quite easy. sir. I think. . for I've got to lie-to a little till the tide gets high enough to take us over the bar. what sort of . don't now! if You'll make me smile. you don't take care. sir. captain." (Plate No. splendid . VI.) "Captain. before you go below. what you call birds. "These." They are too large "Well. if and them the " bow yonder. and you'll see them hovering about us in a little These birds fly upon the water.236 " LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. all when the up. am Give us your hand. which nothing can walk through. They are a large sort of bird. . and you to see them. I would give almost anything if we could stop near some of these for a little time. ! who are going to them. and on that island ahead of us for rooks. stranger you know who I we'll have a long talk after a while. and never venture out except when the tide is tide is out. and that always in their canoes is deep mud and slime about them. are Indians. the air they live upon fish and oysters and I exfresh from them some supplies pect by-and-by.

One could stop a long time. and. and sugar are raised and in great abundance. spend his life here. [EORGETOWN. we are not travelling to see large towns and cities and cotton. who (like my faithful Chadwick. Demerara Paramaribo Rio Essequibo Howling Monkeys Village Treachery of Interpreter Indian Hospitality Indian Superstition Showing Revolver to the Indians The Young Revolver Hill of the Shining The Old Mini Stones Picking up a Rattlesnake A Bed of Poppies.CHAPTER XV. in North America) accompanied across the Acary (or Tumucumaque) Mountains of the to the valley of the Amazon. great perfection. in Brazil. where coffee. but. And no man friend. a large and very flourishing town. and everybody knows what they are but it is not all the world who knows what's before better key to that can be given at this the than following extracts made from a series place of letters written at Para. in fact. have no time. by a fine young us. Demerara. with pleasure . as I have said. in is British Guiana. Joe me name of Smyth. These letters were 237 . in we .

which " PARA. my long silence. one . that correctly describe I consider them well deserving of this notoriety. " An hour or so after. and I backed quietly him. 1854. a or swallowed an by by tiger. I got a peep in and saw what was going on. amused at the red heads of some Caribbee Indians. Demerara. There was a great crowd in the place. ing myself at the top of the stairs. six months without making a sixpence. You of London. without my knowing what to do. who was standing before He didn't observe me. painting the portrait of an Indian chief.year since. when I fell in company with an old acquaintance will "DEAR BROTHER. and. when the crowd had cleared . &nd I am sorry to say I found it not to be the I lounged about there for thing it was said to be. with his palette and brushes in his hands. My tin was about all out. I have been permitted so graphically and and scenes country we passed. and findout of a chamber window. out. since my return. to make these extracts. alligator before this. whom you will remember. Catlin. I arrived in Georgetown. and at the farther end of the chamber I recognised the old veteran. have thought. looking I ventured in. BRAZIL. Mr.238 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. perI had been killed from that haps. whose Indian Collection we went often to see in the * * * Egyptian HalL " I one day espied a crowd in the street. written to his brother in Berkshire several years since .

You won't remember me. and at last and you may . in Brazil. and the sides of the room around lined with Indian portraits and views of the country. chiefly away. and the arrangements were * * * * soon concluded. I proposed to the gentleman. as I had a first-rate Minis' rifle with me. empty. I entered again. on the Orinoco River. and then we were prepared to cross the mountains. and what she there was easily imagine He spent some enough now preparing for her. " I soon learned they were going to start in a few days for a journey across the Tumucumaque Moun- tains into the valley of the Amazon. * " # * * There was a German Doctor with him. and suited him exactly. hunt for him.PARAMARIBO. and they had just arrived from Angostura. that if he would pay my expenses and furnish me with powder and ball. at the risk of my own life if it was necessary. 239 and the chamber was pretty much and advancing. over six years since you saw me . little time in painting some tribes in this neighbourhood and in Dutch Guiana.' but he called my name in an instant. just the place precisely where I wanted to go of all others. offered my I said. sir it is hand. their noses and faces tanned and burnt almost to the colour of Indians. the 'old Minie' well. offer "You know can do . I would go with him. large table in the room was loaded with plants and skins of animals and A birds. ' . This saved him the expense of hiring a worse man. at Paramaribo. and protect him.

We ascended this magnificent river for a hundred or two miles. and the shores abound in wild animals as we pass along. and our party con. and the manner which the scales would fly when I struck them. " whom the governor had hired as a guide . as we called him) the German Doctor and his servant an Indian halfbreed. river is alive with wild fowl and alligators.240 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. in a with a family of Indians who had come canoe. . The old Minie' was almost constantly in my hands. Mr. large down to Georgetown to make their trade. " The Indians in this country use no guns. had got pretty tired of waiting. and then took off to an Indian town. and the Indian party in our boat were constantly amused and astonished at the distance at which I would in knock the alligators off their logs. . and the lead which she hove ashore was curious. was lined with from the one immense forest of palms and other trees over- hanging the and many of these. * " * # * The banks of this noble river. I The assure you. where we were told we could get horses and mules to take us on to the base of the mountains. * " * # sides * The whole shore on both river. lined with its stately palms and other evergreen trees. to near the great falls. are beautiful beyond anything that can be described or imagined. Our set out. our interpreter and myself. a Spaniard. . Catlin (or governor. after I course was sisted of up the Essequibo.

. the canoe and our Indian party. "There is a sort of monkey that howls in the night. 241 ground to their very tops. and they seemed to gather around us every As soon as it was nightfall. were covered with white and pink flowers. but we stretched our hammocks and slept upon the high banks amongst the trees. oh. a sort of wild pig. and our guide brought us to a small Indian village We just before night. they are fine game. we had a hard siege of it. Their branches were constantly shaken by squeaking monkeys looking out at us and leaping from tree to tree. keeping opposite to us as we passed along and parrots were chattering and scolding at us as if we had no right to be there. it was curious night. through swamps and quagmires. making the most hideous noise that ever was heard. At night the Indians always slept in their canoe. and left in the we were all loaded down. morning. Peccaries. when they always " When we left each one had to carry his share of the luggage.HOWLING MONKEYS. lighting a strong fire. horrid a leather apron they were the worst enemy we had the old Minie There was no such thing as couldn't touch them. and keeping it up all night. ! . getting to sleep until ten or eleven o'clock at night. The Indian . . disappeared. Some of these were as large as and the mosquitoes. and good " eating. were running on the banks in great numbers. to see the bats come out and sail about over the shores of the river. and took to the land. with nothing but a footpath to follow.

and amongst them some of the handsomest mules I ever saw. he began making signs in The governor began to smile. and after watching them closely for a minute or so. and there were a great number of horses and mules grazing around them. he was an oldish man. jumped upon nimbly as a boy. and. very suddenly. and he now and then gave a sort of grunt. telling him where we were going. the governor soon Commenced a conversation with him . without much change. The governor and chief the embraced him in his arms. was smoking a long pipe his head was cast down. through the interpreter. Some skins were placed for as to sit upon. with small palms in groups standing out upon it. when the governor commenced making some sort of masonic signs with his hands to the chief. and what our The chief was sitting cross-legged. however. who raised his head a little. callarose. " The conversation went on for some time. him his brother !' ing " A further conversation then took place between the two for some time. and was seated on the ground.242 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. he laid down his pipe. town. and the chief. seeing they mutually understood each other. was upon an open plain. and striking both his . and object was. who received us very kindly. and I saw that the governor began to show a little concern. very beautiful. " The huts of these people were all thatched over with palm-leaves. reply. hands quickly together. " The guide led us to the chief's hut. while the old chiefs limbs his feet as ' .

it was for him. when he advanced up suddenly in front of the governor. and placing his hand upon the handle of a large knife which he wore in his waistband. At this. " The Spaniard. These people : and you are their father/ The governor told the chief what our views were. he drew a little back. seeing himself detected. The governor for which time he was employed. 243 trembled with pleasure and excitement. and to try to deceive him also. was in a great rage. of the young men of the tribe to be a great scoundrel. who understood the ' same signs. " . and a click (a sort of a hiccup she has when she is just about to speak). and demanded his pay for three months. and smoked the pipe in the same manner to which the chief replied. and not for the white man. who it seems had been giving him a different interpretation. living three or four hundred days' all march to the north (in North America). . refused to pay him a sixpence. " The chief then said to him. as he had acted the traitor in his house.TEEACHERY OF INTERPRETER. demanded his money again but muzzle of the old Mini the about that observing instant near his short ribs. and that we wanted to hire some horses and some of his young men to take us to the base of the mountains. to pay him that he was known to many are our brothers. the chief turned to the interpreter. The governor then explained to him that he had come from a great many tribes of red people exactly like himself. and told him he was a great scoundrel to deceive the white men who had employed him. ! .

" All was now friendly and cheerful old man about my age introduced us to his two sons. " The chief told us that his house was small.. We all and and his were seated at that time by the side of him. like . buffalo hunts. . all in blazing colours. We were placed. we never heard of him afterwards. with all our things. with the German Doctor man. until the governor opened a large portfolio with a hundred or portraits of Indians. and not very good. the times for round several passed old chief holding the long stem in both hands. The scamp then walked off. The governor commenced the conversation the next morning. the and the sooner and the more quietly he got out of way the better. and the pipe was us all to smoke . and passed the night very comfortably. but he would do all he could to make us sleep well. etc.244 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. how beautiful a racecourse of such young men would be. young men they were almost entirely naked. as he walked round and held the pipe to our mouths. upon the ground. The . Perhaps few men on earth were ever more suddenly amused and astonished than full " more this old veteran " was at that moment. The . where he had come from. by telling him he was going to show him and his people how the red-skins looked in North America. most of the tribe but I only wish that I had limbs I often thought so round and beautiful as theirs. and no other Indians in the hut. in a small adjoining hut. which the good old man could not at all comprehend. and we should be welcome.

and the rest of this day village The whole . whose visage was filled with wrinkles. curiously painted. to the old doctor. " This. which seemed at last to be the signal for a strange-looking being to enter. but supposed what was the it was Great Spirit. the old chief got up hastily and took down from quite up under the roof of his hut a little round roll some eight or nine inches of bark. at least a pint of some liquid as white as milk. spirted upon from his lips at three or four efforts. and in the middle a He handed this string of blue beads hanging down. while he in silence gazed upon it. 245 old man looked at them all. entirely " The governor never could to the learn meaning some offering " of all this ceremony. his seat was an Indian doctor. it and raising it near his mouth. and smilingly gave us their hands in a hearty shake. but very fast . and kindled up until it was consumed. who took by the side of the chief. which he sat by. where we went. This done. with a fan in one hand. I learned. and a which he was shaking as he entered. and after they had looked over the pictures. who took it in his hands. both he and the doctor got up.INDIAN SUPERSTITION. and when he was done. his face most rattle in the other. began to howl and sing the most droll song I ever heard in my life. Where on earth this was concealed. was by this time assembling out-doors. which had several yellow ribands tied around it. The chief then laid it on the fire. or what it was none of us could tell. like a paper scroll long. covering it from one end to the other.

. in looking at the pictures. their weapons being bows and arrows. and he was about to proceed. necessary.246 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. they were all perfectly satisfied. which he always carried in his pantaloons pocket. therefore. as they never had heard or thought of a revolver and I having given out that the governor's gun would shoot all day without stopping. The governor's gun. made an exhibition of its powers Colt's six-shot rifles .' These people had but three or four light and short guns in their village (and good for nothing). target. and had been the door of a hut. with a bull's-eye in the centre. and also in our You know the 'old Minie/ examining guns. which was stretched on a hoop. this he ' " . without their observing it. whether that was enough at which. had slipped off the empty cylinder and placed another one on. While this little parley was going on. and the bolas. the governor took his two three four five position. I at that moment touched him on the shoulder. and the governor had always in his hand one of 7 was spent had nicknamed Sam. the governor. who was standing by the side of us. charged and ready with six His rifle was raised and levelled at the shots more. when the chief advanced and said it would be wrong to expend more powder and ball. and let off one ! ! ! ! ! six By an understanding. was the greatest of curiosities to them. and placing it at some sixty or eighty yards. as we might want it all on ! . till we could learn from the chief. on having appealed to the crowd. and lances. " For this I took an old cow-skin.

had reported it to of the young men. : ' for hitting the target at such a distance. And I carried the target and set it up at about two hundred yards. said. my gun was an equal curiosity. held the pistol by the side of the and the exact resemblance. cautiously. and myself a little so amongst the number.THE OLD MINIE. began to smile. all now began to come up.' This was " really amusing. 247 our journey. but very with their hands over their mouths and a ' as they gave a sort of a groan ya. conrifle. They were both considered great mysteries. vinced them that the pistol was a young one . " But the funniest part of this scene place. and drawing it out. ya. " The target was brought up. and that his people were now all convinced that his gun would fire all day. who had all along been in Yes. and when they saw me strike it the first shot. " Next came the old Mini I was anxious to show them what she could do. ' Here the squaws. though it could not fire so fast. and there was not a man in the tribe who was willing to touch the triggers of either of them.' the background. who came up to him very The timidly to ask him if he hadn't a young rifle.' an J ' The governor . governor not having thought of his pistol during the some excitement. and the shots all in fche space of the palm of one's hand they were still more astonished. which he always carried. now took Some of the little boys standing near the governor having discovered in his belt a revolver pistol. except in size.

and fired a couple of shots. squaws poor all all Keep the thing warm. at the trunk of a palm-tree. resolved. by exhibit' and the Sam one! old young ing " The governor having painted some portraits. who was a feeble man. to go back from this place. women than The governor explained that it was very young.' would not have created greater sympathy amongst the it did. and I think a little afraid of the Indians.' " The report of the ' medicine gun. the boys were cutting and digging with their knives for several days. we were prepared to move on. however. at a shorter distance. all were waiting to see it. I could very soon all the fortune I ever wanted. the governor placed his pistol in ' his belt. with his man. just half the number we gone back. The doctor. it had At this he levelled it got so as to do pretty well. . to their " For these. and the moment we arrived. " All satisfied. that could little fire day without reloading/ went ahead of us to all the tribes we afterwards visited. but the report was they had not got to them before we left. standing some six or eight rods off. great amazement. and his friend the German doctor having busied himself have made in collecting his roots and plants.248 if it LIFE AMONG THE ' INDIANS. and wrapping his capot around him. Here our party was started with split. and we never heard anything further how they got on. If these poor people had had the shillings to give. the raised a shout of approbation. but notwithstanding. and was getting weak. it could have said mamma.

about a mile. and of no value. got to to look at but when we them the governor said they were crystals of gypsum. and in a hundred different shapes. and horses to ride until we reached the base of the mountains. were seen grazing.HILL OF THE SHINING STONES. and we started off. . " The country we now passed over was beautiful and delightful. and told the governor he was a first-rate and honest man. and conversed with them. " 24)9 The chief gave us one of his sons and a nephew. they were so were very beautiful . with here and there little patches of timber. well. to be sure. . The governor bought a strong mule to carry our packs.' that he to a little village had heard of from the Indians. They were in myriads. black. white. and striped. soft. were the shining stones. left. and. most of the way rolling prairies. who all were much and the son seemed to be acquainted with them like those we had chief's all. In one place the governor was induced to go about thirty miles ' out of our way to see the hill of the shining stones. a fine man. We came on the bank of a small lake. and on ' the other bank. who knew the route. and as wild as deer or any other animal.' They were glistening in the sun. perfectly transparent as water but one could cut them with a knife. " language being pretty Immense herds of all colours of wild cattle and red. We him visited several villages of Indians. the much the same. and very beautiful. and we had yet the faithful The chief knew half-breed. sticking in the clay.

difficult as it was to carry them. the most beautiful things I ever beheld. fifteen " We " this The governor was in the habit of going along beach every morning and collecting these pebbles . when broken. The western shore of this had a broad beach of rounded pebbles. and when he found a right handsome one. which I should think it once had been. and of all colours. At another village much farther on. . on the bank of a some four or five miles long. gathered and brought away some ten or pounds' weight of the most beautiful of them. and nearer to the base of the mountains. some of which were exactly like the rays of the setting sun. Many of them were beautifully transparent. and putting others into his pocket for The Indians gave him the name of the his dinner !' ' Stone Eater. putting it in his pocket. ran ' back and told their parents that here . we stopped for several days in a large town better lake built. and the little Indian children skulking about in the bushes and watching him at a distance.250 " LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. and not fully understanding what he was doing. These pebbles were flint. and then wetting them with his tongue to see the colours.' I forget the Indian for it. was the strangest man in the world declaring that they had seen him every morning making his breakfast on stones. and some of them. resembling exactly the sea-beach. with figures of a thousand shapes in them. but seeing him picking up the stones and breaking them with a little hammer which he always carried.

but they had no word for it which we could understand. The governor must be from some mineral substance. I lifted up a huge arm. I went for my saddle to make me a pillow. and we were preparing our beds. and we steered towards it. and it was approaching nightfall.PICKING UP A RATTLESNAKE. my just missed as I flung himself up in a rattle. when we encamp one night in a beautiful little valley filled with wild flowers and vines. many miles length. Our Indians knew without doubt what it was. and reaching down for what I took to be the girth lying on the ground. house. when we of wild poppies about . He made circle. off. and were obliged to wait till we got to it for found it to be an immense bed an explanation. * " * * * As we were n earing the base of the mountains we in discovered ahead of us an unaccountably strange appearance a streak of bright red. it thought and perfectly straight. a grand pass at . him down and then coiling he commenced buzzing his brought up and was ready for a spring! My outcry all the party. but rattlesnake. after having rods left it on the bank of the little stream a few up the saddle. " 251 halted to Not long after we left this village. at a few rods' distance. which was soon looked up by the Indians. We its mate. I took it beginning to be a it little darkish. and handsome enough for the lawn of an English gentleman's we had taken our supper. and I must say I never beheld so frightful a beast before in all my life. and both heard the rattle of were knocked on the head.

252 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. and so thick that no vegetables whatever grew between them. could only see their heads and horns above the flowers as they were moving along. their red heads being so thickly grouped. went back. the governor and I sat down and looked over our pretty little ' stones. and the quantity of deer that were jumping up and We trotting off through it was really surprising. that in looking over them at the distance of thirty feet from us. and we then took to our feet. but before we started. left the rest to # * be called for/ * * selecting a " . as high as the stirrups of our saddles. without another colour mixed with " it. the flowers formed one complete mass of red. with their horses. with our mule to carry our packs. when they looked It took us a mile or as if they were swimming in a lake of blood * * * ! * " At the base of these mountains the two Indians. and dozen or so. two to go through it.

poor beast.CHAPTER Valley of XVI. one hundred miles to selves and we often wished our- back again . one after another. own backs and got on much Horses' legs are not made for . which rise in a number of ridges. took us at least cross. gave out about the middle of them. and took the rest on our better than before. Amazon Head of the Trombutas A " Strong Lie " Assemblage of Tiger Shooting Bridling an Alligator Monkeys Monkeys' Theft Obidos Beheaded Rattlesnake Turtle Butter Shooting a Rattlesnake Turtles' EggsTurtle Hunt Para. two legs are far handier these mountains of rocks and better managed. we 253 had. very rugged and barren. Santarem JHESE immense mountains. We left behind the heaviest of our articles. " We When we struck off into the valley. and we can creep along almost anywhere now. and we had to leave it. our pack-mule. * " * * * got at length the first glance into the great of the Amazon as we came out of a deep valley * * chasm we had followed for many miles. I .

stones. for one feels in seemed a pity to shooting them as if he was It shooting in some nobleman's park. which. when he broke them open.254 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. covered with grass and wild flowers. with gun. and others as pure these the governor called geodes. and herds of wild cattle and wild horses grazing on them . some were yellow. the most beautiful scene in the world before us the beautiful rolling prairies. never having heard the report of a I am sure that in some places I could. do think. were filled with the most beautiful quartz crystals of various colours some were purple. and then standing to look at us. kill them. where we found some very hospitable villages of Indians and finding a couple of half-breeds and several Indians loading a large canoe with hides and other things for Para. the old Minid. have easily killed some forty or fifty for a per day. in fair range dead shot. as water : . and many of them * " filled * with beautiful crystals. . crossed here a large stream. it being nearly was filled with countless numbers of round some of them two feet across. by regular stalking. the bed of which. we got a chance to go down with . * * * " * We down some dry. and the deer that were springing up from the shade of every little bunch of palm-trees were tilting along for a few rods. * * We struck at last upon the Eio Trombutas. There were also waggon-loads of others shaped like rains' horns some of these as large as two men could lift. and followed it miles.

This canoe. who had been strongly opposed to the taking of the portraits. and had its sides built up a foot and a-half higher. All the trees are evergreens. and ripe fruit and fresh flowers on the same trees at the same time. so as to keep out the waves when five some four or " heavily loaded. and laughed at him excessively.HEAD OF THE TEOMBUTAS. and they could not understand him at all. dug out. is no winter in this country: it is one perpetual summer and spring-time here. and would carry tons with ease. the sun right over our heads. where he stopped a few days to make his portraits. with ribs interwoven with palm-leaves. And an old man (it seems. in a people . by endeavouring to explain to these people how different the country was that he came from He tried to describe hail and snow to them. we see "Frost never was known here. On the head of this river we were exactly under There the equator . telling his it was very silly to be listening to such stories. and becoming so hard that we could walk and run. 255 five feet wide. Everything out in full blossom all the year round. and they were rapidly beginning to haul off. them. some forty or fifty feet long and was made from a solid log. and even drive our horses and wao-gons over them. one of their doctors). they became entirely incredulous. And when he told them of ice of our rivers freezing over. and the governor got himself quite into disrepute in one of the small villages. but there seemed to be no words in their language for them. got up and began spouting most violent manner against him.

for the doctor told them. we all set off towards the Amazon. and said the old doctor had behaved very foolishly. however. "The greater portion of the crowd got up and followed the doctor to the village. We had no other means of proof to offer and the old doctor wrapped shoulders. " The chief. and the facts no easier to at the time . We were sitting under the shade of some palms on the bank of a river at the time. be believed. and there would soon be a fight. and a hard so the affair dropped.' " ' it only made . the canoe the governor had laid in a goodly number and loaded.' will. and walked wards the village.256 " LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. the lie stronger. remained seated by the governor's side. which I easily did but this only made the trouble worse. and you After . perhaps then some three hundred miles off. who was a very pleasant and dignified man. The governor sent for me I was on the boat and got me to testify to the truth of what he had stated. and some of the squaws clapped their hands over their mouths. we had got a little recruited. by which name he " no doubt. where the greater part of the village were assembled to witness the operation of his tiger-skin around his off in quite a huffy mood to- painting the portraits. be spoken of for a long time to come. believing that the insult given by the doctor was such as the governor would feel bound to resent. the governor getting only name the squaws called him 'Hard Water. of sketches. and began to howl and cry. at a few rods' distance.

for their favourite tigers live chiefly along the shores of the food is the soft-shell turtles come out of the river to lay their eggs in the sand in the night. no sport in killing these fellows in this way. We might find sport. skins. one a beautiful black very scarce here. and birds. " The river. however. was oil upon they hear us talking and rowing. and I have eight. to the shore for a dead shot.TIGER SHOOTING. when they have only by this means they keep glistens as if there to slip down and eat so fat that their hair it. again. and trees. and after as they want. which we never miss. if we . There is. and plants seemed much the same as on the Essequibo but tigers and monkeys were at least three to . and turn great numbers that of them on their backs with their paws . every one of the eyes as " which shows the bullet-hole as exactly between you could put your finger. All the animals. showing only their heads above the looking steer our canoe near enough grass and weeds. 257 can well imagine that the old Minie* had plenty to do again. where they lie until they are hungry . one. they just eggs on to the creep up top of the bank in the shade of eating as much the timber. they the edge of the bank. and are discovered to creep up at us. "When We The governor counts five tiger. and rush upon them at that time. in fact. and digging up their out of the sand as a sort of dessert. The tigers watch them. for it is only like shooting at a target at some thirty or forty paces (this you will say is child's play).

and took good care not to go ashore where we saw fresh signs of them. . under the shade of some small palms. generally know where they are by the carcasses of turtles on the sand-beaches. and were roasting a fat pig which I had shot from the boat. up with and playing . and he was with a wooden spoon lading some rich gravy over the pig from a short-handled frying-pan which I was holding underneath. Indians were asleep in the canoe. and fast asleep. and while the governor was sitting down on one side and I squatting down on the other. where we saw no signs. there ' is ! my head around. and the governor and the half-breed and myself were a-top of the bank the governor and I had built a large fire. but gradually turned . an inch a splendid tiger just behind you I held on to the frying-pan. should go ashore for these chaps . The governor said. We " We were in the habit of making a halt and lying by a couple of hours every day at noon in the In one of theserests we had lande d heat of the day. I observed his the eyes staring at something over my shoulder. when I saw the beast lying on all fours alongside of the half-breed. who was lifting lying on his and paws one fast asleep ! He was of the half-breed's feet. his face. and in such cases we are all on the look out.258 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. but we had no time nor much inclination for that. by the side of a high bank. Smyth be perfectly calm and cool and don't spill the gravy and don't move ! " ' . who was lying a couple of rods from us. in the direction of our half-breed guide.

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losing our . the male. The Indian leapt nearly as falling perfectly dead. and caused it to raise its head and its eyes towards him. where our down were left. which directed the attention of the animal to him. when he let fly. endanger the man's body. I was in hopes he would have taken up the old Minie' . VII. far in the other direction . but he rifles preferred his own and getting it to bear upon the beast (Plate No. to Not succeeding in this. he was obliged to stand a minute or so for it to raise its head high enough not . in but we hopes the male would show himself again waited in vain. and this beautiful animal was taken on board. " The governor who had at this time sliding hat behind him. secreted bunch of weeds about fifteen feet behind the governor's back.TIGEE SHOOTING. was the grass-covered bank backwards. and at the same instant and darted into the thicket. he gave a sudden whistle. we pushed out a little into the stream and waited a couple of hours. game. with it 259 apparently as carefully and innocently as left his a kitten. and started on our course. when he had been sitting at the arose in a fire. which was in front of the tiger. and leapt about fifteen the tiger gave a frightful feet into the air. and feet foremost. and over which he must shoot very close. The next moment he had one foot upon its deck and his rifle in his hand. "At the crack of the rifle screech. to the boat.). . "After our pig was roasted.

brought a log of drift-wood The the size of a man's thigh. and kicked and dragged it. broadside. turned the stupid creature over and over. the brute pulled up. meeting it face to face. we were startled by a loud hissing. but our daring little half-breed. into and across the creature's mouth with . advanced up and threw it. the upper jaw almost falling over on to its back. one of the men. When we had We were about springing into the boat. and called out for a block of wood. with its ugly mouth wide open.260 * " LIFE AMONG THE * INDIANS. towards it. and we all gathered round. " The little half-breed then stepped by the side of the animal and got astride of its back. without any weapon. and lay stock still. when. on a broad sand beach lying between the river-shore and the timber. * * gone ashore one day. as quick as lightning. range of long and sharp teeth deeply driven into it. terrible all its down came upon it the upper jaw. running a little way up the beach. and commenced the most frightful hissing " ! little half-breed kept his position. and with a crash. better acquainted with these beasts than we were. and six or eight feet The half-breed took this in both hands. When they had got within ten or twelve feet of each other. . balancing it in a horizontal position. and long. and we discovered a huge alligator coming at full pace towards us. ran. from the edge of the timber towards the water. but nothing would make it quit its deadly grasp upon the log of wood.

ASSEMBLAGE OP MONKEYS. but) little bunches of boughs and leaves shaking. minute a thousand voices were going and looking up and down the river. as they were leaping around from tree to tree. when we were taking our lunch under a grand forest of lofty trees. I ran down to all hands were asleep at the stern . and not much underwood or vines. * * * * "In one of our noonday halts. * " * * The noise gun I don't believe was ever I have before heard on this river. where have kicked up such a rumpus. 261 all told and nothing ever could while it lived. we found the monkeys assembling in vast numbers over our heads. and there was no knowing where the crowd and the bedlam were to end. for the Indians us it would live some eight or ten hours. middle of the day. for one has no idea of the fuss it makes when the old fired in the Minie* speaks. The governor and I began to get alarmed for fear they were going to attack us. sometimes was silent. where they and the parrots are peepin one ing out to see what is going on. but * of a not longer. without your seeing hide or hair of them. "Our little half-breed smiled at our alarm. and chattering with an unusual excitement. and said they must have stolen something from the canoe to the canoe. when all and not a leaf on a tree in motion. at one view you may see in the tops of the overhanging trees five hundred (not monkeys. They kept coming up and increasing every moment. and .

and aiming at a large monkey which he said was the leader of the fracas. it was im- possible to cure the it wound of this poor brute. and others with them as regularly stuck behind their ears as the pens of counting-house clerks are carried and the powderwhilst . The screams understood by of this poor creature's distress being the throng. others were leaping around with bunches of the quills in their mouths. had been carried off. flask could hear knocking about amongst the limbs of the trees. Though it had been agreed by all parties at our start that no one should kill a monkey. and in less than one minute they were all out of sight. and was knocked on the head . they were all silent in a moment. and became so enraged. which we had left on the deck. that he took the old Minie before I observed him. and some were engaged in pulling them to pieces. though we could not see it. " These thievish little creatures had taken the two head-dresses into the tops of the trees. 7 with his backbone shot " off. and soon discovered that two beautiful feather head-dresses. " we One of the half-breeds from the boat had come up the bank in the meantime. which the governor had that morning purchased of some Indians we had passed. he fired and brought him down. LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. and returning. while it was leaning against a tree. but the powder-flask never came down. I soon saw the proof of the theft by the hundreds of feathers that were falling over our heads.262 end. and the governor's powder-flask.

While passing along close to a high bank one where there seemed to be no timber on the top. and some of them very large. had been killed here of immense size. at one leap. the governor sprung at the same ' ! " ! time. but we were not able to see either of them. The anacondas and boa constrictors. he said in a quick tone. it fast I held top. much higher than his head. as he was anxious to climb the bank and see what was The canoe came to the shore. I saw a huge snake leap from the top of the bank. and by the . in the distance. as he was reaching his hand back. day. This was quick work. Kattlesnakes we killed several times. and after ascending a step or two. and cracked. quite on to the boat. and fall at his feet.SHOOTING A RATTLESNAKE. the Indians told us. right towards him. the governor got the men to land him a moment. and with his eye fixed on something before and above him which I did not see. I assure you. as " we met them swimming the river. " 263 The snakes on this river are very numerous. with his rifle in his hand. He said that he had fired at a rattlesnake and had missed it . The governor stepped ashore. and by grasping to some bushes at the water's edge. and as pale as a ghost. which was instantly at his face. drew himself back a little. 'No! be quick as lightning I prefer Sam/ I handed him his gun. The bank was fifteen feet or so in and with grass and flowers to the covered height. that he saw the rattling creature coiling up for a jump. Symth hand me my rifle!' 'Take old Minid?' said I.

. regularly coiled up where he had fallen. and with . are bitten !' him and then. and looking me right in the face. knew there was not an instant to lose when I handed him the gun. ' lie said.264 he LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. and the faithful was down upon his knees. on the skin. The snake's head was raised high up/ said he. Indians and all. and with a smile of exultation. There's no harm ! you'll find the snake without a head. and on the breast a spot as large as the palm of my hand. and prepared to suck the poison from the wound. and just where he represented he had been struck I saw a spot of blood the size of a half-crown piece. and I ' said. unless the ' ball had been lost out of the cylinder. and how he could have missed the snake he could not tell.' "One of the Indians then stepped ashore near where the governor had stood. tied across the throat and breast with strings. which were still ripped open. the frock the blood was also All hands gathered around untied and opened We upon his flannel more upon his shirt worn under it. was covered with blood. and pushing some weeds aside with his paddle. he got up. little half-breed The blood was washed off. and perfectly still. by which means the Indians are in the habit of extractbut looking a moment for the ing the poison wound. He said that he had missed the snake and it had struck him on the breast. but that luckily he was not bitten . You . and at sixty ' yards I could not have missed such a mark/ "The governor wore a stout brown linen frock. showed us the monster.

' They invited us to join them. break the spine near the tail. and the creature. men. " its The length of this brute thickness about that of my arm that if How if curious it is you cut off the head of a rattlesnake its body will live for hours. from one of the friendly villages we down the river to a had passed going a little farther famous beach. one day we had a great alarm by the yelling and singing of two hundred or more Indians. with its aim made. being at the instant so near the spring and so ready. provided he had missed his mark. and above the elbow. and children. that it leapt and struck the governor probably in the spot where it would have struck him and have made him a corpse in ten minutes. as they proved to be. if you with even a feeble This we proved on .TURTLE HUNT. " Farther down the river. it is dead in a minute ! when. and driven the blood through the dress to the skin. and at jump you you touch it with a stick blow. was four feet. The bleeding trunk had printed its mark with blood where it struck. told us the scene of their operations . blow with the edge of a " A paddle finished the battle. several occasions. his 265 headless spring! trunk erect and ready for another Its head was shot regularly off. women. and encamped all together a little "These people before night. where they often * go on a turtle hunt. and we kept company with them. as 'Sam* had designed. coming down the river in canoes behind us at a rapid rate a party.

but they said their bellies were too empty. and creeping up the sand-banks some five or six rods from the shore. were aware of the time of night and the mode in which the attack was to be These turtles have soft shells. they are all yolk. to give him a dance. fires which would take place a little before midnight. seen in the day time. and they. . aware of this. " It seems curious that these creatures are never if you go the whole length of nor can you see them in the night before midnight the time that they come out to lay their eggs to be hatched by the heat of the sun. the each one. knowing the shape of the ground. some sand a foot or more deep. neither men nor women. they had eaten nothing for four or five days. generally about midnight. The governor said he would not miss these scenes He tried to get some of the men for fifty pounds. perfectly lay. and a great deal of merriment passed off. round. and with soft and quite as good as barn- fowls' eggs to eat. size of a barn-fowl's shells . belcw where we were landed. dig holes in the . about egg. the river " The Indians.266 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. and made sorts of tents with mattings made of palm-leaves. which they had rolled up in their canoes. Their were built. and are made. but no feasting nor dancing before the hunt. had encamped half-a- mile or so distant from the sand-bar above. so that the turtle . and fifty or sixty eggs. excellent eating and at certain seasons of the year come out in vast numbers from the river. was a long sand-beach just around the point.

were seated behind some palmetto bushes.TURTLE HUNT. and the rest of the men. perhaps a " . He point of timber of took the lead of the party through the we had to pass. " all started. doctor. Coming up to the edge of the timber opposite to the sand-bar. "Daring this time the women were all at work making torches. However. his hand to see the way nor and the me . the men leaving the women behind to bring up . performing some sort of witchcraft to make the turtles come he had told them he was afraid they wouldn't come up that night. and had a small torch in . with the oovernor and myself. and many believing him. who seemed to be the leader of the party. the rear with the torches but they were all ordered not to speak a loud word from that moment. he held a long cord for the goverto hold on to. and finding there was nothing on it yet. . about a quarter-past eleven. was one whose portrait the governor had painted while stopping in his village a few days before. which had been arranged before night for the purpose. " One of the men. feast 267 might taste good. after that there would be plenty of dancing. that we might not lose way the rest of the men file/ all followed in each other's tracks. our friend and two or three others. 'Indian and without a word spoken. who was a sort of a conjuror. which they construct from a sort of There was a palm-leaf that burns like pitch pine. perhaps a quarter a mile. made the party rather desponding and dull.

and when the turtles appeared on the sand. near the water. signal by touching Nothing was seen for half or three-quarters of an hour . From behind the screen of palmettoes we had a fair view of the sand-bank. in a row parallel to the shore of the river. and the Indian kept pinching my leg till I was almost ready to holloa out. the conductor to the rear rank. but all lay as still as death. to be black with these creatures coming up out of the water. the beach though they These couldn't see. the signal was given by the cord which extended from " who passed on the each other. was very quick work. I was just falling asleep. had been given to the rear-guard. making the holes and laying their eggs. They seemed to come up like an army of soldiers. given. and they could not have lost signal "The all and knew what was on much time were all . for in the space of half-an-hour the holes over. went to heaving up the sand with their This paws. but a few paces back of us. when leg. the Indians were upon them and turning them upon their backs. which looked white .268 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. hundred. creatures having got up some five or six rods from the water. and the black mass was seen The signal was then and as quick as the wind. were all lying flat. I felt a pinch on my and looking through the screen. They kept moving up farther and farther. the sands for a great distance seemed. at length. smoothed moving towards the water. Such a scrambling as this I never saw or thought of Some hundreds of them were upset in this before ! .

have eaten ourselves into stupidity. manner. who plunged in after them. the governor said was the most magnificent thing he had ever beheld. . and many of these were dragged out again by the Indians. " all When we got back to the encampment. The chief then sounded a loud whistle. overlooking the field of battle. The soup and the meat were delicious. with the wild figures. we should easily. which was for the torch-bearers to come.TURTLE HUNT. the women and children. like them. and with their torches lighted. and some thousands plunged into the water. and in five minutes came down the beach. the party went back to the encampment. " The squaws now selected a dozen or so of the finest of the turtles for their feast. it was equally astonishing and amusing so see how handily and how quickly these animals were cut up and cooked. the blazing and the magnificent forests lighted up. and if we had had the empty bellies that these people had. and how quick the soup was made. and then how fast and how long it was devoured. and counting the number of their victims lying on their backs. leaving the prisoners on the field of battle till the next morning. each one carrying a blazing torch. scene. and no noise but laughing and grunt- ing heard. "This torches. where the pots were boiling. " All this onslaught was completed in less than half-a-minute. when they joined the party with the lights. I am sure no picture could ever do it justice. at full speed.

and tearing their baskets. for all were had been in a drunken carouse. out the yellow fat from their intestines. their pipes whilst the women accomplished was really incredible the quantity of eggs that were in the sand. it was a woman's task. and then eaten much that they could scarcely move. they started in a their victims lay. mass and went to the sands here . they went into the hidden treasures like so many Irishmen into a field of potatoes and in much less time the surface of the ground was more completely covered than ever was seen by the heaviest crop in . nor any other weapon. but. the ! women and " This children went in for the eggs was one of the scenes most curious of all. and the men went around with large knives. and slicing off the under-shell and opening the carcasses of the animals. so In fact they had been up all night. no one moved towards it asleep as if they before ten or eleven o'clock. to our surprise. after they had all feasted again. the women approached. and some more of the best animals selected for food. As this part of the business required no knife. and beneath the dignity of a warrior the men sat and : smoked it. and got up at an early hour to see the manoeuvre on the battlefield. an Irish potato " field. threw it into After the fat was all obtained.270 " LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. With the paddles brought from their canoes. The governor and I slept in our canoe that night. The women brought large baskets. and then how they were deposited " It . "About noon.

but the old doctor told him that now their bellies were too full. and that the he could always come out " tell the very night they would The governor. were all laid while we were secreted and watching. troughs. and on inquiring how long before they would be ready for a dance. " These eggs. the Indians assured us. however. for they were going to remain there some days expressly to . and sold at a high price. This the it didn't believe was that governor impossible they to the water to one that . however. " It was too late for us to start off that day. were not only the eggs laid by the animals killed. the carcasses. and he said it was best not to question it. and the eggs.TURTLE BUTTER. which is very rich and like the best of butter. But the Indian doctor told him it was true. saw that all this thing was under the control of the doctors or mystery men. he said it might be several days. should deposit so many in that time . ! 271 so quick These. but by the whole party. and there might have been hundreds that got back was taken. and it would be unnatural that they should all be ready to lay on same night and at the same moment. and packing them in their canoes. and we stayed over night again. The fat is taken to their villages and put into large where they pound out the yellow oil or grease. " The women and children for the most part of the afternoon were taking up the fat. and is taken to Para in earthen jars which they manufacture. The governor tried again to set them dancing.

it and while they were feasting was difficult to dance. S. a journey of we had From that we got a chance down coast. is a large and a where great business is flourishing seaport town.272 eat. J. " " After striking out into the mighty Amazon at some six or eight days Obidos. Para The governor was here a while. three " * " * * * " Your ever affectionate brother." . as the Indian doctor had told us. very much but all fresh. and a place of. several hundred miles nearer the done. two hundred houses. which is at the head of tidewater. the eggs more particularly so . may be. on a steamer up the Amazon. and left some months since in company with a member of the Brazilian Parliament. * * * * . for I never before and in the eating of enjoyed any food so much them. So at an early hour the next morning. and full a bushel of eggs laid in. we started off. with three or four fine large turtles. and for me. LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. there was a thing that bothered the governor there was not a stale egg among them. to Para. " Our turtles were a great luxury to us. from that to Santarem.

at least. |HE above ally rather lengthy extracts I have ventured to make because they so graphicdescribe scenes ." Before leaving Demerara with my little S outfit." "Pigs?" "Yes. and events which and because. a great way." " Yes. with which this young man volunteered to accompany and aid me through a wild and difficult country. as well as fidelity and attachment. pigs pigs in that wild country ?" tell "What! : and I'll you more about them by-and-by.CHAPTER Caribbee Indians XVII. He has left out many things . such an acknowledgment is due to the talents. Smyth narrates well and correctly but he travels He has brought us to Para Para fast too fast we witnessed together . and also the is "story of the pigs. he has forgotten my friends the Indians. Acary Mountains Amazon Slope of The Amazons The American The Equator Cannibals " Dirt Eaters" and "Stone Eaters "Scenery of the Trombutas Forest above a Forest Music of the Acary Trombutas Treed by Peccaries Fight with the Peccaries. . I 273 .

with those on the plains of Venezuela. This numerous tribe also occupied all the Lesser . . in fact. and their modes of dress very different . showing them to be a family group. Their skin is a shade darker than that of the North American races. the Tarumas and Oyaways. the Accoways and the Warrows. to stamp them. and on our way. on the Eio Corontyn Antilles at the time of the discovery of those islands by Columbus. in the neighbourhood of and the Arowaks. or fled from the islands. and have since been destroyed. and them in features and colour. as a part of the great and national American family.274 visited the LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. and these tribes are almost naked. but not like inferior to enough some that may be found there. which occupy one-fifth at least of the Southern hemisphere. inferior to the North American races. and These people are generally rather small in stature. without a doubt. to the coast of South and Central America. which show a strong resemblance to one another in complexion and customs. neighbouring tribes in that vicinity the Caribbees and Macouchis. in Dutch Guiana. The weather in the tropics admits of but little clothing. where they are living. but the names of different bands or sections of the great Garibbee family. which. Paramaribo and New Amsterdam . the latter of which is undoubtedly the result of the difference of climate. also speak a kindred language. to evade the slavery endeavoured to be fixed upon them by the Spaniards. on the headwaters of the Essequibo. are. both . as well as in customs. These tribes in this vicinity.

for which these poor creatures deserve great credit. as their my the valley of everlasting friend Smyth has said. they are nevertheless filth free from and vermin than any class of people equally poor in any part of the civilized world. Let us sit down a few moments we are weary our mule died ten days ago. are truly sub- lime. and very much unlike them in some others. and the ocean again before us How warm and how cheering . and our packs are now . truly grand and magnificent. yet they sense of decency and modesty at the same time. Their naked limbs and bodies are rubbed over with some soft and limpid grease every day. We ! awful ravine think back have come out from that gorge! that It is frightful to look back or to ! Why should we. where they are. The descent from these mountains. when here ! is the blue ? sky. and sometimes not an annual) ablution. and women and men though often reputed far more cleanly and filthy. forming the boundary line between British and Dutch Guiana and Brazil.ACARY MOUNTAINS. and the sun. and graceful slopes off into green. loaded with a burthen of rags that don't have a daily (and oftentimes not a weekly. We the (or are now in the great and verdant valley of Amazon What shall I say first ? The Acary Tumucumache. nor a monthly. heavy. from necessity. were. 275 have and support a strict . not unlike the Kocky Mountains in North America in some respects. or Crystal) Mountains which we ! have passed over.

else . down. These are washed down they from the mountains? Undoubtedly. how beautiful! let's fill got. and nothing else. under our . twisting channels. There is gold. . feet? is Not a doubt of but we can't wash there . beautiful These are topaz and amethyst. a curious eloud what a straight line makes across the sky And Yes. And what those thoubeyond. That can't be the ocean! we are on Give our course! that's south me the pocket compass. beneath us? Clay. And it just still ! And more scarce now call occurs to me that some of the Spanish writers these the "Crystal Mountains. But here are some that are quite yellow. they may be diamonds? Clay. and others that are purple . it . Yes. that seem to soften into blue in the distance. what a boundless ocean of green and blue we are looking over. . it must be. clay." Gold-mines were worked in these mountains two hundred years ago. something they glisten in the sun they have specks that sparkle like the Bude light .276 LIFE AMONG THE ! INDIANS. down. but they are very our pockets. No. . there. and not a vessel to be seen! But stop! it ! And what that can't be. let's throw away those we have oh. they are beautiful crystals of quartz. There! there's no ocean We Not are steerit lies ing into the valley of the we are right! before us Amazon and here And what's at our feet? at all Green grass and beautiful flowers? And what yellow and blue clay. lovely these are smaller and more are rubellites. then. sand winding. and far more and now and then there is one of carmine. so far below us? and nothing else.

and spotted. up. Our shadows are all under our feet on one's own head under the equator. met tufts of grass and sage. . and spangled. speckled. to is the timber skirting the Rio which we have got to wend our we reach the timber to-day ? I don't We to step feel like boys here. at last. they become a solid mass of green. we wandered and crept along over the winding gullies of clay and. and. an ocean of grass. But where's the end of it ? It has no end. with its dark and boundless forests of palms. think so. ! that blue line It we ! see in the clouds It can't be so see ! must be so And that black streak we on the left beneath us. don't we? . and then of . black. Like ants. Tronibuias.THE EQUATOR. patches and fields. with all the beautiful colours of the . and there refraction. How droll But this clay is not so hot No. at last. ! Exactly so. and our tin kettle is of no use. and up. how awkward are now exactly is where the south ? Which can is the north? No ! one but our little compass ? tell. But we begin to see more clearly we see streaks of light green running down between these crevices and ravines. until it forms . the same it rises Take the glass and look it's up. The first of these are the rolling prairies. At noon We . Shall way. all It is infinite. and afterwards. . and then the level valley. the rays is little of the sun are straight down. as it were. 277 no water within some miles. stretching off into the ocean. at length.

and a clear and running brook for bathing and for washing our shirts. of the Guarani. Clumps and bunches of palms. and and geraniums. War-kas. immense herds of wild cattle and horses of various colours were grazing. and several others. Zumas. fat cow was here felled by the old and we were again happy. We had plenty of good beef. but for what reason I cannot tell. Minie'. We were kindly received and treated by all the tribes on the Trombutas. and flying before us as we approached. AMONG THE INDIANS. and no doubt from the . and somewhat lighter in colour. with very little variation. Zurumatis. and at last the feeble smoke of their distant wigwams. and raw hide for soling our moccasins. though more beautiglass-house peep ful.278 floral LIFE world. what could we want more? fine A Some three or four days' rest put us on our legs and on our route again. and filled with gay and chattering birds and insects. though we were worn almost out of it. and often called Tupi. They belong to the great family of Guarani. showed us we were again in the land of the living. which may be said to occupy the whole of Eastern and Northern Brazil. Tupis. They are a taller and a heavierbuilt race. The Indian trails. speaking the same language. which we were now These Indians to descend. Tupi is the name of a band (or section) only. each little group like a palmettoes. are very different from the Caribbee races living on the other side of the mountains. And on and over these beautiful plains. into the at Kew.

and the river and the seem to have taken their names from The Spaniards and Portuguese have pushed their conquests and subjugations of the Indian tribes as far as they have been able to do. whether they are all called Guarani. where the Indians have been successful in keeping their invaders at a distance. and Fauns. and not. their valley this tradition. At This required a stronger nerving up. a nation of Amazons . as they these people were cannibals. and ate that reported. having found the Amazons. as they certainly were no- where same time. it was easy to suppose. and it will easily be imagined how my nerves were excited. but hosts of Their young Gladiators.THE AMAZONS. From the early Spanish history of South America we learn that there were somewhere in the valley of the Amazon. . resided. for whichever they are. the I had all foreigners who ventured amongst them. were no Amazons on nor Dianas. and never will be. 279 how- It is matter of little consequence. and where it was natural to infer that more modern the Amazons else. as yet. " " Thunder's Nest But than the approach to the ! see how many close to marvellous things vanish ! when we come them I soon found that there this river. of Apollos. same stock. any boundary fixed between them. historians have placed them on the banks of the Trombutas. these frightful reports to contend against. there never has been. if possible. nor Bacchantes. ever. or all called Tupi.

their skins to Paris for the manufacture of ladies' gloves . and living. who were famous for mounting their horses. on descending the river. a tell young man stepped forward and said. that they never had heard of before. and sending . what was worse. with his infant Bacchus in his arms. men and boys are all Fauns. they sell their skins !" This created a great laugh amongst the Indians and. and. One said they had not got to be quite so poor as to have to eat each other yet. could bring down the wild ox or the wild horse as easily as their husbands. as they told us. some distance above Obidos. two or three wigwams on the left bank of the eat the flesh of their who own relations. And in the midst of this conversation. we found these cannibals. He will find some white men diffident living in river. were the women in some of the tribes. entirely on the flesh of those poor brutes This was the nearest approach to cannibalism ! . Castor and Pollux. And on inquiring amongst the various villages for the cannibals. but they might perhaps be reduced some time or other to the necessity of doing it. several Frenchmen and Americans. there are some such persons farther down the river. a thing. and. and old Silenus. apparently. may be often seen amongst them. The nearest thing I could discover or hear of to the Amazons. the white man. I was laughed at even by the women and children for asking so ridiculous a question . "Yes. killing monkeys. with the deadly bolas. at its mouth.280 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS.

as a cannibal. ! but the wilderness without it I have travelled and lived fifteen years amongst Indians. and still under certain circumstances. in some of the South Sea Islands. These are generally the interpreters for travellers who come. is amongst North Books are full of it. and jealous of all persons entering these tribes. and I have not yet found it . No doubt us what they have heard. and in some parts of Africa. travellers tell they tell believe. None of these travellers. that I have discovered in 281 my travels or South American Indians.THE AMERICAN CANNIBALS. It is the custom with most savage tribes (and this in America as well as in Africa) to apply the term cannibal to their enemies around sure to kill and eat travellers them as a term of the reproach . us they have seen it. Not from the savages they can't speak with them. to overlook system of trade and abuse. but these reports don't prove the fact. if who they penetrate farther into their country. their nefarious These traders have an object in representing the savage as ten times more cruel and murderous than he is is . but when we enter these tribes . Every savage race on earth has its foreign traders amongst them. We have frequent reports of such practices from Cannibalism be. and what they But how do they get their information ? . and I don't believe that any man has seen anything nearer to it in these countries than what I have above described. and amongst other things. may may have been practised. and those very respectable men.

one would suppose that they would take the middle-aged or the young and tender. observed as a necessary form but this is not cannibalism. by custom. to conquer or to be eaten 1" Some the of the most recent several travellers in Africa (and reliable) most recent ought to be the most that " assure us the tribes they were amongst were cannibals." Grandfathers and grandmothers I should scarcely think would be If these people eat each other very good eating. before us. human flesh is sometimes eaten . and the practice. cannibals are not there. in the celebration of victories. and so they tom.282 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. those who killing them to eat them. and eating die of old age. in order to inflame " their warriors going into battle : You go to fight a set of cannibals .. raising presumptions formidable enough to stand against very strong positive proof. like a phan- The leaders of war-parties also apply the epithet of cannibals to their enemies. they weaken their own evidence. but when they qualify their statements by telling us that they only eat the very aged ones. and that they eat the very of aged people. and then in the next. religious rites. we might believe it possible . etc. they are in the next tribe. . fly. As a ceremonial. . relative to the existence of a custom both against nature and against taste. assertions without proof. for the pleasure of eating. They leave us as history. If these travellers would merely tell us that these people eat each other.

seven. any race of human beings. 283 enemies That savage tribes may sometimes eat their whom they have slain in battle. I don't believe. Savages always go to war on empty and at the end of a battle. that by the system of robbery and abuse practised on the American frontiers. and even ten feet high but modern travellers who go and live amongst them find the tallest of them to be but ! . might with truth be predicted. days' fasting for food. White men have in some instances been reduced to the dire necessity of eating each other. it would be easy. Some very respectable and accredited early travellers and explorers averred that they saw the Patagonians on the Atlantic coast. with humanity treat to unprotected strangers amongst them enough " with " kindness and hospitality. and almost natural.THE AMERICAN CANNIBALS. If this were cannibalism. but this it is not cannibalism. thousands of the poor Indians will soon be compelled to become cannibals. The poor Indian's remark above quoted ("We have not got to be so poor as to have to eat each other yet . and having no commissariat to supply them with food. one can easily believe. and have cast lots to decide which of the party should be first killed for food . to use their enemies stomachs ." and to help and " in travelling through their to protect and feed them country. will kill and eat their own people for the But that pleasure of eating. though we may some time be reduced to that necessity ") is not without its significance. after many and under great exhaustion. eight.

dirt is much more digestible than 7 was a " stone eater " a little way back " " and one story has just as much both are giants stones ! truth in it as the other. feet. which every Indian stores up for cleaning his dresses. little familiar acquaintance made Some wigwam writers (who take a peep into an Indian's without knowing the meaning of things around them." of clay per day on a famished stomach absurdity ! some time upon dirt a pound ? what an . We were near the head of the Trombutas on its . ! And what a pity the revealers of such astonishing facts should not live a while in some of these poor people's wigwams. before they prepare such astounding information for the world's reading. It is evident that the atmos- phere. under certain circumstances. has a magnifying power. and learn what the Indians do with these little balls of clay. Indian I ever saw. and of which he sometimes swallows a small pill to cure the heartburn. just as my good old mother used to make me do when I was a boy) have reported some of the tribes " " when they are in a as dirt eaters" asserting that state of starvation. was a giant but a him much smaller.284 a little LIFE over six AMONG THE INDIANS. and first The particularly so when persons are frightened. see little balls of clay piled away. . But stop. they live for What eating a pound of clay per day. my little readers will recollect. and painting his body and limbs. and becomes a very uncertain medium.

I don't see it anywhere. it's quite a harmless creature . and we enter with Our . nevertheless . down here banks of the Essequibo and the Orinoco. The river and chirping gay enters the deep and shady forests. looking out the way. I don't understand. birds are everywhere. with their leaning. Why. Then the rattlesnake is close What a gentleman ! by us ? Undoubtedly lie . I can't say that I fancy the company of such gentlemen. no . ful bananas but no these are not bananas. beautiful 285 Yes. but they are palms. pennated foliage I think. and enamelled rolling prairies. the pride and grace of the forest. such as we saw on the and grassy plains . bending stems and The graceful banana of Guiana. and all But look these gay and cheerful songsters in it ! ! What snake is that ? That's not a rattlesnake. No. here. with a white ring around its neck ? Oh. has not yet made its way over the Tumu! cumache seem to be . always Let's move off. ? Well. it never bites .SCENEKY OF THE TEOMBUTAS. and day. let us sit in of these beautia while the shade too. how charming and elegant. most likely behind us : they in the shade during the heat of the day. it's only a pilot. little boat rolls and glides along from day to and palms. it's the rattlepilot ? A snake's pilot. always with him. with these myriads of wild flowers. with this very clump of trees for its centre. and oh. All the rest How prairies beautifully and gracefully these bespangled roll their wind and ! the river shore What sloping sides down to a beautiful lawn for a noble- man's mansion.

and with them " whoop " from who. are reflected in the mirrored water . leaves and vines. the one just as distinct in How grand the The touch of the oar upon the boat comes mirage back from these solitudes with a redoubled sound " every cough and every " ! . Who knows is that next point ? turn what we shall see when we turn and the next ? and the next ? Each new. so thickly grouped that neither sun nor wind can penetrate. are before vines. others hanging suspended in the air like broken cordage. rays can never penetrate. Crowded out from these thickets of trunks and branches. The dense and and twisting which the sun's us. who is echoed back. through and above these matted forests. into grand. and more and more lofty forests. and thus we have four forests all form and colour as the other. . How sublime I These. the most huge beautiful parasitic flowers. the and straight trunks of the lofty palms are seen in the distance. their heads show us a forest above a forest. some clinging to their trunks.286 it. are rising to their tops . and bending over the river for a breathing-place. like Twining serpents. and spreading over and above all. ! before us at one view. we see the strangled palms and other trees pushing their heads out. the pennated one apparently growing out of the other. LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. with all their grandeur. the wilderness . in clumps and bouquets. and on them. each is beautiful. like the columns of vast and boundtall And less edifices.

push off. side of us. and the sleeping alligators tumble from their logs into the water. stopped our boat one day for our accustomed rest. and dotted with wild flowers .THE FORESTS. But. We sling our hammocks between two trees. and humming-birds. We turn another bend. reptiles . Not in these prairies ? No. with twisted and knotted vines. What myriads of humble-bees. with their graceful yellow and leaning heads. and taking a peep at us. and before us we have. us from animals and both are afraid of We mid-day forests. and above and through it. like and filled the stately palms in the forest. some six or seven feet high. and pink. and blue below. The grass. We sleep in hammocks here. with tufts of timber and gaudy prairies . this path the tigers' walk Let's go ! ! ! on . and on it a forest in miniature. but we don't the rifle sets 287 Every crack of know from whom. the tall and straight shafts of the sunflowers. leaving their circular waves behind and around them. and build a fire on each The fire protects it. a hundred squeaking and chattering hundred monkeys are shaking voices in motion. A the branches in the tree tops ahead of us. and red. but always in the timber. a vast and beautiful meadow. in the cool shade of one of these stately group of where there was a beautifully variegated hills. and this butterflies are working here it's path ? Why. But these solitudes are not everywhere. forming a forest of black and gold above the green. on one bank.

as usual. in the boat. as fast as they could be got off The party in the boat were all. that their curiosity might be fully gratified. and falsettos. treble. and bass." said Smyth. With my opera-glass. and baritones. bright-eyed faces near ." Agreed. and beauty of these wonderful creatures until I saw them in that way. shore. never before knew the cleanliness. the grace. they sat in rows upon the limbs. it was impossible to conceive and they were still coming. upon their feet in an instant. " How awfully not the sound of a bird silent and doleful it seems or a cricket can be heard suppose we have some " music.288 sloping LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. and raising the old ! Minid. inquisitive. and we sat smiling at them. which I took from my pocket. who. Where on earth those creatures gathered from in so short a time. of course. in their native element and unrestrained movements. tenor. he fired it off over the water. in full view. down Our men had to the river on the opposite fallen asleep. with myself. in such numbers. sat in an open place. and . hundred at least were and vaulting about amongst the branches. Then the concert began a hundred monkeys could be heard chattering and howling. I view hands. that to take a peep at us. with flats and sharps. and we rose up to show ourselves at full length. We they might have a full view of us. whilst five scratching. leaping. and I said to my friend Smyth. and semitones. and gathering over our heads. was seated on the top of the bank. Sam followed ! with three cracks. I brought all these little enough to shake had and the most curious of them. Like pigeons.

and another. and lighting on the trees around us. 289 even were in some places piled on each other's backs. and the quacking ducks and geese were passing to and fro in flocks up and down the river. gave us a strain or two . and blue tails. with their long. these. your white cockades. I fired another shot. another answered on the other side of the river. they now began to venture out thickets and the towering T . of fear. and when done. and all gazing at us. and every trace and shadow of them. not far off. and red. John . The woods were ringing at this time with a hundred voices " " came from the Tso-cano Tso-cano Go on. The howling monkeys. and they were soon done there was little music in But then the songsters came the joyous. your blue jackets. were out of sight nor did they come near us again. the white swans were piping in the distance. To give the inquisitive multitude a fair illustration. were seen sailing over the river from their shady retreats in the copses and little groves on the hillCurious sides. the hideous roar of a tiger was heard. and such a scampering I never saw before ! in half-a-minute every animal. and inquisitive little strangers. and curiosity not from the and in hundreds forests. with your red breasts and throats. who only open their throats at night. merry pipers (when fear was over. The gabbling parrots and parroquets and cockatoos. ! ! ! k tops of the highest trees .MUSIC of THE TKOMBUTAS. satisfied) . were creeping out and hanging on to the outer branches to get a look at what was going on. So far we heard but the notes of alarm.

I wish I knew your hundred names were silent.290 and purple All yet LIFE tufts. presented. there the most "But hark!" said I. and dropping ! his last notes ! bow of the head and a " they can't beat that beautiful!" mine is certainly There. thousand more. . his mouth the size of the clasp of " Kr-r-r-ow kr-r-r-ow !" and at a lady's reticule. gazing and the . as an announce- ment ever that danger was passed and no aviary that was heard could produce such a concert and such a chorus of sweet sounds as was here . As we sat still. They swelled their little throats to the highest . and I with my opera lens but a chirp or two opened the concert. and then. eyes. and another. " El-der-gin ! ! least five for. and piercing and turning ! heads. "Smyth. AMONG THE INDIANS. possible key in the din of their concert and after it gradually died away. amongst the and rushes near the shore . and at length. first impulses they with their sharp eyes. when one sings. and others solos. each little warbler hopping nearer and nearer with a to us. said a huge frog. a smaller one. el-der-gin !" and then a terrible bull -frog. whose snout and ears were raised ! " a little water-lilies above the surface of the water. on both sides of the river by the custom of frogs. "Peut! pent!" and another. a big fellow. all must . One song ogling were piercing little brought on another. another." P-r-r-out p-r-r-out I" in the grass. some hangers-on gave duets. music is contaThe crickets and grasshoppers were singing gious.

in this country." peccaries. groups of hundreds. numbers of these animals are found throughout the whole valley of the Amazon and the Essequibo. are pigs. and it seemed to be matter with him what it was. resembling. as well as in character." His passion was little for shooting . living chiefly on the great quantity of mast that in falls from various several trees. and see his game falL . a species of wild hog. ness and enjoyment what a happy community this! Pigs. than one-half the size. when Smyth took his rifle " he was going to take a walk in his hand. large and small. 291 join in. the wild Now for the " boar of the continent of Europe. and are equally pugnacious. but have They all are not more the ferocity and sagacity of that animal. We had taken our dinner one day on the bank in a large and open forest. but to tear when in groups they are able a man Immense to pieces in a little time. All animals and birds sing in this country it is Music is the language of happithe land of song. and said down the river. An individual one is not able to cope with the strength of a man.PECCAEIES. and see what he could murder. if he could hear the "old Minie' speak" (as he called it). as far as their voices can be heard by each other. no matter what time of day or night. in colour and in proportion. They and often run unite in terrible conflicts with man or beasts for their own protection.

and taking one of the . Smyth saw us approaching. ! ! Indians of the boat. the branches of which had lodged against others. and getting near the place. and we heard him calling out at the top of his voice for help. his in his left hand. my life. at this time the firing stopped. we started for his assistance . and underholding neath and around him a dense mass of some two or three hundred peccaries. and were starting to come towards us without having been us. We then ran as fast as to we could. that he had help coming in that quarter . and without . I heard the crack of his rifle and in the half of a minute another and in the quarter of a minute another and after the lapse of two or three minutes he commenced firing again I began to fear that he had met hostile Indians or some other dangerous enemy. we dis- advance with caution. He strolled off down the river bank. with the bristles all standing on their backs. preventing it from coming quite to the ground . and after he had been gone a quarter of an hour or so. and rifle was looking up at him. and to take care of called out to me These sagacious little creatures knew. with his quiver of poisoned arrows slung. their attention to and a hundred of them at least began to turn us.292 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. as they were foaming at their mouths and whetting their white tusks. and seizing up my rifle. and by the other he was on to a branch to balance himself. from the direction that he was giving to his voice. and I at length began covered him standing on the trunk of a fallen tree.

He told me that he had discovered some parts of the group whilst they were scattered about and hunting nuts . he had shot one. he would have been torn to pieces in a very few minutes. when the others. and the Indian with his bow drawn behind me. gathered around him. when his powder had given out and he was obliged to call out for help. or that if his foot had slipped after he got on to it. The only shelter for us was the trunk of a large mora tree. and some eight or ten of the leaders which Smyth had killed. little warriors came advancing up and whetting their tusks. 293 our having spoken a word to notify them of our approach. they gave a grunt and made a wheel. that this was to last all day. and my position to be right for firing. and were soon out of sight. I stood so as to look around the tree. us. the sagacious little fellows. on the field of battle. and getting my rifle to bear. like the Indians. behind which we took our positions. from all quarters. seeing their foremost and bravest falling so fast and thinking perhaps. . and having no idea of their numbers. I began upon the nearest and the next and the next and having shot down four of the leaders. leaving the four I had shot. and that if he had not luckily found the fallen tree close by him. not having yet seen When within some seven or eight rods. which seemed to be a signal understood by the whole troop. for in one instant they were all off at full speed. we waited till the foremost of this phalanx of slowly.FIGHT WITH THE PECCARIES.

their fury. I had not a doubt of this fact when I saw the manner in which they had cut and marked with their tusks the log on which he had stood. they had fallen upon and torn to pieces in . by their custom.294 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. . and also the mangled bodies of those he had shot which.

and reptiles. as well as now. The Steamer "Marajo" Shores of the AmaUpper Forest Nature's Temple Opera-Glass on the Indians on Tribes of ]ET us now for a while leave beasts. condition. with his modes. for a subject of far The greater interest and importance. hundreds of years to come. how- ever. are not without their interest These and importance. the tigers. but they can be seen in the wilderness alive. is soon to disappear from the American forests. The hand of his fellow-man is everywhere raised whilst the grizzly bears. and in our museums. and these their incidents or accessories merely.CHAPTER South American Indians the Amazon XVIII. and him. and customs of native man. studies of my wanderings have been the looks. and birds. but native man. Nest Builders of Canoe-Indians zon Amazon Passing Obidos A Scene at Obidos the Amazon Indian Missions Lingua Geral Upper Amazon. against and why ? because the hyenas are allowed to live 295 . character. and not even his skin will be found in our museums.

difficult to see. which I have before alluded to. because there are no immigrating masses here to push forward a frontier so rapidly. greater mixture of races and languages has been produced . as in North America. there is yet an immense extension of demi-races. and most of the others (though we may journey together yet a little farther) must be left for a larger book. and in this country. dispossessing the Indians of their country. and very seldom full bloods. without so completely destroying them. semi-civilized or not. is destroying these poor people in this country. From the warmth of the climate. By this process. unfortunately a landowner. sort of civilization has been longer established A and more generally and more grainfused dually amongst the savage races. but without the devaspay Much tation which it carries with it in some parts of North America . the reader can imagine that I have had many long and tedious journeys by land and by water . I have aimed at gathering everything pertaining to a full and just account of them. go almost naked. the same system of traffic and dissipation. In doing this. some of which have been already briefly told. and seldom extinction. the Indians in these regions. Their character and customs are nevertheless equally full of interest. a in this country.296 he to is LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. and has the means for rum and whisky. The true original looks and customs of the Indians most generally. and though there is little high civilization. . very in this country are therefore.

though exceedingly rude. and to obtain them and to travel anywhere. as we saw at the mouth of the Orinoco. There are the remnants of several Indian tribes living around Para. in many other respects. a large and floutishfifty thousand on the south side of the great estuary of the Amazon. tfhich is almost incredible. of acres around the mouths of thousands of and tens . and thousands. are nevertheless comfortable and secure for the people who live in them. They never travel in any them seldom set their These stupendous forests of palms (called miriti) constitute one of the curiosities of the Amazon. and fruits of fifty kinds. and whose modes. These constructions. 297 Para is ing commercial town. and Hundreds. the Canoe Indians living in "nests" built in the trees. from the palms and other trees and shrubs of the forests. perhaps of the world. who bring into its market fish and oysters. other way. we see again. \Ye were at Para. of forty or inhabitants. These are very properly called Canoe Indians. they must necessarily be in their canoes. They cannot step out of their houses except In their canoes they dart through the dense forests of lofty palms with a swiftness into their canoes. In the dense and lofty forests of palms on the islands and shores between Para and the ocean. for they live exclusively on fish and oysters. are equally curious. and on any errand whatever. and one hundred miles from the coast of the sea. and very many of feet upon the dry land.CANOE INDIANS.

waves of the ocean. and drinking. it lifts his canoe to the steps wigwam. the Dirt-builders. They are so far from the sea that no . But when of his the tide rises. and he is as sure to be lying. and those of the thousand songsters above his head and around him. almost perfectly straight and smooth. in his canoe. with his gay red feathers in his head and his vari-coloured paddle in his hand. of the Skin-builders. his spears. echoing and re-echoing. At low tide the Indian's canoe lies in the mud.298 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. or sleeping in his wigwam of sticks and leaves. reach them . and his black-headed little he steps into it and darts off amidst the myriad columns of this mighty temple. papooses his nets. At low tide these trees may be said to be rising out of the mud. when. which are interlaced together so thick that the sun seldom shines through them. somewhat in the form of an umbrella. odd people. and actually has that appearance. without knot or limb. and then throw out their graceful branches. How curious it is that a part of mankind should build their houses in the trees these are. and the water of the rising tide creeps in and around them as quietly and unruffled as if it came out of the ground. strictly ! You will recollect I told you speaking. and at high tide they are rising out of the water. and eating. the Amazon and the Orinoco are completely covered and shaded by these noble trees their trunks. as he glides. rise like the columns of some lofty temple to the height of one hundred or more feet. the Bark- . the happy notes of his song. or even of the river.

with its hundred islands . The first day at noon brought us into the bay of the Amazon. Lay map of South America on the table. I started on the steamer Marajo.THE STEAMER builders. with their forming together a very pleasing and agreeable travelling party no doubt. to Nanta. . and realise their lengths. at the mouth of the Yucayali. and yet four hundred miles farther. on a steamer. take a look at them. eighteen hundred the western miles. and the second. your and then. on board several Portuguese gentlemen from Rio de and several others from Para. I passed several things on the way. and the Timberand here we have the Nest-builders! and what sort of builders shall we have next? We builders. hundred and fifty miles. at the head of tide-water. and see what I had before me! Look at the rivers. on the Bios Tocanand Zingu. I took the largest first. to families. Santarem. started to see others. the most beautiful city in the world! But this is travelling too fast again. tins In the neighbourhood of Para. crossed the Andes to Lima. the steamer. the Tabatinga. if one could have spoken their language. I visited a dozen or more tribes. " MARAJO. the second or third voyage she had made." 299 the Grass -builders. Janeiro. shall see. and leaving Amazon rode to . boundary of Brazil and from Peru and Equador. three between that. and the first There were steamer that ever ascended that river. and we will go back and From Para.

Above the we began first time. and interjections took its place. why stpp ? for the coming one stop every moment as Conversation was at an end. which gave me some basis for its measurement. monotony ! Here the rounded tops of the lofty trees. for exclamations . from the Trombutas. white. and stemming the current and shores and of the viewing it on both sides at once. and pink. which was generally the evade the strength of the current. to stem the current. unless. and red and that without monotony. But when the vessel shore. and for the first time. we were fully sensible of the majesty and grandeur of its movement. change itself became was just as beautiful. the boat was in itself a picture to of Every length but at look and . I had a few months before crept and drifted along its mouth sluices in a humble craft. of yellow. from the never-ending changes. no pen or pencil can describe the gorgeousness and richness of the overhanging and reflected forests that changed we passed. also.300 LIFE this AMONG THE INDIANS. to sweeping current intervening. some . A never-ending mass of green. their actual grandeur. and. the deck of a steamer. From the middle of the river the distance was so great that the forests on either shore settled into monotony and tameness but with my knowledge of . without being able to see But we were now lifted upon or to understand it. for had evidence that we were ascending a river . this only served to inspire me with the real magnitude and magnificence of the was running near the case.

while they hid from our view the lofty bank on which their stately trunks were standing. an opening! We see the high sloping bank. and above the bank. and interwoven and lashed the mass to the encircled trunks and branches nuts and fruits have fallen on these and taken root. sweeping the sides of the boat as we passed. leaning and bowing around . ground ! . white. and festoons of parasitic flowers were the jetting down from the tops of the highest trees overhanging. and. and trees and flowers are growing in a second forest some fifty or sixty feet above the . the straight and lofty trunks of palms and other stately forest trees. seemed to be tumbling down upon us. mass. 301 some pink with blossoms. supporting their dome of branches interlocked. Huge trees have been uprooted. rolling. and and into with pink and purple flowers palmettoes. like a thousand open and the graceful fans. but a part of this. and " farther on. spangled to the water's edge. tumbling half-way down. falling vegetation has lodged on these until a super-soil has been formed . And it.UPPER FOREST. an upper forest /" The wind has done this. were crowding out their flowery heads amongst the mass of green. like the pillars of some mighty portico. and extending their long branches down quite into the and a hundred twisting vines hung in knots and clumps. and impenetrable river. descending vines have taken root in them and clambered again to their tops. have lodged their branches in the crotchets of others . gorgeous. there.

they dart into the mass of overhanging branches and leaves. to salute ! us as we pass. This is its roof is not tiles nor slates. and saluting us as we . a hundred pair of black and sparkling eyes from behind the logs and trees. like a . ! How splendid a roof he has here. bespangled with flowers and dropping ambrosia! and how delicious the air that he breathes. but when we get near spices with We see them. how Man wants but a roof cheap. and embraced with clinging and hanging vines. and from underneath. supportlike a misfortune . Man's abode! how splendid. how grand. ? Not so. and disappear in an instant. and how comfortable in this country . and festooned. and a dozen or two of the bravest and boldest of both sexes come leaping to the brink of the bank. the open air must be around him. they are rounded they are hidden they are looped.302 LIFE AMONG THE like ? INDIANS. Blue curls of smoke are seen floating around amongst the trees. But how gloomy and desolate Nature's temple a bed of flowers . gliding along the shores in different directions. rustling through the blos- soms and which he is encompassed. hundreds of canoes as we pass on. filled with red heads and red shoulders. Sometimes their villages stand upon the bank. ing bouquets of beautiful flowers and fig-trees bending with their blossoms and ripened fruit at the same time. and in hundreds they are yelling are puffing along by them. but and man is its tenant. And wreck do these look loathsome ruins No.

happy human nature refined were half as Thanks ! faces ! Oh. bowing . streaked. my little . with the and the bouquets of beautiful He can scan the ugly flowers in the tree-tops. It's a long time since . and feathered Indians. is worth a week of nights in Her Majesty's Opera me House. ! but you move near enough to shake hands One day's seat with you upon the deck of this boat. and the fruits. What do you show and interpret to me on such a voyage ? All nature in this country will let me come within rifle-shot. best of all travelling companions much. wild and simple as Nature made them. and asks no questions. little reader who runs his eye through the of this book. laughing. to shake hands. and with . and should at any period of his pages life make a tour to the Trombutas or the Amazon The means It is (and I believe there will be such). or the gazing multitudes of He can painted. opera-glass brings them near enough fears . it he can converse with animals at a distance birds. why have they remained so ? What gleaming. no incumbrance in the pocket. opera-glass the that reveals so thanks to you.OPERA-GLASS ON THE AMAZON. 303 They have no but my little they are at a safe distance . or the silvery texture of the basking alligators. should by no forget to take such a companion with him. can scan the beautiful colours of the tocanos. What a beautiful sight ! Men and women. that ! happy. see the bright eyes of the cunning little monkeys peeping down from the branches of the trees he . looks of the staring tiger.

He can what lie never can see in museums amongst glass the little humming-birds. It of the Indians. and see glistening in the sun as they are drawing honey from the flowers. is where my friend Smyth and myself first launched out into a little Spanish town of one hundred or two thousand inhabitants. may almost imagine himself it With lifted in the claws of the soaring condor. Obidos. and amongst them several groups of Indians. and groups of them were booked as I sat upon the deck. and all eyes were upon me. and many hands exthe broad . and all gazing in wonder at us. a sudden outcry was raised amongst the squaws and then amongst the men. .304 their heads LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. straining their little throats. inhabitants were all upon the bank. Some The passengers got out. lofty from the tops of the mora. eyes and wiry attitudes as they are balanced on their buzzing wings. he can explore the highest and unapproachable cliffs and rocks in the Andes. as I was walking on the deck. had joined in the turtle-hunt six months who now were down in their canoes on a visit to Obidos. and all the feathered tribe of songsters. whom Smyth and I before. Amazon thousand five tended towards me. Here was work for my pencil. at the mouth of the Trombutas. and others came on board. And just before the vessel was to start. Our steamer was alongside and moored. giving aid and expression to their music. seems that amongst the crowd were a number men and women. and by lying on his back.

305 and who. I opened a box in my luggage. I explained my views to the captain. nor could I deny my- self the pleasure of shaking hands with these good these "Amazons/' these "Cannibals. and the wheels began to revolve. and the boat delaying a little. fish-hooks. shook me by the hand.. if the captain would wait for me a few minutes I would make them some little presents.A SCENE AT OBIDOS." creatures of the Trombutas. gave me time for the interview. in money and other things. and of the captain also. on the wheel-house. a little just as lad ran to the water's edge. and supplying my pockets with a quantity of knives. and all. I wishing me farewell This scene excited the sympathies of the ladies aiid other passengers on board. and then seeing me No come ashore to shake hands with them. a beautiful standing U . which I had laid in for such went ashore and distributed them. etc. I told them I was glad to see them. both men and women. and he granted me the time. and not now being quite so poor as I was when I was among them. occasions. having recognised me. beads. The boat was ordered to go ahead. who was and handed to the captain. This compliment I could not resist. to the great surprise of all the passengers. I leaped ashore. who threw them many presents. were calling to me to come ashore and shake hands with them. when several of the men embraced me in their arms. one can imagine the pleasure which these poor people felt in discovering me.

but fired no guns. from fear at the puffing and blowing of the the . who seemed to have got notice in some way of our approach. nor a The former were led to the parrot. immense numbers of Indians we saw the banks. From steamer. for as yet they neither have them nor know the use of them. and at least one hundred encampments and groups of Indians on the islands and shores. They stared at us with uplifted hands. river-shore. I know. how pleasing such meetings are to I me how love to feel the gladdened souls of native men. uninfluenced by or a mercenary motive ! Mine. moved by Ten days from Para brought us to Nanta. having passed some fifteen or twenty small Spanish towns and missions. but no doubt a grand chorus was con- stantly raised behind us after we had got by. which we saw. and had assembled to take a look at the boat. while in the whole distance these interminable forests and shores showed us not a monkey. and raised their voices to the highest pitch. by feelings of curiosity whilst the latter. natural. it would seem as if the on gathered was country swarming with human inhabitants. and salute it. nor a tiger! no in the extraordinary numbers doubt. for "blow-gun" it and signs him to hand ! to me. speaking different languages. human impulse. hid themselves in the forests in silence as we passed .306 LIFE AMONG THE made INDIANS. It is estimated that there are over one hundred tribes. fashion has something native remaining in it yet. Oh. on the shores of .

called in the Spanish language Gauchos (Gautchos). If it be true that there are one hundred tribes on the banks of the Amazon. could give the names of near one hundred tribes Amazon. who live by a mixed industry of agriculture and the chase. mouth and at this point we have probably . and have languages very dissimilar. and be ignorant of their own. in their vicinity. always more or less extensive settlements of Spanish and Portuguese. and have effect in all parts of that country to cut the angles that belong to all natural society unaided by the advances of civilization. The soothing and parental manner padres who conduct these missions had the of the venerable is calculated to curb the natural cruelties of the savage. which I doubt. in agriculture. and therefore the endless confusion in classification. the 307 to its Amazon. There is a general system of teaching by the Catholic Missions throughout all parts of South America. Bands of the same great family or tribe are often improperly called tribes.INDIAN MISSIONS. and in the Spanish and Portuguese languages. but the that I have already learned of in the valley of the list would be of little interest here. at last. . to which all the tribes have had more or less access. down These missions are everywhere and around them. from its rise at the base of the Andes. their real names. . I passed something like three-fourths of them. we may easily get five hundred different names for them. and from which they have received more or less instruction in Christianity.

. which they call " Lingua Geral. were being built to run on the Amazon. who may think that his Spanish and his French.308 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. which will be the great commercial depot of Western Brazil and Eastern Peru and Equador. which is one of the most extraordinary features to be met with in the country. and though it no doubt is a handy language for the country. and a few years will no doubt show us a fleet of these and other vessels at that place. and by the Indians. and Indian languages are all about equally mixed. by Portuguese. or be as mum as if he were in the deserts of Siberia. or learn to speak the Lingua Geral. are going to answer him through the country. much alike. He must employ an interpreter. eighteen hundred miles above Para. the most absurd and inexplicable of all jargons on earth. and in such a way as sometimes to appear the most laughably droll and ridiculous. who had brought the whole machinery from the United States These vessels complete and ready to be put in. and at others. This language. it is exceedingly perplexing and embarrassing for the traveller. by Spaniards. is spoken by all. At Tabatinga. two steamers were building by Americans. which he has learnt for the occasion. and particu- on the lower half of the Amazon and its and also throughout the whole northern and eastern portions of Brazil. and with This population mixes easily with the native races." larly so tributaries. where the three languages the Spanish. this amalgamation ensues a blending of languages. the Portuguese.

the Sensis. Of the South American tribes there are none nearer approaching to their primitive state than many of the tribes about the heads of the Amazon . the Antis. commerce with them. They have forests full of game. fruit stocked with wild horses and wild cattle for food. the Urarinas. to their true fountain. the Siriniris. and for their skins and hair. and that family only the fusion. and have therefore the fewest inducements to adopt civilized modes of life.TRIBES OF THE UPPER AMAZON. of Ando-Peruvian and Guarani. the Chetibos. the Sipibos. the Amahovacs. perhaps. 309 In the vicinity of Nanta are a great many Indian tribes. and their physiological traits and colour altogether prove them to be only bands or sections of one great family. and all the varieties of palms with their various kinds of and also the immense plains or pampas. the Huachipasis. the Peebasy the Turantinis. and at least a dozen others . the Pacapacuris. their languages all dialectic. which are articles of . From these combined advan- tages they insure an easy and independent living. through all their displacements and migrations. amongst which are the Zeberos. and rivers full of fish. . and amongst these I spent some time. the Connibos. the Tuirenis. It would be next to impossible for any stranger to trace the Amazon from its mouth to its true source in the space of his lifetime. the Tambos. the Remos. and it would be ten times more difficult to trace the savage races in South America.

Trombutas The Connibos. yet they are constantly at war. the birds. RIDE across the Pampa del Sacramento. The Connibos live upon the borders of the pampa. and a passage of the Yucayali in a canoe. Pottery of the Connibos Chetibos Blow-gun Poisoned Arrows Experiments with Poisoned Arrows Fatality of Poisoned Arrows Waw-ra-li (Poison for Arrows) Trouble with a Medicine Man A Monkey Skinner Unpainting Indian Portraits. afforded me some of the loveliest views of country I ever beheld. the shores of the Yucayali are not unlike those of the the animals. of an equal number. the flowers. These tribes are all much alike. the the Chetibos. A village generally consists of but one house. . though only the river separates them. of three thousand resemble each other. and their languages strongly Sipibos. but a 310 . of some two or three thousand . but build their villages in the edge of the forest. everything the same.CHAPTER Connibos Shed-Builders XIX. and some of the most interesting visits I have ever made to Indian tribes . and the Sensis. the trees. inhabit its shores.

though only separated from the Connibos by the river. it is a shed. The Connibo wigwam. the Timberbuilders. the Grass-builders. Houses in this country. trees. and we now come to the And if I have room enough. the Nest-builders. the tribes in the valley of the Amazon. who build no houses. and the sides and partitions in those can be perforated with the but a web of palm-leaves. to the tops of which are fastened horizontal timbers supporting a roof most curiously and even beautifully thatched with palm leaves. the Dirt-builders. but creep in and sleep amongst the Shed-builders to give crevices of the rocks. the Bark-builders. I intend ! you a brief account of the No-builders. contains sometimes several hundreds of persons. have no communication with them except in warfare. except those of the Gauchos. and sometimes thirty or forty rods in length.CHETIBOS. The Sipibos and Chetibos. where. or shed. no walls. and that is very . I have said. suspended across the shed. curious house it 311 is. we walk under ! I have given an account of the Skin-builders. the pigmies of the Shoshonee race whom I found on the heads of the Colorado in North America. instead of walking in. have no sides. between . they sleep in sheds. constructed of posts set in the ground. or stakes driven into the ground. as they are are separated only by a hanging screen or partition. and the families finger. made Like of all palm-leaves. hammocks slung between the posts of their when at home and when travelling. How curious are houses without doors.

in less time and with more ease than they could do were roads. Like all dress. They descend the Yucayali to Nanta. to the Barra. throwing them. provided there The Chetibos are much like the Winnebago and Menomonie Indians on the shores of the great lakes in North America. which is most generally the case. world. and even to Para and back again. they they all strike with their paddles at almost be said to bound over the waves. it on horseback.312 seldom . their country being a dense and impenetrable forest. They ascend and descend the foaming rapids which in some places are frightful even to look at. to their own each confining themselves in their canoes shore . LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. and where they are at times entirely lost to the view from the foaming spray that is rising around them. the Indians in this country they wear very little The men always wear a flap or breech-cloth. it is less often passed over than those of tribes who have only an ideal line of division. and the women wear a cotton wrapper that fastens about the waist and extends nearly down to the . and their boundary line being so definitely established. against a strong current for the distance of two thousand miles. and if placed by the side of them would scarcely be distinguished from them. upon the river for subsistence and the means of and in their narrow and light little dugout canoes. the Amazon to Tabatinga. from necessity. they are indeed one of the prodigies of the travelling . The Chetibos and Sipibos may properly be said to be Canoe Indians. When may once.

the Remos. and in appearance are more the Sioux and Assinneboins on the buffalo plains in North America. according to his or her freak or fancy. and ingenious. the Amahovacs.POTTERY OF THE CONNIBOS. much way as the North American tribes. They have a place somewhat like a brick-yard on the edge of the prairie near their village. The Pacapacuris. and a the tribes. the Remos. where the women mix and beat the clay with a sort of mallet or paddle. fastening back the hair. lead a different life from the Canoe Indians dozen other small I like have just mentioned. and of afterwards mould (or rather model) it into jars for their turtle butter. which have a pleasing effect. have in the same same fondness for "dress. brass and silver bands around the ankles and around the head. the Antis. and They seemed proud intelligent tribes I met with. and the Gonnibos. In this custom I see but little difference. and also. 313 The necks and wrists of the women are generally hung with a profusion of blue and white beads. The Gonnibos. and also into a hundred different . and in some respects would do credit to any civilized race." which is paint. The Gonnibos interested me very much. in many instances. which was in itself a curiosity. They are one of the most curious. showing me their mode of manufacturing pottery. who dwell around the skirts of the Pain pa del Sacramento. and all other tribes on the Yucayali and the Upper and Lower Amazon. knees. Both men and women daub and streak their bodies and limbs with red and white and black paint.

and plates and what is actually astonishing to the beholder. pots. but who are still able to gather wood and build fires on the sands at the river side where old they are carried and baked . the is a curious scene. these are all made in the most perfect roundness and proportion without the aid of a wheel. which they extract from vegetables. pottery. and often blended and grouped in forms and figures that exhibit extraordinary taste. and brushes they make from a fibrous plant they get amongst the rushes at the river shore. whilst the old women are tending to them. with a talent worthy of a better With red and yellow. these colours are laid on. blue and black colours place. Thit.314 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. artists. which and performed by another set of After these are dried in the sun sufficiently. in giving form. by the rotary motion of the hand and adjustment of the fingers and mussel-shells which they use . singing and evoking the Evil Spirit not to put his fatal hand upon and break them in the fire. with hands clenched. and some of them. they dance in a circle around them. Painted. whose days for moulding and painting have gone by. though it anwsers their purpose. Those that come out with- out the touch of his fingers (uncracked) are then to the village and glazed with a vegetable varnish or resin which they gather from some tree removed in the forest. and most ingenious forms into pitchers. painting operation begins. ia . evidently. they are then passed into the hands of women. cups.

After finishing diffident and . fragile 315 and short-lived. hundred arrows in his quiver. and showed me by his motions that with it he could throw twenty of them in a minute. whose .BLOW-GUN. all of which are constructed with great ingenuity. had thought that I He showed me that he had a perfectly understood. being proof for a short time only against cold liquids. I fired a cylinder of charges at a target to show them the the whole tribe as spectators. a very handsome young man stepped up to me with a slender rod in his hand of some nine or ten feet in length. My revolver rifle. until this moment. not on his back. as with the other tribes I had passed. as he explained the interpreter to interpret powers of his weapon.) The young man got the for him. and not proof against those The sole weapons of these people." and slung. I and which. and of course so many shots ready to make . and used with the most deadly effect. and that without the least noise. and lances. but under his arm. and had my illustration. and blow-guns. and without even being discovered by his enemy. that are hot. are bow and arrows. (The reader will recollect that a such weapon was presented to me on the just steamer when we were about leaving Obidos. and smilingly said that he still believed his " gun was equal to mine it was a beautiful blowgun. with a short quiver containing about a hundred poisoned arrows. and in fact of most of the neighbouring tribes. therefore. effect. was numerous a great curiosity amongst them.

according to the original mode of construction .316 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. at Santarem and Para. and the orifice large enough to admit the end of the little finger. and the certainty of death to whatever living being they touched ! This tube was about the size of an ordinary man's thumb. at the Barra. and then there was the accuracy of his aim. It was made of two small palms. and the most extensively. or without frightening the animals or birds who were falling by them. Amazon. the young man showed and explained to me his deadly arrows. ranks he would be thinning. of very hard wood. some eight or nine inches in length. Some of them were made . by the Maycas and Zeberos tribes on the Amazon. This species of palm is only procured in certain parts of that country. in order to protect it from warping. of the proper dimensions and straightness to form those wonderful They are manufactured most generally. and also to all the tribes of the Lower weapons. one within the other. from three to five dollars each. more than two hundred miles from the Connibos. with . but the greater and most valuable portion of them were made of knitting-needles. and two hundred miles above Nanta and they are sold to the Connibos. The prices that these blow-pipes command in the country where they are manufactured are from two to three dollars and on the lower Amazon. as well as the Sipibos and all the other tribes in those regions. Opening his quiver. and even taken in large quantities to Para and sold in the market-place. .

POISONED ARROWS.

317

which they are now supplied by the civilized traders. These are sharpened at the end, and feathered with
cotton,

which just fills the orifice of the tube, and The arrows are pushed steadies the arrow's flight.

in at the end held to the mouth, and blown through with such force and such precision that they will strike a man's body at sixty yards, or the body of a
squirrel or a small bird
tree.

on the top of the highest an inch or more,

The ends

of these arrows, for

are dipped into a liquid poison, which seems to be known to most of the tribes in those regions, and which appears to be fatal to all that it touches.

This liquid poison dries in a few moments on the point of the arrow, and there is carried for years

He explained to that a duck, or parrot, or turkey, penetrated with one of these points, would live but about two
without the least deterioration.

me

minutes

;

a

monkey

minutes

;

and a

tiger,

or peccary would live about ten a cow, or a man, not over

fifteen minutes.

Incredible almost as these state-

ments were, I nevertheless am induced to believe, from what I afterwards learned from other abundant information, that they were very near the truth.

One thing

is

certain,

that

death

ensues almost

instantaneously when

the circulation of the blood
it

conveys the poison to the heart, and
results that the time, instead

therefore

of being reducible to exact measure, depends upon the blood-vessels any If the arrow into which the poison is injected.
enters the jugular vein, for instanee, the animal, no

318
matter what
live.

LIFE
size,

AMONG THE

INDIANS.

would have but a moment to

The interpreter assured me that neither the bodies of birds or animals killed by these poisoned arrows were injured for eating, and that the greater part of
the food of the Indians was procured by them ; the poison being a vegetable extract, and the quantity at the same time so exceedingly small, that it

becomes neutralised, so as not to interfere with
digestive action.

was anxious to witness some experiments made it, and observing that these people had a number of young peccaries which they were raising for food, I bought one of them by giving the owner a couple of papers of Chinese vermilion, and allowI

with

ing

carcass of the pig to eat. He was with the and arrangement, pleased brought I got the young man to aim an arrow the pig out.

him the

much

at the neck, explaining to

him

that I wished

him

to

strike the jugular vein ; but, missing that, it passed some five or six inches into the neck. The animal
still, and in two and stagger, and soon fell to the ground upon its side, and in six minutes from the time the arrow struck it, it was dead. I was then informed that there was another animal which I might like to kilL An immense rattlesnake had been discovered a few days before near their village, and as their superstitious fears prevent them from killing a rattlesnake, they had made a pen around it by driving a row of stakes,

made no

signs of pain, but stood
reel

minutes began to

FATALITY OF POISONED ARROWS.

319

preventing its escape, until they could get an opportunity of sending it on some canoe going down the river, to be thrown overboard, that it might land on the banks of some of their enemies.

We

proceeded to the pen, and having excited the

when it coiled itself up and was ready for a spring, I blew the arrow myself, and striking it about the centre of its body, it
reptile to the greatest rage,

writhed for a moment, twisting its body into a knot, and in three minutes, straightening itself out upon
the ground,

and on

its

back,

was quite dead.
fair test of

This might be considered a very

the

horrible fatality of this artificial poison ; for I have often held the enraged rattlesnake down with a

crotched stick until it has turned and bitten itself ; and even then, excited to the most venomous pitch, and giving itself several blows, it will live some ten
or fifteen minutes.

bought the young man's blow-gun and his quiver of arrows, and I have also procured several others from other tribes, and several sacks of the poison, for experiments on my return, which may lead to curious and possibly important results. How awful and terrific would be the effects of an
I

army of men with such weapons, knowing their powers, and skilled in the manner of using them
!

This poison

is

From

the facts

undoubtedly a recent discovery. that I gathered in this and many

other tribes, I learned that anciently the Indians went to war much oftener than they now do ; that

and shields, and large they then fought with lances,

320

LIFE

AMONG THE

INDIANS.

bows, but since the discovery of this poison for their arrows, they dare not come so near as to use those

weapons; and that
warfare.

it

had almost put a stop
that his tribe

to

The young Connibo assured me
resolved not to use these arrows

had

upon

any of their

enemies, unless they began to throw poisoned arrows, and, in that case, to be ready to kill every one of

them.

And

to convince

me

of the cruelty

and

horror of warfare waged with these weapons, he
to

related to me, as matter of history, much as it seems partake of the marvellous, that "some time

was discovered, and these blowguns were made, the war-parties of two neighbouring tribes met in a plain, all armed with these weapons, and their bodies were afterwards discovered
after the poison

where every

man was killed on

both

sides.

Getting

so near to each other, every man was hit ; for each one, after he was hit, had time to strike his enemy,

or half-a-dozen of

them

before he

was dead."

Poisoning arrows has been a very ancient custom amongst savage tribes, and no doubt has been
practised
for

many

American races, and

as well as

centuries amongst the South amongst the North American

is too generally known and used to be any longer a secret but the acme of poison, which seems to be that now used on the points of these little darts, I believe to be very different from that used by the same people on the blades of their lances and arrows, and to be a modern discovery.
;

This poison

is

no doubt a vegetable

extract, or

a

WAW-RA-LI (POISON FOR ARROWS).
compound
extensively

321

of vegetable

extracts;

and though so
tribes,

known and used by

the Indian

seems to be by them treasured as a secret so important and so profound as to have, so far, baffled It admits of all attempts to obtain it from them.

no chemical analysis which leads to anything, except that it is a vegetable extract. That vegetable, and
the

mode

Amongst

of the extract, the analysis does not show. the Macouchi and other tribes on the

Essequibo, in Guiana, I obtained similar blow-guns, and, I believe, the same poison (though the colour
is different).

The Indians there

call it

waw-ra-li.

Many travellers, French, English, and German, have made great efforts to obtain the secret, and though some have thought themselves in possession of it, I
still
I,

very
like

much doubt

the

fact.

many phantom a long if I and had in found but vain ; it, what good time, would it do ? I don't wish to poison anybody and
;

others, followed the

and I can always kill without from ball Sam are rank poison. and it powder the Sensis, and other the Chetibos, Amongst tribes, I had painted a considerable number of them very much, and portraits, which surprised gained me many compliments and many attentions as a great medicine man ; and of the Connibos I had also painted several portraits, and passed

game enough

"

Sam

"

amongst them,
midst of
all

for

a wonderful

man

;

but in the

my

success,

my

medicine met with a
I

sudden

reverse.

The Great Medicine, whom

had heard much

of,

x

322
and who

LIFE

AMONG THE

INDIANS.

was absent, returned from a a party of young men who with pampas had been out with him to visit a neighbouring tribe.
at that time

tour on the

He was an ill-looking, surly, wrinkled-up old gentleman. Of myself and my works he soon had a view, and from his people, no doubt, a marvellous account. He soon had his face painted black, and was parading about with his rattle in his hand, and singing a doleful ditty his death-song, I was told ;
telling his people
'*

this wouldn't

do

that

it

was

very fortunate for them that he had arrived just as he had that here was something, to be sure, very wonderful, but that it would do them no good."

These things/' said he, " are great mystery ; but there you are, my friends, with your eyes open all they never shut ; this is all wrong, and you night You never will be are very foolish to allow it. if these things to be afterwards allow you happy
"

always awake in the night. My friends, this is only a cunning way this man has to get your skins ; and the next thing, they will have glass eyes, and be
placed amongst the skins of the wild beasts, and Don't hurt this man that is my birds, and snakes
!

advice

;

but he

is

a

'

bug-catcher and a monkey-

skinner!'"*
easily see the trouble that was here for me, and easily imagine, also, how brewing I lost caste from the preaching of this quickly

One can

* term of reproach which they apply to naturalists and other scientific men, whom they often see making collections of natural history.

A

A MONKEY -SKINNER

323

infallible oracle of the tribe, and how unavoidable and irrevocable was the command when I was informed that my operations must cease, and the portraits which I had made must be destroyed. Those whose portraits I had made all came to me, and told me they would rather have them destroyed, for if I took them away they might have some I told them we would let them remain trouble. over another night, which would give them time to think more about it (give my pictures more time to dry), and if on the next day they still continued in their resolve, I would destroy them as they desired. I had yet another motive for this delay the hope of being able, by a little compliment and flattery, to get the old doctor to change his views, and to take

up the right

side

;

but in this I entirely

failed,

almost

for the first time in

my

life.

He had

been to Para,

or other places, where he had seen the stuffed skins in a museum, with glass eyes, and the poor old fellow

had got the idea fixed in his mind that I was gathering skins, and that by this process the skins of his people would find their way there, and soon have
glass eyes
!

I luckily
;

found in the bank of a

little

stream some

white clay and the next morning, when the Indians came in with the doctor, I had a good quantity of clay on my palette, mixed with water and some
water-colours.
portraits
;

I

then

"
said,

There are

your
let

I

am

very sorry that you don't

me

have them to show to
people; but

my

friends

you have resolved to

amongst the white have them destroyed.

and entered Lima. I saw many Indians. and they all sat down and smoked and talked a while. tour was there half -finished a book for the rest. which way will be the least dangerous ! " The old doctor lit his pipe. many rocks. ! There are three ways may drown them can destroy them ! or you in you may burn them or you You may shoot them Your own medicine your way. can tell you. This seemed to afford them a great relief. all good friends. who has frightened you about them. which would perfectly preserve them until I wanted All were satisfied. on the Pacific. and time My . covered in with a thick coat of clay. but it required each one to sit a few minutes for the operation. that of unpainting them. many rivers. my canoe and came off. I then said there was another way I had. which I have before said is the most beautiful city in the world. when he informed me that they were a little afraid to do either. I took to to see them again.324 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. most likely. there will be a . From this I went west. and in a few moments they were all unpainted. ! man. from which there could be no possible harm. I saw (and felt) the Andes.

mind that the main object work has been to convey. have seen how these people look and act in their different phase. in a concise way. we will take a look at the Indians and learn more of them in a Everything.CHAPTER XX. Leaving scenes and scenery now for a while. We should seen understood. I have thus far endeavoured to weave into it such scenes and incidents which I have witnessed as were calculated to interest the reader. condition. Indiana in London Indians before the Queen War-Chiefs Speech to the Queen loway Indians An Indian Doctor's Speech in London Baling Park War-Chief's Speech to Duke of Cambridge Savage Devotion Episcopal Clergymen talk with the Indians War-Chiefs Reply to Clergymen The Indians' Belief Charity of Indians The Doctor's Speech on Charity Indians' Charity on a Steamer. and at the same time help to illustrate the true character ]HE reader bears in of this little of these interesting people. and customs of the American Indian races. a general and truthful knowledge of the character. In order to prevent it from being tedious. to be well be in different lights. 325 .

from the Indian frontiers. their conductors. We have seen them in the own darkness of the wilderness . with my whole Indian collection. no doubt.326 LIFE . and even some of its most admirable four parts. added exhibitions. and that the rest of it. In both instances I was applied to by the persons bringing them out to take the management of their which. with all my . thousand miles from their homes. and under the charge of two persons. study. as I was able to appreciate and explain all their modes. . AMONG THE INDIANS. to which I was a constant witness and interpreter. we will now see how they bear the light. countries we will now take a peep at them. and in the midst of the most enlightened . and all the information which I had gathered in eight years' residence amongst them. there came to London two successive groups of Indians from North America. which I did much to their interest. brought out points and shades in their character which I never should have learned in their own country and I confess that until then. from two different tribes. for the avowed object of acting out their modes before the English people. I had but a partial knowledge of the character of these curious people. and their mingling and mixing with all ranks and grades of society. Their exhibitions were made both in England and France. Whilst I was residing in London a few years since. I learned when they were society. mixing and mingling with the polished and enlightened of the world.

then. that these people. but gained for them the admiration and respect. that not only excited the surprise. and which all the civilized world ought to know. of the rest of their character.INDIANS BEFORE THE QUEEN. The first of these ways from Canada. in the palace at Windsor. of this book. ever suggested itself to me while I was travelling amongst these people (nor could anything else have ever happened). of honesty. of all who saw them. as the following brief account of incidents which many of the civilized world witnessed. and afterwards sat in the party down to a splendid ddjedner in an adjoining hall . others will be met with surprise. and social propriety of conduct. No mode and there is on earth that I can communicate to the nothing reader with so much pleasure. as I learned it myself. in the remaining pages of this little book. They gave several of their dances before the royal Waterloo Gallery. and many will furnish convincing corroborations of the statements I made in the beginning of intelligence. strict adherence to decency. in their native state. decorum. I will here add a few extracts from notes made at the time. 327 To give a brief account. whom parties consisted of nine OjibbeI had the honour of pre- senting to Her Majesty the Queen and His Eoyal Highness the Prince Consort. so completely enabling me to learn the whole of their character else . of honour. and with so much justice to the savage. some my of which will be amusing. of charity. and They exhibited at all times a religious sentiment. are endowed with a high degree of morality.

Her Majesty and all the household. We country. and when we get home our words will be Mother. around him. We are not rich. Our wigwams " are small. listened to in the councils of our nation. amid the admiration of in a kind all. and which I wrote down word for word: " Great Mother. and we think we see now where that great light arises. and dignity. and we are now happy that we are as he stood before allowed to see your face. and handsome and . I This is all have to say/' The which grace. that its light shone across the great water. . and our light is not strong. and perfect composure with this old man delivered the above address before glare Her Majesty. The Great Spirit has been kind to us. " Mother have often been told that there was . My friends here children we have used our weapons . seemed to excite the surprise and splendour that was and His Royal Highness Prince Albert replied to him and feeling response. have seen many strange things "Mother. We and the light that is in them is bright. but we have plenty of food. since we came here .328 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. we believe that it shines fire in this a great from this great wigwam to all the world. in protecting us on our long journey here. See the remarkable speech which the old chief made. and myself are your against your enemies our hearts are glad at what we have this day seen . we see that your wigwams are large. your children. which was interpreted to Her Majesty by their own interpreter.

doctor. 9. 4. from the Upper Missouri. arrived. and under the sanction of the United States Government. See-non-ti-yah (the blister (the fast dancer). civil. boy. the ocean for such a purpose. 0-kee-wee-me (female bear). Melody. were a much better illustration than the first. Euton-ye-wee-me (the strutting pigeon). warrior. Wa-ton-ye (the foremost man). This party. warrior. Wash-ka-mon-ye 6. war-chief. 8. 1. Interpreter. chief. another party of fourteen loways. 7. and more completely in their native state and native habits. or ever will cross. 3. The names of this party were as follow : Jeffrey Doroway. 10. No-ho-mun-ye (the Koman nose). Neu-mon-ya (the walking rain). 11. warrior. in charge of a Mr. After their return. and probably the best that ever has crossed. Women. 5. 2. Euton-wee-me (flying pigeon). .IOW AY INDIANS. warrior. from a tribe living much farther west. They gave their dances and other amusements in various parts of the kingdom. 329 genuine presents were made to them by Her Majesty. wife of chief. Mew-hu-she-kaw (the white cloud). Shon-ta-y-ee-ga (the little wolf). Wa-ta-wee-buck-a-nah (commanding general). feet).

painted the portraits of the two chiefs of this party.330 12. I erected a strong platform in my exhibition room. And in this dance. Koon-za-ya-me (female 13. brandishing his war club over the heads of his audience in a manner that caused great excitement in the crowd. all dressed and painted like warriors going to war. Ta-pa-ta-mee (wisdom). and I stood by and explained In the war-dance. again on to his feet at the edge of the platform. in their own village. 14. on which these people gave their dances and other amusements before immense crowds of visitors assembled to see them. with his buffalo robe wrapped around him. when the dance stops at intervals. and was followed by an The old doctor was a bacheenthusiastic applause. LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. eagle). etc. And this compliment brought him for the ladies. and had. and. in a boasting manner. On the first evening of their amusements they gave the war-dance. and which were then hanging in my collection. and his . it is customary for each warrior. This party. the old medicine man made a tremendous boast. most had the exalted admiration and respect and lor. all its features to the audience. in turn. when they arrived in London. relate the exploits of his life how he has killed and scalped his enemies in battle. as I had visited that tribe some five my or six years before. (papoose). to step forward. took exhibition rooms and great pleasure in visiting in seeing me.

I believe that our dance was agreeable to you." from the Indians " .) "My "My friends. which the Great Spirit has allowed him to bring over safe. Chiphere." applause and laughter. We We know that our lives we must thank him (Applause." or " hear. and first for keeping us safe/' My friends. hear." " (Applause and how. over friends. meaning yes. 331 hand waving over the heads of the audience. pehola* and we see the medicine things which he has done. hands. me." (Great laughter and applause. to see you and offer you our The Great Spirit has been kind to us. hanging all around us. (Applause.) angry. It makes me very happy to see so many smiling faces about me . and friends. how. it has in a large carriage (Red paint) the Author. We have met our old friend.AN INDIAN DOCTOR'S SPEECH right IN LONDON. because I know that if the ladies are pleased they will please the men. : when he began " My friends.) and has given you no offence. * This .") is "My many friends. and this makes us very happy. and we are thankful for this." have come a great way. We have found our chiefs' faces on the walls. how. which lasted for know they are not "My this pleases I see the ladies are pleased. .) " are always in his hands. the great Salt Lake. fine wigwams we rode a large village. for when people smile and laugh I (Immense some time.

the mansion of Mr. and also its institutions. near Hyde Park. My friends. (an omnibus) the other day.332 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. and at * medicinal herb. and I have to say. We came all the way from the ship on your great medicine road it pleased us very much and we were drawn by the iron horse. where they all sat at a table splendidly set out. which Mr." (Applause." great ap(How. Disraeli. Melody and myself accomthat they might see and appreciate the them. and hear. we think that before the trees were cut . where they were treated with They were invited to a dtjedner at great kindness.) and saw it all" (A My friends. We came very fast along the (from Liverpool). .) "My friends. and we think we saw some quash-ee-quano* but we were not This is all certain. as the party of Ojibbeways.) An omnibus with four horses was engaged to give the party a drive of a couple of hours each day. but they received many friendly invitations. their enemies. A which the Indians use as a . the roots of cathartic medicine. how. " down this country was very beautiful. panied most of benefits of civilization. We think there were Indians and buffaloes in this country then. These poor people were much disappointed in not being able to see the Queen. laugh. how. by which means they were enabled to see every part of London and into its suburbs. had. medicine road plause. we should like to know.

and we hope the Great Spirit will be kind to you all. the late Duke of Cambridge.H.BALING PAKK. the Duchess of Gloucester. the war-chief said : My friends. and other distinguished personages were present.E. and then we will bid you farewell" ful to all " Spirit will not allow us to forget it. and the Princess Mary and the Duchess of Camlovely and Mrs. and we hope the Great around you also. Your face to-day has made . and taking gave their ball-sticks in hand. illustrated their beautiful game of ball on the lawn. Lawrence. The Great Spirit has caused your hearts to be thus kind to us. the war-chief stepped forward and addressed the Duke of Cambridge in the following words " : My great Father. 333 which the private friends of Mr. When the entertainments were over. Disraeli were assembled. the Duchess of Cambridge and the Princess Mary. of little After the fete. and at parting. they their plates of plum-pudding. " My friends. many The Duke Cambridge carved the roast beef. The most perfect decorum and apparent sangfroid attended all their motions and actions. and Mrs. their favourite of several dances. of Baling Park. at which H. and tne Indians were about to depart. Lawrence carried round to them bridge. We wish to shake hands with you all. your friends whom we see We are thank- Invited by Mrs. they partook of a splendid dejedner on the beautiful lawn back of her mansion.

) Duke of Cambridge then took the " That war-chief by the hand. how. and replied to him he and all his friends had been highly pleased with go home. this for us. how. and to all the ladies and gentle- men who all are here to see us. this fine house. Spirit has done all to him. We feel thankful to the lady who has We shall and these fine fields. how. for it.) " My Father. Our skins are red. This. home without seeing the face of your Queen. my father. how. how.) "My Father. and next to the Queen. we shall be we have seen the great chief who (How." H.) and ignorant people from the wilderness.334 us all LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. and we are very happy that it has been so. how." My Father. first. we never shall forget." (How. and that your brother was the fear that we shall go king of this rich country. but if so. pray for in our prayers to the Great Spirit. how. The Great and we are thankful The Great Spirit inclined your heart to let us see your face and to shake your hand. so great a chief should and we therefore feel the more proud that come so far to see us. our ways are not so pleasing as those of the white people . and you we shall be obliged to shake hands with you all now and (How.RH. how. We have been told that you are the uncle of the Queen. We are poor . whose eyes are not yet open and we did not think we should be treated so kindly as we have been this day. the . except We as we saw it happy is '' to say that in her carriage . very happy. and who has invited us here to-day." (How.

in his most ignorant wilderness with a knowledge of his Creator of an Almighty Being on whom his existence depends. this reverential. What a beautiful illustration have we here. in my note-book as it was spoken. with the reverential manner in which he had just spoken of the Great Spirit. and trusted that the Great Spirit would be kind to them in restoring them safe to their friends again. and to whom his daily thanks and prayers are to ascend! And these are not the empty pretensions drawn out of them by the society they are in. and the party took leave in their omnibus for London. Let us turn back for a moment to this wonderful speech of the war-chief. that no diction. before whom. even state." Very beautiful and liberal presents were then be- stowed on them by the hands of the ladies. He thanked the chiefs for the efforts they had made to entertain them. this appropriate. and most of all. by sentence. from the lips of a wild man from the heart of the American wilderness that no language. of the truth which should be learned translated sentence as the basis of all human education. that nature has endowed man. and written by myself. 335 their appearance and amusements. and over . but the sentiments that are daily uttered in the forests. and read it over again to this concise. this humble and eloquent address. and how convincing. whether red or white. we must all soon appear. and no study could improve by one of the best interpreters.SAVAGE DEVOTION. word for word.

as he is crying to the Great Spirit. seen them there. two Episcopal clergymen called on me one day and desired to know if they could have an opportunity of conversing with them on the to which I replied that I would subject of religion do all in my power to bring it about. resolved to attend them. the lakes. without food. they always begin by thanking the Great circumstances. lying with his face in the dirt. These people have no churches or places of wor- ship where they congregate together as white people do. and the rivers of their own I have countries. and the day and hour were appointed. even at the risk of his life from wild beasts and his enemies. Melody and his party. and they all agreed. during all the days of their lives. to preserve the . as the reader has learned. Before eating. and to aid him in speaking the truth. but each individual has some solitary and sacred haunt where he occasionally goes for several days and nights together. Spirit first. of these conversations. and others. While these people were creating a great excitement in London. I mentioned the subject to Mr. no man speaks without inviting the Great Spirit to witness what he is going to say.336 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. Apprehending the interesting and important nature . they invariably and audibly thank the Great Spirit for the food they are going to partake of. the mountains. In councils. under all Their speeches have been made to I and have heard them made a hundred times to me. the interpreter. I and with Jeffrey.

one of the reverend gentlemen. and he has opened our ears to hear them . the occasions. as well as he could to their simple minds. We are glad to As to the white see you and to hear you speak. replied " My friends. with his chief. which we have done. in the kindest and most friendly manner. 337 most perfect report of all that was to be said on both sides. who was spokesman on most time sitting and smoking hia head cast down as he was listening . gave them an account of the life and death of our Saviour. necessity of taking up this belief. we have same way in our own country. and there are white men and women there now trying to teach it to our people. it told to us in the y . was all this pipe. explained to them the objects of their visit. We do not religion. and explained.WAR-CHIEF'S REPLY TO CLERGYMEN. and having heard what the clergyman was anxious to explain. which I did. and with his arms resting on : his knees. yet he told them he was sure that certain way to salvation.for them to understand at first. He urged upon them the the mode of redemption. he handed his pipe to White Cloud. and though it might be difficult. it was the only The war-chief. and in each case (for there were ultimately several interviews) submitted my reports to the reverend gentlemen for their approval as to their correctness. In the interview already appointed to take place. and with their permission. The Great Spirit has sent you to us with kind words. man's heard which you have explained.

which white men cannot take You have told us that the Son of friends. Spirit sent Him Now. and that the Great here to get killed. from " know that into our country we or are driven is are when white men The unhappy. and we think that He has intended we shall live separate in the world made us to come. " be so for white My friends. have not the but white people. but for us. forests for us to live in. We come men. which has taken our fathers to the 'beautiful hunting-grounds/ where we wish Great to meet them. we cannot understand Book which You speak to us of the Good friends. the Great Spirit was living on the earth. sary for it may be neces- them to believe all this. He has also given us our religion. are told that all your these in our village. have some of is in your hands. it. "My friends. We to don't believe that the live together with Spirit the pale faces in this world. . and that My He was killed by white men. and this we don't doubt.338 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. we think. and the The Great Spirit has made our skins red. it think your religion good. If it as to require that. "My We We . before the white Indians all die away Our hope us. to enjoy our hunting-grounds in the world to come. we don't understand this may have been necessary for red men. unless people. wicked be so to yet got of the Son the Great that was necessary Spirit this should be killed for white people.

people Book." The reverend gentleman said "That we wish to teach you. to which the war chief replied " : My friends. and good people of the whites living around us ? They can all read the Good Book. . 339 words about the Great Spirit are printed in that if we learn to read it. and In our country the white people their tongues branch in different that this displeases We know the it Great to our and we do not wish to teach children. as well as cult bad white people. Spirit. faces. and if you can * what to learn Missionaries. . but here. have two ways.WAE-CHTEF'S REPLY TO CLERGYMEN. " My friends." One chief if of the reverend gentlemen here asked the he thought the Indians did all to serve the Great Spirit that they ought to do. and understand all that the Slack-coats* say. I don't know . it will make good I would now ask why it don't make of us. Such is the case in the country around us. and so many of the Good Books to read. all that the Great Spirit required of them . who have so many to preach to them. we have no doubt but the white people. and still we find that they are not so honest and so good a people as our own this we are sure of. that we do all the Great Spirit wishes us to do there are some Indians There are some bad Indians I know who do not. are all honest and good. I think it is diffi- to tell how much the Great Spirit wishes is us to do.

as seen by him. him for everything we have which is know that he requires us to speak the We to feed the poor. paint and reach for their bows and arrows as companions to supply them " with food on the long journey that is to take them their faces with their finest colours. state " Being whom they denominate the Great Spirit" and of a "world to come. He may demand more know that. and other appropriate presents. to their beautiful hunting-grounds. and narrated in pp. 157. Of revealed religion the Indians in their wild have no knowledge before it is explained to But of the existence of a God a Supreme them. 83-98. read this Good chief continued Book will explain all that. and. with their superstitions and practices.] . and several ladies attending them."* of white people.340 LIFE AMONG THE it INDIANS. We requires that and to thank believe that the Great Spirit good. but we don't The reverend gentleman. truth. when dying. as recorded by Mr. We we should pray to him. 144." The "My friends." or a spiritual existence beyond the grave. which we do. don't know of anything more that he demands. here bestowed upon the Indians several beautiful Bibles. most ignorant of them all pray to the Great Spirit when they are in danger . Catlin. 168-173. and took leave. 143. and to love our friends. they require no teachers for the ." We have had many reports from the American * [The reader may compare these words of the Indians in London.

every one of these are false. for. that they were kind and charitable to the poor. I stated amongst their other virtues. but which ing. I need not say which. who assured the woman there was no danger.CHARITY OP INDIANS. she was afraid to take. has an intuitive knowledge of a Creator and belief in a future pleasurable existence and. ! In speaking of the leading characteristics of the American Indians in the beginning of this work. instance or two. if he be not an idiot. Every American Indian." belief in a God or a future Don't believe one word of these. One day whilst they were in Birmingham. where the old doctor. and begging for the means of existence. both in rags. was stand- whose pity was touched by the poor woman's appearance." so low in the scale of human nature as to have been "found without the state. happy people they have no metaphysics or sophistry of their own to induce them to believe to the contrary. in support of which many presented anecdotes of this travelling party might be but I will confine myself to an individual . . . of which I made notes. The doctor went for one of the men in attendance. of whom I have before spoken. 341 " heathen frontiers of tribes of "heathens'* dogs. with her little child. a miserable-looking woman. from ignorance or a motive. by which she was induced to enter the Indians' apartment. presented herself in front of the door. and who beckoned her to come in by holding out and showing her some money. where the Indians were all seated on the floor.

president of one of the hospitals. The kind-hearted old doctor then politely escorted her to the bottom of the stairs. as he found his patient every morning at the door and waiting was strictly for him. 72. on which occasion Mr. and no doubt with an inexpressible satisfaction. It was thought by some friends. 12s.342 and ance. sympathising with her miserable appear- chief. thanking them for the very handsome of donation. bury. Joseph Cadpresent when the chief handed 16s. sufficient to last her and her child for several days. And the next day I was to Mr. The war-chief then asked her some questions as to the causes of her becoming so distressed. and reminding them of the importance Cadbury made . if she would come every morning at a certain hour. for they were her friends when the doctor walked up to her and put . dividing the receipts with the two would be very popular. hospitals. all LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. she would be sure to have food enough for herself and her little child as long which as the party should remain in Birmingham . The profits of the two nights amounted to 145. getting Jeffrey to interpret for him. that if the Indians would give their exhibition for a couple of nights in the Town Hall. The war five shillings into her hand. meat and bread. their exhibition and it was agreed to. told her not to be frightened. and informed her by signs that. one-half of the receipts . performed by the doctor. which she The Indians filled her apron with cold explained. some very feeling and friendly remarks.

in the wilderpeople. My friend. but we know that you will make good use of the money for them . women My We hand in tion. sobriety and charity to lose sight of them 343 recommending to them never which were two of the greatest virtues they could practise. for the doctor to reply in this instance. and the most sure to gain them friends and happiness. we shall have made the poor comfortable. We have not time now to see these poor people. ing himself to Mr. he spoke as follows was genewas left addressand it : " My friend. I rise to to us.chief. and your words of advice will not be forgotten. and we cannot do much charity. friendship. " You have advised us to be charitfriend. also. and we shall be happy if.THE DOCTOR'S SPEECH ON CHARITY. Cadbury. ness. as well as am amongst the white and I always pray to the Great Spirit I believe that the chiefs and the warriors of my tribe. and we have this day handed you three hundred and sixty dollars to help the poor in your hospitals. The Great Spirit has been . We red men are poor. Your My able to the poor. and even the pray every day to the Great Spirit. these occasions. spokesman on as I have said. and at we " are thankful for them. by coming " this way. " have this day been taken by the friend. and he has therefore been kind to us. rally the Though the war. you have spoken thank you for the words They have been kind. When I am when I home . My friend. and this gives us great consola- friendly words have opened our ears.

and we have given more than two hundred dollars to the we came here poor people in the streets of London before and this is not the first day that we . and when the captain was collecting his passage-money. " and making people sober. since we came to this country. kind to us though. nor shall we it is in this country we know that a sin to drink fire-water. " My friend. and kind to the poor and we give you our hands at parting. in a country where there is so much wealth. but we have not drunk it. and it is due to these poor people that such acts as the above. praying that . a subsequent time. while passing from Edinburgh to Dundee on a steamer. it words "My friend. and your words to us on that subject are good.344 LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. have given to the poor in this city. then we think your may do a great deal of good. and the one to be related. I have no more to say. And if you can tell them to the white people who make the fire-water and bring into our country to sell. the Great Spirit will assist you in taking care of the poor. It makes us unhappy. as she . where the Indians At were travelling. who could not pay her fare. We know you are good people. there was a little girl in the fore-cabin. and so many as we see drunk. should be made public. and we believe the Great Spirit will reward you for it. to see so many poor and hungry." Another incident relating to this subject is worthy of being recorded. We admit that before we left home we were all fond of fire-toater.

and commenced raising the amongst them for defraying her passage. and take her back to Edinburgh and put her in gaol The poor little girl fits. and never be afraid . when the poor child's distress still continued. but that he should hold her a prisoner on board. prevailed upon her to take the money. and said that he should not let her go ashore at Dundee. however. much more than was necessary. when done. I was not on board at the time. The interpreter. amounted to only a quarter of the sum required. which. " Now go to the cruel captain. but my men rage. giving a penny or two each. saying to her. who was frightened and ran away. The kind-hearted old doctor. and cried herself almost into The passengers. and that he would certainly pay it as soon as she could find him. She was in great alarm. all seemed affected money by her distress. of whom much there were a considerable number. and pay him the money. assuring her there was no danger. all this. and in a few minutes came up with eight shillings in his hand. when the doctor advanced and placed the money in her hand.INDIANS' CHARITY ON A STEAMER. was frightened. informed was in a great and that the captain abused the child for coming to me on board without the money pay her fare. and offered it to the little girl. and told the captain that she expected to meet her father at Dundee. 345 had no money. silently observing went down below and related it to the party of Indians. through the interpreter. and in presence of all the passengers who were gathering around.

and you shall not suffer. man again because his skin is red but be always sure that the heart of a red man is as good as that of a white man. shall and if money is necessary you have more. where we are all going together. And when you are in Dundee. . as you wish. come to us." . and are amongst strangers. wherever we shall be.346 of a LIFE AMONG THE INDIANS. if you do not find your father.

CHAPTER

XXI.
Louis Philippe

War-Chief's Speech to the King and Queen in an Indian Village.

the loways had finished their provintour in England, I accompanied them to Paris, and had the honour of presenting them to His Majesty Louis Philippe and the Queen, in the Palace of the Tuileries, when most of

jFTER
cial

the other

members of the royal family were present. His Majesty, in the most free and familiar manner (which showed them he had been accustomed to the modes and feelings of Indians), conversed
chiefs,

with the
"

and said

Tell these

good

glad to see them the wigwams of the Indians in America

to Jeffrey, the interpreter, people that the Queen and I are that I have been in many of ;

when

I

was a young man, and they treated me everywhere with kindness, and that I love them for it. "Tell them I was amongst the Senecas, near Buffalo, and the Oneidas; that I slept in the wigwams of the chiefs ; that I was amongst the Shawanos and the Delawares on the Ohio and also
;

347

348

LIFE

AMONG THE

INDIANS.

amongst the Cherokees and Creeks in Georgia and Tennessee and saw many other tribes as I descended the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers in a canoe to New Orleans, more than fifty years ago.
;

"

Tell

their wives

here
are

;

them also, Jeffrey, that I am glad to see and little children they have with them and glad also to show them my families, who
nearly
all

now

around
;

us.

Tell them, Jeffrey,

that this is the

Queen

this lady is the Princess

Adelaide,

my

sister; these

young men are two
;

of

my sons, with their wives and these little lads (the Due de Brabant and the Count de Paris) are my grandsons this one, if he lives, will be King of
;

the Belgians, and this one, King of the French." The king afterwards took from his pocket two

heavy gold medals, and hung them on the necks of the two chiefs, saying that silver medals of the same

form and

size

would be sent

to the others,

which
in

were received the next day, with a liberal money, to be divided amongst them.

sum

They gave the war dance

at the request of the

king, for the amusement of the royal family ; and before taking leave, the war-chief advanced towards

the king
"

and queen, ard spoke as follows Great Father and Great Mother, The Great Spirit, to whom we have prayed for a long time for
:

an interview with you, kindly
this day,

listens to

our words

and hears all that we say. "Great Father, You have made to us rich presents, and I rise to return you thanks for the chief, and his warriors and braves who are present.

WAR-CHIEF'S SPEECH TO KING AND QUEEN.

349

But, before all, it is necessary that we should thank the Great Spirit who has inspired your heart thus to honour us this day.

Great Father, We shall carry these presents to our country, and instruct our children to pronounce the name of him who gave them.

"

Great Father, You know that when the Indians have anything to say to a great chief, they are in
the habit of

"

making some present before they
ordered

My

chief has

me

to

begin. place in your hands

and these strings of wampum " (placing them in His Majesty's hands), " as a testimony of
this pipe,

the pleasure we have felt in being admitted this day into the presence of your Majesty. " Great Father and Great

Mother, You see My us this day as we are seen in our own country with our red skins and our coarse clothes. This
day, for you, is like other days ; for us, it is a great day ; so great a day that our eyes are blinded with the lustre of it. " are happy to tell you that Great Father,

We

when we

arrived in England, we had much joy in our old friend, Chippehola, who has lived meeting and whom we are happy to have by amongst us,

our sides this day, to tell you who we " Great Father and Great Mother,
to the Great Spirit to preserve

are.

We will pray
lives
;

your precious

we will pray, also, that we may return safely to our own village, that we may tell to our children, and to our young men, what we have this day seen.

My

parents, I have

no more to

say."

350

LIFE

AMONG THE
"

INDIANS.
for his

The king thanked the
remarks, and said,

chief

eloquent

Jeffrey, tell the chiefs that I

am happy
tribes

to

them, that in

have this opportunity of saying to all my travels amongst the Indian

they always treated we with honesty and kindness, and that I love them for it."

What

I

a king, in his

palace,
!

loves the poor,
;

Yes and, therenaked savage of the wilderness man is a And wherefore a noble what fore, king " Let us see. "love them ?
!

"Fifty-two years ago," said the King, "while stopping in Buffalo, on Lake Erie, I went some
three or four miles out, to visit the Seneca Indians ; and being conducted to their village, and to the

wigwam, I shook hands with the chief, who came and stood by my horse's head. And while some hundreds of men, women, and children were gathering around, I told the chief I had come to make him a visit of a day or two to which he replied, that he was very glad to see me, and that I should be made quite welcome to the best they
chief's
;

had.

"He said there would be one condition, however, which was, that he should require me to give him everything I had; he should demand my horse, from which I would dismount; and having dismounted and given him the bridle, he said, I now want your gun, your watch, and all your money
'

;

these are indispensable/ " I then, for the first time in

my

life,

began to

think that I was completely robbed and plundered.

LOUIS PHILIPPE IN AN INDIAN VILLAGE.

351

But at the moment when he had got all, and before T had time for more than an instant thought of my awkward condition, he released me from all further
apprehensions by continuing, If you have anything else which you wish to be sure to get again, I wish
'

me have it for whatever you deliver hands now, you will be sure to find safe my when you are about to leave otherwise I would not be willing to vouch for their safety, for there are some of my people whom I cannot trust to/ " From this moment I felt quite easy, and spent several days in the village very pleasantly, and with
you to
into
let
;
;

much amusement.

"When

I

was about to

leave,

my

horse

was

brought to the chief's door and saddled, and all the I property I had left in his hands safely restored.
then mounted my horse, and having taken leave, and proceeded a short distance on my route, I discovered that I had left my favourite dog, which I had been too much excited and amused to think of, and did not recollect to have seen after I entered
the village. " I turned the
chief's

my
'

horse and rode back to the door of
inquiries for it. intrust your dog
'

The

chief said,

wigwam, and made But you did not
'

to my care, did you V 'No, I did not think of the Well then,' said he, I can't poor dog at the time/ answer for it. If you had done as I told you, your

dog would have been
for it/

safe.

However,
of his

I will inquire

"At

this

moment one

little

sons

was

352

LIFE

AMONG THE

INDIANS.

ordered to run and open a rude pen or cage, by the corner of the wigwam, and out leaped my dog, and

sprang upon
"

my

leg as I

I offered the chief a

was sitting on my horse. reward for his honesty, but

he refused to accept it, but added, that whenever I should again visit red people, he advised me to
1

repose confidence in their word, and feel assured

that all the property I intrusted to an Indian's care I should be sure to find safe whenever I wanted it
"

again.'

THE END.

.

58 Catlin. George Life among the Indians C3532 18 PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE FROM THIS CARDS OR SLIPS POCKET UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY .

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